WorldWideScience

Sample records for planetary nebula agb

  1. From AGB Stars to Aspherical Planetary Nebulae - An Observational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.

    2014-04-01

    Most stars that leave the main sequence in a Hubble time will end their lives, evolving through the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), Preplanetary Nebula (PPN) and Planetary Nebula (PN) evolutionary phases. The heavy mass loss which occurs during the AGB phase is important across astrophysics, dramatically changing the course of stellar evolution, dominantly contributing to the dust content of the interstellar medium, and influencing its chemical composition. Yet stellar evolution from the beginning of the AGB phase to the PN phase remains poorly understood, especially the dramatic transformation that occurs in the morphology of the mass-ejecta as AGB stars and their round circumstellar envelopes evolve into mostly PNe, the majority of which deviate strongly from spherical symmetry. In this review, I describe the observations, spanning the wavelength range from X-rays to millimeter wavelengths, that have contributed to our current understanding of the physical processes responsible for the formation of aspherical PNe. I conclude by a brief summary of future observations using current and upcoming facilities such as HST, Chandra, ALMA and JWST that can help in addressing the major unsolved problems in the study of aspherical PNe.

  2. The nearby AGB star L2 Puppis: the birth of a planetary nebula ?

    CERN Document Server

    Kervella, P; Lagadec, E

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive optics observations in the infrared (VLT/NACO, Kervella et al. 2014) and visible (VLT/SPHERE, Kervella et al. 2015) domains revealed that the nearby AGB star L2 Pup (d=64 pc) is surrounded by a dust disk seen almost edge-on. Thermal emission from a large dust "loop" is detected at 4 microns up to more than 10 AU from the star. We also detect a secondary source at a separation of 32 mas, whose nature is uncertain. L2 Pup is currently a relatively "young" AGB star, so we may witness the formation of a planetary nebula. The mechanism that breaks the spherical symmetry of mass loss is currently uncertain, but we propose that the dust disk and companion are key elements in the shaping of the bipolar structure. L2 Pup emerges as an important system to test this hypothesis.

  3. Pulsational variability in proto-planetary nebulae and other post-AGB objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.

    2016-07-01

    Light and velocity curves of several classes of pulsating stars have been successfully modeled to determine physical properties of the stars. In this observational study, we review briefly the pulsational variability of the main classes of post-AGB stars. Our attention is focused in particular on proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe), those in the short-lived phase from AGB stars to the planetary nebulae. New light curves and period analyses have been used to determine the following general properties of the PPNe variability: (a) periods range from 35 to 160 days for those of F—G spectral types, with much shorter periods (day) found for those of early-B spectral type; (b) there is a correlation between the pulsation period, maximum amplitude, and temperature of the star, with cooler stars pulsating with longer periods and larger amplitudes; (c) similar correlations are found for carbon-rich, oxygen-rich, and lower-metalicity PPNe; and (d) multiple periods are found for all of them, with P2/P1 = 1.0±0.1. New models are needed to exploit these results.

  4. A molecular line survey of a sample of AGB stars and planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Christina L; Fuller, Gary A

    2015-01-01

    A millimeter molecular line survey of three carbon-rich AGB stars and two oxygen-rich planetary nebulae has been carried out over the frequency range 80.5-115.5 GHz. Sixty eight different transitions were detected in the data from 27 different molecular species. The hyperfine structure of C2H and C13CH has been fitted to constrain the optical depth of their transitions. All other transitions have been constrained on the basis of their line profile shapes. Rotation temperatures and column densities have been calculated for all possible species, with adaptations to the methods applied in order to account for the hyperfine structure of various transitions. From the column densities, carbon, silicon and sulphur isotopic ratios have been determined. The results corroborate IRAS 15194-5115 as a J-type star, whilst excluding IRAS 15082-4808 and IRAS 07454-7112 as such.

  5. Planetary nebulae in M33: probes of AGB nucleosynthesis and ISM abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Bresolin, Fabio; Vilchez, Jose M; Simon, Josh D; Rosolowsky, Erik

    2010-01-01

    We have obtained deep optical spectrophotometry of 16 planetary nebulae in M33, mostly located in the central two kpc of the galaxy, with the Subaru and Keck telescopes. We have derived electron temperatures and chemical abundances from the detection of the [OIII]4363 line for the whole sample. We have found one object with an extreme nitrogen abundance, 12+log(N/H)=9.20, accompanied by a large helium content. After combining our data with those available in the literature for PNe and HII regions, we have examined the behavior of nitrogen, neon, oxygen and argon in relation to each other, and as a function of galactocentric distance. We confirm the good correlation between Ne/H and O/H for PNe in M33. Ar/H is also found to correlate with O/H. This strengthens the idea that at the metallicity of the bright PNe analyzed in M33, which is similar to that found in the LMC, these elements have not been significantly modified during the dredge-up processes that take place during the AGB phase of their progenitor sta...

  6. High-Speed Bullet Ejections during the AGB to Planetary Nebula Transition: HST Observations of the Carbon Star, V Hydrae

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, R; Morris, M R

    2016-01-01

    The well-studied carbon star, V Hya, showing evidence for high-speed, collimated outflows and dense equatorial structures, is a key object in the study of the poorly understood transition of AGB stars into aspherical planetary nebulae. Using the STIS instrument onboard HST, we have obtained high spatial-resolution long-slit optical spectra of V Hya that show high-velocity emission in [SII] and [FeII] lines. Our dataset, spanning three epochs spaced apart by a year during each of two periods (in 2002-2004 and 2011-2013), shows that V Hya ejects high-speed (about 200-250 km/s) bullets once every ~8.5 yr. The ejection axis flip-flops around a roughly eastern direction, both in and perpendicular to the sky-plane, and the radial velocities of the ejecta also vary in concert between low and high values. We propose a model in which the bullet ejection is associated with the periastron passage of a binary companion in an eccentric orbit around V Hya with an orbital period of ~8.5 yr. The flip-flop phenomenon is likel...

  7. Imaging the transition between pre-planetary and planetary nebulae: Integral Field Spectroscopy of hot post-AGB stars with NIFS

    CERN Document Server

    Gledhill, T M

    2014-01-01

    We present 2 to 2.4 micron integral field spectroscopy of a sample of hot post-AGB stars with early-B spectral types, using the NIFS instrument on Gemini North. These stars are just beginning to ionize their immediate environments and turn into planetary nebulae (PNe).We use molecular hydrogen emission lines together with hydrogen and helium recombination lines to explore the distribution of molecular and atomic gas and the extent of the developing ionized region. We see a range of evolutionary stages: IRAS 18062+2410 and IRAS 18379-1707 have recently developed compact and unresolved regions of photoionized H within axisymmetric molecular envelopes, with the former object increasing its Br-Gamma flux by a factor of 5.3 in 14 years; IRAS 22023+5249 and IRAS 20462+3416 have extended Br-Gamma nebulae and in the latter object only weak H2 emission remains; IRAS 19336-0400 is at a more advanced stage of PN formation where H2 is mostly dissociated and we see structure in both the H and He recombination line nebulae...

  8. Molecular studies of Planetary Nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Circumstellar envelopes (CEs) around evolved stars are an active site for the production of molecules. After evolving through the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), proto-planetary nebula (PPN), to planetary nebula (PN) phases, CEs ultimately merge with the interstellar medium (ISM). The study of molecules in PNe, therefore, is essential to understanding the transition from stellar to interstellar materials. So far, over 20 molecular species have been discovered in PNe. The molecular composition ...

  9. Molecular studies of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Circumstellar envelopes (CEs) around evolved stars are an active site for the production of molecules. After evolving through the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), proto-planetary nebula (PPN), to planetary nebula (PN) phases, CEs ultimately merge with the interstellar medium (ISM). The study of molecules in PNe, therefore, is essential to understanding the transition from stellar to interstellar materials. So far, over 20 molecular species have been discovered in PNe. The molecular composition of PNe is rather different from those of AGB and PPNe, suggesting that the molecules synthesized in PN progenitors have been heavily processed by strong ultraviolet radiation from the central star. Intriguingly, fullerenes and complex organic compounds having aromatic and aliphatic structures can be rapidly formed and largely survive during the PPN/PN evolution. The similar molecular compositions in PNe and diffuse clouds as well as the detection of C$_{60}^+$ in the ISM reinforce the view that the mass-loss from PNe can ...

  10. The Magnetic Field Effect on Planetary Nebulae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. R. Khesali; K. Kokabi

    2006-01-01

    In our previous work on the 3-dimensional dynamical structure of planetary nebulae the effect of magnetic field was not considered. Recently Jordan et al. have directly detected magnetic fields in the central stars of some planetary nebulae. This discovery supports the hypothesis that the non-spherical shape of most planetary nebulae is caused by magnetic fields in AGB stars. In this study we focus on the role of initially weak toroidal magnetic fields embedded in a stellar wind in altering the shape of the PN. We found that magnetic pressure is probably influential on the observed shape of most PNe.

  11. The Present and Future of Planetary Nebula Research. A White Paper by the IAU Planetary Nebula Working Group

    CERN Document Server

    Kwitter, K B; Peña, M; Stanghellini, L; Corradi, R L M; DeMarco, O; Fang, X; Henry, R B C; Karakas, A I; Liu, X -W; López, J A; Manchado, A; Parker, Q A

    2014-01-01

    We present a summary of current research on planetary nebulae and their central stars, and related subjects such as atomic processes in ionized nebulae, AGB and post-AGB evolution. Future advances are discussed that will be essential to substantial improvements in our knowledge in the field.

  12. Micron-sized forsterite grains in the pre-planetary nebula of IRAS 17150-3224 - Searching for clues on the mysterious evolution of massive AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    de Vries, B L; Min, M; Lombaert, R; Waters, L B F M; Blommaert, J A D L

    2015-01-01

    We study the grain properties and location of the forsterite crystals in the circumstellar environment of the pre-planetary nebula (PPN) IRAS 17150-3224 in order to learn more about the as yet poorly understood evolutionary phase prior to the PPN. We use the best-fit model for IRAS 17150-3224 of Meixner et al. (2002) and add forsterite to this model. We investigate different spatial distributions and grain sizes of the forsterite crystals in the circumstellar environment. We compare the spectral bands of forsterite in the mid-infrared and at 69 micrometre in radiative transport models to those in ISO-SWS and Herschel/PACS observations. We can reproduce the non-detection of the mid-infrared bands and the detection of the 69 micrometre feature with models where the forsterite is distributed in the whole outflow, in the superwind region, or in the AGB-wind region emitted previous to the superwind, but we cannot discriminate between these three models. To reproduce the observed spectral bands with these three mod...

  13. High-speed Bullet Ejections during the AGB-to-Planetary Nebula Transition: HST Observations of the Carbon Star, V Hydrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Scibelli, S.; Morris, M. R.

    2016-08-01

    The well-studied carbon star, V Hya, showing evidence for high-speed, collimated outflows and dense equatorial structures, is a key object in the study of the poorly understood transition of AGB stars into aspherical planetary nebulae. Using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have obtained high spatial-resolution long-slit optical spectra of V Hya that show high-velocity emission in [S ii] and [Fe ii] lines. Our data set, spanning three epochs spaced apart by a year during each of two periods (in 2002-2004 and 2011-2013), shows that V Hya ejects high-speed (˜200-250 {km} {{{s}}}-1) bullets once every ˜8.5 years. The ejection axis flip-flops around a roughly eastern direction, both in and perpendicular to the sky-plane, and the radial velocities of the ejecta also vary in concert between low and high values. We propose a model in which the bullet ejection is associated with the periastron passage of a binary companion in an eccentric orbit around V Hya with an orbital period of ˜8.5 years. The flip-flop phenomenon is likely the result of collimated ejection from an accretion disk (produced by gravitational capture of material from the primary) that is warped and precessing, and/or that has a magnetic field that is misaligned with that of the companion or the primary star. We show how a previously observed 17 year period in V Hya’s light-cycle can also be explained in our model. Additionally, we describe how the model proposed here can be extended to account for multipolar nebulae.

  14. Imaging the transition between pre-planetary and planetary nebulae: integral field spectroscopy of hot post-AGB stars with NIFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, T. M.; Forde, K. P.

    2015-02-01

    We present 2-2.4 μm integral field spectroscopy of a sample of hot post-asymptotic giant branch stars with early-B spectral types, using the Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrometer instrument on Gemini North. These stars are just beginning to ionize their immediate environments and turn into planetary nebulae (PNe). We use molecular hydrogen emission lines together with hydrogen and helium recombination lines to explore the distribution of molecular and atomic gas and the extent of the developing ionized region. We see a range of evolutionary stages: IRAS 18062+2410 and IRAS 18379-1707 have recently developed compact and unresolved regions of photoionized H within axisymmetric molecular envelopes, with the former object increasing its Brγ flux by a factor of 5.3 in 14 years; IRAS 22023+5249 and IRAS 20462+3416 have extended Brγ nebulae and in the latter object only weak H2 emission remains; IRAS 19336-0400 is at a more advanced stage of PN formation where H2 is mostly dissociated and we see structure in both the H and He recombination line nebulae. IRAS 19200+3457 is the only object not to show the He I line at 2.058 μm and is probably the least evolved object in our sample; the H2 emission forms a ring around the star and we suggest that this object may be a rare example of a `round' pre-PN in transition to a `round' PN.

  15. Physical Structure of Planetary Nebulae. I. The Owl Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, M A; Manchado, A; Kwitter, K B

    2003-01-01

    The Owl Nebula is a triple-shell planetary nebula with the outermost shell being a faint bow-shaped halo. We have obtained deep narrow-band images and high-dispersion echelle spectra in the H-alpha, [O III], and [N II] emission lines to determine the physical structure of each shell in the nebula. These spatio-kinematic data allow us to rule out hydrodynamic models that can reproduce only the nebular morphology. Our analysis shows that the inner shell of the main nebula is slightly elongated with a bipolar cavity along its major axis, the outer nebula is a filled envelope co-expanding with the inner shell at 40 km/s, and the halo has been braked by the interstellar medium as the Owl Nebula moves through it. To explain the morphology and kinematics of the Owl Nebula, we suggest the following scenario for its formation and evolution. The early mass loss at the TP-AGB phase forms the halo, and the superwind at the end of the AGB phase forms the main nebula. The subsequent fast stellar wind compressed the superwi...

  16. Sculpting an AGB Mass-Loss Envelope into a Bipolar Planetary Nebula: High-Velocity Outflows in V Hydrae

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Hinkle, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    We have carried out high-resolution spectroscopic observations of the carbon star V Hya, covering the 4.6 micron band of CO. These data, taken over 7 epochs, show that the circumstellar environment of V Hya consists of a complex high-velocity (HV) outflow containing at least six kinematic components with expansion velocities ranging between 70 and 120 km/s, together with a slow-moving normal outflow at about 10 km/s. Physical changes occur in the HV outflow regions on a time-scale as short as two days, limiting their extent to < ~ 10^{16} cm. The intrinsic line-width for each HV component is quite large (6-8 km/s) compared to the typical values (~1 km/s) appropriate for normal AGB circumstellar envelopes (CSEs), due to excess turbulence and/or large velocity gradients resulting from the energetic interaction of the HV outflow with the V Hya CSE. We have modelled the absorption features to set constraints on the temperature distribution in, and the mass ejection-rates for gas in the main HV components.

  17. A window on the efficiency of the s-process in AGB stars: chemical abundances of n-capture elements in the planetary nebula NGC 3918

    CERN Document Server

    Madonna, S; Luridiana, V; Sterling, N C; Morisset, C

    2015-01-01

    The chemical content of the planetary nebula NGC 3918 is investigated through deep, high-resolution (R~40000) UVES at VLT spectrophotometric data. We identify and measure more than 750 emission lines, making ours one of the deepest spectra ever taken for a planetary nebula. Among these lines we detect very faint lines of several neutron-capture elements (Se, Kr, Rb, and Xe), which enable us to compute their chemical abundances with unprecedented accuracy, thus constraining the efficiency of the s-process and convective dredge-up in the progenitor star of NGC 3918.

  18. Catalogues of planetary nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, A.

    Firstly, the general requirements concerning catalogues are studied for planetary nebulae, in particular concerning the objects to be included in a catalogue of PN, their denominations, followed by reflexions about the afterlife and comuterized versions of a catalogue. Then, the basic elements constituting a catalogue of PN are analyzed, and the available data are looked at each time.

  19. Planetary nebulae in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, P.; Stanghellini, L.; Di Criscienzo, M.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Dell'Agli, F.

    2016-08-01

    We analyse the planetary nebulae (PNe) population of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), based on evolutionary models of stars with metallicities in the range 10-3 ≤ Z ≤ 4 × 10-3 and mass 0.9 M⊙ Magellanic Cloud is explained on the basis of the diverse star formation history and age-metallicity relation of the two galaxies. The implications of this study for some still highly debated points regarding the AGB evolution are also commented.

  20. Distances from Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Ciardullo, R

    2003-01-01

    The [O III] 5007 planetary nebula luminosity function (PNLF) occupies an important place on the extragalactic distance ladder. Since it is the only method that is applicable to all the large galaxies of the Local Supercluster, it is uniquely useful for cross-checking results and linking the Population I and Population II distance scales. We review the physics underlying the method, demonstrate its precision, and illustrate its value by comparing its distances to distances obtained from Cepheids and the Surface Brightness Fluctuation (SBF) method. We use the Cepheid and PNLF distances to 13 galaxies to show that the metallicity dependence of the PNLF cutoff is in excellent agreement with that predicted from theory, and that no additional systematic corrections are needed for either method. However, when we compare the Cepheid-calibrated PNLF distance scale with the Cepheid-calibrated SBF distance scale, we find a significant offset: although the relative distances of both methods are in excellent agreement, th...

  1. Planetary Nebulae in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, P; Di Criscienzo, M; García-Hernández, D A; Dell'Agli, F

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the planetary nebulae (PNe) population of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), based on evolutionary models of stars with metallicities in the range $10^{-3} \\leq Z \\leq 4\\times 10^{-3}$ and mass $0.9 M\\odot < M < 8M\\odot$, evolved through the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. The models used account for dust formation in the circumstellar envelope. To characterise the PNe sample of the SMC, we compare the observed abundances of the various species with the final chemical composition of the AGB models: this study allows us to identify the progenitors of the PNe observed, in terms of mass and chemical composition. According to our interpretation, most of the PNe descend from low-mass ($M < 2 M\\odot$) stars, which become carbon rich, after experiencing repeated third dredge-up episodes, during the AGB phase. A fraction of the PNe showing the signature of advanced CNO processing are interpreted as the progeny of massive AGB stars, with mass above $\\sim 6 M\\odot$, undergoing strong hot bottom ...

  2. Revised Diagnostic Diagrams for Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Riesgo, H

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostic diagrams of electron density - excitation for a sample of 613 planetary nebulae are presented. The present extensive sample allows the definition of new statistical limits for the distribution of planetary nebulae in the log [Ha/[SII

  3. Exploiting the HASH Planetary Nebula Research Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Quentin A; Frew, David J

    2016-01-01

    The HASH (Hong Kong/ AAO/ Strasbourg/ H{\\alpha}) planetary nebula research platform is a unique data repository with a graphical interface and SQL capability that offers the community powerful, new ways to undertake Galactic PN studies. HASH currently contains multi-wavelength images, spectra, positions, sizes, morphologies and other data whenever available for 2401 true, 447 likely, and 692 possible Galactic PNe, for a total of 3540 objects. An additional 620 Galactic post-AGB stars, pre-PNe, and PPN candidates are included. All objects were classified and evaluated following the precepts and procedures established and developed by our group over the last 15 years. The complete database contains over 6,700 Galactic objects including the many mimics and related phenomena previously mistaken or confused with PNe. Curation and updating currently occurs on a weekly basis to keep the repository as up to date as possible until the official release of HASH v1 planned in the near future.

  4. A wind-shell interaction model for multipolar planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, W; Esquivel, A; Garcia-Segura, G; Garcia-Diaz, Ma T; Lopez, J A; Magnor, M

    2013-01-01

    We explore the formation of multipolar structures in planetary and pre-planetary nebulae from the interaction of a fast post-AGB wind with a highly inhomogeneous and filamentary shell structure assumed to form during the final phase of the high density wind. The simulations were performed with a new hydrodynamics code integrated in the interactive framework of the astrophysical modeling package SHAPE. In contrast to conventional astrophysical hydrodynamics software, the new code does not require any programming intervention by the user for setting up or controlling the code. Visualization and analysis of the simulation data has been done in SHAPE without external software. The key conclusion from the simulations is that secondary lobes in planetary nebulae, such as Hubble 5 and K3-17, can be formed through the interaction of a fast low-density wind with a complex high density environment, such as a filamentary circumstellar shell. The more complicated alternative explanation of intermittent collimated outflow...

  5. Gallery of Planetary Nebula Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Kwitter, K B; Kwitter, Karen B.; Henry, Richard B.C.

    2006-01-01

    We present the Gallery of Planetary Nebula Spectra now available at http://oitwilliams.edu/nebulae. The website offers high-quality, moderate resolution (~7-10 A FWHM) spectra of 128 Galactic planetary nebulae from 3600-9600 A, obtained by Kwitter, Henry, and colleagues with the Goldcam spectrograph at the KPNO 2.1-m or with the RC spectrograph at the CTIO 1.5-m. The master PN table contains atlas data and an image link. A selected object's spectrum is displayed in a zoomable window; line identification templates are provided. In addition to the spectra themselves, the website also contains a brief discussion of PNe as astronomical objects and as contributors to our understanding of stellar evolution. We envision that this website, which concentrates a large amount of data in one place, will be of interest to a variety of users: researchers might need to check the spectrum of a particular object of interest; the non-specialist astronomer might simply be interested in perusing such a collection of spectra; and...

  6. Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, David

    2016-01-01

    In this brief invited review, I will attempt to summarise some of the key areas of interest in the study of central stars of planetary nebulae which (probably) won't be covered by other speakers' proceedings. The main focus will, inevitably, be on the subject of multiplicity, with special emphasis on recent results regarding triple central star systems as well as wide binaries which avoid a common-envelope phase. Furthermore, in light of the upcoming release of Kepler's Campaign 11 data, I will discuss a few of the prospects from that data including the unique possibility to detect merger products.

  7. Planetary nebulae abundances and stellar evolution II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2010-01-01

    Context. In recent years mid-and far infrared spectra of planetary nebulae have been analysed and lead to more accurate abundances. It may be expected that these better abundances lead to a better understanding of the evolution of these objects. Aims. The observed abundances in planetary nebulae are

  8. Heavy element abundances in planetary nebulae: A theorist's perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Karakas, Amanda I

    2009-01-01

    The determination of heavy element abundances from planetary nebula (PN) spectra provides an exciting opportunity to study the nucleosynthesis occurring in the progenitor asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star. We perform post-processing calculations on AGB models of a large range of mass and metallicity to obtain predictions for the production of neutron-capture elements up to the first s-process peak at strontium. We find that solar metallicity intermediate-mass AGB models provide a reasonable match to the heavy element composition of Type I PNe. Likewise, many of the Se and Kr enriched PNe are well fitted by lower mass models with solar or close-to-solar metallicities. However the most Kr-enriched objects, and the PN with sub-solar Se/O ratios are difficult to explain with AGB nucleosynthesis models. Furthermore, we compute s-process abundance predictions for low-mass AGB models of very low metallicity ([Fe/H] =-2.3) using both scaled solar and an alpha-enhanced initial composition. For these models, O is dred...

  9. Where Do Messy Planetary Nebulae Come From?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-03-01

    If you examined images of planetary nebulae, you would find that many of them have an appearance that is too messy to be accounted for in the standard model of how planetary nebulae form. So what causes these structures?Examples of planetary nebulae that have a low probability of having beenshaped by a triple stellar system. They are mostly symmetric, with only slight departures (labeled) that can be explained by instabilities, interactions with the interstellar medium, etc. [Bear and Soker 2017]A Range of LooksAt the end of a stars lifetime, in the red-giant phase, strong stellar winds can expel the outer layers of the star. The hot, luminous core then radiates in ultraviolet, ionizing the gas of the ejected stellar layers and causing them to shine as a brightly colored planetary nebula for a few tens of thousands of years.Planetary nebulae come in a wide variety of morphologies. Some are approximately spherical, but others can be elliptical, bipolar, quadrupolar, or even more complex.Its been suggested that non-spherical planetary nebulae might be shaped by the presence of a second star in a binary system with the source of the nebula but even this scenario should still produce a structure with axial or mirror symmetry.A pair of scientists from Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Ealeal Bear and Noam Soker, argue that planetary nebulae with especially messy morphologies those without clear axial or point symmetries may have been shaped by an interacting triple stellar system instead.Examples of planetary nebulae that might have been shaped by a triple stellar system. They have some deviations from symmetry but also show signs of interacting with the interstellar medium. [Bear and Soker 2017]Departures from SymmetryTo examine this possibility more closely, Bear and Soker look at a sample of thousands planetary nebulae and qualitatively classify each of them into one of four categories, based on the degree to which they show signs of having been shaped by a

  10. The chemistry of compact planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Josselin, E

    2003-01-01

    We report high-sensitivity millimetre observations of several molecular species (13CO, HCN, HNC, CN, HCO+ and N2H+) in a sample of compact planetary nebulae. Some species such as HCO+ and CN are particularly abundant compared to envelopes around AGB stars or even interstellar clouds. We have estimated the following average values for the column densities ratios: CN/HCN~2.6, HCO+/HCN~0.5, and HNC/HCN~0.4. Thus, the chemical composition of the molecular envelopes in these compact PNe appears somewhat intermediate between the composition of proto-PNe (such as CRL 2688 or CRL 618) and well evolved PNe (such as the Ring, M4--9, or the Helix). From observations of the CO isotopomers, we have estimated that the 12C/13C ratio is in the range 10 ~< 12C/13C ~< 40. These values are below those expected from standard asymptotic giant branch models and suggest non-standard mixing processes. The observed molecular abundances are compared to very recent modelling work, and we conclude that the observations are well ex...

  11. Using Planetary Nebulae to Teach Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwitter, Karen B.

    2011-05-01

    We have developed an interactive website, "Gallery of Planetary Nebula Spectra," (www.williams.edu/Astronomy/research/PN/nebulae/) that contains high-quality optical-to-near-infrared spectra, atlas information, and bibliographic references for more than 160 planetary nebulae that we have observed in the Milky Way Galaxy. To make the material more accessible to students, I have created three undergraduate-level exercises that explore physics-related aspects of planetary nebulae. "Emission Lines and Central Star Temperature” uses the presence or absence of emission lines from species with different ionization potentials to rank the temperatures of the exciting stars in a selection of nebulae. "Interstellar Reddening” uses the observed Balmer decrement in a sample of planetary nebulae at different Galactic latitudes to infer the distribution of interstellar dust in the Milky Way. Finally, "Determining the Gas Density in Planetary Nebulae,” which I will focus on here, uses the observed intensity ratio of the 6717 Å and 6731 Å emission lines from singly ionized sulfur to determine the electron density in the nebular gas. These exercises demonstrate that planetary nebula spectra are useful real-world examples illustrating a variety of physical principles, including the behavior of blackbodies, wavelength-dependent particle scattering, recombination-line ratios, atomic physics, and statistical mechanics.

  12. Abundances in planetary nebulae : NGC1535, NGC6629, He2-108, and Tc1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Surendiranath, R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2011-01-01

    Context. Models have been made of stars of a given mass that produce planetary nebulae that usually begin on the AGB (although they may begin earlier) and run to the white dwarf stage. While these models cover the so-called dredge-up phases when nuclear reactions occur and the newly formed products

  13. Abundances in planetary nebulae : NGC 1535, NGC 6629, He2-108, and Tc1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Surendiranath, R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2011-01-01

    Context. Models have been made of stars of a given mass that produce planetary nebulae that usually begin on the AGB (although they may begin earlier) and run to the white dwarf stage. While these models cover the so-called dredge-up phases when nuclear reactions occur and the newly formed products

  14. Planetary nebulae abundances and stellar evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2006-01-01

    A summary is given of planetary nebulae abundances from ISO measurements. It is shown that these nebulae show abundance gradients (with galactocentric distance), which in the case of neon, argon, sulfur and oxygen (with four exceptions) are the same as HII regions and early type star abundance gradi

  15. Observations of planetary nebulae in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Cuisinier, F; Köppen, J; Acker, A; Stenholm, B

    2000-01-01

    High quality spectrophotometric observations of 30 Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge have been made. Accurate reddenings, plasma parameters, and abundances of He,O,N,S,Ar,Cl are derived. We find the abundances of O,S,Ar in the Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge to be comparable with the abundances of the Planetary Nebulae in the Disk, high abundances being maybe slightly more frequent in the Bulge. The distribution of the N/O ratio does not present in the Galactic Bulge Planetary Nebulae the extension to high values that it presents in the Disk Planetary Nebulae. We interpret this as a signature of the greater age of Bulge Planetary Nebulae. We thus find the Bulge Planetary Nebulae to be an old population, slightly more metal-rich than the Disk Planetary Nebulae. The population of the Bulge Planetary Nebulae shows hence the same characteristics than the Bulge stellar population.

  16. Unveiling shocks in planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, M A; Medina, J J; Luridiana, V; Miranda, L F; Riera, A; Velázquez, P F

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of a shock wave into a medium is expected to heat the material beyond the shock, producing noticeable effects in intensity line ratios such as [O III]/Halpha. To investigate the occurrence of shocks in planetary nebulae (PNe), we have used all narrowband [O III] and Halpha images of PNe available in the HST archive to build their [O III]/Halpha ratio maps and to search for regions where this ratio is enhanced. Regions with enhanced [O III]/Halpha emission ratio can be ascribed to two different types of morphological structures: bow-shock structures produced by fast collimated outflows and thin skins enveloping expanding nebular shells. Both collimated outflows and expanding shells are therefore confirmed to generate shocks in PNe. We also find regions with depressed values of the [O III]/Halpha ratio which are found mostly around density bounded PNe, where the local contribution of [N II] emission into the F656N Halpha filter cannot be neglected.

  17. The Making of a Pre-Planetary Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    The gas expelled by dying stars gets twisted into intricate shapes and patterns as nebulae form. Now a team of researchers might have some answers about how this happens.Whats a Pre-Planetary Nebula?This H-R diagram for the globular cluster M5 shows where AGB stars lie: they are represented by blue markers here. The AGB is one of the final stages in a low- to intermediate-mass stars lifetime. [Lithopsian]When a low- to intermediate-mass star approaches the end of its lifetime, it moves onto the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) in the Herzsprung-Russell diagram. As the star exhausts its fuel here, it shrugs off its outer layers. These layers of gas then encase the stars core, which is not yet hot enough to ionize the gas and cause it to glow.Instead, during this time the gas is relatively cool and dark, faintly reflecting light from the star and emitting only very dim infrared emission of its own. At this stage, the gas represents a pre-planetary nebula. Only later when the stellar core contracts enough to heat up and emit ionizing radiation does the nebula begin to properly glow, at which point it qualifies as a full planetary nebula.Images of OH231 in optical light (top) and 12CO (bottom) taken from the literature. [See Balick et al. 2017 for full credit]Unexpected ShapesPre-planetary nebulae are a very short-lived evolutionary stage, so weve observed only a few hundred of them which has left many unanswered questions about these objects.One particular mystery is that of their shapes: if these nebulae are formed by stars expelling their outer layers, we would naively expect them to be simple spherical shells and yet we observe pre-planetary nebulae to have intricate shapes and patterns. How does the star create these asymmetric shapes? A team of scientists led by Bruce Balick (University of Washington, Seattle) has now used simulations to address this question.Injecting MassBalick and collaborators use 3D hydrodynamic simulations to model one particular pre-planetary

  18. New models for the evolution of post-asymptotic giant branch stars and central stars of planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller Bertolami, Marcelo Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Context. The post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase is arguably one of the least understood phases of the evolution of low- and intermediate- mass stars. The two grids of models presently available are based on outdated micro- and macrophysics and do not agree with each other. Studies of the central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNe) and post-AGB stars in different stellar populations point to significant discrepancies with the theoretical predictions of post-AGB models. Aims: We study the timescales of post-AGB and CSPNe in the context of our present understanding of the micro- and macrophysics of stars. We want to assess whether new post-AGB models, based on the latter improvements in TP-AGB modeling, can help us to understand the discrepancies between observation and theory and within theory itself. In addition, we aim to understand the impact of the previous AGB evolution for post-AGB phases. Methods: We computed a grid of post-AGB full evolutionary sequences that include all previous evolutionary stages from the zero age main sequence to the white dwarf phase. We computed models for initial masses between 0.8 and 4 M⊙ and for a wide range of initial metallicities (Z0 = 0.02, 0.01, 0.001, 0.0001). This allowed us to provide post-AGB timescales and properties for H-burning post-AGB objects with masses in the relevant range for the formation of planetary nebulae (~0.5-0.8 M⊙). We included an updated treatment of the constitutive microphysics and included an updated description of the mixing processes and winds that play a key role during the thermal pulses (TP) on the AGB phase. Results: We present a new grid of models for post-AGB stars that take into account the improvements in the modeling of AGB stars in recent decades. These new models are particularly suited to be inputs in studies of the formation of planetary nebulae and for the determination of the properties of CSPNe from their observational parameters. We find post-AGB timescales that are at

  19. The Curious Conundrum Regarding Sulfur Abundances In Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, R B C; Karakas, A I; Ferland, G J; Maguire, M

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur abundances derived from optical emission line measurements and ionization correction factors in planetary nebulae are systematically lower than expected for the objects' metallicities. We have carefully considered a large range of explanations for this "sulfur anomaly", including: (1) correlations between the size of the sulfur deficit and numerous nebular and central star properties; (2) ionization correction factors which under-correct for unobserved ions; (3) effects of dielectronic recombination on the sulfur ionization balance; (4) sequestering of S into dust and/or molecules; and (5) excessive destruction of S or production of O by AGB stars. It appears that all but the second scenario can be ruled out. However, we find evidence that the sulfur deficit is generally reduced but not eliminated when S^+3 abundances determined directly from IR measurements are used in place of the customary sulfur ionization correction factor. We tentatively conclude that the sulfur anomaly is caused by the inability...

  20. Abundances of planetary nebula NGC2392

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Roellig, T. L.

    The spectra of the planetary nebula NGC2392 is reanalysed using spectral measurements made in the mid-infrared with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The aim is to determine the chemical composition of this object. We also make use of IUE and ground based spectra. Abundances determined from the

  1. Abundances of s-process elements in planetary nebulae: Br, Kr & Xe

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y; Pellegrini, E; Cavagnolo, K; Baldwin, J A; Sharpee, B; Phillips, M; Liu, X W

    2006-01-01

    We identify emission lines of post-iron peak elements in very high signal-to-noise spectra of a sample of planetary nebulae. Analysis of lines from ions of Kr and Xe reveals enhancements in most of the PNe, in agreement with the theories of s-process in AGB star. Surprisingly, we did not detect lines from Br even though s-process calculations indicate that it should be produced with Kr at detectable levels.

  2. From Miras to planetary nebulae: Which path for stellar evolution?; Proceedings of the International Colloquium, Universite de Montpellier II, France, Sept. 4-7, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennessier, M. O.; Omont, A.

    This book considers stellar evolution of Mira variables to planetary nebulae. Topics discussed include pulsation and shock waves; mass loss; circumstellar dust; maser emission and OH/IR stars; C stars; and post-AGB evolution to planetary nebulae, protoplanetary nebulae, and prewhite dwarfs and binaries. Papers are presented on pulsations of model Mira variables, the environment of Miras from interferometry, the physics of mass loss from AGB stars, the mixing length and the mass loss rate, dust formation and stellar wind, dust formation in circumstellar shells of Mira variables, the evolution of water masers on the AGB, and phase lags from OH/IR stars. Attention is also given to the variability of carbon stars, transfer reactions as neutron sources for the s-process, planetary nebulae as post-AGB objects, the kinematic structure of NGC 7139, the post-AGB evolution of low-mass stars, OH/IR stars as the progenitors of planetary nebulae, atmospheric parameters for pre-WD, and a new protoplanetary nebula.

  3. Dust Extinction in Compact Planetary Nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, TH; Kwok, S.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of dust extinction on the departure from axisymmetry in the morphology of planetary nebulae (PNs) are investigated through a comparison of the radio free-free emission and hydrogen recombination line images. The dust extinction maps from five compact PNs are derived using high-resolution (̃0"1) Hα and radio maps of the HST and VLA. These extinction maps are then analyzed by an ellipsoidal shell ionization model including the effects of dust extinction to infer the nebulae's intrin...

  4. The planetary nebula Abell 48 and its [WN] nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, David J.; Bojičić, I. S.; Parker, Q. A.; Stupar, M.; Wachter, S.; DePew, K.; Danehkar, A.; Fitzgerald, M. T.; Douchin, D.

    2014-05-01

    We have conducted a detailed multi-wavelength study of the peculiar nebula Abell 48 and its central star. We classify the nucleus as a helium-rich, hydrogen-deficient star of type [WN4-5]. The evidence for either a massive WN or a low-mass [WN] interpretation is critically examined, and we firmly conclude that Abell 48 is a planetary nebula (PN) around an evolved low-mass star, rather than a Population I ejecta nebula. Importantly, the surrounding nebula has a morphology typical of PNe, and is not enriched in nitrogen, and thus not the `peeled atmosphere' of a massive star. We estimate a distance of 1.6 kpc and a reddening, E(B - V) = 1.90 mag, the latter value clearly showing the nebula lies on the near side of the Galactic bar, and cannot be a massive WN star. The ionized mass (˜0.3 M⊙) and electron density (700 cm-3) are typical of middle-aged PNe. The observed stellar spectrum was compared to a grid of models from the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) grid. The best-fitting temperature is 71 kK, and the atmospheric composition is dominated by helium with an upper limit on the hydrogen abundance of 10 per cent. Our results are in very good agreement with the recent study of Todt et al., who determined a hydrogen fraction of 10 per cent and an unusually large nitrogen fraction of ˜5 per cent. This fraction is higher than any other low-mass H-deficient star, and is not readily explained by current post-AGB models. We give a discussion of the implications of this discovery for the late-stage evolution of intermediate-mass stars. There is now tentative evidence for two distinct helium-dominated post-AGB lineages, separate to the helium- and carbon-dominated surface compositions produced by a late thermal pulse. Further theoretical work is needed to explain these recent discoveries.

  5. Unveiling the structure of the planetary nebula M 2-48 Kinematics and physical conditions

    CERN Document Server

    López-Martin, L; Esteban, C; Vázquez, R; Raga, A C; Torrelles, J M; Miranda, L F; Meaburn, J; Olguin, L

    2002-01-01

    The kinematics and physical conditions of the bipolar planetary nebula M 2-48 are analysed from high and low dispersion long-slit spectra. Previous CCD narrow-band optical observations have suggested that this nebula is mainly formed by a pair of symmetric bow-shocks, an off-center semi-circular shell, and an internal bipolar structure. The bipolar outflow has a complex structure, characterised by a series of shocked regions located between the bright core and the polar tips. There is an apparent kinematic discontinuity between the bright bipolar core and the outer regions. The fragmented ring around the bright bipolar region presents a low expansion velocity and could be associated to ejection in the AGB-PN transition phase, although its nature remains unclear. The chemical abundances of the central region are derived, showing that M 2-48 is a Type I planetary nebula (PN).

  6. Planetary nebulae abundances and stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Pottasch, S R

    2006-01-01

    A summary is given of planetary nebulae abundances from ISO measurements. It is shown that these nebulae show abundance gradients (with galactocentric distance), which in the case of neon, argon, sulfur and oxygen (with four exceptions) are the same as HII regions and early type star abundance gradients. The abundance of these elements predicted from these gradients at the distance of the Sun from the center are exactly the solar abundance. Sulfur is the exception to this; the reason for this is discussed. The higher solar neon abundance is confirmed; this is discussed in terms of the results of helioseismology. Evidence is presented for oxygen destruction via ON cycling having occurred in the progenitors of four planetary nebulae with bilobal structure. These progenitor stars had a high mass, probably greater than 5 solar masses. This is deduced from the high values of He/H and N/H found in these nebulae. Formation of nitrogen, helium and carbon are discussed. The high mass progenitors which showed oxygen de...

  7. Observing Planetary Nebulae with JWST and Extremely Large Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra

    2015-01-01

    Most stars in the Universe that leave the main sequence in a Hubble time will end their lives evolving through the Planetary Nebula (PN) evolutionary phase. The heavy mass loss which occurs during the preceding AGB phase is important across astrophysics, dramatically changing the course of stellar evolution, dominantly contributing to the dust content of the interstellar medium, and influencing its chemical composition. The evolution from the AGB phase to the PN phases remains poorly understood, especially the dramatic transformation that occurs in the morphology of the mass-ejecta as AGB stars and their round circumstellar envelopes evolve into mostly PNe, the majority of which deviate strongly from spherical symmetry. In addition, although the PN [OIII] luminosity function (PNLF) has been used as a standard candle (on par with distance indicators such as Cepheids), we do not understand why it works. It has been argued that the resolution of these issues may be linked to binarity and associated processes such as mass transfer and common envelope evolution.Thus, understanding the formation and evolution of PNe is of wide astrophysical importance. PNe have long been known to emit across a very large span of wavelengths, from the radio to X-rays. Extensive use of space-based observatories at X-ray (Chandra/ XMM-Newton), optical (HST) and far-infrared (Spitzer, Herschel) wavelengths in recent years has produced significant new advances in our knowledge of these objects. Given the expected advent of the James Webb Space Telescope in the near future, and ground-based Extremely Large Telescope(s) somewhat later, this talk will focus on future high-angular-resolution, high-sensitivity observations at near and mid-IR wavelengths with these facilities that can help in addressing the major unsolved problems in the study of PNe.

  8. High scale anisotropies in planetary nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascoli, G.

    1986-06-01

    We present a new classification of Planetary Nebulae (PN) grounded on their characteristic symmetries: bipolarity, ring shape, spiral structure, etc... The different anisotropic models (rotation of nucleus, binary progenitor intranebular magnetic field, nebular rotation, etc...) which have been lately proposed, are analysed and their explanatory power is tested with certain morphological criterious. The comparison with the other classifications (Acker, 1980; Kaler, 1978; Peimbert, 1978) reveals that the morphology has been insufficiently discussed in these latters.

  9. Kinematics, turbulence and evolution of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Gesicki, K; Zijlstra, A A; Gesicki, Krzysztof; Acker, Agnes; Zijlstra, Albert A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the location of a sample of planetary nebulae on the HR diagram. We determine the internal velocity fields of 14 planetary nebulae from high-resolution echelle spectroscopy, with the help of photoionization models. The mass averaged velocity is shown to be a robust, simple parameter describing the outflow. The expansion velocity and radius are used to define the dynamical age; together with the stellar temperature, this gives a measurement of the luminosity and core mass of the central star. The same technique is applied to other planetary nebulae with previously measured expansion velocities, giving a total sample of 73 objects. The objects cluster closely around the Schoenberner track of 0.61 M_sun, with a very narrow distribution of core masses. The masses are higher than found for local white dwarfs. The luminosities determined in this way tend to be higher by a factor of a few than those derived from the nebular luminosities. The discrepancy is highest for the hottest (most evolved) ...

  10. New models for the evolution of central stars of planetary nebulae: Faster and Brighter

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolami, Marcelo M Miller

    2016-01-01

    The post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase is arguably one of the least understood phases of the evolution of low- and intermediate- mass stars. The recent post-AGB evolutionary sequences computed by Miller Bertolami (2016) are at least three to ten times faster than those previously published by Vassiliadis & Wood (1994) and Bloecker (1995) which have been used in a large number of studies. This is true for the whole mass and metallicity range. The new models are also $\\sim$0.1-0.3 dex brighter than the previous models with similar remnant masses. In this short article we comment on the main reasons behind these differences, and discuss possible implications for other studies of post-AGB stars or planetary nebulae.

  11. The evolution of planetary nebulae VII. Modelling planetary nebulae of distant stellar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schönberner, D; Sandin, C; Steffen, M

    2010-01-01

    By means of hydrodynamical models we do the first investigations of how the properties of planetary nebulae are affected by their metal content and what can be learned from spatially unresolved spectrograms of planetary nebulae in distant stellar systems. We computed a new series of 1D radiation-hydrodynamics planetary nebulae model sequences with central stars of 0.595 M_sun surrounded by initial envelope structures that differ only by their metal content. At selected phases along the evolutionary path, the hydrodynamic terms were switched off, allowing the models to relax for fixed radial structure and radiation field into their equilibrium state with respect to energy and ionisation. The analyses of the line spectra emitted from both the dynamical and static models enabled us to systematically study the influence of hydrodynamics as a function of metallicity and evolution. We also recomputed selected sequences already used in previous publications, but now with different metal abundances. These sequences w...

  12. A deep kinematic survey of planetary nebulae in the Andromeda Galaxy using the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Merrett, H R; Bridges, T J; Capaccioli, M; Carter, D; Coccato, L; Douglas, N G; Evans, N W; Freeman, K C; Gerhard, O; Halliday, C; Kuijken, K; Merrifield, M R; Napolitano, N R; Romanowsky, A J; Wilkinson, M I

    2006-01-01

    We present a catalogue of positions, magnitudes and velocities for 3300 emission-line objects found by the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph in a survey of the Andromeda Galaxy, M31. Of these objects, 2615 are found likely to be planetary nebulae (PNe) associated with M31. The survey area covers the whole of M31's disk out to a radius of 1.5 degrees. Beyond this radius, observations have been made along the major and minor axes, and the Northern Spur and Southern Stream regions. The calibrated data have been checked for internal consistency and compared with other catalogues. With the exception of the very central, high surface brightness region of M31, this survey is complete to a magnitude limit of m_5007~23.75, 3.5 magnitudes into the planetary nebula luminosity function.

  13. of Planetary Nebulae III. NGC 6781

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo E. Schwarz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuing our series of papers on the three-dimensional (3D structures and accurate distances to Planetary Nebulae (PNe, we present our study of the planetary nebula NGC6781. For this object we construct a 3D photoionization model and, using the constraints provided by observational data from the literature we determine the detailed 3D structure of the nebula, the physical parameters of the ionizing source and the first precise distance. The procedure consists in simultaneously fitting all the observed emission line morphologies, integrated intensities and the two-dimensional (2D density map from the [SII] (sulfur II line ratios to the parameters generated by the model, and in an iterative way obtain the best fit for the central star parameters and the distance to NGC6781, obtaining values of 950±143 pc (parsec – astronomic distance unit and 385 LΘ (solar luminosity for the distance and luminosity of the central star respectively. Using theoretical evolutionary tracks of intermediate and low mass stars, we derive the mass of the central star of NGC6781 and its progenitor to be 0.60±0.03MΘ (solar mass and 1.5±0.5MΘ respectively.

  14. Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS). First detection of OH+ in planetary nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleman, I.; Ueta, T.; Ladjal, D.; Exter, K.M.; Kastner, J.H.; Montez, R.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Chu, Y.-H.; Izumiura, H.; McDonald, I.; Sahai, R.; Siódmiak, N.; Szczerba, R.; Hoof, van P. A. M.; Villaver, E.; Vlemmings, W.; Wittkowski, M.; Zijlstra, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first detections of OH+emission in planetary nebulae (PNe). As part of an imaging and spectroscopy survey of 11 PNe in the far-IR using the PACS and SPIRE instruments aboard the HerschelSpace Observatory, we performed a line survey in these PNe over the entire spectral range between 51

  15. Ices Under Conditions of Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeghikyan, A. G.

    2017-07-01

    A large number of molecules are observed in planetary nebulae, both simple, the most common (H2, CO and OH), and more complex (H2O, SiO, HCN, HNC, HCO+), and even the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fullerenes containing a few dozen and more atoms. The water molecules are observed, as a rule, in the young objects, in the gas phase (water "fountains" and related water masers) and solid phase (emission of crystalline ice particles), and, regardless of the C/O ratio, water and carbon-containing molecules may be linked to the same object. On the other hand, the results of calculations by the well known Cloudy computer program given in this paper for stationery models, show that the abundance of water ice in planetary nebulae, other conditions being equal, is dependent on the ionization rate of hydrogen, which depends in turn on the flux of energetic particles (protons and alpha particles) in the range of MeV energies and higher. The possibility of the increased flux of such particles in planetary nebulae under conditions of the standard interacting stellar winds scenario is discussed, when the flux may locally exceed by 1-3 orders of magnitude that of caused by galactic cosmic rays. Calculated water ice column densities reach values up to 1018-1019 cm-2 at the usual average ISM H2 ionisation rate of 10-16s -1 and sharply decrease for the thousands times larger rates. Known observed results of NGC 6302 show for the column density of crystalline ice about 1019cm-2 close to the calculated one.

  16. Kinematic Distance of Galactic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, A Y; Zhu, H; Leahy, D A; Wu, D

    2016-01-01

    We construct \\HI~absorption spectra for 18 planetary nebulae (PNe) and their background sources using the data from the International Galactic Plane Survey. We estimate the kinematic distances of these PNe, among which 15 objects' kinematic distances are obtained for the first time. The distance uncertainties of 13 PNe range from 10% to 50%, which is a significant improvement with uncertainties of a factor two or three smaller than most of previous distance measurements. We confirm that PN G030.2-00.1 is not a PN because of its large distance found here.

  17. Collimated Fast Wind in the Pre-Planetary Nebula CRL 618

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2009-01-01

    Collimated fast winds (CFWs) have been proposed to operate during the post-AGB evolutionary phase (and even earlier during the late AGB phase), responsible for the shaping of pre-planetary nebulae (PPNs) and young planetary nebulae (PNs). This paper is a follow-up to our previous study of CFW models for the well-studied PPN CRL 618. Previously, we compared our CFW models with optical observations of CRL 618 in atomic and ionic lines and found that a CFW with a small opening angle can readily reproduce the highly collimated shape of the northwestern (W1) lobe of CRL 618 and the bow-like structure seen at its tip. In this paper, we compare our CFW models with recent observations of CRL 618 in CO J=2-1, J=6-5, and H2 1-0 S(1). In our models, limb-brightened shell structures are seen in CO and H2 at low velocity arising from the shocked AGB wind in the shell, and can be identified as the low-velocity (LV) components in the observations. However, the shell structure in CO J=2-1 is significantly less extended than ...

  18. Knots in the outer shells of the planetary nebulae IC 2553 and NGC 5882

    CERN Document Server

    Corradi, R L M; Villaver, E; Mampaso, A; Perinotto, M

    2000-01-01

    We present images and high-resolution spectra of the planetary nebulae IC 2553 and NGC 5882. Spatio-kinematic modeling of the nebulae shows that they are composed of a markedly elongated inner shell, and of a less aspherical outer shell expanding at a considerably higher velocity than the inner one. Embedded in the outer shells of both nebulae are found several low-ionization knots. In IC 2553, the knots show a point-symmetric distribution with respect to the central star: one possible explanation for their formation is that they are the survivors of pre-existing point-symmetric condensations in the AGB wind, a fact which would imply a quite peculiar mass-loss geometry from the giant progenitor. In the case of NGC 5882, the lack of symmetry in the distribution of the observed low-ionization structures makes it possible that they are the result of in situ instabilities.

  19. Hierarchies of Models: Toward Understanding Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Hajian, Arsen R.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Stars like our sun (initial masses between 0.8 to 8 solar masses) end their lives as swollen red giants surrounded by cool extended atmospheres. The nuclear reactions in their cores create carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, which are transported by convection to the outer envelope of the stellar atmosphere. As the star finally collapses to become a white dwarf, this envelope is expelled from the star to form a planetary nebula (PN) rich in organic molecules. The physics, dynamics, and chemistry of these nebulae are poorly understood and have implications not only for our understanding of the stellar life cycle but also for organic astrochemistry and the creation of prebiotic molecules in interstellar space. We are working toward generating three-dimensional models of planetary nebulae (PNe), which include the size, orientation, shape, expansion rate and mass distribution of the nebula. Such a reconstruction of a PN is a challenging problem for several reasons. First, the data consist of images obtained over time from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and spectra obtained from Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). These images are of course taken from a single viewpoint in space, which amounts to a very challenging tomographic reconstruction. Second, the fact that we have two disparate and orthogonal data types requires that we utilize a method that allows these data to be used together to obtain a solution. To address these first two challenges we employ Bayesian model estimation using a parameterized physical model that incorporates much prior information about the known physics of the PN. In our previous works we have found that the forward problem of the comprehensive model is extremely time consuming. To address this challenge, we explore the use of a set of hierarchical models, which allow us to estimate increasingly more detailed sets of model parameters. These hierarchical models of increasing complexity are akin

  20. Dusty disks around central stars of planetary nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); De Marco, Orsola [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Nordhaus, Jason [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, and National Technical Institute for the Deaf, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Green, Joel [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Rauch, Thomas; Werner, Klaus [Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Eberhard Karls University, Sand 1, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Chu, You-Hua, E-mail: gclayton@fenway.phys.lsu.edu, E-mail: orsola@science.mq.edu.au, E-mail: nordhaus@astro.rit.edu, E-mail: joel@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: rauch@astro.uni-tuebingen.de, E-mail: werner@astro.uni-tuebingen.de, E-mail: chu@astro.uiuc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Only a few percent of cool, old white dwarfs (WDs) have infrared excesses interpreted as originating in small hot disks due to the infall and destruction of single asteroids that come within the star's Roche limit. Infrared excesses at 24 μm were also found to derive from the immediate vicinity of younger, hot WDs, most of which are still central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNe). The incidence of CSPNe with this excess is 18%. The Helix CSPN, with a 24 μm excess, has been suggested to have a disk formed from collisions of Kuiper belt-like objects (KBOs). In this paper, we have analyzed an additional sample of CSPNe to look for similar infrared excesses. These CSPNe are all members of the PG 1159 class and were chosen because their immediate progenitors are known to often have dusty environments consistent with large dusty disks. We find that, overall, PG 1159 stars do not present such disks more often than other CSPNe, although the statistics (five objects) are poor. We then consider the entire sample of CSPNe with infrared excesses and compare it to the infrared properties of old WDs, as well as cooler post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We conclude with the suggestion that the infrared properties of CSPNe more plausibly derive from AGB-formed disks rather than disks formed via the collision of KBOs, although the latter scenario cannot be ruled out. Finally, there seems to be an association between CSPNe with a 24 μm excess and confirmed or possible binarity of the central star.

  1. Planetary nebulae as tracers of galaxy stellar populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzoni, Alberto; Arnaboldi, Magda; Corradi, Romano L. M.

    2006-05-01

    We address the general problem of the luminosity-specific planetary nebula (PN) number, better known as the `α' ratio, given by α=NPN/Lgal, and its relationship with the age and metallicity of the parent stellar population. Our analysis relies on population synthesis models that account for simple stellar populations (SSPs), and more elaborate galaxy models covering the full star formation range of the different Hubble morphological types. This theoretical framework is compared with the updated census of the PN population in Local Group (LG) galaxies and external ellipticals in the Leo group, and the Virgo and Fornax clusters. The main conclusions of our study can be summarized as follows. (i) According to the post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stellar core mass, PN lifetime in a SSP is constrained by three relevant regimes, driven by the nuclear (Mcore>~ 0.57Msolar), dynamical (0.57Msolar>~Mcore>~ 0.55Msolar) and transition (0.55Msolar>~Mcore>~ 0.52Msolar) time-scales. The lower limit for Mcore also sets the minimum mass for stars to reach the AGB thermal-pulsing phase and experience the PN event. (ii) Mass loss is the crucial mechanism to constrain the value of α, through the definition of the initial-to-final mass relation (IFMR). The Reimers mass-loss parametrization, calibrated on Pop II stars of Galactic globular clusters, poorly reproduces the observed value of α in late-type galaxies, while a better fit is obtained using the empirical IFMR derived from white dwarf observations in the Galaxy open clusters. (iii) The inferred PN lifetime for LG spirals and irregulars exceeds 10000yr, which suggests that Mcore~ 0.7Msolar PNe in order to preserve the constancy of the bright luminosity-function cut-off magnitude in ellipticals, must be confined to a small fraction (a few per cent at most) of the whole galaxy PN population.

  2. Detecting Abundance Variations in Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, H.; Santos, P. M.; Falceta-Gonçalves, D.

    2014-04-01

    Empirical methods of investigating chemical abundances are still widely used as a primary tool to study planetary nebulae (PNe) as well as HII regions. In this work we investigate the capacity of the empirical abundance determination methods to recover pre-defined parameters and abundance variations in a realistically modeled planetary nebula. To perform the test we use a threedimensional density structure obtained from a hydrodynamical simulation which is fed through a threedimensional photoionization code. The density structure is an asymetrical and inhomogeneous elongated closed shell. The input parameters used, such as, ionizing source, density, and chemical abundances are typical values of type I PNe. The model emissivities are then projected in the line of sight and emission line maps are generated, which are used to obtain the temperature and density diagnostics. The diagnostics and line emission maps are then used to obtain spatially resolved maps of the abundances. In this work we use the method described above to investigate abundances for two distinct orientations of the density structure. Our results show that for typical signal to noise ratios obtained from long-slit spectroscopy, only large abundance variations can be determined with good precision.

  3. Birth and early evolution of a planetary nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Bobrowsky, M; Parthasarathy, M; García-Lario, P

    1998-01-01

    The final expulsion of gas by a star as it forms a planetary nebula --- the ionized shell of gas often observed surrounding a young white dwarf --- is one of the most poorly understood stages of stellar evolution. Such nebulae form extremely rapidly (about 100 years for the ionization) and so the formation process is inherently difficult to observe. Particularly puzzling is how a spherical star can produce a highly asymmetric nebula with collimated outflows. Here we report optical observations of the Stingray Nebula which has become an ionized planetary nebula within the past few decades. We find that the collimated outflows are already evident, and we have identified the nebular structure that focuses the outflows. We have also found a companion star, reinforcing previous suspicions that binary companions play an important role in shaping planetary nebulae and changing the direction of successive outflows.

  4. Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Hultzsch, P J N; Méndez, R H; Pauldrach, A W A; Kudritzki, R P; Hoffmann, T L; McCarthy, J K

    2007-01-01

    Optical high-resolution spectra of five central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) in the Galactic Bulge have been obtained with Keck/HIRES in order to derive their parameters. Since the distance of the objects is quite well known, such a method has the advantage that stellar luminosities and masses can in principle be determined without relying on theoretical relations between both quantities. By alternatively combining the results of our spectroscopic investigation with evolutionary tracks, we obtain so-called spectroscopic distances, which can be compared with the known (average) distance of the Bulge-CSPN. This offers the possibility to test the validity of model atmospheres and present date post-AGB evolution. We analyze optical H/He profiles of five Galactic Bulge CSPN (plus one comparison object) by means of profile fitting based on state of the art non-LTE modeling tools, to constrain their basic atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, helium abundance and wind strength). Masses and other stellar radius d...

  5. The San Pedro M\\'artir Planetary Nebula Kinematic Catalogue: Extragalactic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, M G; Díaz-Méndez, E; Riesgo, H; Báez, S -H; García-Díaz, Ma -T; Meaburn, J; Clark, D M; Olvera, R M Calderón; Soto, G López; Rebolo, O Toledano

    2010-01-01

    We present kinematic data for 211 bright planetary nebulae in eleven Local Group galaxies: M31 (137 PNe), M32 (13), M33 (33), Fornax (1), Sagittarius (3), NGC 147 (2), NGC 185 (5), NGC 205 (9), NGC 6822 (5), Leo A (1), and Sextans A (1). The data were acquired at the Observatorio Astron\\'omico Nacional in the Sierra de San Pedro M\\'artir using the 2.1m telescope and the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer in the light of [\\ion{O}{3}]$\\lambda$5007 at a resolution of 11 km/s. A few objects were observed in H$\\alpha$. The internal kinematics of bright planetary nebulae do not depend strongly upon the metallicity or age of their progenitor stellar populations, though small systematic differences exist. The nebular kinematics and H$\\beta$ luminosity require that the nebular shells be accelerated during the early evolution of their central stars. Thus, kinematics provides an additional argument favoring similar stellar progenitors for bright planetary nebulae in all galaxies.

  6. Magnetic Fields in Paradigms of Planetary Nebulae and Related MHD Frontiers

    CERN Document Server

    Blackman, Eric G

    2008-01-01

    Many, if not all, post AGB stellar systems swiftly transition from a spherical to a powerful aspherical pre-planetary nebula (pPNE) outflow phase before waning into a PNe. The pPNe outflows require engine rotational energy and a mechanism to extract this energy into collimated outflows. Just radiation and rotation are insufficient but a symbiosis between rotation, differential rotation and large scale magnetic fields remains promising. Present observational evidence for magnetic fields in evolved stars is suggestive of dynamically important magnetic fields, but both theory and observation are rife with research opportunity. I discuss how magnetohydrodynamic outflows might arise in pPNe and PNe and distinguish different between approaches that address shaping vs. those that address both launch and shaping. Scenarios involving dynamos in single stars, binary driven dynamos, or accretion engines cannot be ruled out. One appealing paradigm involves accretion onto the primary post-AGB white dwarf core from a low m...

  7. Spatially resolved spectroscopy of planetary nebulae and their halos I. Five galactic disk objects

    CERN Document Server

    Sandin, Christer; Roth, Martin M; Steffen, Matthias; Böhm, Petra; Monreal-Ibero, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Strong mass loss off stars at the tip of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) profoundly affects properties of these stars and their surroundings, including the subsequent planetary nebula (PN) stage. With this study we wanted to determine physical properties of mass loss by studying weakly emitting halos, focusing on objects in the galactic disk. Halos surround the, up to several thousand times, brighter central regions of PNe. Young halos, specifically, still contain information of the preceeding final mass loss stage on the AGB. In the observations we used the method of integral field spectroscopy with the PMAS instrument. In a study of the influence of scattered light we found that a moderate fraction of intensities in the inner halo originate in adjacent regions. As we combine line intensities of distant wavelengths, and because radial intensity gradients are steep, we corrected for effects of differential atmospheric refraction. In order to increase the signal-to-noise of weak emission lines we introduced ...

  8. Atlas of monochromatic images of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Weidmann, W A; Valdarenas, R R Vena; Ahumada, J A; Volpe, M G; Mudrik, A

    2016-01-01

    We present an atlas of more than one hundred original images of planetary nebulae (PNe). These images were taken in a narrow-band filter centred on the nebular emission of the [N II] during several observing campaigns using two moderate-aperture telescopes, at the Complejo Astron\\'omico El Leoncito (CASLEO), and the Estaci\\'on Astrof\\'isica de Bosque Alegre (EABA), both in Argentina. The data provided by this atlas represent one of the most extensive image surveys of PNe in [N II]. We compare the new images with those available in the literature, and briefly describe all cases in which our [N II] images reveal new and interesting structures.

  9. Proposed nomenclature for Extragalactic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Q A; Parker, Quentin A

    2004-01-01

    The ability to identify and distinguish between the wide variety of celestial objects benefits from application of a systematic and logical nomenclature. This often includes value-added information within the naming convention which can aid in placing the object positionally either via an RA/DEC or l,b concatenation. All new nomenclatures should be created following IAU guidelines. However as the number density of specific object types on the sky increases, as in the case of PN in external galaxies, a useful positional identifier becomes problematic. This brief but timely paper attempts to progress the debate on this vexing issue for the case of extragalactic planetary nebulae (EPN). There is a clear need to rationalise the current ad-hoc system now that many thousands of Extragalactic PN are being discovered.

  10. Planetary Nebula Surveys: Past, Present and Future

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Quentin A

    2010-01-01

    In this review we cover the detection, identification and astrophysical importance of planetary nebulae (PN). The legacy of the historic Perek & Kohoutek and Acker et al. catalogues is briefly covered before highlighting the more recent but significant progress in PN discoveries in our Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. We place particular emphasis on the major MASH and the IPHAS catalogues, which, over the last decade alone, have essentially doubled Galactic and LMC PN numbers. We then discuss the increasing role and importance that multi-wavelength data is playing in both the detection of candidate PN and the elimination of PN mimics that have seriously biased previous PN compilations. The prospects for future surveys and current efforts and prospects for PN detections in external galaxies are briefly discussed due to their value both as cosmic distance indicators and as kinematical probes of galaxies and dark matter properties.

  11. Investigating potential planetary nebula/cluster pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Bidin, Christian Moni; Bonatto, Charles; Mauro, Francesco; Turner, David; Geisler, Doug; Chene, Andres-Nicolas; Gormaz-Matamala, Alex C; Borissova, Jura; Kurtev, Radostin G; Minniti, Dante; Carraro, Giovanni; Gieren, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental parameters characterizing the end-state of intermediate-mass stars may be constrained by discovering planetary nebulae (PNe) in open clusters (OCs). Cluster membership may be exploited to establish the distance, luminosity, age, and physical size for PNe, and the intrinsic luminosity and mass of its central star. Four potential PN-OC associations were investigated, to assess the cluster membership for the PNe. Radial velocities were measured from intermediate-resolution optical spectra, complemented with previous estimates in the literature. When the radial velocity study supported the PN/OC association, we analyzed if other parameters (e.g., age, distance, reddening, central star brightness) were consistent with this conclusion. Our measurements imply that the PNe VBe3 and HeFa1 are not members of the OCs NGC5999 and NGC6067, respectively, and likely belong to the background bulge population. Conversely, consistent radial velocities indicate that NGC2452/NGC2453 could be associated, but our resul...

  12. FITTING PHOTOIONIZATION MODELS TO PLANETARY NEBULAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bohigas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Good to excellent photoionization models based on the Cloudy code were obtained for 13 out of 19 spectra of planetary nebulae. The two most important assumptions are that the photoionizing continuum is a Rauch model star, with gravity set by the condition that the stellar mass must be 1 M , and density is constant and determined from the observed [S II]6717/6731 ratio. The temperature and luminosity of the central star, the inner radius of the nebula and the abundance of carbon are treated as free parameters in each model run, destined to obtain the best possible t to the relative intensities of He II 4686, [O III]5007 and [N II]6584. Observed and modeled nebular temperatures derived from [N II] (6548+6584 /5755 agree within 10%, but models usually underestimate temperatures found from [O III] (4959+5007 /4363, more so when the slit does not cover the in-depth extent of the ionized region. Helium, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulfur and argon model abundances are uncertain at the 15%, 15%, 10%, 7%, 30% and 7% level. It is shown that neon abundance in PNe has been consistently overestimated, and an alternative ionization correction factor is recommended.

  13. ISO Spectroscopy of Proto-Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this program was to determine the chemical properties of the dust shells around protoplanetary nebulae (PPNs) through a study of their short-wavelength (6-45 micron) infrared spectra. PPNs are evolved stars in transition from the asymptotic giant branch to the planetary nebula stages. Spectral features in the 10 to 20 gm region indicate the chemical nature (oxygen- or carbon-rich), and the strengths of the features relate to the physical properties of the shells. A few bright carbon-rich PPNs have been observed to show PAH features and an unidentified 21 micron emission feature. We used the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) to observe a sample of IRAS sources that have the expected properties of PPNs and for which we have accurate positions. Some of these have optical counterparts (proposal SWSPPN01) and some do not (SWSPPN02). We had previously observed these from the ground with near-infrared photometry and, for those with visible counterparts, visible photometry and spectroscopy, which we have combined with these new ISO data in the interpretation of the spectra. We have completed a study of the unidentified emission feature at 21 micron in eight sources. We find the shape of the feature to be the same in all of the sources, with no evidence of any substructure. The ratio of the emission peak to continuum ranges from 0.13 to 1.30. We have completed a study of seven PPNs and two other carbon-rich objects for which we had obtained ISO 2-45 micron observations. The unidentified emission features at 21 and 30 micron were detected in six sources, including four new detections of the 30 micron feature. This previously unresolved 30 micron feature was resolved and found to consist of a broad feature peaking at 27.2 micron (the "30 micron" feature) and a narrower feature peaking at 25.5 micron (the "26 micron" feature). This new 26 micron feature is detected in eight sources and is particularly strong in IRAS Z02229+6208 and 16594-4656. The unidentified

  14. ISO Spectroscopy of Proto-Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this program was to determine the chemical properties of the dust shells around protoplanetary nebulae (PPNs) through a study of their short-wavelength (6-45 micron) infrared spectra. PPNs are evolved stars in transition from the asymptotic giant branch to the planetary nebula stages. Spectral features in the 10 to 20 gm region indicate the chemical nature (oxygen- or carbon-rich), and the strengths of the features relate to the physical properties of the shells. A few bright carbon-rich PPNs have been observed to show PAH features and an unidentified 21 micron emission feature. We used the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) to observe a sample of IRAS sources that have the expected properties of PPNs and for which we have accurate positions. Some of these have optical counterparts (proposal SWSPPN01) and some do not (SWSPPN02). We had previously observed these from the ground with near-infrared photometry and, for those with visible counterparts, visible photometry and spectroscopy, which we have combined with these new ISO data in the interpretation of the spectra. We have completed a study of the unidentified emission feature at 21 micron in eight sources. We find the shape of the feature to be the same in all of the sources, with no evidence of any substructure. The ratio of the emission peak to continuum ranges from 0.13 to 1.30. We have completed a study of seven PPNs and two other carbon-rich objects for which we had obtained ISO 2-45 micron observations. The unidentified emission features at 21 and 30 micron were detected in six sources, including four new detections of the 30 micron feature. This previously unresolved 30 micron feature was resolved and found to consist of a broad feature peaking at 27.2 micron (the "30 micron" feature) and a narrower feature peaking at 25.5 micron (the "26 micron" feature). This new 26 micron feature is detected in eight sources and is particularly strong in IRAS Z02229+6208 and 16594-4656. The unidentified

  15. Planetary Nebulae and How to Observe Them

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Astronomers' Observing Guides provide up-to-date information for amateur astronomers who want to know all about what is it they are observing. This is the basis of the first part of the book. The second part details observing techniques for practical astronomers, working with a range of different instruments. Planetary Nebulae and How to Observe Them is intended for amateur astronomers who want to concentrate on one of the most beautiful classes of astronomical objects in the sky. This book will help the observer to see these celestial phenomena using telescopes of various apertures. As a Sun-like star reaches the end of its life, its hydrogen fuel starts to run out. It collapses until helium nuclei begin nuclear fusion, whereupon the star begins to pulsate, each pulsation throwing off a layer of the star's atmosphere. Eventually the atmosphere has all been ejected as an expanding cloud of gas, the star's core is exposed and ultraviolet photons cause the shell of gas to glow brilliantly - that's planetary ...

  16. Formation and X-ray emission from Hot Bubbles in Planetary Nebulae. I. Hot Bubble formation

    CERN Document Server

    Toalá, J A

    2014-01-01

    We carry out high resolution two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic numerical simulations to study the formation and evolution of hot bubbles inside planetary nebulae (PNe). We take into account the evolution of the stellar parameters, wind velocity and mass-loss rate from the final thermal pulses during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) through to the post-AGB stage for a range of initial stellar masses. The instabilities that form at the interface between the hot bubble and the swept-up AGB wind shell lead to hydrodynamical interactions, photoevaporation flows and opacity variations. We explore the effects of hydrodynamical mixing combined with thermal conduction at this interface on the dynamics, photoionization, and emissivity of our models. We find that even models without thermal conduction mix significant amounts of mass into the hot bubble. When thermal conduction is not included, hot gas can leak through the gaps between clumps and filaments in the broken swept-up AGB shell and this depressurises the...

  17. Discovery of New Faint Northern Galactic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Acker, Agnes; Outters, Nicolas; Miszalski, Brent; Sabin, Laurence; Le Du, Pascal; Alves, Filipe

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery of 6 nebular objects made by amateur astronomers. Four of these discoveries are clearly planetary nebulae (PNe), one is a possible PN, and another is a likely H II region. The bipolar nebula Ou4 presents the largest angular extent ever found : over one degree on the sky! We consider various scenarios that could explain such a nebula. Ou4 could be one of the nearest PNe known, though its possible PN nature will need confirmation.

  18. The Spectroscopic Properties of Bright Extragalactic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, M G

    2006-01-01

    The properties of bright extragalactic planetary nebulae are reviewed based upon the results of low and high resolution spectroscopy. It is argued that bright extragalactic planetary nebulae from galaxies (or subsystems) with and without star formation have different distributions of central star temperature and ionization structure. As regards the chemical compositions, oxygen and neon are generally found to be unchanged as a result of the evolution of the stellar progenitors. Nitrogen enrichment may occur as a result of the evolution of the progenitors of bright planetary nebulae in all stellar populations, though this enrichment may be (more) random in old stellar populations. Helium abundances appear to be influenced by the chemical evolution of the host galaxy, with planetary nebulae in dwarf spheroidals having systematically elevated abundances. Neither the age nor the metallicity of the progenitor stellar population has a strong effect upon the kinematics observed for nebular shells. Both the range of ...

  19. Chemical composition of planetary nebulae : Including ISO results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Beintema, DA; Salas, JB; Feibelman, WA; Henney, WJ; Franco, J; Martos, M; Pena, M

    2002-01-01

    The method of determining abundances using Infrared Space Observatory spectra is discussed. The results for seven planetary nebula are given. Using these data, a preliminary discussion of their evolution is given.

  20. Abundances in planetary nebulae : Me 2-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surendiranath, R; Pottasch, [No Value; Garcia-Lario, P

    ISO and IUE spectra of the round planetary nebula Me 2-1 are combined with Visual spectra taken from the literature to obtain for the first time a complete extinction-corrected spectrum. With this, the physico-chemical characteristics of the nebula and its central star are determined by various

  1. Orientation of Galactic Bulge Planetary Nebulae toward the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Danehkar, A

    2014-01-01

    We have used the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3-m telescope to perform the integral field spectroscopy for a sample of the Galactic planetary nebulae. The spatially resolved velocity distributions of the H$\\alpha$ emission line were used to determine the kinematic features and nebular orientations. Our findings show that some bulge planetary nebulae toward the Galactic center have a particular orientation.

  2. Stars and Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Cuisinier, F; Acker, A; Maciel, W J

    2000-01-01

    We compare the populations of Red Giant stars and Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge, in the light of recent determinations of their abundances patterns. We find both populations to be compatible. From the planetary nebulae, we find evidences that the Bulge did not form stars recently. The whole abundances pattern remains however puzzling, some elements favoring a quick evolution of the Galactic Bulge (Mg and Ti), and others a much slower one (He, O, Si, S, Ar and Ca).

  3. Radio variability and non-thermal components in stars evolving towards planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrigone, L.; Umana, G.; Trigilio, C.; Leto, P.; Buemi, C. S.; Ingallinera, A.

    2017-07-01

    We present new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array multifrequency measurements of a set of stars in transition from the post-AGB to the planetary nebula phase monitored in the radio range over several years. Clear variability is found for five sources. Their light curves show increasing and decreasing patterns. New radio observations at high angular resolution are also presented for two sources. Among these is IRAS 18062 + 2410, whose radio structure is compared to near-infrared images available in the literature. With these new maps, we can estimate inner and outer radii of 0.03 and 0.08 arcsec for the ionized shell, an ionized mass of 3.2 × 10-4 M⊙ and a density at the inner radius of 7.7 × 105 cm-3, obtained by modelling the radio shell with the new morphological constraints. The combination of multifrequency data and, where available, spectral-index maps leads to the detection of spectral indices not due to thermal emission, contrary to what one would expect in planetary nebulae. Our results allow us to hypothesize the existence of a link between radio variability and non-thermal emission mechanisms in the nebulae. This link seems to hold for IRAS 22568 + 6141 and may generally hold for those nebulae where the radio flux decreases over time.

  4. DT Serpentis: neither a symbiotic star nor a planetary nebula associate

    CERN Document Server

    Frew, David J; Bojicic, Ivan S; Parker, Quentin A

    2014-01-01

    We present an alternative interpretation for the putative symbiotic star DT Serpentis, and its proposed planetary nebula (PN), recently announced by Munari et al. Our analysis is based on their data combined with additional archival data trawled from Virtual Observatory databases. We show that the star known as DT Ser is not a symbiotic star, and is merely superposed on the newly discovered but unrelated background PN. There is no evidence for any periodic variability for DT Ser as expected for a symbiotic star. We further establish that there is no physical association between DT Ser and the PN, which has a considerably higher extinction, befitting the larger distance we estimate. The significantly different radial velocities of the star and nebula also likely preclude any association. Finally, we show that the mid-infrared source detected by the IRAS and WISE surveys is actually coincident with the PN so there is no evidence for DT Ser being a dusty post-AGB star.

  5. Watching Young Planetary Nebulae Grow: The Movie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balick, Bruce

    2009-07-01

    The development of magneto-hydro gas dynamical models is the key to the understanding of both the physics {processes} and astronomy {initial conditions} of astrophysical nebulae of all sorts. The models are reaching their highest degree of accuracy when applied to and compared against pre Planetary Nebulae {pPNe} thanks to the simplicity, relative lack of extinction, and the detail of the imaging and kinematic data that have bcome available for these objects. The primary barrier to progress is inadequate kinematic data of pPNe against which the predictions models can be tested. Unlike PNe, pPNe do not emit emission lines for detailed Doppler measurements. Therefore it is essential to find another way to monitor the morphological evolution. Only HST can uncover the dynamics of the growth patterns by subtracting multi-epoch images spanning a decade or more. We have selected four pPNe with highly collimated outflows in different evolutionary stages for which high-quality first-epoch images were obtained from 1996 to 2002. All of them display regularly shaped thin rims, sharp edges, and symmetric pairs of knots or bowshocks that are ideal for our purposes. We will closely mimic many of the earlier exposures using ACS and to monitor changes in structures. The morphology and its evolution will be compared to 3-D MHD models with adaptive grids in order to build a far clearer picture of the nuclear geometry which shaped the outflows and constrained their propagation to the present. We shall also obtain R, J, and H images for use with a 3-D dust radiative transfer code LELUYA to model the dust distribution deep into the nuclear zones.

  6. The planetary nebula Abell 48 and its [WN4] nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Frew, David J; Parker, Q A; Stupar, M; Wachter, S; DePew, K; Danehkar, A; Fitzgerald, M F

    2013-01-01

    We have conducted a detailed multi-wavelength study of the peculiar planetary nebula Abell 48 and its central star. We present evidence for a new classification of the nucleus as a helium-rich, hydrogen-deficient star of type [WN4], one of only two currently known examples of its type. The evidence for either a massive WN or a low-mass [WN] interpretation is critically examined, and we firmly conclude that Abell 48 is a planetary nebula around an evolved low-mass star, rather than a Population I ejecta nebula. Importantly, the surrounding nebula has a morphology typical of planetary nebulae, and is not enriched in nitrogen, and thus not the 'peeled atmosphere' of a massive star. We estimate a distance of 1.6 kpc and a reddening, E(B-V) = 1.90 mag, the latter value clearly showing the nebula lies on the near side of the Galactic bar, and therefore cannot be a massive WN star. The planetary nebula has an ionized mass (0.3 M_sun) and electron density (740 cm^-3) typical of somewhat evolved objects. The observed ...

  7. Kn 26, a New Quadrupolar Planetary Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, Martin A; Ramos-Larios, Gerardo; Vazquez, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Once classified as an emission line source, the planetary nebula (PN) nature of the source Kn 26 has been only recently recognized in digital sky surveys. To investigate the spectral properties and spatio-kinematical structure of Kn 26, we have obtained high spatial-resolution optical and near-IR narrow-band images, high-dispersion long-slit echelle spectra, and intermediate-resolution spectroscopic observations. The new data reveal an hourglass morphology typical of bipolar PNe. A detailed analysis of its morphology and kinematics discloses the presence of a second pair of bipolar lobes, making Kn 26 a new member of the subclass of quadrupolar PNe. The time-lap between the ejection of the two pairs of bipolar lobes is much smaller than their dynamical ages, implying a rapid change of the preferential direction of the central engine. The chemical composition of Kn 26 is particularly unusual among PNe, with a low N/O ratio (as of type II PNe) and a high helium abundance (as of type I PNe), although not atypica...

  8. The Iron abundance in Galactic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado-Inglada, G; Mampaso, A; Viironen, K

    2008-01-01

    We constrain the iron abundance in a sample of 33 low-ionization Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) using [Fe III] lines and correcting for the contribution of higher ionization states with ionization correction factors (ICFs) that take into account uncertainties in the atomic data. We find very low iron abundances in all the objects, suggesting that more than 90% of their iron atoms are condensed onto dust grains. This number is based on the solar iron abundance and implies a lower limit on the dust-to-gas mass ratio, due solely to iron, of M_dust/M_gas>1.3x10^{-3} for our sample. The depletion factors of different PNe cover about two orders of magnitude, probably reflecting differences in the formation, growth, or destruction of their dust grains. However, we do not find any systematic difference between the gaseous iron abundances calculated for C-rich and O-rich PNe, suggesting similar iron depletion efficiencies in both environments. The iron abundances of our sample PNe are similar to those derived follow...

  9. Radio Planetary Nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Filipović, M D; Reid, W A; Payne, J L; Parker, Q A; Crawford, E J; Bojičić, I S; De Horta, A Y; Hughes, A; Dickel, J; Stootman, F

    2009-01-01

    We report the extragalactic radio-continuum detection of 15 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) from recent Australia Telescope Compact Array+Parkes mosaic surveys. These detections were supplemented by new and high resolution radio, optical and IR observations which helped to resolve the true nature of the objects. Four of the PNe are located in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and 11 are located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Based on Galactic PNe the expected radio flux densities at the distance of the LMC/SMC are up to ~2.5 mJy and ~2.0 mJy at 1.4 GHz, respectively. We find that one of our new radio PNe in the SMC has a flux density of 5.1 mJy at 1.4 GHz, several times higher than expected. We suggest that the most luminous radio PN in the SMC (N S68) may represent the upper limit to radio peak luminosity because it is ~3 times more luminous than NGC 7027, the most luminous known Galactic PN. We note that the optical diameters of these 15 MCs PNe vary from very small (~0.08 pc or ...

  10. Planetary Nebulae in Face-On Spiral Galaxies. I. Planetary Nebula Photometry and Distances

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Kimberly A; Feldmeier, John J; Vinciguerra, Matt

    2008-01-01

    As the first step to determine disk mass-to-light ratios for normal spiral galaxies, we present the results of an imaging survey for planetary nebulae (PNe) in six nearby, face-on systems: IC 342, M74 (NGC 628), M83 (NGC 5236), M94 (NGC 4736), NGC 5068, and NGC 6946. Using Blanco/Mosaic II and WIYN/OPTIC, we identify 165, 153, 241, 150, 19, and 71 PN candidates, respectively, and use the Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function (PNLF) to obtain distances. For M74 and NGC 5068, our distances of 8.6 +/- 0.3 Mpc and 5.4 +0.2/-0.4 Mpc are the first reliable estimates to these objects; for IC 342 (3.5 +/- 0.3 Mpc), M83 (4.8 +/- 0.1 Mpc), M94 (4.4 +0.1/-0.2 Mpc), and NGC 6946 (6.1 +/- 0.6 Mpc) our values agree well with those in the literature. In the larger systems, we find no evidence for any systematic change in the PNLF with galactic position, though we do see minor field-to-field variations in the luminosity function. In most cases, these changes do not affect the measurement of distance, but in one case the fluct...

  11. Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS) - First Detection of OH+ in Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Aleman, I; Ladjal, D; Exter, K M; Kastner, J H; Montez, R; Tielens, A G G M; Chu, Y H; Izumiura, H; McDonald, I; Sahai, R; Siodmiak, N; Szczerba, R; van Hoof, P A M; Villaver, E; Vlemmings, W; Wittkowski, M; Zijlstra, A A

    2014-01-01

    We report the first detections of OH+ emission in planetary nebulae (PNe). As part of an imaging and spectroscopy survey of 11 PNe in the far-IR using the PACS and SPIRE instruments aboard the Herschel Space Observatory, we performed a line survey in these PNe over the entire spectral range between 51 and 672$\\mu$m to look for new detections. OH+ rotational emission lines at 152.99, 290.20, 308.48, and 329.77$\\mu$m were detected in the spectra of three planetary nebulae: NGC 6445, NGC 6720, and NGC 6781. Excitation temperatures and column densities derived from these lines are in the range of 27 to 47 K and 2 x $10$^{10}$ to 4 x $10$^{11}$ cm$^{-2}$, respectively. In PNe, the OH+ rotational line emission appears to be produced in the photodissociation region (PDR) in these objects. The emission of OH+ is observed only in PNe with hot central stars (Teff > 100000 K), suggesting that high-energy photons may play a role in the OH+ formation and its line excitation in these objects, as it seems to be the case for...

  12. The dust content of planetary nebulae a reappraisal

    CERN Document Server

    Stasinska, G

    1999-01-01

    We have performed a statistical analysis using broad band IRAS data on about 500 planetary nebulae with the aim of characterizing their dust content. Our approach is different from previous studies in that it uses an extensive grid of photoionization models to test the methods for deriving the dust temperature, the dust-to-gas mass ratio and the average grain size. In addition, we use only distance independent diagrams. With our models, we show the effect of contamination by atomic lines in the broad band IRAS fluxes during planetary nebula evolution. We find that planetary nebulae with very different dust-to-gas mass ratios exist, so that the dust content is a primordial parameter for the interpretation of far infrared data of planetary nebulae. In contrast with previous studies, we find no evidence for a decrease in the dust-to-gas mass ratio as the planetary nebulae evolve. We also show that the decrease in grain size advocated by Natta and Panagia (1981, ApJ 248,189) and Lenzuni et al. (1989, ApJ 345, 306...

  13. An Interactive Gallery of Planetary Nebula Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwitter, K. B.; Henry, R. B. C.

    2002-12-01

    We have created a website containing high-quality moderate-resolution spectra of 88 planetary nebulae (PNe) from 3600 to 9600 Å, obtained at KPNO and CTIO. Spectra are displayed in a zoomable window, and there are templates available that show wavelength and ion identifications. In addition to the spectra themselves, the website also contains a brief discussion of PNe as astronomical objects and as contributors to our understanding of stellar evolution, and a table with atlas information for each object along with a link to an image. This table can be re-ordered by object name, galactic or equatorial coordinates, distance from the sun, the galactic center, or the galactic plane. We envision that this website, which concentrates a large amount of data in one place, will be of interest to a variety of users. PN researchers might need to check the spectrum of a particular object of interest; the non-specialist astronomer might simply be interested in perusing such a collection of spectra; and finally, teachers of introductory astronomy can use this database to illustrate basic principles of atomic physics and radiation. To encourage such use, we have written two simple exercises at a basic level to introduce beginning astronomy students to the wealth of information that PN spectra contain. We are grateful to Adam Wang of the Williams College OIT and to his summer student teams who worked on various apects of the implementation of this website. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-9819123 and by Williams College and the University of Oklahoma.

  14. Probing O-enrichment in C-rich dust planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Hernandez, D A; Delgado-Inglada, G; Dell'Agli, F; Di Criscienzo, M; Yagüe, A

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of O in planetary nebulae (PNe) has been historically used as a metallicity indicator of the interstellar medium (ISM) where they originated; e.g., it has been widely used to study metallicity gradients in our Galaxy and beyond. However, clear observational evidence for O self enrichment in low-metallicity Galactic PNe with C-rich dust has been recently reported. Here we report asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis predictions for the abundances of the CNO elements and helium in the metallicity range Zsun/4 < Z < 2Zsun. Our AGB models, with diffusive overshooting from all the convective borders, predict that O is overproduced in low-Z low-mass (~1-3 Msun) AGB stars and nicely reproduce the recent O overabundances observed in C-rich dust PNe. This confirms that O is not always a good proxy of the original ISM metallicity and another chemical elements such as Cl or Ar should be used instead. The production of oxygen by low-mass stars should be thus considered in galactic-evolution mo...

  15. SALT reveals the barium central star of the planetary nebula Hen 2-39

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, B; Jones, D; Karakas, A I; Köppen, J; Tyndall, A A; Mohamed, S S; Rodríguez-Gil, P; Santander-García, M

    2013-01-01

    Classical barium stars are binary systems which consist of a late-type giant enriched in carbon and slow neutron capture (s-process) elements and an evolved white dwarf (WD) that is invisible at optical wavelengths. The youngest observed barium stars are surrounded by planetary nebulae (PNe), ejected soon after the wind accretion of polluted material when the WD was in its preceeding asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. Such systems are rare but powerful laboratories for studying AGB nucleosynthesis as we can measure the chemical abundances of both the polluted star and the nebula ejected by the polluter. Here we present evidence for a barium star in the PN Hen 2-39. The polluted giant is very similar to that found in WeBo 1. It is a cool (Teff=4250 +/- 150 K) giant enhanced in carbon ([C/H]=0.42 +/- 0.02 dex) and barium ([Ba/Fe]=1.50 +/- 0.25 dex). A spectral type of C-R3 C_24 nominally places Hen 2-39 amongst the peculiar early R-type carbon stars, however the barium enhancement and likely binary status mea...

  16. The Stingray nebula: watching the rapid evolution of a newly born planetary nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrowsky, M.; Sahu, K. C.; Parthasarathy, M.; García-Lario, Pedro

    The formation and early evolution of planetary nebulae represent one of the most poorly understood phases of stellar evolution ( Kwok, 1987; Maddox, 1995). One of the youngest, the Stingray Nebula (He3-1357) ( Henize, 1967; Henize, 1976), shows all the tell-tale signs of a newly born planetary nebula: it has become ionized only within the past few decades ( Parthasarathy et al., 1993); the mass-loss from the central star has ceased within the past few years; and the central star is becoming hotter and fainter as expected from a star on its way to becoming a DA white dwarf ( Parthasarathy et al., 1995). The Stingray Nebula thus provides the ideal laboratory for examining the early structure and evolution of this class of objects. Images of the Stingray Nebula, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, show for the first time that its multiple expulsions of matter are focused by an equatorial ring and bubbles of gas located on opposite sides of the ring ( Bobrowsky et al., 1995). The position angle of the outflows has changed, possibly as a result of precessional motion induced by the presence of a companion star. This is consistent with the precessing jet model by Livio & Pringle (1996). Indeed, we have reported the discovery of a companion star in the Stingray Nebula ( Bobrowsky et al., 1998). Finally, we present evidence of the companion star dynamically distorting the gas in this newly-born planetary nebula.

  17. The abundances of neon, sulfur, and argon in planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, S. C.; Lacy, J. H.; Townes, C. H.; Aller, L. H.; Geballe, T. R.; Baas, F.

    1981-01-01

    New infrared observations of Ne II, Ar III, and S IV are used in optical observations of other ionization states of the considered elements to evaluate the abundances of neon, argon, and sulfur in 18 planetary nebulae. Attention is also given to one or more of the infrared lines in 18 other nebulae. It is pointed out that S IV was detected in approximately 90% of the observed objects, while Ar III was found in about 80%, and Ne II in roughly one-third. It is noted that optical observations typically include only a limited region of the nebula, while the infrared measurements frequently involve integration over the entire nebular image.

  18. s-process Enrichment in the Planetary Nebula NGC 3918

    CERN Document Server

    García-Rojas, J; Luridiana, V; Sterling, N C; Morisset, C

    2014-01-01

    We present deep, high-resolution (R~40000) UVES at VLT spectrophotometric data of the planetary nebula NGC 3918. This is one of the deepest spectra ever taken of a planetary nebula. We have identified and measured more than 700 emission lines and, in particular, we have detected very faint lines of several neutron-capture elements (s-process elements: Kr, Xe and Rb) that enable us to compute their chemical abundances with unprecedented accuracy, thus constraining the efficiency of the s-process and convective dredge-up.

  19. Planetary nebulae in 2014: A review of research

    CERN Document Server

    Zijlstra, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Planetary nebulae had a double anniversary in 2014, 250 year since their discovery and 150 year since the correct spectroscopic identification. This paper gives an overview of planetary nebula research published in 2014. Topics include surveys, central stars, abundances, morphologies, magnetic fields, stellar population and galactic dynamics. An important continuing controversy is the discrepancy between recombination-line and forbidden-line abundances. A new controversy is the relation between symbiotic stars and [WC] stars. PN of the year is undoubtedly CRL 618, with papers on its binary symbiotic/[WC] nucleus, rapid stellar evolution, expanding jets and magnetic fields.

  20. Photometry of the Stingray Nebula (V839 Ara) from 1889-2015 Across the Ionization of Its Planetary Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Bradley E

    2015-01-01

    Up until around 1980, the Stingray was an ordinary B1 post-AGB star, but then it suddenly sprouted bright emission lines like in a planetary nebula (PN), and soon after this the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) discovered a small PN around the star, so apparently we have caught a star in the act of ionizing a PN. We report here on a well-sampled light curve from 1889 to 2015, with unique coverage of the prior century plus the entire duration of the PN formation plus three decades of its aftermath. Surprisingly, the star anticipated the 1980's ionization event by declining from B=10.30 in 1889 to B=10.76 in 1980. Starting in 1980, the central star faded fast, at a rate of 0.20 mag/year, reaching B=14.64 in 1996. This fast fading is apparently caused by the central star shrinking in size. From 1994-2015, the V-band light curve is almost entirely from the flux of two bright [OIII] emission lines from the unresolved nebula, and it shows a consistent decline at a rate of 0.090 mag/year. This steady fading (also seen i...

  1. A new Planetary Nebula in the outer reaches of the Galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viironen, K.; Mampaso, A.; L. M. Corradi, R.;

    2011-01-01

    of a new planetary nebula towards the Anticentre direction, IPHASX J052531.19+281945.1 (PNG 178.1-04.0), is presented. The planetary nebula was discovered from the IPHAS survey. Long-slit follow-up spectroscopy was carried out to confirm its planetary nebula nature and to calculate its physical...

  2. Central stars of planetary nebulae in the Galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultzsch, P. J. N.; Puls, J.; Méndez, R. H.; Pauldrach, A. W. A.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Hoffmann, T. L.; McCarthy, J. K.

    2007-06-01

    Context: Optical high-resolution spectra of five central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) in the Galactic bulge have been obtained with Keck/HIRES in order to derive their parameters. Since the distance of the objects is quite well known, such a method has the advantage that stellar luminosities and masses can in principle be determined without relying on theoretical relations between both quantities. Aims: By alternatively combining the results of our spectroscopic investigation with evolutionary tracks, we obtain so-called spectroscopic distances, which can be compared with the known (average) distance of the bulge-CSPN. This offers the possibility to test the validity of model atmospheres and present date post-AGB evolution. Methods: We analyze optical H/He profiles of five Galactic bulge CSPN (plus one comparison object) by means of profile fitting based on state of the art non-LTE modeling tools, to constrain their basic atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, helium abundance and wind strength). Masses and other stellar radius dependent quantities are obtained from both the known distances and from evolutionary tracks, and the results from both approaches are compared. Results: The major result of the present investigation is that the derived spectroscopic distances depend crucially on the applied reddening law. Assuming either standard reddening or values based on radio-Hβ extinctions, we find a mean distance of 9.0±1.6 kpc and 12.2±2.1 kpc, respectively. An “average extinction law” leads to a distance of 10.7±1.2 kpc, which is still considerably larger than the Galactic center distance of 8 kpc. In all cases, however, we find a remarkable internal agreement of the individual spectroscopic distances of our sample objects, within ±10% to ±15% for the different reddening laws. Conclusions: Due to the uncertain reddening correction, the analysis presented here cannot yet be regarded as a consistency check for our method, and a rigorous test of the CSPN

  3. Flows along cometary tails in the Helix planetary nebula NGC 7293

    CERN Document Server

    Meaburn, John

    2009-01-01

    Previous velocity images which reveal flows of ionized gas along the most prominent cometary tail (from Knot 38) in the Helix planetary nebula are compared with that taken at optical wavelengths with the Hubble Space Telescope and with an image in the emission from molecular hydrogen. The flows from the second most prominent tail from Knot 14 are also considered. The kinematics of the tail from the more complex Knot 32, shown here for the first time, also reveals an acceleration away from the central star. All of the tails are explained as accelerating ionized flows of ablated material driven by the previous, mildly supersonic, AGB wind from the central star. The longest tail of ionized gas, even though formed by this mechanism in a very clumpy medium, as revealed by the emission from molecular hydrogen, appears to be a coherent outflowing feature.

  4. Crystalline silicates in planetary nebulae with [WC] central stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waters, LBFM; Beintema, DA; Zijlstra, AA; de Koter, A; Molster, FJ; Bouwman, J; de Jong, T; Pottasch, [No Value; de Graauw, T

    We present ISO-SWS spectroscopy of the cool dusty envelopes surrounding two Planetary Nebulae with [WC] central stars, BD+30 3639 and He 2-113. The lambda <15 mu m region is dominated by a rising continuum with prominent emission from C-rich dust (PAHs), while the long wavelength part shows narrow

  5. Physics and chemistry of gas in planetary nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernard Salas, Jeronimo

    2003-01-01

    Stars are born, live and die similarly to any human being in the Universe. This thesis deals with the final stages of evolution (life) experíenced by stars like our Sun prior to their death, the so-called Planetary Nebula phase. In 5 billion years our Sun also will experience this phase and will bec

  6. Rule or exception? Planetary nebulae around hot subdwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Aller, A; Ulla, A; Oreiro, R; Manteiga, M; Pérez, E; Rodríguez-López, C; 10.1017/S174392131201647X

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present the first results of an ongoing survey to search for planetary nebulae (PNe) around hot subdwarf stars (sdOs). Deep images and intermediate-resolution long-slit spectra of RWT 152, the only confirmed PN+sdO system in the northern hemisphere, as well as preliminary results for other sdO+PN candidate are presented.

  7. The Galactic Bulge The Stellar and Planetary Nebulae Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Cuisinier, F; Acker, A; Maciel, W J

    2001-01-01

    We compare abundances patterns in the Bulge for elements observed in stars and in planetary nebulae. Some alpha elements, like Mg and Ti, are overabundant respect to Fe, and others are not, like He, O, Si, S, Ar, Ca. The first ones favor a quick evolution of the Galactic Bulge, and the seconds a much slower one.

  8. An ISO and IUE study of planetary nebula NGC 2440

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salas, JB; Pottasch, [No Value; Feibelman, WA; Wesselius, PR

    2002-01-01

    The infrared and ultraviolet spectra of planetary nebula NGC2440 are presented. The observations were made by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). These data, in conjunction with published optical observations have been used to derive electron temper

  9. Local space density and formation rate of planetary nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value

    1996-01-01

    Individual distances of 50 nearby planetary nebulae are determined using a variety of methods, but excluding statistical methods or distance scales. These distances, together with a discussion of the sample completeness, are used to determine local PN formation rate. Together with the brightness of

  10. The central star of the Planetary Nebula NGC 6537

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    The fact that Space Telescope WFPC2 images of the planetary nebula NGC 6537 fail to show the central star is used to derive a limit to its magnitude: it is fainter than a magnitude of 22.4 in the visible. This is used to derive a lower limit to the temperature of the star. The Zanstra temperature is

  11. Photometry of the Stingray Nebula (V839 Ara) from 1889 TO 2015 across the Ionization of Its Planetary Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Edwards, Zachary I.

    2015-10-01

    Up until around 1980, the Stingray was an ordinary B1 post-AGB star, but then it suddenly sprouted bright emission lines like in a planetary nebula (PN), and soon after this the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) discovered a small PN around the star, so apparently we have caught a star in the act of ionizing a PN. We report here on a well-sampled light curve from 1889 to 2015, with unique coverage of the prior century plus the entire duration of the PN formation plus three decades of its aftermath. Surprisingly, the star anticipated the 1980s ionization event by declining from B = 10.30 in 1889 to B = 10.76 in 1980. Starting in 1980, the central star faded fast, at a rate of 0.20 mag year-1, reaching B = 14.64 in 1996. This fast fading is apparently caused by the central star shrinking in size. From 1994 to 2015, the V-band light curve is almost entirely from the flux of two bright [O iii] emission lines from the unresolved nebula, and it shows a consistent decline at a rate of 0.090 mag year-1. This steady fading (also seen in the radio and infrared) has a timescale equal to that expected for ordinary recombination within the nebula, immediately after a short-duration ionizing event in the 1980s. We are providing the first direct measure of the rapidly changing luminosity of the central star on both sides of a presumed thermal pulse in 1980, with this providing a strong and critical set of constraints, and these are found to sharply disagree with theoretical models of PN evolution.

  12. PHOTOMETRY OF THE STINGRAY NEBULA (V839 ARA) FROM 1889 TO 2015 ACROSS THE IONIZATION OF ITS PLANETARY NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Edwards, Zachary I. [Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Up until around 1980, the Stingray was an ordinary B1 post-AGB star, but then it suddenly sprouted bright emission lines like in a planetary nebula (PN), and soon after this the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) discovered a small PN around the star, so apparently we have caught a star in the act of ionizing a PN. We report here on a well-sampled light curve from 1889 to 2015, with unique coverage of the prior century plus the entire duration of the PN formation plus three decades of its aftermath. Surprisingly, the star anticipated the 1980s ionization event by declining from B = 10.30 in 1889 to B = 10.76 in 1980. Starting in 1980, the central star faded fast, at a rate of 0.20 mag year{sup −1}, reaching B = 14.64 in 1996. This fast fading is apparently caused by the central star shrinking in size. From 1994 to 2015, the V-band light curve is almost entirely from the flux of two bright [O iii] emission lines from the unresolved nebula, and it shows a consistent decline at a rate of 0.090 mag year{sup −1}. This steady fading (also seen in the radio and infrared) has a timescale equal to that expected for ordinary recombination within the nebula, immediately after a short-duration ionizing event in the 1980s. We are providing the first direct measure of the rapidly changing luminosity of the central star on both sides of a presumed thermal pulse in 1980, with this providing a strong and critical set of constraints, and these are found to sharply disagree with theoretical models of PN evolution.

  13. Observations and 3D Hydrodynamical models of planetary nebulae with Wolf Rayet type central stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechy-García, J. S.; Velázquez, P. F.; Peña, M.; Raga, A. C.

    2016-10-01

    We present high-resolution, long-slit spectroscopic observations of two planetary nebulae with [WC] central stars located near the galactic bulge, M 1-32 and M 3-15. The observations were obtained with the 2.1-m telescope at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, San Pedro Mártir. M 1-32 shows wide wings on the base of its emission lines and M 3-15 has two very faint high-velocity knots. In order to model both PNe we built a three-dimensional model consisting of a jet interacting with an equatorially concentrated slow wind, emulating the presence of a dense torus, using the Yguazú hydrodynamical code. From our hydrodynamical models, we obtained position-velocity (PV) diagrams in the [N II]λ6583 line for comparison with the observations. We find that the spectral characteristics of M 1-32 and M 3-15 can be explained with the same physical model -a jet moving inside an AGB wind- using different parameters (physical conditions and position angles of the jet). In agreement with our model and observations, these objects contain a dense torus seeing pole-on and a bipolar jet escaping thorough the poles. Then we propose to classify this kind of objects as spectroscopic bipolar nebulae, although they have been classified morphologically as compact, round, or elliptical nebulae or with "close collimated lobes".

  14. IC 4663: The first unambiguous [WN] Wolf-Rayet central star of a planetary nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, B; De Marco, O; Köppen, J; Moffat, A F J; Acker, A; Hillwig, T C

    2012-01-01

    We report on the serendipitous discovery of the first central star of a planetary nebula (PN) that mimics the helium- and nitrogen-rich WN sequence of massive Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. The central star of IC 4663 (PN G346.2-08.2) is dominated by broad He II and N V emission lines which correspond to a [WN3] spectral type. Unlike previous [WN] candidates, the surrounding nebula is unambiguously a PN. At an assumed distance of 3.5 kpc, corresponding to a stellar luminosity of 4000 Lsun, the V=16.9 mag central star remains 4-6 mag fainter than the average luminosity of massive WN3 stars even out to an improbable d=8 kpc. The nebula is typical of PNe with an elliptical morphology, a newly discovered Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) halo, a relatively low expansion velocity (v_exp=30 km/s) and a highly ionised spectrum with an approximately Solar chemical abundance pattern. The [WN3] star is hot enough to show Ne VII emission (T_*=140+/-20 kK) and exhibits a fast wind (v_infty=1900 km/s), which at d=3.5 kpc would yield ...

  15. Comparative study of a [WC 6] nucleus with other emission-lines nuclei of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Acker, A; Cuisinier, F

    1995-01-01

    The central star (CSPN) of the planetary nebula M 1-25 (PN G 4.9+4.9) is classified as a [WC 6] star, the only CSPN of this subclass known at this time. A comparison with the other emission-lines CSPN (the [WC]-class and the 'weak emission-lines stars' or {\\em wels}-class) shows that (1) the characteristics of this [WC 6] star fit well inside the main properties of the other [WC] CSPN ; (2) the [WC] CSPN seem to evolve from the [WC 8-11] (latter) to [WC 2-4] (earlier) subclasses, say from dense nebulae with cool stars to more extended nebulae with hot nuclei, as for other CSPN ; (3) on the two-colour IRAS diagram,the [WC] and the {\\em wels} CSPN form two different groups : the progenitors of the [WC]-type CSPN seem to be Carbon stars evolving along post-AGB tracks, whereas the {\\em wels} CSPN seem to be related to OH/IR stars, some of them having possibly experienced a late helium-flash.

  16. Mhd Solutions For Proto-Planetary Nebulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo García Segura

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo propone soluciones para el origen de los vientos de estrellas del tipo post-AGB, su aceleración hasta alta velocidad, y la subsecuente formación de nebulosas proto-planetarias altamente colimadas. Se calculan varios modelos de vientos con velocidades terminales desde algunas decenas de km s-1 hasta de 103 km s-1, los cuales producen nebulosas proto-planetarias con momentos lineales en el rango 1036 -1040 g cm s-1 y energías cinéticas en el rango 1042-1047 erg. Estos resultados concuerdan con las observaciones disponibles de nebulosas proto- planetarias. En el esquema simple que se plantea, la presión magnética en la superficie estelar es la única causa de los vientos. En este estudio no se tienen en cuenta otros tipos de fuerzas, excepto la gravedad. La conclusión del estudio es que, tanto las tasas de perdida de masa de las estrellas del tipo post-AGBs como los tiempos de transición entre las fases tardías de estrellas tipo AGB y estrellas centrales de nebulosas planetarias pueden estar directamente ligadas a la producción de campo magnético en los núcleos estelares. Como ejemplo, se predicen tasas de perdida de masa tan altas como 8 x 10-5 M๏ yr-1, y tiempos de transición tan cortos como 5,000 años.

  17. X-ray emission from Planetary Nebulae. I. Spherically symmetric numerical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Stute, M; Stute, Matthias; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2006-01-01

    (abridged) The interaction of a fast wind with a spherical Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) wind is thought to be the basic mechanism for shaping Pre-Planetary Nebulae (PPN) and later Planetary Nebulae (PN). Due to the large speed of the fast wind, one expects extended X-ray emission from these objects, but X-ray emission has only been detected in a small fraction of PNs and only in one PPN. Using numerical simulations we investigate the constraints that can be set on the physical properties of the fast wind (speed, mass-flux, opening angle) in order to produce the observed X-ray emission properties of PPNs and PNs. We combine numerical hydrodynamical simulations including radiative cooling using the code FLASH with calculations of the X-ray properties of the resulting expanding hot bubble using the atomic database ATOMDB. In this first study, we compute X-ray fluxes and spectra using one-dimensional models. Comparing our results with analytical solutions, we find some agreements and many disagreements. In parti...

  18. S-process enrichment in the planetary nebula NGC 3918. Results from deep echelle spectrophotometry

    CERN Document Server

    García-Rojas, J; Luridiana, V; Sterling, N C; Morisset, C; Delgado-Inglada, G; Cipriano, L Toribio San

    2015-01-01

    (Abridged) The chemical content of the planetary nebula NGC 3918 is investigated through deep, high-resolution UVES at VLT spectrophotometric data. We identify and measure more than 750 emission lines, making ours one of the deepest spectra ever taken for a planetary nebula. Among these lines we detect very faint lines of several neutron-capture elements (Se, Kr, Rb, and Xe), which enable us to compute their chemical abundances with unprecedented accuracy, thus constraining the efficiency of the s-process and convective dredge-up in the progenitor star of NGC 3918. We find that Kr is strongly enriched in NGC 3918 and that Se is less enriched than Kr, in agreement with the results of previous papers and with predicted s-process nucleosynthesis. We also find that Xe is not as enriched by the s-process in NGC 3918 as is Kr and, therefore, that neutron exposure is typical of modestly sub-solar metallicity AGB stars. A clear correlation is found when representing [Kr/O] vs. log(C/O) for NGC 3918 and other objects ...

  19. The Chandra planetary nebula survey (CHANPLANS). II. X-ray emission from compact planetary nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, M.; Kastner, J. H. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Montez, R. Jr. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Frew, D. J.; De Marco, O.; Parker, Q. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Macquarie Research Centre for Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Jones, D. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Atacama, Copayapu 485, Copiapó (Chile); Miszalski, B. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory, 7935 (South Africa); Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Blackman, E.; Frank, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Chu, Y.-H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Guerrero, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, Granada, E-18008 (Spain); Lopez, J. A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 22860, Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico); Zijlstra, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bujarrabal, V. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Corradi, R. L. M. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nordhaus, J. [NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Fellow, Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); and others

    2014-10-20

    We present results from the most recent set of observations obtained as part of the Chandra X-ray observatory Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS), the first comprehensive X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood (i.e., within ∼1.5 kpc of the Sun). The survey is designed to place constraints on the frequency of appearance and range of X-ray spectral characteristics of X-ray-emitting PN central stars and the evolutionary timescales of wind-shock-heated bubbles within PNe. CHANPLANS began with a combined Cycle 12 and archive Chandra survey of 35 PNe. CHANPLANS continued via a Chandra Cycle 14 Large Program which targeted all (24) remaining known compact (R {sub neb} ≲ 0.4 pc), young PNe that lie within ∼1.5 kpc. Results from these Cycle 14 observations include first-time X-ray detections of hot bubbles within NGC 1501, 3918, 6153, and 6369, and point sources in HbDs 1, NGC 6337, and Sp 1. The addition of the Cycle 14 results brings the overall CHANPLANS diffuse X-ray detection rate to ∼27% and the point source detection rate to ∼36%. It has become clearer that diffuse X-ray emission is associated with young (≲ 5 × 10{sup 3} yr), and likewise compact (R {sub neb} ≲ 0.15 pc), PNe with closed structures and high central electron densities (n{sub e} ≳ 1000 cm{sup –3}), and is rarely associated with PNe that show H{sub 2} emission and/or pronounced butterfly structures. Hb 5 is one such exception of a PN with a butterfly structure that hosts diffuse X-ray emission. Additionally, two of the five new diffuse X-ray detections (NGC 1501 and NGC 6369) host [WR]-type central stars, supporting the hypothesis that PNe with central stars of [WR]-type are likely to display diffuse X-ray emission.

  20. The dust envelope of the pre-planetary nebula IRAS19475+3119

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, G; Sahai, Raghvendra; Sarkar, Geetanjali

    2006-01-01

    We present the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the pre-planetary nebula, IRAS 19475+3119 (I19475), from the optical to the far-infrared. We identify emission features due to crystalline silicates in the ISO SWS spectra of the star. We have fitted the SED of I19475 using a 1-D radiative transfer code, and find that a shell with inner and outer radii of 8.8X10^{16} and 4.4X10^{17}cm, and dust temperatures ranging from about 94K to 46K provide the best fit. The mass of this shell is greater than/equal to 1[34cm^{2}g^{-1}/kappa(100micron)][delta/200]M_Sun, where kappa(100micron) is the 100micron dust mass absorption coefficient (per unit dust mass), and delta is the gas-to-dust ratio. In agreement with results from optical imaging and millimeter-wave observations of CO emission of I19475, our model fits support an r^{-3} density law for its dust shell, with important implications for the interaction process between the fast collimated post-AGB winds and the dense AGB envelopes which results in the observed ...

  1. A test for asymptotic giant branch evolution theories: Planetary Nebulae in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, P; Dell'Agli, F; García-Hernández, D A; Di Criscienzo, M

    2015-01-01

    We used a new generation of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stellar models that include dust formation in the stellar winds to find the links between evolutionary models and the observed properties of a homogeneous sample of Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) planetary nebulae (PNe). Comparison between the evolutionary yields of elements such as CNO and the corresponding observed chemical abundances is a powerful tool to shed light on evolutionary processes such as hot bottom burning (HBB) and third dredge-up (TDU). We found that the occurrence of HBB is needed to interpret the nitrogen-enriched (log(N/H)+12>8) PNe. In particular, N-rich PNe with the lowest carbon content are nicely reproduced by AGB models of mass M >=6 Mo, whose surface chemistry reflects the pure effects of HBB. PNe with log(N/H)+12<7.5 correspond to ejecta of stars that have not experienced HBB, with initial mass below about 3 Mo. Some of these stars show very large carbon abundances, owing to the many TDU episodes experienced. We found from o...

  2. An atlas of synthetic line profiles of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Morisset, C

    2008-01-01

    We have constructed a grid of photoionization models of spherical, elliptical and bipolar planetary nebulae. Assuming different velocity fields, we have computed line profiles corresponding to different orientations, slit sizes and positions. The atlas is meant both for didactic purposes and for the interpretation of data on real nebulae. As an application, we have shown that line profiles are often degenerate, and that recovering the geometry and velocity field from observations requires lines from ions with different masses and different ionization potentials. We have also shown that the empirical way to measure mass-weighted expansion velocities from observed line widths is reasonably accurate if considering the HWHM. For distant nebulae, entirely covered by the slit, the unknown geometry and orientation do not alter the measured velocities statistically. The atlas is freely accessible from internet. The Cloudy_3D suite and the associated VISNEB tool are available on request.

  3. Planetary Nebula Candidates Uncovered with the HASH Research Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Fragkou, Vasiliki; Frew, David; Parker, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    A detailed examination of new high quality radio catalogues (e.g. Cornish) in combination with available mid-infrared (MIR) satellite imagery (e.g. Glimpse) has allowed us to find 70 new planetary nebula (PN) candidates based on existing knowledge of their typical colors and fluxes. To further examine the nature of these sources, multiple diagnostic tools have been applied to these candidates based on published data and on available imagery in the HASH (Hong Kong/ AAO/ Strasbourg H{\\alpha} planetary nebula) research platform. Some candidates have previously-missed optical counterparts allowing for spectroscopic follow-up. Indeed, the single object spectroscopically observed so far has turned out to be a bona fide PN.

  4. Improved spectral descriptions of planetary nebulae central stars

    CERN Document Server

    Weidmann, Walter; Gamen, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Context. At least 492 central stars of Galactic planetary nebulae (CSPNs) have been assigned spectral types. Since many CSPNs are faint, these classification efforts are frequently made at low spectral resolution. However, the stellar Balmer absorption lines are contaminated with nebular emission; therefore in many cases a low-resolution spectrum does not enable the determination of the H abundance in the CSPN photosphere. Whether or not the photosphere is H deficient is arguably the most important fact we should expect to extract from the CSPN spectrum, and should be the basis for an adequate spectral classification system. Aims. Our purpose is to provide accurate spectral classifications and contribute to the knowledge of central stars of planetary nebulae and stellar evolution. Methods. We have obtained and studied higher quality spectra of CSPNs described in the literature as weak emission-line star (WELS). We provide descriptions of 19 CSPN spectra. These stars had been previously classified at low spect...

  5. Rings and arcs around evolved stars - I. Fingerprints of the last gasps in the formation process of planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Larios, G.; Santamaría, E.; Guerrero, M. A.; Marquez-Lugo, R. A.; Sabin, L.; Toalá, J. A.

    2016-10-01

    Evolved stars such as asymptotic giant branch stars (AGB), post-AGB stars, proto-planetary nebulae (proto-PNe), and planetary nebulae (PNe) show rings and arcs around them and their nebular shells. We have searched for these morphological features in optical Hubble Space Telescope and mid-infrared Spitzer Space Telescope images of ˜650 proto-PNe and PNe and discovered them in 29 new sources. Adding those to previous detections, we derive a frequency of occurrence ≃8 per cent. All images have been processed to remove the underlying envelope emission and enhance outer faint structures to investigate the spacing between rings and arcs and their number. The averaged time lapse between consecutive rings and arcs is estimated to be in the range 500-1200 yr. The spacing between them is found to be basically constant for each source, suggesting that the mechanism responsible for the formation of these structures in the final stages of evolved stars is stable during time periods of the order of the total duration of the ejection. In our sample, this period of time spans ≤4500 yr.

  6. Planetary nebulae as tracers of galaxy stellar populations

    OpenAIRE

    A. Buzzoni; Arnaboldi, M.; Corradi, R.L.M.

    2006-01-01

    We address the general problem of the luminosity-specific planetary nebula (PN) number, defined as alpha = N(PN)/L(gal), and its relationship with age and metallicity of the parent stellar population. Our analysis relies on population synthesis models for simple stellar populations and more elaborated galaxy models along the full star-formation range of the Hubble morphological sequence. This theoretical framework is compared with the updated census of the PN population in Local Group galaxie...

  7. Kinematic study of planetary nebulae in NGC 6822

    CERN Document Server

    Flores-Durán, S N; Hernández-Martínez, L; García-Rojas, J; Ruiz, M T

    2014-01-01

    By measuring precise radial velocities of planetary nebulae (which belong to the intermediate age population), H II regions, and A-type supergiant stars (which are members of the young population) in NGC 6822, we aim to determine if both types of population share the kinematics of the disk of H I found in this galaxy. Spectroscopic data for four planetary nebulae were obtained with the high spectral resolution spectrograph Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) on the Magellan telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Data for other three PNe and one H II region were obtained from the SPM Catalog of Extragalactic Planetary Nebulae which employed the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer attached to the 2.1m telescope at the Observatorio Astron\\'omico Nacional, M\\'exico. In the wavelength calibrated spectra, the heliocentric radial velocities were measured with a precision better than 5-6 km s$^{-1}$. Data for three additional H II regions and a couple of A-type supergiant stars were collected from the literature. The...

  8. Unusual Dust Emission from Planetary Nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard-Salas, J; Sloan, G C; Gutenkunst, S; Matsuura, M; Tielens, A G G M; Zijlstra, A A; Houck, J R

    2009-01-01

    We present a Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopic study of a sample of 25 planetary nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds. The low-resolution modules are used to analyze the dust features present in the infrared spectra. This study complements a previous work by the same authors where the same sample was analyzed in terms of neon and sulfur abundances. Over half of the objects (14) show emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, typical of carbon-rich dust environments. We compare the hydrocarbon emission in our objects to those of Galactic HII regions and planetary nebulae, and LMC/SMC HII regions. Amorphous silicates are seen in just two objects, enforcing the now well-known-fact that oxygen-rich dust is less common at low metallicities. Besides these common features, some planetary nebulae show very unusual dust. Nine objects show a strong silicon carbide feature at 11um and twelve of them show magnesium sulfide emission starting at 25um. The high percentage of spectra with silicon carbide in the Magellanic...

  9. Surprising detection of an equatorial dust lane on the AGB star IRC+10216

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeffers, S.V.; Min, M.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Canovas, H.; Pols, O.R.; Rodenhuis, M.; de Juan Ovelar, M.; Keller, C.U.; Decin, L.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. Understanding the formation of planetary nebulae remains elusive because in the preceding asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase these stars are heavily enshrouded in an optically thick dusty envelope. Methods. To further understand the morphology of the circumstellar environments of AGB stars we

  10. A Spectral Line Survey of 3mm wavelength window toward southern proto-planetary nebulae and planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Kwok, Sun; Strom, Allison

    2014-04-01

    The envelopes surrounding evolved stars are substantial sites for the synthesis of gaseous molecules and complex organic compounds. During the evolution of circumstellar envelopes from proto-planetary nebula (PPN) to planetary nebula (PN) stages, their physical conditions dramatically change. However, the connection between the variations in physical conditions and those in chemical compositions has never been comprehensively understood. Here we propose to carry out an unbiased molecular line survey of 3mm wavelength toward three southern PPNs and PPNs utilizing the Mopra telescopes. The sample targets are carefully selected base upon their intriguing appearance and existing CO observations. We aim to search for new molecular species and investigate the chemical processes in the short PPN-PN transition period. The molecular compositions of these objects will be compared to infer the reaction routines and timescales. Moreover, we are likely to detect circumstellar CF+ for the first times.

  11. A barium central star binary in the Type-I diamond ring planetary nebula Abell 70

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, B; Frew, D J; Acker, A; Köppen, J; Moffat, A F J; Parker, Q A

    2011-01-01

    Abell 70 (PN G038.1-25.4, hereafter A 70) is a planetary nebula (PN) known for its diamond ring appearance due a superposition with a background galaxy. The previously unstudied central star is found to be a binary consisting of a G8IV-V secondary at optical wavelengths and a hot white dwarf (WD) at UV wavelengths. The secondary shows Ba II and Sr II features enhanced for its spectral type that, combined with the chromospheric Halpha emission and possible 20-30 km/s radial velocity amplitude, firmly classifies the binary as a Barium star. The proposed origin of Barium stars is intimately linked to PNe whereby wind accretion pollutes the companion with dredged-up material rich in carbon and s-process elements when the primary is experiencing thermal pulses on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). A 70 provides further evidence for this scenario together with the other very few examples of Barium central stars. The nebula is found to have Type-I chemical abundances with helium and nitrogen enrichment, which when c...

  12. IC4663: the first unambiguous [WN] Wolf-Rayet central star of a planetary nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, Brent; De Marco, Orsola; Köppen, Joachim; Moffat, Anthony F J; Acker, Agnès; Hillwig, Todd C

    2012-01-01

    Several [WC]-type central stars of planetary nebulae (PNe) are known to mimic the spectroscopic appearance of massive carbon-rich or WC-type Wolf-Rayet stars. In stark contrast, no [WN]-type central stars have yet been identified as clear-cut analogues of the common nitrogen-rich or WN-type Wolf-Rayet stars. We have identified the [WN3] central star of IC4663 to be the first unambiguous example in PNe. The low luminosity nucleus and an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) halo surrounding the main nebula prove the bona-fide PN nature of IC4663. Model atmosphere analysis reveals the [WN3] star to have an exotic chemical composition of helium (95%), hydrogen (O(He), that exists in parallel to the carbon-rich [WC]->PG1159 sequence. This suggests a simpler mechanism, perhaps a binary merger, can better explain H-deficiency in PNe and potentially other H-deficient/He-rich stars. In this respect IC4663 is the best supported case for a possible merged binary central star of a PN.

  13. Compact Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Disk: Analysis of the Central Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno-Ibáñez, Manuel; Shaw, Richard A; Stanghellini, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    We have obtained multi-wavelength observations of compact Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) to probe post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) evolution from the onset of nebular ejection. We analyze new observations from HST to derive the masses and evolutionary status of their central stars (CSs) in order to better understand the relationship between the CS properties and those of the surrounding nebulae. We also compare this sample with others we obtained using the same technique in different metallicity environments: the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. We work with HST/WFC3 images of 51 targets obtained in a snapshot survey (GO-11657). The high spatial resolution of HST allows us to resolve these compact PNe and distinguish the CS emission from that of their surrounding PNe. The targets were imaged through the filters F200LP, F350LP, and F814W from which we derive Johnson V and I magnitudes. We derive CS bolometric luminosities and effective temperatures using the Zanstra technique, from a combination of HST p...

  14. The Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS): A Comprehensive Dusty Photoionization Model of NGC6781

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Ueta, Toshiya; van Hoof, Peter A. M.; Sahai, Raghvendra; Aleman, Isabel; Zijlstra, Albert A.; Chu, You-Hua; Villaver, Eva; Leal-Ferreira, Marcelo L.; Kastner, Joel; Szczerba, Ryszard; Exter, Katrina M.

    2017-08-01

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 6781 to investigate the physical conditions of each of its ionized, atomic, and molecular gas and dust components and the object’s evolution, based on panchromatic observational data ranging from UV to radio. Empirical nebular elemental abundances, compared with theoretical predictions via nucleosynthesis models of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, indicate that the progenitor is a solar-metallicity, 2.25{--}3.0 {M}⊙ initial-mass star. We derive the best-fit distance of 0.46 kpc by fitting the stellar luminosity (as a function of the distance and effective temperature of the central star) with the adopted post-AGB evolutionary tracks. Our excitation energy diagram analysis indicates high-excitation temperatures in the photodissociation region (PDR) beyond the ionized part of the nebula, suggesting extra heating by shock interactions between the slow AGB wind and the fast PN wind. Through iterative fitting using the Cloudy code with empirically derived constraints, we find the best-fit dusty photoionization model of the object that would inclusively reproduce all of the adopted panchromatic observational data. The estimated total gas mass (0.41 {M}⊙ ) corresponds to the mass ejected during the last AGB thermal pulse event predicted for a 2.5 {M}⊙ initial-mass star. A significant fraction of the total mass (about 70%) is found to exist in the PDR, demonstrating the critical importance of the PDR in PNe that are generally recognized as the hallmark of ionized/H+ regions. Herschel is an ESA Space Observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  15. Abundances in planetary nebulae: NGC 1535, NGC 6629, He2-108, and Tc1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Surendiranath, R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2011-07-01

    Context. Models have been made of stars of a given mass that produce planetary nebulae that usually begin on the AGB (although they may begin earlier) and run to the white dwarf stage. While these models cover the so-called dredge-up phases when nuclear reactions occur and the newly formed products are brought to the surface, it is important to compare the abundances predicted by the models with the abundances actually observed in PNe. Aims: The aim of the paper is to determine the abundances in a group of PNe with uniform morphological and kinematic properties. The PNe we discuss are circular with rather low-temperature central stars and are rather far from the galactic plane. We discuss the effect these abundances have on determining the evolution of the central stars of these PNe. Methods: The mid-infrared spectra of the planetary nebulae NGC 1535, NGC 6629, He2-108, and Tc1 (IC 1266) taken with the Spitzer Space Telescope are presented. These spectra were combined with the ultraviolet IUE spectra and with the spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain complete, extinction-corrected spectra. The chemical composition of these nebulae is then found by directly calculating and adding individual ion abundances. For two of these PNe, we attempted to reproduce the observed spectrum by making a model nebula. This proved impossible for one of the nebulae and the reason for this is discussed. The resulting abundances are more accurate than earlier studies for several reasons, the most important is that inclusion of the far infrared spectra increases the number of observed ions and makes it possible to include the nebular temperature gradient in the abundance calculations. Results: The abundances of the above four PNe have been determined and compared to the abundances found in five other PNe with similar properties studied earlier. These abundances are further compared with values predicted by the models of Karakas (2003). From this comparison we conclude that the

  16. H2 in low-ionization structures of planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akras, Stavros; Gonçalves, Denise R.; Ramos-Larios, Gerardo

    2017-02-01

    We report the detection of near-IR H2 emission from the low-ionization structures (knots) in two planetary nebulae. The deepest ever high-angular-resolution H2 (1-0) S(1) at 2.122 μm, H2 (2-1) S(1) at 2.248 μm and Brγ images of K 4-47 and NGC 7662, obtained using the Near InfraRed Imager and Spectrometer (NIRI) at Gemini-North, are analysed here. K 4-47 reveals a remarkable highly collimated bipolar structure not only in the optical but also in the molecular hydrogen emission. The H2 emission emanates from the walls of the bipolar outflows and also from the pair of knots at the tip of the outflows. The H2 (1-0) S(1)/(2-1) S(1) line ratio ranges from ˜7 to ˜10, suggesting the presence of shock interactions. Our findings can be explained by the interaction of a jet/bullet ejected from the central star with the surrounding asymptotic giant branch material. The strongest H2 line, (1-0) S(1), is also detected in several low-ionization knots located at the periphery of the elliptical planetary nebula NGC 7662, but only four of these knots are detected in the H2 (2-1) S(1) line. These four knots exhibit an H2 line ratio between 2 and 3.5, which suggests that the emission is caused by the UV ionizing flux of the central star. Our data confirm the presence of H2 gas in both fast- and slow-moving low-ionization knots, which has only been confirmed before in the nearby Helix nebula and Hu 1-2. Overall, the low-ionization structures of planetary nebulae are found to have similar traits to photodissociation regions.

  17. Precessing collimated outflows in the planetary nebula IC 4846

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, L F; Torrelles, J M; Miranda, Luis F; Guerrero, Martin A; Torrelles, Jose M

    2000-01-01

    We present [N II] and H-alpha images and high resolution long-slit spectra of the planetary nebula IC 4846, which reveal, for the first time, its complex structure and the existence of collimated outflows. The object consists of a moderately elongated shell, two (and probably three) pairs of collimated bipolar outflows at different orientations, and an attached circular shell. One of the collimated pairs is constituted by two curved, extended filaments whose properties indicate a high velocity, bipolar precessing jet. A difference of \\~10 km/s is found between the systemic velocity of the precessing jets and the centroid velocity of the nebula, as recently report for Hu 2-1. We propose that this difference is due to orbital motion of the ejection source in a binary central star. The orbital separation and period estimates for the binary star are less than or equal to 30 AU and 100 yr, respectively. These are similar to those previously estimated for Hu 2-1, linking the central stars of both planetary nebulae ...

  18. Weak magnetic fields in central stars of planetary nebulae?

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, M; Todt, H; Schöller, M; Hamann, W -R; Sandin, C; Schönberner, D

    2014-01-01

    It is not yet clear whether magnetic fields play an essential role in shaping planetary nebulae (PNe), or whether stellar rotation alone and/or a close binary companion can account for the variety of the observed nebular morphologies. In a quest for empirical evidence verifying or disproving the role of magnetic fields in shaping PNe, we follow up on previous attempts to measure the magnetic field in a representative sample of PN central stars. We obtained low-resolution polarimetric spectra with FORS 2 at VLT for a sample of twelve bright central stars of PNe with different morphology, including two round nebulae, seven elliptical nebulae, and three bipolar nebulae. Two targets are Wolf-Rayet type central stars. For the majority of the observed central stars, we do not find any significant evidence for the existence of surface magnetic fields. However, our measurements may indicate the presence of weak mean longitudinal magnetic fields of the order of 100 Gauss in the central star of the young elliptical pla...

  19. Interaction of planetary nebulae with the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Sarazin, Craig L.; Soker, Noam

    1990-01-01

    The interaction of a moving planetary nebula (PN) with the interstellar medium is considered. The PN shell is compressed first in the direction of the stellar motion. This produces a dipole asymmetry in the surface brightness of the nebula, typically at a nebular density of about 40/cu cm if the nebula is located in the Galactic plane. In the later stages of the interaction, this part of the shell is significantly decelerated with respect to the central star, and the PN becomes strongly asymmetric in shape. This distortion and the subsequent stripping of the nebular gas away from the central star typically occurs at a low nebular density of about 6/cu cm. The morphology of PNs with central stars whose proper motions exceed 0.015 arcsec/yr was examined, and it was found that many of the extended nebulae are interacting with the interstellar medium (ISM). The sample doubles the number of known PNs interacting with the ISM. The morphology of nearby PNs was examined, and a number of strongly asymmetric nebuale were found.

  20. XMM-Newton Detection of Hot Gas in Two Evolved Elliptical Planetary Nebulae: the Eskimo Nebula and the Ghost of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, M. A.; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R. A.; Meixner, M.

    2004-12-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) consist of the stellar material ejected by low- and intermediate-mass stars (1-8 M⊙) at the end of the asymptotic giant branch phase (AGB). As such a star evolves off the AGB phase, the copious mass-loss strips off the stellar envelope and exposes the hot stellar core that ionizes the nebular material. The central stars of PNe present fast stellar winds with terminal velocities 1000-4000 km s-1, while fast collimated outflows with velocities up to 1000 km s-1 are also observed in PNe. The interactions of the fast stellar wind and/or collimated outflows with nebular material can give rise to diffuse X-ray emission from PNe. Diffuse X-ray emission has been detected only in young PNe previously. To investigate the evolution of hot gas in PN interiors, we obtained XMM-Newton observations of NGC 2392 (the Eskimo Nebula) and NGC 3242 (the Ghost of Jupiter), two evolved elliptical PNe. Diffuse X-ray emission is detected in both nebulae. In both cases, the hot gas is confined within the innermost shell, the X-ray spectrum can be described by a thin plasma emission model with temperature ˜2×106 K, and the X-ray luminosity is ˜1×1031 ergs s-1. Furthermore, the X-ray spectrum of NGC 3242 shows evidence of enhanced nitrogen abundance, while the X-ray morphology of NGC 2392 hints a possible association with its fast collimated outflows.

  1. The filamentary Multi-Polar Planetary Nebula NGC 5189

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, L; López, J A; García-Díaz, Ma T; Ramos-Larios, G

    2012-01-01

    We present a set of optical and infrared images combined with long-slit, medium and high dispersion spectra of the southern planetary nebula (PN) NGC 5189. The complex morphology of this PN is puzzling and has not been studied in detail so far. Our investigation reveals the presence of a new dense and cold infrared torus (alongside the optical one) which probably generated one of the two optically seen bipolar outflows and which might be responsible for the twisted appearance of the optical torus via an interaction process. The high-resolution MES-AAT spectra clearly show the presence of filamentary and knotty structures as well as three expanding bubbles. Our findings therefore suggest that NGC 5189 is a quadrupolar nebula with multiple sets of symmetrical condensations in which the interaction of outflows has determined the complex morphology.

  2. Kinematic ages of central stars of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Maciel, W J; Costa, R D D

    2011-01-01

    The age distribution of the central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) is estimated using two methods based on their kinematic properties. First, the expected rotation velocities of the nebulae at their Galactocentric distances are compared with the predicted values for the rotation curve, and the differences are attributed to the different ages of the evolved stars. Adopting the relation between the ages and the velocity dispersions determined by the Geneva-Copenhagen survey, the age distribution can be derived. Second, the U, V, W, velocity components of the stars are determined, and the corresponding age-velocity dispersion relations are used to infer the age distribution. These methods have been applied to two samples of PN in the Galaxy. The results are similar for both samples, and show that the age distribution of the PN central stars concentrates in ages lower than 5 Gyr, peaking at about 1 to 3 Gyr.

  3. Spectrophotometry of Bowen resonance fluorescence lines in three planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, C. R.; Miller, Christopher O.

    1992-01-01

    The results are presented of a uniquely complete, carefully reduced set of observations of the O III Bowen fluorescence lines in the planetary nebulae NGC 6210, NGC 7027, and NGC 7662. A detailed comparison with the predictions of radiative excitation verify that some secondary lines are enhanced by selective population by the charge exchange mechanism involving O IV. Charge exchange is most important in NGC 6210, which is of significantly lower ionization than the other nebulae. In addition to the principal Bowen lines arising from Ly-alpha pumping of the O III O1 line, lines arising from pumping of the O3 line are also observed. Comparison of lines produced by O1 and O3 with the theoretical predictions of Neufeld indicate poor agreement; comparison with the theoretical predictions of Harrington show agreement with NGC 7027 and NGC 7662.

  4. THE FILAMENTARY MULTI-POLAR PLANETARY NEBULA NGC5189

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sabin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a set of optical and infrared images combined with long-slit, medium and high dispersion spectra of the southern planetary nebula (PN NGC5189. The complex morphology of this PN is puzzling and has not been studied in detailed so far. Our investigation reveals the presence of a new dense and cold infrared torus (alongside the optical one which probably generated one of the two optically seen bipolar outflows and which might be responsible for the twisted appearance of the optical torus via an interaction process. The high-resolution MES-AAT spectra clearly show the presence of filamentary and knotty structures as well as three expanding bubbles. Our findings therefore suggest that NGC5189 is a quadrupolar nebula with multiple sets of symmetrical condensations in which the interaction of outflows has determined its complex morphology.

  5. A second post-AGB nebula that contains gas in rotation and in expansion: ALMA maps of IW Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarrabal, V.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Alcolea, J.; Van Winckel, H.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Santander-García, M.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We aim to study the presence of both rotation and expansion in post-AGB nebulae, in particular around IW Car, a binary post-AGB star that was suspected to be surrounded by a Keplerian disk. Methods: We obtained high-quality ALMA observations of 12CO and 13CO J = 3-2 lines in IW Car. The maps were analyzed by means of a simplified model of CO emission, based on those used for similar objects. Results: Our observations clearly show the presence of gas components in rotation, in an equatorial disk, and expansion, which shows an hourglass-like structure with a symmetry axis perpendicular to the rotation plane and is probably formed of material extracted from the disk. Our modeling can reproduce the observations and shows moderate uncertainties. The rotation velocity corresponds to a central stellar mass of approximately 1 M⊙. We also derive the total mass of the molecule-rich nebula, found to be of 4 × 10-3M⊙; the outflow is approximately eight times less massive than the disk. From the kinematical age of the outflow and the mass values derived for both components, we infer a (future) lifetime of the disk of approximately 5000-10 000 yr.

  6. Discovery of new planetary nebulae in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Drašković, Danica; Reid, Warren A; Stupar, Milorad

    2016-01-01

    We present six new planetary nebulae (PNe) discovered in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) from deep UK Schmidt telescope (UKST) narrow band Halpha and broad-band short-red "SR" continuum images and confirmed spectroscopically. These 6 preliminary discoveries provide a 6% increase to the previously known SMC PN population of ~100. Once spectroscopic follow-up of all our newly identified candidates is complete, we expect to increase the total number of known SMC PNe by up to 50%. This will permit a significant improvement to determination of the SMC PN luminosity function (PNLF) and enable further insights into the chemical evolution and kinematics of the SMC PN population.

  7. Kinematical Properties of Planetary Nebulae with WR-type Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Danehkar, Ashkbiz; Parker, Quentin A

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out integral field unit (IFU) spectroscopy of H$\\alpha$, [N II] and [O III] emission lines for a sample of Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) with Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars and weak emission-line stars (wels). Comparing their spatially-resolved kinematic observations with morpho-kinematic models allowed us to disentangle their three-dimensional gaseous structures. Our results indicate that these PNe have axisymmetric morphologies, either bipolar or elliptical. In many cases the associated kinematic maps for the PNe around hot central stars also reveal the presence of so-called fast low-ionization emission regions.

  8. Planetary nebulae and the chemical evolution of the galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, R D D; Maciel, W J; Costa, Roberto D.D.; Escudero, Andre V.; Maciel, Walter J.

    2005-01-01

    Electron temperatures, densities, ionic and elemental abundances of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, sulfur and neon were derived for a sample of bulge planetary nebulae, representative of its intermediate mass population. Using these results as constraints, a model for the chemical evolution of the galactic bulge was developed. The results indicate that the best fit is achieved using a double-infall model, where the first one is a fast collapse of primordial gas and the second is slower and enriched by material ejected by the bulge itself during the first episode.

  9. Planetary nebulae as tracers of galaxy stellar populations

    CERN Document Server

    Buzzoni, A; Corradi, R L M

    2006-01-01

    We address the general problem of the luminosity-specific planetary nebula (PN) number, defined as alpha = N(PN)/L(gal), and its relationship with age and metallicity of the parent stellar population. Our analysis relies on population synthesis models for simple stellar populations and more elaborated galaxy models along the full star-formation range of the Hubble morphological sequence. This theoretical framework is compared with the updated census of the PN population in Local Group galaxies and external ellipticals in the Leo group, and the Virgo and Fornax clusters.

  10. A Mid-IR Search for Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the dearth of relatively faint, compact planetary nebulae (PNe) in uncrowded fields that could serve as potential spectral calibration sources for the Euclid Mission, we have conducted a search for PNe at high Galactic latitudes based on WISE data. Previous studies have largely focused on the Galactic Plane or searched for mid-IR counterparts to optically selected PNe. We instead identify the WISE mid-IR color locus of PNe and investigate the cataloged sources fulfilling these color criteria. We will present preliminary results from this study, including new PNe candidates.

  11. Kinematic properties of early-type galaxy haloes using planetary nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coccato, L.; Gerhard, O.; Arnaboldi, M.; Das, P.; Douglas, N. G.; Kuijken, K.; Merrifield, M. R.; Napolitano, N. R.; Noordermeer, E.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Capaccioli, M.; Cortesi, A.; De Lorenzi, F.; Freeman, K. C.

    2009-01-01

    We present new planetary nebulae (PNe) positions, radial velocities and magnitudes for six early-type galaxies obtained with the Planetary Nebulae Spectrograph (PNS), along with derived two-dimensional velocity and velocity dispersion fields, and the alpha parameters (i.e. the number of PNe per unit

  12. Bright Planetary Nebulae and their Progenitors in Galaxies Without Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, Michael G

    2008-01-01

    We present chemical abundances for planetary nebulae in M32, NGC 185, and NGC 205 based upon spectroscopy obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope using the Multi-Object Spectrograph. From these and similar data compiled from the literature for other Local Group galaxies, we consider the origin and evolution of the stellar progenitors of bright planetary nebulae in galaxies where star formation ceased long ago. The ratio of neon to oxygen abundances in bright planetary nebulae is either identical to that measured in the interstellar medium of star-forming dwarf galaxies or at most changed by a few percent, indicating that neither abundance is significantly altered as a result of the evolution of their stellar progenitors. Several planetary nebulae appear to have dredged up oxygen, but these are the exception, not the rule. The progenitors of bright planetary nebulae typically enhance their original helium abundances by less than 50%. In contrast, nitrogen enhancements can reach factors of 100. However, ...

  13. Bayesian posterior classification of planetary nebulae according to the Peimbert types

    CERN Document Server

    Quireza, C; Maciel, W J

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a re-analysis of the criteria used to characterize the Peimbert classes I, IIa, IIb, III and IV, through a statistical study of a large sample of planetary nebulae previously classified according to these groups. In the original classification, it is usual to find planetary nebulae that cannot be associated with a single type; these most likely have dubious classifications into two or three types. Statistical methods can greatly contribute in providing a better characterization of planetary nebulae groups. We use the Bayes Theorem to calculate the posterior probabilities for an object to be member of each of the types I, IIa, IIb, III and IV. This calculation is particularly important for planetary nebulae that are ambiguously classified in the traditional method. The posterior probabilities are defined from the probability density function of classificatory parameters of a well-defined sample, composed only by planetary nebulae unambiguously fitted into the Peimbert types. Because th...

  14. Chemical Abundances and Dust in Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Gutenkunst, S; Pottasch, S R; Sloan, G C; Houck, J R

    2008-01-01

    We present mid-infrared Spitzer spectra of eleven planetary nebulae in the Galactic Bulge. We derive argon, neon, sulfur, and oxygen abundances for them using mainly infrared line fluxes combined with some optical line fluxes from the literature. Due to the high extinction toward the Bulge, the infrared spectra allow us to determine abundances for certain elements more accurately that previously possible with optical data alone. Abundances of argon and sulfur (and in most cases neon and oxygen) in planetary nebulae in the Bulge give the abundances of the interstellar medium at the time their progenitor stars formed; thus these abundances give information about the formation and evolution of the Bulge. The abundances of Bulge planetary nebulae tend to be slightly higher than those in the Disk on average, but they do not follow the trend of the Disk planetary nebulae, thus confirming the difference between Bulge and Disk evolution. Additionally, the Bulge planetary nebulae show peculiar dust properties compared...

  15. Planetary nebulae with emission-line central stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gesicki, K; Acker, A; Gorny, S K; Gozdziewski, K; Walsh, J R

    2005-01-01

    The kinematic structure of a sample of planetary nebulae, consisting of 23 [WR] central stars, 21 weak emission line stars (wels) and 57 non-emission line central stars, is studied. The [WR] stars are shown to be surrounded by turbulent nebulae, a characteristic shared by some wels but almost completely absent from the non-emission line stars. The fraction of objects showing turbulence for non-emission-line stars, wels and [WR] stars is 7%, 24% and 91%, respectively. The [WR] stars show a distinct IRAS 12-micron excess, indicative of small dust grains, which is not found for wels. The [WR]-star nebulae are on average more centrally condensed than those of other stars. On the age-temperature diagram, the wels are located on tracks of both high and low stellar mass, while [WR] stars trace a narrow range of intermediate masses. Emission-line stars are not found on the cooling track. One group of wels may form a sequence wels--[WO] stars with increasing temperature. For the other groups both the wels and the [WR]...

  16. THE FIRST ''WATER FOUNTAIN'' COLLIMATED OUTFLOW IN A PLANETARY NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, José F.; Miranda, Luis F.; Guerrero, Martín A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Suárez, Olga; Bendjoya, Philippe; Lagadec, Eric [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR 7293, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, F-06304 Nice (France); Rizzo, J. Ricardo; García-García, Enrique [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Ctra. M-108, km. 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz (Spain); Green, James A. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Uscanga, Lucero [Institute of Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, 15236 Athens (Greece); Ramos-Larios, Gerardo [Instituto de Astronomía y Meteorología, Av. Vallarta No. 2602, Col. Arcos Vallarta, C.P. 44130 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2015-02-01

    ''Water fountains'' (WFs) are evolved objects showing high-velocity, collimated jets traced by water maser emission. Most of them are in the post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) and they may represent one of the first manifestations of collimated mass loss in evolved stars. We present water maser, carbon monoxide, and mid-infrared spectroscopic data (obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, Herschel Space Observatory, and the Very Large Telescope, respectively) toward IRAS 15103–5754, a possible planetary nebula (PN) with WF characteristics. Carbon monoxide observations show that IRAS 15103–5754 is an evolved object, while the mid-IR spectrum displays unambiguous [Ne II] emission, indicating that photoionization has started and thus, its nature as a PN is confirmed. Water maser spectra show several components spreading over a large velocity range (≅ 75 km s{sup –1}) and tracing a collimated jet. This indicates that the object is a WF, the first WF known that has already entered the PN phase. However, the spatial and kinematical distribution of the maser emission in this object are significantly different from those in other WFs. Moreover, the velocity distribution of the maser emission shows a ''Hubble-like'' flow (higher velocities at larger distances from the central star), consistent with a short-lived, explosive mass-loss event. This velocity pattern is not seen in other WFs (which are presumably in earlier evolutionary stages). We therefore suggest that we are witnessing a fundamental change of mass-loss processes in WFs, with water masers being pumped by steady jets in post-AGB stars, but tracing explosive/ballistic events as the object enters the PN phase.

  17. Molecular Hydrogen in the Ionized Region of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Aleman, I

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the concentration of the hydrogen molecule inside the ionized region of planetary nebulae. The equations corresponding to the ionization and chemical equilibria of H, H+, H-, H2, H2+, and H3+ are coupled with the equations of ionization and thermal balance for a photoionized atomic gas. Forty different reactions related to the formation or the destruction of these species are included. The presence of dust is taken into account, since grains act as catalysts for the production of H2, as well as shield the molecules against the stellar ionizing radiation. We analyze the effect of the stellar ionizing continuum, as well as of the gas and grain properties on the calculated H2 mass. It is shown that a significant concentration of H2 can survive inside the ionized region of planetary nebulae, mostly in the inner region of the recombination zone. The total H2 to total hydrogen mass ratio inside the ionized region increases with the central star temperature, and, depending on the P...

  18. Low-excitation atomic gas around evolved stars I. ISO observations of C-rich nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fong, D; Meixner, M; Castro-Carrizo, A; Bujarrabal, [No Value; Latter, WB; Tielens, AGGM; Kelly, DM; Sutton, EC

    2001-01-01

    We present ISO LWS and SWS spectra of far-infrared (FIR) atomic fine structure lines in 12 carbon-rich evolved stars including asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe) and planetary nebulae (PNe). The spectra include grating and Fabry-Perot measurements of the line emissio

  19. Low-excitation atomic gas around evolved stars II. ISO observations of O-rich nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Carrizo, A; Bujarrabal, [No Value; Fong, D; Meixner, M; Tielens, AGGM; Latter, WB; Barlow, MJ

    2001-01-01

    We have observed atomic fine-structure lines in the far-infrared (FIR) from 12 oxygen-rich evolved stars. The sample is composed of mostly proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe) and some planetary nebulae (PNe) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. ISO LWS and SWS observations of [O I]. [C II], [N II], [

  20. The Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (ChanPlaNS). II. X-ray Emission from Compact Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, M; Montez, R; Balick, B; Frew, D J; Jones, D; Miszalski, B; Sahai, R; Blackman, E; Chu, Y -H; De Marco, O; Frank, A; Guerrero, M A; Lopez, J A; Zijlstra, A; Bujarrabal, V; Corradi, R L M; Nordhaus, J; Parker, Q A; Sandin, C; Schönberner, D; Soker, N; Sokoloski, J L; Steffen, M; Toalá, J A; Ueta, T; Villaver, E

    2014-01-01

    We present results from the most recent set of observations obtained as part of the Chandra X-ray observatory Planetary Nebula Survey (ChanPlaNS), the first comprehensive X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood (i.e., within ~1.5 kpc of the Sun). The survey is designed to place constraints on the frequency of appearance and range of X-ray spectral characteristics of X-ray-emitting PN central stars and the evolutionary timescales of wind-shock-heated bubbles within PNe. ChanPlaNS began with a combined Cycle 12 and archive Chandra survey of 35 PNe. ChanPlaNS continued via a Chandra Cycle 14 Large Program which targeted all (24) remaining known compact (R_neb ~1000 cm^-3), and rarely associated with PNe that show H_2 emission and/or pronounced butterfly structures. Hb 5 is one such exception of a PN with a butterfly structure that hosts diffuse X-ray emission. Additionally, of the five new diffuse X-ray detections, two host [WR]-type CSPNe, NGC 1501 and NGC 6369, supporting the hypothes...

  1. Establishing the Synthetic Contingencies for Life: Following the Carbon from AGB Stars to Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziurys, L. M.; Halfen, D. T.; Woolf, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    The biochemistry of living systems is remarkably selective, utilizing certain chemical compounds and not other, closely related molecules. This selectivity might be a result of interstellar chemistry. Organic synthesis in space is remarkably active. It begins with the carbon-rich chemistry of circumstellar envelopes, which appears to survive in part as these objects evolve into planetary nebula and then into diffuse clouds. Diffuse clouds subsequently collapse into dense clouds, carrying along the chemical imprint of previous syntheses. This cycling of molecular gas provides dense clouds with C-rich starting material, which accelerates organic chemistry in these objects. The low temperature environment of interstellar space restricts available chemical pathways, resulting in molecule formation that is non-combinatorial. Comets, meteorites, and perhaps interplanetary dust particles then bring these select organic compounds to planetary surfaces. Thus, the â??synthetic contingenciesâ?? that led to life on Earth may have been established by interstellar chemistry.

  2. Optical spectra of radio planetary nebulae in the large Magellanic Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present 11 spectra from 12 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. Originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA LMC surveys at 1.4, 4.8 and 8.64 GHz and confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3 cm (4' /2' , these complement data recently presented for candidate radio PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. Their spectra were obtained using the Radcliff 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland (South Africa. All of the optical PNe and radio candidates are within 2' and may represent a population of selected radio bright sample only. Nebular ionized masses of these objects are estimated to be as high as 1.8 Mfi, supporting the idea that massive PNe progenitor central stars lose much of their mass in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB phase or prior. We also identify a sub-population (33% of radio PNe candidates with prominent ionized iron emission lines.

  3. Optical Spectra of Radio Planetary Nebulae in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We present 11 spectra from 12 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. Originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA LMC surveys at 1.4, 4.8 and 8.64~GHz and confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3~cm (4arcsec/2arcsec, these complement data recently presented for candidate radio PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. Their spectra were obtained using the Radcliffe 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland (South Africa. All of the optical PNe and radio candidates are within 2arcsec and may represent a population of selected radio bright sample only. Nebular ionized masses of these objects are estimated to be as high as 1.8~$M_odot$, supporting the idea that massive PNe progenitor central stars lose much of their mass in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB phase or prior. We also identify a sub-population (33\\% of radio PNe candidates with prominent ionized iron emission lines.

  4. A Large-Scale Survey of Neutron-Capture Element Abundances in Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, N C; Kallman, T R

    2007-01-01

    We present results from the first large-scale survey of neutron(n)-capture element abundances in planetary nebulae (PNe). This survey was motivated by the fact that a PN may be enriched in n-capture elements if its progenitor star experienced s-process nucleosynthesis during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. [Kr III] 2.199 and/or [Se IV] 2.287 $\\mu$m were detected in 81 PNe out of 120 PNe, for a detection rate of nearly 70%. We derive Se and Kr abundances or upper limits using ionization correction factors derived from photoionization models. A significant range is found in the Se and Kr abundances, from near solar (no enrichment), to enriched by a factor of ten. Our survey has increased the number of PNe with known n-capture element abundances by an order of magnitude, enabling us to explore correlations between s-process enrichments and other nebular and central star properties. In particular, the Se and Kr enrichments display a positive correlation with nebular C/O ratios, as theoretically expected....

  5. The iron abundance in hot central stars of planetary nebulae derived from IUE spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Deetjen, J L; Rauch, T; Werner, K

    1999-01-01

    We present the first attempt to determine the iron abundance in hot central stars of planetary nebulae. We perform an analysis with fully metal-line blanketed NLTE model atmospheres for a sample of ten stars (T_eff >= 70.000 K) for which high-resolution UV spectra are available from the IUE archive. In all cases lines of Fe VI or Fe VII can be identified. As a general trend, the iron abundance appears to be subsolar by 0.5-1 dex, however, the S/N of the IUE spectra is not sufficient to exclude a solar abundance in any specific case. Improved spectroscopy by either FUSE or HST is necessary to verify the possibility of a general iron deficiency in central stars. The suspected deficiency may be the result of gravitational settling in the case of three high-gravity objects. For the other stars with low gravity and high luminosity dust fractionation during the previous AGB phase is a conceivable origin.

  6. Far-UV Spectroscopic Analyses of Four Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Herald, J E

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the Far-UV/UV spectra of four central stars of planetary nebulae with strong wind features -- NGC 2371, Abell 78, IC 4776 and NGC 1535, and derive their photospheric and wind parameters by modeling high-resolution FUSE (Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer) data in the Far-UV and HST-STIS and IUE data in the UV with spherical non-LTE line-blanketed model atmospheres. Abell 78 is a hydrogen-deficient transitional [WR]-PG 1159 object, and we find NGC 2371 to be in the same stage, both migrating from the constant-luminosity phase to the white dwarf cooling sequence with Teff ~= 120 kK, Mdot ~= 5x10^-8 Msun/yr. NGC 1535 is a ``hydrogen-rich'' O(H) CSPN, and the exact nature of IC 4776 is ambiguous, although it appears to be helium burning. Both objects lie on the constant-luminosity branch of post-AGB evolution and have Teff ~= 65 kK, Mdot ~= 1x10^-8 Msun/yr. Thus, both the H-rich and H-deficient channels of PN evolution are represented in our sample. We also investigate the effects of including high...

  7. Observations and 3D Hydrodynamical models of planetary nebulae with Wolf Rayet type central stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rechy-García, J S; Peña, M; Raga, A C

    2016-01-01

    We present high-resolution, long-slit spectroscopic observations of two planetary nebulae with [WC] central stars located near the galactic bulge, M 1-32 and M 3-15. The observations were obtained with the 2.1-m telescope at the Observatorio Astron\\'omico Nacional, San Pedro M\\'artir. M 1-32 shows wide wings on the base of its emission lines and M 3-15 has two very faint high-velocity knots. In order to model both PNe we built a three-dimensional model consisting of a jet interacting with an equatorially concentrated slow wind, emulating the presence of a dense torus, using the Yguaz\\'u hydrodynamical code. From our hydrodynamical models, we obtained position-velocity (PV) diagrams in the [N II]$\\lambda$6583 line for comparison with the observations. We find that the spectral characteristics of M 1-32 and M 3-15 can be explained with the same physical model -a jet moving inside an AGB wind- using different parameters (physical conditions and position angles of the jet). In agreement with our model and observa...

  8. A search for hydrogenated fullerenes in fullerene-containing planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Luis, J J; Manchado, A; Cataldo, F

    2016-01-01

    Detections of C60 and C70 fullerenes in planetary nebulae (PNe) of the Magellanic Clouds and of our own Galaxy have raised the idea that other forms of carbon such as hydrogenated fullerenes (fulleranes like C60H36 and C60H18), buckyonions, and carbon nanotubes, may be widespread in the Universe. Here we present VLT/ISAAC spectra (R ~600) in the 2.9-4.1 microns spectral region for the Galactic PNe Tc 1 and M 1-20, which have been used to search for fullerene-based molecules in their fullerene-rich circumstellar environments. We report the non-detection of the most intense infrared bands of several fulleranes around ~3.4-3.6 microns in both PNe. We conclude that if fulleranes are present in the fullerene-containing circumstellar environments of these PNe, then they seem to be by far less abundant than C60 and C70. Our non-detections together with the (tentative) fulleranes detection in the proto-PN IRAS 01005+7910 suggest that fulleranes may be formed in the short transition phase between AGB stars and PNe but...

  9. The double-degenerate, super-Chandrasekhar nucleus of the planetary nebula Henize 2-428

    CERN Document Server

    Santander-García, M; Corradi, R L M; Jones, D; Miszalski, B; Boffin, H M J; Rubio-Díez, M M; Kotze, M M

    2016-01-01

    The planetary nebula (PN) stage is the ultimate fate of stars with mass 1 to 8 solar masses (M$_\\odot$). The origin of their complex morphologies is poorly understood, although several mechanisms involving binary interaction have been proposed. In close binary systems, the orbital separation is short enough for the primary star to overfill its Roche lobe as it expands during the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) phase. The excess material ends up forming a common-envelope (CE) surrounding both stars. Drag forces would then result in the envelope being ejected into a bipolar PN whose equator is coincident with the orbital plane of the system. Systems in which both stars have ejected their envelopes and evolve towards the white dwarf (WD) stage are called double-degenerates. Here we report that Henize 2-428 has a double-degenerate core with a combined mass unambiguously above the Chandrasekhar limit of 1.4 M$_\\odot$. According to its short orbital period (4.2 hours) and total mass (1.76 M$_\\odot$), the system shoul...

  10. SBS 1150+599A an extremely oxygen-poor planetary nebula in the Galactic halo?

    CERN Document Server

    Tovmassian, G H; Chavushyan, V H; Zharikov, S V; Gutíerrez, C; Prada, F

    2001-01-01

    We report results of a spectrophotometric study of SBS 1150+599A and discuss the nature of this object based upon our data. Our study shows that SBS 1150+599A is most probably a planetary nebula located in the Galactic halo and not a cataclysmic variable as originally proposed by the authors of the Second Byurakan Survey from low resolution spectroscopy. We have further elaborated on the properties of SBS 1150+599A (now becoming PN G135.9+55.9) with tools used for planetary nebula analysis. Our photoionization models show that, in order to match the observational constraints, the oxygen abundance in the nebula is probably extremely low, around 1/500 solar, which is one order of magnitude lower than the most oxygen-poor planetary nebulae known so far. This finding has strong implications on our understanding of the formation of planetary nebulae and of the evolution of the Galactic halo.

  11. Breaking news from the HST: The central star of the Stingray Nebula is now returning towards the AGB

    CERN Document Server

    Reindl, N; Bertolami, M M Miller; Todt, H; Werner, K

    2016-01-01

    SAO244567 is a rare example of a star that allows us to witness stellar evolution in real time. Between 1971 and 1990 it changed from a B-type star into the hot central star of the Stingray Nebula. This observed rapid heating has been a mystery for decades, since it is in strong contradiction with the low mass of the star and canonical post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) evolution. We speculated that SAO244567 might have suffered from a late thermal pulse (LTP) and obtained new observations with HST/COS to follow the evolution of the surface properties of SAO244567 and to verify the LTP hypothesis. Our non-LTE spectral analysis reveals that the star cooled significantly since 2002 and that its envelope is now expanding. Therefore, we conclude that SAO244567 is currently on its way back towards the AGB, which strongly supports the LTP hypothesis. A comparison with state-of-the-art LTP evolutionary calculations shows that these models cannot fully reproduce the evolution of all surface parameters simultaneously,...

  12. Breaking news from the HST: the central star of the Stingray Nebula is now returning towards the AGB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindl, Nicole; Rauch, T.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Todt, H.; Werner, K.

    2017-01-01

    SAO 244567 is a rare example of a star that allows us to witness stellar evolution in real time. Between 1971 and 1990, it changed from a B-type star into the hot central star of the Stingray Nebula. This observed rapid heating has been a mystery for decades, since it is in strong contradiction with the low mass of the star and canonical post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) evolution. We speculated that SAO 244567 might have suffered from a late thermal pulse (LTP) and obtained new observations with Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/COS to follow the evolution of the surface properties of SAO 244567 and to verify the LTP hypothesis. Our non-LTE spectral analysis reveals that the star cooled significantly since 2002 and that its envelope is now expanding. Therefore, we conclude that SAO 244567 is currently on its way back towards the AGB, which strongly supports the LTP hypothesis. A comparison with state-of-the-art LTP evolutionary calculations shows that these models cannot fully reproduce the evolution of all surface parameters simultaneously, pointing out possible shortcomings of stellar evolution models. Thereby, SAO 244567 keeps on challenging stellar evolution theory and we highly encourage further investigations.

  13. The influence of binarity on dust obscuration events in the planetary nebula M 2-29 and its analogues

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, B; Köppen, J; Rauch, T; Acker, A; Cohen, M; Frew, D J; Moffat, A F J; Parker, Q A; Jones, A F; Udalski, A

    2011-01-01

    The central star of the planetary nebula (CSPN) M 2-29 shows an extraordinary R Coronae Borealis-like fading event in its optical lightcurve. The only other CSPN to show these events are CPD-568032 (Hen 3-1333) and V651 Mon (NGC 2346). Dust cloud formation in the line of sight appears responsible but the exact triggering mechanism is not well understood. Understanding how planetary nebulae (PNe) trigger dust obscuration events may help understand the same process in a wide range of objects including Population-I WC9 stars, symbiotic stars and perhaps Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars with long secondary periods (LSPs). A binary scenario involving an eccentric, wide companion that triggers dust formation via interaction at periastron is a potential explanation that has been suggested for LSP variables. Model fits to the lightcurves of CPD-568032 and M 2-29 show the dust forms in excess of 70 AU at the inner edge of a dust disk. In the case of CPD-568032 this radius is far too large to coincide with a binary ...

  14. An ISO and IUE Study of Planetary Nebula NGC 2440

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, J. Bernard; Pottasch, S. R.; Feibelman, W. A.; Wesselius, P. R.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The infrared and ultraviolet spectra of planetary nebula NGC 2440 is presented. The observations were made respectively by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) These data, in conjunction with published optical observations have been used to derive electron temperature and density. A trend of electron temperature with ionization potential is found. In particular the electron temperature increases from 11000 to 18000 K with increasing IBM. The electron density has a constant value of 4500/cu cm in agreement with previous determination. The chemical abundance has been derived for the following elements; helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulfur and argon. The ionization correction factor turns out to be very small (almost unnecessary) for all species except sulfur.

  15. Formation of fullerenes in H-containing Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Hernandez, D A; Garcia-Lario, P; Stanghellini, L; Villaver, E; Shaw, R A; Szczerba, R; Perea-Calderon, J V

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen depleted environments are considered an essential requirement for the formation of fullerenes. The recent detection of C60 and C70 fullerenes in what was incorrectly interpreted as a hydrogen-poor Planetary Nebula (PN) seemed to confirm this picture. Here, we present strong evidence that challenges the current paradigm regarding fullerene formation, showing that it can take place in circumstellar environments containing hydrogen. We report the simultaneous detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and fullerenes towards C-rich and H-containing PNe belonging to environments with very different chemical histories such as our own Galaxy and the Small Magellanic Cloud. We suggest that PAHs and fullerenes may be formed by the photochemical processing of hydrogenated amorphous carbon. These observations have profound implications on our current understanding of the chemistry of large organic molecules as well as the chemical processing in space.

  16. Galactic kinematics of planetary nebulae with [WC] central star

    CERN Document Server

    Peña, Miriam; García-Rojas, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    High resolution spectra are used to analyze the galactic kinematics and distribution of a sample of planetary nebulae with [WR] and 'wel' central star ([WR]PN and WLPN). The circular and peculiar velocities (Vpec) of the objects were derived. The results are: a) [WR]PNe are distributed mainly in the galactic disk and they are more concentrated in a thinner disk than WLPNe and normal PNe, which corresponds to a younger population; b) the sample was separated in Peimbert's types, and it is found that Type I PNe have Vpec <50 km s-1, indicating young objects. Most of the [WR]PNe are of Type II showing Vpec <60 km s-1, although a small percentage is of Type III, with larger Vpec showing that the Wolf-Rayet phenomenon in central stars can occur at any stellar mass and in old objects. None of our WLPNe is Type I. Thus, [WR]PNe and WLPNe are unrelated objects.

  17. Discovery of planetary nebulae using predictive mid-infrared diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Quentin A; Stupar, Milorad; Frew, David J; Green, Anne J; Bojicic, Ivan; Guzman-Ramirez, Lizette; Sabin, Laurence; Vogt, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a newly developed mid-infrared planetary nebula (PN) selection technique. It is designed to enable efficient searches for obscured, previously unknown, PN candidates present in the photometric source catalogues of Galactic plane MIR sky surveys. Such selection is now possible via new, sensitive, high-to-medium resolution, MIR satellite surveys such as those from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the all-sky Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) satellite missions. MIR selection is based on how different colour-colour planes isolate zones (sometimes overlapping) that are predominately occupied by different astrophysical object types. These techniques depend on the reliability of the available MIR source photometry. In this pilot study we concentrate on MIR point source detections and show that it is dangerous to take the MIR GLIMPSE (Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire) photometry from Spitzer for each candidate at face value without examining the actual MIR image data. A...

  18. THE LATEST ERUPTION OF PLANETARY NEBULA IC 2165

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bohigas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Open slit high dispersion spectroscopic observations of the inner region of planetary nebula (PN IC 2165 indicate that the object has a relatively uniform and high electron temperature, with its density being much larger close to the PN nucleus. Abundances imply that it is a non-type I PN. Calcium and iron have been heavily depleted into grains. The ionized mass is at least ∼0.05 M⊙ . A photoionization model (Cloudy, version 10.00 assuming an inverse square law for the density and abundances typical of a non-type I PN, produced a fair replica of the spectrum and of all electron density and temperature sensitive line ratios, but not of the global properties of this object. All evidence indicates that IC 2165 was produced by a metal poor 2 M⊙ A5 V star that took off some 2 × 109 yr ago.

  19. Dust and molecules in extra-galactic planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Hernandez, D A

    2015-01-01

    Extra-galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) permit the study of dust and molecules in metallicity environments other than the Galaxy. Their known distances lower the number of free parameters in the observations vs. models comparison, providing strong constraints on the gas-phase and solid-state astrochemistry models. Observations of PNe in the Galaxy and other Local Group galaxies such as the Magellanic Clouds (MC) provide evidence that metallicity affects the production of dust as well as the formation of complex organic molecules and inorganic solid-state compounds in their circumstellar envelopes. In particular, the lower metallicity MC environments seem to be less favorable to dust production and the frequency of carbonaceous dust features and complex fullerene molecules is generally higher with decreasing metallicity. Here, I present an observational review of the dust and molecular content in extra-galactic PNe as compared to their higher metallicity Galactic counterparts. A special attention is given to th...

  20. Searching for Faint Planetary Nebulae Using the Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Jacoby, George H; Patchick, Dana; Teutsch, Philipp; Saloranta, Jaakko; Howell, Michael; Crisp, Richard; Riddle, Dave; Acker, Agnés; Frew, David J; Parker, Quentin

    2009-01-01

    Recent Halpha surveys such as SHS and IPHAS have improved the completeness of the Galactic planetary nebula (PN) census. We now know of ~3,000 PNe in the Galaxy, but this is far short of most estimates, typically ~25,000 or more for the total population. The size of the Galactic PN population is required to derive an accurate estimate of the chemical enrichment rates of nitrogen, carbon, and helium. In addition, a high PN count (~20,000) is strong evidence that most 1-8 Msun main sequence stars will go through a PN phase, while a low count (<10,000) argues that special conditions (e.g., a close binary interaction) are required to form a PN. We describe a technique for finding hundreds more PNe using the existing data collections of the digital sky surveys, thereby improving the census of Galactic PNe.

  1. A Consolidated Online Database of Galactic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, B; Ochsenbein, F; Parker, Q A

    2011-01-01

    Since the unifying Strasbourg-ESO Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae (SECGPN) a large number of new discoveries have been made thanks to improved surveys and discovery techniques. The increasingly heterogeneous published population of Galactic PNe, that we have determined totals < 2850 PNe, is becoming more difficult to study on the whole without a centralised repository. We introduce a consolidated and interactive online database with object classifications that reflect the latest multi-wavelength data and the most recent results. The extensible database, hosted by the Centre de Donnees astronomique de Strasbourg (CDS), will contain a wealth of observed data for large, well-defined samples of PNe including coordinates, multi-wavelength images, spectroscopy, line intensities, radial velocities and central star information. It is anticipated that the database will be publicly released early 2012.

  2. The past, present and future of Galactic planetary nebula surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Quentin A; Acker, A; Miszalski, B

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade Galactic planetary nebula discoveries have entered a golden age due to the emergence of high sensitivity, high resolution narrow-band surveys of the Galactic plane. These have been coupled with access to complimentary, deep, multi-wavelength surveys across near-IR, mid-IR and radio regimes in particular from both ground-based and space-based telescopes. These have provided powerful diagnostic and discovery capabilities. In this review these advances are put in the context of what has gone before, what we are uncovering now and through the window of opportunity that awaits in the future. The astrophysical potential of this brief but key phase of late stage stellar evolution is finally being realised.

  3. Planetary nebulae as kinematic tracers of galaxy stellar halos

    CERN Document Server

    Coccato, Lodovico

    2016-01-01

    The kinematic and dynamical properties of galaxy stellar halos are difficult to measure because of the faint surface brightness that characterizes these regions. Spiral galaxies can be probed using the radio HI emission; on the contrary, early-type galaxies contain less gas, therefore alternative kinematic tracers need to be used. Planetary nebulae (PNe) can be easily detected far out in the halo thanks to their bright emission lines. It is therefore possible to map the halo kinematics also in early-type galaxies, typically out to 5 effective radii or beyond. Thanks to the recent spectroscopic surveys targeting extra-galactic PNe, we can now rely on a few tens of galaxies where the kinematics of the stellar halos are measured. Here, I will review the main results obtained in this field in the last decades.

  4. Abundances of Planetary Nebula M1-42

    CERN Document Server

    Pottasch, S R; Roellig, T L

    2007-01-01

    The spectra of the planetary nebula M1-42 is reanalysed using spectral measurements made in the mid-infrared with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The aim is to determine the chemical composition of this object. We also make use of ISO, IUE and ground based spectra. Abundances determined from the mid- and far-infrared lines, which are insensitive to electron temperature, are used as the basis for the determination of the composition, which are found to substantially differ from earlier results. High values of neon, argon and sulfur are found. They are higher than in other PN, with the exception of NGC6153, a nebula of very similar abundances. The high values of helium and nitrogen found indicate that the second dredge-up and hot bottom burning has occurred in the course of evolution and that the central star was originally more massive than 4Msun. The present temperature and luminosity of the central star is determined and at first sight may be inconsistent with such a high mass.

  5. Helium recombination spectra as temperature diagnostics for planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y; Liu, Y; Rubin, R H

    2005-01-01

    Electron temperatures derived from the \\ion{He}{1} recombination line ratios, designated $T_{\\rm e}$(\\ion{He}{1}), are presented for 48 planetary nebulae (PNe). We study the effect that temperature fluctuations inside nebulae have on the $T_{\\rm e}$(\\ion{He}{1}) value. We show that a comparison between $T_{\\rm e}$(\\ion{He}{1}) and the electron temperature derived from the Balmer jump of the \\ion{H}{1} recombination spectrum, designated $T_{\\rm e}$(\\ion{H}{1}), provides an opportunity to discriminate between the paradigms of a chemically homogeneous plasma with temperature and density variations, and a two-abundance nebular model with hydrogen-deficient material embedded in diffuse gas of a ``normal'' chemical composition (i.e. $\\sim$ solar), as the possible causes of the dichotomy between the abundances that are deduced from collisionally excited lines to those deduced from recombination lines. We find that $T_{\\rm e}$(\\ion{He}{1}) values are significantly lower than $T_{\\rm e}$(\\ion{H}{1}) values, with an av...

  6. Planetary systems and real planetary nebulae from planets destruction near white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bear, Ealeal

    2015-01-01

    We suggest that tidal destruction of Earth-like and icy planets near a white dwarf (WD) might lead to the formation of one or more low-mass planets in tight orbits around the WD. More massive planets contain hydrogen which will start burning on the surface of the WD and inflate an envelope, part of which be ejected to form a nebula. This nebula will be ionized and be observed as a planetary nebulae. The formation of the WD planetary system starts with a tidal break-up of icy or lower mass planets to planetesimals near their tidal radius of about 1Rsun. Internal stress forces keep the planetesimal from tidal break-up when their radius is less than about 100km. We suggest that the planetesimals then bind together to form new sub-Earth-like planets around the WD at a few solar radii. More massive planets that contain hydrogen will supply the WD with fresh nuclear fuel to reincarnate its stellar-giant phase. Some of the hydrogen will be inflated in a large envelope that will cause the planetesimal formed from the...

  7. A new statistical distance scale for planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Alaa; Ismail, H. A.; Alsolami, Z.

    2015-05-01

    In the first part of the present article we discuss the consistency among different individual distance methods of Galactic planetary nebulae, while in the second part we develop a new statistical distance scale based on a calibrating sample of well determined distances. A set composed of 315 planetary nebulae with individual distances are extracted from the literature. Inspecting the data set indicates that the accuracy of distances is varying among different individual methods and also among different sources where the same individual method was applied. Therefore, we derive a reliable weighted mean distance for each object by considering the influence of the distance error and the weight of each individual method. The results reveal that the discussed individual methods are consistent with each other, except the gravity method that produces higher distances compared to other individual methods. From the initial data set, we construct a standard calibrating sample consists of 82 objects. This sample is restricted only to the objects with distances determined from at least two different individual methods, except few objects with trusted distances determined from the trigonometric, spectroscopic, and cluster membership methods. In addition to the well determined distances for this sample, it shows a lot of advantages over that used in the prior distance scales. This sample is used to recalibrate the mass-radius and radio surface brightness temperature-radius relationships. An average error of ˜30 % is estimated for the new distance scale. The newly distance scale is compared with the most widely used statistical scales in literature, where the results show that it is roughly similar to the majority of them within ˜±20 % difference. Furthermore, the new scale yields a weighted mean distance to the Galactic center of 7.6±1.35 kpc, which in good agreement with the very recent measure of Malkin 2013.

  8. High-resolution spectra of the planetary nebula NGC 6803

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.-J.; Hyung, S.

    2013-01-01

    We present the high-dispersion spectra of the elliptical ring shaped planetary nebula NGC 6803, secured with the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph attached to the 3-m Shane telescope of Lick Observatory. Numerous lines from neutral to quadruply ionized ions are presented in the wavelength region from 3650 to 9900 Å. We also use the low dispersion UV spectral data obtained with the 60-cm interstellar ultraviolet explorer. In spite of its simplistic symmetrical bilateral shape, the diagnostics imply that the physical condition of the nebular shell is very complex with a huge density range of 1300-80 000 cm-3. A comparison of the 1995 and 2001 [Ar iv] data suggests that the density increase occurred near the inner shell boundary. In spite of a huge ionization potential range, the average electron temperature indicated by primary diagnostic lines is relatively low, i.e., Te ≤ 9500 K, except for [Cl iv], from which we derive a temperature that is around 11 500 K. We derived the chemical abundances of He, C, N, O, Ne, S, Ar, Cl, and K, based on the physical condition suggested by diagnostics and photo-ionization analysis. The chemical abundances of NGC 6803 are mostly enhanced when compared with the average Galactic planetary nebula. The effective temperature of its central star appears to be about 90 000 K and its luminosity about 2400 L⊙, assuming a distance of 3000 pc. The evolutionary track implies that NGC 6803 might have been evolved from a companion star of about 1.0 M⊙ in a binary system, or from a single progenitor of about 1.5 M⊙, born in a metal-rich zone near the Galactic plane. Table 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Improved spectral descriptions of planetary nebulae central stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, W. A.; Méndez, R. H.; Gamen, R.

    2015-07-01

    Context. At least 492 central stars of Galactic planetary nebulae (CSPNs) have been assigned spectral types. Since many CSPNs are faint, these classification efforts are frequently made at low spectral resolution. However, the stellar Balmer absorption lines are contaminated with nebular emission; therefore in many cases a low-resolution spectrum does not enable the determination of the H abundance in the CSPN photosphere. Whether or not the photosphere is H deficient is arguably the most important fact we should expect to extract from the CSPN spectrum, and should be the basis for an adequate spectral classification system. Aims: Our purpose is to provide accurate spectral classifications and contribute to the knowledge of central stars of planetary nebulae and stellar evolution. Methods: We have obtained and studied higher quality spectra of CSPNs described in the literature as weak emission-line star (WELS). We provide descriptions of 19 CSPN spectra. These stars had been previously classified at low spectral resolution. We used medium-resolution spectra taken with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS). We provide spectral types in the Morgan-Keenan (MK) system whenever possible. Results: Twelve stars in our sample appear to have normal H rich photospheric abundances, and five stars remain unclassified. The rest (two) are most probably H deficient. Of all central stars described by other authors as WELS, we find that at least 26% of them are, in fact, H rich O stars, and at least 3% are H deficient. This supports the suggestion that the denomination WELS should not be taken as a spectral type, because, as a WELS is based on low-resolution spectra, it cannot provide enough information about the photospheric H abundance.

  10. H$_2$ in low-ionization structures of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Akras, Stavros; Ramos-Larios, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of near-IR H$_2$ emission from the low-ionization structures (knots) in two planetary nebulae. The deepest ever, high-angular resolution H$_2$ 1-0 S(1) at 2.122$\\mu$, H$_2$ 2-1 S(1) at 2.248$\\mu$ and Br$\\gamma$ images of K 4-47 and NGC 7662, obtained using the Near InfraRed Imager and Spectrometer (NIRI) at Gemini-North, are analyzed here. K 4-47 reveals a remarkable highly collimated bipolar structure not only in the optical but also in the molecular hydrogen emission. The H$_2$ emission emanates from the walls of the bipolar outflows and also from the pair of knots at the tip of the outflows. The H$_2$ 1-0 S(1)/2-1 S(1) line ratio ranges from ~7 to ~10 suggesting the presence of shock interactions. Our findings can be explained by the interaction of a jet/bullet ejected from the central star with the surrounding asymptotic giant branch material. The strongest H$_2$ line, v=1-0 S(1) is also detected in several low-ionization knots located at the periphery of the elliptical planetary n...

  11. The star fish twins: Two young planetary nebulae with extreme multipolar morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.

    2000-01-01

    We present alpha images of two objects, He 2-47 and M1-37, obtained during a Hubble Space Telescope imaging survey of young planetary nebulae (PNs) selected on the basis of their low-excitation characteristics.

  12. Dark-Matter Content of Early-Type Galaxies with Planetary Nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napolitano, N.R.; Romanowsky, A.J.; Coccato, L; Capaccioli, M.; Douglas, N.G.; Noordermeer, E.; Merrifield, M.R.; Kuijken, K.; Arnaboldi, M.; Gerhard, O.; Freeman, K.C.; De Lorenzi, F.; Das, P.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. We examine the dark matter properties of nearby early-type galaxies using plane- tary nebulae (PNe) as mass probes. We have designed a specialised instrument, the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph (PN.S) operating at the William Herschel telescope, with the purpose of measuring PN velocities

  13. The Acceleration of the Nebular Shells in Planetary Nebulae in the Milky Way Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, Michael G; Pereyra, Margarita; Riesgo, Hortensia; Diaz, Maria Teresa Garcia; Baez, Sol-Haret

    2008-01-01

    We present a systematic study of line widths in the [\\ion{O}{3}]$\\lambda$5007 and H$\\alpha$ lines for a sample of 86 planetary nebulae in the Milky Way bulge based upon spectroscopy obtained at the \\facility{Observatorio Astron\\'omico Nacional in the Sierra San Pedro M\\'artir (OAN-SPM)} using the Manchester Echelle Spectrograph. The planetary nebulae were selected with the intention of simulating samples of bright extragalactic planetary nebulae. We separate the planetary nebulae into two samples containing cooler and hotter central stars, defined by the absence or presence, respectively, of the \\ion{He}{2} $\\lambda$6560 line in the H$\\alpha$ spectra. This division separates samples of younger and more evolved planetary nebulae. The sample of planetary nebulae with hotter central stars has systematically larger line widths, larger radii, lower electron densities, and lower H$\\beta$ luminosities. The distributions of these parameters in the two samples all differ at significance levels exceeding 99%. These dif...

  14. Synthesizing Planetary Nebulae for Large Scale Surveys: Predictions for LSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejar, George; Montez, Rodolfo; Morris, Margaret; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2017-01-01

    The short-lived planetary nebula (PN) phase of stellar evolution is characterized by a hot central star and a bright, ionized, nebula. The PN phase forms after a low- to intermediate-mass star stops burning hydrogen in its core, ascends the asymptotic giant branch, and expels its outer layers of material into space. The exposed hot core produces ionizing UV photons and a fast stellar wind that sweeps up the surrounding material into a dense shell of ionized gas known as the PN. This fleeting stage of stellar evolution provides insight into rare atomic processes and the nucleosynthesis of elements in stars. The inherent brightness of the PNe allow them to be used to obtain distances to nearby stellar systems via the PN luminosity function and as kinematic tracers in other galaxies. However, the prevalence of non-spherical morphologies of PNe challenge the current paradigm of PN formation. The role of binarity in the shaping of the PN has recently gained traction ultimately suggesting single stars might not form PN. Searches for binary central stars have increased the binary fraction but the current PN sample is incomplete. Future wide-field, multi-epoch surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) can impact studies of PNe and improve our understanding of their origin and formation. Using a suite of Cloudy radiative transfer calculations, we study the detectability of PNe in the proposed LSST multiband observations. We compare our synthetic PNe to common sources (stars, galaxies, quasars) and establish discrimination techniques. Finally, we discuss follow-up strategies to verify new LSST-discovered PNe and use limiting distances to estimate the potential sample of PNe enabled by LSST.

  15. AKARI and Spitzer observations of heavily obscured C-rich AGB/post-AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    García-Hernández, D A; Engels, D; Perea-Calderón, J V; García-Lario, P

    2009-01-01

    We present AKARI/IRC and Spitzer/IRS observations of a selected sample of galactic IRAS sources considered to be heavily obscured AGB/post-AGB stars based on their characteristic IRAS colours. All of them are completely invisible in the optical range but extremely bright in the infrared. Based on AKARI and Spitzer spectroscopy and using DUSTY we are able to determine the dominant chemistry of their circumstellar shells as well as the properties of the dust grains contained in these shells. Most of the sources are found to be C-rich (being the reddest C-rich stars observed so far). We find only molecular absorptions (and no PAH features) such as acetylene (C2H2) at 13.7 micron, indicative of an early post-AGB stage. We shortly discuss our findings in the context of stellar evolution during the hidden "transition phase" from AGB stars to Planetary Nebulae.

  16. The planetary nebula Abell 48 and its [WN4] central star

    OpenAIRE

    Bojicic, I. S.; Frew, D. J.; Parker, Q. A.; Stupar, M.; Wachter, S.; DePew, K.

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted a multi-wavelength study of the planetary nebula Abell 48 and give a revised classification of its nucleus as a hydrogen-deficient star of type [WN4]. The surrounding nebula has a morphology typical of PNe and importantly, is not enriched in nitrogen, and thus not the 'peeled atmosphere' of a massive star. Indeed, no WN4 star is known to be surrounded by such a compact nebula. The ionized mass of the nebula is also a powerful discriminant between the low-mass PN and high-mas...

  17. The kinematics of the large western knot in the halo of the young planetary nebula NGC 6543

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, D L; Meaburn, J; López, J A; Redman, M P; Harman, D; Richer, M G; Riesgo, H; Mitchell, Deborah L.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed analysis is presented of the dominant ionised knot in the halo of the planetary nebula NGC 6543. Observations were made at high spectral and spatial resolution of the [OIII] 5007 line using the Manchester echelle spectrometer combined with the 2.1-m San Pedro Martir Telescope. A 20-element multislit was stepped across the field to give almost complete spatial coverage of the knot and surrounding halo. The spectra reveal, for the first time, gas flows around the kinematically inert knot. The gas flows are found to have velocities comparable to the sound speed as gas is photo-evaporated off an ionised surface. No evidence is found of fast wind interaction with the knot and we find it likely that the fast wind is still contained in a pressure-driven bubble in the core of the nebula. This rules out the possibility of the knot having its origin in instabilities at the interface of the fast and AGB winds. We suggest that the knot is embedded in the slowly expanding Red Giant wind and that its surfaces ar...

  18. The San Pedro M\\'artir Kinematic Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    López, J A; García-Díaz, M T; Clark, D M; Meaburn, J; Riesgo, H; Steffen, W; Lloyd, M

    2011-01-01

    The San Pedro M\\'artir kinematic catalogue of galactic planetary nebulae provides spatially resolved, long-slit Echelle spectra for about 600 planetary nebulae. The data are presented wavelength calibrated and corrected for heliocentric motion. For most objects multiple spectra have been acquired and images with accurate slit positions on the nebulae are also presented for each object. This is the most extensive and homogeneous single source of data concerning the internal kinematics of the ionized nebular material in planetary nebulae. Data can be retrieved for individual objects or selected by groups that share some common characteristics, such as by morphological classes, galactic population, binary cores, presence of fast outflows, etc. The catalogue is available through the world wide web at http://kincatpn.astrosen.unam.mx .

  19. MHD Disk Winds and Planetary Nebulae I. Existence and Applicability

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, A; Blackman, E G

    2002-01-01

    Winds from accretion disks have been proposed as the driving source for precessing jets and extreme bipolar morphologies in Planetary Nebulae (PNe) and proto-PNe (pPNe). In this paper we address the applicability of self-consistent MHD disk wind models to PNe and pPNe. We first review the basic features of magneto-centrifugal launching disk wind models adapting results from previously published non-self similar calculations of Peltier & Pudritz (1992). We then estimate the relevant conditions whichshould occur in PNe and pPNe accretion disks that form via binary interactions. Finally, examining conditions on dimensionless parameters needed for magneto-centrifugal disk wind models we show that such winds can recover the observed momentum and energy input rates for PNe and pPNe. High accretion rates are required in thelatter case (M_a approx 10^{-4} \\mdot) and we find that the observed total energy and momentum in pPNe can be recovered with disk wind models using existing disk formation scenarios

  20. SPITZER SAGE Observations of Large Magellanic Cloud Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Hora, J L; Ellis, R G; Meixner, M; Blum, R D; Latter, W B; Whitney, B A; Meade, M R; Indebetouw, R; Gordon, K; For, B -Q; Block, M; Misselt, K; Vijh, U; Leitherer, C

    2007-01-01

    We present IRAC and MIPS images and photometry of a sample of previously known planetary nebulae (PNe) from the SAGE survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) performed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Of the 233 known PNe in the survey field, 185 objects were detected in at least two of the IRAC bands, and 161 detected in the MIPS 24 micron images. Color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are presented using several combinations of IRAC, MIPS, and 2MASS magnitudes. The location of an individual PN in the color-color diagrams is seen to depend on the relative contributions of the spectral components which include molecular hydrogen, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), infrared forbidden line emission from the ionized gas, warm dust continuum, and emission directly from the central star. The sample of LMC PNe is compared to a number of Galactic PNe and found to not significantly differ in their position in color-color space. We also explore the potential value of IR PNe luminosity functions (LFs) in the...

  1. Planetary Nebulae towards the Galactic bulge. I. [OIII] fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Kovacevic, Anna V; Jacoby, George H; Sharp, Rob; Miszalski, Brent; Frew, David J

    2010-01-01

    We present [OIII]{\\lambda}5007 fluxes and angular diameters for 435 Planetary Nebulae (PN) in the central 10' x 10' region towards the Galactic bulge. Our sample is taken from the new discoveries of the MASH PN surveys as well as previously known PN. This sample accounts for 80% of known PN in this region. Fluxes and diameters are measured from narrow-band imaging with the MOSAIC-II camera on the 4-m Blanco telescope at the Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory. This is the largest (~60 square degrees), uniform [OIII]{\\lambda}5007 survey of the inner Galactic bulge ever undertaken. 104 of the objects have measured [OIII]{\\lambda}5007, [OIII]{\\lambda}4959, H{\\alpha} or H{\\beta} fluxes from the literature, which we use to undertake a detailed comparison to demonstrate the integrity of our new fluxes. Our independent measurements are in excellent agreement with the very best literature sources over two orders of magnitude, while maintaining good consistency over five orders of magnitude. The excellent resoluti...

  2. Radio planetary nebulae in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverenz, Howard; Filipović, Miroslav D.; Bojičić, I. S.; Crawford, E. J.; Collier, J. D.; Grieve, K.; Drašković, D.; Reid, W. A.

    2016-03-01

    We present ten new radio continuum (RC) detections at catalogued planetary nebula (PN) positions in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC): SMP S6, LIN 41, LIN 142, SMP S13, SMP S14, SMP S16, J 18, SMP S18, SMP S19 and SMP S22. Additionally, six SMC radio PNe previously detected, LIN 45, SMP S11, SMP S17, LIN 321, LIN 339 and SMP S24 are also investigated (re-observed) here making up a population of 16 radio detections of catalogued PNe in the SMC. These 16 radio detections represent ˜15 % of the total catalogued PN population in the SMC. We show that six of these objects have characteristics that suggest that they are PN mimics: LIN 41, LIN 45, SMP S11, LIN 142, LIN 321 and LIN 339. We also present our results for the surface brightness—PN radius relation (Σ-D) of the SMC radio PN population. These are consistent with previous SMC and LMC PN measurements of the (Σ-D) relation.

  3. Dynamics of the Galactic Bulge using Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Beaulieu, S F; Kálnay, A J; Saha, P; Zhao, H S; Beaulieu, Sylvie F.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Kalnajs, Agris J.; Saha, Prasenjit; Zhao, HongSheng

    2000-01-01

    Evidence for a bar at the center of the Milky Way triggered a renewed enthusiasm for dynamical modelling of the Galactic bar-bulge. Our goal is to compare the kinematics of a sample of tracers, planetary nebulae, widely distributed over the bulge with the corresponding kinematics for a range of models of the inner Galaxy. Three of these models are N-body barred systems arising from the instabilities of a stellar disk (Sellwood, Fux and Kalnajs), and one is a Schwarzschild system constructed to represent the 3D distribution of the COBE/DIRBE near-IR light and then evolved as an N-body system for a few dynamical times (Zhao). For the comparison of our data with the models, we use a new technique developed by Saha (1998). The procedure finds the parameters of each model, i.e. the solar galactocentric distance R_o in model units, the orientation angle phi, the velocity scale (in km/s per model unit), and the solar tangential velocity which best fit the data.

  4. A two-mode planetary nebula luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-González, A; Esquivel, A; Raga, A C; Stasińska, G; Peña, M; Mayya, D

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function (PNLF) that includes two populations in the distribution. Our PNLF is a direct extension of the canonical function proposed by Jacoby et al. (1987), in order to avoid problems related with the histogram construction, it is cast in terms of cumulative functions. We are interested in recovering the shape of the faint part of the PNLF in a consistent manner, for galaxies with and without a dip in their PN luminosity functions. The parameters for the two mode PNLF are obtained with a genetic algorithm, which obtains a best fit to the PNLF varying all of the parameters simultaneously in a broad parameter space. We explore a sample of 9 galaxies with various Hubble types and construct their PNLF. All of the irregular galaxies, except one, are found to be consistent with a two-mode population, while the situation is less clear for ellipticals and spirals.For the case of NGC\\, 6822, we show that the two-mode PNLF is consistent with previous studies of the star for...

  5. Radio Planetary Nebulae in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Leverenz, Howard; Bojičić, Ivan S; Crawford, Evan J; Collier, Jordan D; Grieve, Kevin; Drašković, Danica; Reid, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    We present ten new radio continuum (RC) detections at catalogued planetary nebula (PN) positions in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC): SMPS6, LIN 41, LIN 142, SMP S13, SMP S14, SMP S16, J18, SMP S18, SMP S19 and SMP S22. Additionally, six SMC radio PNe previously detected, LIN 45, SMP S11, SMPS17, LIN321, LIN339 and SMPS24 are also investigated (re-observed) here making up a population of 16 radio detections of catalogued PNe in the SMC. These 16 radio detections represent ~15 % of the total catalogued PN population in the SMC. We show that six of these objects have characteristics that suggest that they are PN mimics: LIN 41, LIN 45, SMP S11, LIN 142, LIN 321 and LIN 339. We also present our results for the surface brightness - PN radius relation ({\\Sigma}-D) of the SMC radio PN population. These are consistent with previous SMC and LMC PN measurements of the ({\\Sigma}-D) relation.

  6. Central stars of planetary nebulae: New spectral classifications and catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, W. A.; Gamen, R.

    2011-02-01

    Context. There are more than 3000 confirmed and probable known Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe), but central star spectroscopic information is available for only 13% of them. Aims: We undertook a spectroscopic survey of central stars of PNe at low resolution and compiled a large list of central stars for which information was dispersed in the literature. Methods: We observed 45 PNs using the 2.15 m telescope at Casleo, Argentina. Results: We present a catalogue of 492 confirmed and probable CSPN and provide a preliminary spectral classification for 45 central star of PNe. This revises previous values of the proportion of CSPN with atmospheres poor in hydrogen in at least 30% of cases and provide statistical information that allows us to infer the origin of H-poor stars. Based on data collected at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina y Universidades Nacionales de La Plata, Córdoba y San Juan, Argentina.

  7. Chemical abundances from planetary nebulae in local spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, M G

    2015-01-01

    While the chemical abudances observed in bright planetary nebulae in local spiral galaxies are less varied than their counterparts in dwarfs, they provide new insight. Their helium abundances are typically enriched by less than 50\\% compared to the primordial abundance. Nitrogen abundances always show some level of secondary enrichment, but the absolute enrichment is not extreme. In particular, type I PNe are rare among the bright PNe in local spirals. The oxygen and neon abundances are very well correlated and follow the relation between these abundances observed in star-forming galaxies, implying that either the progenitor stars of these PNe modify neither abundance substantially or that they modify both to maintain the ratio (not predicted by theory). According to theory, these results imply that the progenitor stars of bright PNe in local spirals have masses of about $2\\,\\mathrm M_{\\odot}$ or less. If so, the progenitors of these PNe have substantial lifetimes that allow us to use them to study the recent...

  8. Detection of Intracluster Planetary Nebulae in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Gerhard, O; Freeman, K C; Kashikawa, N; Okamura, S; Yasuda, N; Gerhard, Ortwin; Arnaboldi, Magda; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Okamura, Sadanori; Yasuda, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    [OIII] lambda 5007AA emission lines of 16 intracluster planetary nebulae candidates in the Coma cluster were detected with a Multi-Slit Imaging Spectroscopy (MSIS) technique using FOCAS on the Subaru telescope. The identification of these faint emission sources as PNe is supported by (i) their point-like flux distribution in both space and wavelength, with tight limits on the continuum flux; (ii) the identification of the second [OIII] lambda 4959 line in the only object at high enough velocity that this line too falls into the filter bandpass; (iii) emission line fluxes consistent with PNe at 100 Mpc distance, in the range 2.8 x 10^{-19} - 1.7 x 10^{-18} erg/s/cm^2; and (iv) a narrow velocity distribution approximately centered on the systemic velocity of the Coma cluster. Comparing with the velocities of galaxies in our field, we conclude that the great majority of these candidates would be intracluster PNe, free floating in the Coma cluster core. Their velocity dispersion is ~760 km/s, and their mean veloc...

  9. Physical Properties of Fullerene-containing Galactic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Cami, J; Peeters, E; Bernard-Salas, J

    2013-01-01

    We searched the Spitzer Space Telescope data archive for Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe), that show the characteristic 17.4 and um features due to C60, also known as buckminsterfullerene. Out of 338 objects with Spitzer/IRS data, we found eleven C60-containing PNe, six of which (Hen2-68, IC2501, K3-62, M1-6, M1-9, and SaSt2-3) are new detections. We analyzed the spectra, along with ancillary data, using the photo-ionization code CLOUDY to establish the atomic line fluxes, and determine the properties of the radiation field, as set by the effective temperature of the central star. In addition, we measured the infrared spectral features due to dust grains. We find that the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) profile over 6-9 um in these C60-bearing carbon-rich PNe is of the more chemically-processed class A. The intensity ratio of 3.3 um to 11.3 um PAH indicates that the number of C-atoms per PAH in C60-containing PNe is small compared to that in non-C60 PNe. The Spitzer spectra also show broad dust features...

  10. A Survey for Planetary Nebulae in M31 Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Jacoby, George H; De Marco, Orsola; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Herrmann, Kimberly A; Hwang, Ho Seong; Kaplan, Evan; Davies, James E

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of an [O III] 5007 spectroscopic survey for planetary nebulae (PNe) located within the star clusters of M31. By examining R ~ 5000 spectra taken with the WIYN+Hydra spectrograph, we identify 3 PN candidates in a sample of 274 likely globular clusters, 2 candidates in objects which may be globular clusters, and 5 candidates in a set of 85 younger systems. The possible PNe are all faint, between ~2.5 and ~6.8 mag down the PN luminosity function, and, partly as a consequence of our selection criteria, have high excitation, with [O III] 5007 to H-beta ratios ranging from 2 to ~12. We discuss the individual candidates, their likelihood of cluster membership, and the possibility that they were formed via binary interactions within the clusters. Our data are consistent with the suggestion that PN formation within globular clusters correlates with binary encounter frequency, though, due to the small numbers and large uncertainties in the candidate list, this study does not provide sufficient evi...

  11. Emission-Line Fluxes of Northern Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Aksaker, N; Kızıloğlu, Ü; Atalay, B

    2015-01-01

    We present long slit spectrophotometric emission line fluxes of bright and extended (<5 arcsec in diameter) Planetary Nebulae (PNe) selected from Acker et al. 1992 catalog with suitable equitorial coordinates for Northern hemisphere. In total, 17 PNe have been choosen and observed in 2008--2010. To measure absolute fluxes, broad slit sizes, ranging from 3.5\\arcsec to 7.5\\arcsec were used and thus equivalent widths of all observable emission line fluxes were also calculated. Among 17 PNe's observed, line flux measurements of 12 of them were made for the first time. This work also aims to extend the sky coverage of emission line flux standards in Northern hemisphere (Dopita & Hua 1997 - 52 PNe in Southern hemisphere; Wright et al. 2005 - 6 PNe in Northern hemisphere). Electron temperatures and densities, and chemical abundances of these PNe were also calculated in this work. These data is expected to lead the photometric or spectrometric further work for absolute emission line flux measurements needed fo...

  12. PAH Formation in O-rich Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Guzman-Ramirez, L; Jones, D; Zijlstra, A A; Gesicki, K

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been observed in O-rich planetary nebulae towards the Galactic Bulge. This combination of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich material, known as dual-dust or mixed chemistry, is not expected to be seen around such objects. We recently proposed that PAHs could be formed from the photodissociation of CO in dense tori. In this work, using VISIR/VLT, we spatially resolved the emission of the PAH bands and ionised emission from the [SIV] line, confirming the presence of dense central tori in all the observed O-rich objects. Furthermore, we show that for most of the objects, PAHs are located at the outer edge of these dense/compact tori, while the ionised material is mostly present in the inner parts of these tori, consistent with our hypothesis for the formation of PAHs in these systems. The presence of a dense torus has been strongly associated with the action of a central binary star and, as such, the rich chemistry seen in these regions may also be related to the formation o...

  13. Expansion Velocity Investigation of the Elliptical Planetary Nebula NGC 6803

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Younsu Choi; Lee, Seong-Jae; Hyung, Siek

    2008-12-01

    Using the spectral data in the 3700 to 10050 Å wavelength range secured with the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph (HES) at the Lick observatory, we have investigated the expansion velocities and the physical conditions of the elliptical planetary nebula NGC 6803. Various forbidden and permitted lines, e.g. HI, HeI, HeII, [OIII], [NII], [ArIII], and [SII], indicate complicated but systematic physical conditions variation: electron temperatures T_{ɛ} ˜ 9000 - 11,000 K and electron number densities N_{ɛ} ˜ 2000 - 9000 cm^{-3}. The line profile analysis of these ions also indicates the systematic change or the acceleration of the expansion velocities in the range of 10 - 22 kms. We show that the velocity gradient and physical condition found in various ions are closely related to the prolate ellipsoidal structure of NGC 6803. The expansion velocity and the ionic abundance of O^{2+} were derived based on the OII and [OIII] lines. In spite of the discrepancy of ionic abundances derived by the two cases and their line profiles, the expansion velocities of them agree well. We find that the ratios of the red to blue line component of the HeII & OII lines are different from those of the [OIII] or other forbidden lines that indicates a possible involvement of emission of HeII & OII lines. This subtle difference and the different physical condition of the lines are likely to be caused by the elongated geometry and the latitude dependence of the emission zone.

  14. Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Mata, Héctor; Guerrero, Martin A; Nigoche-Netro, Alberto; Toalá, Jesús A; Fang, Xuan; Rubio, Gabriel M; Kemp, Simon N; Navarro, Silvana G; Corral, Luis J

    2016-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope archival mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy of a sample of eleven planetary nebulae (PNe). The observations, acquired with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), cover the spectral range 5.2-14.5 {\\mu}m that includes the H2 0-0 S(2) to S(7) rotational emission lines. This wavelength coverage has allowed us to derive the Boltzmann distribution and calculate the H2 rotational excitation temperature (Tex). The derived excitation temperatures have consistent values ~900+/-70 K for different sources despite their different structural components. We also report the detection of mid-IR ionic lines of [Ar III], [S IV], and [Ne II] in most objects, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features in a few cases. The decline of the [Ar III]/[Ne II] line ratio with the stellar effective temperature can be explained either by a true neon enrichment or by high density circumstellar regions of PNe that presumably descend from higher mass progenitor stars.

  15. Neutron-Capture Element Abundances in Magellanic Cloud Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Mashburn, A L; Madonna, S; Dinerstein, H L; Roederer, I U; Geballe, T

    2016-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectra of ten planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC), acquired with the FIRE and GNIRS spectrometers on the 6.5-m Baade and 8.1-m Gemini South Telescopes, respectively. We detect Se and/or Kr emission lines in eight of these objects, the first detections of n-capture elements in Magellanic Cloud PNe. Our abundance analysis shows large s-process enrichments of Kr (0.6-1.3 dex) in the six PNe in which it was detected, and Se is enriched by 0.5-0.9 dex in five objects. We also estimate upper limits to Rb and Cd abundances in these objects. Our abundance results for the LMC are consistent with the hypothesis that PNe with 2--3 M$_{\\odot}$ progenitors dominate the bright end of the PN luminosity function in young gas-rich galaxies. We find no significant correlations between s-process enrichments and other elemental abundances, central star temperature, or progenitor mass, though this is likely due to our small sample size. We determine S abundances...

  16. Polarisation properties of OH emission in planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, Jose F; Green, James A; Miranda, Luis F; Suarez, Olga; Bendjoya, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    We present the interferometric, full-polarisation observations of the four ground-state transitions of OH, toward five confirmed and one candidate OH-emitting planetary nebulae (OHPNe). OHPNe are believed to be very young PNe, and information on their magnetic fields (provided by their polarisation) could be key to understand the early evolution of PNe. We detect significant circular and linear polarisation in four and two objects, respectively. Possible Zeeman pairs are seen in JaSt 23 and IRAS 17393-2727, resulting in estimates of magnetic field strengths between 0.8 and 24 mG. We also report the new detection of OH emission at 1720 MHz toward Vy 2-2, making it the third known PN with this type of emission. We suggest that younger PNe have spectra dominated by narrow maser features and higher degrees of polarisation. Shock-excited emission at 1720 MHz seems to be more common in PNe than in early evolutionary phases, and could be related to equatorial ejections during the early PN phase.

  17. STUDIES OF VARIABILITY IN PROTO-PLANETARY NEBULAE. II. LIGHT AND VELOCITY CURVE ANALYSES OF IRAS 22272+5435 AND 22223+4327

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Lu, Wenxian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383 (United States); Sperauskas, Julius; Zacs, Laimons [Vilnius University Observatory, Ciurlionio 29 Vilnius 2009 (Lithuania); Van Winckel, Hans [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, K. U. Leuven University, B-3001 Leuven (Heverlee) (Belgium); Bohlender, David, E-mail: bruce.hrivnak@valpo.edu, E-mail: wen.lu@valpo.edu, E-mail: julius.sperauskas@ff.vu.lt, E-mail: Hans.VanWinckel@ster.kuleuven.be, E-mail: David.Bohlender@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: zacs@latnet.lv [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    We have carried out a detailed observational study of the light, color, and velocity variations of two bright, carbon-rich proto-planetary nebulae, IRAS 22223+4327 and 22272+5435. The light curves are based upon our observations from 1994 to 2011, together with published data by Arkhipova and collaborators. They each display four significant periods, with primary periods for IRAS 22223+4327 and 22272+5435 being 90 and 132 days, respectively. For each of them, the ratio of secondary to primary period is 0.95, a value much different from that found in Cepheids, but which may be characteristic of post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Fewer significant periods are found in the smaller radial velocity data sets, but they agree with those of the light curves. The color curves generally mimic the light curves, with the objects reddest when faintest. A comparison in seasons when there exist contemporaneous light, color, and velocity curves reveals that the light and color curves are in phase, while the radial velocity curves are {approx}0.25 P out of phase with the light curves. Thus they differ from what is seen in Cepheids, in which the radial velocity curve is 0.50 P out of phase with the light curve. Comparison of the observed periods and amplitudes with those of post-AGB pulsation models shows poor agreement, especially for the periods, which are much longer than predicted. These observational data, particularly the contemporaneous light, color, and velocity curves, provide an excellent benchmark for new pulsation models of cool stars in the post-AGB, proto-planetary nebula phase.

  18. The Nucleus of the Planetary Nebula EGB 6 as a Post-Mira Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Howard E.; Ciardullo, Robin; Esplin, Taran L.; Hawley, Steven A.; Liebert, James; Munari, Ulisse

    2016-08-01

    EGB 6 is a faint, large, ancient planetary nebula (PN). Its central star, a hot DAOZ white dwarf (WD), is a prototype of a rare class of PN nuclei associated with dense, compact emission-line knots. The central star also shows excess fluxes in both the near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR). In a 2013 paper, we used Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images to show that the compact nebula is a point-like source, located 0.″16 (˜118 AU) from the WD. We attributed the NIR excess to an M dwarf companion star, which appeared to coincide with the dense emission knot. We now present new ground-based NIR spectroscopy, showing that the companion is actually a much cooler source with a continuous spectrum, apparently a dust-enshrouded low-luminosity star. New HST images confirm common proper motion of the emission knot and red source with the WD. The I-band, NIR, and MIR fluxes are variable, possibly on timescales as short as days. We can fit the spectral energy distribution (SED) with four blackbodies (the WD, a ˜1850 K NIR component, and MIR dust at 385 and 175 K). Alternatively, we show that the NIR/MIR SED is very similar to that of Class 0/I young stellar objects. We suggest a scenario in which the EGB 6 nucleus is descended from a wide binary similar to the Mira system, in which a portion of the wind from an AGB star was captured into an accretion disk around a companion star; a remnant of this disk has survived to the present time and is surrounded by gas photoionized by UV radiation from the WD. Based in part on data obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained by the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Also based in part on observations with the 1.5 m telescope operated by the SMARTS Consortium at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory.

  19. An imaging and spectroscopic study of the planetary nebulae in NGC 5128 (Centaurus A): Planetary nebulae catalogues

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, J R; Walton, N A

    2015-01-01

    Imaging and spectroscopic observations of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the nearest large elliptical galaxy NGC 5128 (Centaurus A), were obtained to find more PNe and measure their radial velocities. NTT imaging was obtained in 15 fields in NGC 5128 over an area of about 1 square degree with EMMI using [O III] and off-band filters. Newly detected sources, combined with literature PNe, were used as input for VLT FLAMES multi-fibre spectroscopy in MEDUSA mode. Spectra of the 4600-5100A region were analysed and velocities measured based on emission lines of [O III]4959,5007A and often H-beta. The chief results are catalogues of 1118 PN candidates and 1267 spectroscopically confirmed PNe in NGC 5128. The catalogue of PN candidates contains 1060 PNe discovered with EMMI imaging and 58 from literature surveys. The spectroscopic PN catalogue has FLAMES radial velocity and emission line measurements for 1135 PNe, of which 486 are new. Another 132 PN radial velocities are available from the literature. For 629 PNe observ...

  20. Theoretical Modeling of ISO Results on Planetary Nebula NGC 7027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, M.; Federman, S. R.; Dalgarno, A.; Bjorkman, J. E.

    1999-04-01

    We present a thermal and chemical model of the neutral envelope of planetary nebula NGC 7027. In our model, the neutral envelope is composed of a thin dense shell of constant density and an outer stellar wind region with the usual inverse-square law density profile. The thermal and chemical structure is calculated with the assumption that the incident radiation field on the inner surface equals 0.5×105 times Draine's fit to the average interstellar far-ultraviolet field. The rate coefficient for H2 formation on grains is assumed to be 1/5 the usual value to take into account the lower dust-gas mass ratio in the neutral envelope of NGC 7027. The calculated temperature in the dense shell decreases from 3000 to under 200 K. Once the temperature drops to 200 K, we assume that it remains at 200 K until the outer edge of the dense shell is reached, so that the observed intensities of CO J=16-15, 15-14, and 14-13 lines can be reproduced. The 200 K temperature can be interpreted as the average temperature of the shocked gas just behind the forward shock front in the framework of the interacting stellar wind theory. We calculate the intensities of the molecular far-infrared rotational lines by using a revised version of the escape probability formalism. The theoretical intensities for rotational lines of CO (from J=29-28 to J=14-13), CH+, OH, and CH are shown to be in good agreement with ISO observations. The H2 rovibrational line intensities are also calculated and are in agreement with available observations.

  1. Neutron-capture Element Abundances in Magellanic Cloud Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, A. L.; Sterling, N. C.; Madonna, S.; Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Roederer, I. U.; Geballe, T. R.

    2016-11-01

    We present near-infrared spectra of 10 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC), acquired with the FIRE and GNIRS spectrometers on the 6.5 m Baade and 8.1 m Gemini South Telescopes, respectively. We detect Se and/or Kr emission lines in eight of these objects, the first detections of n-capture elements in Magellanic Cloud PNe. Our abundance analysis shows large s-process enrichments of Kr (0.6–1.3 dex) in the six PNe in which it was detected, and Se is enriched by 0.5–0.9 dex in five objects. We also estimate upper limits to Rb and Cd abundances in these objects. Our abundance results for the LMC are consistent with the hypothesis that PNe with 2–3 M ⊙ progenitors dominate the bright end of the PN luminosity function in young gas-rich galaxies. We find no significant correlations between s-process enrichments and other elemental abundances, central star temperature, or progenitor mass, though this is likely due to our small sample size. We determine S abundances from our spectra and find that [S/H] agrees with [Ar/H] to within 0.2 dex for most objects, but is lower than [O/H] by 0.2–0.4 dex in some PNe, possibly due to O enrichment via third dredge-up. Our results demonstrate that n-capture elements can be detected in PNe belonging to nearby galaxies with ground-based telescopes, allowing s-process enrichments to be studied in PN populations with well-determined distances. This paper includes data obtained with the 6.5-m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and with the Gemini-South Telescope at Cerro Pachon, Chile.

  2. Planetary Nebulae that Cannot Be Explained by Binary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Ealeal; Soker, Noam

    2017-03-01

    We examine the images of hundreds of planetary nebulae (PNe) and find that for about one in six PNe the morphology is too “messy” to be accounted for by models of stellar binary interaction. We speculate that interacting triple stellar systems shaped these PNe. In this preliminary study, we qualitatively classify PNe by one of four categories. (1) PNe that show no need for a tertiary star to account for their morphology. (2) PNe whose structure possesses a pronounced departure from axial-symmetry and/or mirror-symmetry. We classify these, according to our speculation, as “having a triple stellar progenitor.” (3) PNe whose morphology possesses departure from axial-symmetry and/or mirror-symmetry, but not as pronounced as in the previous class, and are classified as “likely shaped by triple stellar system.” (4) PNe with minor departure from axial-symmetry and/or mirror-symmetry that could have been also caused by an eccentric binary system or the interstellar medium. These are classified as “maybe shaped by a triple stellar system.” Given a weight η t = 1, η l = 0.67, and η m = 0.33 to classes 2, 3, and 4, respectively, we find that according to our assumption about 13%–21% of PNe have been shaped by triple stellar systems. Although in some evolutionary scenarios not all three stars survive the evolution, we encourage the search for a triple stellar systems at the center of some PNe.

  3. VARIABILITY IN PROTO-PLANETARY NEBULAE. III. LIGHT CURVE STUDIES OF MAGELLANIC CLOUD CARBON-RICH OBJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Lu, Wenxian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383 (United States); Volk, Kevin [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); Szczerba, Ryszard; Hajduk, Marcin [N. Copernicus Astronomy Center, Rabianska 8, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Soszyński, Igor, E-mail: bruce.hrivnak@valpo.edu, E-mail: wen.lu@valpo.edu [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-05-20

    We have investigated the light variability in a sample of 22 carbon-rich post-AGB stars in the LMC and SMC, based primarily on photometric data from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment survey. All are found to vary. Dominant periods are found in eight of them; these periods range from 49 to 157 days, and most of these stars have F spectral types. These eight are found to be similar to the Milky Way Galaxy (MWG) carbon-rich proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs) in several ways: (a) they are in the same period range of ∼38 to ∼160 days, (b) they have similar spectral types, (c) they are (all but one) redder when fainter, (d) they have multiple periods, closely spaced in time, with an average ratio of secondary to primary period of ∼1.0, and as an ensemble, (e) they show a trend of decreasing period with increasing temperature, and (f) they show a trend of decreasing amplitude with decreasing period. However, they possibly differ in that the decreasing trend of period with temperature may be slightly offset from that of the MWG. These eight are classified as PPNs. The other 14 all show evidence of variability on shorter timescales. They are likely hotter PPNs or young planetary nebulae. However, in the MWG the numbers of PPNs peak in the F−G spectral types, while it appears that in the LMC they peak at a hotter B spectral type. One of the periodic ones shows a small, R Coronae Borealis type light curve drop.

  4. Morphological classification of post-AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Manchado, A; Villaver, E; de Massas, J Guironnet

    2011-01-01

    We present a complete study of the morphology of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars. Post-AGB is a very short evolutionary phase between the end of the AGB and the beginning of the Planetary Nebula (PN) stage (between 100 and 10,000 yrs). We have defined the end of the post-AGB phase and the beginning of the PN phase when the star is hot enough to fully ionize the hydrogen envelope. Post-AGB stars have a circumstellar shell that is illuminated by the central stars or partially ionized. However, this circumstellar shell is too small to be resolved from ground-based observations. Thus, we have used data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) database to resolve these shells. About 150 post-AGB were found in this database. Here we present the preliminary results on their morphological classification and the correlation with several parameters such as galactic latitude and IRAS fluxes. Our preliminary results show that 40% of the sample are stellar-like (S), 33 % bipolar (B), 12 % multi-polar (M) and 15 % el...

  5. Young Planetary Nebulae: Hubble Space Telescope Imaging and a New Morphological Classification System

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Villar, Gregory G

    2011-01-01

    Using Hubble Space Telescope images of 119 young planetary nebulae, most of which have not previously been published, we have devised a comprehensive morphological classification system for these objects. This system generalizes a recently devised system for pre-planetary nebulae, which are the immediate progenitors of planetary nebulae (PNs). Unlike previous classification studies, we have focussed primarily on young PNs rather than all PNs, because the former best show the influences or symmetries imposed on them by the dominant physical processes operating at the first and primary stage of the shaping process. Older PNs develop instabilities, interact with the ambient interstellar medium, and are subject to the passage of photoionization fronts, all of which obscure the underlying symmetries and geometries imposed early on. Our classification system is designed to suffer minimal prejudice regarding the underlying physical causes of the different shapes and structures seen in our PN sample, however, in many...

  6. Observations of the planetary nebula RWT 152 with OSIRIS/GTC

    CERN Document Server

    Aller, A; Olguín, L; Solano, E; Ulla, A

    2016-01-01

    RWT 152 is one of the few known planetary nebulae with an sdO central star. We present subarcsecond red tunable filter Halpha imaging and intermediate-resolution, long-slit spectroscopy of RWT 152 obtained with OSIRIS/GTC with the goal of analyzing its properties. The Halpha image reveals a bipolar nebula with a bright equatorial region and multiple bubbles in the main lobes. A faint circular halo surrounds the main nebula. The nebular spectra reveal a very low-excitation nebula with weak emission lines from H^+, He^+, and double-ionized metals, and absence of emission lines from neutral and single-ionized metals, except for an extremely faint [NII]6584 emission line. These spectra may be explained if RWT 152 is a density-bounded planetary nebula. Low nebular chemical abundances of S, O, Ar, N, and Ne are obtained in RWT 152, which, together with the derived high peculiar velocity ($\\sim$ 92-131 km s$^{-1}$), indicate that this object is a halo planetary nebula. The available data are consistent with RWT 152 ...

  7. Observations of the planetary nebula RWT 152 with OSIRIS/GTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, A.; Miranda, L. F.; Olguín, L.; Solano, E.; Ulla, A.

    2016-11-01

    RWT 152 is one of the few known planetary nebulae with an sdO central star. We present subarcsecond red tunable filter Hα imaging and intermediate-resolution, long-slit spectroscopy of RWT 152 obtained with OSIRIS/GTC (Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy/Gran Telescopio Canarias) with the goal of analysing its properties. The Hα image reveals a bipolar nebula with a bright equatorial region and multiple bubbles in the main lobes. A faint circular halo surrounds the main nebula. The nebular spectra reveal a very low excitation nebula with weak emission lines from H+, He+ and double-ionized metals, and absence of emission lines from neutral and single-ionized metals, except for an extremely faint [N II] λ6584 emission line. These spectra may be explained if RWT 152 is a density-bounded planetary nebula. Low nebular chemical abundances of S, O, Ar, N and Ne are obtained in RWT 152, which, together with the derived high peculiar velocity (˜ 92-131 km s-1), indicate that this object is a halo planetary nebula. The available data are consistent with RWT 152 evolving from a low-mass progenitor (˜1 M⊙) formed in a metal-poor environment.

  8. Binarity in the Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae and its Relationship to Stellar Evolution: An Observational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillwig, T. C.; Jacoby, G. H.; Jones, D.; De Marco, O.

    2017-03-01

    The existing status of our knowledge of binary central stars of planetary nebulae will be explored. Binary modeling of known systems is providing physical parameters that can be compared amongst the sample, with nebular characteristics, and with similar binaries with no associated planetary nebula. Correlations among these areas will be discussed, especially in relation to our understanding of stellar evolution.

  9. A Detailed Study of the Structure of the Nested Planetary Nebula, Hb 12, the Matryoshka Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; López, J. A.; Edwards, M. L.; Winge, C.

    2014-11-01

    We present near-IR, integral field spectroscopic observations of the planetary nebula (PN) Hb 12 using Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) on Gemini-North. Combining NIFS with the adaptive optics system Altair, we provide a detailed study of the core and inner structure of this PN. We focus the analysis in the prominent emission lines [Fe II] (1.6436 μm), He I (2.0585 μm), H2 (2.1214 μm), and Brγ (2.16553 μm). We find that the [Fe II] emission traces a tilted system of bipolar lobes, with the northern lobe being redshifted and the southern lobe blueshifted. The [Fe II] emission is very faint at the core and only present close to the systemic velocity. There is no H2 emission in the core, whereas the core is prominent in the He I and Brγ recombination lines. The H2 emission is concentrated in equatorial arcs of emission surrounding the core and expanding at ~30 km s-1. These arcs are compared with Hubble Space Telescope images and shown to represent nested loops belonging to the inner sections of a much larger bipolar structure that replicates the inner one. The He I and Brγ emission from the core clearly show a cylindrical central cavity that seems to represent the inner walls of an equatorial density enhancement or torus. The torus is 0.''2 wide (≡200 AU radius at a distance of 2000 pc) and expanding at <=30 km s-1. The eastern wall of the inner torus is consistently more intense than the western wall, which could indicate the presence of an off-center star, such as is observed in the similar hourglass PN, MyCn 18. A bipolar outflow is also detected in Brγ emerging within 0.''1 from the core at ~ ± 40 km s-1.

  10. Near-infrared and ultraviolet spectrophotometry of the young planetary nebula Hubble 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Richard J.; Rossano, George S.; Erwin, Peter; Puetter, R. C.; Feibelman, Walter A.

    1993-01-01

    The young planetary nebula Hubble 12 is observed using near-IR and UV spectrophotometry. The brightness of the O I lines, which is greater than in any other planetary nebula yet measured, indicates that fluorescent excitation by stellar continuum is the principal mechanism generating these lines. Extinction, electron density, and electron temperature are determined using infrared measurements combined with UV data and published optical observations. The range in extinction, density, and temperature implies that, within the ionized region, pockets of emission with distinctly different conditions exist. Logarithmic abundances for helium, oxygen, and sulfur are presented.

  11. Tracing the Star Stream Through M31 Using Planetary Nebula Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Merrett, H R; Merrifield, M R; Romanowsky, A J; Douglas, N G; Napolitano, N R; Arnaboldi, M; Capaccioli, M; Freeman, K C; Gerhard, O E; Evans, N W; Wilkinson, M I; Halliday, C; Bridges, T J; Carter, D

    2003-01-01

    We present a possible orbit for the Southern Stream of stars in M31, which connects it to the Northern Spur. Support for this model comes from the dynamics of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the disk of M31: analysis of a new sample of 2611 PNe obtained using the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph reveals ~20 objects whose kinematics are inconsistent with the normal components of the galaxy, but which lie at the right positions and velocities to connect the two photometric features via this orbit. The satellite galaxy M32 is coincident with the stream both in position and velocity, adding weight to the hypothesis that the stream comprises its tidal debris.

  12. Gaseous abundances in planetary nebulae: What have we learned in the past five years?

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado-Inglada, G

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, in the proceedings of the first IAU symposium on planetary nebulae, Lawrence H. Aller and Stanley J. Czyzak said that "the problem of determination of the chemical compositions of planetary and other gaseous nebulae constitutes one of the most exasperating problems in astrophysics". Although the situation has greatly improved over the years, many important problems are still open and new questions have arrived to the field, which still is an active field of study. Here I will review some of the main aspects related to the determination of gaseous abundances in PNe and some relevant results derived in the last five year, since the last IAU symposium on PNe.

  13. The fast, massive outflow of the pre-planetary nebula IRAS 19374+2356

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Contreras, C.; Martin, S.; Sahai, R.

    2013-05-01

    At some point in the late-AGB stage, a process (or processes) becomes operative that accelerates and imposes bipolarity upon the slow, spherical AGB winds. What produces bipolarity in these objects and at what stage does bipolarity manifest itself are key questions that remain yet poorly understood. We present CO (115 & 230 GHz) emission maps of IRAS19374+2359, an extreme pre-PN with an unparalleledly massive, fast molecular outflow discovered in our OVRO Post-AGB CO 1-0 emission Survey (referred to as OPACOS; Sánchez Contreras & Sahai 2012, ApJS, 203, 16). We present sub-arcsecond resolution ^{(12,13)}CO 2-1 and 1.3 mm-continuum interferometric maps recently obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) together with our discovery ˜8s-resolution ^{(12,13)}CO 1-0 OVRO data. The prominent ˜300 km s^{-1}-broad wings and the lack of an intense, low-velocity CO line core in IRAS 19374 indicate that most or all of the molecular gas participates in the high-velocity flow. From our CO data, we estimate a total mass in the molecular outflow of ˜ 1 msun and an unprecedentedly large value for the linear momemtum carried of ≥ 45 msun km s^{-1}. Our SMA maps show CO emission arising from a ˜3s×2s hourglass-shaped molecular flow aligned with the optical lobes; a linear velocity gradient along the lobes as well as equatorial expansion at the nebula waist are found. The spatio-kinematic structure of this object is in support of a jet-envelope entrainment scenario in which a substantial amount of directed momentum is transferred to large parts of the dense AGB wind by interaction with fast, collimated post-AGB jets.

  14. UV Observations of Neutron Capture Elements in Planetary Nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    N. C. Sterling; Dinerstein, H. L.

    2003-01-01

    Se presentan resultados de una búsqueda entre los datos existentes del Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer(FUSE) y del HST, de especies formandas por captura de neutrones en nebulosas planetarias (NP), que se pueden enriquecer por captura lenta de neutrones (proceso-s) en las estrellas progenitoras. La medición de tales enriquecimientos arroja luz sobre el proceso-s en estrellas AGB y el enriquecimiento de elementos pesados en el medio interestelar. Derivamos abundancias de Ge (Z=32)...

  15. The chemical composition of three planetary nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, R. J.; Killen, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper studies the detailed spectral characteristics of the planetary nebulae N97 and N153 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the planetary nebula N67 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), and the small H II regions N9, N61, and N81 in the SMC. Electron temperatures and densities for each nebula are derived from emission-line strengths determined by photographic spectrophotometry, and relative abundances are estimated for H, He, N, O, Ne, Ar, and S. The results show that: (1) N67 has a 60% overabundance in He/H while N97 and N153 have approximately normal He/H values; (2) all three planetaries have N/H values comparable to those of galactic planetaries but substantially higher than found in the H II regions of their respective Cloud; (3) the O/H values in the planetaries are similar to or lower than those in the H II regions of the respective Cloud; (4) the O/Ne, O/S, and O/Ar ratios in the two LMC planetaries are comparable to those in galactic planetaries; (5) the compositions of the small H II regions in the SMC are nearly identical to those of previously studied large H II regions in the same Cloud; and (6) the He/H ratio of the interstellar gas in the SMC is about 25% less than that in the Galaxy. It is concluded that most of the N abundance in both Clouds arose from nucleosynthesis sources other than planetary nebulae.

  16. Near-IR spectroscopy of planetary nebulae precursors

    CERN Document Server

    García-Hernandez, D A; García-Lario, P; Dominguez-Tagle, C; Conway, G; Prada, F

    2002-01-01

    We present near-IR spectroscopy of a sample of 30 IRAS sources recently identified as late AGB stars, post-AGB stars or early PNe. The spectra obtained are centered at various wavelengths covering the molecular hydrogen v=1-0 S(1) and v=2-1 S(1) emission lines, the recombination lines of hydrogen Br-gamma, Pf-gamma and Br-alpha, and the CO[v=2-0] first overtone bandhead at 2.294 microns. As a result of these observations we have increased from 4 to 13 the total number of proto-PNe detected in molecular hydrogen. When the molecular hydrogen is fluorescence-excited the detection rate is found to be directly correlated with the evolutionary stage of the central star, rather than with the nebular morphology. In contrast, shocked-excited molecular hydrogen is detected only in strongly bipolar proto-PNe, sometimes even at an early stage in the post-AGB phase. The strong correlation of shocked-excited molecular hydrogen emission with bipolarity found confirms the result previously reported by Kastner et al. (1996) i...

  17. M1-46: A Case Study on Multiple-Shell Planetary Nebula Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, M. A.; Manchado, A.; Stanghellini, L.; Herrero, A.

    1996-06-01

    We discuss in detail the evolutionary path of the multiple-shell planetary nebula M1-46, in the light of our new observations. The velocities of the halo and main nebula correspond to a dynamical time lap between the shells of about 6.8 x 104 yr. By means of a non-LTE analysis of the central star's spectrum, we derived a stellar temperature of Teff = 45,000 K, which, coupled to the visual magnitude and an appropriate bolometric correction, gives a stellar luminosity of 5370 Lsun. The mass of the central star has been evaluated to be 0.6 Msun, and its interpulse time on the asymptotic giant branch is 7.6 x 104 yr. The agreement between the observed intershell time lap and the evolutionary interpulse time lap points to the fact that the formation of this planetary nebula could be ascribed to the gasping mass loss associated with the thermal pulses at the thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch. The high-resolution spatially resolved observations reveal the presence of different kinematical components in the main nebula which cannot be understood in a homogeneous expanding shell scenario. As regards the chemical abundances, M1-46 has the typical abundances of a type II planetary nebula. No definite abundance gradient between the shells is found.

  18. An Extreme High-Velocity Bipolar Outflow in the Pre-Planetary Nebula IRAS 08005-2356

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, R

    2015-01-01

    We report interferometric mapping of the bipolar pre-planetary nebula IRAS 08005-2356 with an angular-resolution of ~1"-5", using the Submillimeter Array (SMA), in the 12CO J=2-1, 3-2, 13CO J=2-1 and SiO J=5-4 (v=0) lines. Single-dish observations, using the SMT 10-m, were made in these lines as well as in the CO J=4-3 and SiO J-6-5 (v=0) lines. The lines profiles are very broad, showing the presence of a massive (>0.1 Msun), extreme high-velocity outflow (V~200 km/s) directed along the nebular symmetry axis derived from the HST imaging of this object. The outflow's scalar momentum far exceeds that available from radiation pressure of the central post-AGB star, and it may be launched from an accretion disk around a main-sequence companion. We provide indirect evidence for such a disk from its previously published, broad H-alpha emission profile, which we propose results from Ly-beta emission generated in the disk followed by Raman-scattering in the innermost regions of a fast, neutral wind.

  19. An Extreme High-velocity Bipolar Outflow in the Pre-planetary Nebula IRAS 08005-2356

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Patel, N. A.

    2015-09-01

    We report interferometric mapping of the bipolar pre-planetary nebula IRAS 08005-2356 (I 08005) with an angular resolution of ˜1″-5″, using the Submillimeter Array, in the 12CO J = 2-1, 3-2, 13CO J = 2-1, and SiO J = 5-4 (v = 0) lines. Single-dish observations, using the SMT 10 m, were made in these lines as well as in the CO J = 4-3 and SiO J = 6-5 (v = 0) lines. The line profiles are very broad, showing the presence of a massive (>0.1 M⊙), extreme high velocity outflow (V ˜ 200 km s-1) directed along the nebular symmetry axis derived from the Hubble Space Telescope imaging of this object. The outflow's scalar momentum far exceeds that available from radiation pressure of the central post-AGB star, and it may be launched from an accretion disk around a main-sequence companion. We provide indirect evidence for such a disk from its previously published, broad Hα emission profile, which we propose results from Lyβ emission generated in the disk followed by Raman-scattering in the innermost regions of a fast, neutral wind.

  20. AN EXTREME HIGH-VELOCITY BIPOLAR OUTFLOW IN THE PRE-PLANETARY NEBULA IRAS 08005-2356

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 183-900, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Patel, N. A., E-mail: raghvendra.sahai@jpl.nasa.gov [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We report interferometric mapping of the bipolar pre-planetary nebula IRAS 08005-2356 (I 08005) with an angular resolution of ∼1″–5″, using the Submillimeter Array, in the {sup 12}CO J = 2–1, 3–2, {sup 13}CO J = 2–1, and SiO J = 5–4 (v = 0) lines. Single-dish observations, using the SMT 10 m, were made in these lines as well as in the CO J = 4–3 and SiO J = 6–5 (v = 0) lines. The line profiles are very broad, showing the presence of a massive (>0.1 M{sub ⊙}), extreme high velocity outflow (V ∼ 200 km s{sup −1}) directed along the nebular symmetry axis derived from the Hubble Space Telescope imaging of this object. The outflow's scalar momentum far exceeds that available from radiation pressure of the central post-AGB star, and it may be launched from an accretion disk around a main-sequence companion. We provide indirect evidence for such a disk from its previously published, broad Hα emission profile, which we propose results from Lyβ emission generated in the disk followed by Raman-scattering in the innermost regions of a fast, neutral wind.

  1. Variability in Proto-Planetary Nebulae: IV. Light Curve Analyses of Four Oxygen-Rich, F Spectral-Type Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Hrivnak, Bruce J; Nault, Kristie A

    2015-01-01

    We present new light curves covering 14 to 19 years of observations of four bright proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs), all O-rich and of F spectral type. They each display cyclical light curves with significant variations in amplitude. All four were previously known to vary in light. Our data were combined with published data and searched for periodicity. The results are as follows: IRAS 19475+3119 (HD 331319; 41.0 days), 17436+5003 (HD 161796; 45.2 days), 19386+0155 (101.8 days), and 18095+2704 (113.3 days). The two longer periods are in agreement with previous studies while the two shorter periods each reveal for the first time reveal a dominant period over these long observing intervals. Multiple periods were also found for each object. The secondary periods were all close to the dominant periods, with P2/P1 ranging from 0.86 to 1.06. The variations in color reveal maximum variations in T(eff) of 400 to 770 K. These variations are due to pulsations in these post-AGB objects. Maximum seasonal light variations a...

  2. Discovery of Rubidium, Cadmium, and Germanium Emission Lines in the Near-Infrared Spectra of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, N C; Kaplan, Kyle F; Bautista, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    We identify [Rb IV] 1.5973 and [Cd IV] 1.7204 micron emission lines in high-resolution (R=40,000) near-infrared spectra of the planetary nebulae (PNe) NGC 7027 and IC 5117, obtained with the IGRINS spectrometer on the 2.7-m telescope at McDonald Observatory. We also identify [Ge VI] 2.1930 $\\mu$m in NGC 7027. Alternate identifications for these features are ruled out based on the absence of other multiplet members and/or transitions with the same upper levels. Ge, Rb, and Cd can be enriched in PNe by s-process nucleosynthesis during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stage of evolution. To determine ionic abundances, we calculate [Rb IV] collision strengths and use approximations for those of [Cd IV] and [Ge VI]. Our identification of [Rb IV] 1.5973 $\\mu$m is supported by the agreement between Rb3+/H+ abundances found from this line and the 5759.55 A feature in NGC 7027. Elemental Rb, Cd, and Ge abundances are derived with ionization corrections based on similarities in ionization potential ranges between the ...

  3. A New Grid of Synthetic Spectra for the Analysis of [WC]-type Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Graziela R; Bianchi, Luciana; Maciel, Walter J; Bohlin, Ralph C; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19085.x

    2012-01-01

    We present a comprehensive grid of synthetic stellar-atmosphere spectra, suitable for the analysis of high resolution spectra of hydrogen-deficient post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) objects hotter than 50000 K, migrating along the constant luminosity branch of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD). The grid was calculated with CMFGEN, a state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere code that properly treats the stellar winds, accounting for expanding atmospheres in non-LTE, line blanketing, soft X-rays, and wind clumping. We include many ionic species that have been previously neglected. Our uniform set of models fills a niche in an important parameter regime, i.e., high effective temperatures, high surface gravities, and a range of mass-loss values. The grid constitutes a general tool to facilitate determination of the stellar parameters and line identifications and to interpret morphological changes of the stellar spectrum as stars evolve through the central star of planetary nebula (CSPN) phase. We show the ef...

  4. Observations and three-dimensional photoionization modelling of the Wolf-Rayet planetary nebula Abell 48

    CERN Document Server

    Danehkar, A; Ercolano, B; Kniazev, A Y

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations reveal that the central star of the planetary nebula Abell 48 exhibits spectral features similar to massive nitrogen-sequence Wolf-Rayet stars. This raises a pertinent question, whether it is still a planetary nebula or rather a ring nebula of a massive star. In this study, we have constructed a three-dimensional photoionization model of Abell 48, constrained by our new optical integral field spectroscopy. An analysis of the spatially resolved velocity distributions allowed us to constrain the geometry of Abell 48. We used the collisionally excited lines to obtain the nebular physical conditions and ionic abundances of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulphur and argon, relative to hydrogen. We also determined helium temperatures and ionic abundances of helium and carbon from the optical recombination lines. We obtained a good fit to the observations for most of the emission-line fluxes in our photoionization model. The ionic abundances deduced from our model are in decent agreement with those deri...

  5. A detailed study of the structure of the nested planetary nebula, Hb 12, the Matryoshka nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D. M.; López, J. A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California, 22860 (Mexico); Edwards, M. L. [LBT Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Winge, C., E-mail: dmclark@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: jal@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: medwards@lbto.org, E-mail: cwinge@gemini.edu [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA Inc., Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2014-11-01

    We present near-IR, integral field spectroscopic observations of the planetary nebula (PN) Hb 12 using Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) on Gemini-North. Combining NIFS with the adaptive optics system Altair, we provide a detailed study of the core and inner structure of this PN. We focus the analysis in the prominent emission lines [Fe II] (1.6436 μm), He I (2.0585 μm), H{sub 2} (2.1214 μm), and Br{sub γ} (2.16553 μm). We find that the [Fe II] emission traces a tilted system of bipolar lobes, with the northern lobe being redshifted and the southern lobe blueshifted. The [Fe II] emission is very faint at the core and only present close to the systemic velocity. There is no H{sub 2} emission in the core, whereas the core is prominent in the He I and Br{sub γ} recombination lines. The H{sub 2} emission is concentrated in equatorial arcs of emission surrounding the core and expanding at ∼30 km s{sup –1}. These arcs are compared with Hubble Space Telescope images and shown to represent nested loops belonging to the inner sections of a much larger bipolar structure that replicates the inner one. The He I and Br{sub γ} emission from the core clearly show a cylindrical central cavity that seems to represent the inner walls of an equatorial density enhancement or torus. The torus is 0.''2 wide (≡200 AU radius at a distance of 2000 pc) and expanding at ≤30 km s{sup –1}. The eastern wall of the inner torus is consistently more intense than the western wall, which could indicate the presence of an off-center star, such as is observed in the similar hourglass PN, MyCn 18. A bipolar outflow is also detected in Br{sub γ} emerging within 0.''1 from the core at ∼ ± 40 km s{sup –1}.

  6. A new planetary nebula in the outer reaches of the Galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viironen, K.; Mampaso, A.; L. M. Corradi, R.

    2011-01-01

    A proper determination of the abundance gradient in the Milky Way requires the observation of objects at large galactiocentric distances. With this aim, we are exploring the planetary nebula population towards the Galactic Anticentre. In this article, the discovery and physico-chemical study...

  7. On dust irradiation in planetary nebulae in the context of survivability of ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeghikyan, Ararat

    2017-09-01

    A large number of molecules are observed in planetary nebulae, including simple and, - the most common (H2, CO and OH), more complex (H2O, SiO, HCN, HNC, HCO+), and even the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fullerenes containing a few dozen and more atoms. Water molecules are observed, as a rule, in the young objects, in the gas phase (water "fountains" and related water masers) and solid phase (emission of crystalline ice particles). On the other hand, the results of calculations by the Cloudy computer program, given in this paper, show that the abundance of water ice in planetary nebulae, other conditions being equal, depends on the ionization rate of hydrogen, which depends in turn on the flux of energetic particles (protons and alpha particles) in the range of MeV energies and higher. Calculated water ice column densities reach values of up to 1019 -1020 cm-2 at the usual average ISM H2 ionisation rate of 10-16s-1 and sharply decrease at rates that are a thousand times larger. The possibility of an increased flux of energetic particles in planetary nebulae under conditions of the standard interacting stellar winds scenario is discussed, and it is concluded that the flux may locally exceed by 1-3 orders of magnitude that of galactic cosmic rays. This may have important implications for the chemistry of complex compounds under conditions of planetary nebulae, in particular, for models of the origin of fullerenes.

  8. What can we learn about the kinematics of bright extragalactic planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, M G; López, J A; Riesgo, H; Garcia-Diaz, Ma T

    2009-01-01

    We present high resolution spectroscopy in the [\\ion{O}{3}]$\\lambda$5007 and H$\\alpha$ lines of bright planetary nebulae in the Milky Way bulge and the dwarf galaxies M32, Fornax, Sagittarius, and NGC 6822 obtained at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional in the Sierra San Pedro Martir using the Manchester Echelle Spectrograph. We use the high signal-to-noise (S/N) observations of Milky Way bulge planetary nebulae to explore what kinematic information can be determined reliably when observing extragalactic planetary nebulae in the [\\ion{O}{3}]$\\lambda$5007 line at modest S/N. We find that the intrinsic line widths measured in [\\ion{O}{3}]$\\lambda$5007 and H$\\alpha$ are very similar. Over the range of S/N available in this sample, the line width we measure is independent of the S/N. Finally, deviations from a Gaussian line shape are small. Thus, the line width of the [\\ion{O}{3}]$\\lambda$5007 line in bright extragalactic planetary nebulae should reflect the kinematics of most of the mass in the ionized nebular...

  9. Planck intermediate results XVIII. The millimetre and sub-millimetre emission from planetary nebulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, J.-F.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.;

    2015-01-01

    Late stages of stellar evolution are characterized by copious mass-loss events whose signature is the formation of circumstellar envelopes (CSE). Planck multi-frequency measurements have provided relevant information on a sample of Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) in the important and relatively ...

  10. The curious conundrum regarding sulfur and oxygen abundances in planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, R B C; Karakas, A I; Ferland, G J

    2011-01-01

    We carefully consider numerous explanations for the sulfur abundance anomaly in planetary nebulae. No one rationale appears to be satisfactory, and we suggest that the ultimate explanation is likely to be a heretofore unidentified feature of the nebular gas which significantly impacts the sulfur ionization correction factor.

  11. Multiple outflows in the bipolar planetary nebula M1-16: A molecular line study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Wootten, Alwyn; Schwarz, Hugo E.; Wild, W.

    1994-01-01

    Extensive observations of the molecular gas in the young, compact planetary nebula M1-16 have been made, using the Swedish-ESO-Submillimeter Telescope. A map of the CO J = 2-1 emission shows that the molecular envelope contains both a slow and a fast outflow with expansion velocities of 19 km/s and

  12. Serendipity and the SDSS: Discovery of the Largest Known Planetary Nebula on the Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Hewett, P C; Skillman, E D; Foltz, C B; Willis, J P; Warren, S J; Walton, N A; Hewett, Paul C; Irwin, Michael J; Skillman, Evan D; Foltz, Craig B; Willis, Jon P; Warren, Stephen J; Walton, Nicholas A

    2003-01-01

    Investigation of spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey reveals the presence of a region of ionized gas of >2 degrees diameter centered approximately at alpha = 10^h 37^m delta = -00^o 18' (J2000) (Galactic coordinates l=248, b=+48). [OIII] 4959,5007 emission is particularly strong and emission from H-alpha and [NII] 6548,6583 is also detectable over a substantial area on the sky. The combination of emission line ratios, the close to zero heliocentric radial velocity and the morphology of the structure are consistent with an identification as a very nearby planetary nebula. The proximity of the hot, DO white dwarf PG1034+001 further strengthens this interpretation. The object is: i) the largest planetary nebula on the sky, ii) certainly closer than any planetary nebula other than Sh 2--216, iii) the first to be unambiguously associated with a DO white dwarf. A parallax distance for PG1034+001 would establish whether the structure is in fact the closest, and one of the physically largest, planetary nebula k...

  13. Planck intermediate results XVIII. The millimetre and sub-millimetre emission from planetary nebulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, J.-F.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.

    2015-01-01

    Late stages of stellar evolution are characterized by copious mass-loss events whose signature is the formation of circumstellar envelopes (CSE). Planck multi-frequency measurements have provided relevant information on a sample of Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) in the important and relatively ...

  14. Chemical abundances and dust in planetary nebulae in the Galactic bulge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutenkunst, S.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Pottasch, S. R.; Sloan, G. C.; Houck, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    We present mid-infrared Spitzer spectra of 11 planetary nebulae in the Galactic bulge. We derive argon, neon, sulfur, and oxygen abundances for them using mainly infrared line fluxes combined with some optical line fluxes from the literature. Due to the high extinction toward the bulge, the infrared

  15. Properties of dust grains in planetary nebulae. I. The ionized region of NGC 6445

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, PAM; Van de Steene, GC; Beintema, DA; Martin, PG; Pottasch, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    One of the factors influencing the spectral evolution of a planetary nebula is the fate of the dust grains that are emitting the infrared continuum. Several processes have been proposed that either destroy the grains or remove them from the ionized region. To test whether these processes are effecti

  16. Multiple outflows in the bipolar planetary nebula M1-16: A molecular line study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Wootten, Alwyn; Schwarz, Hugo E.; Wild, W.

    1994-01-01

    Extensive observations of the molecular gas in the young, compact planetary nebula M1-16 have been made, using the Swedish-ESO-Submillimeter Telescope. A map of the CO J = 2-1 emission shows that the molecular envelope contains both a slow and a fast outflow with expansion velocities of 19 km/s and

  17. Observational Confirmation of a Link Between Common Envelope Binary Interaction and Planetary Nebula Shaping

    CERN Document Server

    Hillwig, Todd; De Marco, Orsola; Bond, Howard; Margheim, Steve; Frew, David

    2016-01-01

    A current issue in the study of planetary nebulae with close binary central stars is the extent to which the binaries affect the shaping of the nebulae. Recent studies have begun to show a high coincidence rate between nebulae with large-scale axial or point symmetries and close binary stars. In addition, combined binary-star and spatio-kinematic modeling of the nebulae have demonstrated that all of the systems studied to date appear to have their central binary axis aligned with the primary axis of the nebula. Here we add two more systems to the list, the central stars and nebulae of NGC 6337 and Sp 1. We show both systems to be low inclination, with their binary axis nearly aligned with our line-of-sight. Their inclinations match published values for the inclinations of their surrounding nebulae. Including these two systems with the existing sample statistically demonstrates a direct link between the central binary and the nebular morphology. In addition to the systems' inclinations we give ranges for other...

  18. Bipolar and multipolar Jets in protoplanetary and planetary nebulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahai Raghvendra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los retos m as emocionantes con que actualmente se enfrentan las teor as de evoluci on posterior a la secuencia principal, es entender c omo estrellas AGB (ingl. "Asymptotic Giant Branch" y sus envolturas cicunestelares esf ericas (siglas en ingl es: CSEs se transforman en nebulosas planetarias (NPs con su asombrosa variedad de morfolog as asf ericas. El modelo m as exitoso para dar forma a los NPs|el modelo generalizado de vientos estelares interactuantes, en el cual un viento esf erico de alta velocidad (> 1000 km s...

  19. The second release of the Toru\\'n catalogue of Galactic post-AGB objects: Classification, morphology and spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Szczerba, R; Stasińska, G; Borkowski, J; García-Lario, P; Suárez, O; Hajduk, M; A, D

    2011-01-01

    The investigation of post-AGB objects (proto-planetary nebulae) is very important from the standpoint of physical and chemical changes occurring during the late stages of stellar evolution. The Toru\\'n catalogue of Galactic post-AGB and related objects is an evolutive catalogue containing astrometric, photometric and spectroscopic data as well as HST images for all known post-AGB objects and candidates in our Galaxy. This free-access catalogue can serve as an ideal tool to study different groups of post-AGB objects, especially due to the fact that all information is gathered in one place. The second release of our catalogue introduces a simple classification scheme of post-AGB objects and includes a significant number of new objects, photometric data, spectra and images. Here, using objects from the catalogue we consider the problem of the termination of the AGB phase.

  20. The Chandra Planetary Nebulae Survey (ChanPlaNS): III. X-ray Emission from the Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Montez, R; Balick, B; Behar, E; Blackman, E; Bujarrabal, V; Chu, Y -H; Corradi, R L M; De Marco, O; Frank, A; Freeman, M; Frew, D J; Guerrero, M A; Jones, D; Lopez, J A; Miszalski, B; Nordhaus, J; Parker, Q A; Sahai, R; Sandin, C; Schonberner, D; Soker, N; Sokoloski, J L; Steffen, M; Toalá, J A; Ueta, T; Villaver, E; Zijlstra, A

    2014-01-01

    We present X-ray spectral analysis of 20 point-like X-ray sources detected in Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (ChanPlaNS) observations of 59 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood. Most of these 20 detections are associated with luminous central stars within relatively young, compact nebulae. The vast majority of these point-like X-ray-emitting sources at PN cores display relatively "hard" ($\\geq0.5$~keV) X-ray emission components that are unlikely to be due to photospheric emission from the hot central stars (CSPN). Instead, we demonstrate that these sources are well modeled by optically-thin thermal plasmas. From the plasma properties, we identify two classes of CSPN X-ray emission: (1) high-temperature plasmas with X-ray luminosities, $L_{\\rm X}$, that appear uncorrelated with the CSPN bolometric luminosity, $L_{\\rm bol}$; and (2) lower-temperature plasmas with $L_{\\rm X}/L_{\\rm bol}\\sim10^{-7}$. We suggest these two classes correspond to the physical processes of magnetically active binary comp...

  1. THE CHANDRA PLANETARY NEBULA SURVEY (ChanPlaNS). III. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE CENTRAL STARS OF PLANETARY NEBULAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montez, R. Jr. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37212 (United States); Kastner, J. H.; Freeman, M. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); and others

    2015-02-10

    We present X-ray spectral analysis of 20 point-like X-ray sources detected in Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey observations of 59 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood. Most of these 20 detections are associated with luminous central stars within relatively young, compact nebulae. The vast majority of these point-like X-ray-emitting sources at PN cores display relatively ''hard'' (≥0.5 keV) X-ray emission components that are unlikely to be due to photospheric emission from the hot central stars (CSPN). Instead, we demonstrate that these sources are well modeled by optically thin thermal plasmas. From the plasma properties, we identify two classes of CSPN X-ray emission: (1) high-temperature plasmas with X-ray luminosities, L {sub X}, that appear uncorrelated with the CSPN bolometric luminosity, L {sub bol} and (2) lower-temperature plasmas with L {sub X}/L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup –7}. We suggest these two classes correspond to the physical processes of magnetically active binary companions and self-shocking stellar winds, respectively. In many cases this conclusion is supported by corroborative multiwavelength evidence for the wind and binary properties of the PN central stars. By thus honing in on the origins of X-ray emission from PN central stars, we enhance the ability of CSPN X-ray sources to constrain models of PN shaping that invoke wind interactions and binarity.

  2. Duplicity: its part in the AGB's downfall

    CERN Document Server

    Izzard, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    Half or more of stars more massive than our Sun are orbited by a companion star in a binary system. Many binaries have short enough orbits that the evolution of both stars is greatly altered by an exchange of mass and angular momentum between the stars. Such mass transfer is highly likely on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) because this is when a star is both very large and has strong wind mass loss. Direct mass transfer truncates the AGB, and its associated nucleosynthesis, prematurely compared to in a single star. In wide binaries we can probe nucleosynthesis in the long-dead AGB primary star by today observing its initially lower-mass companion. The star we see now may be polluted by ejecta from the primary either through a wind or Roche-lobe overflow. We highlight recent quantitative work on nucleosynthesis in (ex-)AGB mass-transfer systems, such as carbon and barium stars, the link between binary stars and planetary nebulae, and suggest AGB stars as a possible source of the enigmatic element, lithium.

  3. Central stars of planetary nebulae: The white dwarf connection

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper is focused on the transition phase between central stars and white dwarfs, i.e. objects in the effective temperature range 100,000 - 200,000 K. We confine our review to hydrogen-deficient stars because the common H-rich objects are subject of the paper by Ziegler et al. in these proceedings. We address the claimed iron-deficiency in PG1159 stars and [WC] central stars. The discovery of new Ne VII and Ne VIII lines in PG1159 stars suggests that the identification of O VII and O VIII lines that are used for spectral classification of [WCE] stars is wrong. We then present evidence for two distinct post-AGB evolutionary sequences for H-deficient stars based on abundance analyses of the He-dominated O(He) stars and the hot DO white dwarf KPD0005+5106. Finally, we report on evidence for an H-deficient post-super AGB evolution sequence represented by the hottest known, carbon/oxygen-atmosphere white dwarf H1504+65 and the recently discovered carbon-atmosphere "hot DQ" white dwarfs.

  4. Deciphering the bipolar planetary nebula Abell 14 with 3D ionization and morphological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akras, S.; Clyne, N.; Boumis, P.; Monteiro, H.; Gonçalves, D. R.; Redman, M. P.; Williams, S.

    2016-04-01

    Abell 14 is a poorly studied object despite being considered a born-again planetary nebula. We performed a detailed study of its 3D morphology and ionization structure using the SHAPE and MOCASSIN codes. We found that Abell 14 is a highly evolved, bipolar nebula with a kinematical age of ˜19 400 yr for a distance of 4 kpc. The high He abundance, and N/O ratio indicate a progenitor of 5 M⊙ that has experienced the third dredge-up and hot bottom burning phases. The stellar parameters of the central source reveal a star at a highly evolved stage near to the white dwarf cooling track, being inconsistent with the born-again scenario. The nebula shows unexpectedly strong [N I] λ5200 and [O I] λ6300 emission lines indicating possible shock interactions. Abell 14 appears to be a member of a small group of highly evolved, extreme type-I planetary nebulae (PNe). The members of this group lie at the lower-left corner of the PNe regime on the [N II]/Hα versus [S II]/Hα diagnostic diagram, where shock-excited regions/objects are also placed. The low luminosity of their central stars, in conjunction with the large physical size of the nebulae, result in a very low photoionization rate, which can make any contribution of shock interaction easily perceptible, even for small velocities.

  5. Prediction of close binarity based on planetary nebula morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, B; Jones, D; Santander-García, M; Rodríguez-Gil, P; Rubio-Díez, M M

    2010-01-01

    A thorough search of the OGLE-III microlensing project has more than doubled the total sample of PNe known to have close binary central stars. These discoveries have enabled close binary induced morphological trends to be revealed for the first time. Canonical bipolar nebulae, low-ionisation structures and polar outflows are all identified within the sample and are provisionally associated with binarity. We have embarked upon a large photometric monitoring program using the Flemish Mercator telescope to simultaneously test the predictive power of these morphological features and to find more close binaries. Early results are very positive with at least five binaries found so far. This suggests our method is an effective means to expedite the construction of a statistically significant sample of close binary shaped nebulae. Such an authoritative sample will be essential to quantify the degree to which close binary nuclei may shape PNe.

  6. Physical and Chemical Properties of Planetary Nebulae with WR-type Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Danehkar, Ashkbiz; Karakas, Amanda; Parker, Quentin A

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out optical spectroscopic measurements of emission lines for a sample of Galactic planetary nebulae with Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars and weak emission-line stars (wels). The plasma diagnostics and elemental abundance analysis have been done using both collisionally excited lines (CELs) and optical recombination lines (ORLs). It is found that the abundance discrepancy factors (ADF=ORL/CEL) are closely correlated with the dichotomy between temperatures derived from forbidden lines and those from He I recombination lines, implying the existence of H-deficient materials embedded in the nebula. The H$\\beta$ surface brightness correlations suggest that they might be also related to the nebular evolution.

  7. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: Planetary Nebulae as Green Galactic Citizens

    CERN Document Server

    Kwitter, K B

    2011-01-01

    We review gas-phase abundances in PNe and describe their dual utility as archives of original progenitor metallicity via the alpha elements, as well as sources of processed material from nucleosynthesis during the star's evolution, i.e., C, N, and s-process elements. We describe the analysis of PN spectra to derive abundances and discuss the discrepancies that arise from different choices at each step. Abundance results for the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds from various groups of investigators are presented; the observational results are compared with theoretical predictions of AGB stellar yields. Finally, we suggest areas where more work is needed to improve our abilities to determine abundances in PNe.

  8. A superconducting tunnel junction receiver for submillimeter astronomy, and analysis of observations of post-AGB star molecular envelopes. [AGB (asymptotic giant branch)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaminet, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    A heterodyne receiver designed for astronomical use between 450 and 520 GHz has been constructed. Very low capacitance (C [approximately] 5-10 fF) Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) junctions have been fabricated as the detectors; these junctions lie on the edges of niobium thin films and form Nb-Al-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]-Al-Nb sandwiches. The double sideband (DSB) receiver noise temperature is between 400 K and 800 K throughout the 70 GHz band. In addition, detailed modelling and analysis of astronomical observations of two post-AGB (Asymptotic Giant Branch) stars was performed. The observations were made with an SIS receiver designed for 345 GHz. CO observations and modelling of the young planetary nebula NGC 7027 provided the best determination yet of its AGB mass loss rate, the first direct evidence for bipolarity in its AGB mass loss, evidence for close hydrodynamic coupling between the planetary nebula and the relic AGB wind, and evidence for evolution in the metallicity of the stellar wind. Observations of the proto-planetary nebula CRL 2688 found evidence for spatially extended fast wind emission with a non-bipolar morphology, and evidence for evolution is elemental abundances in the stellar wind.

  9. The global kinematics of the Dumbbell planetary nebula (NGC 6853, M27, PN G060.8-03.6)

    CERN Document Server

    Meaburn, J; Christopoulou, P E; Goudis, C D; Bryce, M; López, J A

    2005-01-01

    Spatially resolved profiles of the HeII 6560 A, Halpha and [N II] 6548 & 6584 A nebular emission lines have been obtained in two orthogonal long cuts over the Dumbbell planetary nebula. The central HeII 6560 A emitting volume of the bright dumbbell structure is shown to be particularly inert with an expansion velocity of = 25 km/s. The present results are compared with currents models for the creation of planetary nebulae.

  10. Spatially resolved physical and chemical properties of the planetary nebula NGC 3242

    CERN Document Server

    Monteiro, H; Leal-Ferreira, M L; Corradi, R L M

    2013-01-01

    Optical integral-field spectroscopy was used to investigate the planetary nebula NGC 3242. We analysed the main morphological components of this source, including its knots, but not the halo. In addition to revealing the properties ofthe physical and chemical nature of this nebula, we also provided reliable spatially resolved constraints that can be used for future photoionisation modelling of the nebula. The latter is ultimately necessary to obtain a fully self-consistent 3D picture of the physical and chemical properties of the object. The observations were obtained with the VIMOS instrument attached to VLT-UT3. Maps and values for specific morphological zones for the detected emission-lines were obtained and analysed with routines developed by the authors to derive physical and chemical conditions of the ionised gas in a 2D fashion. We obtained spatially resolved maps and mean values of the electron densities, temperatures, and chemical abundances, for specific morphological structures in NGC~3242. These r...

  11. A Survey for hot Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae I. Methods and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Kanarek, Graham C; Faherty, Jacqueline K; Zurek, David; Moffat, Anthony F J

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of initial spectrographic followup with the Very Large Telescope (UT3, Melipal) for $K_s \\ge 14$ Galactic plane CIV emission-line candidates in the near-infrared (NIR). These 7 faint stars all display prominent HeI and CIV emission lines characteristic of a carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet star. They have NIR colours which are much too blue to be those of distant, classical WR stars. The magnitudes and colours are compatible with those expected for central stars of planetary nebulae, and are likely to come from massive progenitor populations, and themselves be more massive than any sample of planetary nebulae known. Our survey has identified thousands of such candidates.

  12. Dark-Matter Content of Early-Type Galaxies with Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Napolitano, N R; Coccato, L; Capaccioli, M; Douglas, N G; Noordermeer, E; Merrifield, M R; Kuijken, K; Arnaboldi, M; Gerhard, O; Freeman, K C; De Lorenzi, F; Das, P

    2007-01-01

    We examine the dark matter properties of nearby early-type galaxies using planetary nebulae (PNe) as mass probes. We have designed a specialised instrument, the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph (PN.S) operating at the William Herschel telescope, with the purpose of measuring PN velocities with best efficiency. The primary scientific objective of this custom-built instrument is the study of the PN kinematics in 12 ordinary round galaxies. Preliminary results showing a dearth of dark matter in ordinary galaxies (Romanowsky et al. 2003) are now confirmed by the first complete PN.S datasets. On the other hand early-type galaxies with a "regular" dark matter content are starting to be observed among the brighter PN.S target sample, thus confirming a correlation between the global dark-to-luminous mass virial ratio (f_DM=M_DM/M_star) and the galaxy luminosity and mass.

  13. Studying the Kinematics of Faint Stellar Populations with the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Merrifield, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Galaxies are faint enough when one observes just their light distributions, but in studying their full dynamical structure the stars are spread over the six dimensions of phase space rather than just the three spatial dimensions, making their densities very low indeed. This low signal is unfortunate, as stellar dynamics hold important clues to these systems' life histories, and the issue is compounded by the fact that the most interesting information comes from the faintest outer parts of galaxies, where dynamical timescales (and hence memories of past history) are longest. To extract this information, we have constructed a special-purpose instrument, the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph, which observes planetary nebulae as kinematic tracers of the stellar population, and allows one to study the stellar dynamics of galaxies down to extremely low surface brightnesses. Here, we present results from this instrument that illustrate how it can uncover the nature of low surface-brightness features such as thick disks ...

  14. Elemental abundances of Galactic bulge planetary nebulae from optical recombination lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, W

    2007-01-01

    (abridged) Deep long-slit optical spectrophotometric observations are presented for 25 Galactic bulge planetary nebulae (GBPNe) and 6 Galactic disk planetary nebulae (GDPNe). The spectra, combined with archival ultraviolet spectra obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and infrared spectra obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), have been used to carry out a detailed plasma diagnostic and element abundance analysis utilizing both collisional excited lines (CELs) and optical recombination lines (ORLs). Comparisons of plasma diagnostic and abundance analysis results obtained from CELs and from ORLs reproduce many of the patterns previously found for GDPNe. In particular we show that the large discrepancies between electron temperatures (Te's) derived from CELs and from ORLs appear to be mainly caused by abnormally low values yielded by recombination lines and/or continua. Similarly, the large discrepancies between heavy element abundances deduced from ORLs and from CELs are large...

  15. ABUNDANCES OF PLANETARY NEBULAE IN THE OUTER DISK OF M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwitter, Karen B.; Lehman, Emma M. M. [Department of Astronomy, Williams College, Williamstown, MA 01267 (United States); Balick, Bruce [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Henry, R. B. C., E-mail: kkwitter@williams.edu, E-mail: emmalehman@gmail.com, E-mail: balick@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: rhenry@ou.edu [H.L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We present spectroscopic observations and chemical abundances of 16 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the outer disk of M31. The [O III] {lambda}4363 line is detected in all objects, allowing a direct measurement of the nebular temperature essential for accurate abundance determinations. Our results show that the abundances in these M31 PNe display the same correlations and general behaviors as Type II PNe in the Milky Way. We also calculate photoionization models to derive estimates of central star properties. From these we infer that our sample PNe, all near the bright-end cutoff of the planetary nebula luminosity function, originated from stars near 2 M{sub Sun }. Finally, under the assumption that these PNe are located in M31's disk, we plot the oxygen abundance gradient, which appears shallower than the gradient in the Milky Way.

  16. Observations and 3D hydrodynamical models of planetary nebulae with Wolf-Rayet type central stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechy-García, J. S.; Velázquez, P. F.; Peña, M.; Raga, A. C.

    2017-01-01

    We present high-resolution, long-slit spectroscopic observations of two planetary nebulae, M 1-32 and M 3-15, with [WC] central stars located near the Galactic bulge. The observations were obtained with the 2.1-m telescope of the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, San Pedro Mártir. M 1-32 shows wide wings on the base of its emission lines and M 3-15 has two very faint high-velocity knots. In order to model both planetary nebulae, we built a three-dimensional model consisting of a jet interacting with an equatorially concentrated slow wind, emulating the presence of a dense torus, using the Yguazú hydrodynamical code. From our hydrodynamical models, we obtained position-velocity diagrams in the [N II]λ6583 line for comparison with the observations. We find that the spectral characteristics of M 1-32 and M 3-15 can be explained with the same physical model - a jet moving inside an asymptotic giant branch wind - using different parameters (physical conditions and position angles of the jet). In agreement with our model and observations, these objects contain a dense torus seeing pole-on and a bipolar jet escaping through the poles. Then, we propose to classify this kind of objects as spectroscopic bipolar nebulae, although they have been classified morphologically as compact, round, or elliptical nebulae or with `close collimated lobes'.

  17. Neutron-capture element abundances in the planetary nebula NGC 5315 from deep optical and near-infrared spectrophotometry★†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, S.; García-Rojas, J.; Sterling, N. C.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; Mesa-Delgado, A.; Luridiana, V.; Roederer, I. U.; Mashburn, A. L.

    2017-10-01

    We analyse the chemical composition of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 5315, through high-resolution (R ∼ 40000) optical spectroscopy with Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope, and medium-resolution (R ∼ 4800) near-infrared spectroscopy with Folded-port InfraRed Echellette at Magellan Baade Telescope, covering a wide spectral range from 0.31 to 2.50 μm. The main aim of this work is to investigate neutron (n)-capture element abundances to study the operation of the slow n-capture ('s-process') in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) progenitor of NGC 5315. We detect more than 700 emission lines, including ions of the n-capture elements Se, Kr, Xe and possibly Br. We compute physical conditions from a large number of diagnostic line ratios, and derive ionic abundances for species with available atomic data. The total abundances are computed using recent ionization correction factors (ICFs) or by summing ionic abundances. Total abundances of common elements are in good agreement with previous work on this object. Based on our abundance analysis of NGC 5315, including the lack of s-process enrichment, we speculate that the most probable evolutionary scenario is that the progenitor star is in a binary system as hinted at by radial velocity studies, and interactions with its companion truncated the AGB before s-process enrichment could occur. However there are other two possible scenarios for its evolution, that cannot be ruled out: (i) the progenitor is a low-mass single star that did not undergo third dredge-up; (ii) the progenitor star of NGC 5315 had an initial mass of 3-5 M⊙, and any s-process enhancements were heavily diluted by the massive envelope during the AGB phase.

  18. Search with Copernicus for ultraviolet emission lines in the planetary nebula NGC 3242

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R. D.; Snow, T. P., Jr.; Upson, W. L., II

    1978-01-01

    The high-excitation planetary nebula NGC 3242 has been observed with the ultraviolet telescope-spectrometer aboard Copernicus. Wavelength intervals corresponding to the emission lines of O VI at 1032 A, He II at 1085 A, Si III at 1206 A, and N V at 1239 A have been scanned. Upper limits to the observed fluxes are reported and compared with predicted emission-line fluxes from this object.

  19. Abundances of Disk Planetary Nebulae in M31 and the Radial Oxygen Gradient

    CERN Document Server

    Kwitter, K B; Balick, B; Henry, R B C

    2011-01-01

    We have obtained spectra of 16 planetary nebulae in the disk of M31 and determined the abundances of He, N, O, Ne, S and Ar. Here we present the median abundances and compare them with previous M31 PN disk measurements and with PNe in the Milky Way. We also derive the radial oxygen gradient in M31, which is shallower than that in the Milky Way, even accounting for M31's larger disk scale length.

  20. Chemical abundances in Galactic Planetary Nebulae with Spitzer spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Hernandez, D A

    2014-01-01

    We present new low-resolution (R~800) optical spectra of 22 Galactic PNe with Spitzer spectra. These data are combined with recent optical spectroscopic data available in the literature to construct representative samples of compact (and presumably young) Galactic disc and bulge PNe with Spitzer spectra. Attending to the nature of the dust features seen in their Spitzer spectra, Galactic disc and bulge PNe are classified according to four major dust types (oxygen chemistry or OC, carbon chemistry or CC, double chemistry or DC, featureless or F) and subtypes (amorphous and crystalline, and aliphatic and aromatic). Nebular gas abundances of He, N, O, Ne, S, Cl and Ar, as well as plasma parameters (e.g. Ne, Te) are homogeneously derived and we study the median chemical abundances and nebular properties in Galactic disc and bulge PNe depending on their Spitzer dust types and subtypes. A comparison of the derived median abundance patterns with AGB nucleosynthesis predictions show mainly that: i) DC PNe, both with ...

  1. X-Ray Emission from the Pre-Planetary Nebula Henize 3-1475

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, R; Frank, A; Morris, M; Blackman, E G; Sahai, Raghvendra; Kastner, Joel H.; Frank, Adam; Morris, Mark; Blackman, Eric G.

    2003-01-01

    We report the first detection of X-ray emission in a pre-planetary nebula, Hen 3-1475. Pre-planetary nebulae are rare objects in the short transition stage between the Asymptotic Giant Branch and planetary nebula evolutionary phases, and Hen 3-1475, characterised by a remarkable S-shaped chain of optical knots, is one of the most noteworthy members of this class. Observations with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) onboard the Chandra X-Ray observatory show the presence of compact emission coincident with the brightest optical knot in this bipolar object, which is displaced from the central star by 2.7 arcsec along the polar axis. Model fits to the X-ray spectrum indicate an X-ray temperature and luminosity, respectively, of (4.3-5.7) 10^6 K and (4+/-1.4) 10^{31} (D/5 kpc)^2 erg s^{-1}, respectively. Our 3-sigma upper limit on the luminosity of compact X-ray emission from the central star in Hen 3-1475 is ~5 10^{31} (D/5 kpc)^2 erg s^{-1}. The detection of X-rays in Hen 3-1475 is consistent with mod...

  2. Imaging the elusive H-poor gas in the high ADF planetary nebula NGC 6778

    CERN Document Server

    García-Rojas, Jorge; Monteiro, Hektor; Jones, David; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We present the first direct image of the high-metallicity gas component in a planetary nebula (NGC 6778), taken with the OSIRIS Blue Tunable Filter centered on the O II 4649+50 angstroms optical recombination lines (ORLs) at the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We show that the emission of these faint O II ORLs is concentrated in the central parts of the planetary nebula and is not spatially coincident either with emission coming from the bright [O III] 5007 angstroms collisionally excited line (CEL) or the bright H alpha recombination line. From monochromatic emission line maps taken with VIMOS at the 8.2m Very Large Telescope, we find that the spatial distribution of the emission from the auroral [O III] 4363 line resembles that of the O II ORLs but differs from nebular [O III] 5007 CEL distribution, implying a temperature gradient inside the planetary nebula. The centrally peaked distribution of the O II emission and the differences with the [O III] and H I emission profiles are consistent with the presence...

  3. H2 infrared line emission from the ionized region of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Aleman, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    The analysis and interpretation of the H2 line emission from planetary nebulae have been done in the literature assuming that the molecule survives only in regions where the hydrogen is neutral, as in photodissociation, neutral clumps or shocked regions. However, there is strong observational and theoretical evidence that at least part of the H2 emission is produced inside the ionized region of such objects. The aim of the present work is to calculate and analyze the infrared line emission of H2 produced inside the ionized region of planetary nebulae using a one-dimensional photoionization code. The photoionization code Aangaba was improved in order to calculate the statistical population of the H2 energy levels and the intensity of the H2 infrared emission lines in physical conditions typical of planetary nebulae. A grid of models was obtained and the results are analyzed and compared with the observational data. We show that the contribution of the ionized region to the H2 line emission can be important, pa...

  4. UV Observations of Neutron Capture Elements in Planetary Nebulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Sterling

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan resultados de una búsqueda entre los datos existentes del Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer(FUSE y del HST, de especies formandas por captura de neutrones en nebulosas planetarias (NP, que se pueden enriquecer por captura lenta de neutrones (proceso-s en las estrellas progenitoras. La medición de tales enriquecimientos arroja luz sobre el proceso-s en estrellas AGB y el enriquecimiento de elementos pesados en el medio interestelar. Derivamos abundancias de Ge (Z=32 relativas a S ó Fe de observaciones de Ge III λ1088.46 para cinco NP; cuatro de estas tienen abundancias de Ge un factor >3-10 por arriba de la solar, dependiendo de las suposiciones sobre la pérdida en el polvo. En contraste, encontramos abundancia aproximadamente solar para el Ge en IC 4776, y tambien en el medio interestelar hacia Abell 36 segun se deriva de Ge II λ1237.06. Otro elemento formado por captura de neutrones, Ga (Z = 31, probablemente se ha detectado en SwSt 1 por medio de Ga III λ1495.05, con una intensidad que indica una gran abundancia de Ga. La evidencia mas fuerte de enriquecimiento de Ge se observa en NP con estrellas centrales Wolf-Rayet (WR deficientes en H y ricas en C. Aunque el camino evolutivo que produce las estrellas centrales WR no se conoce bien, es probable que estos objetos han experimentado mezcla profunda y dragado de material procesado nuclearmente.

  5. Masses of the Planetary Nebula Central Stars in the Galactic Globular Cluster System from HST Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, George H.; De Marco, Orsola; Davies, James; Lotarevich, I.; Bond, Howard E.; Harrington, J. Patrick; Lanz, Thierry

    2017-02-01

    The globular cluster (GC) system of our Galaxy contains four planetary nebulae (PNe): K 648 (or Ps 1) in M15, IRAS 18333-2357 in M22, JaFu 1 in Pal 6, and JaFu 2 in NGC 6441. Because single-star evolution at the low stellar mass of present-epoch GCs was considered incapable of producing visible PNe, their origin presented a puzzle. We imaged the PN JaFu 1 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to obtain photometry of its central star (CS) and high-resolution morphological information. We imaged IRAS 18333-2357 with better depth and resolution, and we analyzed its archival HST spectra to constrain its CS temperature and luminosity. All PNe in Galactic GCs now have quality HST data, allowing us to improve CS mass estimates. We find reasonably consistent masses between 0.53 and 0.58 M ⊙ for all four objects, though estimates vary when adopting different stellar evolutionary calculations. The CS mass of IRAS 18333-2357, though, depends strongly on its temperature, which remains elusive due to reddening uncertainties. For all four objects, we consider their CS and nebula masses, their morphologies, and other incongruities to assess the likelihood that these objects formed from binary stars. Although generally limited by uncertainties (∼0.02 M ⊙) in post-AGB tracks and core mass versus luminosity relations, the high-mass CS in K 648 indicates a binary origin. The CS of JaFu 1 exhibits compact, bright [O iii] and Hα emission, like EGB 6, suggesting a binary companion or disk. Evidence is weaker for a binary origin of JaFu 2. Based, in part, on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained [from the Data Archive] at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-11558.

  6. An spectroscopic and photometric study of the planetary nebulae Kn 61 and Pa 5

    CERN Document Server

    García-Díaz, Ma T; López, J A; Zharikov, S; Tovmassian, G; Borisov, N; Valyavin, G

    2014-01-01

    We present the first morpho-kinematical analysis of the planetary nebulae Kn 61 and Pa 5 and explore the nature of their central stars. Our analysis is based on high resolution and medium resolution spectroscopic observations, deep narrow-band imaging, and integral photometry. This material allows us to identify the morphological components and study their kinematics. The direct images and spectra indicate an absence of the characteristic [N II] and [S II] emission lines in both nebulae. The nebular spectrum of Kn 61 suggests an hydrogen deficient planetary nebula and the stellar spectrum of the central star reveals a hydrogen deficient PG 1159-type star. The [O III] position velocity diagram reveals that Kn 61 is a closed, empty, spherical shell with a thin border and a filamentary surface expanding at 67.6 km s$^{-1}$, and the shell is currently not expanding isotropically. We derived a kinematic age of $\\sim$ 1.6$\\times$10$^4$ yrs for an assumed distance of 4 kpc. A photometric period of $\\sim$ 5.7($\\pm$0....

  7. Abell 41: shaping of a planetary nebula by a binary central star?

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, D; Santander-García, M; López, J A; Meaburn, J; Mitchell, D L; O'Brien, T J; Pollacco, D; Rubio-Díez, M M; Vaytet, N M H

    2010-01-01

    We present the first detailed spatio-kinematical analysis and modelling of the planetary nebula Abell 41, which is known to contain the well-studied close-binary system MT Ser. This object represents an important test case in the study of the evolution of planetary nebulae with binary central stars as current evolutionary theories predict that the binary plane should be aligned perpendicular to the symmetry axis of the nebula. Deep narrowband imaging in the light of [NII], [OIII] and [SII], obtained using ACAM on the William Herschel Telescope, has been used to investigate the ionisation structure of Abell 41. Longslit observations of the H-alpha and [NII] emission were obtained using the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer on the 2.1-m San Pedro M\\'artir Telescope. These spectra, combined with the narrowband imagery, were used to develop a spatio-kinematical model of [NII] emission from Abell 41. The best fitting model reveals Abell 41 to have a waisted, bipolar structure with an expansion velocity of ~40km\\s at...

  8. The Mid-Infrared Colours of Galactic Bulge, Disk and Magellanic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, J P; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.14846.x

    2009-01-01

    We present mid-infrared (MIR) photometry for 367 Galactic disk, bulge and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) planetary nebulae, determined using GLIMPSE II and SAGE data acquired using the Spitzer Space Telescope. This has permitted us to make a comparison between the luminosity functions of bulge and LMC planetary nebulae, and between the MIR colours of all three categories of source. It is determined that whilst the 3.6 microns luminosity function of the LMC and bulge sources are likely to be closely similar, the [3.6]-[5.8] and [5.8]-[8-0] indices of LMC nebulae are different from those of their disk and bulge counterparts. This may arise because of enhanced 6.2 microns PAH emission within the LMC sources, and/or as a result of differences between the spectra of LMC PNe and those of their Galactic counterparts. We also determine that the more evolved disk sources listed in the MASH catalogues of Parker et al. and Miszalski et al. (2008) have similar colours to those of the less evolved (and higher surface bright...

  9. A planetary nebula around nova V458 Vul undergoing flash ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Wesson, R; Corradi, R L M; Drew, J E; Groot, P J; Knigge, C; Steeghs, D; Gänsicke, B T; Napiwotzki, R; Rodríguez-Gil, P; Zijlstra, A A; Bode, M F; Drake, J J; Frew, D J; González-Solares, E A; Greimel, R; Irwin, M J; Morales-Rueda, L; Nelemans, G; Parker, Q A; Sale, S E; Sokoloski, J L; Somero, A; Uthas, H; Walton, N A; Warner, B; Watson, C A; Wright, N J

    2008-01-01

    Nova V458 Vul erupted on 2007 August 8th and reached a visual magnitude of 8.1 a few days later. H$\\alpha$ images obtained six weeks before the outburst as part of the IPHAS galactic plane survey reveal an 18th magnitude progenitor surrounded by an extended nebula. Subsequent images and spectroscopy of the nebula reveal an inner nebular knot increasing rapidly in brightness due to flash ionization by the nova event. We derive a distance of 13 kpc based on light travel time considerations, which is supported by two other distance estimation methods. The nebula has an ionized mass of 0.2 M$_{\\odot}$ and a low expansion velocity: this rules it out as ejecta from a previous nova eruption, and is consistent with it being a ~14,000 year old planetary nebula, probably the product of a prior common envelope (CE) phase of evolution of the binary system. The large derived distance means that the mass of the erupting WD component of the binary is high. We identify two possible evolutionary scenarios, in at least one of ...

  10. The planetary nebula Abell 48 and its [WN4] central star

    CERN Document Server

    Bojicic, I S; Parker, Q A; Stupar, M; Wachter, S; DePew, K

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted a multi-wavelength study of the planetary nebula Abell 48 and give a revised classification of its nucleus as a hydrogen-deficient star of type [WN4]. The surrounding nebula has a morphology typical of PNe and importantly, is not enriched in nitrogen, and thus not the 'peeled atmosphere' of a massive star. Indeed, no WN4 star is known to be surrounded by such a compact nebula. The ionized mass of the nebula is also a powerful discriminant between the low-mass PN and high-mass WR ejecta interpretations. The ionized mass would be impossibly high if a distance corresponding to a Pop I star was adopted, but at a distance of 2 kpc, the mass is quite typical of moderately evolved PNe. At this distance, the ionizing star then has a luminosity of ~5000 Lsolar, again rather typical for a PN central star. We give a brief discussion of the implications of this discovery for the late-stage evolution of intermediate-mass stars.

  11. Modelling the 3D morphology and proper motions of the planetary nebula NGC 6302

    CERN Document Server

    Uscanga, L; Esquivel, A; Raga, A C; Boumis, P; Cantó, J

    2014-01-01

    We present 3D hydrodynamical simulations of an isotropic fast wind interacting with a previously ejected toroidally-shaped slow wind in order to model both the observed morphology and the kinematics of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 6302. This source, also known as the Butterfly nebula, presents one of the most complex morphologies ever observed in PNe. From our numerical simulations, we have obtained an intensity map for the H$\\alpha$ emission to make a comparison with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of this object. We have also carried out a proper motion (PM) study from our numerical results, in order to compare with previous observational studies. We have found that the two interacting stellar wind model reproduces well the morphology of NGC 6302, and while the PM in the models are similar to the observations, our results suggest that an acceleration mechanism is needed to explain the Hubble-type expansion found in HST observations.

  12. Low-ionization structures in planetary nebulae - I: physical, kinematic and excitation properties

    CERN Document Server

    Akras, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    Though the small-scale, low-ionization knots, filaments and jets (LISs) of planetary nebulae (PNe) are known for ~30yr, some of their observational properties are not well established. In consequence our ability to include them in the wider context of the formation and evolution of PNe is directly affected. Why most structures have lower densities than the PN shells hosting them? Is their intense emission in low-ionization lines the key to their main excitation mechanism? Therefore, if considered altogether, can LISs line ratios, chemical abundances and kinematics enlighten the interplay between the different excitation and formation processes? Here we present a spectroscopic analysis of five PNe that possess LISs confirming that all nebular components have comparable electron temperatures, whereas the electron density is systematically lower in LISs than in the surrounding nebula. Chemical abundances of LISs versus other PN components do not show significant differences as well. By using diagnostic diagrams ...

  13. NEBULAR KINEMATICS OF PLANETARY NEBULAE AS TESTS OF POSSIBLE DIFFERENCES OF DISTRIBUTION OF PERMITTED AND FORBIDDEN EMISSION LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Torres-Peimbert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In gaseous nebulae the abundances of heavy elements derived from recombination lines are systematically higher than those derived from collisionally excited lines. The possible explanations to obtain compatible solutions are: either to attribute the difference to the presence of temperature inhomogeneities or to the presence of dense clumps of colder enriched material. We have obtained long slit echelle spectrograms in several planetary nebulae to try to shed light on this topic. We present preliminary results for NGC 6543.

  14. Radial abundance gradients from planetary nebulae at different distances from the galactic plane

    CERN Document Server

    Maciel, W J; Cavichia, O

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the variations of the radial O/H abundance gradients from planetary nebulae (PN) located at different distances from the galactic plane. In particular, we determine the abundance gradients at different heights from the plane in order to investigate a possible gradient inversion for the objects at larger distances from the plane. We consider a large sample of PN with known distances, so that the height relative to the galactic plane can be derived, and accurate abundances, so that the gradients can be determined.

  15. Detection of the Carbon Monoxide Ion (CO+) in the Interstellar Medium and a Planetary Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latter, William B.; Walker, Christopher K.; Maloney, Philip R.

    1993-01-01

    We report detection of the carbon monoxide ion (CO+) in the interstellar medium (Ml7SW) and a planetary nebula (NGC 7027). These detections are based on observations of three millimeter and submillimeter transitions in M17SW and one in NGC 7027. Chemical models suggest that CO+ should be most abundant where complex molecules are least likely to be present. In our search for CO+ we therefore minimized the chance of confusion while maximizing the probability of detection by observing regions whose chemistry is dominated by the effects of ultraviolet radiation.

  16. Iron Abundance in Hydrogen-Rich Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, A I D; Kruk, J W; Rauch, T; Traulsen, I; Werner, K

    2004-01-01

    We report on an on-going analysis of high-resolution UV spectra of hot hydrogen-rich central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN), obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and FUSE. Since UV spectra of many CSPN are dominated by Fe and Ni lines, we intend to use them as temperature indicators to check the CSPN temperature scale we have derived earlier from CNO ionization balances. Furthermore, the observed line strengths of heavy metals show large variations between different objects suggesting a possible spread in abundances. We will determine abundances of iron group elements by quantitative spectral analyses with non-LTE model atmospheres.

  17. A survey for hot central stars of planetary nebulae - I. Methods and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanarek, Graham C.; Shara, Michael M.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Zurek, David; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of initial spectrographic followup with the Very Large Telescope (UT3, Melipal) for Ks ≥ 14 Galactic plane C IV emission-line candidates in the near-infrared (NIR). These seven faint stars all display prominent He I and/or C IV emission lines characteristic of a carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet star. They have NIR colours which are much too blue to be those of distant, classical WR stars. The magnitudes and colours are compatible with those expected for central stars of planetary nebulae, and are likely to come from massive progenitor populations. Our survey has identified thousands of such candidates.

  18. Low resolution spectroscopy of hot post-AGB candidates II. LS, LSS, LSE stars and additional IRAS sources

    CERN Document Server

    Parthasarathy, M; Vijapurkar, J; Takeda, Y

    2011-01-01

    Hot (OB) post-AGB stars are immediate progenitors of planetary nebulae (PNe). Very few hot post-AGB stars are known. Detecting new hot post-AGB candidates and follow-up multiwavelength studies will enable us to further understand the processes during the post-AGB evolution that lead to the formation of PNe. Case-Hamburg OB star surveys and their extension (LS, LSS, and LSE catalogues) and IRAS (point source) catalogues are good sources for detecting new hot post-AGB candidates from low resolution spectroscopy. Spectral types are determined from low resolution optical spectra of 44 stars selected from the LS, LSS, and LSE catalogues. Unlike the stars in the first paper, the stars in this paper were selected using criteria other than positional coincidence with an IRAS source with far IR (IRAS) colours similar to post-AGB supergiants and planetary nebulae. These included high galactic latitude, spectral types of O, B, A supergiants, emission lines in the spectrum and known spectral peculiarity. From the present...

  19. STARING INTO THE WINDS OF DESTRUCTION: HST/NICMOS IMAGES OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA NGC 7027

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) has captured a glimpse of a brief stage in the burnout of NGC 7027, a medium-mass star like our sun. The infrared image (on the left) shows a young planetary nebula in a state of rapid transition. This image alone reveals important new information. When astronomers combine this photo with an earlier image taken in visible light, they have a more complete picture of the final stages of star life. NGC 7027 is going through spectacular death throes as it evolves into what astronomers call a 'planetary nebula.' The term planetary nebula came about not because of any real association with planets, but because in early telescopes these objects resembled the disks of planets. A star can become a planetary nebula after it depletes its nuclear fuel - hydrogen and helium - and begins puffing away layers of material. The material settles into a wind of gas and dust blowing away from the dying star. This NICMOS image captures the young planetary nebula in the middle of a very short evolutionary phase, lasting perhaps less than 1,000 years. During this phase, intense ultraviolet radiation from the central star lights up a region of gas surrounding it. (This gas is glowing brightly because it has been made very hot by the star's intense ultraviolet radiation.) Encircling this hot gas is a cloud of dust and cool molecular hydrogen gas that can only be seen by an infrared camera. The molecular gas is being destroyed by ultraviolet light from the central star. THE INFRARED VIEW -- The composite color image of NGC 7027 (on the left) is among the first data of a planetary nebula taken with NICMOS. This picture is actually composed of three separate images taken at different wavelengths. The red color represents cool molecular hydrogen gas, the most abundant gas in the universe. The image reveals the central star, which is difficult to see in images taken with visible light. Surrounding it is an

  20. The triple-shell structure and collimated outflows of the planetary nebula NGC 6891

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, M; Manchado, A; Vázquez, R A

    1999-01-01

    Narrow-band H$\\alpha$ and [N {\\sc ii}] images and high-dispersion spatially-resolved echelle spectroscopy of the planetary nebula NGC 6891 are presented. These observations show a great wealth of structures. The bright central nebula is surrounded by an attached shell and a detached outer halo. Both the inner and intermediate shells can be described as ellipsoids with similar major to minor axial ratios, but different spatial orientations. The kinematical ages of the intermediate shell and halo are 4,800 and 28,000 years, respectively. The inter-shell time lapse is in good agreement with the evolutionary inter-pulse time lapse. A highly collimated outflow is observed to protrude from the tips of the major axis of the inner nebula and impact on the outer edge of the intermediate shell. Kinematics and excitation of this outflow provide conclusive evidence that it is deflected during the interaction with the outer edge of the intermediate shell. At the same time, both the kinematics and the morphology of the int...

  1. Interaction of planetary nebulae, Eta-Carinae and supernova remnants with the Interstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Zaninetti, L

    2012-01-01

    The image of planetary nebulae (PN), supernova remnant (SNR) and Eta-Carinae is made by three different physical processes. The first process is the expansion of the shell that can be modeled by the canonical laws of motion in the spherical case and by the momentum conservation when gradients of density are present in the interstellar medium. The quality of the simulations is introduced along one direction as well along many directions. The second process is the diffusion of particles that radiate from the advancing layer. The 3D diffusion from a sphere, the 1D diffusion with drift and 1D random walk are analyzed. The third process is the composition of the image through an integral operation along the line of sight. The developed framework is applied to three PN which are A39, the Ring nebula and the etched hourglass nebula MyCn 18, the hybrid object Eta-Carinae, and to two SNR which are SN 1993J and SN 1006. In all the considered cases a careful comparison between the observed and theoretical profiles in in...

  2. Spectroscopy and Photoionization Model of Planetary Nebulae: NGC 6543 and NGC 7662

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitaningrum, Evaria; Lutfi Malasan, Hakim; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2016-11-01

    Spectroscopic observations in the wavelength range of λλ4000 — 8000 Å of the planetary nebulae (PN), NGC 6543 and NGC 7662, have been undertaken in 2014 using the compact spectrograph attached to the 28-cm Schmidt-Cassegrainian reflector at Koyama Astronomical Observatory. We derived physical parameters of NGC 6543 and NGC 7662 from the analyses of observed emission lines, i.e. electron temperature, density, and elemental abundances. To obtain more reliable physical quantities of NGC 6543 and NGC 7662, the use of photoionization model is needed. We use the computer code, CLOUDY C13.3 to build detailed photoionization models of NGC 6543 and NGC 7662. Model of NGC 6543 and 7662 can be constructed by providing sufficient information on physical parameters of the central stars and the nebula. In this work, input parameters to construct the photoionization model of NGC 6543 and NGC 7662 are distance, temperature and luminosity of central star and nebula parameters. The model results were compared with observational result taken in 2014. Observed and modeled temperatures were deduced from [O III] λλ(4959 + 5007) Å /λ4636 Å and the electron density from [S II] λλ 6716/6731 Å. There are some discrepancies between observed and modeled due to limitations inherent with the resolution and quality of spectroscopic data. Further spectroscopic observations with higher resolution of NGC 6543 and NGC 7662 is recommended.

  3. Deciphering the bipolar planetary nebula Abell 14 with 3D ionization and morphological studies

    CERN Document Server

    Akras, S; Boumis, P; Monteiro, H; Gonçalves, D R; Redman, M P; Williams, S

    2016-01-01

    Abell 14 is a poorly studied object despite being considered a born again planetary nebula. We performed a detailed study of its 3D morphology and ionization structure using the SHAPE and MOCASSIN codes. We found that Abell 14 is a highly evolved, bipolar nebula with a kinematical age of $\\sim$19,400 yr for a distance of 4 kpc. The high He abundance, and N/O ratio indicate a progenitor of 5 $M_{\\odot}$ that has experienced the third dredge-up and hot bottom burning phases. The stellar parameters of the central source reveal a star at a highly evolved stage near to the white dwarf cooling track, being inconsistent with the born again scenario. The nebula shows unexpectedly strong [N I] $\\lambda 5200$ and [O I] $\\lambda 6300$ emission lines indicating possible shock interactions. Abell 14 appears to be a member of a small group of highly evolved, extreme Type-I PNe. The members of this group lie at the lower-left corner of the PNe regime on the [N II]/H$\\alpha$ vs. [S II]/H$\\alpha$ diagnostic diagram, where sho...

  4. K 1-6: an asymmetric planetary nebula with a binary central star

    CERN Document Server

    Frew, David J; Fitzgerald, Michael; Parker, Quentin; Danaia, Lena; McKinnon, David; Guerrero, Martín A; Hedberg, John; Hollow, Robert; An, Yvonne; Bor, Shu Han; Colman, Isabel; Graham-White, Claire; Li, Qing Wen; Mai, Juliette; Papadakis, Katerina; Picone-Murray, Julia; Hoang, Melanie Vo; Yean, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    We present new imaging data and archival multiwavelength observations of the little studied emission nebula K 1-6 and its central star. Narrow-band images in H-alpha (+ [NII]) and [OIII] taken with the Faulkes Telescope North reveal a stratified, asymmetric, elliptical nebula surrounding a central star which has the colours of a late G- or early K-type subgiant or giant. GALEX ultraviolet images reveal a very hot subdwarf or white dwarf coincident in position with this star. The cooler, optically dominant star is strongly variable with a period of 21.312 +/- 0.008 days, and is possibly a high amplitude member of the RS CVn class, although an FK Com classification is also possible. Archival ROSAT data provide good evidence that the cool star has an active corona. We conclude that K 1-6 is most likely an old bona fide planetary nebula at a distance of ~1.0 kpc, interacting with the interstellar medium, and containing a binary or ternary central star. The observations and data analyses reported in this paper wer...

  5. Observations and 3D photoionisation modelling of the Wolf-Rayet planetary nebula NGC 1501

    CERN Document Server

    Ercolano, B; Zhang, Y; Barlow, M J; De Marco, O; Rauch, T; Liu, X W; Ercolano, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Deep optical spectra of the high excitation planetary nebula NGC 1501 and its W04 central star are presented. A recombination line abundance analysis of the central star's emission-line spectrum yields He:C:O mass fractions of 0.36:0.48:0.16, similar to those of PG1159 stars. A detailed empirical analysis of the nebular collisionally excited line (CEL) and optical recombination line (ORL) spectrum is presented, together with fully three-dimensional photoionisation modelling of the nebula. We found very large ORL-CEL abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs) for O^2+ (32) and Ne^2+ (33). The mean value of 5100K for the T_e derived from HeI recombination lines ratios is 6000K lower than the value of 11100K implied by the [OIII] line ratio. A three-dimensional photoionisation model of NGC 1501 was constructed using the photoionisation code MOCASSIN, based on our new spectroscopic data and using the three-dimensional electron density distribution determined from long-slit echellograms of the nebula by Ragazzoni et al....

  6. The massive expanding molecular torus in the planetary nebula NGC 6302

    CERN Document Server

    Peretto, N; Zijlstra, A A; Patel, N A

    2007-01-01

    We measure the mass and kinematics of the massive molecular torus in the planetary nebula NGC 6302. The nebula is the proto-typical butterfly nebula. The origin of the wing-like morphology is disputed: determining the mass-loss history of the confining torus is an important step in understanding the formation of this structure. We performed submillimeter observations with JCMT and the SMA interferometer. The continuum emission as well as the J=2-1 and 3-2 transitions of 12CO and 13CO are analysed at arcsecond resolution. The CO emission indicates a mass of the torus of ~ 2Msun +/- 1Msun. The 12CO and 13CO emission matches the dark lane seen in absorption in the Halpha image of the object. The CO torus is expanding with a velocity of ~ 8 km/s, centred at Vlsr=-31.5 km/s. The size and expansion velocity of the torus indicates that the torus was ejected from ~ 7500 yr to 2900 yr ago, with a mass-loss rate of 5x10^{-4}Msun/yr. We also see a ballistic component in the CO images with a velocity gradient of 140 km/s...

  7. The Unusual Variability of the Large Magellanic Cloud Planetary Nebula RPJ 053059-683542

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Richard A; Damke, Guillermo; Smith, R Chris; Reid, Warren A; Parker, Quentin A

    2007-01-01

    We present images and light curves of the bipolar Planetary Nebula RPJ 053059-683542 that was discovered in the Reid-Parker AAO/UKST H-alpha survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The emission from this object appears entirely nebular, with the central star apparently obscured by a central band of absorption that bisects the nebula. The light curves, which were derived from images from the SuperMACHO project at CTIO, showed significant, spatially resolved variability over the period 2002 January through 2005 December. Remarkably, the emission from the two bright lobes of the nebula vary either independently, or similarly but with a phase lag of at least one year. The optical spectra show a low level of nebular excitation, and only modest N enrichment. Infrared photometry from the 2MASS and SAGE surveys indicates the presence of a significant quantity of dust. The available data imply that the central star has a close binary companion, and that the system has undergone some kind of outburst event that cau...

  8. New insights on the complex planetary nebula Hen 2-113

    CERN Document Server

    Lagadec, E; Matsuura, M; De Marco, O; De Pacheco, J A F; Zijlstra, A; Acker, A; Clayton, G; Lagadec, Eric; Chesneau, Olivier; Matsuura, Mikako; Marco, Orsola De; Pacheco, Jose Antonio De Freitas; Zijlstra, Albert; Acker, Agn\\`{e}s; Clayton, Geoffrey

    2005-01-01

    We report infrared observations of the planetary nebula Hen 2-113 obtained with VLT/NACO, VLTI/MIDI, VLT/ISAAC and TIMMI at the ESO 3.6m. Hen 2-113 exhibits a clear ring-like structure superimposed to a more diffuse environment visible in the L' (3.8$\\mu$m), M' (4.78$\\mu$m) and 8.7$\\mu$m bands. No clear core at 8.7$\\mu$m and no fringes through the N band could be detected for this object with MIDI. A qualitative interpretation of the object structure is proposed using a diabolo-like geometrical model. The PAH content of the nebula was also studied with ISAAC and TIMMI observations. This indicates that the PAHs are mostly concentrated towards the lobes of the diabolo and the bipolar lobes of the nebula. In L' band, a void $0.3\\arcsec$ in diameter was discovered with NACO around the central source. The L' and M' fluxes from the central source were derived from NACO data indicating an important infrared excess with respect to the expected stellar emission based on stellar models and short wavelength data. The ob...

  9. Properties of Dust Grains in Planetary Nebulae; 1, The Ionized Region of NGC 6445

    CERN Document Server

    Van Hoof, P A M; Beintema, D A; Martin, P G; Pottasch, S R

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we study new infrared spectra of the evolved planetary nebula NGC 6445 obtained with ISO. These data show that the thermal emission from the grains is very cool and has a low flux compared to H beta. A model of the ionized region is constructed, using the photo-ionization code CLOUDY 90.05. Based on this model, we show from depletions in the gas phase elements that little grain destruction can have occurred in the ionized region of NGC 6445. We also argue that dust-gas separation in the nebula is not plausible. The most likely conclusion is that grains are residing inside the ionized region of NGC 6445 and that the low temperature and flux of the grain emission are caused by the low luminosity of the central star and the low optical depth of the grains. This implies that the bulk of the silicon-bearing grains in this nebula were able to survive exposure to hard UV photons for at least several thousands of years, contradicting previously published results. A comparison between optical and infrare...

  10. Hu1-2: a metal-poor bipolar planetary nebula with fast collimated outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Xuan; Miranda, Luis F; Riera, Angels; Velazquez, Pablo F; Raga, Alejandro C

    2015-01-01

    We present narrow-band optical and near-IR imaging and optical long-slit spectroscopic observations of Hu1-2, a Galactic planetary nebula (PN) with a pair of [N II]-bright, fast-moving (> 340 km/s) bipolar knots. Intermediate-dispersion spectra are used to derive physical conditions and abundances across the nebula, and high-dispersion spectra to study the spatio-kinematical structure. Generally Hu1-2 has high He/H (~0.14) and N/O ratios (~0.9), typical of Type I PNe. On the other hand, its abundances of O, Ne, S, and Ar are low as compared with the average abundances of Galactic bulge and disc PNe. The position-velocity maps can be generally described as an hour-glass shaped nebula with bipolar expansion, although the morphology and kinematics of the innermost regions cannot be satisfactorily explained with a simple, tilted equatorial torus. The spatio-kinematical study confines the inclination angle of its major axis to be within 10 degrees of the plane of sky. As in the irradiated bow-shocks of IC4634 and ...

  11. ALMA Observations of the Water Fountain Pre-Planetary Nebula IRAS 16342-3814: High-Velocity Bipolar Jets and an Expanding Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Vlemmings, W.H.T.; Gledhill, T.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Lagadec, E.; Nyman, L-Å; Quintana-Lacaci, G.

    2017-01-01

    We have mapped 12CO J=3–2 and other molecular lines from the “water-fountain” bipolar pre-planetary nebula (PPN) IRAS 16342-3814 with ∼0⋅″35 resolution using ALMA. We find (i) two very high-speed knotty, jet-like molecular outflows, (ii) a central high-density (> few × 106 cm−3), expanding torus of diameter 1300 AU, and (iii) the circumstellar envelope of the progenitor AGB, generated by a sudden, very large increase in the mass-loss rate to > 3.5 × 10−4 M⊙ yr−1 in the past ~455 yr. Strong continuum emission at 0.89 mm from a central source (690 mJy), if due to thermally-emitting dust, implies a substantial mass (0.017 M⊙) of very large (~mm-sized) grains. The measured expansion ages of the above structural components imply that the torus (age~160 yr) and the younger high-velocity outflow (age~110 yr) were formed soon after the sharp increase in the AGB mass-loss rate. Assuming a binary model for the jets in IRAS 16342, the high momentum rate for the dominant jet-outflow in IRAS 16342 implies a high minimum accretion rate, ruling out standard Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton wind accretion and wind Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) models with white-dwarf or main-sequence companions. Most likely, enhanced RLOF from the primary or accretion modes operating within common envelope evolution are needed. PMID:28191303

  12. ALMA Observations of the Water Fountain Pre-planetary Nebula IRAS 16342-3814: High-velocity Bipolar Jets and an Expanding Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Gledhill, T.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Lagadec, E.; Nyman, L.-Å; Quintana-Lacaci, G.

    2017-01-01

    We have mapped 12CO J = 3–2 and other molecular lines from the “water fountain” bipolar pre-planetary nebula (PPN) IRAS 16342-3814 with ∼0.″35 resolution using Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. We find (i) two very high-speed knotty, jet-like molecular outflows; (ii) a central high-density (> {few}× {10}6 cm‑3), expanding torus of diameter 1300 au; and (iii) the circumstellar envelope of the progenitor AGB, generated by a sudden, very large increase in the mass-loss rate to > 3.5× {10}-4 M⊙ yr‑1 in the past ∼455 years. Strong continuum emission at 0.89 mm from a central source (690 mJy), if due to thermally emitting dust, implies a substantial mass (0.017 M⊙) of very large (∼millimeter-sized) grains. The measured expansion ages of the above structural components imply that the torus (age ∼160 years) and the younger high-velocity outflow (age ∼110 years) were formed soon after the sharp increase in the AGB mass-loss rate. Assuming a binary model for the jets in IRAS 16342, the high momentum rate for the dominant jet-outflow in IRAS 16342 implies a high minimum accretion rate, ruling out standard Bondi–Hoyle–Lyttleton wind accretion and wind Roche-lobe overflow (RLOF) models with white-dwarf or main-sequence companions. Most likely, enhanced RLOF from the primary or accretion modes operating within common-envelope evolution are needed.

  13. The discovery and characterisation of binary central stars in planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, David

    2016-01-01

    Close binary central stars of planetary nebulae are key in constraining the poorly-understood common-envelope phase of evolution, which in turn is critical in understanding the formation of a wide-range of astrophysical phenomena (including cataclysmic variables, low-mass X-ray binaries and supernovae type Ia). Here, I present the results of our on-going, targeted search for close-binaries in planetary nebulae which has led to the discovery of more than 10 new central binaries in just the last few years (almost the same as the total discovered during the 1980s and 1990s together). This success has been rooted in the targeted selection of objects for study, based on morphological features deemed typical of binarity, as well as novel observing strategies (including the employment of narrow-band filters for photometry to minimise nebular contamination), both of which are discussed. These new discoveries, coupled with the painstaking characterisation of both newly discovered systems and those from the literature,...

  14. A revised planetary nebula luminosity function distance to NGC 628 using MUSE

    CERN Document Server

    Kreckel, K; Bigiel, F; Blanc, G; Kruijssen, J M D; Hughes, A; Schruba, A; Schinnerer, E

    2016-01-01

    Distance uncertainties plague our understanding of the physical scales relevant to the physics of star formation in extragalactic studies. The planetary nebulae luminosity function (PNLF) is one of very few techniques that can provide distance estimates to within ~10%, however it requires a planetary nebula (PN) sample that is uncontaminated by other ionizing sources. We employ optical IFU spectroscopy using MUSE on the VLT to measure [OIII] line fluxes for sources unresolved on 50 pc scales within the central star-forming galaxy disk of NGC 628. We use diagnostic line ratios to identify 62 PNe, 30 supernova remnants and 87 HII regions within our fields. Using the 36 brightest PNe we determine a new PNLF distance modulus of 29.91^{+0.08}_{-0.13} mag (9.59^{+0.35}_{-0.57} Mpc), in good agreement with literature values but significantly larger than the previously reported PNLF distance. We are able to explain the discrepancy and recover the previous result when we reintroduce SNR contaminants to our sample. Thi...

  15. A Revised Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function Distance to NGC 628 Using MUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreckel, K.; Groves, B.; Bigiel, F.; Blanc, G. A.; Kruijssen, J. M. D.; Hughes, A.; Schruba, A.; Schinnerer, E.

    2017-01-01

    Distance uncertainties plague our understanding of the physical scales relevant to the physics of star formation in extragalactic studies. The planetary nebulae luminosity function (PNLF) is one of very few techniques that can provide distance estimates to within ∼10% however, it requires a planetary nebula (PN) sample that is uncontaminated by other ionizing sources. We employ optical integral field unit spectroscopy using the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer on the Very Large Telescope to measure [O iii] line fluxes for sources unresolved on 50 pc scales within the central star-forming galaxy disk of NGC 628. We use diagnostic line ratios to identify 62 PNe, 30 supernova remnants, and 87 H ii regions within our fields. Using the 36 brightest PNe, we determine a new PNLF distance modulus of {29.91}-0.13+0.08 mag (9.59{}-0.57+0.35 Mpc), which is in good agreement with literature values, but significantly larger than the previously reported PNLF distance. We are able to explain the discrepancy and recover the previous result when we reintroduce SNR contaminants to our sample. This demonstrates the power of full spectral information over narrowband imaging in isolating PNe. Given our limited spatial coverage within the Galaxy, we show that this technique can be used to refine distance estimates, even when IFU observations cover only a fraction of a galaxy disk.

  16. Planetary Nebula Abundances and Morphology: Probing the Chemical Evolution of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Stanghellini, L; Cunha, K; Manchado, A; Villaver, E

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a homogeneous study of abundances in a sample of 79 northern galactic planetary nebulae whose morphological classes have been uniformly determined. Ionic abundances and plasma diagnostics were derived from selected optical line strengths in the literature, and elemental abundances were estimated with the Ionization Correction Factor developed by Kingsbourgh & Barlow (1994). We compare the elemental abundances to the final yields obtained from stellar evolution models of low-and intermediate-mass stars, and we confirm that most Bipolar planetary nebulae have high nitrogen and helium abundance, and are the likely progeny of stars with main-sequence mass larger than 3 solar masses. We derive =0.27, and discuss the implication of such a high ratio in connection with the solar neon abundance. We determine the galactic gradients of oxygen and neon, and found Delta log (O/H)/Delta R=-0.01 dex/kpc$ and Delta log (Ne/H)/Delta R=-0.01 dex/kpc. These flat PN gradients do not reconcile with galact...

  17. A new [Oiii] \\lamda5007 {\\AA} Galactic Bulge Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Kovacevic, A V; Jacoby, G H; Miszalski, B

    2010-01-01

    The Planetary Nebulae Luminosity Function (PNLF) describes the collective luminosity evolution for a given population of Planetary Nebulae (PN). A major paradox in current PNLF studies is in the universality of the absolute magnitude of the brightest PNe with galaxy type and age. The progenitor central-star mass required to produce such bright PNe should have evolved beyond the PNe phase in old, red elliptical galaxies whose stellar populations are ~10~Gyr. Only by dissecting this resolved population in detail can we attempt to address this conundrum. The Bulge of our Galaxy is predominantly old \\citep{Z03} and can therefore be used as a proxy for an elliptical galaxy, but with the significant advantage that the population is resolvable from ground based telescopes. We have used the MOSAIC-II camera on the Blanco 4-m at CTIO to carefully target ~80 square degrees of the Galactic Bulge and establish accurate [Oiii] fluxes for 80% of Bulge PNe currently known from the Acker and MASH catalogues. Construction of ...

  18. Discovery of a [WO] central star in the planetary nebula Th 2-A

    CERN Document Server

    Weidmann, W A; Díaz, R J; Niemela, V S

    2008-01-01

    % context About 2500 planetary nebulae are known in our Galaxy but only 224 have central stars with reported spectral types in the Strasbourg-ESO Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae (Acker et al. 1992; Acker et al. 1996) % aims We have started an observational program aiming to increase the number of PN central stars with spectral classification. % methods By means of spectroscopy and high resolution imaging, we identify the position and true nature of the central star. We carried out low resolution spectroscopic observations at CASLEO telescope, complemented with medium resolution spectroscopy performed at Gemini South and Magellan telescopes. % results As a first outcome of this survey, we present for the first time the spectra of the central star of the PN Th 2-A. These spectra show emission lines of ionized C and O, typical in Wolf-Rayet stars. % conclusions We identify the position of that central star, which is not the brightest one of the visual central pair. We classify it as of type [WO 3]pec, wh...

  19. IRAS 01005+7910: a High Galactic Latitude Post-AGB Star

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    IRAS 01005+7910 is a cold IRAS source. We present its optical identi-fication, photometric and spectroscopic observation results. Its optical counterpartis classified as a B2Ie star with V magnitude 10.85. Its Hα line shows the P Cygniprofile. According to its location in the Galaxy (b = 16.6), we consider it to be apost-AGB star or a proto-planetary nebula.

  20. Discovery of a [WO] central star in the planetary nebula Th 2-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, W. A.; Gamen, R.; Díaz, R. J.; Niemela, V. S.

    2008-09-01

    Context: About 2500 planetary nebulae are known in our Galaxy but only 224 have central stars with reported spectral types in the Strasbourg-ESO Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae (Acker et al. 1992; Acker et al. 1996). Aims: We have started an observational program aiming to increase the number of PN central stars with spectral classification. Methods: By means of spectroscopy and high resolution imaging, we identify the position and true nature of the central star. We carried out low resolution spectroscopic observations at CASLEO telescope, complemented with medium resolution spectroscopy performed at Gemini South and Magellan telescopes. Results: As a first outcome of this survey, we present for the first time the spectra of the central star of the PN Th 2-A. These spectra show emission lines of ionized C and O, typical in Wolf-Rayet stars. Conclusions: We identify the position of that central star, which is not the brightest one of the visual central pair. We classify it as of type [WO 3]pec, which is consistent with the high excitation and dynamical age of the nebula. Based on data collected at (i) the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina y Universidades Nacionales de La Plata, Córdoba y San Juan, Argentina; (ii) the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; (iii) the 8 m Gemini South Telescope, Chile.

  1. Mass transfer and disc formation in AGB binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G.; Nordhaus, Jason; Carroll-Nellenback, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    We investigate mass transfer and the formation of discs in binary systems using a combination of numerical simulations and theory. We consider six models distinguished by binary separation, secondary mass and outflow mechanism. Each system consists of an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star and an accreting secondary. The AGB star loses its mass via a wind. In one of our six models, the AGB star incurs a short period of outburst. In all cases, the secondary accretes part of the ejected mass and also influences the mass-loss rate of the AGB star. The ejected mass may remain gravitationally bound to the binary system and form a circumbinary disc, or contribute to an accretion disc around the secondary. In other cases, the ejecta will escape the binary system. The accretion rate on to the secondary changes non-linearly with binary separation. In our closest binary simulations, our models exemplify the wind Roche lobe overflow while in our wide binary cases, the mass transfer exhibits Bondi-Hoyle accretion. The morphologies of the outflows in the binary systems are varied. The variety may provide clues to how the late AGB phase influences planetary nebula shaping. We employ the adaptive-mesh-refinement code astrobear for our simulations and include ray tracing, radiation transfer, cooling and dust formation. To attain the highest computational efficiency and the most stable results, all simulations are run in the corotating frame.

  2. A synchrotron jet from a post-AGB star

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Sánchez, A F; Tafoya, D; Chapman, J M

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged) The evolution of low- and intermediate-initial-mass stars beyond the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) remains poorly understood. High-velocity outflows launched shortly after the AGB phase are thought to be the primary shaping mechanism of bipolar and multipolar planetary nebulae (PNe). However, little is known about the launching and driving mechanism for these jets, whose momentum and energy often far exceed the energy that can be provided by radiation pressure alone. Here, we report direct evidence of a magnetically collimated jet shaping the bipolar morphology of the circumstellar envelope of a post-AGB star. We present radio continuum observations of the post-AGB star IRAS 15445-5449 which has water masers tracing a fast bipolar outflow. Our observations confirm the earlier observed steep negative spectral index of the spectral energy distribution (SED) above 3 GHz, and resolve, for the first time, the emission to originate from a radio jet, proving the existence of such jets around a post-AGB st...

  3. Chemical compositions and plasma parameters of planetary nebulae with Wolf-Rayet and wels type central stars

    CERN Document Server

    Girard, P; Acker, A

    2006-01-01

    Aims: Chemical compositions and other properties of planetary nebulae around central stars of spectral types [WC], [WO], and wels are compared with those of `normal' central stars, in order to clarify the evolutionary status of each type and their interrelation. Methods: We use plasma diagnostics to derive from optical spectra the plasma parameters and chemical compositions of 48 planetary nebulae. We also reanalyze the published spectra of a sample of 167 non-WR PN. The results as well as the observational data are compared in detail with those from other studies of the objects in common. Results: The central star's spectral type is clearly correlated with electron density, temperature and excitation class of the nebula, [WC] nebulae tend to be smaller than the other types. All this corroborates the view of an evolutionary sequence from cool [WC 11] central stars inside dense, low excitation nebulae towards hot [WO 1] stars with low density, high excitation nebulae. The wels PN, however, appear to be a separ...

  4. Resolving shocked and UV excited components of H2 emission in planetary nebulae with high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kyle; Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Jaffe, Daniel Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) form when low and intermediate-mass stars eject their outer layers into the ISM at the end of the AGB phase. Many PNe exhibit near-infrared (NIR) emission from molecular hydrogen (H2). This NIR emission arises from radiative decay out of excited rotation-vibration (rovibrational) states. The rovibrational states can be populated by excitation to higher electronic states through absorption of a far-UV photon followed by a radiative cascade to the electronic ground state, or by collisions (e.g., in a hot gas). The two processes populate the rovibrational levels of H2 differently, so the observed emergent emission spectrum provides an effective probe of the mechanisms that excite the H2. Many PNe display line intensity ratios that are intermediate between these two processes (Otsuka et al. 2013). With the advantages of the high spectral resolution (R~40000), broad wavelength coverage (1.45-2.45 μm), and high spatial resolution of the Immersion GRating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS, Park et al. 2014), we are able to differentiate components in position-velocity space: we see a slowly expanding UV-excited H2 shell in the PN M 1-11 and two faster moving “bullets” of thermalized H2 that we interpret as shocked gas from a bipolar outflow. We also present observations of several other PNe that exhibit similar morphologies of thermalized and UV-excited H2 components.

  5. Modeling the cometary structure of the planetary nebula HFG1 based on the evolution of its binary central star V664 Cas

    CERN Document Server

    Chiotellis, A; Nanouris, N; Meaburn, J; Dimitriadis, G

    2015-01-01

    HFG1 is the first well observed planetary nebula (PN) which reveals a cometary-like structure. Its main morphological features consist of a bow shaped shell, which surrounds the central star, accompanied by a long collimated tail. In this study we perform two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations modeling the formation of HFG1 from the interaction of the local ambient medium with the mass outflows of its Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) progenitor star. We attribute the cometary appearance of HFG1 to the systemic motion of the PN with respect to the local ambient medium. Due to its vital importance, we re-estimate the distance of HFG1 by modeling the spectral energy distribution of its central star, V664 Cas, and we find a distance of $ 490 \\pm 50$ pc. Our simulations show that none of our models with time invariant stellar wind and ambient medium properties are able to reproduce simultaneously the extended bow shock and the collimated tail observed in HFG1. Given this, we increase the complexity of our modeling ...

  6. Neutron-capture element abundances in the planetary nebula NGC 5315 from deep high-resolution optical and near-IR spectrophotometry

    CERN Document Server

    Madonna, S; Sterling, N C; Luridiana, V

    2016-01-01

    We have done a spectroscopical analysis of the type I planetary nebula (PN) NGC 5315, through high-resolution (R$\\sim$40000) optical spectroscopy with UVES at the 8.2m Very Large Telescope, and medium-resolution (R$\\sim$4800) near-IR spectroscopy with FIRE at the 6.5m Magellan Baade telescope, covering a wide spectral range from 0.31 $\\mu$m to 2.50 $\\mu$m. The main aim of this work is to investigate the slow neutron(n)-capture process (the s-process) in the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star progenitor of a type I PNe. We detected and identified about 700 features, including lines from the n-capture elements Kr, Se, and possibly Br and Xe. We compute physical conditions using line ratios of common ions. Ionic abundances are computed for the species with available atomic data. We calculate total abundances using recent ionization correction factors (ICFs) or by summing ionic abundances. Our results for common elements are in good agreement with previous works on the same object. We do not find a substantial s-...

  7. Neutron-capture element abundances in the planetary nebula NGC 5315 from deep high-resolution optical and near-IR spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, S.; García-Rojas, J.; Sterling, N. C.; Luridiana, V.

    2017-03-01

    We have done a spectroscopical analysis of the type I planetary nebula (PN) NGC 5315, through high-resolution (R ˜ 40000) optical spectroscopy with UVES at the 8.2m Very Large Telescope, and medium-resolution (R ˜ 4800) near-IR spectroscopy with FIRE at the 6.5m Magellan Baade telescope, covering a wide spectral range from 0.31 μm to 2.50μm. The main aim of this work is to investigate the slow neutron(n)-capture process (the s-process) in the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star progenitor of a type I PNe. We detected and identified about 700 features, including lines from the n-capture elements Kr, Se, and possibly Br and Xe. We compute physical conditions using line ratios of common ions. Ionic abundances are computed for the species with available atomic data. We calculate total abundances using recent ionization correction factors (ICFs) or by summing ionic abundances. Our results for common elements are in good agreement with previous works on the same object. We do not find a substantial s-process enrichment in NGC 5315, which is typical for type I PNe.

  8. Spitzer IRAC observations of newly-discovered planetary nebulae from the Macquarie-AAO-Strasbourg H-alpha Planetary Nebula Project

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Martin; Green, Anne J; Murphy, Tara; Miszalski, Brent; Frew, David J; Meade, Marilyn R; Babler, Brian; Indebetouw, Remy; Whitney, Barbara A; Watson, Christer; Churchwell, Edward B; Watson, Douglas F

    2007-01-01

    We compare H-alpha, radio continuum, and Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) images of 58 planetary nebulae (PNe) recently discovered by the Macquarie-AAO-Strasbo- urg H-alpha PN Project (MASH) of the SuperCOSMOS H-alpha Survey. Using InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) data we define the IR colors of PNe and demonstrate good isolation between these colors and those of many other types of astronomical object. The only substantive contamination of PNe in the color-color plane we illustrate is due to YSOs. However, this ambiguity is readily resolved by the unique optical characteristics of PNe and their environs. We also examine the relationships between optical and MIR morphologies from 3.6 to 8.0um and explore the ratio of mid-infrared (MIR) to radio nebular fluxes, which is a valuable discriminant between thermal and nonthermal emission. MASH emphasizes late evolutionary stages of PNe compared with previous catalogs, enabling study of the changes in MIR and radio flux that attend the aging process. Spatially integrated M...

  9. The offset dependent behavior of narrow optical emission features in the Red Rectangle proto-planetary nebula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehres, N.; Linnartz, H.; Van Winckel, H.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    Context. The Red Rectangle proto-planetary nebula provides a unique laboratory to study the physical conditions and chemical processes in stellar outflows. Snapshots of the ongoing chemical evolution are obtained by monitoring spectra as function of the offset from the central star. Aims. The focus

  10. The "21" mu m and "30" mu m emission features in planetary nebulae with Wolf-Rayet central stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hony, S; Waters, LBFM; Tielens, AGGM; Kwok, S; Dopita, M; Sutherland, R

    2003-01-01

    We present mid infrared spectra of two planetary nebulae with H poor central stars that exhibit the "21" and "30" mum emission features. These features are found in carbon rich dust surroundings. The presence of these features shows that these sources have suffered an extended period of carbon rich

  11. Binary planetary nebulae nuclei towards the Galactic bulge. II. A penchant for bipolarity and low-ionisation structures

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, B; Parker, Q A; Moffat, A F J

    2009-01-01

    Considerable effort has been applied towards understanding the precise shaping mechanisms responsible for the diverse range of morphologies exhibited by planetary nebulae (PNe). A binary companion is increasingly gaining support as a dominant shaping mechanism, however morphological studies of the few PNe that we know for certain were shaped by binary evolution are scarce or biased. Newly discovered binary central stars (CSPN) from the OGLE-III photometric variability survey have significantly increased the sample of post common-envelope (CE) nebulae available for morphological analysis. We present Gemini South narrow-band images for most of the new sample to complement existing data in a qualitative morphological study of 30 post-CE nebulae. Nearly 30% of nebulae have canonical bipolar morphologies, however this rises to 60% once inclination effects are incorporated with the aid of geometric models. This is the strongest observational evidence yet linking CE evolution to bipolar morphologies. A higher than a...

  12. Investigating Active Accretion, Flare Activity and a 50 Million Degree Corona in the cool AGB Star, Y Gem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra

    2014-09-01

    We propose to make multi-epoch observations of the X-ray (and radio contiuum) emission from a cool AGB star, Y Gem. This star shows relatively strong X-ray emission implying the presence of 50 million degree coronal gas, and highly-variable FUV and NUV fluxes - likely evidence of variable accretion onto a magnetized accretion disk in a binary system. Y Gem is the most prominent member of a new class of AGB stars with FUV excesses identified using the GALEX archive. Our study will allow us to study the never-before explored phase of an active accretion disk in an AGB star with a binary companion. Such disks are believed to ultimately produce collimated jets that transform AGB circumsetllar envelopes into bipolar planetary nebulae.

  13. On the formation of molecules and solid-state compounds from the AGB to the PN phases

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Hernandez, D A

    2016-01-01

    During the asymptoyic giant branch (AGB) phase, different elements are dredge-up to the stellar surface depending on progenitor mass and metallicity. When the mass loss increases at the end of the AGB, a circumstellar dust shell is formed, where different (C-rich or O-rich) molecules and solid-state compounds are formed. These are further processed in the transition phase between AGB stars and planetary nebulae (PNe) to create more complex organic molecules and inorganic solid-state compounds (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes, and graphene precursors in C-rich environments and oxides and crystalline silicates in O-rich ones). We present an observational review of the different molecules and solid-state materials that are formed from the AGB to the PN phases. We focus on the formation routes of complex fullerene (and fullerene-based) molecules as well as on the level of dust processing depending on metallicity.

  14. On the formation of molecules and solid-state compounds from the AGB to the PN phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, D. A.; Manchado, A.

    2016-07-01

    During the asymptoyic giant branch (AGB) phase, different elements are dredge- up to the stellar surface depending on progenitor mass and metallicity. When the mass loss increases at the end of the AGB, a circumstellar dust shell is formed, where different (C-rich or O-rich) molecules and solid-state compounds are formed. These are further processed in the transition phase between AGB stars and planetary nebulae (PNe) to create more complex organic molecules and inorganic solid-state compounds (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes, and graphene precursors in C-rich environments and oxides and crystalline silicates in O-rich ones). We present an observational review of the different molecules and solid-state materials that are formed from the AGB to the PN phases. We focus on the formation routes of complex fullerene (and fullerene-based) molecules as well as on the level of dust processing depending on metallicity.

  15. Optical spectra of radio planetary nebulae in the small Magellanic cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results from spectral observations of four (4 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. These were made using the Radcliffe 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland, South Africa. These radio PNe were originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA surveys of the SMC at 1.42 and 2.37 GHz, and were further confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3 cm (400 /200 . Optical PNe and radio candidates are within 200 and may represent a sub- population of selected radio bright objects. Nebular ionized masses of these objects may be 2.6 Mo or greater, supporting the existence of PNe progenitor central stars with masses up to 8 Mo.

  16. Resolving the electron temperature discrepancies in HII Regions and Planetary Nebulae: kappa-distributed electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholls, David C; Sutherland, Ralph S

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of electron temperatures and metallicities in H ii regions and Planetary Nebulae (PNe) has-for several decades-presented a problem: results obtained using different techniques disagree. What it worse, they disagree consistently. There have been numerous attempts to explain these discrepancies, but none has provided a satisfactory solution to the problem. In this paper, we explore the possibility that electrons in H ii regions and PNe depart from a Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium energy distribution. We adopt a "kappa-distribution" for the electron energies. Such distributions are widely found in Solar System plasmas, where they can be directly measured. This simple assumption is able to explain the temperature and metallicity discrepancies in H ii regions and PNe arising from the different measurement techniques. We find that the energy distribution does not need to depart dramatically from an equilibrium distribution. From an examination of data from Hii regions and PNe it appears that kappa ~ ...

  17. Planck intermediate results. XVIII The millimetre and sub-millimetre emission from planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaud, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Buemi, C S; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Casassus, S; Catalano, A; Cerrigone, L; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Couchot, F; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Dupac, X; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D L; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Holmes, W A; Hora, J L; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Leto, P; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Martin, P G; Masi, S; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Trigilio, C; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Zacchei, A; Zijlstra, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    Late stages of stellar evolution are characterized by copious mass-loss events whose signature is the formation of circumstellar envelopes (CSE). Planck multi frequency measurements have provided relevant information on a sample of Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) in this important and relatively unexplored observational band between 30 and 857GHz. Planck enables the assembly of comprehensive PNe spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from radio through to far-infrared frequencies. Modelling of the derived SEDs provides us with information on physical properties of CSEs and the mass content of both main components: ionized gas, traced by the free-free emission at cm mm waves; and thermal dust, traced by the millimetre and far IR emission. In particular, the amount of ionized gas and dust has been derived here. Such quantities have also been estimated for the very young PN CRL618, where the strong variability observed in its radio and millimetre emission has previously prevented the construction of its SED. A mo...

  18. Dynamics of elliptical galaxies with planetary nebulae in modified Newtonian dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yong; Ko, Chung-Ming

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of an elliptical galaxy within a couple of effective radii can be probed effectively by stars. However, at larger distances planetary nebulae (PNe) replace stars as the tracer of the dynamics. Making use of the motion of PNe, Romanowsky et al. measured the dynamics of three luminous elliptical galaxies (NGC821, NGC3379 and NGC4494) at large distances from the galactic centre. They found that little dark matter is needed up to six effective radii. Milgrom & Sanders showed that this result can be understood in the framework of MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). As more data are available in the past decade, we revisit this problem. We combine PNe data (up to six to eight effective radii) and stellar data from SAURON of seven elliptical galaxies, including those three galaxies in Romanowsky et al. with updated data and four other galaxies which have not been analysed before. We conclude that the dynamics of these galaxies can be well explained by MOND.

  19. AKARI/IRC NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRAL ATLAS OF GALACTIC PLANETARY NEBULAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Ryou [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Matsuura, Mikako [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen’s Buildings, 5 The Parade, Roath, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Kaneda, Hidehiro, E-mail: ohsawa@ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Near-infrared (2.5–5.0 μm) low-resolution (λ/Δλ ∼ 100) spectra of 72 Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) were obtained with the Infrared Camera (IRC) in the post-helium phase. The IRC, equipped with a 1′ × 1′ window for spectroscopy of a point source, was capable of obtaining near-infrared spectra in a slit-less mode without any flux loss due to a slit. The spectra show emission features including hydrogen recombination lines and the 3.3–3.5 μm hydrocarbon features. The intensity and equivalent width of the emission features were measured by spectral fitting. We made a catalog providing unique information on the investigation of the near-infrared emission of PNe. In this paper, details of the observations and characteristics of the catalog are described.

  20. The Motion of Water Masers in the Pre-Planetary Nebula IRAS 16342-3814

    CERN Document Server

    Claussen, M J; Morris, M R

    2008-01-01

    We present high angular resolution observations, using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the NRAO, of the high-velocity water masers toward the "water-fountain" pre-planetary nebula, IRAS 16342-3814. The detailed structure of the water masers appears to be that of bow shocks on either side of a highly collimated jet. The proper motions of the water masers are approximately equal to the radial velocities; the three-dimensional velocities are approximately +/-180 km/s, which leads to a very short dynamical time-scale of ~100 years. Although we do not find direct evidence for precession of the fast collimated jet, there may be indirect evidence for such precession.

  1. HASH: the Hong Kong/AAO/Strasbourg Hα planetary nebula database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Quentin A.; Bojičić, Ivan S.; Frew, David J.

    2016-07-01

    By incorporating our major recent discoveries with re-measured and verified contents of existing catalogues we provide, for the first time, an accessible, reliable, on-line SQL database for essential, up-to date information for all known Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe). We have attempted to: i) reliably remove PN mimics/false ID's that have biased previous studies and ii) provide accurate positions, sizes, morphologies, multi-wavelength imagery and spectroscopy. We also provide a link to CDS/Vizier for the archival history of each object and other valuable links to external data. With the HASH interface, users can sift, select, browse, collate, investigate, download and visualise the entire currently known Galactic PNe diversity. HASH provides the community with the most complete and reliable data with which to undertake new science.

  2. Light and heavy metal abundances in hot central stars of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, K; Jahn, D; Rauch, T; Reiff, E; Traulsen, I; Kruk, J W; Dreizler, S

    2005-01-01

    We present new results from our spectral analyses of very hot central stars achieved since the last IAU Symposium on planetary nebulae held in Canberra 2001. The analyses are mainly based on UV and far-UV spectroscopy performed with the Hubble Space Telescope and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer but also on ground-based observations performed at the Very Large Telescope and other observatories. We report on temperature, gravity, and abundance determinations for the CNO elements of hydrogen-rich central stars. In many hydrogen-deficient central stars (spectral type PG1159) we discovered particular neon and fluorine lines, which are observed for the very first time in any astrophysical object. Their analysis strongly confirms the idea that these stars exhibit intershell matter as a consequence of a late helium-shell flash.

  3. What planetary nebulae can tell us about jets in core collapse supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Bear, Ealeal

    2016-01-01

    We compare the morphology of the core collapse supernova remnant (CCSNR) W49B with the morphology of many planetary nebulae (PNe), and deduce the orientation of the jets that shaped this CCSNR and estimate their energy. We find morphological features shared by some PNe and by the CCSNR W49B that are thought to be shaped by jets, such as a barrel-shaped main body. These morphological similarities are used to deduce that the jets were launched along the symmetry axis of the `barrel', and to speculate that this CCSNR has two opposite lobes (or ears), that are too faint to be observed. The morphological similarities strengthen the suggestion that jets play a central role in the explosion of massive stars.

  4. Limits to the Magnetic Field in the Planetary Nebula NGC 246 from Faraday Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, L. F.; Carrasco-González, C.; Cantó, J.; Pasetto, A.; Raga, A. C.; Tafoya, D.

    2017-04-01

    We present radio continuum observations of the linearly polarized extragalactic source J0047-1150, whose line of sight traverses the galactic planetary nebula NGC 246. We determine the position angle of the electric vector at seven frequencies between 1.3 and 1.8 GHz, finding no evidence of Faraday rotation and setting a 4-σ upper limit to the rotation measure of 9.6 rad m-2, which implies an upper limit to the average line-of-sight component of the magnetic field in NGC 246 of 1.3 μG. However, we show that the rotation measure across a source with a dipolar magnetic field morphology practically cancels out. Therefore, if the magnetic field has this morphology, the local values of the magnetic field in NGC 246 could be much larger and will not be evident in a Faraday rotation experiment.

  5. Planetary Nebulae as Tracers of the Intergalactic Stellar Background: a Population Synthesis Theoretical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Buzzoni, A

    2004-01-01

    We wish to assess the relationship between the population of planetary nebulae (PNe) and a given parent stellar population from a theoretical point of view. Our results rely on original population synthesis models used to estimate the expected luminosity-specific PN density accounting for different evolutionary scenarios and star formation histories, as observed in galaxies in the near Universe. For a complete PN sample, we find that 1 PN/1.5E06 L(sun) a safe (IMF-independent) lower limit to the traced global bolometric luminosity of the parent stellar population. A tentative application to Virgo cluster data allows us to place a lower limit at ~7% for the global B luminosity of the cluster provided by "loose" intergalactic stars.

  6. Newly Discovered Wolf-Rayet and Weak Emission-Line Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    DePew, Kyle; Miszalski, Brent; De Marco, Orsola; Frew, David J; Acker, Agnes; Kovacevic, Anna V; Sharp, Rob G

    2011-01-01

    We present spectra of 32 previously unpublished confirmed and candidate Wolf-Rayet ([WR]) and weak emission-line (WELS) central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNe). Eighteen stars have been discovered in the Macquarie/AAO/Strasbourg H-Alpha (MASH) PN survey sample, and we have also uncovered 14 confirmed and candidate [WR]s and WELS among the CSPNe of previously known PNe. Spectral classifications have been undertaken using both the Acker & Neiner and Crowther, De Marco & Barlow schemes. Twenty-two members in this sample are identified as probable [WR]s; the remaining 10 appear to be WELS. Observations undertaken as part of the MASH spectroscopic survey have now increased the number of known [WR]s by ~30 per cent. This will permit a better analysis of [WR] subclass distribution, metallicity effects, and evolutionary sequences in these uncommon objects.

  7. Binary Planetary Nebulae Nuclei towards the Galactic Bulge. I. Sample Discovery, Period Distribution and Binary Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, B; Moffat, A F J; Parker, Q A; Udalski, A

    2009-01-01

    Binarity has been hypothesised to play an important, if not ubiquitous, role in the formation of planetary nebulae (PNe). Yet there remains a severe paucity of known binary central stars required to test the binary hypothesis and to place strong constraints on the physics of the common-envelope (CE) phase of binary stellar evolution. Large photometric surveys offer an unrivalled opportunity to efficiently discover many binary central stars. We have combined photometry from the OGLE microlensing survey with the largest sample of PNe towards the Galactic Bulge to systematically search for new binaries. A total of 21 periodic binaries were found thereby more than doubling the known sample. The orbital period distribution was found to be best described by CE population synthesis models when no correlation between primary and secondary masses is assumed for the initial mass ratio distribution. A comparison with post-CE white dwarf binaries indicates both distributions are representative of the true post-CE period ...

  8. Fully relativistic study of forbidden transitions of OII : Electron density diagnosis for planetary nebulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaohao; Qing, Bo; Li, Jiaming

    2007-10-01

    Using the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method, including the quantum electrodynamics corrections, especially with the Breit interactions, we calculate the electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic dipole (M1) transition rates for the two transitions D5/2,3/2o2→S3/2o4 of OII . We show systematically that the correlation effects owing to core electron excitations and the Breit interactions are vitally important for the transition rates. We present a benchmark for the intensity ratio between the two transitions in the limit of high electron density in planetary nebulas, i.e., r(∞)=0.345-0.014+0.028 , which is in good agreement with modern astronomical observations.

  9. Any Density Changes Near the Inner Shell of the Planetary Nebula NGC 6803?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Jae; Hyung, S.

    2013-06-01

    Most recent high dispersion spectral data, secured at Lick Observatory in 1995 and 2001, suggested a large density increase near the inner shell boundary of the elliptical ring planetary nebula NGC 6803, e.g., Ne = 8900 (10^3.95) --> 14,400 (10^4.16)/cm^3 in [Ar IV] (Lee and Hyung 2013). We further analyzed high dispersion spectroscopic data observed in 2012 February with the Bohyunsan fiber-fed echelle spectrograph (BOES) attached to the Bohyunsan Observatory 1.8m telescope. The BOES diagnostic line ratios indicate a large change between 2001 & 2012 observations; -0.23, +0.39, +0.13, -0.28 dex for [S II], [O II], [N II], and [Cl III], respectively. For example, the 2012 BOES [Ar IV] line ratio implies a decreasing density of N=11,700 (10^4.07)/cm^3. We discuss the changes of physical conditions and kinematics of NGC 6803.

  10. Imaging the elusive H-poor gas in planetary nebulae with large abundance discrepancy factors

    CERN Document Server

    García-Rojas, J; Boffin, H M J; Monteiro, H; Jones, D; Wesson, R; Cabrera-Lavers, A; Rodríguez-Gil, P

    2016-01-01

    The discrepancy between abundances computed using optical recombination lines (ORLs) and collisionally excited lines (CELs) is a major, unresolved problem with significant implications for the determination of chemical abundances throughout the Universe. In planetary nebulae (PNe), the most common explanation for the discrepancy is that two different gas phases coexist: a hot component with standard metallicity, and a much colder plasma enhanced in heavy elements. This dual nature is not predicted by mass loss theories, and direct observational support for it is still weak. In this work, we present our recent findings that demonstrate that the largest abundance discrepancies are associated with close binary central stars. OSIRIS-GTC tunable filter imaging of the faint O II ORLs and MUSE-VLT deep 2D spectrophotometry confirm that O II ORL emission is more centrally concentrated than that of [O III] CELs and, therefore, that the abundance discrepancy may be closely linked to binary evolution.

  11. AKARI/IRC Near-Infrared Spectral Atlas of Galactic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Ohsawa, Ryou; Sakon, Itsuki; Matsuura, Mikako; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared (2.5-5.0$\\,\\mu$m) low-resolution ($\\lambda/\\Delta\\lambda{\\sim}100$) spectra of 72 Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) were obtained with the Infrared Camera (IRC) in the post-helium phase. The IRC, equipped with a $1'{\\times}1'$ window for spectroscopy of a point source, was capable of obtaining near-infrared spectra in a slit-less mode without any flux loss due to a slit. The spectra show emission features including hydrogen recombination lines and the 3.3-3.5$\\,\\mu$m hydrocarbon features. The intensity and equivalent width of the emission features were measured by spectral fitting. We made a catalog providing unique information on the investigation of the near-infrared emission of PNe. In this paper, details of the observations and characteristics of the catalog are described.

  12. Optical Spectra of Radio Planetary Nebulae in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Payne, J L; Crawford, E J; De Horta, A Y; White, G L; Stootman, F H

    2008-01-01

    We present preliminary results from spectral observations of four candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). These were made using the Radcliffe 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland, South Africa. These radio PNe were originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) surveys of the SMC at 1.42 and 2.37 GHz, and were further confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3 cm (4"/2"). Optical PNe and radio candidates are within 2" and may represent a subpopulation of selected radio bright objects. Nebular ionized masses of these objects may be 2.6 MSol or greater, supporting the existence of PNe progenitor central stars with masses up to 8 MSol.

  13. Planetary Nebula Velocities in the Disk and Bulge of M31

    CERN Document Server

    Halliday, C; Carter, D; Douglas, N G; Evans, N W; Irwin, M J; Jackson, Z C; Kuijken, K; Merrett, H R; Merrifield, M R; Quinn, D P; Romanowsky, A J; Wilkinson, M I

    2006-01-01

    We present radial velocities for a sample of 723 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the disk and bulge of M31, measured using the WYFFOS fibre spectrograph on the William Herschel telescope. Velocities are determined using the [OIII] 5007 Angstrom emission line. Rotation and velocity dispersion are measured to a radius of 50 arcminutes (11.5 kpc), the first stellar rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile for M31 to such a radius. Our kinematics are consistent with rotational support at radii well beyond the bulge effective radius of 1.4kpc, although our data beyond a radius of 5kpc are limited. We present tentative evidence for kinematic substructure in the bulge of M31 to be studied fully in a later work. This paper is part of an ongoing project to constrain the total mass, mass distribution and velocity anisotropy of the disk, bulge and halo of M31.

  14. Dust and Chemical Abundances of the Sagittarius dwarf Galaxy Planetary Nebula Hen2-436

    CERN Document Server

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Riebel, David; Hyung, Siek; Tajitsu, Akito; Izumiura, Hideyuki

    2010-01-01

    We have estimated elemental abundances of the planetary nebula (PN) Hen2-436 in the Sagittarius (Sgr) spheroidal dwarf galaxy using ESO/VLT FORS2, Magellan/MMIRS, and Spitzer/IRS spectra. We have detected candidates of [F II] 4790A, [Kr III] 6826A, and [P II] 7875A lines and successfully estimated the abundances of these elements ([F/H]=+1.23, [Kr/H]=+0.26, [P/H]=+0.26) for the first time. We present a relation between C, F, P, and Kr abundances among PNe and C-rich stars. The detections of F and Kr support the idea that F and Kr together with C are synthesized in the same layer and brought to the surface by the third dredge-up. We have estimated the N^2+ and O^2+ abundances using optical recombination lines (ORLs) and collisionally excited lines (CELs). The discrepancy between the abundance derived from the O ORL and that derived from the O CEL is >1 dex. To investigate the status of the central star of the PN, nebula condition, and dust properties, we construct a theoretical SED model with CLOUDY. By compar...

  15. FAST, LOW-IONIZATION EMISSION REGIONS OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA M2-42

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danehkar, A.; Parker, Q. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Steffen, W., E-mail: ashkbiz.danehkar@cfa.harvard.edu [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, C.P.22860, Ensenada (Mexico)

    2016-02-15

    Spatially resolved observations of the planetary nebula M2-42 (PN G008.2−04.8) obtained with the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3 m telescope have revealed the remarkable features of bipolar collimated jets emerging from its main structure. Velocity-resolved channel maps derived from the [N ii] λ6584 emission line disentangle different morphological components of the nebula. This information is used to develop a three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model, which consists of an equatorial dense torus and a pair of asymmetric bipolar outflows. The expansion velocity of about 20 km s{sup −1} is measured from the spectrum integrated over the main shell. However, the deprojected velocities of the jets are found to be in the range of 80–160 km s{sup −1} with respect to the nebular center. It is found that the mean density of the collimated outflows, 595 ± 125 cm{sup −3}, is five times lower than that of the main shell, 3150 cm{sup −3}, whereas their singly ionized nitrogen and sulfur abundances are about three times higher than those determined from the dense shell. The results indicate that the features of the collimated jets are typical of fast, low-ionization emission regions.

  16. Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae in the Large Magellanic Cloud: A Far-UV Spectroscopic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Herald, J E

    2004-01-01

    We observed seven central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), and performed a model-based analysis of these spectra in conjunction with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spectra in the UV and optical range to determine the stellar and nebular parameters. Most of the objects show wind features, and they have effective temperatures ranging from 38 to 60 kK with mass-loss rates of ~= 5x10^-8 Msun/yr. Five of the objects have typical LMC abundances. One object (SMP LMC 61) is a [WC4] star, and we fit its spectra with He/C/O-rich abundances typical of the [WC] class, and find its atmosphere to be iron-deficient. Most objects have very hot (T ~> 2000 K) molecular hydrogen in their nebulae, which may indicate a shocked environment. One of these (SMP LMC 62) also displays OVI 1032-38 nebular emission lines, rarely observed in PN.

  17. High-resolution spectroscopy of central stars of planetary nebulae - LSS 1362

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U.; Werner, K.; Drilling, J. S.

    1988-01-01

    High resolution spectra of the hot sdO star LSS 1362, a central star of a planetary nebula, are analyzed by means of model atmosphere techniques. Improved NLTE model atmospheres based on the newly developed 'accelerated lambda iteration' method are used. The very high effective temperature (100000 K) derived previously from the UV energy distribution is confirmed. The surface gravity (log g = 5.3) and a normal helium abundance are derived. A mass of 0.65 solar mass and a luminosity of 10 exp 3.9 solar luminosities result from a comparison with evolutionary tracks. The distance is 1.1 kpc and the nebula has a diameter of about 0.25 pc to 0.5 pc. Weak photospheric emission lines of He II, CIV, Nv, and O v are detected. These lines are slightly blue-shifted with respect to the absorption line spectrum which is regarded as evidence for an atmospheric velocity field. It is conjectured that the observed broadening of the metal lines (25 km/s) may be caused by the velocity field rather than by rotation.

  18. From Bipolar to Elliptical: Simulating the Morphological Evolution of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Huarte-Espinosa, Martín; Balick, Bruce; Blackman, Eric G; De Marco, Orsola; Kastner, Joel H; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2011-01-01

    The majority of Proto-planetary nebulae (PPN) are observed to have bipolar morphologies. The majority of mature PN are observed to have elliptical shapes. In this paper we address the evolution of PPN/PN morphologies attempting to understand if a transition from strongly bipolar to elliptical shape can be driven by changes in the parameters of the mass loss process. To this end we present 2.5D hydrodynamical simulations of mass loss at the end stages of stellar evolution for intermediate mass stars. We track changes in wind velocity, mass loss rate and mass loss geometry. In particular we focus on the transition from mass loss dominated by a short duration jet flow (driven during the PPN phase) to mass loss driven by a spherical fast wind (produced by the central star of the PN). We address how such changes in outflow characteristics can change the nebula from a bipolar to an elliptical morphology. Our results show that including a period of jet formation in the temporal sequence of PPN to PN produces realist...

  19. Improved prospects for the detection of new Large Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, Brent; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L; Nie, Jundan

    2011-01-01

    The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) contains the nearest large extragalactic population of planetary nebulae (PNe). A shallow viewing angle and low interstellar reddening towards the LMC potentially means a larger, more complete flux-limited population can be assembled than for any other galaxy. These advantages appear to be reflected by the small gap between the catalogued ($\\sim$700 PNe) and estimated ($1000\\pm250$ PNe) population size. With more detailed multi-wavelength studies the catalogued number of LMC PNe may fall, potentially widening this gap. We demonstrate here that the gap can be further bridged with improved optical and near-infrared imaging surveys. We present three [O III]-selected PNe discovered from ESO WFI observations of the 30 Doradus region and one serendipitous discovery from near-infrared Vista Magellanic Cloud (VMC) survey observations. The WFI PNe have resolved [O III] and H$\\alpha$ nebulae that verify their PN nature and their [O III] fluxes place them 6--7 mag ($m_{5007}=20$--21 mag)...

  20. The evolution of planetary nebulae. VIII. True expansion rates and visibility times

    CERN Document Server

    Jacob, R; Steffen, M

    2013-01-01

    The visibility time of planetary nebulae (PNe) in stellar systems is an essential quantity for estimating the size of a PN population in the context of general population studies. For instance, it enters directly into the PN death rate determination. The basic ingredient for determining visibility times is the typical nebular expansion velocity, as a suited average over all PN sizes of a PN population within a certain volume or stellar system. The true expansion speed of the outer nebular edge of a PN is, however, not accessible by spectroscopy -- a difficulty that we surmount by radiation-hydrodynamics modelling. We find a mean true expansion velocity of 42 km/s, i.e. nearly twice as high as the commonly adopted value to date. Accordingly, the time for a PN to expand to a radius of, say 0.9 pc, is only 21000 +/- 5000 years. This visibility time of a PN holds for all central star masses since a nebula does not become extinct as the central star fades. There is, however, a dependence on metallicity in the sens...

  1. Comparing shocks in planetary nebulae with the solar wind termination shock

    CERN Document Server

    Soker, Noam; Behar, Ehud; Kastner, Joel H

    2010-01-01

    We show that suprathermal particles, termed pick-up ions (PUIs), might reduce the postshock temperature of the fast wind and jets in some planetary nebulae (PNs) and in symbiotic systems. The goal is to explain the finding that the temperature of the hot bubble formed by the post-shock gas in some PNs and symbiotic nebulae is lower, sometimes by more than an order of magnitude, than the value expected from simple hydrodynamical calculations. Although various explanations have been proposed, there is as yet no prefered solution for this low tempeature problem. PUIs have been invoked to explain the low temperature behind the termination shock of the solar wind. While in the case of the solar wind the neutral atoms that turn into PUIs penetrate the pre-shock solar wind region from the interstellar medium (ISM), in PNs the PUI source is more likely slowly moving clumps embedded in the fast wind or jets. These clumps are formed by instabilities or from backflowing cold gas. Our estimates indicate that in young PNs...

  2. Fast, low-ionization emission regions of the planetary nebula M2-42

    CERN Document Server

    Danehkar, A; Steffen, W

    2016-01-01

    Spatially resolved observations of the planetary nebula M2-42 (PN G008.2-04.8) obtained with the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3 m telescope have revealed the remarkable features of bipolar collimated jets emerging from its main structure. Velocity-resolved channel maps derived from the [N II] $\\lambda$6584 emission line disentangle different morphological components of the nebula. This information is used to develop a three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model, which consists of an equatorial dense torus and a pair of asymmetric bipolar outflows. The expansion velocity of about 20 km s$^{-1}$ is measured from the spectrum integrated over the main shell. However, the deprojected velocities of the jets are found to be in the range of 80-160 km s$^{-1}$ with respect to the nebular center. It is found that the mean density of the collimated outflows, 595 $\\pm$ 125 cm$^{-3}$, is five times lower than that of the main shell, 3150 cm$^{-3}$, whereas their singly ionized nitrogen and ...

  3. X-Ray Emission by A Shocked Fast Wind from the Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Akashi, M; Behar, E; Akashi, Muhammad; Soker, Noam; Behar, Ehud

    2005-01-01

    We calculate the X-ray emission from the shocked fast wind blown by the central stars of planetary nebulae (PNs) and compare with observations. Using spherically symmetric self similar solutions with radiative cooling, we calculate the flow structure and X-ray temperature for a fast wind slamming into a previously ejected slow wind. We find that the observed X-ray emission of six PNs can be accounted for by shocked wind segments that were expelled during the early PN phase, if the fast wind speed is moderate, ~400-600 km/sec, and the mass loss rate is a few times 10^{-7} Mo/year. We find, as proposed previously, that the morphology of the X-ray emission is in the form of a narrow ring inner to the optical bright part of the nebula. The bipolar X-ray morphology of several observed PNs, which indicates an important role of jets rather than a spherical fast wind, cannot be explained by the flow studied here.

  4. The Nucleus of the Planetary Nebula EGB 6 as a Post-Mira Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, Howard E; Esplin, Taran L; Hawley, Steven A; Liebert, James; Munari, Ulisse

    2016-01-01

    EGB 6 is a faint, large, ancient planetary nebula (PN). Its central star, a hot DAOZ white dwarf (WD), is a prototype of a rare class of PN nuclei associated with dense, compact emission-line knots. The central star also shows excess fluxes in both the near- (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR). In a 2013 paper, we used Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images to show that the compact nebula is a point-like source, located 0".16 (~118 AU) from the WD. We attributed the NIR excess to an M dwarf companion star, which appeared to coincide with the dense emission knot. We now present new ground-based NIR spectroscopy, showing that the companion is actually a much cooler source with a continuous spectrum, apparently a dust-enshrouded low-luminosity star. New HST images confirm common proper motion of the emission knot and red source with the WD. The I-band, NIR, and MIR fluxes are variable, possibly on timescales as short as days. We can fit the spectral-energy distribution with four blackbodies (the WD, a ~1850 K NIR componen...

  5. The Angular Expansion and Distance of the Planetary Nebula BD+30 3639

    CERN Document Server

    Li, J; Borkowski, K J; Li, Jianyang; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.

    2002-01-01

    The WFPC2 camera aboard the HST was used to obtain images of the planetary nebula BD+30 3639 at two epochs separated by 5.663 years. The expansion of the nebula in the H-alpha and [N II] bands has been measured using several methods. Detailed expansion maps for both emission lines were constructed from nearly 200 almost independent features. There is good agreement between the (independent) H-alpha and [N II] proper motions. The central velocity split is measured from the STIS echelle spectra of the C II] 2326A multiplet to be +/-36.3 km/s at a position angle of 99 degrees. The angular displacement along this slit position was measured to be 4.25 mas/yr at 2".47 from the center. We constructed a tilted ellipsoidal shell model by fitting the radio brightness variation of the 5 and 15 GHz VLA observations, and making use of the ground-based echelle spectra from Bryce & Mellema (1999), to estimate distance. Our model has an axial ratio of 1.56, is inclined to the line of sight by 9.7 degrees, and exhibits an...

  6. DT Serpentis: neither a symbiotic star nor a planetary nebula associate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, David J.; Bento, Joao; Bojičić, Ivan S.; Parker, Quentin A.

    2014-12-01

    We present an alternative interpretation for the putative symbiotic star DT Serpentis, and its proposed planetary nebula (PN), recently announced by Munari et al. Our analysis is based on their data combined with additional archival data trawled from Virtual Observatory data bases. We show that the star known as DT Ser is not a symbiotic star, and is merely superposed on the newly discovered but unrelated background PN. There is no evidence for any periodic variability for DT Ser as expected for a symbiotic star. We further establish that there is no physical association between DT Ser and the PN, which has a considerably higher extinction, befitting the larger distance we estimate. The significantly different radial velocities of the star and nebula also likely preclude any association. Finally, we show that the mid-infrared source detected by the IRAS and WISE surveys is actually coincident with the PN so there is no evidence for DT Ser being a dusty post-asymptotic giant branch star.

  7. A study of the kinematics and binary-induced shaping of the planetary nebula HaTr 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tyndall, A A; Lloyd, M; O'Brien, T J; Pollacco, D

    2012-01-01

    We present the first detailed spatio-kinematical analysis and modelling of the planetary nebula HaTr 4, one of few known to contain a post-common-envelope central star system. Common envelope evolution is believed to play an important role in the shaping of planetary nebulae, but the exact nature of this role is yet to be understood. High spatial- and spectral- resolution spectroscopy of the [OIII]5007 nebular line obtained with VLT-UVES are presented alongside deep narrowband Ha+[NII]6584 imagery obtained using EMMI-NTT, and together the two are used to derive the three-dimensional morphology of HaTr 4. The nebula is found to display an extended ovoid morphology with an enhanced equatorial region consistent with a toroidal waist - a feature believed to be typical amongst planetary nebulae with post-common-envelope central stars. The nebular symmetry axis is found to lie perpendicular to the orbital plane of the central binary, concordant with the idea that the formation and evolution of HaTr 4 has been stron...

  8. The Kinematics of the Permitted C ii λ6578 Line in a Large Sample of Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, Michael G.; Suárez, Genaro; López, José Alberto; García Díaz, María Teresa

    2017-03-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the C ii λ6578 permitted line for 83 lines of sight in 76 planetary nebulae at high spectral resolution, most of them obtained with the Manchester Echelle Spectrograph on the 2.1 m telescope at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Mártir. We study the kinematics of the C ii λ6578 permitted line with respect to other permitted and collisionally excited lines. Statistically, we find that the kinematics of the C ii λ6578 line are not those expected if this line arises from the recombination of C2+ ions or the fluorescence of C+ ions in ionization equilibrium in a chemically homogeneous nebular plasma, but instead its kinematics are those appropriate for a volume more internal than expected. The planetary nebulae in this sample have well-defined morphology and are restricted to a limited range in Hα line widths (no large values) compared to their counterparts in the Milky Way bulge; both these features could be interpreted as the result of young nebular shells, an inference that is also supported by nebular modeling. Concerning the long-standing discrepancy between chemical abundances inferred from permitted and collisionally excited emission lines in photoionized nebulae, our results imply that multiple plasma components occur commonly in planetary nebulae.

  9. AGB Connection and Ultraviolet Luminosity Excess in Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzoni, Alberto; González-Lópezlira, Rosa A.

    2008-10-01

    Relying on infrared surface brightness fluctuactions to trace AGB properties in a sample of elliptical galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax Clusters, we assess the puzzling origin of the ``UV upturn'' phenomenon, recently traced to the presence of a hot horizontal branch (HB) stellar component. The UV upturn actually signals a profound change in the galaxy stellar populations, involving both the hot stellar component and red giant evolution. In particular, the strengthening of the UV rising branch is always seen to correspond to a shortening in AGB deployment; this trend can be readily interpreted as an age effect, perhaps mildly modulated by metal abundance. Brightest stars in ellipticals are all found to be genuine AGB members, all the way, and with the AGB tip exceeding the RGB tip by some 0.5-1.5 mag. The inferred core mass of these stars is found to be lesssim0.57 M⊙ among giant ellipticals. This value accounts for the recognized deficiency of planetary nebulae in these galaxies, as a result of a lengthy transition time for the post-AGB stellar core to become a hard UV emitter and eventually ``fire up'' the nebula. The combined study of galaxy (1550 - V)0 color and integrated Hβ index points to a a bimodal temperature distribution for the HB with both a red clump and an extremely blue component, in a relative proportion [N(RHB) : N(BHB)] ~ [80 : 20]. For the BHB stellar population, [Fe/H] values of either simeq-0.7 or gtrsim+0.5 dex may provide the optimum ranges to feed the needed low-mass stars (M*ll 0.58 M⊙) that at some stage begin to join the standard red clump stars.

  10. HIP 3678: a hierarchical triple stellar system in the centre of the planetary nebula NGC 246

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, C

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection of a new low-mass stellar companion to the white dwarf HIP 3678 A, the central star of the planetary nebula NGC 246. The newly found companion is located about 1 arcsec (at projected separation of about 500 au) north-east of HIP 3678 A, and shares a common proper motion with the white dwarf and its known comoving companion HIP 3678 B. The hypothesis that the newly detected companion is a non-moving background object can be rejected on a significance level of more than 8 $\\sigma$, by combining astrometric measurements from the literature with follow-up astrometry, obtained with Wild Field Planetary Camera 2/\\textit{Hubble Space Telescope} and NACO/Very Large Telescope. From our deep NACO imaging data, we can rule out additional stellar companions of the white dwarf with projected separations between 130 up to 5500 au. In the deepest high-contrast NACO observation, we achieve a detection limit in the \\textit{Ks} band of about 20 mag, which allows the detection of brown dwarf companions w...

  11. Astrometry With the Hubble Space Telescope: Trigonometric Parallaxes of Planetary Nebula Nuclei NGC 6853, NGC 7293, ABELL 31, and DeHt 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, G. F.; McArthur, Barbara E.; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Harrison, Thomas E.; Harris, Hugh C.; Nelan, Edmund; Bond, Howard E; Patterson, Richard J.; Ciardullo, Robin

    2009-01-01

    We present absolute parallaxes and relative proper motions for the central stars of the planetary nebulae NGC 6853 (The Dumbbell), NGC 7293 (The Helix), Abell 31, and DeHt 5. This paper details our reduction and analysis using DeHt 5 as an example. We obtain these planetary nebula nuclei (PNNi) parallaxes with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensors FGS 1r and FGS 3, white-light interferometers on the Hubble Space Telescope. Proper motions, spectral classifications and VJHKT2M and DDO51 photometry of the stars comprising the astrometric reference frames provide spectrophotometric estimates of reference star absolute parallaxes. Introducing these into our model as observations with error, we determine absolute parallaxes for each PNN. Weighted averaging with previous independent parallax measurements yields an average parallax precision, sigma (sub pi)/ pi = 5%. Derived distances are: d(sub NGC6853) = 405(exp +28 sub -25) pc, d(sub NGC7293) = 216(exp +14 sub -12) pc, d(sub Abell31) = 621(exp +91 sub -70) pc, and d(sub DeHt5) = 345(exp +19 sub -17) pc. These PNNi distances are all smaller than previously derived from spectroscopic analyses of the central stars. To obtain absolute magnitudes from these distances requires estimates of interstellar extinction. We average extinction measurements culled from the literature, from reddening based on PNNi intrinsic colors derived from model SEDs, and an assumption that each PNN experiences the same rate of extinction as a function of distance as do the reference stars nearest (in angular separation) to each central star. We also apply Lutz-Kelker bias corrections. The absolute magnitudes and effective temperatures permit estimates of PNNi radii through both the Stefan-Boltzmann relation and Eddington fluxes. Comparing absolute magnitudes with post-AGB models provides mass estimates. Masses cluster around 0.57 solar Mass, close to the peak of the white dwarf mass distribution. Adding a few more PNNi with well

  12. New Atomic Data for Trans-Iron Elements and Their Application to Abundance Determinations in Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, N C; Esteves, D A; Bilodeau, R C; Kilcoyne, A L D; Red, E C; Phaneuf, R A; Alna'Washi, G; Aguilar, A

    2010-01-01

    [Abridged] Investigations of neutron(n)-capture element nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution have largely been based on stellar spectroscopy. However, the recent detection of these elements in several planetary nebulae (PNe) indicates that nebular spectroscopy is a promising new tool for such studies. In PNe, n-capture element abundance determinations reveal details of s-process nucleosynthesis and convective mixing in evolved low-mass stars, as well as the chemical evolution of elements that cannot be detected in stellar spectra. Only one or two ions of a given trans-iron element can typically be detected in individual nebulae. Elemental abundance determinations thus require corrections for the abundances of unobserved ions. Such corrections rely on the availability of atomic data for processes that control the ionization equilibrium of nebulae. Until recently, these data were unknown for virtually all n-capture element ions. For the first five ions of Se, Kr, and Xe -- the three most widely detected n-cap...

  13. The Discovery of Infrared Rings in the Planetary Nebula NGC 1514 During the WISE All-Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ressler, Michael E; Wachter, Stefanie; Hoard, D W; Mainzer, Amy K; Wright, Edward L; 10.1088/0004-6256/140/6/1882

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of a pair of infrared, axisymmetric rings in the planetary nebula NGC 1514 during the course of the WISE all-sky mid-infrared survey. Similar structures are seen at visible wavelengths in objects such as the "Engraved Hourglass Nebula" (MyCn 18) and the "Southern Crab Nebula" (Hen 2-104). However, in NGC 1514 we see only a single pair of rings and they are easily observed only in the mid-infrared. These rings are roughly 0.2 pc in diameter, are separated by 0.05 pc, and are dominated by dust emission with a characteristic temperature of 160 K. We compare the morphology and color of the rings to the other nebular structures seen at visible, far-infrared, and radio wavelengths, and close with a discussion of a physical model and formation scenario for NGC 1514.

  14. NGC 6778: Strengthening the link between extreme abundance discrepancy factors and central star binarity in planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, David; García-Rojas, Jorge; Corradi, Romano L M; Boffin, Henri M J

    2015-01-01

    We present new optical spectra of the nearby, bright, planetary nebula NGC 6778. The nebula has been known to emit strong recombination lines for more than 40 years but this is the first detailed study of its abundances. Heavy element abundances derived from recombination lines are found to exceed those from collisionally excited lines by a factor of ~20 in an integrated spectrum of the nebula, which is among the largest known abundance discrepancy factors. Spatial analysis of the spectra shows that the abundance discrepancy factor is strongly, centrally peaked, reaching ~40 close to the central star. The central star of NGC 6778 is known to be a short period binary, further strengthening the link between high nebular abundance discrepancy factors and central star binarity.

  15. Atmospheric Abundances in Post-AGB candidates of Intermediate Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Ferro, A A; Mathias, P; Giridhar, Sunetra

    2001-01-01

    Detailed atmospheric abundances have been calculated for a sample of A-G supergiant stars with IR fluxes and/or high galactic latitudes. HD 172481 and HD 158616 show clear indications of being post-AGB stars that have experienced third dredge-up. HD 158616 is carbon-rich while the abundance pattern of HD 172481 and its large Li enhancement gives support to the hot bottom burning scenario that explains paucity of carbon-rich stars among AGB stars. HD 172324 is very likely a hot post-AGB star that shows a strong carbon deficiency. HD 725, HD 218753 and HD 331319 also appear to be evolved objects between the red giant and the AGB. HD 9167, HD 173638 with a few exceptions, reflect solar abundances and no signs of post red giant evolution. They are most likely young massive disk supergiants. Further analysis of proto-Planetary Nebula HDE 341617 reveals that He lines show signs of velocity stratification. The emission lines have weakened considerably since 1993. The envelope expands at 19 km s$^{-1}$ relative to th...

  16. Magnetic-Driven Winds from Post-AGB Stars: Solutions for High Speed Winds and Extreme Collimation

    CERN Document Server

    García-Segura, G; Franco, J; Garcia-Segura, Guillermo; Lopez, Jose Alberto; Franco, Jose

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of post-AGB winds driven solely by magnetic pressure from the stellar surface. It is found that winds can reach high speeds under this assumption, and lead to the formation of highly collimated proto-planetary nebulae. Bipolar knotty jets with periodic features and constant velocity are well reproduced by the models. Several wind models with terminal velocities from a few tens of $\\kms$ up to $10^3$ $\\kms$ are calculated, yielding outflows with linear momenta in the range $10^{36}-10^{40} \\gcms$, and kinetic energies in the range $10^{42}-10^{47} $ erg. These results are in accord with recent observations of proto-planetary nebulae that have pointed out serious energy and momentum deficits if radiation pressure is considered as the only driver for these outflows. Our models strengthen the notion that the large mass-loss rates of post-AGB stars, together with the short transition times from the late AGB to the planetary nebula stage, could be directly linked with the generation ...

  17. A Spitzer/IRS spectral study of a sample of galactic carbon-rich proto-planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yong; Hrivnak, Bruce J

    2010-01-01

    Recent infrared spectroscopic observations have shown that proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs) are sites of active synthesis of organic compounds in the late stages of stellar evolution. This paper presents a study of Spitzer/IRS spectra for a sample of carbon-rich PPNs, all except one of which show the unidentified 21 micron emission feature. The strengths of the aromatic infrared band (AIB), 21 micron, and 30 micron features are obtained by decomposition of the spectra. The observed variations in the strengths and peak wavelengths of the features support the model that the newly synthesized organic compounds gradually change from aliphatic to aromatic characteristics as stars evolve from PPNs to planetary nebulae.

  18. Spectrophotometry near the atmospheric cutoff of the strongest Bowen resonance fluorescence lines of O III in two planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, C. R.; Opal, Chet B.

    1989-01-01

    Spectrophotometric results are presented for the stronger, well-resolved Bowen O III resonance fluorescence emission lines in the planetary nebulae 7027 and NGC 7662 down to and including the intrinsically strong line at 3133 A. These data are combined with results from the IUE atlas of spectra and similar results for the longer wavelength lines by Likkel and Aller (1986) to give the first full coverage of the Bowen lines. Good agreement is found with fluorescence theory for the primary cascade lines, except for the Likkel and Aller results. The efficiency of conversion of the exciting He II Ly-alpha into O III lines is determined, and values comparable to other planetary nebulae are found.

  19. The Interstellar Extinction Toward the Milky Way Bulge with Planetary Nebulae, Red Clump, and RR Lyrae stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nataf, David M

    2016-01-01

    I review the literature covering the issue of interstellar extinction toward the Milky Way bulge, with emphasis placed on findings from planetary nebulae, RR Lyrae, and red clump stars. I also report on observations from HI gas and globular clusters. I show that there has been substantial progress in this field in recent decades, most particularly from red clump stars. The spatial coverage of extinction maps has increased by a factor $\\sim 100 \\times$ in the past twenty years, and the total-to-selective extinction ratios reported have shifted by $\\sim$20-25\\%, indicative of the improved accuracy and separately, of a steeper-than-standard extinction curve. Problems remain in modelling differential extinction, explaining anomalies involving the planetary nebulae, and understanding the difference between bulge extinction coefficients and "standard" literature values.

  20. IFU Spectroscopy of Southern Planetary Nebulae V: Low-Ionisation Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A.; Dopita, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    In this fifth paper of the series, we examine the spectroscopy and morphology of four southern Galactic planetary nebulae Hen 2-141, NGC 5307, IC 2553, and PB 6 using new integral field spectroscopy data. The morphologies and ionisation structures of the sample are given as a set of emission-line maps. In addition, the physical conditions, chemical compositions, and kinematical characteristics of these objects are derived. The results show that PB 6 and Hen 2-141 are of very high excitation classes and IC 2553 and NGC 5307 are mid to high excitation objects. The elemental abundances reveal that PB 6 is of Type I, Hen 2-141 and IC 2553 are of Type IIa, and NGC 5307 is of Type IIb/III. The observations unveil the presence of well-defined low-ionisation structures or `knots' in all objects. The diagnostic diagrams reveal that the excitation mechanism of these knots is probably by photoionisation of dense material by the nebular central stars. The physical analysis of six of these knots show no significant differences with their surrounding nebular gas, except their lower electron densities. In spite of the enhancement of the low-ionisation emission lines of these knots, their chemical abundances are nearly comparable to their surrounding nebulae, with the exception of perhaps slightly higher nitrogen abundances in the NGC 5307 knots. The integrated spectrum of IC 2553 reveals that nearly all key lines that have led researchers to characterise its central star as a weak-emission line star type are in fact of nebular origin.

  1. Planetary Nebulae As A Laboratory For Molecular Hydrogen in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellgren, Kris; Bromm, Volker; Dinerstein, Harriet

    2008-03-01

    We propose to obtain Spitzer IRS observations of the mid-infrared rotational lines of H2 in planetary nebulae (PNe) with very hot central stars, T > 100,000 K. Our primary motivation is to investigate the excitation and cooling of H2 exposed to UV radiation near very hot stars, which can serve as a proxy for conditions in the early universe. Cosmological simulations show that the first stellar generation (Pop. III) had high masses, > 100 Msun, and hot photospheres. The UV radiation they produced and its effect on the thermal state of the ambient H2 is relevant to subsequent star formation because stellar masses are determined by accretion processes which depend on temperature, and the metal-free primordial gas cooled primarily through excited H2. Yet the effects of this radiative feedback are uncertain: for example, whether it triggers or suppresses further star formation, and the resultant characteristic masses of second generation stars, which are key to cosmic reionization. PNe with hot central stars may be the only place where we can study the relevant microphysics. We therefore propose to obtain Spitzer spectra of such nebulae, sampling regions with a range of gas densities and radiation field dilution factors. We will use the results to derive an improved H2 cooling function to be incorporated into state of the art cosmological models. Our targets have been previously observed in the near-infrared H2 lines, so we have confidence that the lower excitation rotational lines are detectable. Evidence already exists that in some PNe the excited rotational states are overpopulated relative to standard fluorescence models, and that this may be related to the presence of Lyman-continuum photons. The observations proposed here will enable us to verify and quantify this phenomenon, and improve our understanding of H2 excitation. Spitzer is the only facility at present - and for at least the next decade - which can accomplish these goals.

  2. Three-dimensional photoionization modelling of the planetary nebula NGC 3918

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolano, B.; Morisset, C.; Barlow, M. J.; Storey, P. J.; Liu, X.-W.

    2003-04-01

    The three-dimensional Monte Carlo photoionization code MOCASSIN has been applied to construct a realistic model of the planetary nebula NGC 3918. Three different geometric models were tried, the first being the biconical density distribution already used some years ago by Clegg et al. In this model the nebula is approximated by a biconical structure of enhanced density, embedded in a lower-density spherical region. Spindle-like density distributions were used for the other two models (models A and B). Model A used a mass distribution slightly modified from one of Mellema's hydrodynamical models that had already been adopted by Corradi et al. for their observational analysis of NGC 3918. Our spindle-like model B instead used an analytical expression to describe the shape of the inner shell of this object as consisting of an ellipsoid embedded in a sphere. The effects of the interaction of the diffuse fields coming from two adjacent regions of different densities were investigated. These are found to be non-negligible, even for the relatively uncomplicated case of a biconical geometry. We found that the ionization structure of low-ionization species near the boundaries is particularly affected. It is found that all three models provided acceptable matches to the integrated nebular optical and ultraviolet spectrum. Large discrepancies were found between all of the model predictions of infrared fine-structure line fluxes and ISO SWS measurements. This was found to be largely due to an offset of ~14 arcsec from the centre of the nebula that affected all of the ISO observations of NGC 3918. For each model, we also produced projected emission-line maps and position-velocity diagrams from synthetic long-slit spectra, which could be compared to recent HST images and ground-based long-slit echelle spectra. This comparison showed that spindle-like model B provided the best match to the observations. Although the integrated emission-line spectrum of NGC 3918 can be reproduced

  3. The light element abundance distribution in NGC 5128 from planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. R.; Jacoby, G. H.; Peletier, R. F.; Walton, N. A.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Planetary nebulae in the nearest large elliptical galaxy provide light element abundances difficult or impossible to measure by other means in a stellar system very different from the galaxies in the Local Group. Aims: The light element abundance pattern from many planetary nebulae (PNe) at a range of radial distances was measured from optical spectroscopy in the elliptical galaxy NGC 5128, which hosts the radio source Centaurus A. The PN abundances, in particular for oxygen, and the PN progenitor properties are related to the galaxy stellar properties. Methods: PNe in NGC 5128 covering the upper 4 mag of the luminosity function were selected from a catalogue. VLT FORS1 multi-slit spectra in blue and red ranges were obtained over three fields at 3, 9 and 15' projected radii (4, 8 and 17 kpc, for an adopted distance of 3.8 Mpc) and spectra were extracted for 51 PNe. Accurate electron temperature and density diagnostics are usually required for abundance determination, but were not available for most of the PNe. Cloudy photoionization models were run to match the spectra by a spherical, constant density nebula ionized by a black body central star. He, N, O and Ne abundances with respect to H were determined and, for brighter PN, S and Ar; central star luminosities and temperatures are also derived. Results: Emission line ratios for the 51 PNe are entirely typical of PN such as in the Milky Way. The temperature sensitive [O III]4363 Å line was weakly detected in 10 PNe, both [O II] and [O III] lines were detected in 30 PNe, and only the bright [O III]5007 Å line was detected in 7 PN. For 40 PNe with Cloudy models, from the upper 2 mag of the [O III] luminosity function, the most reliably estimated element, oxygen, has a mean 12 + log(O/H) of 8.52 with a narrow distribution. No obvious radial gradient is apparent in O/H over a range 2-20 kpc. Comparison of the PN abundances with the stellar population, from the spectra of the integrated stellar light on the

  4. A pilot search for mm-wavelength recombination lines from emerging ionized winds in pre-planetary nebulae candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Contreras, C.; Báez-Rubio, A.; Alcolea, J.; Bujarrabal, V.; Martín-Pintado, J.

    2017-07-01

    We report the results from a pilot search for radio recombination line (RRL) emission at millimeter wavelengths in a small sample of pre-planetary nebulae (pPNe) and young PNe (yPNe) with emerging central ionized regions. Observations of the H30α, H31α, H39α, H41α, H48β, H49β, H51β, and H55γ lines at 1 and 3 mm have been performed with the IRAM 30 m radio telescope. These lines are excellent probes of the dense inner (≲150 au) and heavily obscured regions of these objects, where the yet unknown agents for PN-shaping originate. We detected mm-RRLs in three objects: CRL 618, MWC 922, and M 2-9. For CRL 618, the only pPN with previous published detections of H41α, H35α, and H30α emission, we find significant changes in the line profiles indicating that current observations are probing regions of the ionized wind with larger expansion velocities and mass-loss rate than 29 yr ago. In the case of MWC 922, we observe a drastic transition from single-peaked profiles at 3 mm (H39α and H41α) to double-peaked profiles at 1 mm (H31α and H30α), which is consistent with maser amplification of the highest frequency lines; the observed line profiles are compatible with rotation and expansion of the ionized gas, probably arranged in a disk+wind system around a 5-10 M⊙ central mass. In M 2-9, the mm-RRL emission appears to be tracing a recent mass outburst by one of the stars of the central binary system. We present the results from non-LTE line and continuum radiative transfer models, which enables us to constrain the structure, kinematics, and physical conditions (electron temperature and density) of the ionized cores of our sample. We find temperatures Te 6000-17 000 K, mean densities ne 105-108 cm-3, radial density gradients ne ∝ r- αn with αn 2-3.5, and motions with velocities of 10-30 km s-1 in the ionized wind regions traced by these mm-wavelength observations. We deduce mass-loss rates of ṀpAGB ≈ 10-6-10-7 M⊙ yr-1, which are significantly higher

  5. First Detection of $^3$He$^+$ in the Planetary Nebula IC$\\,$418

    CERN Document Server

    Guzman-Ramirez, L; Zijlstra, A A; García-Miró, C; Morisset, C; Gray, M D

    2016-01-01

    The $^3$He isotope is important to many fields of astrophysics, including stellar evolution, chemical evolution, and cosmology. The isotope is produced in low-mass stars which evolve through the planetary nebula (PN) phase. $^3$He abundances in PNe can help test models of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. We present the detection of the $^3$He$^+$ emission line using the single dish Deep Space Station 63, towards the PN IC$\\,$418. We derived a $^3$He/H abundance in the range 1.74$\\pm$0.8$\\times$10$^{-3}$ to 5.8$\\pm$1.7$\\times$10$^{-3}$, depending on whether part of the line arises in an outer ionized halo. The lower value for $^3$He/H ratio approaches values predicted by stellar models which include thermohaline mixing, but requires that large amounts of $^3$He are produced inside low-mass stars which enrich the interstellar medium (ISM). However, this over-predicts the $^3$He abundance in HII regions, the ISM, and proto-solar grains, which is known to be of the order of 10$^{-5}$. This discrepancy questi...

  6. Vertical distribution and kinematics of planetary nebulae in the milky way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobylev, V. V.; Bajkova, A. T.

    2017-05-01

    Based on published data, we have produced a sample of planetary nebulae (PNe) that is complete within 2 kpc of the Sun. We have estimated the total number of PNe in the Galaxy from this sample to be 17 000±3000 and determined the vertical scale height of the thin disk based on an exponential density distribution to be 197 ± 10 pc. The next sample includes PNe from the Stanghellini-Haywood catalog with minor additions. For this purpose, we have used 200 PNe with Peimbert's types I, II, and III. In this case, we have obtained a considerably higher value of the vertical scale height that increases noticeably with sample radius. We have experimentally found that it is necessary to reduce the distance scale of this catalog approximately by 20%. Then, for example, for PNe with heliocentric distances less than 4 kpc the vertical scale height is 256 ± 12 kpc. A kinematic analysis has confirmed the necessity of such a reduction of the distance scale.

  7. THE SHAPING OF THE MULTIPOLAR PRE-PLANETARY NEBULA CRL 618 BY MULTIDIRECTIONAL BULLETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Po-Sheng; Lee, Chin-Fei; Moraghan, Anthony [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Smith, Michael, E-mail: posheng@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Centre for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NH (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    In order to understand the formation of the multipolar structures of the pre-planetary nebula CRL 618, we perform 3D simulations using a multidirectional bullet model. The optical lobes of CRL 618 and fast molecular outflows at the tips of the lobes have been found to have similar expansion ages of ∼100 yr. Additional fast molecular outflows were found near the source along the outflow axes with ages of ∼45 yr, suggesting a second episode of bullet ejections. Thus, in our simulations, two episodes of bullet ejections are assumed. The shaping process is simulated using the ZEUS-3D hydrodynamics code that includes molecular and atomic cooling. In addition, molecular chemistry is also included to calculate the CO intensity maps. Our results show the following: (1) Multiepoch bullets interacting with the toroidal dense core can produce the collimated multiple lobes as seen in CRL 618. The total mass of the bullets is ∼0.034 M{sub ⊙}, consistent with the observed high-velocity (HV) CO emission in fast molecular outflows. (2) The simulated CO J = 3–2 intensity maps show that the low-velocity cavity wall and the HV outflows along the lobes are reasonably consistent with the observations. The position–velocity diagram of the outflows along the outflow axes shows a linear increase of velocity with distance, similar to the observations. The ejections of these bullets could be due to magnetorotational explosions or nova-like explosions around a binary companion.

  8. X-ray Emission from the Born-Again Planetary Nebula Abell 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, M. A.

    2013-05-01

    The planetary nebula (PN) Abell 30 underwent a very late thermal pulse that resulted in the ejection of knots of hydrogen-poor material. ROSAT detected soft X-ray emission from these knots. We present deep Chandra and XMM-Newton observations that show this X-ray emission to consist of two components: a point-source at the central star and diffuse emission associated with the hydrogen-poor knots and the cloverleaf structure inside the nebular shell. The spatial distribution and spectral properties of the diffuse X-ray emission suggest that it is generated by the shock-heated plasma produced by the interaction of the present stellar wind with the hydrogen-poor ejecta of the born-again event. Charge-exchange reactions between the ions of the stellar winds and the born-again ejecta may also contribute to this emission. The origin of the X-ray emission from the central star of A 30 is puzzling: shocks in the present fast stellar wind and photospheric emission can be ruled out, while the development of a new, compact hot bubble confining the fast stellar wind seems implausible.

  9. Rebirth of X-ray Emission from the Born-Again Planetary Nebula A 30

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, M A; Hamann, W -R; Chu, Y -H; Todt, H; Schoenberner, D; Oskinova, L; Gruendl, R A; Steffen, M; Blair, W P; Toala, J A

    2012-01-01

    The planetary nebula (PN) A 30 is believed to have undergone a very late thermal pulse resulting in the ejection of knots of hydrogen-poor material. Using multi-epoch HST images we have detected the angular expansion of these knots and derived an age of 850+280-150 yr. To investigate the spectral and spatial properties of the soft X-ray emission detected by ROSAT, we have obtained Chandra and XMM-Newton deep observations of A 30. The X-ray emission from A 30 can be separated into two components: a point-source at the central star and diffuse X-ray emission associated with the hydrogen-poor knots and the cloverleaf structure inside the nebular shell. To help us assess the role of the current stellar wind in powering this X-ray emission, we have determined the stellar parameters and wind properties of the central star of A 30 using a non-LTE model fit to its optical and UV spectrum. The spatial distribution and spectral properties of the diffuse X-ray emission is highly suggestive that it is generated by the po...

  10. Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury IX: A Photometric Survey of Planetary Nebulae in M31

    CERN Document Server

    Veyette, Mark J; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Balick, Bruce; Caldwell, Nelson; Fouesneau, Morgan; Girardi, Leo; Gordon, Karl; Kalirai, Jason; Rosenfield, Phil; Seth, Anil

    2014-01-01

    We search Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) broadband imaging data from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey to identify detections of cataloged planetary nebulae (PNe). Of the 711 PNe currently in the literature within the PHAT footprint, we find 467 detected in the broadband. For these 467 we are able to refine their astrometric accuracy from ~0."3 to 0."05. Using the resolution of HST, we are able to show that 152 objects currently in the catalogs are definitively not PNe, and we show that 32 objects thought to be extended in ground-based images are actually point-like and therefore good PN candidates. We also find one PN candidate that is marginally resolved. If this is a PN, it is up to 0.7 pc in diameter. With our new photometric data, we develop a method of measuring the level of excitation in individual PNe by comparing broadband and narrowband imaging and describe the effects of excitation on a PN's photometric signature....

  11. Using kinematic properties of pre-planetary nebulae to constrain engine paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Eric G.; Lucchini, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Some combination of binary interactions and accretion plausibly conspire to produce the ubiquitous collimated outflows from planetary nebulae (PN) and their presumed pre-PN (PPN) precursors. But which accretion engines are viable? The difficulty in observationally resolving the engines warrants the pursuit of indirect constraints. We show how kinematic outflow data for 19 PPN can be used to determine the minimum required accretion rates. We consider main-sequence (MS) and white dwarf (WD) accretors and five example accretion rates inferred from published models to compare with the minima derived from outflow momentum conservation. While our primary goal is to show the method in anticipation of more data and better theoretical constraints, taking the present results at face value already rules out modes of accretion: Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton (BHL) wind accretion and wind Roche lobe overflow (M-WRLOF, based on Mira parameters) are too feeble for all 19/19 objects for an MS accretor. For a WD accretor, BHL is ruled out for 18/19 objects and M-WRLOF for 15/19 objects. RLOF from the primary at the Red Rectangle level can accommodate 7/19 objects, though RLOF modes with higher accretion rates are not yet ruled out. Accretion modes operating from within common envelope evolution can accommodate all 19 objects, if jet collimation can be maintained. Overall, sub-Eddington rates for an MS accretor are acceptable but 8/19 would require super-Eddington rates for a WD. L61

  12. Distinguishing between HII regions and planetary nebulae with Hi-GAL, WISE, MIPSGAL, and GLIMPSE

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Loren D; Barlow, M J; Garcia-Lario, P; Noriega-Crespo, A

    2011-01-01

    HII regions and planetary nebulae (PNe) both emit at radio and infrared (IR) wavelengths, and angularly small HII regions can be mistaken for PNe. This problem of classification is most severe for HII regions in an early evolutionary stage, those that are extremely distant, or those that are both young and distant. Using data from the Herschel Hi-GAL survey, as well as WISE and the Spitzer MIPSGAL and GLIMPSE surveys, we wish to establish characteristic IR colors that can be used to distinguish between HII regions and PNe. We perform aperture photometry measurements for a sample of 126 HII regions and 43 PNe at wavelengths from 8.0 micron to 500 micron. We find that HII regions and PNe have distinct IR colors. The most robust discriminating color criteria are [F12/F8] 1.3, and [F160/F24] > 0.8 (or alternately [F160/F22] > 0.8), where the brackets indicate the log of the flux ratio. All three of these criteria are individually satisfied by over 98% of our sample of HII regions and by about 10% of our sample o...

  13. XSHOOTER spectroscopy of the enigmatic planetary nebula Lin49 in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Leal-Ferreira, M L; Aleman, I; Bernard-Salas, J; Cami, J; Ochsendorf, B; Peeters, E; Scicluna, P

    2016-01-01

    We performed a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the fullerene C60-containing planetary nebula (PN) Lin49 in the Small Magellanic Cloud using XSHOOTER at the ESO VLT and the Spitzer/IRS instruments. We derived nebular abundances for nine elements. We used TLUSTY to derive photospheric parameters for the central star. Lin49 is C-rich and metal-deficient PN (Z~0.0006). The nebular abundances are in good agreement with Asymptotic Giant Branch nucleosynthesis models for stars with initial mass 1.25 Msun and metallicity Z = 0.001. Using the TLUSTY synthetic spectrum of the central star to define the heating and ionising source, we constructed the photoionisation model with CLOUDY that matches the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) and the line fluxes in the UV to far-IR wavelength ranges simultaneously. We could not fit the ~1-5 um SED using a model with 0.005-0.1 um-sized graphite grains and a constant hydrogen density shell owing to the prominent near-IR excess, while at other wavelengths the model fit...

  14. The Detection of 3He+ in a Planetary Nebula Using the VLA

    CERN Document Server

    Balser, D S; Bania, T M; Rood, R T; Balser, Dana S.; Rood, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    We used the VLA to search for 3He+ emission from two Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe): NGC6572 and J320}. Standard stellar models predict that the 3He/H abundance ratios for PNe should be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the primordial value (3He/H ~ 1e-5 by number) determined from Galactic HII region abundances and confirmed by WMAP cosmic microwave background results. Chemical evolution models suggest that fewer than 5% of all PNe enrich the interstellar medium (ISM) with 3He at the level of standard stellar models. Our target PNe are therefore anomalous in that they were selected from a sample deliberately biased to contain objects with properties that maximized the likelihood of a 3He detection by the VLA. We have detected the 8.665 GHz hyperfine 3He+ transition in J320 at the 4 sigma level. The 3He/H abundance ratio is 1.9e-3 with roughly a factor of two uncertainty. For NGC 6572 we find an upper limit of 3He/H <= 1e-3. This detection of 3He in J320 makes it the second PN known to have an anomalous...

  15. The population of planetary nebulae near the Galactic Centre: chemical abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavichia, O.; Costa, R. D. D.; Maciel, W. J.; Mollá, M.

    2017-06-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) constitute an important tool to study the chemical evolution of the Milky Way and other galaxies, probing the nucleosynthesis processes, abundance gradients and the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium. In particular, Galactic bulge PNe (GBPNe) have been extensively used in the literature to study the chemical properties of this Galactic structure. However, the presently available GBPN chemical composition studies are strongly biased, since they were focused on brighter objects, predominantly located in Galactic regions of low interstellar reddening. In this work, we report physical parameters and abundances derived for a sample of 17 high-extinction PNe located in the inner 2° of the Galactic bulge, based on low-dispersion spectroscopy secured at the Southern Astrophysical Research telescope using the Goodman spectrograph. The new data allow us to extend our data base including faint objects, providing chemical compositions for PNe located in this region of the bulge and an estimation for the masses of their progenitors to explore the chemical enrichment history of the central region of the Galactic bulge. The results show that there is an enhancement in the N/O abundance ratio in the Galactic Centre PNe compared with PNe located in the outer regions of the Galactic bulge. This may indicate recent episodes of star formation occurring near the Galactic Centre.

  16. A Spitzer Study of the Mass Loss Histories of Three Bipolar Pre-Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Do, Tuan; Sahai, Raghvendra; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of far-infrared imaging of extended regions around three bipolar pre-planetary nebulae, AFGL 2688, OH 231.8+4.2, and IRAS 16342$-$3814, at 70 and 160 $\\mu$m with the MIPS instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope. After a careful subtraction of the point spread function of the central star from these images, we place constraints on the existence of extended shells and thus on the mass outflow rates as a function of radial distance from these stars. We find no apparent extended emission in AFGL 2688 and OH 231.8+4.2 beyond 100 arcseconds from the central source. In the case of AFGL 2688, this result is inconsistent with a previous report of two extended dust shells made on the basis of ISO observations. We derive an upper limit of $2.1\\times10^{-7}$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ and $1.0\\times10^{-7}$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ for the dust mass loss rate of AFGL 2688 and OH 231.8, respectively, at 200 arcseconds from each source. In contrast to these two sources, IRAS 16342$-$3814 does show extended emi...

  17. Mid-infrared imaging of the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 from SOFIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, M. W.; Sahai, R.; Davis, J.; Livingston, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91107 (United States); Lykou, F. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Turkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180, Vienna (Austria); DE Buizer, J. [USRA SOFIA Science Center, M/S 211-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Division of Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Keller, L. [Department of Physics, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Adams, J.; Gull, G.; Henderson, C.; Herter, T.; Schoenwald, J., E-mail: Michael.W.Werner@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We have imaged the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 using SOFIA's FORCAST instrument in six wavelength bands between 6.6 and 37.1 μm. A bright central point source, unresolved with SOFIA's ∼4''-5'' beam, is seen at each wavelength, and the extended bipolar lobes are clearly seen at 19.7 μm and beyond. The photometry between 10 and 25 μm is well fit by the emission predicted from a stratified disk seen at large inclination, as has been proposed for this source by Lykou et al. and by Smith and Gehrz. The principal new results in this paper relate to the distribution and properties of the dust that emits the infrared radiation. In particular, a considerable fraction of this material is spread uniformly through the lobes, although the dust density does increase at the sharp outer edge seen in higher resolution optical images of M2-9. The dust grain population in the lobes shows that small (<0.1 μm) and large (>1 μm) particles appear to be present in roughly equal amounts by mass. We suggest that collisional processing within the bipolar outflow plays an important role in establishing the particle size distribution.

  18. High-Resolution Near-Infrared Imaging and Polarimetry of Four Proto-Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Su, K Y L; Kwok, S; Sahai, R; Su, Kate Y. L.; Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Kwok, Sun; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution near-infrared HST NICMOS (F160W, F222M) images and polarization (2 um) observations were made of four bipolar proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs): IRAS 17150-3224, IRAS 17441-2411, IRAS 17245-3951, and IRAS 16594-4656. The first three of these are viewed nearly edge-on, and for the first time the central stars in them are seen. Color maps reveal a reddened torus between the bipolar lobes in the edge-on cases, with bluer lobes. The polarization values are high, with maximum values ranging from 40 to 80%. The polarization patterns are basically centrosymmetric, with some deviations in the low polarization equatorial regions. For IRAS 17150-3224, circumstellar arcs are seen at 1.6 um, along with a newly-discovered loop in the equatorial region. Bright caps are seen at the end of the lobes, indicating that they are not open-ended. A distinct point-symmetric pattern is seen in the strengths of the polarization vectors, especially in IRAS 17150-3224. HST NICMOS observations provide a valuable complement ...

  19. A survey for water maser emission towards planetary nebulae. New detection in IRAS 17347-3139

    CERN Document Server

    De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Anglada, G; Cesaroni, R; Miranda, L F; Gómez, J F; Torrelles, J M; Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar de; Gomez, Yolanda; Anglada, Guillem; Cesaroni, Riccardo; Miranda, Luis F.; Gomez, Jose F.; Torrelles, Jose M.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a water maser survey towards a sample of 27 planetary nebulae (PNe) using the Robledo de Chavela and Medicina single-dish antennas, as well as the Very Large Array (VLA). Two detections have been obtained: the already known water maser emission in K 3-35, and a new cluster of masers in IRAS 17347-3139. This low rate of detections is compatible with the short life-time of water molecules in PNe (~100 yr). The water maser cluster at IRAS 17347-3139 are distributed on a ellipse of size ~ 0.2" x 0.1", spatially associated with compact 1.3 cm continuum emission (simultaneously observed with the VLA). From archive VLA continuum data at 4.9, 8.4, and 14.9 GHz, a spectral index alpha = 0.76 +- 0.03 is derived for this radio source, which is consistent with either a partially optically thick ionized region or with an ionized wind. However, the latter scenario can be ruled out on mass-loss considerations, thus indicating that this source is probably a young PN. The spatial distribution and the radial veloc...

  20. Dynamics of Elliptical Galaxies with Planetary Nebulae in Modified Newtonian Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of an elliptical galaxy within a couple of effective radii can be probed effectively by stars. However, at larger distances planetary nebulae (PNe) replace stars as the tracer of the dynamics. Making use of the motion of PNe, Romanowsky et al. (2003) measured the dynamics of three luminous elliptical galaxies (NGC821, NGC3379, and NGC4494) at large distances from the galactic center. They found that little dark matter is needed up to 6 effective radii. Milgrom & Sanders (2003) showed that this result can be understood in the framework of MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). As more data are available in the past decade, we revisit this problem. We combine PNe data (up to 6{8 effective radii) and stellar data from SAURON of 7 elliptical galaxies, including those 3 galaxies in Romanowsky et al. (2003) with updated data and 4 other galaxies which have not been analyzed before. We conclude that the dynamics of these galaxies can be well explained by MOND.

  1. The Exotic Eclipsing Nucleus of the Ring Planetary Nebula SuWt2

    CERN Document Server

    Exter, K; Stassun, Keivan G; Smalley, B; Maxted, P F L; Pollacco, D L

    2010-01-01

    SuWt2 is a planetary nebula (PN) consisting of a bright ionized thin ring seen nearly edge-on. It has a bright (V=12) central star, too cool to ionize the PN, which we discovered to be an eclipsing binary. A spectrum from IUE did not reveal a UV source. We present extensive ground-based photometry and spectroscopy of the central binary collected over the ensuing two decades, resulting in the determination that the orbital period of the eclipsing pair is 4.9 d, and consists of two nearly identical A1 V stars, each of mass ~2.7 M_sun. The physical parameters of the A stars, combined with evolutionary tracks, show that both are in the short-lived "blue-hook" evolutionary phase that occurs between the main sequence and the Hertzsprung gap, and that the age of the system is about 520 Myr. One puzzle is that the stars' rotational velocities are different from each other, and considerably slower than synchronous with the orbital period. It is possible that the center-of-mass velocity of the eclipsing pair is varying...

  2. The role of binarity in Wolf-Rayet central stars of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, Brent; McBride, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 50 post-common-envelope (post-CE) close binary central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNe) are now known. Most contain either main sequence or white dwarf (WD) companions that orbit the WD primary in around 0.1-1.0 days. Only PN~G222.8-04.2 and NGC~5189 have post-CE CSPNe with a Wolf-Rayet star primary (denoted [WR]), the low-mass analogues of massive Wolf-Rayet stars. It is not well understood how H-deficient [WR] CSPNe form, even though they are relatively common, appearing in over 100 PNe. The discovery and characterisation of post-CE [WR] CSPNe is essential to determine whether proposed binary formation scenarios are feasible to explain this enigmatic class of stars. The existence of post-CE [WR] binaries alone suggests binary mergers are not necessarily a pathway to form [WR] stars. Here we give an overview of the initial results of a radial velocity monitoring programme of [WR] CSPNe to search for new binaries. We discuss the motivation for the survey and the associated strong selection effects. T...

  3. Post-common-envelope Wolf-Rayet central stars of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, Brent; McBride, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 50 post-common-envelope (post-CE) close binary central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNe) are now known. Most contain either main sequence or white dwarf (WD) companions that orbit the WD primary in around 0.1-1.0 days. Only PN~G222.8-04.2 and NGC~5189 have post-CE CSPNe with a Wolf-Rayet star primary (denoted [WR]), the low-mass analogues of massive Wolf-Rayet stars. It is not well understood how H-deficient [WR] CSPNe form, even though they are relatively common, appearing in over 100 PNe. The discovery and characterisation of post-CE [WR] CSPNe is essential to determine whether proposed binary formation scenarios are feasible to explain this enigmatic class of stars. The existence of post-CE [WR] binaries alone suggests binary mergers are not necessarily a pathway to form [WR] stars. Here we give an overview of the initial results of a radial velocity monitoring programme of [WR] CSPNe to search for new binaries. We discuss the motivation for the survey and the associated strong selection effects. T...

  4. Central stars of planetary nebulae. II. New OB-type and emission-line stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, W. A.; Gamen, R.

    2011-07-01

    Context. There are more than 3000 confirmed and probably known Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe), but central star spectroscopic information is available for only 13% of them. Aims: We have undertaken a spectroscopic survey of the central stars in PNe to identify their spectral types. Methods: We performed spectroscopic observations at low resolution with the 2-m telescope at CASLEO, Argentina. Results: We present the spectra of 46 central stars of PNe, most of them are OB-type and emission-line stars. Based on data collected at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina y Universidades Nacionales de La Plata, Córdoba y San Juan, Argentina.The reduced spectra (FITS files) are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/531/A172

  5. Chemical Abundances of Planetary Nebulae in the Substructures of M31

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Xuan; Guerrero, Martin A; Liu, Xiaowei; Yuan, Haibo; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    We present deep spectroscopy of planetary nebulae (PNe) that are associated with the substructures of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). The spectra were obtained with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the 10.4 m GTC. Seven targets were selected for the observations, three in the Northern Spur and four associated with the Giant Stream. The most distant target in our sample, with a rectified galactocentric distance >100 kpc, was the first PN discovered in the outer streams of M31. The [O III] 4363 auroral line was well detected in the spectra of all targets, enabling electron temperature determination. Ionic abundances are derived based on the [O III] temperatures, and elemental abundances of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulfur, and argon are estimated. The relatively low N/O and He/H ratios as well as abundance ratios of alpha-elements indicate that our target PNe might belong to populations as old as ~2 Gyr. Our PN sample, including the current seven and the previous three observed by Fang et al., have rather homogeneo...

  6. The hydrogen-deficient knot of the `born again' planetary nebula Abell 58 (V605 Aql)

    CERN Document Server

    Wesson, R; Liu, X-W; Storey, P J; Ercolano, B; De Marco, O

    2007-01-01

    We have analysed deep optical spectra of the `born-again' planetary nebula Abell 58 and its hydrogen-deficient knot, surrounding V605 Aql, which underwent a nova-like eruption in 1919. The electron temperature we derive for the central knot varies widely depending on the diagnostic used. The [O III] nebular-to-auroral transition ratio gives a temperature of 20800 K, while the ratio of the [N II] nebular and auroral lines give Te=15200 K. The helium line ratios 5876/4471 and 6678/4471 imply temperatures of 350 K and 550 K respectively. Weakly temperature-sensitive O II recombination line ratios imply similarly low electron temperatures. Abundances derived from recombination lines are vastly higher than those found from collisionally excited lines, with the abundance discrepancy factor (adf) for O2+ reaching 89 -- the second highest known value after that found for the hydrogen deficient knots in Abell 30. The observed temperature diagnostics and abundances support the idea that, like Abell 30, the knot of Abel...

  7. The fraction of type Ia supernovae exploding inside planetary nebulae (SNIPs)

    CERN Document Server

    Tsebrenko, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Using three independent directions we estimate that the fraction of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) exploding inside planetary nebulae (PNe), termed SNIPs, is at least ~20%. Our three directions are as follows. (i) Taking the variable sodium absorption lines in some SN Ia to originate in a massive circumstellar matter (CSM), as has been claimed recently, we use the results of Sternberg et al. (2014) to imply that > 20% of SN Ia occur inside a PN (or a PN descendant), hence classify them as SNIPs. (ii) We next use results that show that whenever there are hydrogen lines in SN Ia the hydrogen mass in the CSM is large > 1 M_Sun, hence the explosion is a SNIP. We make the simplest assumption that the probability for explosion is constant in time for up to about 10^5 years after the merger of the core with the white dwarf (WD) in the frame of the core-degenerate scenario. This results with at least few x10% of SNe Ia that may have a SNIP origin. (iii) We examine the X-ray morphologies of 13 well-resolved close-by SN r...

  8. Modeling SNR G1.9+0.3 as a Supernova Inside a Planetary Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Tsebrenko, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Using 3D numerical hydrodynamical simulations we show that a type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosion inside a planetary nebula (PN) can explain the observed shape of the G1.9+0.3 supernova remnant (SNR), and its X-ray morphology. The SNR G1.9+0.3 morphology can be generally described as a sphere with two small and incomplete lobes protruding on opposite sides of the SNR, termed "ears", a structure resembling many elliptical PNe. Observations show the synchrotron X-ray emission to be much stronger inside the two ears than in the rest of the SNR. We numerically show that a spherical SN Ia explosion into a circumstellar matter (CSM) with the structure of an elliptical PN with ears can explain the X-ray properties of SNR G1.9+0.3. While the ejecta has already collided with the PN shell in most of the SNR and its forward shock has been slowed down, the ejecta is still advancing inside the ears. The fast forward shock inside the ears explains the stronger X-ray emission there. SN Ia inside PNe (SNIPs) seem to comprise ...

  9. Mid-Infrared Imaging of the Bipolar Planetary Nebula M2-9 from SOFIA

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, M W; Davis, J; Livingston, J; Lykou, F; de Buizer, J; Morris, M R; Keller, L; Adams, J; Gull, G; Henderson, C; Herter, T; Schoenwald, J

    2013-01-01

    We have imaged the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 using SOFIA's FORCAST instrument in six wavelength bands between 6.6 and 37.1 $\\mu m$. A bright central point source, unresolved with SOFIA's $\\sim$ 4${''}$-to-5${''}$ beam, is seen at each wavelength, and the extended bipolar lobes are clearly seen at 19.7 $\\mu m$ and beyond. The photometry between 10 and 25 $\\mu m$ is well fit by the emission predicted from a stratified disk seen at large inclination, as has been proposed for this source by Lykou et al and by Smith and Gehrz. The principal new results in this paper relate to the distribution and properties of the dust that emits the infrared radiation. In particular, a considerable fraction of this material is spread uniformly through the lobes, although the dust density does increase at the sharp outer edge seen in higher resolution optical images of M2-9. The dust grain population in the lobes shows that small ($$ 1 $\\mu m$) particles appear to be present in roughly equal amounts by mass. We suggest that co...

  10. Stripping of a planetary nebula from the globular cluster M22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Kazimier J.; Tsvetanov, Zlatan; Harrington, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    High-spatial resolution imaging in the O III lambda 5007 line of a planetary nebula (PN) in the globular cluster M22 reveals a strongly asymmetric (half-moon shaped) nebular morphology. We confirm that this peculiar morphology is caused by the distortion of stellar ejecta by the ram pressure of the ambient interstellar medium (ISM) through which the cluster is moving with a high velocity of 200 km/s. Emission knots visible in the leading (upstream) nebular section confirm theoretical expectations that the shell should have been fragmented by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Stripping of the PN from M22 by the ambient ISM is the first direct evidence for removal of gas from globular clusters. M22 is at a favorable location for the ram-pressure stripping to be effective, only 400 pc below the Galactic plane, well within a 2 kpc thick layer of ionized gas enveloping the plane. Ionized (or possibly neutral) gas in this layer, with a hydrogen density of about 0.1 cu/cm, is responsible for the observed interaction.

  11. Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury. IX. A photometric survey of planetary nebulae in M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veyette, Mark J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Balick, Bruce; Fouesneau, Morgan [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Girardi, Léo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova—INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Gordon, Karl D.; Kalirai, Jason [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Rosenfield, Philip [Department of Physics and Astronomy G. Galilei, University of Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Seth, Anil C., E-mail: mveyette@uw.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    We search the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide Field Camera 3 broadband imaging data from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey to identify detections of cataloged planetary nebulae (PNs). Of the 711 PNs currently in the literature within the PHAT footprint, we find 467 detected in the broadband. For these 467, we are able to refine their astrometric accuracy from ∼0.''3 to 0.''05. Using the resolution of the HST, we are able to show that 152 objects currently in the catalogs are definitively not PNs, and we show that 32 objects thought to be extended in ground-based images are actually point-like and therefore good PN candidates. We also find one PN candidate that is marginally resolved. If this is a PN, it is up to 0.7 pc in diameter. With our new photometric data, we develop a method of measuring the level of excitation in individual PNs by comparing broadband and narrowband imaging and describe the effects of excitation on a PN's photometric signature. Using the photometric properties of the known PNs in the PHAT catalogs, we search for more PNs, but do not find any new candidates, suggesting that ground-based emission-line surveys are complete in the PHAT footprint to F475W ≅ 24.

  12. A search of diffuse bands in fullerene planetary nebulae: evidence for diffuse circumstellar bands

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz-Luis, J J; Rao, N Kameswara; Manchado, A; Cataldo, F

    2014-01-01

    Large fullerenes and fullerene-based molecules have been proposed as carriers of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). The recent detection of the most common fullerenes (C60 and C70) around some Planetary Nebulae (PNe) now enable us to study the DIBs towards fullerene-rich space environments. We search DIBs in the optical spectra towards three fullerene-containing PNe (Tc 1, M 1-20, and IC 418). Special attention is given to DIBs which are found to be unusually intense towards these fullerene sources. In particular, an unusually strong 4428A absorption feature is a common charateristic to fullerene PNe. Similarly to Tc 1, the strongest optical bands of neutral C60 are not detected towards IC 418. Our high-quality (S/N > 300) spectra for PN Tc 1 together with its large radial velocity permits us to search for the presence of diffuse bands of circumstellar origin which we refer to as diffuse circumstellar bands (DCBs). We report the first tentative detection of two DCBs at 4428 and 5780 A in the fullerene-rich ci...

  13. Kinematic evidence for different Planetary Nebulae Populations in the elliptical galaxy NGC 4697

    CERN Document Server

    Sambhus, N; Méndez, R H; Sambhus, Niranjan; Gerhard, Ortwin; Mendez, Roberto H.

    2005-01-01

    We have analysed the magnitudes, kinematics and positions of a complete sample of 320 PNs in the elliptical galaxy NGC 4697. We show (i) that the PNs in NGC 4697 do not constitute a single population that is a fair tracer of the distribution of all stars. The radial velocity distributions, mean velocities, and dispersions of bright and faint subsamples differ with high statistical confidence. (ii) Using the combined data for PNs brighter than 26.2, we have identified a subpopulation of PNs which is azimuthally unmixed and kinematically peculiar, and which thus neither traces the distribution of all stars nor can it be in dynamical equilibrium with the galaxy potential. (iii) The planetary nebula luminosity functions (PNLF) of two kinematic subsamples in NGC 4697 differ with 99.7% confidence, ruling out a universal PNLF. We estimate that the inferred secondary PN population introduces an uncertainty in the bright cutoff magnitude of ~ 0.15 mag for this galaxy. -- We argue that this secondary PN distribution ma...

  14. The detection of C60 in the well-characterized planetary nebula M1-11

    CERN Document Server

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Hyung, S; Sargent, B A; Meixner, M; Tajitsu, A; Yanagisawa, K

    2013-01-01

    We performed multiwavelength observations of the young planetary nebula (PN) M1-11 and obtained its elemental abundances, dust mass, and the evolutionary status of the central star. The AKARI/IRC, VLT/VISIR, and Spitzer/IRS spectra show features due to carbon-rich dust, such as the 3.3, 8.6, and 11.3 um features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a smooth continuum attributable to amorphous carbon, and the broad 11.5 and 30 um features often ascribed to SiC and MgS, respectively. We also report the presence of an unidentified broad feature at 16-22 um, similar to the feature found in Magellanic Cloud PNe with either C-rich or O-rich gas-phase compositions. We identify for the first time in M1-11 spectral lines at 8.5 (blended with PAH), 17.3, and 18.9 um that we attribute to the C60 fullerene. This identification is strengthened by the fact that other Galactic PNe in which fullerenes are detected, have similar central stars, similar gas-phase abundances, and a similar dust composition to M1-11. T...

  15. The dynamics of planetary nebulae in the galaxy evidence for a third integral

    CERN Document Server

    Durand, S N; Acker, A

    1995-01-01

    We present a dynamical analysis of 673 galactic Planetary Nebulae, using a two-integral axisymmetric model with a Kuzmin-Kutuzov St\\"{a}ckel potential. The method fits the kinematics to the projected moments of a distribution function, by means of Quadratic Programming. The 2.2 \\mum COBE brightness map has been used after correction for the interstellar extinction as a projected star counts map in the modeling, because it constitutes a galactic distribution view of evolved red populations which are considered to be the progenitors of PNe. The model we have obtained provides a 2-integral distribution function for the COBE 2.2 \\mum map, and thus {\\it a fortiori} a deprojection of it, which allows moreover the identification of all the major Galactic components. We derive the density laws for them. The projected velocity dispersions are not well fitted though, especially in the disk, which points at the likely presence of a third integral. If this result can be confirmed by additional data, this would mean that ...

  16. MASH-II: More Planetary Nebulae from the AAO/UKST H\\alpha Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, B; Acker, A; Birkby, J L; Frew, D J; Kovacevic, A

    2007-01-01

    We present a supplement to the Macquarie/AAO/Strasbourg H$\\alpha$ planetary nebulae (PNe) catalogue (MASH), which we denote MASH-II. The supplement consists of over 300 true, likely and possible new Galactic PNe found after re-examination of the entire AAO/UKST H$\\alpha$ survey of the southern Galactic Plane in digital form. We have spectroscopically confirmed over 240 of these new candidates as bona-fide PNe and we include other high quality candidates awaiting spectroscopic confirmation as possible PNe. These latest discoveries largely comprise two distinct groups: small, star-like or moderately resolved PNe at one end and mostly large, extremely low surface brightness PNe at the other. Neither group were easy to discover from simple visual scrutiny of the original survey exposures as for MASH but were relatively straightforward to uncover from the digital images via application of semi-automated discovery techniques. We suspect the few PNe still hidden in the H$\\alpha$ survey will lie outside our search cr...

  17. A close look into the carbon disk at the core of the planetary nebula CPD-568032

    CERN Document Server

    Chesneau, O; De Marco, O; Wolf, S; Lagadec, E; Zijlstra, A A; Rothkopf, A; Acker, A G N; Clayton, G C; López, B; Chesneau, Olivier; Collioud, Arnaud; Marco, Orsola De; Wolf, Sebastian; Lagadec, Eric; Zijlstra, Albert A.; Rothkopf, Alexander; Acker, AGN\\`{e}s; Clayton, Geoff C.

    2006-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution observations of the dusty core of the Planetary Nebula with Wolf-Rayet central star CPD-568032. These observations were taken with the mid-infrared interferometer VLTI/MIDI in imaging mode providing a typical 300 mas resolution and in interferometric mode using UT2-UT3 47m baseline providing a typical spatial resolution of 20 mas. The visible HST images exhibit a complex multilobal geometry dominated by faint lobes. The farthest structures are located at 7" from the star. The mid-IR environment of CPD-568032 is dominated by a compact source, barely resolved by a single UT telescope in a 8.7 micron filter. The infrared core is almost fully resolved with the three 40-45m projected baselines ranging from -5 to 51 degree but smooth oscillating fringes at low level have been detected in spectrally dispersed visibilities. This clear signal is interpreted in terms of a ring structure which would define the bright inner rim of the equatorial disk. Geometric models allowed us to deri...

  18. Planetary nebulae that might have been shaped by a triple stellar system

    CERN Document Server

    Bear, Ealeal

    2016-01-01

    We examine the images of hundreds of planetary nebulae (PNe) and find that about one in six PNe might have been shaped by an interacting triple stellar progenitor. For resolved images we classify PNe by one of four categories. (1) PNe that show no need for a tertiary star to account for their morphology. (2) PNe whose structure posses a pronounced departure from axial-symmetry and/or mirror-symmetry. We classify these as `having a triple stellar progenitor'. (3) PNe whose morphology possesses departure from axial-symmetry and/or mirror-symmetry, but not as pronounced as in the previous class, and are classified as `likely shaped by triple stellar system'. (4) PNe with minor departure from axial-symmetry and/or mirror symmetry that could have been as well caused by an eccentric binary system or the inter-stellar medium. These are classified as `maybe shaped by a triple stellar system'. Given a weight eta_t=1, eta_l=0.67, eta_m=0.33 to classes 2, 3 and 4, respectively, we find that about 13 - 21% of PNe have be...

  19. Physical Structure of the Planetary Nebula NGC 3242 from the Hot Bubble to the Nebular Envelope

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz, Nieves; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    One key feature of the interacting stellar winds model of the formation of planetary nebulae (PNe) is the presence of shock-heated stellar wind confined in the central cavities of PNe. This so-called hot bubble should be detectable in X-rays. Here we present XMM-Newton observations of NGC 3242, a multiple-shell PN whose shell morphology is consistent with the interacting stellar winds model. Diffuse X-ray emission is detected within its inner shell with a plasma temperature ~2.35\\times10^6 K and an intrinsic X-ray luminosity ~2\\times10^30 ergs s^(-1) at the adopted distance of 0.55 kpc. The observed X-ray temperature and luminosity are in agreement with "ad-hoc" predictions of models including heat conduction. However, the chemical abundances of the X-ray-emitting plasma seem to imply little evaporation of cold material into the hot bubble, whereas the thermal pressure of the hot gas is unlikely to drive the nebular expansion as it is lower than that of the inner shell rim. These inconsistencies are compounde...

  20. Indications of a Large Fraction of Spectroscopic Binaries Among Nuclei of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    De Marco, O; Harmer, D; Fleming, A J; Marco, Orsola De; Bond, Howard E.; Harmer, Dianne; Fleming, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    Previous work indicates that about 10% of planetary-nebula nuclei (PNNi) are photometrically variable short-period binaries with periods of hours to a few days. These systems have most likely descended from common-envelope (CE) interactions in initially much wider binaries. Population-synthesis studies suggest that these very close pairs could be the short-period tail of a much larger post-CE binary population with periods of up to a few months. We have initiated a radial-velocity (RV) survey of PNNi with the WIYN 3.5-m telescope and Hydra spectrograph, which is aimed at discovering these intermediate-period binaries. We present initial results showing that 10 out of 11 well-observed PNNi have variable RVs, suggesting that a significant binary population may be present. However, further observations are required because we have as yet been unable to fit our sparse measurements with definite orbital periods, and because some of the RV variability might be due to variations in the stellar winds of some of our P...

  1. C/O abundance ratios, iron depletions, and infrared dust features in Galactic planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado-Inglada, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    We study the dust present in 56 Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) through their iron depletion factors, their C/O abundance ratios (in 51 objects), and the dust features that appear in their infrared spectra (for 33 objects). Our sample objects have deep optical spectra of good quality, and most of them also have ultraviolet observations. We use these observations to derive the iron abundances and the C/O abundance ratios in a homogeneous way for all the objects. We compile detections of infrared dust features from the literature and we analyze the available Spitzer/IRS spectra. Most of the PNe have C/O ratios below one and show crystalline silicates in their infrared spectra. The PNe with silicates have C/O < 1, with the exception of Cn 1-5. Most of the PNe with dust features related to C-rich environments (SiC or the 30 {\\mu}m feature usually associated to MgS) have C/O $\\gtrsim$ 0.8. PAHs are detected over the full range of C/O values, including 6 objects that also show silicates. Iron abundances are low...

  2. UNUSUAL SHOCK-EXCITED OH MASER EMISSION IN A YOUNG PLANETARY NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Hai-Hua; Shen, Zhi-Qiang [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai, 200030 (China); Walsh, Andrew J. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth WA 6845 (Australia); Gómez, José F. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Imai, Hiroshi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Green, James A. [SKA Organisation, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Lower Withington, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK11 9DL (United Kingdom); Dawson, Joanne R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and MQ Research Centre in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Ellingsen, Simon P. [School of Physical Sciences, Private Bag 37, University of Tasmania, Hobart 7001, TAS (Australia); Breen, Shari L. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Jones, Paul A.; Cunningham, Maria R. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Gibson, Steven J., E-mail: haihua.qiao@curtin.edu.au [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Blvd, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    We report on OH maser emission toward G336.644−0.695 (IRAS 16333−4807), which is a H{sub 2}O maser-emitting Planetary Nebula (PN). We have detected 1612, 1667, and 1720 MHz OH masers at two epochs using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, hereby confirming it as the seventh known case of an OH-maser-emitting PN. This is only the second known PN showing 1720 MHz OH masers after K 3−35 and the only evolved stellar object with 1720 MHz OH masers as the strongest transition. This PN is one of a group of very young PNe. The 1612 MHz and 1667 MHz masers are at a similar velocity to the 22 GHz H{sub 2}O masers, whereas the 1720 MHz masers show a variable spectrum, with several components spread over a higher velocity range (up to 36 km s{sup −1}). We also detect Zeeman splitting in the 1720 MHz transition at two epochs (with field strengths of ∼2 to ∼10 mG), which suggests the OH emission at 1720 MHz is formed in a magnetized environment. These 1720 MHz OH masers may trace short-lived equatorial ejections during the formation of the PN.

  3. Hunting for Extremely Faint Planetary Nebulae in the SDSS Spectroscopic Database

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Haibo

    2013-01-01

    Using ~1,700,000 target- and sky-fiber spectra from the SDSS, we have carried out a systematic search for Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) via detections of the [OIII] 4959, 5007 lines. Thanks to the excellent sensitivity of the SDSS spectroscopic surveys, this is by far the deepest search for PNe ever taken, reaching a surface brightness of the [OIII] 5007 line down to about 29.0 mag./arcsec^2. The search recovers 13 previously known PNe in the Galactic Caps. In total, 44 new PN candidates are identified, including 7 candidates of multiple detections and 37 candidates of single detection. The 7 candidates of multiple detections are all extremely large (between 21' - 154') and faint, located mostly in the low Galactic latitude region and with a kinematics similar to disk stars. After checking their images in Ha and other bands, three of them are probably HII regions, one is probably associated with a new supernova remnant, another one is possibly a true PN, and the remaining two could be either PNe or superno...

  4. Unusual shock-excited OH maser emission in a young Planetary Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Qiao, Hai-Hua; Gomez, Jose F; Imai, Hiroshi; Green, James A; Dawson, Joanne R; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Ellingsen, Simon P; Breen, Shari L; Jones, Paul A; Gibson, Steven J; Cunningham, Maria R

    2015-01-01

    We report on OH maser emission toward G336.644-0.695 (IRAS 16333-4807), which is a H2O maser-emitting Planetary Nebula (PN). We have detected 1612, 1667 and 1720 MHz OH masers at two epochs using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), hereby confirming it as the seventh known case of an OH-maser-emitting PN. This is only the second known PN showing 1720 MHz OH masers after K 3-35 and the only evolved stellar object with 1720 MHz OH masers as the strongest transition. This PN is one of a group of very young PNe. The 1612 MHz and 1667 MHz masers are at a similar velocity to the 22 GHz H2O masers, whereas the 1720 MHz masers show a variable spectrum, with several components spread over a higher velocity range (up to 36 km/s). We also detect Zeeman splitting in the 1720 MHz transition at two epochs (with field strengths of ~2 to ~10 mG), which suggests the OH emission at 1720 MHz is formed in a magnetized environment. These 1720 MHz OH masers may trace short-lived equatorial ejections during the formation ...

  5. Variable central stars of young planetary nebulae. I. Photometric multisite observations of IC 418.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, G.; Mendez, R. H.; Medupe, R.; Costero, R.; Birch, P. V.; Alvarez, M.; Sullivan, D. J.; Kurtz, D. W.; Herrero, A.; Guerrero, M. A.; Ciardullo, R.; Breger, M.

    1997-04-01

    We report the results of a photometric multisite campaign devoted to HD 35914, the variable central star of the Planetary Nebula IC 418. From the analysis of 120 hours of data acquired with a variety of techniques, we find that HD 35914 exhibits two distinct kinds of variability: irregular light modulation with a time scale of days, as well as cyclic variations with a time scale of 6.5 hours. The short-term variations are not strictly periodic, and cannot be reasonably explained by multiperiodicity; they appear to be semiregular. The star is generally redder when it is brighter; this behavior appears to be connected with the long-term variability. A re-analysis of most of the older data obtained for HD 35914 by various researchers suggests that the basic behavior of the star did not change during the last 15 years. We carefully discuss all the possible causes for the light variations of the star. Rotational modulation of surface features cannot explain the observations, and binarity is unlikely. Pulsations may be excited, but wind variability (or a combination of both) can also not be ruled out.

  6. Broad H$\\alpha$ Wing Formation in the Planetary Nebula IC 4997

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H W; Lee, Hee-Won; Hyung, Siek

    1999-01-01

    The young and compact planetary nebula IC 4997 is known to exhibit very broad wings with a width exceeding $5000 {\\rm km s^{-1}}$ around H$\\alpha$. We propose that the broad wings are formed through Rayleigh-Raman scattering involving atomic hydrogen, by which Ly$\\beta$ photons with a velocity width of a few $10^2 {\\rm km s^{-1}}$ are converted to optical photons and fill the H$\\alpha$ broad wing region. The conversion efficiency reaches 0.6 near the line center where the scattering optical depth is much larger than 1 and rapidly decreases in the far wings.Assuming that close to the central star there exists an unresolved inner compact core of high density, $n_H\\sim 10^{9-10} {\\rm cm^{-3}}$, we use the photoionization code `CLOUDY' to show that sufficient Ly$\\beta$ photons for scattering are produced. Using a top-hat incident profile for the Ly$\\beta$ flux and a scattering region with a H~I column density $N_{HI}=2\\times 10^{20} {\\rm cm^{-2}}$ and a substantial covering factor, we perform a profile fitting an...

  7. Abundances of Galactic Anticenter Planetary Nebulae and the Oxygen Abundance Gradient in the Galactic Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, R B C; Jaskot, Anne E; Balick, Bruce; Morrison, Michael A; Milingo, Jacquelynne B

    2010-01-01

    We have obtained spectrophotometric observations of 41 anticenter planetary nebulae (PNe) located in the disk of the Milky Way. Electron temperatures and densities, as well as chemical abundances for He, N, O, Ne, S, Cl, and Ar were determined. Incorporating these results into our existing database of PN abundances yielded a sample of 124 well-observed objects with homogeneously-determined abundances extending from 0.9-21 kpc in galactocentric distance. We performed a detailed regression analysis which accounted for uncertainties in both oxygen abundances and radial distances in order to establish the metallicity gradient across the disk to be: 12+log(O/H)=(9.09+/-.05) - (0.058+/-.006) x Rg, with Rg in kpc. While we see some evidence that the gradient steepens at large galactocentric distances, more objects toward the anticenter need to be observed in order to confidently establish the true form of the metallicity gradient. We find no compelling evidence that the gradient differs between Peimbert Types I and ...

  8. MULTIPLE FAST MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN THE PRE-PLANETARY NEBULA CRL 618

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Huang, Po-Sheng [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Sahai, Raghvendra [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Sánchez Contreras, Carmen [Astrobiology Center (CSIC-INTA), ESAC Campus, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Tay, Jeremy Jian Hao [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2013-11-01

    CRL 618 is a well-studied pre-planetary nebula. It has multiple highly collimated optical lobes, fast molecular outflows along the optical lobes, and an extended molecular envelope that consists of a dense torus in the equator and a tenuous round halo. Here we present our observations of this source in CO J = 3-2 and HCN J = 4-3 obtained with the Submillimeter Array at up to ∼0.''3 resolutions. We spatially resolve the fast molecular outflow region previously detected in CO near the central star and find it to be composed of multiple outflows that have similar dynamical ages and are oriented along the different optical lobes. We also detect fast molecular outflows further away from the central star near the tips of the extended optical lobes and a pair of equatorial outflows inside the dense torus. We find that two episodes of bullet ejections in different directions are needed, one producing the fast molecular outflows near the central star and one producing the fast molecular outflows near the tips of the extended optical lobes. One possibility to launch these bullets is a magneto-rotational explosion of the stellar envelope.

  9. Spectroscopy of southern Galactic disk planetary nebulae. Notes on chemical composition and emission-line stars

    CERN Document Server

    Górny, S K

    2014-01-01

    We present low resolution spectroscopic observations for a sample of 53 planetary nebulae (PNe) located in the southern sky between Vela and Norma constellations and pertaining to the Galactic disk with expected Galactocentric distance range of 5 to 10 kpc. We derive nebular chemical composition and plasma parameters with the classical empirical method. For most of the observed objects it is done for the first time. The distributions of the chemical abundances of the observed disk sample are generally indistinguishable from Galactic bulge and inner-disk PNe populations. The exceptions are possible differences in He/H distribution comparing to bulge PNe and Ne/Ar comparing to inner-disk PNe sample. The derived O/H ratios for the observed disk PNe fit to the concept of flattening of the chemical gradient in the inner parts of the Milky Way. We use the spectra to search for emission-line central stars in the observed sample. We found 6 new emission-line central stars comprising examples of all known types: WEL, ...

  10. Planetary Nebulae and their parent stellar populations. Tracing the mass assembly of M87 and Intracluster light in the Virgo cluster core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaboldi, Magda; Longobardi, Alessia; Gerhard, Ortwin

    2016-08-01

    The diffuse extended outer regions of galaxies are hard to study because they are faint, with typical surface brightness of 1% of the dark night sky. We can tackle this problem by using resolved star tracers which remain visible at large distances from the galaxy centers. This article describes the use of Planetary Nebulae as tracers and the calibration of their properties as indicators of the star formation history, mean age and metallicity of the parent stars in the Milky Way and Local Group galaxies. We then report on the results from a deep, extended, planetary nebulae survey in a 0.5 deg2 region centered on the brightest cluster galaxy NGC 4486 (M87) in the Virgo cluster core, carried out with SuprimeCam@Subaru and FLAMES-GIRAFFE@VLT. Two planetary nebulae populations are identified out to 150 kpc distance from the center of M87. One population is associated with the M87 halo and the second one with the intracluster light in the Virgo cluster core. They have different line-of-sight velocity and spatial distributions, as well as different planetary nebulae specific frequencies and luminosity functions. The intracluster planetary nebulae in the surveyed region correspond to a luminosity of four times the luminosity of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The M87 halo planetary nebulae trace an older, more metal-rich, parent stellar population. A substructure detected in the projected phase-space of the line-of-sight velocity vs. major axis distance for the M87 halo planetary nebulae provides evidence for the recent accretion event of a satellite galaxy with luminosity twice that of M33. The satellite stars were tidally stripped about 1 Gyr ago, and reached apocenter at a major axis distance of 60-90 kpc from the center of M87. The M87 halo is still growing significantly at the distances where the substructure is detected.

  11. Adaptive Optics Imaging of IRAS 18276-1431: a bipolar pre-planetary nebula with circumstellar "searchlight beams" and "arcs"

    CERN Document Server

    Contreras, C S; Sahai, R; De Paz, A G; Morris, M

    2006-01-01

    We present high-angular resolution images of the post-AGB nebula IRAS18276-1431 (also known as OH17.7-2.0) obtained with the Keck II Adaptive Optics (AO) system in its Natural Guide Star (NGS) mode in the Kp, Lp, and Ms near-infrared bands. We also present supporting optical F606W and F814W HST images as well as interferometric observations of the 12CO(J=1-0), 13CO(J=1-0), and 2.6mm continuum emission with OVRO. The envelope of IRAS18276-1431 displays a clear bipolar morphology in our optical and NIR images with two lobes separated by a dark waist and surrounded by a faint 4.5"x3.4" halo. Our Kp-band image reveals two pairs of radial ``searchlight beams'' emerging from the nebula center and several intersecting, arc-like features. From our CO data we derive a mass of M>0.38[D/3kpc]^2 Msun and an expansion velocity v_exp=17km/s for the molecular envelope. The density in the halo follows a radial power-law proportional to r^-3, which is consistent with a mass-loss rate increasing with time. Analysis of the NIR ...

  12. THE DETECTION OF C60 IN THE WELL-CHARACTERIZED PLANETARY NEBULA M1-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Kemper, F. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hyung, S. [School of Science Education (Astronomy), Chungbuk National University, CheongJu, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Sargent, B. A.; Meixner, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tajitsu, A. [Subaru Telescope, NAOJ, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Yanagisawa, K., E-mail: otsuka@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory (OAO), NAOJ, Kamogata, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan)

    2013-02-10

    We performed multiwavelength observations of the young planetary nebula (PN) M1-11 and obtained its elemental abundances, dust mass, and the evolutionary status of the central star. The AKARI/IRC, VLT/VISIR, and Spitzer/IRS spectra show features due to carbon-rich dust, such as the 3.3, 8.6, and 11.3 {mu}m features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a smooth continuum attributable to amorphous carbon, and the broad 11.5 and 30 {mu}m features often ascribed to SiC and MgS, respectively. We also report the presence of an unidentified broad feature at 16-22 {mu}m, similar to the feature found in Magellanic Cloud PNe with either C-rich or O-rich gas-phase compositions. We identify for the first time in M1-11 spectral lines at 8.5 (blended with PAH), 17.3, and 18.9 {mu}m that we attribute to the C{sub 60} fullerene. This identification is strengthened by the fact that other Galactic PNe in which fullerenes are detected have similar central stars, similar gas-phase abundances, and a similar dust composition to M1-11. The weak radiation field due to the relatively cool central stars in these PNe may provide favorable conditions for fullerenes to survive in the circumstellar medium. Using the photoionization code CLOUDY, combined with a modified blackbody, we have fitted the {approx}0.1-90 {mu}m spectral energy distribution (SED) and determined the dust mass in the nebula to be {approx}3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M {sub Sun }. Our chemical abundance analysis and SED model suggest that M1-11 is perhaps a C-rich PN with C/O ratio in the gas phase of +0.19 dex, and that it evolved from a 1-1.5 M {sub Sun} star.

  13. THE CHANDRA X-RAY SURVEY OF PLANETARY NEBULAE (CHANPLANS): PROBING BINARITY, MAGNETIC FIELDS, AND WIND COLLISIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastner, J. H.; Montez, R. Jr.; Rapson, V. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Frew, D. J.; De Marco, O.; Parker, Q. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Macquarie Research Centre for Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Miszalski, B. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory, 7935 (South Africa); Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 183-900, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Blackman, E.; Frank, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Chu, Y.-H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Champagne-Urbana, IL (United States); Guerrero, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Astronomia, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, Granada 18008 (Spain); Lopez, J. A. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 22860, Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico); Zijlstra, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Behar, E. [Department of Physics, Technion (Israel); Bujarrabal, V. [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Apartado 112, E-28803, Alcala de Henares (Spain); Corradi, R. L. M. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nordhaus, J. [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Sandin, C., E-mail: jhk@cis.rit.edu, E-mail: soker@physics.technion.ac.il, E-mail: eva.villaver@uam.es [Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); and others

    2012-08-15

    We present an overview of the initial results from the Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS), the first systematic (volume-limited) Chandra X-Ray Observatory survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood. The first phase of CHANPLANS targeted 21 mostly high-excitation PNe within {approx}1.5 kpc of Earth, yielding four detections of diffuse X-ray emission and nine detections of X-ray-luminous point sources at the central stars (CSPNe) of these objects. Combining these results with those obtained from Chandra archival data for all (14) other PNe within {approx}1.5 kpc that have been observed to date, we find an overall X-ray detection rate of {approx}70% for the 35 sample objects. Roughly 50% of the PNe observed by Chandra harbor X-ray-luminous CSPNe, while soft, diffuse X-ray emission tracing shocks-in most cases, 'hot bubbles'-formed by energetic wind collisions is detected in {approx}30%; five objects display both diffuse and point-like emission components. The presence (or absence) of X-ray sources appears correlated with PN density structure, in that molecule-poor, elliptical nebulae are more likely to display X-ray emission (either point-like or diffuse) than molecule-rich, bipolar, or Ring-like nebulae. All but one of the point-like CSPNe X-ray sources display X-ray spectra that are harder than expected from hot ({approx}100 kK) central stars emitting as simple blackbodies; the lone apparent exception is the central star of the Dumbbell nebula, NGC 6853. These hard X-ray excesses may suggest a high frequency of binary companions to CSPNe. Other potential explanations include self-shocking winds or PN mass fallback. Most PNe detected as diffuse X-ray sources are elliptical nebulae that display a nested shell/halo structure and bright ansae; the diffuse X-ray emission regions are confined within inner, sharp-rimmed shells. All sample PNe that display diffuse X-ray emission have inner shell dynamical ages {approx}< 5 Multiplication

  14. The Chandra X-ray Survey of Planetary Nebulae (ChanPlaNS): Probing Binarity, Magnetic Fields, and Wind Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kastner, J H; Balick, B; Frew, D J; Miszalski, B; Sahai, R; Blackman, E; Chu, Y -H; De Marco, O; Frank, A; Guerrero, M A; Lopez, J A; Rapson, V; Zijlstra, A; Behar, E; Bujarrabal, V; Corradi, R L M; Nordhaus, J; Parker, Q; Sandin, C; Schönberner, D; Soker, N; Sokoloski, J L; Steffen, M; Ueta, T; Villaver, E

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of the initial results from the Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (ChanPlaNS), the first systematic (volume-limited) Chandra X-ray Observatory survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood. The first phase of ChanPlaNS targeted 21 mostly high-excitation PNe within ~1.5 kpc of Earth, yielding 3 detections of diffuse X-ray emission and 9 detections of X-ray-luminous point sources at the central stars (CSPNe) of these objects. Combining these results with those obtained from Chandra archival data for all (14) other PNe within ~1.5 kpc that have been observed to date, we find an overall X-ray detection rate of 68%. Roughly 50% of the PNe observed by Chandra harbor X-ray-luminous CSPNe, while soft, diffuse X-ray emission tracing shocks formed by energetic wind collisions is detected in ~30%; five objects display both diffuse and point-like emission components. The presence of X-ray sources appears correlated with PN density structure, in that molecule-poor, elliptical nebulae are...

  15. The Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS) I. Data Overview and Analysis Demonstration with NGC 6781

    CERN Document Server

    Ueta, T; Exter, K M; Otsuka, M; Szczerba, R; Siódmiak, N; Aleman, I; van Hoof, P A M; Kastner, J H; Montez, R; McDonald, I; Wittkowski, M; Sandin, C; Ramstedt, S; De Marco, O; Villaver, E; Chu, Y -H; Vlemmings, W; Izumiura, H; Sahai, R; Lopez, J A; Balick, B; Zijlstra, A; Tielens, A G G M; Rattray, R E; Behar, E; Blackman, E G; Hebden, K; Hora, J L; Murakawa, K; Nordhaus, J; Nordon, R; Yamamura, I

    2014-01-01

    This is the first of a series of investigations into far-IR characteristics of 11 planetary nebulae (PNs) under the Herschel Space Observatory Open Time 1 program, Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS). Using the HerPlaNS data set, we look into the PN energetics and variations of the physical conditions within the target nebulae. In the present work, we provide an overview of the survey, data acquisition and processing, and resulting data products. We perform (1) PACS/SPIRE broadband imaging to determine the spatial distribution of the cold dust component in the target PNs and (2) PACS/SPIRE spectral-energy-distribution (SED) and line spectroscopy to determine the spatial distribution of the gas component in the target PNs. For the case of NGC 6781, the broadband maps confirm the nearly pole-on barrel structure of the amorphous carbon-richdust shell and the surrounding halo having temperatures of 26-40 K. The PACS/SPIRE multi-position spectra show spatial variations of far-IR lines that reflect the phys...

  16. Is the central binary system of the planetary nebula Henize 2-428 a Type Ia supernova progenitor?

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Berro, Enrique; Althaus, Leandro G

    2015-01-01

    We account for recent observations of the binary system at the center of the bipolar planetary nebula Henize 2-428 by the presence of one degenerate core with a low-mass main sequence companion, rather than by two degenerate objects. We argue that the variability of the He II 5412A spectral line can be accounted for by a time-varying broad absorption line from the central star on top of which there is a time-varying narrow emission line from the compact nebula. The two (almost) symmetric broad minima in the light curve are attributed to tidal distortion caused by a companion. We find problems in the recently proposed and competing explanation of two equal-mass degenerate objects that supposedly will eventually merge, possibly leading to a SN Ia. We conclude that Henize 2-428 cannot be claimed yet to support the double-degenerate scenario for Type Ia supernovae.

  17. C/O abundance ratios, iron depletions, and infrared dust features in galactic planetary nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Inglada, Gloria; Rodríguez, Mónica, E-mail: gdelgado@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: mrodri@inaoep.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Apdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2014-04-01

    We study the dust present in 56 Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) through their iron depletion factors, their C/O abundance ratios (in 51 objects), and the dust features that appear in their infrared spectra (for 33 objects). Our sample objects have deep optical spectra of good quality, and most of them also have ultraviolet observations. We use these observations to derive the iron abundances and the C/O abundance ratios in a homogeneous way for all the objects. We compile detections of infrared dust features from the literature and we analyze the available Spitzer/IRS spectra. Most of the PNe have C/O ratios below one and show crystalline silicates in their infrared spectra. The PNe with silicates have C/O <1, with the exception of Cn 1-5. Most of the PNe with dust features related to C-rich environments (SiC or the 30 μm feature usually associated to MgS) have C/O ≳ 0.8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are detected over the full range of C/O values, including 6 objects that also show silicates. Iron abundances are low in all the objects, implying that more than 90% of their iron atoms are deposited into dust grains. The range of iron depletions in the sample covers about two orders of magnitude, and we find that the highest depletion factors are found in C-rich objects with SiC or the 30 μm feature in their infrared spectra, whereas some of the O-rich objects with silicates show the lowest depletion factors.

  18. THE BORN-AGAIN PLANETARY NEBULA A78: AN X-RAY TWIN OF A30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toalá, J. A.; Guerrero, M. A.; Marquez-Lugo, R. A.; Fang, X. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Todt, H.; Hamann, W.-R.; Oskinova, L. M. [Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Schönberner, D. [Leibniz-Institut Für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Ramos-Larios, G., E-mail: toala@iaa.es [Instituto de Astronomía y Meteorología, Av. Vallarta No. 2602, Col. Arcos Vallarta, 44130 Guadalajara (Mexico)

    2015-01-20

    We present the XMM-Newton discovery of X-ray emission from the planetary nebula (PN) A78, the second born-again PN detected in X-rays apart from A30. These two PNe share similar spectral and morphological characteristics: they harbor diffuse soft X-ray emission associated with the interaction between the H-poor ejecta and the current fast stellar wind and a point-like source at the position of the central star (CSPN). We present the spectral analysis of the CSPN, using for the first time an NLTE code for expanding atmospheres that takes line blanketing into account for the UV and optical spectra. The wind abundances are used for the X-ray spectral analysis of the CSPN and the diffuse emission. The X-ray emission from the CSPN in A78 can be modeled by a single C VI emission line, while the X-ray emission from its diffuse component is better described by an optically thin plasma emission model with a temperature of kT = 0.088 keV (T ≈ 1.0 × 10{sup 6} K). We estimate X-ray luminosities in the 0.2-2.0 keV energy band of L {sub X,} {sub CSPN} = (1.2 ± 0.3) × 10{sup 31} erg s{sup –1} and L {sub X,} {sub DIFF} = (9.2 ± 2.3) × 10{sup 30} erg s{sup –1} for the CSPN and diffuse components, respectively.

  19. A Detailed Study of the Structure of the Planetary Nebula, Hb 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; López, J. A.; Edwards, M. L.; Winge, C.

    2014-04-01

    We present near-IR, integral field spectroscopic observations of the planetary nebula (PN) Hb 12 using NIFS on Gemini-N. Combining NIFS with the adaptive optics instrument Altair, we provide a detailed study of the core and lobes of this PN. We chose the H and K gratings, which include many prominent emission lines, such as [Fe II] (1.6436 μm), He I (1.7004 μm), H2 (2.1214 μm), and Brγ (2.16553 μm). Considering a distance to Hb 12 of 2 kpc, the spatial resolution is ˜ 100 AU. The velocity resolution is 30 km s-1. The [Fe II] line indicates the northern lobe is blue shifted, while the southern lobe is redshifted. There is very little to no emission in the core in the [Fe II] and H2 lines, while the core is more prominent in the other lines. Neither is there H2 emission from the lobes, but instead arcs of emission passing near the inner regions. The He I (2.0585 μm) line clearly shows the inner torus, which has not been reported before. We measured a torus dimension of 350 AU wide by 800 AU tall, which is ˜ 30 times narrower than the lobes. The western wall of the inner torus is consistently more intense than the eastern wall. This could indicate the presence of an off-axis star in the center, such as that observed in the PN MyCyn 18. Finally, we compare the NIFS observations of the inner torus and lobes with HST archive observations.

  20. Pushing the limits: detecting H2 emission from faint bipolar planetary nebulae in the IPHAS sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Larios, G.; Guerrero, M. A.; Sabin, L.; Santamaría, E.

    2017-09-01

    We have obtained deep narrowband images in the near-infrared H2 λ2.122 μm emission line for a sample of 15 faint Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric H α Survey (IPHAS) bipolar planetary nebulae (PNe) to search for molecular material. H2 emission is found in most of them (14 out of 15), mostly associated with rings at their equatorial regions and with their bipolar lobes. These detections add to the high occurrence of H2 emission among bipolar PNe reported in previous works, resulting from the large reservoir of molecular material in these sources and the suitable excitation conditions for H2 emission. The correlation between detailed bipolar morphology and H2 luminosity is also confirmed: bipolar PNe with broad equatorial rings (R-BPNe) have almost no continuum emission, are H2 brighter and have larger H2/Br γ line ratio than bipolar PNe with pinched equatorial waists (W-BPNe). The origin of this dichotomy is unclear. The larger size and age of R-BPNe are consistent with shock excitation of H2, whereas ultraviolet pumping is most likely the excitation mechanism in the smaller and younger W-BPNe, which would explain their lower H2 luminosity. Although both types of bipolar PNe seem to proceed from the same progenitor population, this does not imply that R-BPNe descend from W-BPNe. Otherwise, we note that some of the H2-weak bipolar PNe harbor post-common envelope binary systems and symbiotic stars. Finally, we suggest that the long-living H2 emission from R-BPNe arises from a discrete distribution of compact knots embedded within the ionized gas at the equatorial region.

  1. XSHOOTER spectroscopy of the enigmatic planetary nebula Lin49 in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Kemper, F.; Leal-Ferreira, M. L.; Aleman, I.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Cami, J.; Ochsendorf, B. B.; Peeters, E.; Scicluna, P.

    2016-10-01

    We performed a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the fullerene C60-containing planetary nebula (PN) Lin49 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) using XSHOOTER at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope and the Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph instruments. We derived nebular abundances for nine elements. We used TLUSTY to derive photospheric parameters for the central star. Lin49 is C-rich and metal-deficient PN (Z ˜ 0.0006). The nebular abundances are in good agreement with asymptotic giant branch nucleosynthesis models for stars with initial mass 1.25 M⊙ and metallicity Z = 0.001. Using the TLUSTY synthetic spectrum of the central star to define the heating and ionizing source, we constructed the photoionization model with CLOUDY that matches the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) and the line fluxes in the UV to far-IR wavelength ranges simultaneously. We could not fit the ˜1-5 μm SED using a model with 0.005-0.1-μm-sized graphite grains and a constant hydrogen density shell owing to the prominent near-IR excess, while at other wavelengths the model fits the observed values reasonably well. We argue that the near-IR excess might indicate either (1) the presence of very small particles in the form of small carbon clusters, small graphite sheets, or fullerene precursors, or (2) the presence of a high-density structure surrounding the central star. We found that SMC C60 PNe show a near-IR excess component to lesser or greater degree. This suggests that these C60 PNe might maintain a structure nearby their central star.

  2. Abundances of Planetary Nebulae IC 418, IC 2165 and NGC 5882

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Bernard-Salas, J; Beintema, DA; Feibelman, WA

    2004-01-01

    The ISO and IUE spectra of the elliptical nebulae NGC 5882, IC 418 and IC 2165 are presented. These spectra are combined with the spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebulae is then calculated and compared to p

  3. Physico-chemical spectroscopic mapping of the planetary nebula NGC 40 and the 2D_NEB, a new 2D algorithm to study ionised nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Ferreira, M L; Monteiro, H; Richards, J W

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of the physical and chemical conditions of the planetary nebula NGC 40 through spatially-resolved spectroscopic maps. We also introduce a new algorithm --2D_NEB-- based on the well-established IRAF nebular package, which was developed to enable the use of the spectroscopic maps to easily estimate the astrophysical quantities of ionised nebulae. The 2D_NEB was benchmarked, and we clearly show that it works properly, since it compares nicely with the IRAF nebular software. Using this software, we derive the maps of several physical parameters of NGC 40. From these maps, we conclude that Te[NII] shows only a slight temperature variation from region to region, with its values constrained between ~8,000 K and ~9,500 K. Electron densities, on the other hand, have a much more prominent spatial variation, as Ne[SII] values vary from ~1,000 cm^(-3) to ~3,000 cm^(-3). Maps of the chemical abundances also show significant variations. From the big picture of our work, we strongly sugg...

  4. Water Fountains in the Sky: Streaming Water Jets from Aging Star Provide Clues to Planetary-Nebula Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope have found that an aging star is spewing narrow, rotating streams of water molecules into space, like a jerking garden hose that has escaped its owner's grasp. The discovery may help resolve a longstanding mystery about how the stunningly beautiful objects called planetary nebulae are formed. Artist's Conception of W43A. Artist's conception of W43A, with the aging star surrounded by a disk of material and a precessing, twisted jet of molecules streaming away from it in two directions. Credit: Kirk Woellert/National Science Foundation. The astronomers used the VLBA, operated by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, to study a star called W43A. W43A is about 8,500 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Aquila, the eagle. This star has come to the end of its normal lifetime and, astronomers believe, is about to start forming a planetary nebula, a shell of brightly glowing gas lit by the hot ember into which the star will collapse. "A prime mystery about planetary nebulae is that many are not spherical even though the star from which they are ejected is a sphere," said Phillip Diamond, director of the MERLIN radio observatory at Jodrell Bank in England, and one of the researchers using the VLBA. "The spinning jets of water molecules we found coming from this star may be one mechanism for producing the structures seen in many planetary nebulae," he added. The research team, led by Hiroshi Imai of Japan's National Astronomical Observatory (now at the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, based in the Netherlands), also includes Kumiko Obara of the Mizusawa Astrogeodynamics Observatory and Kagoshima University; Toshihiro Omodaka, also of Kagoshima University; and Tetsuo Sasao of the Japanese National Astronomical Observatory. The scientists reported their findings in the June 20 issue of the scientific journal Nature. As stars similar to our Sun

  5. Problems for the WELS classification of planetary nebulae central stars: Self-consistent nebular modelling of four candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Basurah, Hassan M; Dopita, Michael A; Alsulami, R; Amer, Morsi A; Alruhaili, A

    2016-01-01

    We present integral field unit (IFU) spectroscopy and self-consistent photoionisation modelling for a sample of four southern Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) with supposed weak emission-line (WEL) central stars. The Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS) on the ANU 2.3 m telescope has been used to provide IFU spectroscopy for NGC 3211, NGC 5979, My 60, and M 4-2 covering the spectral range of 3400-7000{\\AA}. All objects are high excitation non-Type I PNe, with strong He II emission, strong [Ne V] emission, and weak low-excitation lines. They all appear to be predominantly optically-thin nebulae excited by central stars with $T_{\\rm eff} > 10^5$K. Three PNe of the sample have central stars which have been previously classified as weak emission-line stars (WELS), and the fourth also shows the characteristic recombination lines of a WELS. However, the spatially-resolved spectroscopy shows that rather than arising in the central star, the C IV and N III recombination line emission is distributed in the nebula, and in s...

  6. Comprehensive modelling of the planetary nebula LMC-SMP 61 and its [WC]-type central star

    CERN Document Server

    Stasinska, G; Peña, M; Hamann, W R; Koesterke, L; Szczerba, R

    2003-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the Magellanic Cloud planetary nebula SMP 61 and of its nucleus, a Wolf-Rayet type star classified [WC 5-6]. We have performed a detailed spectral analysis of the central star, using the Potsdam code for expanding atmospheres in non-LTE. The fluxes from the model stellar atmosphere were used to compute photoionization models of the nebula. All the available observations, within their error bars, were used to constrain these models. We find that the ionizing fluxes predicted by the stellar model are basically consistent with the fluxes needed by the photoionization model to reproduce the nebular emission, within the error margins. However, there are indications that the stellar model overestimates the number and hardness of Lyman continuum photons. The photoionization models imply a clumped density structure of the nebular material. The observed CIII] 1909/CII 4267 line ratio implies the existence of carbon-rich clumps in the nebula. Such clumps are likely produced by stella...

  7. The extinction and dust-to-gas structure of the planetary nebula NGC 7009 observed with MUSE

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, J R; Barlow, M J; Ueta, T; Wesson, R; Zijlstra, A A

    2016-01-01

    The large field and wavelength range of MUSE is well suited to mapping Galactic planetary nebulae (PN). The bright PN NGC 7009 was observed with MUSE on the VLT during the Science Verification of the instrument in seeing of 0.6". Emission line maps in hydrogen Balmer and Paschen lines were formed from analysis of the MUSE cubes. The measured electron temperature and density from the MUSE cube were employed to predict the theoretical hydrogen line ratios and map the extinction distribution across the nebula. After correction for the interstellar extinction to NGC 7009, the internal dust-to-gas ratio (A_V/N_H) has been mapped for the first time in a PN. The extinction map of NGC 7009 has considerable structure, broadly corresponding to the morphological features of the nebula. A large-scale feature in the extinction map, consisting of a crest and trough, occurs at the rim of the inner shell. The nature of this feature was investigated and instrumental and physical causes considered; no convincing mechanisms wer...

  8. Imaging of four planetary nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds using the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blades, J. C.; Barlow, M. J.; Albrecht, R.; Barbieri, C.; Boksenberg, A.; Crane, P.; Deharveng, J. M.; Disney, M. J.; Jakobsen, P.; Kamperman, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    Using the Faint Object Camera on-board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have obtained images of four planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Magellanic Clouds, namely N2 and N5 in the SMC and N66 and N201 in the LMC. Each nebula was imaged through two narrow-band filters isolating forbidden O III 5007 and H-beta, for a nominal exposure time of 1000 s in each filter. In forbidden O III, SMC N5 shows a circular ring structure, with a peak-to-peak diameter of 0.26 arcsec and a FWHM of 0.35 arcsec while SMC N2 shows an elliptical ring structure with a peak-to-peak diameter of 0.26 x 0.21. The expansion ages corresponding to the observed structures in SMC N2 and N5 are of the order of 3000 yr. LMC N201 is very compact, with a FWHM of 0.2 arcsec in H-beta. The Type I PN LMC N66 is a multipolar nebula, with the brightest part having an extent of about 2 arcsec and with fainter structures extending over 4 arcsec.

  9. SPITZER SEARCH FOR DUST DISKS AROUND CENTRAL STARS OF PLANETARY NEBULAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilikova, Jana; Chu Youhua; Gruendl, Robert A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Su, Kate Y. L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); De Marco, Orsola, E-mail: jbiliko2@astro.illinois.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2012-05-01

    Two types of dust disks have been discovered around white dwarfs (WDs): small dust disks within the Roche limits of their WDs and large dust disks around hot WDs extending to radial distances of 10-10{sup 2} AU. The majority of the latter WDs are central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNs). We have therefore used archival Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) observations of PNs to search for CSPNs with IR excesses and to make a comparative investigation of dust disks around stars at different evolutionary stages. We have examined available images of 72 resolved PNs in the Spitzer archive and found 56 of them large enough for the CSPN to be resolved from the PN. Among these, only 42 CSPNs are visible in IRAC and/or MIPS images and selected for photometric measurements. From the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these CSPNs, we find 19 cases with clear IR excess. Of these, seven are [WC]-type stars, two have apparent visual companions that account for the observed excess emission, two are symbiotic CSPNs, and in eight cases the IR excess originates from an extended emitter, likely a dust disk. For some of these CSPNs, we have acquired follow-up Spitzer MIPS images, Infrared Spectrograph spectra, and Gemini NIRI and Michelle spectroscopic observations. The SEDs and spectra show a great diversity in the emission characteristics of the IR excesses, which may imply different mechanisms responsible for the excess emission. For CSPNs whose IR excesses originate from dust continuum, the most likely dust production mechanisms are (1) breakup of bodies in planetesimal belts through collisions and (2) formation of circumstellar dust disks through binary interactions. A better understanding of post-asymptotic giant branch binary evolution as well as debris disk evolution along with its parent star is needed to distinguish between these different origins. Future observations to better establish the physical parameters of

  10. X-rays from Planetary Nebulae: Unveiling Binarity and Wind Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montez, Rodolfo, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe), the ionized, ejected envelopes of low- to intermediate-mass stars, are thought to be shaped by a nascent fast wind from the spent core (a future white dwarf) that collides with and sweeps up previously ejected material (red and asymptotic branch giant winds). This collision can generate an X-ray emitting "hot bubble" that fills the swept-up cavity. Circumstellar material in a dense torus or disk, likely due to an interacting binary in the PN nucleus, is widely believed to collimate the winds that shape non-spherical PNe. Hence, PNe offer excellent opportunities to study astrophysical shocks and binary interactions. In my thesis, I address these topics via a comprehensive analysis of new and archival (pointed and serendipitous) X-ray observations performed by Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray satellite observatories. This analysis yields new information on the X-ray characteristics (detections and non-detections) of over 50 PNe ( 35% of which were detected). Based on spatial/spectral analysis of a dozen diffuse X-ray emitting PNe, I confirm that hot bubble temperatures are generally much lower than predicted by simple shock models given measured central star fast wind velocities. Comparison of the X-ray emission and central star properties of the sample PNe with the predictions of heat conduction models indicates that some hot bubbles are regulated by heat conduction, while others appear to require alternative temperature-regulating mechanisms. From new detections of point-like hard X-ray emission from the binary star nuclei of LoTr5, DS1, and HFG1, I demonstrate that the X-ray emission most likely arises from rejuvenated coronae around the spun-up companions in these systems. These results place constraints on putative spun-up binary companions within other PNe in which point-like central sources have gone undetected by XMM and/or Chandra. I conclude with suggestions as to the most promising directions for future X-ray observations of PNe.

  11. X-rays from planetary nebulae: Unveiling wind collisions and binarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montez, Rodolfo, Jr.

    2010-07-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe), the ionized, ejected envelopes of low- to inter-mediate-mass stars, are thought to be shaped by a nascent fast wind from the spent core (a future white dwarf) that collides with and sweeps up previously ejected material (red and asymptotic branch giant winds). This collision can generate an X-ray emitting "hot bubble" that fills the swept-up cavity. Circumstellar material in a dense torus or disk, likely due to an interacting binary in the PN nucleus, is widely believed to collimate the winds that shape non-spherical PNe. Hence, PNe offer excellent opportunities to study astrophysical shocks and binary interactions. In my thesis, I address these topics via a comprehensive analysis of new and archival (pointed and serendipitous) X-ray observations performed by Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray satellite observatories. This analysis yields new information on the X-ray characteristics (detections and non-detections) of over 50 PNe (˜40% of which were detected). Based on spatial/ spectral analysis of a dozen diffuse X-ray emitting PNe, I confirm that hot bubble temperatures are generally much lower than predicted by simple shock models given measured central star fast wind velocities. Comparison of the X-ray emission and central star properties of the sample PNe with the predictions of heat conduction models indicates that some hot bubbles are regulated by heat conduction, while others appear to require alternative temperature-regulating mechanisms. From new detections of point-like hard X-ray emission from the binary star nuclei of LoTr5, DS1, and HFG1, I demonstrate that the X-ray emission most likely arises from rejuvenated coronae around the spun-up companions in these systems. These results place constraints on putative spun-up binary companions within other PNe in which point-like central sources have gone undetected by XMM and/or Chandra. I conclude with suggestions as to the most promising directions for future X-ray observations of PNe.

  12. PHR1315-6555: a bipolar planetary nebula in the compact Hyades-age open cluster ESO96-SC04

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Quentin A; Miszalski, Brent; Kovacevic, Anna V; Frinchaboy, Peter M; Dobbie, Paul D; Koppen, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed study of a bipolar, possible Type I planetary nebula (PN), PHR1315-6555 (PN G305.3-03.1), that was discovered as part of the Macquarie/AAO/Strasbourg H-alpha planetary nebula project (MASH) and that we considered at the time was an excellent candidate for membership of the distant, compact, intermediate-age open cluster, ESO 96-SC04. The strong evidence for this association is presented here making this the only known example of a PN physically associated with a Galactic open cluster. Cluster membership is extremely important as it allows for very precise estimates of the fundamental properties of the PN as the cluster is at a known distance. The PN was discovered by one of us (QAP) during systematic MASH searches for new Galactic PNe of the AAO/UKST H-alpha survey and had been missed in earlier broadband surveys, including specific CCD studies of the host cluster. We present original discovery images and CTIO 4m MOSAIC-II camera follow-up narrow-band images that reveal its bipolar morph...

  13. Detection, photometry and slitless radial velocities of 535 planetary nebulae in the flattened elliptical galaxy NGC 4697

    CERN Document Server

    Méndez, R H; Kudritzki, R P; Matthias, M; Freeman, K C; Arnaboldi, M; Capaccioli, M; Gerhard, O E

    2001-01-01

    We have detected 535 planetary nebulae (PNs) in NGC 4697, using the classic on-band, off-band filter technique with the Focal Reducer and Spectrograph (FORS) at the Cassegrain focus of the first 8-meter telescope unit of the ESO Very Large Telescope. From our photometry we have built the [O III] 5007 planetary nebula luminosity function (PNLF) of NGC 4697. It indicates a distance of 10.5 Mpc, substantially smaller than a previous estimate of 24 Mpc used in earlier dynamical studies. The PNLF also provides an estimate of the specific PN formation rate. Combining the information from on-band images with PN positions on dispersed, slitless grism images, we have obtained radial velocities for 531 of the 535 PNs. They provide kinematic information up to a distance of almost three effective radii from the nucleus. Some rotation is detected in the outer regions, but the rotation curve of this galaxy appears to drop beyond one effective radius. Assuming an isotropic velocity distribution, the velocity dispersion prof...

  14. Compact Galactic Planetary Nebulae: A HST/WFC3 Morphological Catalog, and a Study of their Role in the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Stanghellini, Letizia; Villaver, Eva

    2016-01-01

    We present the images of a \\textit{Hubble Space Telescope} (\\textit{HST}/WFC3) snapshot program of angularly compact Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe), acquired with the aim of studying their size, evolutionary status, and morphology. PNe that are smaller than $\\sim4\\arcsec$ are underrepresented in most morphological studies, and today they are less well studied than their immediate evolutionary predecessors, the pre-planetary nebulae. The images have been acquired in the light of [\\ion{O}{3}]$\\lambda5007$, which is commonly used to classify the PN morphology, in the UV continuum with the aim of detecting the central star unambiguously, and in the $I-$band to detect a cool stellar companion, if present. The sample of 51 confirmed PNe exhibits nearly the full range of primary morphological classes, with the distribution more heavily weighted toward bipolar PNe, but with total of aspherical PNe almost identical to that of the general Galactic sample. A large range of microstructures is evident in our sample as w...

  15. Problems for the WELS classification of planetary nebula central stars: self-consistent nebular modelling of four candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basurah, Hassan M.; Ali, Alaa; Dopita, Michael A.; Alsulami, R.; Amer, Morsi A.; Alruhaili, A.

    2016-05-01

    We present integral field unit (IFU) spectroscopy and self-consistent photoionization modelling for a sample of four southern Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) with supposed weak emission-line central stars. The Wide Field Spectrograph on the ANU 2.3 m telescope has been used to provide IFU spectroscopy for NGC 3211, NGC 5979, My 60, and M 4-2 covering the spectral range of 3400-7000 Å. All objects are high-excitation non-Type I PNe, with strong He II emission, strong [Ne V] emission, and weak low-excitation lines. They all appear to be predominantly optically thin nebulae excited by central stars with Teff > 105 K. Three PNe of the sample have central stars which have been previously classified as weak emission-line stars (WELS), and the fourth also shows the characteristic recombination lines of a WELS. However, the spatially resolved spectroscopy shows that rather than arising in the central star, the C IV and N III recombination line emission is distributed in the nebula, and in some cases concentrated in discrete nebular knots. This may suggest that the WELS classification is spurious, and that, rather, these lines arise from (possibly chemically enriched) pockets of nebular gas. Indeed, from careful background subtraction we were able to identify three of the sample as being hydrogen rich O(H)-Type. We have constructed fully self-consistent photoionization models for each object. This allows us to independently determine the chemical abundances in the nebulae, to provide new model-dependent distance estimates, and to place the central stars on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. All four PNe have similar initial mass (1.5 < M/M⊙ < 2.0) and are at a similar evolutionary stage.

  16. Morphological and kinematic signatures of a binary central star in the planetary nebula Hu 2-1

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, L F; Guerrero, M; Vázquez, R A; Gómez, Y; Miranda, Luis F.; Torrelles, Jose M.; Guerrero, Martin A.; Vazquez, Roberto; Gomez, Yolanda

    2000-01-01

    We present narrow-band optical images, VLA-A 3.6 cm continuum and H92alpha emission line data and high resolution long-slit [N II] spectra of Hu 2-1. The formation of Hu 2-1 appears dominated by anisotropic mass ejection during the late AGB stage of its progenitor and by variable, ``precessing'' collimated bipolar outflows during the proto-PN and/or early PN phases. The data strongly support the existence of a binary central star at center of Hu 2-1: (1) the brightness distribution of the bipolar lobes and inner shell is point-symmetric, and the bipolar lobes show departures from axial symmetry; (2) the position of the central star is off-center; (3) mass ejection towards the equatorial plane is detected; (4) ``precessing'' collimated outflows are present. Besides all this circumstantial evidences, the analysis of the kinematics shows that the systemic velocity of the bipolar outflows does not coincide with the systemic velocity of the nebula. We propose that this velocity difference is a direct evidence of o...

  17. UV Excess and AGB Evolution in Elliptical-Galaxy Stellar Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Lópezlira, R. A.; Buzzoni, A.

    2009-03-01

    The puzzling origin of the ``UV-upturn'' phenomenon, observed in some elliptical galaxies, has recently been settled by identifying hot HB stars as main contributors to galaxy ultraviolet luminosity excess. While a blue HB morphology seems a natural characteristic of metal-poor stellar populations, its appearance in metal-rich systems, often coupled with a poorer rate of planetary nebulae per unit galaxy luminosity, might be calling for an intimate connection between UV excess and AGB properties in early-type galaxies. In this work, we want to briefly assess this issue relying on infrared surface brightness fluctuations as a powerful tool to trace AGB properties in external galaxies with unresolved stellar populations.

  18. UV excess and AGB evolution in elliptical-galaxy stellar populations

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A

    2007-01-01

    The puzzling origin of the ``UV-upturn'' phenomenon, observed in some elliptical galaxies, has recently been settled by identifying hot HB stars as main contributors to galaxy ultraviolet luminosity excess. While a blue HB morphology seems a natural characteristic of metal-poor stellar populations, its appearence in metal-rich systems, often coupled with a poorer rate of planetary nebulae per unit galaxy luminosity, might be calling for an intimate connection between UV excess and AGB properties in early-type galaxies. In this work, we want to briefly assess this issue, relying on infrared surface brightness fluctuations as a powerful tool to trace AGB properties in external galaxies with unresolved stellar populations.

  19. The population of planetary nebulae and H II regions in M 81. A study of radial metallicity gradients and chemical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, L.; Magrini, L.; Villaver, E.; Galli, D.

    2010-10-01

    Context. M 81 is an ideal laboratory to investigate the galactic chemical and dynamical evolution through the study of its young and old stellar populations. Aims: We analyze the chemical abundances of planetary nebulae and H ii regions in the M 81 disk for insight on galactic evolution, and compare it with that of other galaxies, including the Milky Way. Methods: We acquired Hectospec/MMT spectra of 39 PNe and 20 H ii regions, with 33 spectra viable for temperature and abundance analysis. Our PN observations represent the first PN spectra in M 81 ever published, while several H ii region spectra have been published before, although without a direct electron temperature determination. We determine elemental abundances of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulfur, and argon in PNe and H ii regions, and determine their averages and radial gradients. Results: The average O/H ratio of PNe compared to that of the H ii regions indicates a general oxygen enrichment in M 81 in the last ~10 Gyr. The PN metallicity gradient in the disk of M 81 is Δlog(O/H)/ΔRG = -0.055 ± 0.02 dex/kpc. Neon and sulfur in PNe have a radial distribution similar to that of oxygen, with similar gradient slopes. If we combine our H ii sample with the one in the literature we find a possible mild evolution of the gradient slope, with results consistent with gradient steepening with time. Additional spectroscopy is needed to confirm this trend. There are no type I PNe in our M 81 sample, consistently with the observation of only the brightest bins of the PNLF, the galaxy metallicity, and the evolution of post-AGB shells. Conclusions: Both the young and the old populations of M 81 disclose shallow but detectable negative radial metallicity gradient, which could be slightly steeper for the young population, thus not excluding a mild gradients steepening with the time since galaxy formation. During its evolution M 81 has been producing oxygen; its total oxygen enrichment exceeds that of other nearby

  20. The discovery of the "21" mu m and "30" mu m emission features in Planetary Nebulae with Wolf-Rayet central stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hony, S; Waters, LBFM; Tielens, AGGM

    2001-01-01

    We report the discovery of the "21" mum and "30" mum features in the planetary nebulae around the hydrogen-deficient stars HD 826 and HD 158269. The carriers of these features are known to be produced in outflows around carbon-rich stars. This discovery demonstrates that the bulk of the dust in thes

  1. The discovery of the "21" mu m and "30" mu m emission features in Planetary Nebulae with Wolf-Rayet central stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hony, S; Waters, LBFM; Tielens, AGGM

    2001-01-01

    We report the discovery of the "21" mum and "30" mum features in the planetary nebulae around the hydrogen-deficient stars HD 826 and HD 158269. The carriers of these features are known to be produced in outflows around carbon-rich stars. This discovery demonstrates that the bulk of the dust in

  2. Narrow band survey for intragroup light in the Leo HI cloud - Constraints on the galaxy background contamination in imaging surveys for intracluster planetary nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Rodriguez, N; Aguerri, JAL; Arnaboldi, M; Gerhard, O; Freeman, KC; Napolitano, NR; Capaccioli, M

    2003-01-01

    We have observed emission line objects located in a 0.26 deg(2) field in the M 96 (Leo) group, coincident with the intergalactic HI cloud. The emission line objects were selected using the same procedure as used for the search for intracluster planetary nebulae in the Virgo cluster. 29 emission line

  3. GTC/OSIRIS observations of RWT 152, a case study of a planetary nebula with an sdO central star

    CERN Document Server

    Aller, A; Olguín, L; Solano, E; Ulla, A

    2015-01-01

    RWT 152 is one of the few planetary nebula with an sdO central star. We present subarcsecond red tunable filter imaging and intermediate-resolution, long-slit spectroscopy of RWT 152, obtained with OSIRIS/GTC, which allow us to describe in detail its morphology and to obtain its physical conditions and chemical abundances.

  4. New Galactic Planetary Nebulae and the role of Central Star Binarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszalski, B.

    2009-09-01

    The Galactic population of planetary nebulae (PNe) offers great potential in improving our understanding of many astrophysical problems on both large and small scales. They are revealed out to large distances by their bright emission line spectra from which their radial velocities and chemical abundances can be measured. As members of the old stellar population, PNe are particularly abundant towards the Galactic bulge where their kinematics are a valuable, relatively unbiased tracer of the dynamics of the region. Chemical abundance variations may also be traced by PNe to place constraints on chemodynamical models of the Galaxy. On much smaller scales their central stars (CSPN) are a powerful window into the poorly understood late stages of binary stellar evolution. The capacity of PNe to perform these studies is critically dependent on the size of the population. The current Galactic population of PNe was substantially increased by the Macquarie/AAO/Strasbourg Halpha (MASH) PNe catalogue. A supplement to MASH, the MASH-II catalogue, is presented with more than 360 new Galactic PNe found after a thorough search of all 233 AAO/UKST SuperCOSMOS Halpha Survey fields in digital format. Novel, semi-automated data processing and multi-wavelength visualisation techniques are developed to maximise the sensitivity of the search. MASH-II PNe are notable for being either small, star-like PNe of relatively high surface brightness, or very large, extremely low surface brightness PNe. Over 90% of the catalogue is confirmed spectroscopically during extensive observing campaigns and the catalogue is available via the VizieR catalogue service at the Centre de Donn´ees Astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS). This thesis is based on the exploitation of the MASH and MASH-II PNe catalogues that have provided the largest and most representative sample of PNe towards the Galactic bulge. This offers a unique opportunity to contribute towards two different, largely unexplored research domains

  5. Automatic Generation of Algorithms for the Statistical Analysis of Planetary Nebulae Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    which use numerical approximations even in cases where closed-form solutions exist. AutoBayes is implemented in Prolog and comprises approximately 75.000 lines of code. In this paper, we take one typical scientific data analysis problem-analyzing planetary nebulae images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope-and show how AutoBayes can be used to automate the implementation of the necessary anal- ysis programs. We initially follow the analysis described by Knuth and Hajian [KHO2] and use AutoBayes to derive code for the published models. We show the details of the code derivation process, including the symbolic computations and automatic integration of library procedures, and compare the results of the automatically generated and manually implemented code. We then go beyond the original analysis and use AutoBayes to derive code for a simple image segmentation procedure based on a mixture model which can be used to automate a manual preproceesing step. Finally, we combine the original approach with the simple segmentation which yields a more detailed analysis. This also demonstrates that AutoBayes makes it easy to combine different aspects of data analysis.

  6. Preplanetary Nebulae: An HST Imaging Survey and a New Morphological Classification System

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Contreras, Carmen Sánchez; Claussen, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have carried out a survey of candidate preplanetary nebulae (PPNs). We report here our discoveries of objects having well-resolved geometrical structures, and use the large sample of PPNs now imaged with HST (including previously studied objects in this class) to devise a comprehensive morphological classification system for this category of objects. The wide variety of aspherical morphologies which we have found for PPNs are qualitatively similar to those found for young planetary nebulae in previous surveys. We also find prominent halos surrounding the central aspherical shapes in many of our objects -- these are direct signatures of the undisturbed circumstellar envelopes of the progenitor AGB stars. Although the majority of these have surface-brightness distributions consistent with a constant mass-loss rate with a constant expansion velocity, there are also examples of objects with varying mass-loss rates. As in our surveys of young planetary nebulae (PNs), we f...

  7. Two short mass-loss events that unveil the binary heart of Minkowski's Butterfly Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Castro-Carrizo, A; Bujarrabal, V; Chesneau, O; Cox, P; Bachiller, R

    2012-01-01

    Studying the appearance and properties of bipolar winds is critical to understand the stellar evolution from the AGB to the planetary nebula (PN) phase. Many uncertainties exist regarding the presence and role of binary stellar systems, mainly due to the deficit of conclusive observational evidences. We investigate the extended equatorial distribution around the early bipolar planetary nebula M 2-9 ("Minkowski's Butterfly Nebula") to gather new information on the mechanism of the axial ejections. Interferometric millimeter observations of molecular emission provide the most comprehensive view of the equatorial mass distribution and kinematics in early PNe. Here we present subarcsecond angular-resolution observations of the 12CO J=2-1 line and continuum emission with the Plateau de Bure interferometer. The data reveal two ring-shaped and eccentric structures at the equatorial basis of the two coaxial optical lobes. The two rings were formed during short mass-loss episodes (~ 40 yr), separated by ~ 500 yr. Thei...

  8. Time variation of the O/H radial gradient in the galactic disk based on planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Maciel, W J

    2013-01-01

    The controversy on the time variation of the radial abundance gradients can in principle be settled by estimating the gradients from planetary nebulae (PN) ejected by central stars (CSPN) with different ages. In this work, we consider four samples of CSPN whose lifetimes have been estimated using three different methods and estimate the oxygen abundance gradients for these objects. The results suggest some small differences between the younger and older CSPN. The younger objects have similar or slightly higher oxygen abundances compared with the older objects, and the gradients of both groups are similar within the uncertainties. Therefore, the O/H radial gradient has not changed appreciably during the lifetime of the objects considered, so that PN gradients are not expected to be very different from the gradients observed in younger objects, which seems to be supported by recent observational data.

  9. Radial metallicity gradients in spiral galaxies from H II regions and planetary nebulae: probing galactic chemical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Letizia

    2015-08-01

    Radial metallicity gradients, typically observed in spiral galaxies, are excellent constraints for chemical evolution models. The contemporary studies of the two stellar populations, whose progenitors have formed at different times, yield to the chemical and time constraining of the models. In this context, planetary nebula and HII region analysis proved to be ideal two-epochs test populations. We present an assortment of galaxies whose oxygen abundances have been determined both with weak- and strong-line methods, and whose radial metallicity gradients and their evolution in time have disclosed very interesting correlations with the galaxy characteristics. New results from our Gemini/GMOS observations, and a review of the best literature data, set the stage for a better understanding of spiral galaxy evolution.

  10. Luminosities and masses for three central stars of planetary nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds from ultraviolet spectroscopy with the IUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecher, T. P.; Savedoff, M. P.; Maran, S. P.; Gull, T. R.; Aller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    Physical parameters of the central stars of the planetary nebulae (PN) P40, N2, and N5 are determined from UV observations by the IUE spacecraft and emission line-data. The observations took place on May 23 and 26, 1981. Derived properties, such as the H-beta, color excess, nebular hydrogen emission, helium emission, and stellar continuum emission, the stellar radius, surface gravity, Zanstra temperature, luminosity, absolute bolometric magnitude, apparent visual magnitude, mass, and Zanstra parameter for the three PN central stars are presented. All the masses were over one solar mass, suggesting a specific PN nuclei mass. The finding was corroborated by all luminosities exceeding the Eddington luminosity for a 0.6 solar mass star, which has previously been calculated for the white dwarf core of a PN.

  11. A hydrodynamical study of multiple-shell planetary nebulae. III. Expansion properties and internal kinematics: Theory versus observation

    CERN Document Server

    Schoenberner, D; Lehmann, H; Hildebrandt, G; Steffen, M; Zwanzig, A; Sandin, C; Corradi, R L M

    2014-01-01

    We present the result of a study on the expansion properties and internal kinematics of round/elliptical planetary nebulae of the Milky Way disk, the halo, and of the globular cluster M15. The purpose of this study is to considerably enlarge the small sample of nebulae with precisely determined expansion properties. To this aim, we selected a representative sample of objects with different evolutionary stages and metallicities and conducted high-resolution echelle spectroscopy. In most cases, we succeeded in detecting the weak signals from the outer nebular shell which are attached to the main line emission from the bright nebular rim. Next to the measurement of the motion of the rim gas by decomposition of the main line components into Gaussians, we were able to measure separately, for most objects for the first time, the gas velocity immediately behind the leading shock of the shell, i.e. the post-shock velocity. We more than doubled the number of objects for which the velocities of both rim and shell are k...

  12. Expansion of hydrogen-poor knots in the born-again planetary nebulae A30 and A78

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Xuan; Marquez-Lugo, Ramon A; Toala, Jesus A; Arthur, Sarah J; Chu, You-Hua; Blair, William P; Gruendl, Robert A; Hamann, Wolf-Rainer; Oskinova, Lida M; Todt, Helge

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the expansion of hydrogen-poor knots and filaments in the born-again planetary nebulae A30 and A78 based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images obtained almost 20 yr apart. The proper motion of these features generally increases with distance to the central star, but the fractional expansion decreases, i.e., the expansion is not homologous. As a result, there is not a unique expansion age, which is estimated to be 610-950 yr for A30 and 600-1140 yr for A78. The knots and filaments have experienced complex dynamical processes: the current fast stellar wind is mass loaded by the material ablated from the inner knots; the ablated material is then swept up until it shocks the inner edges of the outer, hydrogen-rich nebula. The angular expansion of the outer filaments shows a clear dependence on position angle, indicating that the interaction of the stellar wind with the innermost knots channels the wind along preferred directions. The apparent angular expansion of the innermost knots seems to be domina...

  13. The spatio-kinematical structure and distance of the pre-planetary nebula IRAS 19134+2131

    CERN Document Server

    Imai, Hiroshi; Morris, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Using the VLBA, we have observed H2O maser emission in the pre-planetary nebula IRAS 19134+2131(I19134), in which the H2O maser spectrum has two groups of emission features separated in radial velocity by ~100 km/s. We also obtained optical images of I19134 with the HST to locate the bipolar reflection nebula in this source for the first time. The spatio-kinematical structure of the H2O masers indicates the existence of a fast, collimated (precessing) flow having a projected extent of ~140 mas and an expansion rate of ~1.9 mas/yr on the sky plane, which gives a dynamical age of only ~40 yr. The two detected optical lobes are also separated by ~150 mas in almost the same direction as that of the collimated flow. The good agreement between the extent and orientation of the H2O maser outflow and optical lobes suggests that the lobes have been recently formed along the collimated fast flow. The positions of all of the detected maser features have been measured with respect to the reference source J1925+2106 over ...

  14. Morpho-kinematics of the planetary nebula NGC 3242: an analysis beyond its multiple-shell structure

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Muñoz, M A; Vázquez, R; Zavala, S; Guillén, P F; Ayala, S

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of optical high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy of the complex planetary nebula (PN) NGC~3242. Our study is based on the analysis of the narrowband H$\\alpha$ $\\lambda$6563\\AA , [O III] $\\lambda$5007\\AA , [N II] $\\lambda$6584\\AA , and [S II] $\\lambda$6724{\\AA} images, and high- resolution spectroscopy using spectral ranges centered on the H$\\alpha$ $\\lambda$6564\\AA , [N II] $\\lambda$6583\\AA , and [O III] $\\lambda$5007\\AA . We detected and analysed morphological components beyond the multiple shell structure of this PN, to investigate the small-scale morphological components aligned towards its major axis (such as knots and ansae, as well as the arc-like features) and its surroundings. Thus, we investigated the morpho-kinematical properties of NGC~3242, as well as their nature and formation. Our results regarding the elliptical double-shell structure and the distance to this nebula are in concordance with previous studies. Furthermore, we have used the software SHAPE to ...

  15. Variable X-Ray and UV emission from AGB stars: Accretion activity associated with binarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Sanz-Forcada, Jorge; Sánchez Contreras, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Almost all of our current understanding of the late evolutionary stages of (1 — 8) Mʘ stars is based on single-star models. However, binarity can drastically affect late stellar evolution, producing dramatic changes in the history and geometry of mass loss that occurs in stars as they evolve off the AGB to become planetary nebulae (PNe). A variety of binary models have been proposed, which can lead to the generation of accretion disks and magnetic fields, which in turn produce the highly collimated jets that have been proposed as the primary agents for the formation of bipolar and multipolar PNe. However, observational evidence of binarity in AGB stars is sorely lacking simply these stars are very luminous and variable, invalidating standard techniques for binary detection. Using an innovative technique of searching for UV emission from AGB stars with GALEX, we have identified a class of AGB stars with far- ultraviolet excesses (fuvAGB stars), that are likely candidates for active accretion associated with a binary companion. We have carried out a pilot survey for X-ray emission from fuvAGB stars. The X-ray fluxes are found to vary in a stochastic or quasi-periodic manner on roughly hour-long times-scales, and simultaneous UV observations show similar variations in the UV fluxes. We discuss several models for the X-ray emission and its variability and find that the most likely scenario for the origin of the X-ray (and FUV) emission involves accretion activity around a main-sequence companion star, with confinement by strong magnetic fields associated with the companion and/or an accretion disk around it.

  16. Where are the Binaries? Results of a Long-term Search for Radial Velocity Binaries in Proto-planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Van de Steene, Griet; Van Winckel, Hans; Sperauskas, Julius; Bohlender, David; Lu, Wenxian

    2017-09-01

    We present the results of an expanded, long-term radial velocity search (25 years) for evidence of binarity in a sample of seven bright proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe). The goal is to investigate the widely held view that the bipolar or point-symmetric shapes of planetary nebulae (PNe) and PPNe are due to binary interactions. Observations from three observatories were combined from 2007 to 2015 to search for variations on the order of a few years and then combined with earlier observations from 1991 to 1995 to search for variations on the order of decades. All seven show velocity variations due to periodic pulsation in the range of 35–135 days. However, in only one PPN, IRAS 22272+5435, did we find even marginal evidence for multi-year variations that might be due to a binary companion. This object shows marginally significant evidence of a two-year period of low semi-amplitude, which could be due to a low-mass companion, and it also displays some evidence of a much longer period of >30 years. The absence of evidence in the other six objects for long-period radial velocity variations due to a binary companion sets significant constraints on the properties of any undetected binary companions: they must be of low mass, ≤0.2 M ⊙, or long period, >30 years. Thus the present observations do not provide direct support for the binary hypothesis to explain the shapes of PNe and PPNe and severely constrains the properties of any such undetected companions.

  17. Identification of three new proto-Planetary Nebulae exhibiting the unidentified feature at 21 um

    CERN Document Server

    Cerrigone, L; Umana, G; Trigilio, C; Hart, A; Fazio, G

    2011-01-01

    Among its great findings, the IRAS mission showed the existence of an unidentified mid-IR feature around 21 um. Since its discovery, this feature has been detected in all C-rich proto-PNe of intermediate spectral type (A-G) and - weakly - in a few PNe and AGB stars, but the nature of its carriers remains unknown. In this paper, we show the detection of this feature in the spectra of three new stars transiting from the AGB to the PN stage obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Following a recent suggestion, we try to model the SEDs of our targets with amorphous carbon and FeO, which might be responsible for the unidentified feature. The fit thus obtained is not completely satisfactory, since the shape of the feature is not well matched. In the attempt to relate the unidentified feature to other dust features, we retrieved mid-IR spectra of all the 21-um sources currently known from ISO and Spitzer on-line archives and noticed a correlation between the flux emitted in the 21-um feature and that emitted at 7...

  18. SHAPEMOL: a 3D code for calculating CO line emission in planetary and protoplanetary nebulae. Detailed model-fitting of the complex nebula NGC 6302

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander-García, M.; Bujarrabal, V.; Koning, N.; Steffen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Modern instrumentation in radioastronomy constitutes a valuable tool for studying the Universe: ALMA has reached unprecedented sensitivities and spatial resolution, while Herschel/HIFI has opened a new window (most of the sub-mm and far-infrared ranges are only accessible from space) for probing molecular warm gas (~50-1000 K). On the other hand, the software SHAPE has emerged in the past few years as a standard tool for determining the morphology and velocity field of different kinds of gaseous emission nebulae via spatio-kinematical modelling. Standard SHAPE implements radiative transfer solving, but it is only available for atomic species and not for molecules. Aims: Being aware of the growing importance of the development of tools for simplifying the analyses of molecular data from new-era observatories, we introduce the computer code shapemol, a complement to SHAPE, with which we intend to fill the so-far under-developed molecular niche. Methods: shapemol enables user-friendly, spatio-kinematic modelling with accurate non-LTE calculations of excitation and radiative transfer in CO lines. Currently, it allows radiative transfer solving in the 12CO and 13CO J = 1-0 to J = 17-16 lines, but its implementation permits easily extending the code to different transitions and other molecular species, either by the code developers or by the user. Used along SHAPE, shapemol allows easily generating synthetic maps to test against interferometric observations, as well as synthetic line profiles to match single-dish observations. Results: We give a full description of how shapemol works, and we discuss its limitations and the sources of uncertainty to be expected in the final synthetic profiles or maps. As an example of the power and versatility of shapemol, we build a model of the molecular envelope of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 and compare it with 12CO and 13CO J = 2-1 interferometric maps from SMA and high-J transitions from Herschel/HIFI. We find the

  19. Oh maser emission toward the young planetary nebula K3-35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gómez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available K3-35 es una de las dos nebulosas planetarias (PNe donde se ha reportado emisi on m aser de agua, sugiriendo que este tipo de objetos dejaron hace apenas unas d ecadas la fase AGB. Presentamos observaciones hechas con el VLA (Very Large Array de la emisi on m aser de OH a 1720, 1667, 1665 y 1612 MHz hacia la regi on central de K 3-35. Los m aseres de OH 1665 MHz est an distribuidos en una estructura a lo largo del eje menor del ujo bipolar de radiocontinuo, y exhiben alta polarizaci on circular, sugiriendo la presencia de un campo magn etico toroidal. Una estimaci on de la magnitud del campo magn etico hacia esta nebulosa planetaria joven, derivado de la l nea 1665, es 0.14 mG a un radio de 250 AU.

  20. Sulfurization of Iron in the Dynamic Solar Nebula and Implications for Planetary Compositions

    CERN Document Server

    Ciesla, Fred J

    2015-01-01

    One explanation for the enhanced ratio of volatiles to hydrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere compared to a a gas of solar composition is that the planet accreted volatile-bearing clathrates during its formation. Models, however, suggest that S would be over abundant if clathrates were the primary carrier of Jupiter's volatiles. This led to the suggestion that S was depleted in the outer nebula due to the formation troilite (FeS). Here, this depletion is quantitatively explored by modeling the coupled dynamical and chemical evolution of Fe grains in the solar nebula. It is found that disks that undergo rapid radial expansion from an initially compact state may allow sufficient production of FeS and carry H$_{2}$S-depleted gas outward where ices would form, providing the conditions needed for S-depleted clathrates to form. However, this expansion would also carry FeS grains to this region, which could also be incorporated into planetesimals. Thus for clathrates to be a viable source of volatiles, models must account...

  1. Candidates for Intracluster Planetary Nebulae in the Virgo Cluster based on the Suprime-Cam Narrow-Band Imaging in O[III] and Halpha

    CERN Document Server

    Okamura, S; Arnaboldi, M; Freeman, K C; Ando, H; Doi, M; Furusawa, H; Gerhard, O E; Hamabe, M; Kimura, M; Kajino, T; Komiyama, Yu; Miyazaki, S; Nakata, F; Napolitano, N R; Ouchi, M; Pannella, M; Sekiguchi, M; Shimasaku, K; Yagi, M

    2002-01-01

    We have identified 38 candidates of intracluster planetary nebulae (ICPNe) in a $34'\\times27'$ field in the core of the Virgo cluster based on the Suprime-Cam imaging through two narrow-band filters centered at the redshifted wavelengths of the [OIII]$\\lambda=5007\\AA$ and the Halpha \\lambda=6563\\AA lines. Broad-band images in V and R bands are used to check for any emissions in the adjacent continuum. We describe the method briefly and present the list of intracluster planetary nebulae candidates, together with their finding charts. The ICPN candidates show a highly inhomogeneous distribution, which may suggest an association with the M86-M84 subcluster. Fraction of diffuse intracluster light with respect to total light in galaxies is estimated to be about 10%, leading to an estimate of about 20% for the baryon fraction. Spectroscopic follow up and a wider survey are critical to reveal the nature of intracluster stellar population.

  2. DISCOVERY OF RUBIDIUM, CADMIUM, AND GERMANIUM EMISSION LINES IN THE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRA OF PLANETARY NEBULAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, N. C. [Department of Physics, University of West Georgia, 1601 Maple Street, Carrollton, GA 30118 (United States); Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Kaplan, Kyle F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Bautista, Manuel A., E-mail: nsterlin@westga.edu, E-mail: harriet@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: kfkaplan@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: manuel.bautista@wmich.edu [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We identify [Rb iv] 1.5973 and [Cd iv] 1.7204 μm emission lines in high-resolution (R = 40,000) near-infrared spectra of the planetary nebulae (PNe) NGC 7027 and IC 5117, obtained with the Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) on the 2.7 m telescope at McDonald Observatory. We also identify [Ge vi] 2.1930 μm in NGC 7027. Alternate identifications for these features are ruled out based on the absence of other multiplet members and/or transitions with the same upper levels. Ge, Rb, and Cd can be enriched in PNe by s-process nucleosynthesis during the asymptotic giant branch stage of evolution. To determine ionic abundances, we calculate [Rb iv] collision strengths and use approximations for those of [Cd iv] and [Ge vi]. Our identification of [Rb iv] 1.5973 μm is supported by the agreement between Rb{sup 3+}/H{sup +} abundances found from this line and the 5759.55 Å feature in NGC 7027. Elemental Rb, Cd, and Ge abundances are derived with ionization corrections based on similarities in ionization potential ranges between the detected ions and O and Ne ionization states. Our analysis indicates abundances 2–4 times solar for Rb and Cd in both nebulae. Ge is subsolar in NGC 7027, but its abundance is uncertain due to the large and uncertain ionization correction. The general consistency of the measured relative s-process enrichments with predictions from models appropriate for these PNe (2.0–2.5 M{sub ⊙}, [Fe/H] = −0.37) demonstrates the potential of using PN compositions to test s-process nucleosynthesis models.

  3. X-ray Emission from the Binary Central Stars of the Planetary Nebulae HFG 1, DS 1, and LoTr 5

    CERN Document Server

    Montez, Rodolfo; Kastner, Joel H; Chu, You-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Close binary systems undergoing mass transfer or common envelope interactions can account for the morphological properties of some planetary nebulae. The search for close binary companions in planetary nebulae is hindered by the difficulty of detecting cool, late-type, main sequence companions in binary systems with hot pre-white dwarf primaries. However, models of binary PN progenitor systems predict that mass accretion or tidal interactions can induce rapid rotation in the companion, leading to X-ray-emitting coronae. To test such models, we have searched for, and detected, X-ray emission from three binary central stars within planetary nebulae: the post-common envelope close binaries in HFG 1 and DS 1 consisting of O-type subdwarfs with late-type, main sequence companions, and the binary system in LoTr 5 consisting of O-type subdwarf and rapidly rotating, late-type giant companion. The X-ray emission in each case is best characterized by spectral models consisting of two optically-thin thermal plasma compo...

  4. New models for the evolution of Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch stars and Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolami, Marcelo M Miller

    2015-01-01

    The Post Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) phase is arguably one of the least understood phases of the evolution of low- and intermediate- mass stars. The two grids of models presently available are based on outdated micro- and macro-physics and do not agree with each other. We study the timescales of post-AGB and CSPNe in the context of our present understanding of the micro- and macro-physics of stars. We want to assess whether new post-AGB models, based on the latter improvements in TP-AGB modeling, can help to understand the discrepancies between observation and theory and within theory itself. We compute a grid of post-AGB full evolutionary sequences that include all previous evolutionary stages from the Zero Age Main Sequence to the White Dwarf phase. Models are computed for initial masses between 0.8 and 4 $M_\\odot$ and for a wide range of initial metallicities ($Z_0=$0.02, 0.01, 0.001, 0.0001), this allow us to provide post-AGB timescales and properties for H-burning post-AGB objects with masses in the re...

  5. Tests of the Galactic planetary nebula distance scale with the initial Gaia parallax distances of their central stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stanghellini, Letizia; Lattanzi, Mario G; Morbidelli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We used the "primary dataset" of Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1) to search for parallax measurements of central stars (CSs) of Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe), to determine PN distances. We found that a trigonometric parallax is available for 16 CSs, seven of which with relative uncertainty below 80%. The limited comparison of these trigonometric distances to other reliable individual determinations discloses good correlation between the two sets, with the Gaia parallax distances being lower by a factor of ~0.1 dex in the logarithmic distances. We tested with the Gaia parallaxes the most popular Galactic PN distance scales, namely, the physical radius vs. surface brightness, and the ionized mass vs. inverse optical thickness scales. While the number of available calibrators may still be too low, and their relative uncertainties too high, to derive a working distance scale, we were able to assess the current sample and to reveal the very promising potential of the future Gaia releases for a recalibration of the dis...

  6. The Abundances of Light Neutron-Capture Elements in Planetary Nebulae II. s-process Enrichments and Interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, N C

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of a large-scale survey of neutron(n)-capture elements in Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe), undertaken to study enrichments from s-process nucleosynthesis in their progenitor stars. From new K band observations of over 100 PNe supplemented by data from the literature, we have detected the emission lines [Kr III] 2.199 and/or [Se IV] 2.287 $\\mu$m in 81 of 120 objects. We determine Se and Kr elemental abundances, employing ionization correction formulae derived in the first paper of this series. We find a significant range in Se and Kr abundances, from near solar (no enrichment) to enhanced by >1.0 dex relative to solar, which we interpret as self-enrichment due to in situ s-process nucleosynthesis. Kr tends to be more strongly enriched than Se; in 18 objects exhibiting both Se and Kr emission, we find that [Kr/Se] = 0.5$\\pm$0.2. Our survey has increased the number of PNe with n-capture element abundance determinations by a factor of ten, enabling us for the first time to search for corre...

  7. Analysis of Co-spatial UV-optical HST/STIS Spectra of Planetary Nebula NGC 3242

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy R.; Henry, Richard B. C.; Balick, Bruce; Kwitter, Karen B.; Dufour, Reginald J.; Shaw, Richard A.; Corradi, Romano L. M.

    2016-10-01

    This project sought to consider two important aspects of the planetary nebula NGC 3242 using new long-slit HST/STIS spectra. First, we investigated whether this object is chemically homogeneous by spatially dividing the slit into different regions and calculating the abundances of each region. The major result is that the elements of He, C, O, and Ne are chemically homogeneous within uncertainties across the regions probed, implying that the stellar outflow was well-mixed. Second, we constrained the stellar properties using photoionization models computed by CLOUDY and tested the effects of three different density profiles on these parameters. The three profiles tested were a constant density profile, a Gaussian density profile, and a Gaussian with a power-law density profile. The temperature and luminosity were not affected significantly by the choice of density structure. The values for the stellar temperature and luminosity from our best-fit model are {89.7}-4.7+7.3 kK and log(L/L ⊙) = {3.36}-0.22+0.28, respectively. Comparing to evolutionary models on an HR diagram, this corresponds to an initial and final mass of {0.95}-0.09+0.35{M}⊙ and {0.56}-0.01+0.01{M}⊙ , respectively. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  8. Hot bubbles of planetary nebulae with hydrogen-deficient winds I. Heat conduction in a chemically stratified plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Sandin, Christer; Schönberner, Detlef; Rühling, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Heat conduction has been found a plausible solution to explain discrepancies between expected and measured temperatures in hot bubbles of planetary nebulae (PNe). While the heat conduction process depends on the chemical composition, to date it has been exclusively studied for pure hydrogen plasmas in PNe. A smaller population of PNe show hydrogen-deficient and helium- and carbon-enriched surfaces surrounded by bubbles of the same composition; considerable differences are expected in physical properties of these objects in comparison to the pure hydrogen case. The aim of this study is to explore how a chemistry-dependent formulation of the heat conduction affects physical properties and how it affects the X-ray emission from PN bubbles of hydrogen-deficient stars. We extend the description of heat conduction in our radiation hydrodynamics code to work with any chemical composition. We then compare the bubble-formation process with a representative PN model using both the new and the old descriptions. We also ...

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and molecular hydrogen in oxygen-rich planetary nebulae: the case of NGC6720

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, N L J; Berne, O; Cernicharo, J; Joblin, C

    2015-01-01

    Evolved stars are primary sources for the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dust grains. Their circumstellar chemistry is usually designated as either oxygen-rich or carbon-rich, although dual-dust chemistry objects, whose infrared spectra reveal both silicate- and carbon-dust features, are also known. The exact origin and nature of this dual-dust chemistry is not yet understood. Spitzer-IRS mid-infrared spectroscopic imaging of the nearby, oxygen-rich planetary nebula NGC6720 reveals the presence of the 11.3 micron aromatic (PAH) emission band. It is attributed to emission from neutral PAHs, since no band is observed in the 7 to 8 micron range. The spatial distribution of PAHs is found to closely follow that of the warm clumpy molecular hydrogen emission. Emission from both neutral PAHs and warm H2 is likely to arise from photo-dissociation regions associated with dense knots that are located within the main ring. The presence of PAHs together with the previously derived high abundance...

  10. Formation and X-ray Emission from Hot Bubbles in Planetary Nebulae. II. Hot bubble X-ray emission

    CERN Document Server

    Toalá, J A

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the X-ray emission from numerical simulations of hot bubbles in planetary nebulae (PNe). High-resolution, two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of the formation and evolution of hot bubbles in PNe, with and without thermal conduction, are used to calculate the X-ray emission and study its time-dependence and relationship to the changing stellar parameters. Instabilities in the wind-wind interaction zone produce clumps and filaments in the swept-up shell of nebular material. Turbulent mixing and thermal conduction at the corrugated interface can produce quantities of intermediate temperature and density gas between the hot, shocked wind bubble and the swept-up photoionized nebular material, which can emit in soft, diffuse X-rays. We use the CHIANTI software to compute synthetic spectra for the models and calculate their luminosities. We find that models both with conduction and those without can produce the X-ray temperatures and luminosities that are in the ranges reporte...

  11. Chemical abundances in the extremely Carbon and Xenon-rich halo planetary nebula H4-1

    CERN Document Server

    Otsuka, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    We performed detailed chemical abundance analysis of the extremely metal-poor ([Ar/H]-2) halo planetary nebula H4-1 based on the multi-wavelength spectra from Subaru/HDS, GALEX, SDSS, and Spitzer/IRS and determined the abundances of 10 elements. The C and O abundances were derived from collisionally excited lines (CELs) and are almost consistent with abundances from recombination lines (RLs). We demonstrated that the large discrepancy in the C abundance between CEL and RL in H4-1 can be solved using the temperature fluctuation model. We reported the first detection of the [Xe III]5846 A line in H4-1 and determination of its elemental abundance ([Xe/H]>+0.48). H4-1 is the most Xe-rich PN among the Xe-detected PNe. The observed abundances are close to the theoretical prediction by a ~2.0 Msun single star model with initially r-process element rich ([r/Fe]=+2.0 dex). The observed Xe abundance would be a product of the r-process in primordial SNe. The [C/O]-[Ba/(Eu or Xe)] diagram suggests that the progenitor of ...

  12. The expansion proper motions of the extraordinary giant lobes of the planetary nebula KjPn 8 revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Boumis, Panos

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim is to establish a firm value for the distance to the extraordinary planetary nebula KjPn 8. Secondary aims are to measure the ages of the three giant lobes of this object as well as estimate the energy in the eruption, that caused the most energetic outflow, for comparison with that of an intermediate luminosity optical transient (ILOT). For these purposes a mosaic of images in the Halpha+[N II] optical emission lines has been obtained with the new Aristarchos telescope in 2011 for comparison with the images of the KjPn 8 giant lobes present on the POSSI-R 1954 and POSSII-R 1991 plates. Expansion proper motions of features over this 57 yr baseline in the outflows are present. Using these, a firm distance to KjPn 8 of 1.8 +- 0.3 kpc has been derived for now the angle of the latest outflow to the sky has been established from HST imagery of the nebular core. Previously, the uncertain predictions of a bow-shock model were used for this purpose. The dynamical ages of the three separate outflows th...

  13. The population of planetary nebulae and HII regions in M81. A study of radial metallicity gradients and chemical evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Stanghellini, Letizia; Villaver, Eva; Galli, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the chemical abundances of planetary nebulae and HII regions in the M81 disk for insight on galactic evolution, and compare it with that of other galaxies, including the Milky Way. We acquired Hectospec/MMT spectra of 39 PNe and 20 HII regions, with 33 spectra viable for temperature and abundance analysis. Our PN observations represent the first PN spectra in M81 ever published, while several HII region spectra have been published before, although without a direct electron temperature determination. We determine elemental abundances of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulfur, and argon in PNe and HII regions, and determine their averages and radial gradients. The average O/H ratio of PNe compared to that of the HII regions indicates a general oxygen enrichment in M81 in the last ~10 Gyr. The PN metallicity gradient in the disk of M81 is -0.055+-0.02 dex/kpc. Neon and sulfur in PNe have a radial distribution similar to that of oxygen, with similar gradient slopes. If we combine our HII sample with th...

  14. Planetary nebulae: the universal mass-metallicity relation for Local Group dwarf galaxies and the chemistry of NGC 205

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, D R; Teodorescu, Ana M; Carneiro, Carolina M

    2014-01-01

    Here we study 16 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 205 by using GMOS@Gemini spectra to derive their physical and chemical parameters. The chemical patterns and evolutionary tracks for 14 of our PNe suggest that there are no type I PNe among them. These PNe have an average oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H)=8.08$\\pm$0.28, progenitor masses of 2-2.5M$_{\\odot}$ and thus were born ~1.0-1.7Gyr ago. Our results are in good agreement with previous PN studies in NGC 205. The present 12+log(O/H) is combined with our previous works and with the literature to study the PN metallicity trends of the Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies, in an effort to establish the PN luminosity- and mass-metallicity relations (LZR and MZR) for the LG dwarf irregulars (dIrrs) and dwarf spheroidals (dSphs). Previous attempts to obtain such relations failed to provide correct conclusions because were based on limited samples (Richer & McCall 1995; Gon\\c{c}calves et al. 2007). As far as we are able to compare stellar wit...

  15. Astrometry with Hubble Space Telescope: A Parallax of the Central Star of the Planetary Nebula NGC 6853

    CERN Document Server

    Benedict, G F; Fredrick, L W; Harrison, T E; Skrutskie, M F; Slesnick, C L; Rhee, J; Patterson, R J; Nelan, E; Jefferys, W H; Van Altena, W; Montemayor, T; Shelus, P J; Franz, O G; Wasserman, L H; Hemenway, P D; Duncombe, R L; Story, D; Whipple, A L; Bradley, A J

    2003-01-01

    We present an absolute parallax and relative proper motion for the central star of the planetary nebula NGC 6853 (The Dumbell). We obtain these with astrometric data from FGS 3, a white-light interferometer on {\\it HST}. Spectral classifications and VRIJHKT$_2$M and DDO51 photometry of the stars comprising the astrometric reference frame provide spectrophotometric estimates of their absolute parallaxes. Introducing these into our model as observations with error, we find $\\pi_{abs} = 2.10 \\pm 0.48$ mas for the DAO central star of NGC 6853. A weighted average with a previous ground-based USNO determination yields $\\pi_{abs} = 2.40 \\pm 0.32$. We assume that the extinction suffered by the reference stars nearest (in angular separation and distance) to the central star is the same as for the central star. Correcting for color differences, we find $$ = 0.30 $ \\pm $ 0.06 for the central star, hence, an absolute magnitude M$_V = 5.48^{-0.16}_{+0.15}$. A recent determination of the central star effective temperature ...

  16. The physics and kinematics of the evolved, interacting planetary nebula PN G342.0-01.7

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Alaa; Dopita, M A; Vogt, F P A; Basurah, H M

    2015-01-01

    Here we aim to study the physical and kinematical characteristics of the unstudied old planetary nebula (PN) PN G342.0-01.7, which shows evidence of interaction with its surrounding interstellar medium. We used Integral Field Spectra from the Wide Field Spectrograph on the ANU 2.3 m telescope to provide spectroscopy across the whole object covering the spectral range 3400-7000 {\\AA}. We formed narrow-band images to investigate the excitation structure. The spectral analysis shows that the object is a distant Peimbert Type I PN of low excitation, formally of excitation class of 0.5. The low electron density, high dynamical age, and low surface brightness of the object confirm that it is observed fairly late in its evolution. It shows clear evidence for dredge-up of CN-processed material characteristic of its class. In addition, the low peculiar velocity of 7 km s$^{-1}$ shows it to be a member of the young disk component of our Galaxy. We built a self-consistent photoionisation model for the PNe matching the o...

  17. SwSt 1 an O-rich planetary nebula around a C-rich central star

    CERN Document Server

    De Marco, O; Barlow, M J; Clayton, G C; De Koter, A

    2001-01-01

    The hydrogen-deficient carbon-rich [WCL] type central star HD167362 and its oxygen-rich planetary nebula (PN) SwSt~1 are investigated. The nebular chemistry might indicate a recent origin for the carbon-rich stellar spectrum. Its stellar and nebular properties might therefore provide further understanding of the origin of the [WCL] central star class. The UV-IR stellar spectra are modelled with state of the codes and show ~40kK central star with a wind and a C/O~3, indicative of efficient third dredge-up. The synthetic stellar flux distribution is used to model the high density, compact PN, which has a solar C/O ratio, is still enshrouded by 1200K and 230K dust shells and, reported here for the first time, in molecular hydrogen. Although it appears that the change in C/O ratio has been recent, the published spectroscopy since 1895 has been re-examined and no clear spectral change is seen. If an event occurred that has turned it into a hydrogen-deficient central star, it did not happen in the last 100 years.

  18. Globular clusters and planetary nebulae kinematics and X-ray emission in the early-type galaxy NGC 5128

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    Samurović S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimates of the mass of the galaxy NGC 5128 based on the different mass tracers, globular clusters (GCs and planetary nebulae (PNe, are presented. These estimates are compared with the estimate based on the X-ray methodology and it is found that the results for the mass (and mass-to-light ratio for all three approaches are in very good agreement interior to 25 arcmin; beyond 25 arcmin the X-rays predict the mass which is too high with respect to the one found using GCs and PNe. Some possible explanations for this discrepancy were discussed. The Jeans equation is also solved and its predictions for the velocity dispersion are then compared with the observed values, which extend to ~8 effective radii in the case of the GCs and ~15 effective radii in the case of the PNe. It is found that interior to ~25 arcmin (~5 effective radii dark matter does not dominate because the total mass-to-light ratio in the B band in solar units is less than 10. Based on the GCs and PNe beyond ~25 arcmin the total mass-to-light ratio increases to ~14 (at ~80 arcmin which indicates the existence of dark matter in the outer regions of NGC 5128.

  19. Galactic planetary nebulae with precise nebular abundances as a tool to understand the evolution of asymptotic giant branch stars

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Hernandez, D A; Delgado-Inglada, G; Dell'Agli, F; Di Criscienzo, M; Yagüe, A

    2016-01-01

    We present nucleosynthesis predictions (HeCNOCl) from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) models, with diffusive overshooting from all the convective borders, in the metallicity range Z/4 3.5 Msun) solar/supersolar metallicity AGBs that experience hot bottom burning (HBB), but other formation channels in low-mass AGBs like extra mixing, stellar rotation, binary interaction, or He pre-enrichment cannot be disregarded until more accurate C/O ratios would be obtained. Two objects among the DC PNe show the imprint of advanced CNO processing and deep second dredge-up, suggesting progenitors masses close to the limit to evolve as core collapse supernovae (above 6 Msun). Their actual C/O ratio, if confirmed, indicate contamination from the third dredge-up, rejecting the hypothesis that the chemical composition of such high-metallicity massive AGBs is modified exclusively by HBB.

  20. The chemical composition of planetary nebulae and HII regions in NGC 3109

    CERN Document Server

    Pena, Miriam; Richer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    We present deep spectrophotometry for a sample of 8 PNe and 12 HII regions in the irregular galaxy NGC 3109, to analyze the chemical composition of both types of nebulae. We present line intensities and the physical conditions and the abundances of He, O, Ne, N, S and Ar are derived, using the classical T_e-based method. We confirm our previous identification of PNe and HII regions based on photometry, except for one object that we argue is a compact HII region rather than a PN. We find that the chemical composition of the ISM in NGC 3109, as sampled by its HII regions, is remarkably uniform. The oxygen abundance is log O/H + 12 = 7.77 \\pm 0.07 in this galaxy, as compared to 8.05 \\pm 0.09 for the SMC. PNe show significantly higher oxygen abundances in NGC 3109: log O/H + 12 = 8.16 \\pm 0.19. We argue that, similarly to what has been suggested for some of the PNe in the Magellanic Clouds and other metal-poor galaxies, oxygen in the PNe in NGC 3109 is affected by dredge up in their progenitors. This could be als...