WorldWideScience

Sample records for planetary initial mass

  1. Planetary mass function and planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominik, M.

    2011-02-01

    With planets orbiting stars, a planetary mass function should not be seen as a low-mass extension of the stellar mass function, but a proper formalism needs to take care of the fact that the statistical properties of planet populations are linked to the properties of their respective host stars. This can be accounted for by describing planet populations by means of a differential planetary mass-radius-orbit function, which together with the fraction of stars with given properties that are orbited by planets and the stellar mass function allows the derivation of all statistics for any considered sample. These fundamental functions provide a framework for comparing statistics that result from different observing techniques and campaigns which all have their very specific selection procedures and detection efficiencies. Moreover, recent results both from gravitational microlensing campaigns and radial-velocity surveys of stars indicate that planets tend to cluster in systems rather than being the lonely child of their respective parent star. While planetary multiplicity in an observed system becomes obvious with the detection of several planets, its quantitative assessment however comes with the challenge to exclude the presence of further planets. Current exoplanet samples begin to give us first hints at the population statistics, whereas pictures of planet parameter space in its full complexity call for samples that are 2-4 orders of magnitude larger. In order to derive meaningful statistics, however, planet detection campaigns need to be designed in such a way that well-defined fully deterministic target selection, monitoring and detection criteria are applied. The probabilistic nature of gravitational microlensing makes this technique an illustrative example of all the encountered challenges and uncertainties.

  2. BANYAN. IX. The Initial Mass Function and Planetary-mass Object Space Density of the TW HYA Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Malo, Lison; Doyon, René; Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Donaldson, Jessica K.; Lépine, Sébastien; Lafrenière, David; Artigau, Étienne; Burgasser, Adam J.; Looper, Dagny; Boucher, Anne; Beletsky, Yuri; Camnasio, Sara; Brunette, Charles; Arboit, Geneviève

    2017-02-01

    A determination of the initial mass function (IMF) of the current, incomplete census of the 10 Myr-old TW Hya association (TWA) is presented. This census is built from a literature compilation supplemented with new spectra and 17 new radial velocities from ongoing membership surveys, as well as a reanalysis of Hipparcos data that confirmed HR 4334 (A2 Vn) as a member. Although the dominant uncertainty in the IMF remains census incompleteness, a detailed statistical treatment is carried out to make the IMF determination independent of binning while accounting for small number statistics. The currently known high-likelihood members are fitted by a log-normal distribution with a central mass of {0.21}-0.06+0.11 M ⊙ and a characteristic width of {0.8}-0.1+0.2 dex in the 12 M Jup-2 M ⊙ range, whereas a Salpeter power law with α ={2.2}-0.5+1.1 best describes the IMF slope in the 0.1-2 M ⊙ range. This characteristic width is higher than other young associations, which may be due to incompleteness in the current census of low-mass TWA stars. A tentative overpopulation of isolated planetary-mass members similar to 2MASS J11472421-2040204 and 2MASS J11193254-1137466 is identified: this indicates that there might be as many as {10}-5+13 similar members of TWA with hot-start model-dependent masses estimated at ˜5-7 M Jup, most of which would be too faint to be detected in 2MASS. Our new radial velocity measurements corroborate the membership of 2MASS J11472421-2040204, and secure TWA 28 (M8.5 γ), TWA 29 (M9.5 γ), and TWA 33 (M4.5 e) as members. The discovery of 2MASS J09553336-0208403, a young L7-type interloper unrelated to TWA, is also presented.

  3. Exploring the Largest Mass Fraction of the Solar System: the Case for Planetary Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, L. R.; Draper, D.; Righter, K.; McCubbin, F.; Boyce, J.

    2017-01-01

    Why explore planetary interiors: The typical image that comes to mind for planetary science is that of a planet surface. And while surface data drive our exploration of evolved geologic processes, it is the interiors of planets that hold the key to planetary origins via accretionary and early differentiation processes. It is that initial setting of the bulk planet composition that sets the stage for all geologic processes that follow. But nearly all of the mass of planets is inaccessible to direct examination, making experimentation an absolute necessity for full planetary exploration.

  4. The History of Planetary Exploration Using Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    At the Planetary Probe Workshop Dr. Paul Mahaffy will give a tutorial on the history of planetary exploration using mass spectrometers. He will give an introduction to the problems and solutions that arise in making in situ measurements at planetary targets using this instrument class.

  5. The BDNYC database of low-mass stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary mass companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Kelle; Rodriguez, David; Filippazzo, Joseph; Gonzales, Eileen; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Rice, Emily; BDNYC

    2018-01-01

    We present a web-interface to a database of low-mass stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary mass companions. Users can send SELECT SQL queries to the database, perform searches by coordinates or name, check the database inventory on specified objects, and even plot spectra interactively. The initial version of this database contains information for 198 objects and version 2 will contain over 1000 objects. The database currently includes photometric data from 2MASS, WISE, and Spitzer and version 2 will include a significant portion of the publicly available optical and NIR spectra for brown dwarfs. The database is maintained and curated by the BDNYC research group and we welcome contributions from other researchers via GitHub.

  6. The Role of NASA's Planetary Data System in the Planetary Spatial Data Infrastructure Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    An effort underway in NASA's planetary science community is the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT, http://www.lpi.usra.edu/mapsit/). MAPSIT is a community assessment group organized to address a lack of strategic spatial data planning for space science and exploration. Working with MAPSIT, a new initiative of NASA and USGS is the development of a Planetary Spatial Data Infrastructure (PSDI) that builds on extensive knowledge on storing, accessing, and working with terrestrial spatial data. PSDI is a knowledge and technology framework that enables the efficient discovery, access, and exploitation of planetary spatial data to facilitate data analysis, knowledge synthesis, and decision-making. NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) archives >1.2 petabytes of digital data resulting from decades of planetary exploration and research. The PDS charter focuses on the efficient collection, archiving, and accessibility of these data. The PDS emphasis on data preservation and archiving is complementary to that of the PSDI initiative because the latter utilizes and extends available data to address user needs in the areas of emerging technologies, rapid development of tailored delivery systems, and development of online collaborative research environments. The PDS plays an essential PSDI role because it provides expertise to help NASA missions and other data providers to organize and document their planetary data, to collect and maintain the archives with complete, well-documented and peer-reviewed planetary data, to make planetary data accessible by providing online data delivery tools and search services, and ultimately to ensure the long-term preservation and usability of planetary data. The current PDS4 information model extends and expands PDS metadata and relationships between and among elements of the collections. The PDS supports data delivery through several node services, including the Planetary Image Atlas (https

  7. A YOUNG PLANETARY-MASS OBJECT IN THE ρ OPH CLOUD CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, Kenneth A.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Plavchan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of a young planetary-mass brown dwarf in the ρ Oph cloud core. The object was identified as such with the aid of a 1.5-2.4 μm low-resolution spectrum obtained using the NIRC instrument on the Keck I telescope. Based on the COND model, the observed spectrum is consistent with a reddened (A V ∼ 15-16) brown dwarf whose effective temperature is in the range 1200-1800 K. For an assumed age of 1 Myr, comparison with isochrones further constrains the temperature to ∼1400 K and suggests a mass of ∼2-3 Jupiter masses. The inferred temperature is suggestive of an early T spectral type, which is supported by spectral morphology consistent with weak methane absorption. Based on its inferred distance (∼100 pc) and the presence of overlying visual absorption, it is very likely to be a ρ Oph cluster member. In addition, given the estimated spectral type, it may be the youngest and least massive T dwarf found so far. Its existence suggests that the initial mass function for the ρ Oph star-forming region extends well into the planetary-mass regime.

  8. Laser Mass Spectrometry in Planetary Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurz, P.; Whitby, J. A.; Managadze, G. G.

    2009-01-01

    Knowing the chemical, elemental, and isotopic composition of planetary objects allows the study of their origin and evolution within the context of our solar system. Exploration plans in planetary research of several space agencies consider landing spacecraft for future missions. Although there have been successful landers in the past, more landers are foreseen for Mars and its moons, Venus, the jovian moons, and asteroids. Furthermore, a mass spectrometer on a landed spacecraft can assist in the sample selection in a sample-return mission and provide mineralogical context, or identify possible toxic soils on Mars for manned Mars exploration. Given the resources available on landed spacecraft mass spectrometers, as well as any other instrument, have to be highly miniaturised.

  9. The Africa Initiative for Planetary and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratoux, D.; Chennaoui-Aoudjehane, H.; Gibson, R.; Lamali, A.; Reimold, W. U.; Selorm Sepah, M.; Chabou, M. C.; Habarulema, J. B.; Jessell, M.; Mogessie, A.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Nkhonjera, E.; Mukosi, N. C.; Kaire, M.; Rochette, P.; Sickafoose, A.; Martínez-Frías, J.; Hofmann, A.; Folco, L.; Rossi, A. P.; Faye, G.; Kolenberg, K.; Tekle, K.; Belhai, D.; Elyajouri, M.; Koeberl, C.; Abdeem, M.

    2017-12-01

    Research groups in Planetary and Space Sciences (PSS) are now emerging in Africa, but remain few, scattered and underfunded. It is our conviction that the exclusion of 20% of the world's population from taking part in the fascinating discoveries about our solar system impoverishes global science. The benefits of a coordinated PSS program for Africa's youth have motivated a call for international support and investment [1] into an Africa Initiative for Planetary and Space Sciences. At the time of writing, the call has been endorsed by 230 scientists and 19 institutions or international organizations (follow the map of endorsements on https://africapss.org). More than 70 African Planetary scientists have already joined the initiative and about 150 researchers in non-African countries are ready to participate in research and in capacitity building of PSS programs in Africa. We will briefly review in this presentation the status of PSS in Africa [2] and illustrate some of the major achievements of African Planetary and Space scientists, including the search for meteorites or impact craters, the observations of exoplanets, and space weather investigations. We will then discuss a road map for its expansion, with an emphasis on the role that planetary and space scientists can play to support scientific and economic development in Africa. The initiative is conceived as a network of projects with Principal Investigators based in Africa. A Steering Committee is being constituted to coordinate these efforts and contribute to fund-raising and identification of potential private and public sponsors. The scientific strategy of each group within the network will be developed in cooperation with international experts, taking into account the local expertise, available equipment and facilities, and the priority needs to achieve well-identified scientific goals. Several founding events will be organized in 2018 in several African research centers and higher-education institutions to

  10. Microlensing discovery of a tight, low-mass-ratio planetary-mass object around an old field brown dwarf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, C.; Jung, Y. K. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Sumi, T. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Gaudi, B. S.; Gould, A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bennett, D. P. [University of Notre Dame, Department of Physics, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); Tsapras, Y. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740B Cortona Dr, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Abe, F. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Bond, I. A. [Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland (New Zealand); Collaboration: OGLE Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; μFUN Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; and others

    2013-11-20

    Observations of accretion disks around young brown dwarfs (BDs) have led to the speculation that they may form planetary systems similar to normal stars. While there have been several detections of planetary-mass objects around BDs (2MASS 1207-3932 and 2MASS 0441-2301), these companions have relatively large mass ratios and projected separations, suggesting that they formed in a manner analogous to stellar binaries. We present the discovery of a planetary-mass object orbiting a field BD via gravitational microlensing, OGLE-2012-BLG-0358Lb. The system is a low secondary/primary mass ratio (0.080 ± 0.001), relatively tightly separated (∼0.87 AU) binary composed of a planetary-mass object with 1.9 ± 0.2 Jupiter masses orbiting a BD with a mass 0.022 M {sub ☉}. The relatively small mass ratio and separation suggest that the companion may have formed in a protoplanetary disk around the BD host in a manner analogous to planets.

  11. Effects of mass and metallicity upon planetary nebula formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, K.A.; Purton, C.R.; Kwok, S.

    1983-01-01

    We construct a parameterized function which describes the possible dependence of planetary nebula formation upon metal abundance and stellar mass. Data on galaxies in the Local Group compared with predictions made from the parameterized function indicate that heavy element abundance is the principal agent influencing the formation of planetary nebulae; stars which are rich in heavy elements are the progenitors of planetary nebulae. Our analysis, when compared with the observations, argues for a modest degree of pre-enrichment in a few of the sample galaxies. The heavy element dependence of planetary nebula formation also accounts for the deficit of planetary nebula in the nuclei of NGC 221 and NGC 224, and in the bulge of our Galaxy

  12. Distribution of mass in the planetary system and solar nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenschilling, S J [Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. (USA). Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism

    1977-09-01

    A model 'solar nebula' is constructed by adding the solar complement of light elements to each planet, using recent models of planetary compositions. Uncertainties in this approach are estimated. The computed surface density varies approximately as rsup(-3/2). Mercury, Mars and the asteroid belt are anomalously low in mass, but processes exist which would preferentially remove matter from these regions. Planetary masses and compositions are generally consistent with a monotonic density distribution in the primordial solar nebula.

  13. The effects of mass and metallicity upon planetary nebula formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, K. A.; Purton, C. R.; Kwok, S.

    1983-05-01

    A parameterized function is constructed which describes the possible dependence of planetary nebula formation upon metal abundance and stellar mass. Data on galaxies in the Local Group compared with predictions made from the parameterized function indicate that heavy element abundance is the principal agent influencing the formation of planetary nebulae; stars which are rich in heavy elements are the progenitors of planetary nebulae. This analysis, when compared with the observations, argues for a modest degree of pre-enrichment in a few of the sample galaxies. The heavy element dependence of planetary nebula formation also accounts for the deficit of planetary nebulae in the nuclei of NGC 221 and NGC 224, and in the bulge of our Galaxy.

  14. Mass distribution and evolutionary scheme for central stars of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heap, S.R.; Augensen, H.J.; Widener Univ., Chester, PA)

    1987-01-01

    IUE data and a distance measuring method that considered central stars in optically thick nebulae were used to examine mass distributions of planetary nebulae. Other data such as spectral type, spatial and kinematic characteristics, etc., were studied to derive relationships between population type and mass distribution. A central star mass range of at least 0.55 solar mass was obtained. Stars with masses of at least 0.64 solar mass, concentrated in the galactic disk, originated from 1.5 solar mass stars. Low mass nuclei originated in old disk or halo populations and evolved from 1.0 solar mass objects. A mass-loss parameter value of 1/3 was calculated for red giants, implying that white dwarfs evolve from stars of under 5 solar masses. Mass distributions around planetary nuclei were concluded to follow patterns associated with the individual mass. 75 references

  15. Optical and Near-infrared Spectra of σ Orionis Isolated Planetary-mass Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapatero Osorio, M. R. [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Crta. Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Béjar, V. J. S. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/. Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ramírez, K. Peña, E-mail: mosorio@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: vbejar@iac.es, E-mail: karla.pena@uantof.cl [Unidad de Astronomía de la Universidad de Antofagasta, Av. U. de Antofagasta. 02800 Antofagasta (Chile)

    2017-06-10

    We have obtained low-resolution optical (0.7–0.98 μ m) and near-infrared (1.11–1.34 μ m and 0.8–2.5 μ m) spectra of 12 isolated planetary-mass candidates ( J = 18.2–19.9 mag) of the 3 Myr σ Orionis star cluster with the aim of determining the spectroscopic properties of very young, substellar dwarfs and assembling a complete cluster mass function. We have classified our targets by visual comparison with high- and low-gravity standards and by measuring newly defined spectroscopic indices. We derived L0–L4.5 and M9–L2.5 using high- and low-gravity standards, respectively. Our targets reveal clear signposts of youth, thus corroborating their cluster membership and planetary masses (6–13 M {sub Jup}). These observations complete the σ Orionis mass function by spectroscopically confirming the planetary-mass domain to a confidence level of ∼75%. The comparison of our spectra with BT-Settl solar metallicity model atmospheres yields a temperature scale of 2350–1800 K and a low surface gravity of log g ≈ 4.0 [cm s{sup −2}], as would be expected for young planetary-mass objects. We discuss the properties of the cluster’s least-massive population as a function of spectral type. We have also obtained the first optical spectrum of S Ori 70, a T dwarf in the direction of σ Orionis. Our data provide reference optical and near-infrared spectra of very young L dwarfs and a mass function that may be used as templates for future studies of low-mass substellar objects and exoplanets. The extrapolation of the σ Orionis mass function to the solar neighborhood may indicate that isolated planetary-mass objects with temperatures of ∼200–300 K and masses in the interval 6–13 M {sub Jup} may be as numerous as very low-mass stars.

  16. Evolution of planetary nebula nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of planetary nebula nuclei (PNNs) is examined with the aid of the most recent available stellar evolution calculations and new observations of these objects. Their expected distribution in the log L-log T plane is calculated based upon the stellar evolutionary models of Paczynski, Schoenberner and Iben, the initial mass function derived by Miller and Scalo, and various assumptions concerning mass loss during post-main sequence evolution. The distribution is found to be insensitive both to the assumed range of main-sequence progenitor mass and to reasonable variations in the age and the star forming history of the galactic disk. Rather, the distribution is determined by the strong dependence of the rate of stellar evolution upon core mass, the steepness of the initial mass function, and to a lesser extent the finite lifetime of an observable planetary nebula. The theoretical distributions are rather different than any of those inferred from earlier observations. Possible observational selection effects that may be responsible are examined, as well as the intrinsic uncertainties associated with the theoretical model predictions. An extensive photometric and smaller photographic survey of southern hemisphere planetary nebulae (PNs) is presented

  17. NEW ISOLATED PLANETARY-MASS OBJECTS AND THE STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR MASS FUNCTION OF THE σ ORIONIS CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña Ramírez, K.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Martín, E. L.; Petr-Gotzens, M. G.

    2012-01-01

    We report on our analysis of the VISTA Orion ZY JHK s photometric data (completeness magnitudes of Z = 22.6 and J = 21.0 mag) focusing on a circular area of 2798.4 arcmin 2 around the young σ Orionis star cluster (∼3 Myr, ∼352 pc, and solar metallicity). The combination of the VISTA photometry with optical, WISE and Spitzer data allows us to identify a total of 210 σ Orionis member candidates with masses in the interval 0.25-0.004 M ☉ , 23 of which are new planetary-mass object findings. These discoveries double the number of cluster planetary-mass candidates known so far. One object has colors compatible with a T spectral type. The σ Orionis cluster harbors about as many brown dwarfs (69, 0.072-0.012 M ☉ ) and planetary-mass objects (37, 0.012-0.004 M ☉ ) as very low mass stars (104, 0.25-0.072 M ☉ ). Based on Spitzer data, we derive a disk frequency of ∼40% for very low mass stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary-mass objects in σ Orionis. The radial density distributions of these three mass intervals are alike: all are spatially concentrated within an effective radius of 12' (1.2 pc) around the multiple star σ Ori, and no obvious segregation between disk-bearing and diskless objects is observed. Using the VISTA data and the Mayrit catalog, we derive the cluster mass spectrum (ΔN/ΔM ∼ M –α ) from ∼19 to 0.006 M ☉ (VISTA ZJ completeness), which is reasonably described by two power-law expressions with indices of α = 1.7 ± 0.2 for M > 0.35 M ☉ , and α = 0.6 ± 0.2 for M ☉ . The σ Orionis mass spectrum smoothly extends into the planetary-mass regime down to 0.004 M ☉ . Our findings of T-type sources ( ☉ ) in the VISTA σ Orionis exploration appear to be smaller than what is predicted by the extrapolation of the cluster mass spectrum down to the survey J-band completeness.

  18. NEW ISOLATED PLANETARY-MASS OBJECTS AND THE STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR MASS FUNCTION OF THE {sigma} ORIONIS CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena Ramirez, K.; Bejar, V. J. S. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/. Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Martin, E. L. [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Crta. Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Petr-Gotzens, M. G., E-mail: karla@iac.es, E-mail: vbejar@iac.es, E-mail: mosorio@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: ege@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: mpetr@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-20

    We report on our analysis of the VISTA Orion ZY JHK{sub s} photometric data (completeness magnitudes of Z = 22.6 and J = 21.0 mag) focusing on a circular area of 2798.4 arcmin{sup 2} around the young {sigma} Orionis star cluster ({approx}3 Myr, {approx}352 pc, and solar metallicity). The combination of the VISTA photometry with optical, WISE and Spitzer data allows us to identify a total of 210 {sigma} Orionis member candidates with masses in the interval 0.25-0.004 M{sub Sun }, 23 of which are new planetary-mass object findings. These discoveries double the number of cluster planetary-mass candidates known so far. One object has colors compatible with a T spectral type. The {sigma} Orionis cluster harbors about as many brown dwarfs (69, 0.072-0.012 M{sub Sun }) and planetary-mass objects (37, 0.012-0.004 M{sub Sun }) as very low mass stars (104, 0.25-0.072 M{sub Sun }). Based on Spitzer data, we derive a disk frequency of {approx}40% for very low mass stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary-mass objects in {sigma} Orionis. The radial density distributions of these three mass intervals are alike: all are spatially concentrated within an effective radius of 12' (1.2 pc) around the multiple star {sigma} Ori, and no obvious segregation between disk-bearing and diskless objects is observed. Using the VISTA data and the Mayrit catalog, we derive the cluster mass spectrum ({Delta}N/{Delta}M {approx} M{sup -{alpha}}) from {approx}19 to 0.006 M{sub Sun} (VISTA ZJ completeness), which is reasonably described by two power-law expressions with indices of {alpha} = 1.7 {+-} 0.2 for M > 0.35 M{sub Sun }, and {alpha} = 0.6 {+-} 0.2 for M < 0.35 M{sub Sun }. The {sigma} Orionis mass spectrum smoothly extends into the planetary-mass regime down to 0.004 M{sub Sun }. Our findings of T-type sources (<0.004 M{sub Sun }) in the VISTA {sigma} Orionis exploration appear to be smaller than what is predicted by the extrapolation of the cluster mass spectrum down to the survey J

  19. The distribution of mass in the planetary system and solar nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenschilling, S.J.

    1977-01-01

    A model 'solar nebula' is constructed by adding the solar complement of light elements to each planet, using recent models of planetary compositions. Uncertainties in this approach are estimated. The computed surface density varies approximately as rsup(-3/2). Mercury, Mars and the asteroid belt are anomalously low in mass, but processes exist which would preferentially remove matter from these regions. Planetary masses and compositions are generally consistent with a monotonic density distribution in the primordial solar nebula. (Auth.)

  20. Evolutionary calculations for planetary nebula nuclei with continuing mass loss and realistic starting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, D.J.; Wood, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Evolutionary calculations for nuclei of planetary nebulae are described. They were made using assumptions regarding mass of the NPN, phase in the He shell flash cycle at which the NPN leaves the AGB, and time variation of the mass loss rate. Comparison of the evolutionary tracks with the observational Harman-Seaton sequence indicates that some recently published NPN luminosities may be too low by a factor of three. Comparison of the calculated timescales with the observed properties of NPN and of white dwarfs provides marginal evidence for the PN ejection being initiated by the helium shell flash itself

  1. The BANYAN-Sigma Bayesian classifier and the search for isolated planetary-mass objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    I will present new developments in the construction of a Bayesian classification tool to identify members of 22 young associations within 150 pc from partially complete kinematic data sets such as Gaia-DR1 and DR2. The new BANYAN-Sigma tool makes it possible to quickly analyze massive data sets and yields a better classification performance than all its predecessors. It will open the door to large-scale surveys to complete the stellar and substellar populations of nearby associations, which will provide deep insights in the low-mass end of the initial mass function and valuable age-calibrated targets for exoplanet surveys.I will also presents preliminary results of a search for T-type isolated planetary-mass objects in these young associations, based on BANYAN-Sigma and a cross-match between the AllWISE and 2MASS-Reject catalogs.

  2. Abundances in Planetary Nebulae: an Autopsy of Low and Intermediate Mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, James Francis

    In this work we report on the results of synthetic thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch models (TP-AGB) and compare the results to the abundance ratios in a sample of planetary nebulae. We use updated the input parameters for mass-loss, the stellar luminosity, and dredge-up. We calculated models with masses between 0.8 solar masses and 8 solar masses. We also calculated models with (Fe/H) between -2.5 and 0.3. The effect of the first, second, and third dredge-up as well as hot-bottom burning are reported on. The analysis of a sample of Galactic bulge and disk planetary nebulae is also reported on.

  3. Proto-planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuckerman, B.

    1978-01-01

    A 'proto-planetary nebula' or a 'planetary nebula progenitor' is the term used to describe those objects that are losing mass at a rate >approximately 10 -5 Msolar masses/year (i.e. comparable to mass loss rates in planetary nebulae with ionized masses >approximately 0.2 Msolar masses) and which, it is believed, will become planetary nebulae themselves within 5 years. It is shown that most proto-planetary nebulae appear as very red objects although a few have been 'caught' near the middle of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The precursors of these proto-planetaries are the general red giant population, more specifically probably Mira and semi-regular variables. (Auth.)end

  4. Planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amnuehl', P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The history of planetary nebulae discovery and their origin and evolution studies is discussed in a popular way. The problem of planetary nebulae central star is considered. The connection between the white-draft star and the planetary nebulae formulation is shown. The experimental data available acknowledge the hypothesis of red giant - planetary nebula nucleus - white-draft star transition process. Masses of planetary nebulae white-draft stars and central stars are distributed practically similarly: the medium mass is close to 0.6Msub(Sun) (Msub(Sun) - is the mass of the Sun)

  5. Planetary Sciences, Geodynamics, Impacts, Mass Extinctions, and Evolution: Developments and Interconnections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Urrutia-Fucugauchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research frontiers in geophysics are being expanded, with development of new fields resulting from technological advances such as the Earth observation satellite network, global positioning system, high pressure-temperature physics, tomographic methods, and big data computing. Planetary missions and enhanced exoplanets detection capabilities, with discovery of a wide range of exoplanets and multiple systems, have renewed attention to models of planetary system formation and planet’s characteristics, Earth’s interior, and geodynamics, highlighting the need to better understand the Earth system, processes, and spatio-temporal scales. Here we review the emerging interconnections resulting from advances in planetary sciences, geodynamics, high pressure-temperature physics, meteorite impacts, and mass extinctions.

  6. THE SEARCH FOR PLANETARY MASS COMPANIONS TO FIELD BROWN DWARFS WITH HST/NICMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, M. B.; Brandner, W.; Joergens, V.; Henning, Th.; Bouy, H.; Koehler, R.; Kasper, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a high-resolution spectral differential imaging survey of 12 nearby, relatively young field L dwarfs (≤1 Gyr) carried out with the Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS to search for planetary mass companions at small physical separations from their host. The survey resolved two brown dwarf binaries: the L dwarf system Kelu-1 AB and the newly discovered L/T transition system 2MASS 031059+164815 AB. For both systems, common proper motion has already been confirmed in follow-up observations which have been published elsewhere. The derived separations of the binaries are smaller than 6 AU and consistent with previous brown dwarf binary statistics. Their mass ratios of q ≥ 0.8 confirm the preference for equal-mass systems similar to a large number of other surveys. Furthermore, we found tentative evidence for a companion to the L4 dwarf 2MASSW 033703-175807, straddling the brown dwarf/planetary mass boundary and revealing an uncommonly low-mass ratio system (q ∼ 0.2) compared to the vast majority of previously found brown dwarf binaries. With a derived minimum mass of 10-15 M Jup a planetary nature of the secondary cannot be ruled out yet. However, it seems more likely to be a very low mass brown dwarf secondary at the border of the spectral T/Y transition regime, primarily due to its similarities to recently found very cool T dwarfs. This would make it one of the closest resolved brown dwarf binaries (0.''087 ± 0.''015, corresponding to 2.52 ± 0.44 AU at a distance of 29 pc) with the coolest (T eff ∼ 600-630 K) and least massive companion to any L or T dwarf.

  7. New Clues to the Mysterious Origin of Wide-Separation Planetary-Mass Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Marta

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, direct imaging searches for young gas giant planets have revealed a new population of young planetary-mass companions with extremely wide orbital separations (>50 AU) and masses near or at the deuterium-burning limit. These companions pose significant challenges to standard formation models, including core accretion, disk instability, and turbulent fragmentation. In my talk I will discuss new results from high-contrast imaging and high-resolution infrared spectroscopy of a sample of directly imaged wide-separation companions that can be used to directly test these three competing formation mechanisms. First, I use high-contrast imaging to strongly discount scattering as a hypothesis for the origin of wide-separation companions. Second, I measure rotation rates of a subset of these companions using their near-IR spectra, and place the first constraints on the angular momentum evolution of young planetary-mass objects. Finally, I explore the ability of high-resolution spectroscopy to constrain the atmospheric C/O ratios of these companions, providing a complementary test of competing formation scenarios.

  8. From Stars to Superplanets: The Low-Mass Initial Mass Function in the Young Cluster IC 348

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Najita, Joan R; Tiede, Glenn P; Carr, John S

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the low-mass population of the young cluster IC 348 down to the deuterium-burning limit, a fiducial boundary between brown dwarf and planetary mass objects, using a new and innovative...

  9. EROS and MACHO combined limits on planetary-mass dark matter in the galactic halo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcock, C; Allsman, RA; Alves, D; Ansari, R; Aubourg, E; Axelrod, TS; Bareyre, P; Beaulieu, JP; Becker, AC; Bennett, DP; Brehin, S; Cavalier, F; Char, S; Cook, KH; Ferlet, R; Fernandez, J; Freeman, KC; Griest, K; Grison, P; Gros, M; Gry, C; Guibert, J; Lachieze-Rey, M; Laurent, B; Lehner, MJ; Lesquoy, E; Magneville, C; Marshall, SL; Maurice, E; Milsztajn, A; Minniti, D; Moniez, M; Moreau, O; Moscoso, L; Palanque-Delabrouille, N; Peterson, BA; Pratt, MR; Prevot, L; Queinnec, F; Quinn, PJ; Renault, C; Rich, J; Spiro, M; Stubbs, CW; Sutherland, W; Tomaney, A; Vandehei, T; Vidal-Madjar, A; Vigroux, L; Zylberajch, S

    1998-01-01

    The EROS and MACHO collaborations have each published upper limits on the amount of planetary-mass dark matter in the Galactic halo obtained from gravitational microlensing searches. In this Letter, the two limits are combined to give a much stronger constraint on the abundance of low-mass MACHOs.

  10. High mass resolution, high angular acceptance time-of-flight mass spectroscopy for planetary missions under the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David T.

    1991-01-01

    This final report covers three years and several phases of work in which instrumentation for the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP) were successfully developed. There were two main thrusts to this research: (1) to develop and test methods for electrostatically scanning detector field-of-views, and (2) to improve the mass resolution of plasma mass spectrometers to M/delta M approximately 25, their field-of-view (FOV) to 360 degrees, and their E-range to cover approximately 1 eV to 50 keV. Prototypes of two different approaches to electrostatic scanning were built and tested. The Isochronous time-of-flight (TOF) and the linear electric field 3D TOF devices were examined.

  11. The diversity of planetary system architectures: contrasting theory with observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Y.; Guilera, O. M.; Brunini, A.

    2011-10-01

    In order to explain the observed diversity of planetary system architectures and relate this primordial diversity to the initial properties of the discs where they were born, we develop a semi-analytical model for computing planetary system formation. The model is based on the core instability model for the gas accretion of the embryos and the oligarchic growth regime for the accretion of the solid cores. Two regimes of planetary migration are also included. With this model, we consider different initial conditions based on recent results of protoplanetary disc observations to generate a variety of planetary systems. These systems are analysed statistically, exploring the importance of several factors that define the planetary system birth environment. We explore the relevance of the mass and size of the disc, metallicity, mass of the central star and time-scale of gaseous disc dissipation in defining the architecture of the planetary system. We also test different values of some key parameters of our model to find out which factors best reproduce the diverse sample of observed planetary systems. We assume different migration rates and initial disc profiles, in the context of a surface density profile motivated by similarity solutions. According to this, and based on recent protoplanetary disc observational data, we predict which systems are the most common in the solar neighbourhood. We intend to unveil whether our Solar system is a rarity or whether more planetary systems like our own are expected to be found in the near future. We also analyse which is the more favourable environment for the formation of habitable planets. Our results show that planetary systems with only terrestrial planets are the most common, being the only planetary systems formed when considering low-metallicity discs, which also represent the best environment for the development of rocky, potentially habitable planets. We also found that planetary systems like our own are not rare in the

  12. From red giants to planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.

    1982-01-01

    The transition from red giants to planetary nebulae is studied by comparing the spectral characteristics of red giant envelopes and planetary nebulae. Observational and theoretical evidence both suggest that remnants of red giant envelopes may still be present in planetary nebula systems and should have significant effects on their formation. The dynamical effects of the interaction of stellar winds from central stars of planetary nebulae with the remnant red giant envelopes are evaluated and the mechanism found to be capable of producing the observed masses and momenta of planetary nebulae. The observed mass-radii relation of planetary nebulae may also be best explained by the interacting winds model. The possibility that red giant mass loss, and therefore the production of planetary nebulae, is different between Population I and II systems is also discussed

  13. Mass outflow in the nearby proto-planetary system, Beta Pictoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhweiler, F.C.; Grady, C.A.; Kondo, Yoji

    1991-01-01

    Previous spectral studies of circumstallar dust around the nearby, candidate proto-planetary system, Beta Pictoris, has detected only infalling gas. The lack of detectable mass outflow has been critical in the interpretation of the origin of the circumstellar gas and in our understanding of the evolutionary status of the Beta Pictoris system. IUE high-dispersion spectra are presented which show, in addition to infall, the presence of mass outflow, with a maximum observed outflow velocity of -60 km/s, and a corresponding instantaneous outflow rate of 1.1 x 10 to the -14th solar mass/yr, or 1.1 x 10 to the -11th Jupiter mass/yr. This mass outflow rate and terminal velocity are comparable to the magnitudes of mass infall rates and terminal velocities observed from late 1986 through early 1988. The implications of these observations on our understanding of the mechanisms producing infall from the surrounding circumstellar disk are discussed, as are the implications for our understanding of the evolutionary status of the Beta Pic system. 23 refs

  14. AN INCREASE IN THE MASS OF PLANETARY SYSTEMS AROUND LOWER-MASS STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Dániel

    2015-01-01

    Trends in the planet population with host star mass provide an avenue to constrain planet formation theories. We derive the planet radius distribution function for Kepler stars of different spectral types, sampling a range in host star masses. We find that M dwarf stars have 3.5 times more small planets (1.0–2.8 R ⨁ ) than main-sequence FGK stars, but two times fewer Neptune-sized and larger (>2.8 R ⨁ ) planets. We find no systematic trend in the planet size distribution between spectral types F, G, and K to explain the increasing occurrence rates. Taking into account the mass–radius relationship and heavy-element mass of observed exoplanets, and assuming those are independent of spectral type, we derive the inventory of the heavy-element mass locked up in exoplanets at short orbits. The overall higher planet occurrence rates around M stars are not consistent with the redistribution of the same mass into more, smaller planets. At the orbital periods and planet radii where Kepler observations are complete for all spectral types, the average heavy-element mass locked up in exoplanets increases roughly inversely with stellar mass from 4 M ⨁ in F stars to 5 M ⨁ in G and K stars to 7 M ⨁ in M stars. This trend stands in stark contrast with observed protoplanetary disk masses that decrease toward lower mass stars, and provides a challenge for current planet formation models. Neither models of in situ formation nor migration of fully formed planets are consistent with these results. Instead, these results are indicative of large-scale inward migration of planetary building blocks—either through type-I migration or radial drift of dust grains—that is more efficient for lower mass stars, but does not result in significantly larger or smaller planets

  15. AN INCREASE IN THE MASS OF PLANETARY SYSTEMS AROUND LOWER-MASS STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Dániel, E-mail: mulders@lpl.arizona.edu [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Trends in the planet population with host star mass provide an avenue to constrain planet formation theories. We derive the planet radius distribution function for Kepler stars of different spectral types, sampling a range in host star masses. We find that M dwarf stars have 3.5 times more small planets (1.0–2.8 R{sub ⨁}) than main-sequence FGK stars, but two times fewer Neptune-sized and larger (>2.8 R{sub ⨁}) planets. We find no systematic trend in the planet size distribution between spectral types F, G, and K to explain the increasing occurrence rates. Taking into account the mass–radius relationship and heavy-element mass of observed exoplanets, and assuming those are independent of spectral type, we derive the inventory of the heavy-element mass locked up in exoplanets at short orbits. The overall higher planet occurrence rates around M stars are not consistent with the redistribution of the same mass into more, smaller planets. At the orbital periods and planet radii where Kepler observations are complete for all spectral types, the average heavy-element mass locked up in exoplanets increases roughly inversely with stellar mass from 4 M{sub ⨁} in F stars to 5 M{sub ⨁} in G and K stars to 7 M{sub ⨁} in M stars. This trend stands in stark contrast with observed protoplanetary disk masses that decrease toward lower mass stars, and provides a challenge for current planet formation models. Neither models of in situ formation nor migration of fully formed planets are consistent with these results. Instead, these results are indicative of large-scale inward migration of planetary building blocks—either through type-I migration or radial drift of dust grains—that is more efficient for lower mass stars, but does not result in significantly larger or smaller planets.

  16. Luminosity function for planetary nebulae and the number of planetary nebulae in local group galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Identifications of 19 and 34 faint planetary nebulae have been made in the central regions of the SMC and LMC, respectively, using on-line/off-line filter photography at [O III] and Hα. The previously known brighter planetary nebulae in these fields, eight in both the SMC and the LMC, were also identified. On the basis of the ratio of the numbers of faint to bright planetary nebulae in these fields and the numbers of bright planetary nebulae in the surrounding fields, the total numbers of planetary nebulae in the SMC and LMC are estimated to be 285 +- 78 and 996 +- 253, respectively. Corrections have been applied to account for omissions due to crowding confusion in previous surveys, spatial and detectability incompleteness, and obscuration by dust.Equatorial coordinates and finding charts are presented for all the identified planetary nebulae. The coordinates have uncertainties smaller than 0.''6 relative to nearby bright stars, thereby allowing acquisition of the planetary nebulae by bling offsetting.Monochromatic fluxes are derived photographically and used to determine the luminosity function for Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae as faint as 6 mag below the brightest. The luminosity function is used to estimate the total numbers of planetary nebulae in eight Local Group galaxies in which only bright planetary nebulae have been identified. The dervied luminosity specific number of planetary nebulae per unit luminosity is nearly constant for all eight galaxies, having a value of 6.1 x 10 -7 planetary nebulae L -1 /sub sun/. The mass specific number, based on the three galaxies with well-determined masses, is 2.1 x 10 -7 planetary nebulae M -1 /sub sun/. With estimates for the luminosity and mass of our Galaxy, its total number of planetary nebulae is calculated to be 10,000 +- 4000, in support of the Cudworth distance scale

  17. New high (> or =6M/sub sun/) upper mass limit for planetary nebula formation, and a new high lower mass bound for carbon detonation supernova models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchman, Y.; Sack, N.; Barkat, Z.

    1978-01-01

    Envelope ejection leading to a planetary nebula has been recently shown to occur as the terminal point of the Mira stage. The ejection is due to a diverging pulsational instability, not to a dynamical one. It is found that in this case (and for Population I, mixing length=1 pressure scale height) the upper mass limit for formation of planetary nebulae is at least 6 M/sub sun/. It thus follows that the lower mass limit for realization of carbon detonation model configurations is also at last 6 M/sub sun/

  18. Orbitrap mass analyser for in situ characterisation of planetary environments: Performance evaluation of a laboratory prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briois, Christelle; Thissen, Roland; Thirkell, Laurent; Aradj, Kenzi; Bouabdellah, Abdel; Boukrara, Amirouche; Carrasco, Nathalie; Chalumeau, Gilles; Chapelon, Olivier; Colin, Fabrice; Coll, Patrice; Cottin, Hervé; Engrand, Cécile; Grand, Noel; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Orthous-Daunay, François-Régis; Pennanech, Cyril; Szopa, Cyril; Vuitton, Véronique; Zapf, Pascal; Makarov, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    For decades of space exploration, mass spectrometry has proven to be a reliable instrumentation for the characterisation of the nature and energy of ionic and neutral, atomic and molecular species in the interplanetary medium and upper planetary atmospheres. It has been used as well to analyse the chemical composition of planetary and small bodies environments. The chemical complexity of these environments calls for the need to develop a new generation of mass spectrometers with significantly increased mass resolving power. The recently developed OrbitrapTM mass analyser at ultra-high resolution shows promising adaptability to space instrumentation, offering improved performances for in situ measurements. In this article, we report on our project named ;Cosmorbitrap; aiming at demonstrating the adaptability of the Orbitrap technology for in situ space exploration. We present the prototype that was developed in the laboratory for demonstration of both technical feasibility and analytical capabilities. A set of samples containing elements with masses ranging from 9 to 208 u has been used to evaluate the performance of the analyser, in terms of mass resolving power (reaching 474,000 at m/z 9) and ability to discriminate between isobaric interferences, accuracy of mass measurement (below 15 ppm) and determination of relative isotopic abundances (below 5%) of various samples. We observe a good agreement between the results obtained with the prototype and those of a commercial instrument. As the background pressure is a key parameter for in situ exploration of atmosphere planetary bodies, we study the effect of background gas on the performance of the Cosmorbitrap prototype, showing an upper limit for N2 in our set-up at 10-8 mbar. The results demonstrate the strong potential to adapt this technology to space exploration.

  19. PSYM-WIDE: A Survey for Large-separation Planetary-mass Companions to Late Spectral Type Members of Young Moving Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Marie-Eve; Artigau, Étienne; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Gagné, Jonathan; Lafrenière, David; Wolf, Christian; Magnier, Eugene A.

    2017-09-01

    We present the results of a direct imaging survey for very large separation (>100 au), low-mass companions around 95 nearby young K5-L5 stars and brown dwarfs. They are high-likelihood candidates or confirmed members of the young (≲150 Myr) β Pictoris and AB Doradus moving groups (ABDMG) and the TW Hya, Tucana-Horologium, Columba, Carina, and Argus associations. Images in I\\prime and z\\prime filters were obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini South to search for companions down to an apparent magnitude of z\\prime ˜ 22-24 at separations ≳20″ from the targets and in the remainder of the wide 5.‧5 × 5.‧5 GMOS field of view. This allowed us to probe the most distant region where planetary-mass companions could be gravitationally bound to the targets. This region was left largely unstudied by past high-contrast imaging surveys, which probed much closer-in separations. This survey led to the discovery of a planetary-mass (9-13 {M}{Jup}) companion at 2000 au from the M3V star GU Psc, a highly probable member of ABDMG. No other substellar companions were identified. These results allowed us to constrain the frequency of distant planetary-mass companions (5-13 {M}{Jup}) to {0.84}-0.66+6.73% (95% confidence) at semimajor axes between 500 and 5000 au around young K5-L5 stars and brown dwarfs. This is consistent with other studies suggesting that gravitationally bound planetary-mass companions at wide separations from low-mass stars are relatively rare.

  20. Development of a Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (LITMS) Investigation for Future Planetary Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinckerhoff, W.; Danell, R.; Van Ameron, F.; Pinnick, V.; Li, X.; Arevalo, R.; Glavin, D.; Getty, S.; Mahaffy, P.; Chu, P.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Future surface missions to Mars and other planetary bodies will benefit from continued advances in miniature sensor and sample handling technologies that enable high-performance chemical analyses of natural samples. Fine-scale (approx.1 mm and below) analyses of rock surfaces and interiors, such as exposed on a drill core, will permit (1) the detection of habitability markers including complex organics in association with their original depositional environment, and (2) the characterization of successive layers and gradients that can reveal the time-evolution of those environments. In particular, if broad-based and highly-sensitive mass spectrometry techniques could be brought to such scales, the resulting planetary science capability would be truly powerful. The Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (LITMS) investigation is designed to conduct fine-scale organic and inorganic analyses of short (approx.5-10 cm) rock cores such as could be acquired by a planetary lander or rover arm-based drill. LITMS combines both pyrolysis/gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GCMS) of sub-sampled core fines, and laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) of the intact core surface, using a common mass analyzer, enhanced from the design used in the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) instrument on the 2018 ExoMars rover. LITMS additionally features developments based on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on MSL and recent NASA-funded prototype efforts in laser mass spectrometry, pyrolysis, and precision subsampling. LITMS brings these combined capabilities to achieve its four measurement objectives: (1) Organics: Broad Survey Detect organic molecules over a wide range of molecular weight, volatility, electronegativity, concentration, and host mineralogy. (2) Organic: Molecular Structure Characterize internal molecular structure to identify individual compounds, and reveal functionalization and processing. (3) Inorganic Host Environment Assess the local chemical

  1. Planetary populations in the mass-period diagram: A statistical treatment of exoplanet formation and the role of planet traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Pudritz, Ralph E.

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth of observed exoplanets has revealed the existence of several distinct planetary populations in the mass-period diagram. Two of the most surprising are (1) the concentration of gas giants around 1 AU and (2) the accumulation of a large number of low-mass planets with tight orbits, also known as super-Earths and hot Neptunes. We have recently shown that protoplanetary disks have multiple planet traps that are characterized by orbital radii in the disks and halt rapid type I planetary migration. By coupling planet traps with the standard core accretion scenario, we showed that one can account for the positions of planets in the mass-period diagram. In this paper, we demonstrate quantitatively that most gas giants formed at planet traps tend to end up around 1 AU, with most of these being contributed by dead zones and ice lines. We also show that a large fraction of super-Earths and hot Neptunes are formed as 'failed' cores of gas giants—this population being constituted by comparable contributions from dead zone and heat transition traps. Our results are based on the evolution of forming planets in an ensemble of disks where we vary only the lifetimes of disks and their mass accretion rates onto the host star. We show that a statistical treatment of the evolution of a large population of planetary cores caught in planet traps accounts for the existence of three distinct exoplanetary populations—the hot Jupiters, the more massive planets around r = 1 AU, and the short-period super-Earths and hot Neptunes. There are very few populations that feed into the large orbital radii characteristic of the imaged Jovian planet, which agrees with recent surveys. Finally, we find that low-mass planets in tight orbits become the dominant planetary population for low-mass stars (M * ≤ 0.7 M ☉ ).

  2. THE DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION OF LOW-MASS HYDROGEN-BURNING STARS, BROWN DWARFS, AND PLANETARY-MASS OBJECTS FORMED THROUGH DISK FRAGMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yun; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N. [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Yiheyuan Lu 5, Haidian Qu, Beijing 100871 (China); Stamatellos, D. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute for Mathematics, Physics and Astronomy, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Goodwin, S. P., E-mail: yunli@pku.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-01

    Theory and simulations suggest that it is possible to form low-mass hydrogen-burning stars, brown dwarfs (BDs), and planetary-mass objects (PMOs) via disk fragmentation. As disk fragmentation results in the formation of several bodies at comparable distances to the host star, their orbits are generally unstable. Here, we study the dynamical evolution of these objects. We set up the initial conditions based on the outcomes of the smoothed-particle hydrodynamics simulations of Stamatellos and Whitworth, and for comparison we also study the evolution of systems resulting from lower-mass fragmenting disks. We refer to these two sets of simulations as set 1 and set 2, respectively. At 10 Myr, approximately half of the host stars have one companion left, and approximately 22% (set 1) to 9.8% (set 2) of the host stars are single. Systems with multiple secondaries in relatively stable configurations are common (about 30% and 44%, respectively). The majority of the companions are ejected within 1 Myr with velocities mostly below 5 km s{sup −1}, with some runaway escapers with velocities over 30 km s{sup −1}. Roughly 6% (set 1) and 2% (set 2) of the companions pair up into very low-mass binary systems, resulting in respective binary fractions of 3.2% and 1.2%. The majority of these pairs escape as very low-mass binaries, while others remain bound to the host star in hierarchical configurations (often with retrograde inner orbits). Physical collisions with the host star (0.43 and 0.18 events per host star for set 1 and set 2, respectively) and between companions (0.08 and 0.04 events per host star for set 1 and set 2, respectively) are relatively common and their frequency increases with increasing disk mass. Our study predicts observable properties of very low-mass binaries, low-mass hierarchical systems, the BD desert, and free-floating BDs and PMOs in and near young stellar groupings, which can be used to distinguish between different formation scenarios of very low-mass

  3. MAVEN Observations of Escaping Planetary Ions from the Martian Atmosphere: Mass, Velocity, and Spatial Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yaxue; Fang, Xiaohua; Brain, D. A.; McFadden, James P.; Halekas, Jasper; Connerney, Jack

    2015-04-01

    The Mars-solar wind interaction accelerates and transports planetary ions away from the Martian atmosphere through a number of processes, including ‘pick-up’ by electromagnetic fields. The MAVEN spacecraft has made routine observations of escaping planetary ions since its arrival at Mars in September 2014. The SupraThermal And Thermal Ion Composition (STATIC) instrument measures the ion energy, mass, and angular spectra. It has detected energetic planetary ions during most of the spacecraft orbits, which are attributed to the pick-up process. We found significant variations in the escaping ion mass and velocity distributions from the STATIC data, which can be explained by factors such as varying solar wind conditions, contributions of particles from different source locations and different phases during the pick-up process. We also study the spatial distributions of different planetary ion species, which can provide insight into the physics of ion escaping process and enhance our understanding of atmospheric erosion by the solar wind. Our results will be further interpreted within the context of the upstream solar wind conditions measured by the MAVEN Solar Wind Ion Analyzer (SWIA) instrument and the magnetic field environment measured by the Magnetometer (MAG) instrument. Our study shows that the ion spatial distribution in the Mars-Sun-Electric-Field (MSE) coordinate system and the velocity space distribution with respect to the local magnetic field line can be used to distinguish the ions escaping through the polar plume and those through the tail region. The contribution of the polar plume ion escape to the total escape rate will also be discussed.

  4. PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING LEADS TO TIGHTLY PACKED PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Sean N.; Barnes, Rory; Veras, Dimitri; Armitage, Philip J.; Gorelick, Noel; Greenberg, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The known extrasolar multiple-planet systems share a surprising dynamical attribute: they cluster just beyond the Hill stability boundary. Here we show that the planet-planet scattering model, which naturally explains the observed exoplanet eccentricity distribution, can reproduce the observed distribution of dynamical configurations. We calculated how each of our scattered systems would appear over an appropriate range of viewing geometries; as Hill stability is weakly dependent on the masses, the mass-inclination degeneracy does not significantly affect our results. We consider a wide range of initial planetary mass distributions and find that some are poor fits to the observed systems. In fact, many of our scattering experiments overproduce systems very close to the stability boundary. The distribution of dynamical configurations of two-planet systems may provide better discrimination between scattering models than the distribution of eccentricity. Our results imply that, at least in their inner regions which are weakly affected by gas or planetesimal disks, planetary systems should be 'packed', with no large gaps between planets.

  5. A Search for Host Stars of Free-Floating Planetary Mass Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristan, Isaiah; Bowler, Brendan P.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, the number of free-floating planetary-mass objects (FFPMOs) and imaged planets in widely-bound orbits (from hundreds to thousand of AU) have increased steadily, but the origin of these objects and the relationship between them is unclear. To test if known free-floating objects could actually be distant companions to stars, we searched for wide co-moving companions around a sample of 77 young brown dwarfs and FFPMOs using the PPMXL proper motion catalog. Contamination rates (the probability of field stars co-moving by chance) were then calculated using nearby but unrelated fields, and host star candidates were further vetted using their positions in color magnitude diagrams. Using this method, we recovered all previously known widely-bound host stars within our sample and identified several promising widely separated systems, with separations ranging from 10^4-10^5 AU. Follow up radial velocities are currently being obtained to validate the shared space motion of the most promising candidates; if confirmed, these will be the widest planetary systems known.

  6. The Young L Dwarf 2MASS J11193254-1137466 Is a Planetary-mass Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, William M. J.; Liu, Michael C.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Magnier, Eugene A.

    2017-07-01

    We have discovered that the extremely red, low-gravity L7 dwarf 2MASS J11193254-1137466 is a 0.″14 (3.6 au) binary using Keck laser guide star adaptive optics imaging. 2MASS J11193254-1137466 has previously been identified as a likely member of the TW Hydrae Association (TWA). Using our updated photometric distance and proper motion, a kinematic analysis based on the BANYAN II model gives an 82% probability of TWA membership. At TWA’s 10 ± 3 Myr age and using hot-start evolutionary models, 2MASS J11193254-1137466AB is a pair of {3.7}-0.9+1.2 {M}{Jup} brown dwarfs, making it the lowest-mass binary discovered to date. We estimate an orbital period of {90}-50+80 years. One component is marginally brighter in K band but fainter in J band, making this a probable flux-reversal binary, the first discovered with such a young age. We also imaged the spectrally similar TWA L7 dwarf WISEA J114724.10-204021.3 with Keck and found no sign of binarity. Our evolutionary model-derived {T}{eff} estimate for WISEA J114724.10-204021.3 is ≈230 K higher than for 2MASS J11193254-1137466AB, at odds with the spectral similarity of the two objects. This discrepancy suggests that WISEA J114724.10-204021.3 may actually be a tight binary with masses and temperatures very similar to 2MASS J11193254-1137466AB, or further supporting the idea that near-infrared spectra of young ultracool dwarfs are shaped by factors other than temperature and gravity. 2MASS J11193254-1137466AB will be an essential benchmark for testing evolutionary and atmospheric models in the young planetary-mass regime.

  7. Planetary populations in the mass-period diagram: A statistical treatment of exoplanet formation and the role of planet traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro [Currently EACOA Fellow at Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA), Taipei 10641, Taiwan. (China); Pudritz, Ralph E., E-mail: yasu@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: pudritz@physics.mcmaster.ca [Also at Origins Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1, Canada. (Canada)

    2013-11-20

    The rapid growth of observed exoplanets has revealed the existence of several distinct planetary populations in the mass-period diagram. Two of the most surprising are (1) the concentration of gas giants around 1 AU and (2) the accumulation of a large number of low-mass planets with tight orbits, also known as super-Earths and hot Neptunes. We have recently shown that protoplanetary disks have multiple planet traps that are characterized by orbital radii in the disks and halt rapid type I planetary migration. By coupling planet traps with the standard core accretion scenario, we showed that one can account for the positions of planets in the mass-period diagram. In this paper, we demonstrate quantitatively that most gas giants formed at planet traps tend to end up around 1 AU, with most of these being contributed by dead zones and ice lines. We also show that a large fraction of super-Earths and hot Neptunes are formed as 'failed' cores of gas giants—this population being constituted by comparable contributions from dead zone and heat transition traps. Our results are based on the evolution of forming planets in an ensemble of disks where we vary only the lifetimes of disks and their mass accretion rates onto the host star. We show that a statistical treatment of the evolution of a large population of planetary cores caught in planet traps accounts for the existence of three distinct exoplanetary populations—the hot Jupiters, the more massive planets around r = 1 AU, and the short-period super-Earths and hot Neptunes. There are very few populations that feed into the large orbital radii characteristic of the imaged Jovian planet, which agrees with recent surveys. Finally, we find that low-mass planets in tight orbits become the dominant planetary population for low-mass stars (M {sub *} ≤ 0.7 M {sub ☉}).

  8. CAN THE MASSES OF ISOLATED PLANETARY-MASS GRAVITATIONAL LENSES BE MEASURED BY TERRESTRIAL PARALLAX?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, M.; Botzler, C. S.; Bray, J. C.; Cherrie, J. M.; Rattenbury, N. J. [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Philpott, L. C. [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Abe, F.; Muraki, Y. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Albrow, M. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, P.O. Box 4800, Christchurch 8020 (New Zealand); Bennett, D. P. [Department of Physics, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bond, I. A. [Institute for Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, Auckland 1330 (New Zealand); Christie, G. W.; Natusch, T. [Auckland Observatory, PO Box 180, Royal Oak, Auckland 1345 (New Zealand); Dionnet, Z. [Université d' Orsay, bat 470, F-91400 Orsay (France); Gould, A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Han, C. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, 410 Seongbong-Rho, Hungduk-Gu, Chongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Heyrovský, D. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); McCormick, J. M. [Farm Cove Observatory, 2/24 Rapallo Place, Pakuranga, Auckland 2012 (New Zealand); Moorhouse, D. M. [Kumeu Observatory, Kumeu (New Zealand); Skowron, J., E-mail: mfre070@aucklanduni.ac.nz [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478, Warszawa (Poland); and others

    2015-02-01

    Recently Sumi et al. reported evidence for a large population of planetary-mass objects (PMOs) that are either unbound or orbit host stars in orbits ≥10 AU. Their result was deduced from the statistical distribution of durations of gravitational microlensing events observed by the MOA collaboration during 2006 and 2007. Here we study the feasibility of measuring the mass of an individual PMO through microlensing by examining a particular event, MOA-2011-BLG-274. This event was unusual as the duration was short, the magnification high, the source-size effect large, and the angular Einstein radius small. Also, it was intensively monitored from widely separated locations under clear skies at low air masses. Choi et al. concluded that the lens of the event may have been a PMO but they did not attempt a measurement of its mass. We report here a re-analysis of the event using re-reduced data. We confirm the results of Choi et al. and attempt a measurement of the mass and distance of the lens using the terrestrial parallax effect. Evidence for terrestrial parallax is found at a 3σ level of confidence. The best fit to the data yields the mass and distance of the lens as 0.80 ± 0.30 M {sub J} and 0.80 ± 0.25 kpc respectively. We exclude a host star to the lens out to a separation ∼40 AU. Drawing on our analysis of MOA-2011-BLG-274 we propose observational strategies for future microlensing surveys to yield sharper results on PMOs including those down to super-Earth mass.

  9. Water Partitioning in Planetary Embryos and Protoplanets with Magma Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, M.; Elkins-Tanton, L.; Hamano, K.; Suckale, J.

    2018-06-01

    The water content of magma oceans is widely accepted as a key factor that determines whether a terrestrial planet is habitable. Water ocean mass is determined as a result not only of water delivery and loss, but also of water partitioning among several reservoirs. Here we review our current understanding of water partitioning among the atmosphere, magma ocean, and solid mantle of accreting planetary embryos and protoplanets just after giant collisions. Magma oceans are readily formed in planetary embryos and protoplanets in their accretion phase. Significant amounts of water are partitioned into magma oceans, provided the planetary building blocks are water-rich enough. Particularly important but still quite uncertain issues are how much water the planetary building blocks contain initially and how water goes out of the solidifying mantle and is finally degassed to the atmosphere. Constraints from both solar-system explorations and exoplanet observations and also from laboratory experiments are needed to resolve these issues.

  10. UNSTABLE PLANETARY SYSTEMS EMERGING OUT OF GAS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Soko; Thommes, Edward W.; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of over 400 extrasolar planets allows us to statistically test our understanding of the formation and dynamics of planetary systems via numerical simulations. Traditional N-body simulations of multiple-planet systems without gas disks have successfully reproduced the eccentricity (e) distribution of the observed systems by assuming that the planetary systems are relatively closely packed when the gas disk dissipates, so that they become dynamically unstable within the stellar lifetime. However, such studies cannot explain the small semimajor axes a of extrasolar planetary systems, if planets are formed, as the standard planet formation theory suggests, beyond the ice line. In this paper, we numerically study the evolution of three-planet systems in dissipating gas disks, and constrain the initial conditions that reproduce the observed a and e distributions simultaneously. We adopt initial conditions that are motivated by the standard planet formation theory, and self-consistently simulate the disk evolution and planet migration, by using a hybrid N-body and one-dimensional gas disk code. We also take into account eccentricity damping, and investigate the effect of saturation of corotation resonances on the evolution of planetary systems. We find that the a distribution is largely determined in a gas disk, while the e distribution is determined after the disk dissipation. We also find that there may be an optimum disk mass which leads to the observed a-e distribution. Our simulations generate a larger fraction of planetary systems trapped in mean-motion resonances (MMRs) than the observations, indicating that the disk's perturbation to the planetary orbits may be important to explain the observed rate of MMRs. We also find a much lower occurrence of planets on retrograde orbits than the current observations of close-in planets suggest.

  11. Speeding up low-mass planetary microlensing simulations and modeling: The caustic region of influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penny, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive simulations of planetary microlensing are necessary both before and after a survey is conducted: before to design and optimize the survey and after to understand its detection efficiency. The major bottleneck in such computations is the computation of light curves. However, for low-mass planets, most of these computations are wasteful, as most light curves do not contain detectable planetary signatures. In this paper, I develop a parameterization of the binary microlens that is conducive to avoiding light curve computations. I empirically find analytic expressions describing the limits of the parameter space that contain the vast majority of low-mass planet detections. Through a large-scale simulation, I measure the (in)completeness of the parameterization and the speed-up it is possible to achieve. For Earth-mass planets in a wide range of orbits, it is possible to speed up simulations by a factor of ∼30-125 (depending on the survey's annual duty-cycle) at the cost of missing ∼1% of detections (which is actually a smaller loss than for the arbitrary parameter limits typically applied in microlensing simulations). The benefits of the parameterization probably outweigh the costs for planets below 100 M ⊕ . For planets at the sensitivity limit of AFTA-WFIRST, simulation speed-ups of a factor ∼1000 or more are possible.

  12. A CANDIDATE PLANETARY-MASS OBJECT WITH A PHOTOEVAPORATING DISK IN ORION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Min; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Apai, Dániel [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Pascucci, Ilaria [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Manara, Carlo Felice [Scientific Support Office, Directorate of Science, European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2016-12-20

    In this work, we report the discovery of a candidate planetary-mass object with a photoevaporating protoplanetary disk, Proplyd 133-353, which is near the massive star θ {sup 1} Ori C at the center of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). The object was known to have extended emission pointing away from θ {sup 1} Ori C, indicating ongoing external photoevaporation. Our near-infrared spectroscopic data and the location on the H–R diagram suggest that the central source of Proplyd 133-353 is substellar (∼M9.5) and has a mass probably less than 13 Jupiter mass and an age younger than 0.5 Myr. Proplyd 133-353 shows a similar ratio of X-ray luminosity to stellar luminosity to other young stars in the ONC with a similar stellar luminosity and has a similar proper motion to the mean one of confirmed ONC members. We propose that Proplyd 133-353 formed in a very low-mass dusty cloud or an evaporating gas globule near θ {sup 1} Ori C as a second generation of star formation, which can explain both its young age and the presence of its disk.

  13. Discovery of a wide planetary-mass companion to the young M3 star GU PSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, Marie-Eve; Artigau, Étienne; Malo, Lison; Albert, Loïc; Doyon, René; Lafrenière, David; Gagné, Jonathan; Boucher, Anne [Département de physique and Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic, Université de Montréal, Montréal H3C 3J7 (Canada); Saumon, Didier [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Morley, Caroline V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Allard, France; Homeier, Derek [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, UMR 5574 CNRS, Université de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Beichman, Charles A.; Gelino, Christopher R., E-mail: naud@astro.umontreal.ca [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We present the discovery of a comoving planetary-mass companion ∼42'' (∼2000 AU) from a young M3 star, GU Psc, a likely member of the young AB Doradus Moving Group (ABDMG). The companion was first identified via its distinctively red i – z color (>3.5) through a survey made with Gemini-S/GMOS. Follow-up Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/WIRCam near-infrared (NIR) imaging, Gemini-N/GNIRS NIR spectroscopy and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry indicate a spectral type of T3.5 ± 1 and reveal signs of low gravity which we attribute to youth. Keck/Adaptive Optics NIR observations did not resolve the companion as a binary. A comparison with atmosphere models indicates T {sub eff} = 1000-1100 K and log g = 4.5-5.0. Based on evolution models, this temperature corresponds to a mass of 9-13 M {sub Jup} for the age of ABDMG (70-130 Myr). The relatively well-constrained age of this companion and its very large angular separation to its host star will allow its thorough characterization and will make it a valuable comparison for planetary-mass companions that will be uncovered by forthcoming planet-finder instruments such as Gemini Planet Imager and SPHERE 9.

  14. MOMA and other next-generation ion trap mass spectrometers for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Getty, S.; Mahaffy, P. R.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Danell, R.; Pinnick, V. T.; Li, X.; Grubisic, A.; Southard, A. E.; Hovmand, L.; Cottin, H.; Makarov, A.

    2016-12-01

    Since the 1970's, quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) systems have served as low-risk, cost-efficient means to explore the inner and outer reaches of the solar system. These legacy instruments have interrogated the compositions of the lunar exosphere (LADEE), surface materials on Mars (MSL), and the atmospheres of Venus (Pioneer Venus), Mars (MAVEN) and outer planets (Galileo and Cassini-Huygens). However, the in situ detection of organic compounds on Mars and Titan, coupled with ground-based measurements of amino acids in meteorites and a variety of organics in comets, has underlined the importance of molecular disambiguation in the characterization of high-priority planetary environments. The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) flight instrument, centered on a linear ion trap, enables the in situ detection of volatile and non-volatile organics, but also the characterization of molecular structures through SWIFT ion isolation/excitation and tandem mass spectrometry (MSn). Like the SAM instrument on MSL, the MOMA investigation also includes a gas chromatograph (GC), thereby enabling the chemical separation of potential isobaric interferences based on retention times. The Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (LITMS; PI: William Brinckerhoff), developed to TRL 6 via the ROSES MatISSE Program, augments the core MOMA design and adds: expanded mass range (from 20 - 2000 Da); high-temperature evolved gas analysis (up to 1300°C); and, dual polarity detector assemblies (supporting the measurement of negative ions). The LITMS instrument will be tested in the field in 2017 through the Atacama Rover Astrobiology Drilling Studies (ARADS; PI: Brian Glass) ROSES PSTAR award. Following on these advancements, the Advanced Resolution Organic Molecule Analyzer (AROMA; PI: Ricardo Arevalo Jr.), supported through the ROSES PICASSO Program, combines a highly capable MOMA/LITMS-like linear ion trap and the ultrahigh resolution CosmOrbitrap mass analyzer developed by a consortium of five

  15. Time-dependent simulations of disk-embedded planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stökl, A.; Dorfi, E. A.

    2014-03-01

    At the early stages of evolution of planetary systems, young Earth-like planets still embedded in the protoplanetary disk accumulate disk gas gravitationally into planetary atmospheres. The established way to study such atmospheres are hydrostatic models, even though in many cases the assumption of stationarity is unlikely to be fulfilled. Furthermore, such models rely on the specification of a planetary luminosity, attributed to a continuous, highly uncertain accretion of planetesimals onto the surface of the solid core. We present for the first time time-dependent, dynamic simulations of the accretion of nebula gas into an atmosphere around a proto-planet and the evolution of such embedded atmospheres while integrating the thermal energy budget of the solid core. The spherical symmetric models computed with the TAPIR-Code (short for The adaptive, implicit RHD-Code) range from the surface of the rocky core up to the Hill radius where the surrounding protoplanetary disk provides the boundary conditions. The TAPIR-Code includes the hydrodynamics equations, gray radiative transport and convective energy transport. The results indicate that diskembedded planetary atmospheres evolve along comparatively simple outlines and in particular settle, dependent on the mass of the solid core, at characteristic surface temperatures and planetary luminosities, quite independent on numerical parameters and initial conditions. For sufficiently massive cores, this evolution ultimately also leads to runaway accretion and the formation of a gas planet.

  16. Unstable low-mass planetary systems as drivers of white dwarf pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustill, Alexander J.; Villaver, Eva; Veras, Dimitri; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Bonsor, Amy

    2018-05-01

    At least 25 {per cent} of white dwarfs show atmospheric pollution by metals, sometimes accompanied by detectable circumstellar dust/gas discs or (in the case of WD 1145+017) transiting disintegrating asteroids. Delivery of planetesimals to the white dwarf by orbiting planets is a leading candidate to explain these phenomena. Here, we study systems of planets and planetesimals undergoing planet-planet scattering triggered by the star's post-main-sequence mass loss, and test whether this can maintain high rates of delivery over the several Gyr that they are observed. We find that low-mass planets (Earth to Neptune mass) are efficient deliverers of material and can maintain the delivery for Gyr. Unstable low-mass planetary systems reproduce the observed delayed onset of significant accretion, as well as the slow decay in accretion rates at late times. Higher-mass planets are less efficient, and the delivery only lasts a relatively brief time before the planetesimal populations are cleared. The orbital inclinations of bodies as they cross the white dwarf's Roche limit are roughly isotropic, implying that significant collisional interactions of asteroids, debris streams and discs can be expected. If planet-planet scattering is indeed responsible for the pollution of white dwarfs, many such objects, and their main-sequence progenitors, can be expected to host (currently undetectable) super-Earth planets on orbits of several au and beyond.

  17. 2MASS J11151597+1937266: A Young, Dusty, Isolated, Planetary-mass Object with a Potential Wide Stellar Companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theissen, Christopher A.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin K.; Gagné, Jonathan; Schmidt, Sarah J.; West, Andrew A.

    2018-01-01

    We present 2MASS J11151597+1937266, a recently identified low-surface-gravity L dwarf, classified as an L2γ based on Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical spectroscopy. We confirm this spectral type with near-infrared spectroscopy, which provides further evidence that 2MASS J11151597+1937266 is a low-surface-gravity L dwarf. This object also shows significant excess mid-infrared flux, indicative of circumstellar material; and its strong Hα emission (EWHα = 560 ± 82 Å) is an indicator of enhanced magnetic activity or weak accretion. Comparison of its spectral energy distribution to model photospheres yields an effective temperature of {1724}-38+184 {{K}}. We also provide a revised distance estimate of 37 ± 6 pc using a spectral type–luminosity relationship for low-surface-gravity objects. The three-dimensional galactic velocities and positions of 2MASS J11151597+1937266 do not match any known young association or moving group. Assuming a probable age in the range of 5–45 Myr, the model-dependent estimated mass of this object is between 7 and 21 M Jup, making it a potentially isolated planetary-mass object. We also identify a candidate co-moving, young stellar companion, 2MASS J11131089+2110086.

  18. Two-step Laser Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry to Elucidate Organic Diversity in Planetary Surface Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Cornish, Timothy; Li, Xiang; Floyd, Melissa; Arevalo, Ricardo Jr.; Cook, Jamie Elsila; Callahan, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LD-TOF-MS) holds promise to be a low-mass, compact in situ analytical capability for future landed missions to planetary surfaces. The ability to analyze a solid sample for both mineralogical and preserved organic content with laser ionization could be compelling as part of a scientific mission pay-load that must be prepared for unanticipated discoveries. Targeted missions for this instrument capability include Mars, Europa, Enceladus, and small icy bodies, such as asteroids and comets.

  19. A Survey For Planetary-mass Brown Dwarfs in the Taurus and Perseus Star-forming Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L., E-mail: taran.esplin@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We present the initial results from a survey for planetary-mass brown dwarfs in the Taurus star-forming region. We have identified brown dwarf candidates in Taurus using proper motions and photometry from several ground- and space-based facilities. Through spectroscopy of some of the more promising candidates, we have found 18 new members of Taurus. They have spectral types ranging from mid-M to early-L, and they include the four faintest known members in extinction-corrected K{sub s}, which should have masses as low as ∼4–5 M {sub Jup} according to evolutionary models. Two of the coolest new members (M9.25, M9.5) have mid-IR excesses that indicate the presence of disks. Two fainter objects with types of M9–L2 and M9–L3 also have red mid-IR colors relative to photospheres at ≤L0, but since the photospheric colors are poorly defined at >L0, it is unclear whether they have excesses from disks. We also have obtained spectra of candidate members of the IC 348 and NGC 1333 clusters in Perseus that were identified by Luhman et al. Eight candidates are found to be probable members, three of which are among the faintest and least-massive known members of the clusters (∼5 M{sub Jup}).

  20. A Survey For Planetary-mass Brown Dwarfs in the Taurus and Perseus Star-forming Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L.

    2017-01-01

    We present the initial results from a survey for planetary-mass brown dwarfs in the Taurus star-forming region. We have identified brown dwarf candidates in Taurus using proper motions and photometry from several ground- and space-based facilities. Through spectroscopy of some of the more promising candidates, we have found 18 new members of Taurus. They have spectral types ranging from mid-M to early-L, and they include the four faintest known members in extinction-corrected K s , which should have masses as low as ∼4–5 M Jup according to evolutionary models. Two of the coolest new members (M9.25, M9.5) have mid-IR excesses that indicate the presence of disks. Two fainter objects with types of M9–L2 and M9–L3 also have red mid-IR colors relative to photospheres at ≤L0, but since the photospheric colors are poorly defined at >L0, it is unclear whether they have excesses from disks. We also have obtained spectra of candidate members of the IC 348 and NGC 1333 clusters in Perseus that were identified by Luhman et al. Eight candidates are found to be probable members, three of which are among the faintest and least-massive known members of the clusters (∼5 M Jup ).

  1. Planetary Geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various topics related to planetary geomorphology, including: research techniques; such geomorphic processes as impact, volcanic, degradational, eolian, and hillslope/mass movement processes; and channels and valleys. Indicates that the subject should be taught as a series of scientific questions rather than scientific results of…

  2. Cooling of low-mass carbon-oxygen dwarfs from the planetary nucleus stage through the crystallization stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iben, I. Jr.; Tutukov, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of a carbon-oxygen dwarf of mass Mroughly-equal0.6 Msun has been carried all the way from an initial nuclear burning stage, when it is the central star of a planetary nebula, to the stage of complete internal crystallization, after 10 10 yr of cooling. Shell hydrogen and helium burning, neutrino losses, and the effects of liquification and crystallization have been taken into account. We show how the luminosity-time relationship may be understood in terms of balances between competing physical processes and demonstrate that, after complete crystallization, the time scale for cooling to terrestrial-like temperatures, in our approximation, is simply the optical depth of the outer, nonisothermal layer multiplied by a dimensional constant which, in years, is of the order of unity. A luminosity function based on the results covers the range -5< or approx. =log(L/Lsun)< or approx. =4 and agrees reasonably well with the observed luminosity function extending from the brighest planetary nebula nuclei to the dimmest observed white dwarfs, except perhaps for log(L/L/sub sun/)< or approx. =-4.5. Possible reasons for the apparent discrepancy at low luminosity, apart from the extreme obstacles against discovery, are discussed, one of the simplest is that the oldest dwarfs in the solar vicinity are distributed over a distance from the galactic plane that is approx.5 times larger than is the case for the youngest dwarfs; another possibility is that the opacity in the outer layers of the oldest dwarf models has been overestimated (or underestimatedexclamation) by a factor of 5 or more

  3. Number of planetary nebulae in our galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloin, D.; Cruz-Gonzalez, C.; Peimbert, M.

    1976-01-01

    It is found that the contribution to the ionization of the interstellar medium due to planetary nebulae is from one or two orders of magnitude smaller than that due to O stars. The mass return to the interstellar medium due to planetary nebulae is investigated, and the birth rate of white dwarfs and planetary nebulae are compared. Several arguments are given against the possibility that the infrared sources detected by Becklin and Neugebauer in the direction of the galactic center are planetary nebulae

  4. On the evolution of central stars of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahel, R.Z.

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of nuclei of planetary nebulae has been calculated from the end of the ejection stage that produces the nebulae to the white dwarf stage. The structure of the central star is in agreement with the general picture of Finzi (1973) about the mass ejection from the progenitors of planetary nebulae. It has been found that in order to obtain evolutionary track consistent with the Harman-Seaton track (O'Dell, 1968) one has to assume that the masses of the nuclei stars are less than approximately 0.7 solar masses. The calculated evolutionary time scale of the central stars of planetary nebulae is approximately 2 x 10 4 yr. This time scale is negatively correlated with the stellar mass: the heavier the stellar mass, the shorter the evolutionary time scale. (Auth.)

  5. Laser Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for Future In Situ Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, S. A.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Cornish, T.; Ecelberger, S. A.; Li, X.; Floyd, M. A. Merrill; Chanover, N.; Uckert, K.; Voelz, D.; Xiao, X.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LD-TOF-MS) is a versatile, low-complexity instrument class that holds significant promise for future landed in situ planetary missions that emphasize compositional analysis of surface materials. Here we describe a 5kg-class instrument that is capable of detecting and analyzing a variety of analytes directly from rock or ice samples. Through laboratory studies of a suite of representative samples, we show that detection and analysis of key mineral composition, small organics, and particularly, higher molecular weight organics are well suited to this instrument design. A mass range exceeding 100,000 Da has recently been demonstrated. We describe recent efforts in instrument prototype development and future directions that will enhance our analytical capabilities targeting organic mixtures on primitive and icy bodies. We present results on a series of standards, simulated mixtures, and meteoritic samples.

  6. Episodic mass loss from the hydrogen-deficient central star of the planetary nebula Longmore 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Howard E., E-mail: heb11@psu.edu [Current address: Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A spectacular transient mass-loss episode from the extremely hot, hydrogen-deficient central star of the planetary nebula (PN) Longmore 4 (Lo 4) was discovered in 1992 by Werner et al. During that event, the star temporarily changed from its normal PG 1159 spectrum to that of an emission-line low-luminosity early-type Wolf-Rayet [WCE] star. After a few days, Lo 4 reverted to its normal, predominantly absorption-line PG 1159 type. To determine whether such events recur, and if so how often, I monitored the optical spectrum of Lo 4 from early 2003 to early 2012. Out of 81 spectra taken at random dates, 4 of them revealed mass-loss outbursts similar to that seen in 1992. This indicates that the episodes recur approximately every 100 days (if the recurrence rate has been approximately constant and the duration of a typical episode is ∼5 days), and that the star is in a high-mass-loss state about 5% of the time. Since the enhanced stellar wind is hydrogen-deficient, it arises from the photosphere and is unlikely to be related to phenomena such as a binary or planetary companion or infalling dust. I speculate on plausible mechanisms for these unique outbursts, including the possibility that they are related to the non-radial GW Vir-type pulsations exhibited by Lo 4. The central star of the PN NGC 246 has stellar parameters similar to those of Lo 4, and it is also a GW Vir-type pulsator with similar pulsation periods. I obtained 167 spectra of NGC 246 between 2003 and 2011, but no mass ejections were found.

  7. A Low Mass Translation Mechanism for Planetary FTIR Spectrometry using an Ultrasonic Piezo Linear Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heverly, Matthew; Dougherty, Sean; Toon, Geoffrey; Soto, Alejandro; Blavier, Jean-Francois

    2004-01-01

    One of the key components of a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) is the linear translation stage used to vary the optical path length between the two arms of the interferometer. This translation mechanism must produce extremely constant velocity motion across its entire range of travel to allow the instrument to attain high signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolving power. A new spectrometer is being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under NASA s Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP). The goal of this project is to build upon existing spaceborne FTIR spectrometer technology to produce a new instrument prototype that has drastically superior spectral resolution and substantially lower mass, making it feasible for planetary exploration. In order to achieve these goals, Alliance Spacesystems, Inc. (ASI) has developed a linear translation mechanism using a novel ultrasonic piezo linear motor in conjunction with a fully kinematic, fault tolerant linear rail system. The piezo motor provides extremely smooth motion, is inherently redundant, and is capable of producing unlimited travel. The kinematic rail uses spherical Vespel(R). rollers and bushings, which eliminates the need for wet lubrication, while providing a fault tolerant platform for smooth linear motion that will not bind under misalignment or structural deformation. This system can produce velocities from 10 - 100 mm/s with less than 1% velocity error over the entire 100-mm length of travel for a total mechanism mass of less than 850 grams. This system has performed over half a million strokes under vacuum without excessive wear or degradation in performance. This paper covers the design, development, and testing of this linear translation mechanism as part of the Planetary Atmosphere Occultation Spectrometer (PAOS) instrument prototype development program.

  8. RAPID WATER LOSS CAN EXTEND THE LIFETIME OF PLANETARY HABITABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Takanori; Abe, Yutaka [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Genda, Hidenori [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Zahnle, Kevin J., E-mail: koda@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames Research Center, California 94035 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Two habitable planetary states are proposed: an aqua planet like the Earth and a land planet that has a small amount of water. Land planets keep liquid water under larger solar radiation compared to aqua planets. Water loss may change an aqua planet into a land planet, and the planet can remain habitable for a longer time than if it had remained an aqua planet. We calculate planetary evolution with hydrogen escape for different initial water inventories and different distances from the central star. We find that there are two conditions necessary to evolve an aqua planet into a land planet: the critical amount of water on the surface (M{sub ml}) consistent with a planet being a land planet, and the critical amount of water vapor in the atmosphere (M{sub cv}) that defines the onset of the runaway greenhouse state. We find that Earth-sized aqua planets with initial oceans <10% of the Earth's can evolve into land planets if M{sub cv} = 3 m in precipitable water and M{sub ml} = 5% of the Earth's ocean mass. Such planets can keep liquid water on their surface for another 2 Gyr. The initial amount of water and M{sub cv} are shown to be important dividing parameters of the planetary evolution path. Our results indicate that massive hydrogen escape could give a fresh start as another kind of habitable planet rather than the end of its habitability.

  9. RAPID WATER LOSS CAN EXTEND THE LIFETIME OF PLANETARY HABITABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Takanori; Abe, Yutaka; Genda, Hidenori; Zahnle, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Two habitable planetary states are proposed: an aqua planet like the Earth and a land planet that has a small amount of water. Land planets keep liquid water under larger solar radiation compared to aqua planets. Water loss may change an aqua planet into a land planet, and the planet can remain habitable for a longer time than if it had remained an aqua planet. We calculate planetary evolution with hydrogen escape for different initial water inventories and different distances from the central star. We find that there are two conditions necessary to evolve an aqua planet into a land planet: the critical amount of water on the surface (M ml ) consistent with a planet being a land planet, and the critical amount of water vapor in the atmosphere (M cv ) that defines the onset of the runaway greenhouse state. We find that Earth-sized aqua planets with initial oceans <10% of the Earth's can evolve into land planets if M cv = 3 m in precipitable water and M ml = 5% of the Earth's ocean mass. Such planets can keep liquid water on their surface for another 2 Gyr. The initial amount of water and M cv are shown to be important dividing parameters of the planetary evolution path. Our results indicate that massive hydrogen escape could give a fresh start as another kind of habitable planet rather than the end of its habitability

  10. Trends in Planetary Data Analysis. Executive summary of the Planetary Data Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N.

    1984-09-01

    Planetary data include non-imaging remote sensing data, which includes spectrometric, radiometric, and polarimetric remote sensing observations. Also included are in-situ, radio/radar data, and Earth based observation. Also discussed is development of a planetary data system. A catalog to identify observations will be the initial entry point for all levels of users into the data system. There are seven distinct data support services: encyclopedia, data index, data inventory, browse, search, sample, and acquire. Data systems for planetary science users must provide access to data, process, store, and display data. Two standards will be incorporated into the planetary data system: Standard communications protocol and Standard format data unit. The data system configuration must combine a distributed system with those of a centralized system. Fiscal constraints have made prioritization important. Activities include saving previous mission data, planning/cost analysis, and publishing of proceedings.

  11. Laboratory Studies of Planetary Hazes: composition of cool exoplanet atmospheric aerosols with very high resolution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Sarah E.; Horst, Sarah; He, Chao; Flandinet, Laurene; Moses, Julianne I.; Orthous-Daunay, Francois-Regis; Vuitton, Veronique; Wolters, Cedric; Lewis, Nikole

    2017-10-01

    We present first results of the composition of laboratory-produced exoplanet haze analogues. With the Planetary HAZE Research (PHAZER) Laboratory, we simulated nine exoplanet atmospheres of varying initial gas phase compositions representing increasing metallicities (100x, 1000x, and 10000x solar) and exposed them to three different temperature regimes (600, 400, and 300 K) with two different “instellation” sources (a plasma source and a UV lamp). The PHAZER exoplanet experiments simulate a temperature and atmospheric composition phase space relevant to the expected planetary yield of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission as well as recently discovered potentially habitable zone exoplanets in the TRAPPIST-1, LHS-1140, and Proxima Centauri systems. Upon exposure to the energy sources, all of these experiments produced aerosol particles, which were collected in a dry nitrogen glove box and then analyzed with an LTQ Orbitrap XL™ Hybrid Ion Trap-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer utilizing m/z ranging from 50 to 1000. The collected aerosol samples were found to contain complex organics. Constraining the composition of these aerosols allows us to better understand the photochemical and dynamical processes ongoing in exoplanet atmospheres. Moreover, these data can inform our telescope observations of exoplanets, which is of critical importance as we enter a new era of exoplanet atmosphere observation science with the upcoming launch of the James Webb Space Telescope. The molecular makeup of these haze particles provides key information for understanding exoplanet atmospheric spectra, and constraining the structure and behavior of clouds, hazes, and other aerosols is at the forefront of exoplanet atmosphere science.

  12. Collisional stripping of planetary crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Philip J.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Elliott, Tim; Stewart, Sarah T.; Walter, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Geochemical studies of planetary accretion and evolution have invoked various degrees of collisional erosion to explain differences in bulk composition between planets and chondrites. Here we undertake a full, dynamical evaluation of 'crustal stripping' during accretion and its key geochemical consequences. Crusts are expected to contain a significant fraction of planetary budgets of incompatible elements, which include the major heat producing nuclides. We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of collisions between differentiated rocky planetesimals and planetary embryos. We find that the crust is preferentially lost relative to the mantle during impacts, and we have developed a scaling law based on these simulations that approximates the mass of crust that remains in the largest remnant. Using this scaling law and a recent set of N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation, we have estimated the maximum effect of crustal stripping on incompatible element abundances during the accretion of planetary embryos. We find that on average approximately one third of the initial crust is stripped from embryos as they accrete, which leads to a reduction of ∼20% in the budgets of the heat producing elements if the stripped crust does not reaccrete. Erosion of crusts can lead to non-chondritic ratios of incompatible elements, but the magnitude of this effect depends sensitively on the details of the crust-forming melting process on the planetesimals. The Lu/Hf system is fractionated for a wide range of crustal formation scenarios. Using eucrites (the products of planetesimal silicate melting, thought to represent the crust of Vesta) as a guide to the Lu/Hf of planetesimal crust partially lost during accretion, we predict the Earth could evolve to a superchondritic 176Hf/177Hf (3-5 parts per ten thousand) at present day. Such values are in keeping with compositional estimates of the bulk Earth. Stripping of planetary crusts during accretion can lead to

  13. The minimum mass of detectable planets in protoplanetary discs and the derivation of planetary masses from high-resolution observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosotti, Giovanni P; Juhasz, Attila; Booth, Richard A; Clarke, Cathie J

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the minimum planet mass that produces observable signatures in infrared scattered light and submillimetre (submm) continuum images and demonstrate how these images can be used to measure planet masses to within a factor of about 2. To this end, we perform multi-fluid gas and dust simulations of discs containing low-mass planets, generating simulated observations at 1.65, 10 and 850 μm. We show that the minimum planet mass that produces a detectable signature is ∼15 M ⊕ : this value is strongly dependent on disc temperature and changes slightly with wavelength (favouring the submm). We also confirm previous results that there is a minimum planet mass of ∼20 M ⊕ that produces a pressure maximum in the disc: only planets above this threshold mass generate a dust trap that can eventually create a hole in the submm dust. Below this mass, planets produce annular enhancements in dust outwards of the planet and a reduction in the vicinity of the planet. These features are in steady state and can be understood in terms of variations in the dust radial velocity, imposed by the perturbed gas pressure radial profile, analogous to a traffic jam. We also show how planet masses can be derived from structure in scattered light and submm images. We emphasize that simulations with dust need to be run over thousands of planetary orbits so as to allow the gas profile to achieve a steady state and caution against the estimation of planet masses using gas-only simulations.

  14. The chemical composition and mineralogy of meteorites measured with very high spatial resolution by a laser mass spectrometer for in situ planetary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigitte Neuland, Maike; Mezger, Klaus; Tulej, Marek; Frey, Samira; Riedo, Andreas; Wurz, Peter; Wiesendanger, Reto

    2017-04-01

    The knowledge of the chemical composition of moons, comets, asteroids or other planetary bodies is of particular importance for the investigation of the origin and evolution of the Solar System. High resolution in situ studies on planetary surfaces can yield important information on surface heterogeneity, basic grain mineralogy and chemical composition of surface and subsurface. In turn, these data are the basis for our understanding of the physical and chemical processes which led to the formation and alteration of planetary material [1]. We investigated samples of Allende and Sayh al Uhaymir with a highly miniaturised laser mass spectrometer (LMS), which has been designed and built for in situ space research [2,3]. Both meteorite samples were investigated with a spatial resolution of about 10μm in lateral direction. The high sensitivity and high dynamic range of the LMS allow for quantitative measurements of the abundances of the rock-forming and minor and trace elements with high accuracy [4]. From the data, the modal mineralogy of micrometre-sized chondrules can be inferred [5], conclusions about the condensation sequence of the material are possible and the sensitivity for radiogenic elements allows for dating analyses of the investigated material. We measured the composition of various chondrules in Allende, offering valuable clues about the condensation sequence of the different components of the meteorite. We explicitly investigated the chemical composition and heterogeneity of the Allende matrix with an accuracy that cannot be reached by the mechanical analysis methods that were and are widely used in meteoritic research. We demonstrate the capabilities for dating analyses with the LMS. By applying the U-Th-dating method, the age of the SaU169 sample could be determined. Our analyses show that the LMS would be a suitable instrument for high-quality quantitative chemical composition measurements on the surface of a celestial body like a planet, moon or

  15. HABITABLE ZONES AROUND MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS: DEPENDENCE ON PLANETARY MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kasting, James F.; SchottelKotte, James; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Eymet, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing discoveries of extra-solar planets are unveiling a wide range of terrestrial mass (size) planets around their host stars. In this Letter, we present estimates of habitable zones (HZs) around stars with stellar effective temperatures in the range 2600 K-7200 K, for planetary masses between 0.1 M ⊕ and 5 M ⊕ . Assuming H 2 O-(inner HZ) and CO 2 -(outer HZ) dominated atmospheres, and scaling the background N 2 atmospheric pressure with the radius of the planet, our results indicate that larger planets have wider HZs than do smaller ones. Specifically, with the assumption that smaller planets will have less dense atmospheres, the inner edge of the HZ (runaway greenhouse limit) moves outward (∼10% lower than Earth flux) for low mass planets due to larger greenhouse effect arising from the increased H 2 O column depth. For larger planets, the H 2 O column depth is smaller, and higher temperatures are needed before water vapor completely dominates the outgoing longwave radiation. Hence the inner edge moves inward (∼7% higher than Earth's flux). The outer HZ changes little due to the competing effects of the greenhouse effect and an increase in albedo. New, three-dimensional climate model results from other groups are also summarized, and we argue that further, independent studies are needed to verify their predictions. Combined with our previous work, the results presented here provide refined estimates of HZs around main-sequence stars and provide a step toward a more comprehensive analysis of HZs

  16. Habitable Zones Around Main-Sequence Stars: Dependence on Planetary Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kotte, James Schottel; Kasting, James F.; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Eymet, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing discoveries of extra-solar planets are unveiling a wide range of terrestrial mass (size) planets around their host stars. In this Letter, we present estimates of habitable zones (HZs) around stars with stellar effective temperatures in the range 2600 K-7200 K, for planetary masses between 0.1M and 5M. Assuming H2O-(inner HZ) and CO2-(outer HZ) dominated atmospheres, and scaling the background N2 atmospheric pressure with the radius of the planet, our results indicate that larger planets have wider HZs than do smaller ones. Specifically, with the assumption that smaller planets will have less dense atmospheres, the inner edge of the HZ (runaway greenhouse limit) moves outward (approx.10% lower than Earth flux) for low mass planets due to larger greenhouse effect arising from the increased H2O column depth. For larger planets, the H2O column depth is smaller, and higher temperatures are needed before water vapor completely dominates the outgoing long-wave radiation. Hence the inner edge moves inward (approx.7% higher than Earth's flux). The outer HZ changes little due to the competing effects of the greenhouse effect and an increase in albedo. New, three-dimensional climate model results from other groups are also summarized, and we argue that further, independent studies are needed to verify their predictions. Combined with our previous work, the results presented here provide refined estimates of HZs around main-sequence stars and provide a step toward a more comprehensive analysis of HZs.

  17. HABITABLE ZONES AROUND MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS: DEPENDENCE ON PLANETARY MASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kasting, James F. [Department of Geosciences, Penn State University, 443 Deike Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); SchottelKotte, James [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Domagal-Goldman, Shawn [NASA Astrobiology Institute' s Virtual Planetary Laboratory, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Eymet, Vincent, E-mail: ruk15@psu.edu [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Universite de Bordeaux 1, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac (France)

    2014-06-01

    The ongoing discoveries of extra-solar planets are unveiling a wide range of terrestrial mass (size) planets around their host stars. In this Letter, we present estimates of habitable zones (HZs) around stars with stellar effective temperatures in the range 2600 K-7200 K, for planetary masses between 0.1 M {sub ⊕} and 5 M {sub ⊕}. Assuming H{sub 2}O-(inner HZ) and CO{sub 2}-(outer HZ) dominated atmospheres, and scaling the background N{sub 2} atmospheric pressure with the radius of the planet, our results indicate that larger planets have wider HZs than do smaller ones. Specifically, with the assumption that smaller planets will have less dense atmospheres, the inner edge of the HZ (runaway greenhouse limit) moves outward (∼10% lower than Earth flux) for low mass planets due to larger greenhouse effect arising from the increased H{sub 2}O column depth. For larger planets, the H{sub 2}O column depth is smaller, and higher temperatures are needed before water vapor completely dominates the outgoing longwave radiation. Hence the inner edge moves inward (∼7% higher than Earth's flux). The outer HZ changes little due to the competing effects of the greenhouse effect and an increase in albedo. New, three-dimensional climate model results from other groups are also summarized, and we argue that further, independent studies are needed to verify their predictions. Combined with our previous work, the results presented here provide refined estimates of HZs around main-sequence stars and provide a step toward a more comprehensive analysis of HZs.

  18. Integrated Targeting and Guidance for Powered Planetary Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimov, Dilmurat M.; Bishop, Robert H.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an on-board guidance and targeting design that enables explicit state and thrust vector control and on-board targeting for planetary descent and landing. These capabilities are developed utilizing a new closed-form solution for the constant thrust arc of the braking phase of the powered descent trajectory. The key elements of proven targeting and guidance architectures, including braking and approach phase quartics, are employed. It is demonstrated that implementation of the proposed solution avoids numerical simulation iterations, thereby facilitating on-board execution of targeting procedures during the descent. It is shown that the shape of the braking phase constant thrust arc is highly dependent on initial mass and propulsion system parameters. The analytic solution process is explicit in terms of targeting and guidance parameters, while remaining generic with respect to planetary body and descent trajectory design. These features increase the feasibility of extending the proposed integrated targeting and guidance design to future cargo and robotic landing missions.

  19. Where can a Trappist-1 planetary system be produced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Thomas J.; Facchini, Stefano; Clarke, Cathie J.; Mohanty, Subhanjoy

    2018-04-01

    We study the evolution of protoplanetary discs that would have been precursors of a Trappist-1-like system under the action of accretion and external photoevaporation in different radiation environments. Dust grains swiftly grow above the critical size below which they are entrained in the photoevaporative wind, so although gas is continually depleted, dust is resilient to photoevaporation after only a short time. This means that the ratio of the mass in solids (dust plus planetary) to the mass in gas rises steadily over time. Dust is still stripped early on, and the initial disc mass required to produce the observed 4 M⊕ of Trappist-1 planets is high. For example, assuming a Fatuzzo & Adams distribution of UV fields, typical initial disc masses have to be >30 per cent the stellar (which are still Toomre Q stable) for the majority of similar mass M dwarfs to be viable hosts of the Trappist-1 planets. Even in the case of the lowest UV environments observed, there is a strong loss of dust due to photoevaporation at early times from the weakly bound outer regions of the disc. This minimum level of dust loss is a factor of 2 higher than that which would be lost by accretion on to the star during 10 Myr of evolution. Consequently, even in these least irradiated environments, discs that are viable Trappist-1 precursors need to be initially massive (>10 per cent of the stellar mass).

  20. 2MASS J13243553+6358281 Is an Early T-type Planetary-mass Object in the AB Doradus Moving Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Jonathan; Allers, Katelyn N.; Theissen, Christopher A.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Artigau, Étienne

    2018-02-01

    We present new radial velocity and trigonometric distance measurements indicating that the unusually red and photometrically variable T2 dwarf 2MASS J13243553+6358281 is a member of the young (∼150 Myr) AB Doradus moving group (ABDMG) based on its space velocity. We estimate its model-dependent mass in the range 11–12 M Jup at the age of the ABDMG, and its trigonometric distance of 12.7 ± 1.5 pc makes it one of the nearest known isolated planetary-mass objects. The unusually red continuum of 2MASS J13243553+6358281 in the near-infrared was previously suspected to be caused by an unresolved L + T brown dwarf binary, although it was never observed with high spatial resolution imaging. This new evidence of youth suggests that a low surface gravity may be sufficient to explain this peculiar feature. Using the new parallax we find that its absolute J-band magnitude is ∼0.4 mag fainter than equivalent-type field brown dwarfs, suggesting that the binary hypothesis is unlikely. The fundamental properties of 2MASS J13243553+6358281 follow the spectral type sequence of other known high-likelihood members of the ABDMG. The effective temperature of 2MASS J13243553+6358281 provides the first precise constraint on the L/T transition at a known young age and indicates that it happens at a temperature of ∼1150 K at ∼150 Myr, compared to ∼1250 K for field brown dwarfs.

  1. PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS. II. PREDICTIONS FOR OUTER EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Sean N.; Armitage, Philip J.; Gorelick, Noel

    2010-01-01

    We develop an idealized dynamical model to predict the typical properties of outer extrasolar planetary systems, at radii comparable to the Jupiter-to-Neptune region of the solar system. The model is based upon the hypothesis that dynamical evolution in outer planetary systems is controlled by a combination of planet-planet scattering and planetary interactions with an exterior disk of small bodies ('planetesimals'). Our results are based on 5000 long duration N-body simulations that follow the evolution of three planets from a few to 10 AU, together with a planetesimal disk containing 50 M + from 10 to 20 AU. For large planet masses (M ∼> M Sat ), the model recovers the observed eccentricity distribution of extrasolar planets. For lower-mass planets, the range of outcomes in models with disks is far greater than that which is seen in isolated planet-planet scattering. Common outcomes include strong scattering among massive planets, sudden jumps in eccentricity due to resonance crossings driven by divergent migration, and re-circularization of scattered low-mass planets in the outer disk. We present the distributions of the eccentricity and inclination that result, and discuss how they vary with planet mass and initial system architecture. In agreement with other studies, we find that the currently observed eccentricity distribution (derived primarily from planets at a ∼ -1 and periods in excess of 10 years will provide constraints on this regime. Finally, we present an analysis of the predicted separation of planets in two-planet systems, and of the population of planets in mean-motion resonances (MMRs). We show that, if there are systems with ∼ Jupiter-mass planets that avoid close encounters, the planetesimal disk acts as a damping mechanism and populates MMRs at a very high rate (50%-80%). In many cases, resonant chains (in particular the 4:2:1 Laplace resonance) are set up among all three planets. We expect such resonant chains to be common among massive

  2. Compact Two-step Laser Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer for in Situ Analyses of Aromatic Organics on Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie; Brickerhoff, William; Cornish, Timothy; Ecelberger, Scott; Floyd, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE A miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been adapted to demonstrate two-step laser desorption-ionization (LOI) in a compact instrument package for enhanced organics detection. Two-step LDI decouples the desorption and ionization processes, relative to traditional laser ionization-desorption, in order to produce low-fragmentation conditions for complex organic analytes. Tuning UV ionization laser energy allowed control ofthe degree of fragmentation, which may enable better identification of constituent species. METHODS A reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer prototype measuring 20 cm in length was adapted to a two-laser configuration, with IR (1064 nm) desorption followed by UV (266 nm) postionization. A relatively low ion extraction voltage of 5 kV was applied at the sample inlet. Instrument capabilities and performance were demonstrated with analysis of a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, representing a class of compounds important to the fields of Earth and planetary science. RESULTS L2MS analysis of a model PAH standard, pyrene, has been demonstrated, including parent mass identification and the onset o(tunable fragmentation as a function of ionizing laser energy. Mass resolution m/llm = 380 at full width at half-maximum was achieved which is notable for gas-phase ionization of desorbed neutrals in a highly-compact mass analyzer. CONCLUSIONS Achieving two-step laser mass spectrometry (L2MS) in a highly-miniature instrument enables a powerful approach to the detection and characterization of aromatic organics in remote terrestrial and planetary applications. Tunable detection of parent and fragment ions with high mass resolution, diagnostic of molecular structure, is possible on such a compact L2MS instrument. Selectivity of L2MS against low-mass inorganic salt interferences is a key advantage when working with unprocessed, natural samples, and a mechanism for the observed selectivity is presented.

  3. The mysterious age invariance of the planetary nebula luminosity function bright cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesicki, K.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.

    2018-05-01

    Planetary nebulae mark the end of the active life of 90% of all stars. They trace the transition from a red giant to a degenerate white dwarf. Stellar models1,2 predicted that only stars above approximately twice the solar mass could form a bright nebula. But the ubiquitous presence of bright planetary nebulae in old stellar populations, such as elliptical galaxies, contradicts this: such high-mass stars are not present in old systems. The planetary nebula luminosity function, and especially its bright cut-off, is almost invariant between young spiral galaxies, with high-mass stars, and old elliptical galaxies, with only low-mass stars. Here, we show that new evolutionary tracks of low-mass stars are capable of explaining in a simple manner this decades-old mystery. The agreement between the observed luminosity function and computed stellar evolution validates the latest theoretical modelling. With these models, the planetary nebula luminosity function provides a powerful diagnostic to derive star formation histories of intermediate-age stars. The new models predict that the Sun at the end of its life will also form a planetary nebula, but it will be faint.

  4. Ages of evolved low mass stars: Central stars of planetary nebulae and white dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa R.D.D.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed several methods to estimate the ages of central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN, which are based either on observed nebular properties or on data from the stars themselves. Our goal is to derive the age distribution of these stars and compare the results with empirical distributions for CSPN and white dwarfs. We have initially developed three methods based on nebular abundances, using (i an age-metallicity relation which is also a function of the galactocentric distance; (ii an age-metallicity relation obtained for the galactic disk, and (iii the central star masses derived from the observed nitrogen abundances. In this work we present two new, more accurate methods, which are based on kinematic properties: (I in this method, the expected rotation velocities of the nebulae around the galactic centre at their galactocentric distances are compared with the predicted values for the galactic rotation curve, and the differences are attributed to the different ages of the evolved stars; (II we determine directly the U, V, W, velocity components of the stars, as well as the velocity dispersions, and use the dispersion-age relation by the Geneva-Copenhagen survey. These methods were applied to two large samples of galactic CSPN. We conclude that most CSPN in the galactic disk have ages under 5 Gyr, and that the age distribution is peaked around 1 to 3 Gyr.

  5. Calcium signals in planetary embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    The calcium-isotope composition of planetary bodies in the inner Solar System correlates with the masses of such objects. This finding could have implications for our understanding of how the Solar System formed.

  6. Planetary protection in the framework of the Aurora exploration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kminek, G.

    The Aurora Exploration Program will give ESA new responsibilities in the field of planetary protection. Until now, ESA had only limited exposure to planetary protection from its own missions. With the proposed ExoMars and MSR missions, however, ESA will enter the realm of the highest planetary protection categories. As a consequence, the Aurora Exploration Program has initiated a number of activities in the field of planetary protection. The first and most important step was to establish a Planetary Protection Working Group (PPWG) that is advising the Exploration Program Advisory Committee (EPAC) on all matters concerning planetary protection. The main task of the PPWG is to provide recommendations regarding: Planetary protection for robotic missions to Mars; Planetary protection for a potential human mission to Mars; Review/evaluate standards & procedures for planetary protection; Identify research needs in the field of planetary protection. As a result of the PPWG deliberations, a number of activities have been initiated: Evaluation of the Microbial Diversity in SC Facilities; Working paper on legal issues of planetary protection and astrobiology; Feasibility study on a Mars Sample Return Containment Facility; Research activities on sterilization procedures; Training course on planetary protection (May, 2004); Workshop on sterilization techniques (fall 2004). In parallel to the PPWG, the Aurora Exploration Program has established an Ethical Working Group (EWG). This working group will address ethical issues related to astrobiology, planetary protection, and manned interplanetary missions. The recommendations of the working groups and the results of the R&D activities form the basis for defining planetary protection specification for Aurora mission studies, and for proposing modification and new inputs to the COSPAR planetary protection policy. Close cooperation and free exchange of relevant information with the NASA planetary protection program is strongly

  7. Mission Implementation Constraints on Planetary Muon Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Kedar, Sharon; Naudet, Charles; Webb, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Cost: Use heritage hardware, especially use a tested landing system to reduce cost (Phoenix or MSL EDL stage). The sky crane technology delivers higher mass to the surface and enables reaching targets at higher elevation, but at a higher mission cost. Rover vs. Stationary Lander: Rover-mounted instrument enables tomography, but the increased weight of the rover reduces the allowable payload weight. Mass is the critical design constraint for an instrument for a planetary mission. Many factors that are minor factors or do not enter into design considerations for terrestrial operation are important for a planetary application. (Landing site, diurnal temperature variation, instrument portability, shock/vibration)

  8. Influence of stellar duplicity on the form of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnik, I.G.; Pilyugin, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    Formation of planetary nebulae's spatial structures is considered. Simple expression for angular distribution of density in planetary nebulae is obtained. Bipolar structures are formed effectively in binary systems in which the velocity of the expanding shell around the main star is smaller than the orbital velocity of the satellite. Masses of satellites lie in the range 0.1-0.4Msub(sun). Theoretical isophotal contour map for the model of the planetary nebula NGC 3587 is consistent with observational data. It is shown that central stars of planetary nebulae are usually binary systems

  9. Orbital decay and accretion for planetary or binary systems within a planetary nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K.H.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of the survival of a planet and low mass secondary orbiting a primary star that becomes a planetary nebula is studied. The values of the mass of primary used are 1.0, and 1.5, and 2.0 M/sub sun/ and the values for the planet's mass are 0.001 M/sub sun/ and 0.01 M/sub sun/. The mass of the secondary is 0.1 M/sub sun/. The evolution of the orbital elements and mass of the secondary due to accretion and drag forces in the common envelope are presented. The possible application of the results to V471 Tau, UU Sge, WZ Sge, and the sun-jupiter system are discussed

  10. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Origin of Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session titled Origin of Planetary Systems" included the following reports:Convective Cooling of Protoplanetary Disks and Rapid Giant Planet Formation; When Push Comes to Shove: Gap-opening, Disk Clearing and the In Situ Formation of Giant Planets; Late Injection of Radionuclides into Solar Nebula Analogs in Orion; Growth of Dust Particles and Accumulation of Centimeter-sized Objects in the Vicinity of a Pressure enhanced Region of a Solar Nebula; Fast, Repeatable Clumping of Solid Particles in Microgravity ; Chondrule Formation by Current Sheets in Protoplanetary Disks; Radial Migration of Phyllosilicates in the Solar Nebula; Accretion of the Outer Planets: Oligarchy or Monarchy?; Resonant Capture of Irregular Satellites by a Protoplanet ; On the Final Mass of Giant Planets ; Predicting the Atmospheric Composition of Extrasolar Giant Planets; Overturn of Unstably Stratified Fluids: Implications for the Early Evolution of Planetary Mantles; and The Evolution of an Impact-generated Partially-vaporized Circumplanetary Disk.

  11. Europlanet Research Infrastructure: Planetary Simulation Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.; Mason, N. J.; Green, S.; Gómez, F.; Prieto, O.; Helbert, J.; Colangeli, L.; Srama, R.; Grande, M.; Merrison, J.

    2008-09-01

    EuroPlanet The Europlanet Research Infrastructure consortium funded under FP7 aims to provide the EU Planetary Science community greater access for to research infrastructure. A series of networking and outreach initiatives will be complimented by joint research activities and the formation of three Trans National Access distributed service laboratories (TNA's) to provide a unique and comprehensive set of analogue field sites, laboratory simulation facilities, and extraterrestrial sample analysis tools. Here we report on the infrastructure that comprises the second TNA; Planetary Simulation Facilities. 11 laboratory based facilities are able to recreate the conditions found in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of planetary systems with specific emphasis on Martian, Titan and Europa analogues. The strategy has been to offer some overlap in capabilities to ensure access to the highest number of users and to allow for progressive and efficient development strategies. For example initial testing of mobility capability prior to the step wise development within planetary atmospheres that can be made progressively more hostile through the introduction of extreme temperatures, radiation, wind and dust. Europlanet Research Infrastructure Facilties: Mars atmosphere simulation chambers at VUA and OU These relatively large chambers (up to 1 x 0.5 x 0.5 m) simulate Martian atmospheric conditions and the dual cooling options at VUA allows stabilised instrument temperatures while the remainder of the sample chamber can be varied between 220K and 350K. Researchers can therefore assess analytical protocols for instruments operating on Mars; e.g. effect of pCO2, temperature and material (e.g., ± ice) on spectroscopic and laser ablation techniques while monitoring the performance of detection technologies such as CCD at low T & variable p H2O & pCO2. Titan atmosphere and surface simulation chamber at OU The chamber simulates Titan's atmospheric composition under a range of

  12. Testing the initial-final mass relationship of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalan, S; Isern, J; Garcia-Berro, E; Ribas, I

    2009-01-01

    In this contribution we revisit the initial-final mass relationship of white dwarfs, which links the mass of a white dwarf with that of its progenitor in the main-sequence. Although this function is of paramount importance to several fields in modern astrophysics, it is still not well constrained either from the theoretical or the observational points of view. We present here a revision of the present semi-empirical initial-final mass relationship using all the available data and including our recent results obtained from studying white dwarfs in common proper motion pairs. We have also analyzed the results obtained so far to provide some clues on the dependence of this relationship on metallicity. Finally, we have also performed an indirect test of the initial-final mass relationship by studying its effect on the luminosity function and on the mass distribution of white dwarfs.

  13. 1984 Mauna Loa eruption and planetary geolgoy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    In planetary geology, lava flows on the Moon and Mars are commonly treated as relatively simple systems. Some of the complexities of actual lava flows are illustrated using the main flow system of the 1984 Mauna Loa eruption. The outline, brief narrative, and results given are based on a number of sources. The implications of the results to planetary geology are clear. Volume flow rates during an eruption depend, in part, on the volatile content of the lava. These differ from the volume flow rates calculated from post eruption flow dimensions and the duration of the eruption and from those using models that assume a constant density. Mass flow rates might be more appropriate because the masses of volatiles in lavas are usually small, but variable and sometimes unknown densities impose severe restrictions on mass estimates

  14. 3He Abundances in Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Ramirez, Lizette

    2017-10-01

    Determination of the 3He isotope is important to many fields of astrophysics, including stellar evolution, chemical evolution, and cosmology. The isotope is produced in stars which evolve through the planetary nebula phase. Planetary nebulae are the final evolutionary phase of low- and intermediate-mass stars, where the extensive mass lost by the star on the asymptotic giant branch is ionised by the emerging white dwarf. This ejecta quickly disperses and merges with the surrounding ISM. 3He abundances in planetary nebulae have been derived from the hyperfine transition of the ionised 3He, 3He+, at the radio rest frequency 8.665 GHz. 3He abundances in PNe can help test models of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Many hours have been put into trying to detect this line, using telescopes like the Effelsberg 100m dish of the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) 140-foot telescope, the NRAO Very Large Array, the Arecibo antenna, the Green Bank Telescope, and only just recently, the Deep Space Station 63 antenna from the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex.

  15. Binary Systems and the Initial Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, O. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    In the present paper we discuss advantages and disadvantages of binary stars, which are important for star formation history determination. We show that to make definite conclusions of the initial mass function shape, it is necessary to study binary population well enough to correct the luminosity function for unresolved binaries; to construct the mass-luminosity relation based on wide binaries data, and to separate observational mass functions of primaries, of secondaries, and of unresolved binaries.

  16. Bi-Abundance Ionisation Structure of the Wolf-Rayet Planetary Nebula PB 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehkar, A.

    2018-01-01

    The planetary nebula PB 8 around a [WN/WC]-hybrid central star is one of planetary nebulae with moderate abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs 2-3), which could be an indication of a tiny fraction of metal-rich inclusions embedded in the nebula (bi-abundance). In this work, we have constructed photoionisation models to reproduce the optical and infrared observations of the planetary nebula PB 8 using a non-LTE stellar model atmosphere ionising source. A chemically homogeneous model initially used cannot predict the optical recombination lines. However, a bi-abundance model provides a better fit to most of the observed optical recombination lines from N and O ions. The metal-rich inclusions in the bi-abundance model occupy 5.6% of the total volume of the nebula, and are roughly 1.7 times cooler and denser than the mean values of the surrounding nebula. The N/H and O/H abundance ratios in the metal-rich inclusions are 1.0 and 1.7 dex larger than the diffuse warm nebula, respectively. To reproduce the Spitzer spectral energy distribution of PB 8, dust grains with a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.01 (by mass) were also included. It is found that the presence of metal-rich inclusions can explain the heavy element optical recombination lines, while a dual-dust chemistry with different grain species and discrete grain sizes likely produces the infrared continuum of this planetary nebula. This study demonstrates that the bi-abundance hypothesis, which was examined in a few planetary nebulae with large abundance discrepancies (ADFs > 10), could also be applied to those typical planetary nebulae with moderate abundance discrepancies.

  17. Nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Marion; Bowen, Benjamin; Northen, Trent

    2015-09-08

    Several embodiments described herein are drawn to methods of identifying an analyte on a subject's skin, methods of generating a fingerprint, methods of determining a physiological change in a subject, methods of diagnosing health status of a subject, and assay systems for detecting an analyte and generating a fingerprint, by nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS).

  18. Interoperability in planetary research for geospatial data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Trent M.; Rossi, Angelo P.; Frigeri, Alessandro; Marmo, Chiara

    2018-01-01

    For more than a decade there has been a push in the planetary science community to support interoperable methods for accessing and working with geospatial data. Common geospatial data products for planetary research include image mosaics, digital elevation or terrain models, geologic maps, geographic location databases (e.g., craters, volcanoes) or any data that can be tied to the surface of a planetary body (including moons, comets or asteroids). Several U.S. and international cartographic research institutions have converged on mapping standards that embrace standardized geospatial image formats, geologic mapping conventions, U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) cartographic and metadata standards, and notably on-line mapping services as defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The latter includes defined standards such as the OGC Web Mapping Services (simple image maps), Web Map Tile Services (cached image tiles), Web Feature Services (feature streaming), Web Coverage Services (rich scientific data streaming), and Catalog Services for the Web (data searching and discoverability). While these standards were developed for application to Earth-based data, they can be just as valuable for planetary domain. Another initiative, called VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access), will marry several of the above geoscience standards and astronomy-based standards as defined by International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). This work outlines the current state of interoperability initiatives in use or in the process of being researched within the planetary geospatial community.

  19. Dynamical Stability of Imaged Planetary Systems in Formation: Application to HL Tau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Menou, K.; Rein, H.

    2015-06-01

    A recent Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array image revealed several concentric gaps in the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star HL Tau. We consider the hypothesis that these gaps are carved by planets, and present a general framework for understanding the dynamical stability of such systems over typical disk lifetimes, providing estimates for the maximum planetary masses. We collect these easily evaluated constraints into a workflow that can help guide the design and interpretation of new observational campaigns and numerical simulations of gap opening in such systems. We argue that the locations of resonances should be significantly shifted in massive disks like HL Tau, and that theoretical uncertainties in the exact offset, together with observational errors, imply a large uncertainty in the dynamical state and stability in such disks. This presents an important barrier to using systems like HL Tau as a proxy for the initial conditions following planet formation. An important observational avenue to breaking this degeneracy is to search for eccentric gaps, which could implicate resonantly interacting planets. Unfortunately, massive disks like HL Tau should induce swift pericenter precession that would smear out any such eccentric features of planetary origin. This motivates pushing toward more typical, less massive disks. For a nominal non-resonant model of the HL Tau system with five planets, we find a maximum mass for the outer three bodies of approximately 2 Neptune masses. In a resonant configuration, these planets can reach at least the mass of Saturn. The inner two planets’ masses are unconstrained by dynamical stability arguments.

  20. Influence of Planetary Protection Guidelines on Waste Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, John A.; Fisher, John W.; Levri, Julie A.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Race, Margaret S.; Stabekis, Perry D.; Rummel, John D.

    2005-01-01

    Newly outlined missions in the Space Exploration Initiative include extended human habitation on Mars. During these missions, large amounts of waste materials will be generated in solid, liquid and gaseous form. Returning these wastes to Earth will be extremely costly, and will therefore likely remain on Mars. Untreated, these wastes are a reservoir of live/dead organisms and molecules considered to be "biomarkers" i.e., indicators of life). If released to the planetary surface, these materials can potentially confound exobiology experiments and disrupt Martian ecology indefinitely (if existent). Waste management systems must therefore be specifically designed to control release of problematic materials both during the active phase of the mission, and for any specified post-mission duration. To effectively develop waste management requirements for Mars missions, planetary protection guidelines must first be established. While previous policies for Apollo lunar missions exist, it is anticipated that the increased probability of finding evidence of life on Mars, as well as the lengthy mission durations will initially lead to more conservative planetary protection measures. To facilitate the development of overall requirements for both waste management and planetary protection for future missions, a workshop was conducted to identify how these two areas interface, and to establish a preliminary set of planetary protection guidelines that address waste management operations. This paper provides background regarding past and current planetary protection and waste management issues, and their interactions. A summary of the recommended planetary protection guidelines, anticipated ramifications and research needs for waste management system design for both forward (Mars) and backward (Earth) contamination is also provided.

  1. Robotic vehicles for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian; Matthies, Larry; Gennery, Donald; Cooper, Brian; Nguyen, Tam; Litwin, Todd; Mishkin, Andrew; Stone, Henry

    1992-01-01

    A program to develop planetary rover technology is underway at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under sponsorship of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Developmental systems with the necessary sensing, computing, power, and mobility resources to demonstrate realistic forms of control for various missions have been developed, and initial testing has been completed. These testbed systems and the associated navigation techniques used are described. Particular emphasis is placed on three technologies: Computer-Aided Remote Driving (CARD), Semiautonomous Navigation (SAN), and behavior control. It is concluded that, through the development and evaluation of such technologies, research at JPL has expanded the set of viable planetary rover mission possibilities beyond the limits of remotely teleoperated systems such as Lunakhod. These are potentially applicable to exploration of all the solid planetary surfaces in the solar system, including Mars, Venus, and the moons of the gas giant planets.

  2. LBT observations of the HR8799 planetary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, D.; Arcidiacono, C.; Claudi, R. U.; Desidera, S.; Esposito, S.; Gratton, R.; Masciadri, E.

    2013-09-01

    We present here observations of the HR8799 planetary system performed in H and Ks band exploiting the AO system at the Large Binocular Telescope and the PISCES camera. Thanks to the excellent performence of the instrument we were able to detect for the first time the inner known planet of the system (HR8799) in the H band. Precise photometric and astrometric measures have been taken for all the four planets. Further, exploiting ours and previous astrometric results, we were able to put some limits on the planetary orbits of the four planets. The analysis of the dinamical stability of the system seems to show lower planetary masses than the ones adopted until now.

  3. The initial mass function for very low mass stars in the Hyades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, W.B.; Burrows, A.; Lunine, J.I.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical luminosity functions at various evolutionary ages for stars and substellar objects (brown dwarfs), spanning the mass range from 0.03 to 0.2 solar mass is computed. These functions constrain the distribution of very low mass objects in a star cluster of known age. Calculations with a 1988-1989 survey of faint members of the Hyades cluster by Leggett and Hawkins (1988, 1989), a cluster whose age is 6 x 10 to the 8th yr are compared. The comparison shows that the survey does not reach sufficiently low luminosities to reveal brown dwarfs. A strong constraint on the initial mass function (IMF) for very low mass stars in the Hyades is obtained and it is inferred that its IMF does not increase with decreasing mass for the mass interval investigated here. Results imply at most a moderate contribution from brown dwarfs to the cluster mass, and to the Galaxy's mass if the Hyades are representative of the Galaxy as a whole. 10 refs

  4. The Planetary Data System— Archiving Planetary Data for the use of the Planetary Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Thomas H.; McLaughlin, Stephanie A.; Grayzeck, Edwin J.; Vilas, Faith; Knopf, William P.; Crichton, Daniel J.

    2014-11-01

    NASA’s Planetary Data System (PDS) archives, curates, and distributes digital data from NASA’s planetary missions. PDS provides the planetary science community convenient online access to data from NASA’s missions so that they can continue to mine these rich data sets for new discoveries. The PDS is a federated system consisting of nodes for specific discipline areas ranging from planetary geology to space physics. Our federation includes an engineering node that provides systems engineering support to the entire PDS.In order to adequately capture complete mission data sets containing not only raw and reduced instrument data, but also calibration and documentation and geometry data required to interpret and use these data sets both singly and together (data from multiple instruments, or from multiple missions), PDS personnel work with NASA missions from the initial AO through the end of mission to define, organize, and document the data. This process includes peer-review of data sets by members of the science community to ensure that the data sets are scientifically useful, effectively organized, and well documented. PDS makes the data in PDS easily searchable so that members of the planetary community can both query the archive to find data relevant to specific scientific investigations and easily retrieve the data for analysis. To ensure long-term preservation of data and to make data sets more easily searchable with the new capabilities in Information Technology now available (and as existing technologies become obsolete), the PDS (together with the COSPAR sponsored IPDA) developed and deployed a new data archiving system known as PDS4, released in 2013. The LADEE, MAVEN, OSIRIS REx, InSight, and Mars2020 missions are using PDS4. ESA has adopted PDS4 for the upcoming BepiColumbo mission. The PDS is actively migrating existing data records into PDS4 and developing tools to aid data providers and users. The PDS is also incorporating challenge

  5. THE INITIAL-FINAL MASS RELATION AMONG WHITE DWARFS IN WIDE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J. K.; Oswalt, T. D.; Willson, L. A.; Wang, Q.; Zhao, G.

    2012-01-01

    We present the initial-final mass relation derived from 10 white dwarfs in wide binaries that consist of a main-sequence star and a white dwarf. The temperature and gravity of each white dwarf were measured by fitting theoretical model atmospheres to the observed spectrum using a χ 2 fitting algorithm. The cooling time and mass were obtained using theoretical cooling tracks. The total age of each binary was estimated from the chromospheric activity of its main-sequence component to an uncertainty of about 0.17 dex in log t. The difference between the total age and white dwarf cooling time is taken as the main-sequence lifetime of each white dwarf. The initial mass of each white dwarf was then determined using stellar evolution tracks with a corresponding metallicity derived from spectra of their main-sequence companions, thus yielding the initial-final mass relation. Most of the initial masses of the white dwarf components are between 1 and 2 M ☉ . Our results suggest a correlation between the metallicity of a white dwarf's progenitor and the amount of post-main-sequence mass loss it experiences—at least among progenitors with masses in the range of 1-2 M ☉ . A comparison of our observations to theoretical models suggests that low-mass stars preferentially lose mass on the red giant branch.

  6. From red giants to planetary nebulae: Asymmetries, dust, and polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate the development of aspherical planetary nebulae, polarimetry was obtained for a group of planetary nebulae and for objects that will evolve into planetary nebulae, i.e., red giants, late asymptotic giant branch (AGB) objects, proto-planetary nebulae, and young planetary nebulae. To study the dust around the objects in our sample, we also used data from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) mission. The youngest objects in our survey, red giants, had the hottest dust temperatures while planetary nebulae had the coolest. Most of the objects were intrinsically polarized, including the red giants. This indicated that the circumstellar dust shells of these objects were aspherical. Both carbon- and oxygen-rich objects could be intrinsically polarized. The intrinsic polarizations of a sample of our objects were modeled using an ellipsoidal circumstellar dust shell. The findings of this study suggest that the asphericities that lead to an aspherical planetary nebula originate when a red giant begins to undergo mass loss. The polarization and thus the asphericity as the star evolves, with both reaching a maximum during the proto-planetary nebula stage. The circumstellar dust shell will dissipate after the proto-planetary nebulae stage since no new material is being added. The polarization of planetary nebulae will thus be low. In the most evolved planetary nebulae, the dust has either been destroyed or dissipated into the interstellar medium. In these objects no polarization was observed

  7. Planetary Cartography - Activities and Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Andrea; Di, Kaichang; Elgner, Stephan; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hare, Trent; Hargitai, Henrik; Karachevtseva, Irina; Kereszturi, Akos; Kersten, Elke; Kokhanov, Alexander; Manaud, Nicolas; Roatsch, Thomas; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Skinner, James, Jr.; Wählisch, Marita

    2018-05-01

    Maps are one of the most important tools for communicating geospatial information between producers and receivers. Geospatial data, tools, contributions in geospatial sciences, and the communication of information and transmission of knowledge are matter of ongoing cartographic research. This applies to all topics and objects located on Earth or on any other body in our Solar System. In planetary science, cartography and mapping have a history dating back to the roots of telescopic space exploration and are now facing new technological and organizational challenges with the rise of new missions, new global initiatives, organizations and opening research markets. The focus of this contribution is to introduce the community to the field of planetary cartography and its historic foundation, to highlight some of the organizations involved and to emphasize challenges that Planetary Cartography has to face today and in the near future.

  8. A miniaturized laser-ablation mass spectrometer for in-situ measurements of isotope composition on solar body surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedo, A.; Meyer, S.; Tulej, M.; Neuland, M.; Bieler, A.; Iakovleva, M.; Wurz, P.

    2012-04-01

    The in-situ analysis of extraterrestrial material onboard planetary rovers and landers is of considerable interest for future planetary space missions. Due to the low detection sensitivity of spectroscopic instruments, e.g. α-particle X-ray, γ-ray or neutron spectrometers, it is frequently possible to measure only major/minor elements in extraterrestrial materials. Nevertheless, the knowledge of minor/trace elements is of considerable interest to cosmochemistry. Chemistry puts constraints on the origin of solar system and its evolution enabling also a deeper inside to planetary transformation processes (e.g. volcanic surface alteration, space weathering). The isotopes play special role in analysis of the origin and transformation of planetary matter. They are robust tracers of the early events because their abundances are less disturbed as the elemental once. Nevertheless, if the isotope abundance ratios are fractionated, the underlying chemical and physical processes can be then encoded from the variations of abundance ratios. A detailed analysis of isotopic patterns of radiogenic elements can allow age dating of minerals and temporal evolution of planetary matter. High accuracy and sensitive measurements of isotopic pattern of bio-relevant elements, i.e., sulfur, found on planetary surfaces can be helpful for the identification of possible past and present extraterrestrial life in terms of biomarker identification. Our group has designed a self-optimizing miniaturized laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LMS) for in situ planetary measurements (Wurz et al., 2012; Rohner et al., 2003). Initial studies utilizing IR laser radiation for ablation, atomization and ionization of solid materials indicated a high instrumental performance in terms of sensitivity and mass resolution (Tulej et al., 2011). Current studies are conducted with a UV radiation and a high spatial resolution is achieved by focussing the laser beam to 20µm spots onto the sample. The

  9. A DISK AROUND THE PLANETARY-MASS COMPANION GSC 06214-00210 b: CLUES ABOUT THE FORMATION OF GAS GIANTS ON WIDE ORBITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Kraus, Adam L.; Mann, Andrew W.; Ireland, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    We present Keck OSIRIS 1.1-1.8 μm adaptive optics integral field spectroscopy of the planetary-mass companion to GSC 06214-00210, a member of the ∼5 Myr Upper Scorpius OB association. We infer a spectral type of L0 ± 1, and our spectrum exhibits multiple signs of youth. The most notable feature is exceptionally strong Paβ emission (EW = –11.4 ± 0.3 Å), which signals the presence of a circumplanetary accretion disk. The luminosity of GSC 06214-00210 b combined with its age yields a model-dependent mass of 14 ± 2 M Jup , making it the lowest-mass companion to show evidence of a disk. With a projected separation of 320 AU, the formation of GSC 06214-00210 b and other very low mass companions on similarly wide orbits is unclear. One proposed mechanism is formation at close separations followed by planet-planet scattering to much larger orbits. Since that scenario involves a close encounter with another massive body, which is probably destructive to circumplanetary disks, it is unlikely that GSC 06214-00210 b underwent a scattering event in the past. This implies that planet-planet scattering is not solely responsible for the population of gas giants on wide orbits. More generally, the identification of disks around young planetary companions on wide orbits offers a novel method to constrain the formation pathway of these objects, which is otherwise notoriously difficult to do for individual systems. We also refine the spectral type of the primary from M1 to K7 and detect a mild (2σ) excess at 22 μm using Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry.

  10. PLANETARY NEBULAE IN FACE-ON SPIRAL GALAXIES. II. PLANETARY NEBULA SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Kimberly A.; Ciardullo, Robin

    2009-01-01

    As the second step in our investigation of the mass-to-light ratio of spiral disks, we present the results of a spectroscopic survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in five nearby, low-inclination galaxies: IC 342, M74 (NGC 628), M83 (NGC 5236), M94 (NGC 4736), and M101 (NGC 5457). Using 50 setups of the WIYN/Hydra and Blanco/Hydra spectrographs, and 25 observations with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope's Medium Resolution Spectrograph, we determine the radial velocities of 99, 102, 162, 127, and 48 PNe, respectively, to a precision better than 15 km s -1 . Although the main purpose of this data set is to facilitate dynamical mass measurements throughout the inner and outer disks of large spiral galaxies, our spectroscopy has other uses as well. Here, we co-add these spectra to show that, to first order, the [O III] and Balmer line ratios of PNe vary little over the top ∼1.5 mag of the PN luminosity function. The only obvious spectral change occurs with [N II], which increases in strength as one proceeds down the luminosity function. We also show that typical [O III]-bright planetaries have E(B - V) ∼ 0.2 of circumstellar extinction, and that this value is virtually independent of [O III] luminosity. We discuss the implications this has for understanding the population of PN progenitors.

  11. The Making of a Pre-Planetary Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    The gas expelled by dying stars gets twisted into intricate shapes and patterns as nebulae form. Now a team of researchers might have some answers about how this happens.Whats a Pre-Planetary Nebula?This H-R diagram for the globular cluster M5 shows where AGB stars lie: they are represented by blue markers here. The AGB is one of the final stages in a low- to intermediate-mass stars lifetime. [Lithopsian]When a low- to intermediate-mass star approaches the end of its lifetime, it moves onto the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) in the Herzsprung-Russell diagram. As the star exhausts its fuel here, it shrugs off its outer layers. These layers of gas then encase the stars core, which is not yet hot enough to ionize the gas and cause it to glow.Instead, during this time the gas is relatively cool and dark, faintly reflecting light from the star and emitting only very dim infrared emission of its own. At this stage, the gas represents a pre-planetary nebula. Only later when the stellar core contracts enough to heat up and emit ionizing radiation does the nebula begin to properly glow, at which point it qualifies as a full planetary nebula.Images of OH231 in optical light (top) and 12CO (bottom) taken from the literature. [See Balick et al. 2017 for full credit]Unexpected ShapesPre-planetary nebulae are a very short-lived evolutionary stage, so weve observed only a few hundred of them which has left many unanswered questions about these objects.One particular mystery is that of their shapes: if these nebulae are formed by stars expelling their outer layers, we would naively expect them to be simple spherical shells and yet we observe pre-planetary nebulae to have intricate shapes and patterns. How does the star create these asymmetric shapes? A team of scientists led by Bruce Balick (University of Washington, Seattle) has now used simulations to address this question.Injecting MassBalick and collaborators use 3D hydrodynamic simulations to model one particular pre-planetary

  12. On Some General Regularities of Formation of the Planetary Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyakov A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available J.Wheeler’s geometrodynamic concept has been used, in which space continuum is considered as a topologically non-unitary coherent surface admitting the existence of transitions of the input-output kind between distant regions of the space in an additional dimension. This model assumes the existence of closed structures (micro- and macro- contours formed due to the balance between main interactions: gravitational, electric, magnetic, and inertial forces. It is such macrocontours that have been demonstrated to form — independently of their material basis — the essential structure of objects at various levels of organization of matter. On the basis of this concept in this paper basic regularities acting during formation planetary systems have been obtained. The existence of two sharply different types of planetary systems has been determined. The dependencies linking the masses of the planets, the diameters of the planets, the orbital radii of the planet, and the mass of the central body have been deduced. The possibility of formation of Earth-like planets near brown dwarfs has been grounded. The minimum mass of the planet, which may arise in the planetary system, has been defined.

  13. HM Sagittae as a young planetary nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.; Purton, C.R.

    1979-01-01

    HM Sagittae is suggested to be a very young planetary nebula recently transformed from a red-giant star through continuous mass loss. The observational data for HM Sge have been analyzed in terms of the interacting stellar wind model of planetary nebula formation. The model is in accord with virtually all the spectral data available--radio, optical, and infrared--as well as with the remarkable brightening of HM Sge observed in 1975. In particular, all three gaseous components predicted by the model are observed in the optical spectrum. The density in the newly formed shell is found to be at least 5 x 10 7 cm -3 , a value considerably higher than that found by the conventional analysis, which assumes a single-component homogeneous nebula. The radio spectrum is dominated by free-free emission from the remnant red-giant wind. The infrared spectrum suggests the presence of two dust components, one consisting of silicate grains left over from the red-giant stage and the other of grains newly formed after the 1975 brightening. The low observed shell mass is consistent with the interacting stellar wind model but is not consistent with the conventional sudden-ejection model of planetary nebula formation

  14. NIRCam Coronagraphic Observations of Disks and Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichman, Charles A.; Ygouf, Marie; Gaspar, Andras; NIRCam Science Team

    2017-06-01

    The NIRCam coronagraph offers a dramatic increase in sensitivity at wavelengths of 3-5 um where young planets are brightest. While large ground-based telescopes with Extreme Adaptive Optics have an advantage in inner working angle, NIRCam's sensitivity will allow high precision photometry for known planets and searches for planets with masses below that of Saturn. For debris disk science NIRCam observations will address the scattering properties of dust, look for evidence of ices and tholins, and search for planets which affect the structure of the disk itself.The NIRCam team's GTO program includes medium-band filter observations of known young planets having 1-5 Jupiter masses. A collaborative program with the MIRI team will provide coronagraphic observations at longer wavelengths. The combined dataset will yield the exoplanet’s total luminosity and effective temperature, an estimate of the initial entropy of the newly-formed planet, and the retrieval of atmospheric properties.The program will also make deep searches for lower mass planets toward known planetary systems, nearby young M stars and debris disk systems. Achievable mass limits range from ~1 Jupiter mass beyond 20 AU for the brightest A stars to perhaps a Uranus mass within 10 AU for the closest M stars.We will discuss details of the coronagraphic program for both the exoplanet and debris disk cases with an emphasis on using APT to optimize the observations of target and reference stars.

  15. Formation of planetary nebulae with close binary nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livio, M; Salzman, J; Shaviv, G [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1979-07-01

    A model for the formation of planetary nebulae with a close binary as a nucleus is presented. The model is based on mass loss instability at L/sub 2/. The instability is demonstrated. The conditions on the mass loss are formulated and analysed. The observational consequence of the model is described briefly and its relation to symbiotic stars and cataclysmic binaries discussed.

  16. A bibliography of planetary geology principal investigators and their associates, 1982 - 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography cites recent publications by principal investigators and their associates, supported through NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications, Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, Planetary Geology Program. It serves as a companion piece to NASA TM-85127, ""Reports of Planetary Programs, 1982". Entries are listed under the following subject areas: solar system, comets, asteroids, meteorites and small bodies; geologic mapping, geomorphology, and stratigraphy; structure, tectonics, and planetary and satellite evolutions; impact craters; volcanism; fluvial, mass wasting, glacial and preglacial studies; Eolian and Arid climate studies; regolith, volatiles, atmosphere, and climate, radar; remote sensing and photometric studies; and cartography, photogrammetry, geodesy, and altimetry. An author index is provided.

  17. Initial results with the Berkeley on-line mass separator-RAMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerny, J.; Moltz, D.M.; Evans, H.C.; Vieira, D.J.; Parry, R.F.; Wouters, J.M.; Gough, R.A.; Zisman, M.S.

    1977-11-01

    Initial performance is described for a reasonably fast and universal (having little or no chemical selectivity) on-line mass analysis system used to expand capabilities in studying nuclei far from stability. The system is termed RAMA, an acronym for Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer. Basically, this system utilizes the helium-jet method to transport activity to a Sidenius hollow-cathode ion source which is coupled to a mass spectrometer. Initial experiments and planned improvements are discussed. Transport efficiencies of between 10 and 60 percent have routinely been achieved, though the latter is much more typical when conditions are optimized

  18. SEARCHING FOR SCATTERERS: HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING OF YOUNG STARS HOSTING WIDE-SEPARATION PLANETARY-MASS COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Marta L.; Mawet, Dimitri [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bowler, Brendan P.; Kraus, Adam L. [McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hinkley, Sasha [University of Exeter, Physics Department, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Nielsen, Eric L.; Blunt, Sarah C. [SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2016-08-20

    We have conducted an angular differential imaging survey with NIRC2 at Keck in search of close-in substellar companions to a sample of seven systems with confirmed planetary-mass companions (PMCs) on wide orbits (>50 au). These wide-separation PMCs pose significant challenges to all three possible formation mechanisms: core accretion plus scattering, disk instability, and turbulent fragmentation. We explore the possibility that these companions formed closer in and were scattered out to their present-day locations by searching for other massive bodies at smaller separations. The typical sensitivity for this survey is Δ K ∼ 12.5 at 1″. We identify eight candidate companions, whose masses would reach as low as one Jupiter mass if gravitationally bound. From our multi-epoch astrometry we determine that seven of these are conclusively background objects, while the eighth near DH Tau is ambiguous and requires additional monitoring. We rule out the presence of >7 M {sub Jup} bodies in these systems down to 15–50 au that could be responsible for scattering. This result combined with the totality of evidence suggests that dynamical scattering is unlikely to have produced this population of PMCs. We detect orbital motion from the companions ROXs 42B b and ROXs 12 b, and from this determine 95% upper limits on the companions’ eccentricities of 0.58 and 0.83 respectively. Finally, we find that the 95% upper limit on the occurrence rate of additional planets with masses between 5 and 15 M {sub Jup} outside of 40 au in systems with PMCs is 54%.

  19. SEARCHING FOR SCATTERERS: HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING OF YOUNG STARS HOSTING WIDE-SEPARATION PLANETARY-MASS COMPANIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, Marta L.; Mawet, Dimitri; Bowler, Brendan P.; Kraus, Adam L.; Knutson, Heather A.; Hinkley, Sasha; Nielsen, Eric L.; Blunt, Sarah C.

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted an angular differential imaging survey with NIRC2 at Keck in search of close-in substellar companions to a sample of seven systems with confirmed planetary-mass companions (PMCs) on wide orbits (>50 au). These wide-separation PMCs pose significant challenges to all three possible formation mechanisms: core accretion plus scattering, disk instability, and turbulent fragmentation. We explore the possibility that these companions formed closer in and were scattered out to their present-day locations by searching for other massive bodies at smaller separations. The typical sensitivity for this survey is Δ K ∼ 12.5 at 1″. We identify eight candidate companions, whose masses would reach as low as one Jupiter mass if gravitationally bound. From our multi-epoch astrometry we determine that seven of these are conclusively background objects, while the eighth near DH Tau is ambiguous and requires additional monitoring. We rule out the presence of >7 M Jup bodies in these systems down to 15–50 au that could be responsible for scattering. This result combined with the totality of evidence suggests that dynamical scattering is unlikely to have produced this population of PMCs. We detect orbital motion from the companions ROXs 42B b and ROXs 12 b, and from this determine 95% upper limits on the companions’ eccentricities of 0.58 and 0.83 respectively. Finally, we find that the 95% upper limit on the occurrence rate of additional planets with masses between 5 and 15 M Jup outside of 40 au in systems with PMCs is 54%.

  20. of Planetary Nebulae III. NGC 6781

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo E. Schwarz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuing our series of papers on the three-dimensional (3D structures and accurate distances to Planetary Nebulae (PNe, we present our study of the planetary nebula NGC6781. For this object we construct a 3D photoionization model and, using the constraints provided by observational data from the literature we determine the detailed 3D structure of the nebula, the physical parameters of the ionizing source and the first precise distance. The procedure consists in simultaneously fitting all the observed emission line morphologies, integrated intensities and the two-dimensional (2D density map from the [SII] (sulfur II line ratios to the parameters generated by the model, and in an iterative way obtain the best fit for the central star parameters and the distance to NGC6781, obtaining values of 950±143 pc (parsec – astronomic distance unit and 385 LΘ (solar luminosity for the distance and luminosity of the central star respectively. Using theoretical evolutionary tracks of intermediate and low mass stars, we derive the mass of the central star of NGC6781 and its progenitor to be 0.60±0.03MΘ (solar mass and 1.5±0.5MΘ respectively.

  1. A Dual Power Law Distribution for the Stellar Initial Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Karl Heinz; Essex, Christopher; Basu, Shantanu; Prehl, Janett

    2018-05-01

    We introduce a new dual power law (DPL) probability distribution function for the mass distribution of stellar and substellar objects at birth, otherwise known as the initial mass function (IMF). The model contains both deterministic and stochastic elements, and provides a unified framework within which to view the formation of brown dwarfs and stars resulting from an accretion process that starts from extremely low mass seeds. It does not depend upon a top down scenario of collapsing (Jeans) masses or an initial lognormal or otherwise IMF-like distribution of seed masses. Like the modified lognormal power law (MLP) distribution, the DPL distribution has a power law at the high mass end, as a result of exponential growth of mass coupled with equally likely stopping of accretion at any time interval. Unlike the MLP, a power law decay also appears at the low mass end of the IMF. This feature is closely connected to the accretion stopping probability rising from an initially low value up to a high value. This might be associated with physical effects of ejections sometimes (i.e., rarely) stopping accretion at early times followed by outflow driven accretion stopping at later times, with the transition happening at a critical time (therefore mass). Comparing the DPL to empirical data, the critical mass is close to the substellar mass limit, suggesting that the onset of nuclear fusion plays an important role in the subsequent accretion history of a young stellar object.

  2. Stellar Initial Mass Function: Trends With Galaxy Mass And Radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Taniya

    2017-06-01

    There is currently no consensus about the exact shape and, in particular, the universality of the stellar initial mass function (IMF). For massive galaxies, it has been found that near-infrared (NIR) absorption features, which are sensitive to the ratio of dwarf to giant stars, deviate from a Milky Way-like IMF; their modelling seems to require a larger fraction of low mass stars. There are now increasing results looking at whether the IMF varies not only with galaxy mass, but also radially within galaxies. The SDSS-IV/MaNGA integral-field survey will provide spatially resolved spectroscopy for 10,000 galaxies at R 2000 from 360-1000nm. Spectra of early-type galaxies were stacked to achieve high S/N which is particularly important for features in the NIR. Trends with galaxy radius and mass were compared to stellar population models for a range of absorption features in order to separate degeneracies due to changes in stellar population parameters, such as age, metallicity and element abundances, with potential changes in the IMF. Results for 611 galaxies show that we do not require an IMF steeper than Kroupa as a function of galaxy mass or radius based on the NaI index. The Wing-Ford band hints towards a steeper IMF at large radii however we do not have reliable measurements for the most massive galaxies.

  3. Mass loss by stars on the asymptotic giant branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantsman, Yu.L.

    1986-01-01

    The theoretical populations of white dwarfs and carbon stars were generated for Salpeter initial mass function and constant stellar birth rate history. The effect of very strong mass loss on the mass distribution of white dwarfs and luminosity distribution of carbon stars is discussed and the results are compared with observations. This comparison suggested that a signioficant mass loss by stars on the asymptotic giant branch occurs besides stellar wind and planetary nebulae ejection. Thus it is possible to explain the absence of carbon stars with Msub(bol) 1.0 Msub(sun). The luminosity of asymptotic giant branch stars in the globular clusters of the Magellanic Clouds appears to be a very good indicator of the age

  4. MODELING PLANETARY SYSTEM FORMATION WITH N-BODY SIMULATIONS: ROLE OF GAS DISK AND STATISTICS COMPARED TO OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huigen; Zhou Jilin; Wang Su

    2011-01-01

    During the late stage of planet formation, when Mars-sized cores appear, interactions among planetary cores can excite their orbital eccentricities, accelerate their merging, and thus sculpt their final orbital architecture. This study contributes to the final assembling of planetary systems with N-body simulations, including the type I or II migration of planets and gas accretion of massive cores in a viscous disk. Statistics on the final distributions of planetary masses, semimajor axes, and eccentricities are derived and are comparable to those of the observed systems. Our simulations predict some new orbital signatures of planetary systems around solar mass stars: 36% of the surviving planets are giant planets (>10 M + ). Most of the massive giant planets (>30 M + ) are located at 1-10 AU. Terrestrial planets are distributed more or less evenly at J in highly eccentric orbits (e > 0.3-0.4). The average eccentricity (∼0.15) of the giant planets (>10 M + ) is greater than that (∼0.05) of the terrestrial planets ( + ). A planetary system with more planets tends to have smaller planet masses and orbital eccentricities on average.

  5. SPEX: the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, J. H. H.; Snik, F.; Stam, D. M.; Smit, J. M.; van Harten, G.; Keller, C. U.; Verlaan, A. L.; Laan, E. C.; ter Horst, R.; Navarro, R.; Wielinga, K.; Moon, S. G.; Voors, R.

    2017-11-01

    We present SPEX, the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary Exploration, which is a compact, robust and low-mass spectropolarimeter designed to operate from an orbiting or in situ platform. Its purpose is to simultaneously measure the radiance and the state (degree and angle) of linear polarization of sunlight that has been scattered in a planetary atmosphere and/or reflected by a planetary surface with high accuracy. The degree of linear polarization is extremely sensitive to the microphysical properties of atmospheric or surface particles (such as size, shape, and composition), and to the vertical distribution of atmospheric particles, such as cloud top altitudes. Measurements as those performed by SPEX are therefore crucial and often the only tool for disentangling the many parameters that describe planetary atmospheres and surfaces. SPEX uses a novel, passive method for its radiance and polarization observations that is based on a carefully selected combination of polarization optics. This method, called spectral modulation, is the modulation of the radiance spectrum in both amplitude and phase by the degree and angle of linear polarization, respectively. The polarization optics consists of an achromatic quarter-wave retarder, an athermal multiple-order retarder, and a polarizing beam splitter. We will show first results obtained with the recently developed prototype of the SPEX instrument, and present a performance analysis based on a dedicated vector radiative transport model together with a recently developed SPEX instrument simulator.

  6. The initial masses of the red supergiant progenitors to Type II supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ben; Beasor, Emma R.

    2018-02-01

    There are a growing number of nearby supernovae (SNe) for which the progenitor star is detected in archival pre-explosion imaging. From these images it is possible to measure the progenitor's brightness a few years before explosion, and ultimately estimate its initial mass. Previous work has shown that II-P and II-L SNe have red supergiant (RSG) progenitors, and that the range of initial masses for these progenitors seems to be limited to ≲ 17 M⊙. This is in contrast with the cut-off of 25-30 M⊙ predicted by evolutionary models, a result that is termed the `red supergiant problem'. Here we investigate one particular source of systematic error present in converting pre-explosion photometry into an initial mass, which of the bolometric correction (BC) used to convert a single-band flux into a bolometric luminosity. We show, using star clusters, that RSGs evolve to later spectral types as they approach SN, which in turn causes the BC to become larger. Failure to account for this results in a systematic underestimate of a star's luminosity, and hence its initial mass. Using our empirically motivated BCs we reappraise the II-P and II-L SNe that have their progenitors detected in pre-explosion imaging. Fitting an initial mass function to these updated masses results in an increased upper mass cut-off of Mhi = 19.0^{+2.5}_{-1.3} M⊙, with a 95 per cent upper confidence limit of <27 M⊙. Accounting for finite sample size effects and systematic uncertainties in the mass-luminosity relationship raises the cut-off to Mhi = 25 M⊙ (<33 M⊙, 95 per cent confidence). We therefore conclude that there is currently no strong evidence for `missing' high-mass progenitors to core-collapse SNe.

  7. Planetary Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  8. Formation of Planetary Populations I: Metallicity & Envelope Opacity Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, Matthew; Pudritz, Ralph E.

    2018-05-01

    We present a comprehensive body of simulations of the formation of exoplanetary populations that incorporate the role of planet traps in slowing planetary migration. The traps we include in our model are the water ice line, the disk heat transition, and the dead zone outer edge. We reduce our model parameter set to two physical parameters: the opacity of the accreting planetary atmospheres (κenv) and a measure of the efficiency of planetary accretion after gap opening (fmax). We perform planet population synthesis calculations based on the initial observed distributions of host star and disk properties - their disk masses, lifetimes, and stellar metallicities. We find the frequency of giant planet formation scales with disk metallicity, in agreement with the observed Jovian planet frequency-metallicity relation. We consider both X-ray and cosmic ray disk ionization models, whose differing ionization rates lead to different dead zone trap locations. In both cases, Jovian planets form in our model out to 2-3 AU, with a distribution at smaller radii dependent on the disk ionization source and the setting of envelope opacity. We find that low values of κenv (0.001-0.002 cm2 g-1) and X-ray disk ionization are necessary to obtain a separation between hot Jupiters near 0.1 AU, and warm Jupiters outside 0.6 AU, a feature present in the data. Our model also produces a large number of super Earths, but the majority are outside of 2 AU. As our model assumes a constant dust to gas ratio, we suggest that radial dust evolution must be taken into account to reproduce the observed super Earth population.

  9. From Planetary Mapping to Map Production: Planetary Cartography as integral discipline in Planetary Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Andrea; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hargitai, Hendrik; Hare, Trent; Manaud, Nicolas; Karachevtseva, Irina; Kersten, Elke; Roatsch, Thomas; Wählisch, Marita; Kereszturi, Akos

    2016-04-01

    Cartography is one of the most important communication channels between users of spatial information and laymen as well as the open public alike. This applies to all known real-world objects located either here on Earth or on any other object in our Solar System. In planetary sciences, however, the main use of cartography resides in a concept called planetary mapping with all its various attached meanings: it can be (1) systematic spacecraft observation from orbit, i.e. the retrieval of physical information, (2) the interpretation of discrete planetary surface units and their abstraction, or it can be (3) planetary cartography sensu strictu, i.e., the technical and artistic creation of map products. As the concept of planetary mapping covers a wide range of different information and knowledge levels, aims associated with the concept of mapping consequently range from a technical and engineering focus to a scientific distillation process. Among others, scientific centers focusing on planetary cartography are the United State Geological Survey (USGS, Flagstaff), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK, Moscow), Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE, Hungary), and the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Berlin). The International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Commission Planetary Cartography within International Cartographic Association (ICA), the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the WG IV/8 Planetary Mapping and Spatial Databases within International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) and a range of other institutions contribute on definition frameworks in planetary cartography. Classical cartography is nowadays often (mis-)understood as a tool mainly rather than a scientific discipline and an art of communication. Consequently, concepts of information systems, mapping tools and cartographic frameworks are used interchangeably, and cartographic workflows and visualization of spatial information in thematic maps have often been

  10. Relation between initial and minimum final white dwarf mass for Population I stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzitelli, I.; Dantona, F.

    1986-12-01

    The evolutionary paths for Population I stars having initial masses 1, 2.5, 3, 4, and 5 solar masses were computed from the homogeneous main sequence to the onset of the first major thermal pulse to evaluate the minimum mass and the chemical stratification of the remnant white dwarf (WD) associated with each parent mass. The helium flash phase was followed in detail for a 2.5 solar masses star, whereas for the 1 solar mass star the flash was bypassed, and the models at the beginning of the steady central helium burning phase were obtained by means of a scaling procedure upon the properly computed total and core masses. The results show that for a parent ranging between 1-3 solar masses the core mass at the first thermal pulse ranges only from 0.64-0.69 solar mass. If some very fast mass-loss mechanism is triggered in connection with the early stages of the thermal pulse phase, as suggested by the observed deficiency of asymptotic giant branch stars, the relation between final and initial mass is almost flat at least up to an initial mass of 3 solar masses, and the mass spectrum of the WDs is narrow and heavily peaked around 0.65 solar mass. 53 references.

  11. Relation between initial and minimum final white dwarf mass for Population I stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzitelli, I.; Dantona, F.; CNR, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati; Roma, Osservatorio Astronomico, Rome, Italy)

    1986-01-01

    The evolutionary paths for Population I stars having initial masses 1, 2.5, 3, 4, and 5 solar masses were computed from the homogeneous main sequence to the onset of the first major thermal pulse to evaluate the minimum mass and the chemical stratification of the remnant white dwarf (WD) associated with each parent mass. The helium flash phase was followed in detail for a 2.5 solar masses star, whereas for the 1 solar mass star the flash was bypassed, and the models at the beginning of the steady central helium burning phase were obtained by means of a scaling procedure upon the properly computed total and core masses. The results show that for a parent ranging between 1-3 solar masses the core mass at the first thermal pulse ranges only from 0.64-0.69 solar mass. If some very fast mass-loss mechanism is triggered in connection with the early stages of the thermal pulse phase, as suggested by the observed deficiency of asymptotic giant branch stars, the relation between final and initial mass is almost flat at least up to an initial mass of 3 solar masses, and the mass spectrum of the WDs is narrow and heavily peaked around 0.65 solar mass. 53 references

  12. Planets around pulsars - Implications for planetary formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Data on planets around pulsars are summarized, and different models intended to explain the formation mechanism are described. Both theoretical and observational evidence suggest that very special circumstances are required for the formation of planetary systems around pulsars, namely, the prior presence of a millisecond pulsar with a close binary companion, probably a low mass main-sequence star. It is concluded that the discovery of two planets around PSR 1257+12 is important for better understanding the problems of dynamics and stellar evolution. The process of planetary formation should be learned through intensive studies of the properties of disks near young objects and application of techniques for detection of planets around main-sequence solar-type stars.

  13. Galactic planetary nebulae and evolution of their nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khromov, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    The galactic system of planetary nebulae is investigated using previously constructed distance scale and kinematics data. A strong effect of observational selection is established, which has the consequence that with increasing distance, ever brighter and younger objects are observed. More accurate determinations of the spatial and surface densities of the planetary nebulae system are obtained as well as a new estimate of their total number in the Galaxy, which is approximately 200,000. New estimates are also made of the masses of the nebulae, the absolute magnitudes of the nebulae and their nuclei, and other physical parameters of these objects. The spatial and kinematic characteristics of the planetary nebulae indicate that they are objects of the old type I population. It is possible that their remote ancestors are main sequence stars of the type B8-A5-F or as yet unidentified objects of the same galactic subsystem

  14. Characterizing K2 Candidate Planetary Systems Orbiting Low-Mass Stars. I. Classifying Low-Mass Host Stars Observed During Campaigns 1-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Charbomeau, David; Krutson, Heather A.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Sinukoff, Evan

    2017-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectra for 144 candidate planetary systems identified during Campaigns 1-7 of the NASA K2 Mission. The goal of the survey was to characterize planets orbiting low-mass stars, but our Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX and Palomar/TripleSpec spectroscopic observations revealed that 49% of our targets were actually giant stars or hotter dwarfs reddened by interstellar extinction. For the 72 stars with spectra consistent with classification as cool dwarfs (spectral types K3-M4), we refined their stellar properties by applying empirical relations based on stars with interferometric radius measurements. Although our revised temperatures are generally consistent with those reported in the Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC), our revised stellar radii are typically 0.13 solar radius (39%) larger than the EPIC values, which were based on model isochrones that have been shown to underestimate the radii of cool dwarfs. Our improved stellar characterizations will enable more efficient prioritization of K2 targets for follow-up studies.

  15. Shaping of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balick, B.

    1987-01-01

    The phases of stellar evolution and the development of planetary nebulae are examined. The relation between planetary nebulae and red giants is studied. Spherical and nonspherical cases of shaping planetaries with stellar winds are described. CCD images of nebulae are analyzed, and it is determined that the shape of planetary nebulae depends on ionization levels. Consideration is given to calculating the distances of planetaries using radio images, and molecular hydrogen envelopes which support the wind-shaping model of planetary nebulae

  16. The signatures of the parental cluster on field planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Maxwell Xu; Portegies Zwart, Simon; van Elteren, Arjen

    2018-03-01

    Due to the high stellar densities in young clusters, planetary systems formed in these environments are likely to have experienced perturbations from encounters with other stars. We carry out direct N-body simulations of multiplanet systems in star clusters to study the combined effects of stellar encounters and internal planetary dynamics. These planetary systems eventually become part of the Galactic field population as the parental cluster dissolves, which is where most presently known exoplanets are observed. We show that perturbations induced by stellar encounters lead to distinct signatures in the field planetary systems, most prominently, the excited orbital inclinations and eccentricities. Planetary systems that form within the cluster's half-mass radius are more prone to such perturbations. The orbital elements are most strongly excited in the outermost orbit, but the effect propagates to the entire planetary system through secular evolution. Planet ejections may occur long after a stellar encounter. The surviving planets in these reduced systems tend to have, on average, higher inclinations and larger eccentricities compared to systems that were perturbed less strongly. As soon as the parental star cluster dissolves, external perturbations stop affecting the escaped planetary systems, and further evolution proceeds on a relaxation time-scale. The outer regions of these ejected planetary systems tend to relax so slowly that their state carries the memory of their last strong encounter in the star cluster. Regardless of the stellar density, we observe a robust anticorrelation between multiplicity and mean inclination/eccentricity. We speculate that the `Kepler dichotomy' observed in field planetary systems is a natural consequence of their early evolution in the parental cluster.

  17. AN INITIAL MASS FUNCTION FOR INDIVIDUAL STARS IN GALACTIC DISKS. I. CONSTRAINING THE SHAPE OF THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parravano, Antonio; McKee, Christopher F.; Hollenbach, David J.

    2011-01-01

    We derive a semi-empirical galactic initial mass function (IMF) from observational constraints. We assume that the IMF, ψ(m), is a smooth function of the stellar mass m. The mass dependence of the proposed IMF is determined by five parameters: the low-mass slope γ, the high-mass slope -Γ (taken to be -1.35), the characteristic mass m ch (∼ the peak mass of the IMF), and the lower and upper limits on the mass, m l and m u (taken to be 0.004 and 120 M sun , respectively): ψ(m)dln m ∝ m -Γ {1 - exp [- (m/m ch ) γ+Γ ]}dln m. The values of γ and m ch are derived from two integral constraints: (1) the ratio of the number density of stars in the range m = 0.1-0.6 M sun to that in the range m = 0.6-0.8 M sun as inferred from the mass distribution of field stars in the local neighborhood and (2) the ratio of the number of stars in the range m = 0.08-1 M sun to the number of brown dwarfs in the range m = 0.03-0.08 M sun in young clusters. The IMF satisfying the above constraints is characterized by the parameters γ = 0.51 and m ch = 0.35 M sun (which corresponds to a peak mass of 0.27 M sun ). This IMF agrees quite well with the Chabrier IMF for the entire mass range over which we have compared with data, but predicts significantly more stars with masses sun ; we also compare with other IMFs in current use and give a number of important parameters implied by the IMFs.

  18. Planetary Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.

    2007-01-01

    The chapter on Planetary Magnetism by Connerney describes the magnetic fields of the planets, from Mercury to Neptune, including the large satellites (Moon, Ganymede) that have or once had active dynamos. The chapter describes the spacecraft missions and observations that, along with select remote observations, form the basis of our knowledge of planetary magnetic fields. Connerney describes the methods of analysis used to characterize planetary magnetic fields, and the models used to represent the main field (due to dynamo action in the planet's interior) and/or remnant magnetic fields locked in the planet's crust, where appropriate. These observations provide valuable insights into dynamo generation of magnetic fields, the structure and composition of planetary interiors, and the evolution of planets.

  19. G25.5 + 0.2: a very young supernova remnant or a galactic planetary nebula?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.L.; Becker, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    G25.5 + 0.2, a radio source suggested by previous authors to be a very young galactic supernova remnant, is more likely to be a planetary nebula. Its IRAS colours and fluxes and its radio spectrum and morphology are all consistent with the properties of planetary nebulae; its radio flux and distance imply a large mass of ionized gas, which is expected from a Type I planetary nebula lying in the galactic plane. We suggest some definitive observations which should be able to determine whether this interesting object is a planetary nebula or a supernova remnant. (author)

  20. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis and Optimization of Closed-Form Planetary Gear System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilin Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear purely rotational dynamic model of a multistage closed-form planetary gear set formed by two simple planetary stages is proposed in this study. The model includes time-varying mesh stiffness, excitation fluctuation and gear backlash nonlinearities. The nonlinear differential equations of motion are solved numerically using variable step-size Runge-Kutta. In order to obtain function expression of optimization objective, the nonlinear differential equations of motion are solved analytically using harmonic balance method (HBM. Based on the analytical solution of dynamic equations, the optimization mathematical model which aims at minimizing the vibration displacement of the low-speed carrier and the total mass of the gear transmission system is established. The optimization toolbox in MATLAB program is adopted to obtain the optimal solution. A case is studied to demonstrate the effectiveness of the dynamic model and the optimization method. The results show that the dynamic properties of the closed-form planetary gear transmission system have been improved and the total mass of the gear set has been decreased significantly.

  1. Masses of the Planetary Nebula Central Stars in the Galactic Globular Cluster System from HST Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacoby, George H. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Marco, Orsola De [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Davies, James [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore MD 21218 (United States); Lotarevich, I. [American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Harrington, J. Patrick [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Lanz, Thierry, E-mail: gjacoby@lowell.edu, E-mail: orsola.demarco@mq.edu.au, E-mail: jdavies@stsci.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: jph@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: thierry.lanz@oca.eu [Laboratoire Lagrange, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, F-06304 Nice (France)

    2017-02-10

    The globular cluster (GC) system of our Galaxy contains four planetary nebulae (PNe): K 648 (or Ps 1) in M15, IRAS 18333-2357 in M22, JaFu 1 in Pal 6, and JaFu 2 in NGC 6441. Because single-star evolution at the low stellar mass of present-epoch GCs was considered incapable of producing visible PNe, their origin presented a puzzle. We imaged the PN JaFu 1 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to obtain photometry of its central star (CS) and high-resolution morphological information. We imaged IRAS 18333-2357 with better depth and resolution, and we analyzed its archival HST spectra to constrain its CS temperature and luminosity. All PNe in Galactic GCs now have quality HST data, allowing us to improve CS mass estimates. We find reasonably consistent masses between 0.53 and 0.58 M {sub ⊙} for all four objects, though estimates vary when adopting different stellar evolutionary calculations. The CS mass of IRAS 18333-2357, though, depends strongly on its temperature, which remains elusive due to reddening uncertainties. For all four objects, we consider their CS and nebula masses, their morphologies, and other incongruities to assess the likelihood that these objects formed from binary stars. Although generally limited by uncertainties (∼0.02 M {sub ⊙}) in post-AGB tracks and core mass versus luminosity relations, the high-mass CS in K 648 indicates a binary origin. The CS of JaFu 1 exhibits compact, bright [O iii] and H α emission, like EGB 6, suggesting a binary companion or disk. Evidence is weaker for a binary origin of JaFu 2.

  2. The architecture and formation of the Kepler-30 planetary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichi, F.; Goździewski, K.; Migaszewski, C.; Szuszkiewicz, E.

    2018-04-01

    We study the orbital architecture, physical characteristics of planets, formation and long-term evolution of the Kepler-30 planetary system, detected and announced in 2012 by the KEPLER team. We show that the Kepler-30 system belongs to a particular class of very compact and quasi-resonant, yet long-term stable planetary systems. We re-analyse the light curves of the host star spanning Q1-Q17 quarters of the KEPLER mission. A huge variability of the Transit Timing Variations (TTV) exceeding 2 days is induced by a massive Jovian planet located between two Neptune-like companions. The innermost pair is near to the 2:1 mean motion resonance (MMR), and the outermost pair is close to higher order MMRs, such as 17:7 and 7:3. Our re-analysis of photometric data allows us to constrain, better than before, the orbital elements, planets' radii and masses, which are 9.2 ± 0.1, 536 ± 5, and 23.7 ± 1.3 Earth masses for Kepler-30b, Kepler-30c and Kepler-30d, respectively. The masses of the inner planets are determined within ˜1% uncertainty. We infer the internal structures of the Kepler-30 planets and their bulk densities in a wide range from (0.19 ± 0.01) g.cm-3 for Kepler-30d, (0.96 ± 0.15) g.cm-3 for Kepler-30b, to (1.71 ± 0.13) g.cm-3 for the Jovian planet Kepler-30c. We attempt to explain the origin of this unique planetary system and a deviation of the orbits from exact MMRs through the planetary migration scenario. We anticipate that the Jupiter-like planet plays an important role in determining the present dynamical state of this system.

  3. ORBSIM- ESTIMATING GEOPHYSICAL MODEL PARAMETERS FROM PLANETARY GRAVITY DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, W. L.

    1994-01-01

    The ORBSIM program was developed for the accurate extraction of geophysical model parameters from Doppler radio tracking data acquired from orbiting planetary spacecraft. The model of the proposed planetary structure is used in a numerical integration of the spacecraft along simulated trajectories around the primary body. Using line of sight (LOS) Doppler residuals, ORBSIM applies fast and efficient modelling and optimization procedures which avoid the traditional complex dynamic reduction of data. ORBSIM produces quantitative geophysical results such as size, depth, and mass. ORBSIM has been used extensively to investigate topographic features on the Moon, Mars, and Venus. The program has proven particulary suitable for modelling gravitational anomalies and mascons. The basic observable for spacecraft-based gravity data is the Doppler frequency shift of a transponded radio signal. The time derivative of this signal carries information regarding the gravity field acting on the spacecraft in the LOS direction (the LOS direction being the path between the spacecraft and the receiving station, either Earth or another satellite). There are many dynamic factors taken into account: earth rotation, solar radiation, acceleration from planetary bodies, tracking station time and location adjustments, etc. The actual trajectories of the spacecraft are simulated using least squares fitted to conic motion. The theoretical Doppler readings from the simulated orbits are compared to actual Doppler observations and another least squares adjustment is made. ORBSIM has three modes of operation: trajectory simulation, optimization, and gravity modelling. In all cases, an initial gravity model of curved and/or flat disks, harmonics, and/or a force table are required input. ORBSIM is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX 11/780 computer operating under VMS. This program was released in 1985.

  4. OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb, the Most Massive M-Dwarf Planetary Companion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, S; Gould, A; Udalski, A; Anderson, J; Christie, G W; Gaudi, B S; Jaroszynski, M; Kubiak, M; Szymanski, M K; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I; Szewczyk, O; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, L; DePoy, D L; Fox, D B; Gal-Yam, A; Han, C; Lepine, S; McCormick, J; Ofek, E; Park, B; Pogge, R W; Abe, F; Bennett, D P; Bond, I A; Britton, T R; Gilmore, A C; Hearnshaw, J B; Itow, Y; Kamiya, K; Kilmartin, P M; Korpela, A; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Motomura, M; Muraki, Y; Nakamura, S; Ohnishi, K; Okada, C; Rattenbury, N; Saito, T; Sako, T; Sasaki, M; Sullivan, D; Sumi, T; Tristram, P J; Yanagisawa, T; Yock, P M; Yoshoika, T; Albrow, M D; Beaulieu, J P; Brillant, S; Calitz, H; Cassan, A; Cook, K H; Coutures, C; Dieters, S; Prester, D D; Donatowicz, J; Fouque, P; Greenhill, J; Hill, K; Hoffman, M; Horne, K; J?rgensen, U G; Kane, S; Kubas, D; Marquette, J B; Martin, R; Meintjes, P; Menzies, J; Pollard, K R; Sahu, K C; Vinter, C; Wambsganss, J; Williams, A; Bode, M; Bramich, D M; Burgdorf, M; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I; Doublier, V; Foelmi, C

    2008-04-18

    We combine all available information to constrain the nature of OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb, the second planet discovered by microlensing and the first in a high-magnification event. These include photometric and astrometric measurements from Hubble Space Telescope, as well as constraints from higher-order effects extracted from the ground-based light curve, such as microlens parallax, planetary orbital motion and finite-source effects. Our primary analysis leads to the conclusion that the host of Jovian planet OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb is a foreground M dwarf, with mass M = 0.46 {+-} 0.04M{sub {circle_dot}}, distance D{sub l} = 3.3 {+-} 0.4 kpc, and thick-disk kinematics {nu}{sub LSR} {approx} 103 km s{sup -1}. From the best-fit model, the planet has mass M{sub p} = 3.5 {+-} 0.3 M{sub Jupiter}, lies at a projected separation r{sub {perpendicular}} = 3.6 {+-} 0.2 AU from its host and has an equilibrium temperature of T {approx} 50 K, i.e., similar to Neptune. A degenerate model less favored by {Delta}{sub {chi}}{sup 2} {approx} 4 gives essentially the same planetary mass M{sub p} = 3.3 {+-} 0.3 M{sub Jupiter} with a smaller projected separation, r{sub {perpendicular}} = 2.1 {+-} 0.1 AU, and higher equilibrium temperature T {approx} 68 K. These results from the primary analysis suggest that OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb is likely to be the most massive planet yet discovered that is hosted by an M dwarf. However, the formation of such high-mass planetary companions in the outer regions of M-dwarf planetary systems is predicted to be unlikely within the core-accretion scenario. There are a number of caveats to this analysis, but these could mostly be resolved by a single astrometric measurement a few years after the event.

  5. The Demographics and Properties of Wide-Orbit, Planetary-Mass Companions from PSF Fitting of Spitzer/IRAC Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raquel; Kraus, Adam L.

    2017-06-01

    Over the past decade, a growing population of planetary-mass companions ( 100 AU) from their host stars, challenging existing models of both star and planet formation. It is unclear whether these systems represent the low-mass extreme of stellar binary formation or the high-mass and wide-orbit extreme of planet formation theories, as various proposed formation pathways inadequately explain the physical and orbital aspects of these systems. Even so, determining which scenario best reproduces the observed characteristics of the PMCs will come once a statistically robust sample of directly-imaged PMCs are found and studied.We are developing an automated pipeline to search for wide-orbit PMCs to young stars in Spitzer/IRAC images. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is the backbone of our novel point spread function (PSF) subtraction routine that efficiently creates and subtracts χ2-minimizing instrumental PSFs, simultaneously measuring astrometry and infrared photometry of these systems across the four IRAC channels (3.6 μm, 4.5 μm, 5.8 μm, and 8 μm). In this work, we present the results of a Spitzer/IRAC archival imaging study of 11 young, low-mass (0.044-0.88 M⊙ K3.5-M7.5) stars known to have faint, low-mass companions in 3 nearby star-forming regions (Chameleon, Taurus, and Upper Scorpius). We characterize the systems found to have low-mass companions with non-zero [I1] - [I4] colors, potentially signifying the presence of a circum(sub?)stellar disk. Plans for future pipeline improvements and paths forward will also be discussed. Once this computational foundation is optimized, the stage is set to quickly scour the nearby star-forming regions already imaged by Spitzer, identify potential candidates for further characterization with ground- or space-based telescopes, and increase the number of widely-separated PMCs known.

  6. INPOP17a planetary ephemerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, V.; Fienga, A.; Gastineau, M.; Laskar, J.

    2017-08-01

    Based on the use of Cassini radio tracking data and the introduction of LLR data obtained at 1064 nm, a new planetary ephemerides INPOP17a was built including improvements for the planet orbits as well as for Moon ephemerides. Besides new asteroid masses, new parameters related to the inner structure of the Moon were obtained and presented here. Comparisons with values found in the literature are also discussed. LLR Residuals reach the centimeter level for the new INPOP17a ephemerides.

  7. Planetary Data Systems (PDS) Imaging Node Atlas II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanboli, Alice; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Planetary Image Atlas (PIA) is a Rich Internet Application (RIA) that serves planetary imaging data to the science community and the general public. PIA also utilizes the USGS Unified Planetary Coordinate system (UPC) and the on-Mars map server. The Atlas was designed to provide the ability to search and filter through greater than 8 million planetary image files. This software is a three-tier Web application that contains a search engine backend (MySQL, JAVA), Web service interface (SOAP) between server and client, and a GWT Google Maps API client front end. This application allows for the search, retrieval, and download of planetary images and associated meta-data from the following missions: 2001 Mars Odyssey, Cassini, Galileo, LCROSS, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, Magellan, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MESSENGER, Phoe nix, Viking Lander, Viking Orbiter, and Voyager. The Atlas utilizes the UPC to translate mission-specific coordinate systems into a unified coordinate system, allowing the end user to query across missions of similar targets. If desired, the end user can also use a mission-specific view of the Atlas. The mission-specific views rely on the same code base. This application is a major improvement over the initial version of the Planetary Image Atlas. It is a multi-mission search engine. This tool includes both basic and advanced search capabilities, providing a product search tool to interrogate the collection of planetary images. This tool lets the end user query information about each image, and ignores the data that the user has no interest in. Users can reduce the number of images to look at by defining an area of interest with latitude and longitude ranges.

  8. Planetary magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, T.W.; Michel, F.C.

    1975-01-01

    Recent planetary probes have resulted in the realization of the generality of magnetospheric interactions between the solar wind and the planets. The three categories of planetary magnetospheres are discussed: intrinsic slowly rotating magnetospheres, intrinsic rapidly rotating magnetospheres, and induced magnetospheres. (BJG)

  9. To See the Unseen: A History of Planetary Radar Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrica, Andrew J.

    1996-01-01

    This book relates the history of planetary radar astronomy from its origins in radar to the present day and secondarily to bring to light that history as a case of 'Big Equipment but not Big Science'. Chapter One sketches the emergence of radar astronomy as an ongoing scientific activity at Jodrell Bank, where radar research revealed that meteors were part of the solar system. The chief Big Science driving early radar astronomy experiments was ionospheric research. Chapter Two links the Cold War and the Space Race to the first radar experiments attempted on planetary targets, while recounting the initial achievements of planetary radar, namely, the refinement of the astronomical unit and the rotational rate and direction of Venus. Chapter Three discusses early attempts to organize radar astronomy and the efforts at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory, in conjunction with Harvard radio astronomers, to acquire antenna time unfettered by military priorities. Here, the chief Big Science influencing the development of planetary radar astronomy was radio astronomy. Chapter Four spotlights the evolution of planetary radar astronomy at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a NASA facility, at Cornell University's Arecibo Observatory, and at Jodrell Bank. A congeries of funding from the military, the National Science Foundation, and finally NASA marked that evolution, which culminated in planetary radar astronomy finding a single Big Science patron, NASA. Chapter Five analyzes planetary radar astronomy as a science using the theoretical framework provided by philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn. Chapter Six explores the shift in planetary radar astronomy beginning in the 1970s that resulted from its financial and institutional relationship with NASA Big Science. Chapter Seven addresses the Magellan mission and its relation to the evolution of planetary radar astronomy from a ground-based to a space-based activity. Chapters Eight and Nine discuss the research carried out at ground

  10. The final fate of planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensicke, Boris

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of the first extra-solar planet around a main-sequence star in 1995 has changed the way we think about the Universe: our solar system is not unique. Twenty years later, we know that planetary systems are ubiquitous, orbit stars spanning a wide range in mass, and form in an astonishing variety of architectures. Yet, one fascinating aspect of planetary systems has received relatively little attention so far: their ultimate fate.Most planet hosts will eventually evolve into white dwarfs, Earth-sized stellar embers, and the outer parts of their planetary systems (in the solar system, Mars and beyond) can survive largely intact for billions of years. While scattered and tidally disrupted planetesimals are directly detected at a small number of white dwarfs in the form infrared excess, the most powerful probe for detecting evolved planetary systems is metal pollution of the otherwise pristine H/He atmospheres.I will present the results of a multi-cycle HST survey that has obtained COS observations of 136 white dwarfs. These ultraviolet spectra are exquisitely sensitive to the presence of metals contaminating the white atmosphere. Our sophisticated model atmosphere analysis demonstrates that at least 27% of all targets are currently accreting planetary debris, and an additional 29% have very likely done so in the past. These numbers suggest that planet formation around A-stars (the dominant progenitors of today's white dwarf population) is similarly efficient as around FGK stars.In addition to post-main sequence planetary system demographics, spectroscopy of the debris-polluted white dwarf atmospheres provides a direct window into the bulk composition of exo-planetesimals, analogous to the way we use of meteorites to determine solar-system abundances. Our ultraviolet spectroscopy is particularly sensitive to the detection of Si, a dominant rock-forming species, and we identify up to ten additional volatile and refractory elements in the most strongly

  11. Mass Dependency of Isotope Fractionation of Gases Under Thermal Gradient and Its Possible Implications for Planetary Atmosphere Escaping Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Niles, Paul; Bao, Huiming; Socki, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Physical processes that unmix elements/isotopes of gas molecules involve phase changes, diffusion (chemical or thermal), effusion and gravitational settling. Some of those play significant roles for the evolution of chemical and isotopic compositions of gases in planetary bodies which lead to better understanding of surface paleoclimatic conditions, e.g. gas bubbles in Antarctic ice, and planetary evolution, e.g. the solar-wind erosion induced gas escaping from exosphere on terrestrial planets.. A mass dependent relationship is always expected for the kinetic isotope fractionations during these simple physical processes, according to the kinetic theory of gases by Chapman, Enskog and others [3-5]. For O-bearing (O16, -O17, -O18) molecules the alpha O-17/ alpha O-18 is expected at 0.5 to 0.515, and for S-bearing (S32,-S33. -S34, -S36) molecules, the alpha S-33/ alpha S-34 is expected at 0.5 to 0.508, where alpha is the isotope fractionation factor associated with unmixing processes. Thus, one isotope pair is generally proxied to yield all the information for the physical history of the gases. However, we recently] reported the violation of mass law for isotope fractionation among isotope pairs of multiple isotope system during gas diffusion or convection under thermal gradient (Thermal Gradient Induced Non-Mass Dependent effect, TGI-NMD). The mechanism(s) that is responsible to such striking observation remains unanswered. In our past studies, we investigated polyatomic molecules, O2 and SF6, and we suggested that nuclear spin effect could be responsible to the observed NMD effect in a way of changing diffusion coefficients of certain molecules, owing to the fact of negligible delta S-36 anomaly for SF6.. On the other hand, our results also showed that for both diffusion and convection under thermal gradient, this NMD effect is increased by lower gas pressure, bigger temperature gradient and lower average temperature, which indicate that the nuclear spin effect may

  12. Early efficacy of the ketogenic diet is not affected by initial body mass index percentile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Shastin; Diaz-Medina, Gloria; Wong-Kisiel, Lily; Nickels, Katherine; Eckert, Susan; Wirrell, Elaine

    2014-05-01

    Predictors of the ketogenic diet's success in treating pediatric intractable epilepsy are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether initial body mass index and weight percentile impact early efficacy of the traditional ketogenic diet in children initiating therapy for intractable epilepsy. This retrospective study included all children initiating the ketogenic diet at Mayo Clinic, Rochester from January 2001 to December 2010 who had body mass index (children ≥2 years of age) or weight percentile (those diet initiation and seizure frequency recorded at diet initiation and one month. Responders were defined as achieving a >50% seizure reduction from baseline. Our cohort consisted of 48 patients (20 male) with a median age of 3.1 years. There was no significant correlation between initial body mass index or weight percentile and seizure frequency reduction at one month (P = 0.72, r = 0.26 and P = 0.91, r = 0.03). There was no significant association between body mass index or weight percentile quartile and responder rates (P = 0.21 and P = 0.57). Children considered overweight or obese at diet initiation (body mass index or weight percentile ≥85) did not have lower responder rates than those with body mass index or weight percentiles ketogenic diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. PLANETARY-SCALE STRONTIUM ISOTOPIC HETEROGENEITY AND THE AGE OF VOLATILE DEPLETION OF EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moynier, Frederic; Podosek, Frank A. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science and McDonnell Center for Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Day, James M. D. [Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92093-0244 (United States); Okui, Wataru; Yokoyama, Tetsuya [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Bouvier, Audrey [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0231 (United States); Walker, Richard J., E-mail: moynier@levee.wustl.edu, E-mail: fap@levee.wustl.edu, E-mail: jmdday@ucsd.edu, E-mail: rjwalker@umd.edu, E-mail: okui.w.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: tetsuya.yoko@geo.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: abouvier@umn.edu [Department of Geology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2012-10-10

    Isotopic anomalies in planetary materials reflect both early solar nebular heterogeneity inherited from presolar stellar sources and processes that generated non-mass-dependent isotopic fractionations. The characterization of isotopic variations in heavy elements among early solar system materials yields important insight into the stellar environment and formation of the solar system, and about initial isotopic ratios relevant to long-term chronological applications. One such heavy element, strontium, is a central element in the geosciences due to wide application of the long-lived {sup 87}Rb-{sup 87}Sr radioactive as a chronometer. We show that the stable isotopes of Sr were heterogeneously distributed at both the mineral scale and the planetary scale in the early solar system, and also that the Sr isotopic heterogeneities correlate with mass-independent oxygen isotope variations, with only CI chondrites plotting outside of this correlation. The correlation implies that most solar system material formed by mixing of at least two isotopically distinct components: a CV-chondrite-like component and an O-chondrite-like component, and possibly a distinct CI-chondrite-like component. The heterogeneous distribution of Sr isotopes may indicate that variations in initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr of early solar system materials reflect isotopic heterogeneity instead of having chronological significance, as interpreted previously. For example, given the differences in {sup 84}Sr/{sup 86}Sr between calcium aluminum inclusions and eucrites ({epsilon}{sup 84}Sr > 2), the difference in age between these materials would be {approx}6 Ma shorter than previously interpreted, placing the Sr chronology in agreement with other long- and short-lived isotope systems, such as U-Pb and Mn-Cr.

  14. Dark-Matter Content of Early-Type Galaxies with Planetary Nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napolitano, N.R.; Romanowsky, A.J.; Coccato, L; Capaccioli, M.; Douglas, N.G.; Noordermeer, E.; Merrifield, M.R.; Kuijken, K.; Arnaboldi, M.; Gerhard, O.; Freeman, K.C.; De Lorenzi, F.; Das, P.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. We examine the dark matter properties of nearby early-type galaxies using plane- tary nebulae (PNe) as mass probes. We have designed a specialised instrument, the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph (PN.S) operating at the William Herschel telescope, with the purpose of measuring PN velocities

  15. Central star of NGC 1360: a spectroscopic binary within a planetary nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, R H; Niemela, V S [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1977-02-01

    CPD - 26/sup 0/389, a hot subdwarf at the centre of the planetary nebula NGC 1360, is shown to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of about 8 day. The primary (visible) component appears to be less massive than its companion, and the total stellar mass of the system is presumably below one solar mass.

  16. Constructing binary black hole initial data with high mass ratios and spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossokine, Serguei; Foucart, Francois; Pfeiffer, Harald; Szilagyi, Bela; Simulating Extreme Spacetimes Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Binary black hole systems have now been successfully modelled in full numerical relativity by many groups. In order to explore high-mass-ratio (larger than 1:10), high-spin systems (above 0.9 of the maximal BH spin), we revisit the initial-data problem for binary black holes. The initial-data solver in the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) was not able to solve for such initial data reliably and robustly. I will present recent improvements to this solver, among them adaptive mesh refinement and control of motion of the center of mass of the binary, and will discuss the much larger region of parameter space this code can now address.

  17. THE CHARA ARRAY ANGULAR DIAMETER OF HR 8799 FAVORS PLANETARY MASSES FOR ITS IMAGED COMPANIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baines, Ellyn K.; White, Russel J.; Jones, Jeremy; Boyajian, Tabetha; McAlister, Harold A.; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Turner, Nils H.; Sturmann, Judit; Sturmann, Laszlo; Goldfinger, P. J.; Farrington, Christopher D.; Riedel, Adric R.; Huber, Daniel; Ireland, Michael; Von Braun, Kaspar; Ridgway, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    HR 8799 is an hF0 mA5 γ Doradus-, λ Bootis-, Vega-type star best known for hosting four directly imaged candidate planetary companions. Using the CHARA Array interferometer, we measure HR 8799's limb-darkened angular diameter to be 0.342 ± 0.008 mas (an error of only 2%). By combining our measurement with the star's parallax and photometry from the literature, we greatly improve upon previous estimates of its fundamental parameters, including stellar radius (1.44 ± 0.06 R ☉ ), effective temperature (7193 ± 87 K, consistent with F0), luminosity (5.05 ± 0.29 L ☉ ), and the extent of the habitable zone (HZ; 1.62-3.32 AU). These improved stellar properties permit much more precise comparisons with stellar evolutionary models, from which a mass and age can be determined, once the metallicity of the star is known. Considering the observational properties of other λ Bootis stars and the indirect evidence for youth of HR 8799, we argue that the internal abundance, and what we refer to as the effective abundance, is most likely near solar. Finally, using the Yonsei-Yale evolutionary models with uniformly scaled solar-like abundances, we estimate HR 8799's mass and age considering two possibilities: 1.516 +0.038 –0.024 M ☉ and 33 +7 –13.2 Myr if the star is contracting toward the zero-age main sequence or 1.513 +0.023 –0.024 M ☉ and 90 +381 –50 Myr if it is expanding from it. This improved estimate of HR 8799's age with realistic uncertainties provides the best constraints to date on the masses of its orbiting companions, and strongly suggests they are indeed planets. They nevertheless all appear to orbit well outside the HZ of this young star.

  18. From red giant to planetary nebula - Dust, asymmetry, and polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Jones, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    The polarization characteristics of stars in the stages of evolution from red giant to planetary nebula are investigated. Polarization is found to be a characteristic of the majority of these stars. The maximum observed polarization increases with age as the star evolves up the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) to the protoplanetary nebula phase, where the polarization reaches a maximum. The polarization then decreases as the star further evolves into a planetary nebula. These results indicate that aspherical mass loss is likely to be a continual feature of the late stages of stellar evolution, maintaining a clear continuity throughout the life of a star from the moment it first develops a measurable dust shell. The aspherical morphology seen in planetary nebulae has its origin in an intrinsic property of the star that is present at least as early as its arrival at the base of the AGB. 77 refs

  19. Using Vulcan to Recreate Planetary Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, G W; Benedetti, L R; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Cauble, R; Celliers, P M; Danson, C; Da Silva, L B; Gessner, H; Henry, E; Hicks, D G; Huser, G; Jeanloz, R; Koening, M; Lee, K M; Mackinnon, A J; Moon, S J; Neely, D; Notley, M; Pasley, J; Willi, O

    2001-01-01

    An accurate equation of state (EOS) for planetary constituents at extreme conditions is the key to any credible model of planets or low mass stars. However, experimental validation has been carried out on at high pressure (>few Mbar), and then only on the principal Hugoniot. For planetary and stellar interiors, compression occurs from gravitational force so that material states follow a line of isentropic compression (ignoring phase separation) to ultra-high densities. An example of the predicted states for water along the isentrope for Neptune is shown in a figure. The cutaway figure on the left is from Hubbard, and the phase diagram on the right is from Cavazzoni et al. Clearly these states lie at quite a bit lower temperature and higher density than single shock Hugoniot states but they are at higher temperature than can be achieved with accurate diamond anvil experiments. At extreme densities, material states are predicted to have quite unearthly properties such as high temperature superconductivity and l...

  20. EVOLUTIONARY TRACKS OF THE CLIMATE OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS AROUND DIFFERENT MASS STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoya, S.; Tajika, E., E-mail: kadoya@astrobio.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: tajika@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Faculty of Science Bldg. 1 #711, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-07-10

    The climatic evolution of the Earth depends strongly on the evolution of the insolation from the Sun and the amount of the greenhouse gasses, especially CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. Here, we investigate the evolution of the climate of hypothetical Earths around stars whose masses are different from the solar mass with a luminosity evolution model of the stars, a mantle degassing model coupled with a parameterized convection model of the planetary interiors, and an energy balance climate model of the planetary surface. In the habitable zone (HZ), the climate of the planets is initially warm or hot, depending on the orbital semimajor axes. We found that, in the inner HZ, the climate of the planets becomes hotter with time owing to the increase in the luminosity of the central stars, while, in the outer HZ, it becomes colder and eventually globally ice-covered owing to the decrease in the CO{sub 2} degassing rate of the planets. The orbital condition for maintaining the warm climate similar to the present Earth becomes very limited, and more interestingly, the planet orbiting in the outer HZ becomes globally ice-covered after a certain critical age (∼3 Gyr for the hypothetical Earth with standard parameters), irrespective of the mass of the central star. This is because the critical age depends on the evolution of the planets and planetary factors, rather than on the stellar mass. The habitability of the Earth-like planet is shown to be limited with age even though it is orbiting within the HZ.

  1. EVOLUTIONARY TRACKS OF THE CLIMATE OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS AROUND DIFFERENT MASS STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadoya, S.; Tajika, E.

    2016-01-01

    The climatic evolution of the Earth depends strongly on the evolution of the insolation from the Sun and the amount of the greenhouse gasses, especially CO_2 in the atmosphere. Here, we investigate the evolution of the climate of hypothetical Earths around stars whose masses are different from the solar mass with a luminosity evolution model of the stars, a mantle degassing model coupled with a parameterized convection model of the planetary interiors, and an energy balance climate model of the planetary surface. In the habitable zone (HZ), the climate of the planets is initially warm or hot, depending on the orbital semimajor axes. We found that, in the inner HZ, the climate of the planets becomes hotter with time owing to the increase in the luminosity of the central stars, while, in the outer HZ, it becomes colder and eventually globally ice-covered owing to the decrease in the CO_2 degassing rate of the planets. The orbital condition for maintaining the warm climate similar to the present Earth becomes very limited, and more interestingly, the planet orbiting in the outer HZ becomes globally ice-covered after a certain critical age (∼3 Gyr for the hypothetical Earth with standard parameters), irrespective of the mass of the central star. This is because the critical age depends on the evolution of the planets and planetary factors, rather than on the stellar mass. The habitability of the Earth-like planet is shown to be limited with age even though it is orbiting within the HZ.

  2. Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is a proposed NASA Exoplanet Probe mission to image and characterize extrasolar giant planets. EPIC will provide insights into the physical nature and architecture of a variety of planets in other solar systems. Initially, it will detect and characterize the atmospheres of planets identified by radial velocity surveys, determine orbital inclinations and masses and characterize the atmospheres around A and F type stars which cannot be found with RV techniques. It will also observe the inner spatial structure of exozodiacal disks. EPIC has a heliocentric Earth trailing drift-away orbit, with a 5 year mission lifetime. The robust mission design is simple and flexible ensuring mission success while minimizing cost and risk. The science payload consists of a heritage optical telescope assembly (OTA), and visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) instrument. The instrument achieves a contrast ratio of 10^9 over a 5 arcsecond field-of-view with an unprecedented inner working angle of 0.13 arcseconds over the spectral range of 440-880 nm. The telescope is a 1.65 meter off-axis Cassegrain with an OTA wavefront error of lambda/9, which when coupled to the VNC greatly reduces the requirements on the large scale optics.

  3. Volatile element loss during planetary magma ocean phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Jasmeet K.; Day, James M. D.; Moynier, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    LMO δ66Zn value, while the second results in a stratification of δ66Zn values within the LMO sequence. Loss and/or isolation mechanisms for volatiles are critical to these models; hydrodynamic escape was not a dominant process, but loss of a nascent lunar atmosphere or separation of condensates into a proto-lunar crust are possible mechanisms by which volatiles could be separated from the lunar interior. The results do not preclude models that suggest a lunar volatile depletion episode related to the Giant Impact. Conversely, LMO models for volatile loss do not require loss of volatiles prior to lunar formation. Outgassing during planetary magma ocean phases likely played a profound role in setting the volatile inventories of planets, particularly for low mass bodies that experienced the greatest volatile loss. In turn, our results suggest that the initial compositions of planets that accreted from smaller, highly differentiated planetesimals were likely to be severely volatile depleted.

  4. How do giant planetary cores shape the dust disk? HL Tau system

    OpenAIRE

    Picogna, Giovanni; Kley, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    We are observing, thanks to ALMA, the dust distribution in the region of active planet formation around young stars. This is a powerful tool to connect observations with theoretical models and improve our understandings of the processes at play. We want to test how a multi-planetary system shapes its birth disk and study the influence of the planetary masses and particle sizes on the final dust distribution. Moreover, we apply our model to the HL Tau system in order to obtain some insights on...

  5. The Scattering Outcomes of Kepler Circumbinary Planets: Planet Mass Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yan-Xiang; Ji, Jianghui, E-mail: yxgong@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: jijh@pmo.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Planetary Sciences, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies reveal that the free eccentricities of Kepler-34b and Kepler-413b are much larger than their forced eccentricities, implying that scattering events may take place in their formation. The observed orbital configuration of Kepler-34b cannot be well reproduced in disk-driven migration models, whereas a two-planet scattering scenario can play a significant role of shaping the planetary configuration. These studies indicate that circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler may have experienced scattering process. In this work, we extensively investigate the scattering outcomes of circumbinary planets focusing on the effects of planet mass ratio . We find that the planetary mass ratio and the the initial relative locations of planets act as two important parameters that affect the eccentricity distribution of the surviving planets. As an application of our model, we discuss the observed orbital configurations of Kepler-34b and Kepler-413b. We first adopt the results from the disk-driven models as the initial conditions, then simulate the scattering process that occurs in the late evolution stage of circumbinary planets. We show that the present orbital configurations of Kepler-34b and Kepler-413b can be well reproduced when considering a two unequal-mass planet ejection model. Our work further suggests that some of the currently discovered circumbinary single-planet systems may be survivors of original multiple-planet systems. The disk-driven migration and scattering events occurring in the late stage both play an irreplaceable role in sculpting the final systems.

  6. Planetary influence in the gap of a protoplanetary disk: structure formation and an application to V1247 Ori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Meraz, R.; Nagel, E.; Rendon, F.; Barragan, O.

    2017-10-01

    We present a set of hydrodynamical models of a planetary system embedded in a protoplanetary disk in order to extract the number of dust structures formed in the disk, their masses and sizes, within optical depth ranges τ≤0.5, 0.5planetary mass accretion corresponds to slower time effects for optically thin structures; (3) an increase in the number of planets allows a faster evolution of the structures in the Hill radius for the different optical depth ranges of the inner planets. An ad-hoc simulation was run using the available information of the stellar system V1247 Ori, leading to a model of a planetary system which explains the SED and is consistent with interferometric observations of structures.

  7. A New Model of the Fractional Order Dynamics of the Planetary Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Nikolic-Stanojevic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model of planetary gears dynamics is presented. Planetary gears are parametrically excited by the time-varying mesh stiffness that fluctuates as the number of gear tooth pairs in contact changes during gear rotation. In the paper, it has been indicated that even the small disturbance in design realizations of this gear cause nonlinear properties of dynamics which are the source of vibrations and noise in the gear transmission. Dynamic model of the planetary gears with four degrees of freedom is used. Applying the basic principles of analytical mechanics and taking the initial and boundary conditions into consideration, it is possible to obtain the system of equations representing physical meshing process between the two or more gears. This investigation was focused to a new model of the fractional order dynamics of the planetary gear. For this model analytical expressions for the corresponding fractional order modes like one frequency eigen vibrational modes are obtained. For one planetary gear, eigen fractional modes are obtained, and a visualization is presented. By using MathCAD the solution is obtained.

  8. TOWARD A DETERMINISTIC MODEL OF PLANETARY FORMATION. VII. ECCENTRICITY DISTRIBUTION OF GAS GIANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, S.; Lin, D. N. C.; Nagasawa, M.

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquity of planets and diversity of planetary systems reveal that planet formation encompasses many complex and competing processes. In this series of papers, we develop and upgrade a population synthesis model as a tool to identify the dominant physical effects and to calibrate the range of physical conditions. Recent planet searches have led to the discovery of many multiple-planet systems. Any theoretical models of their origins must take into account dynamical interactions between emerging protoplanets. Here, we introduce a prescription to approximate the close encounters between multiple planets. We apply this method to simulate the growth, migration, and dynamical interaction of planetary systems. Our models show that in relatively massive disks, several gas giants and rocky/icy planets emerge, migrate, and undergo dynamical instability. Secular perturbation between planets leads to orbital crossings, eccentricity excitation, and planetary ejection. In disks with modest masses, two or less gas giants form with multiple super-Earths. Orbital stability in these systems is generally maintained and they retain the kinematic structure after gas in their natal disks is depleted. These results reproduce the observed planetary mass-eccentricity and semimajor axis-eccentricity correlations. They also suggest that emerging gas giants can scatter residual cores to the outer disk regions. Subsequent in situ gas accretion onto these cores can lead to the formation of distant (∼> 30 AU) gas giants with nearly circular orbits

  9. Mass loss by stars at the stage of the asymptotic giant branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantsman, Y.L.

    1986-01-01

    For a given initial stellar mass function, star formation function, and initial chemical composition, distributions have been constructed for stars of the asymptotic giant branch by luminosity, and for white dwarfs by mass, by calculating the approximate evolution of a large number of stars. Variants are calculated with different assumptions about the mass loss in the asymptotic branch. Theory can be reconciled with observation only if it is assumed that at this stage there is also a still large mass loss in addition to the stellar wind and the ejection of a planetary nebula shell. This provides the explanation for the absence in the Magellanic clouds of carbon stars with M /sub bol/ 1.0M /sub ./. The degenerate carbon-oxygen nuclei of stars evolving along the asymptotic giant branch cannot attain the Chandrasekhar limit on account of the great mass loss by the stars. The luminosity of stars of the asymptotic giant branch in the globular clusters of the Magellanic Clouds is a good indicator of the age of the clusters

  10. Recent Progress in Planetary Laboratory Astrophysics achieved with NASA Ames' COSmIC Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Bejaoui, Salma

    2016-10-01

    We describe the characteristics and the capabilities of the laboratory facility, COSmIC, that was developed at NASA Ames to generate, process and analyze interstellar, circumstellar and planetary analogs in the laboratory [1]. COSmIC stands for "Cosmic Simulation Chamber" and is dedicated to the study of neutral and ionized molecules and nanoparticles under the low temperature and high vacuum conditions that are required to simulate various space environments such as planetary atmospheres. COSmIC integrates a variety of state-of-the-art instruments that allow forming, processing and monitoring simulated space conditions for planetary, circumstellar and interstellar materials in the laboratory. The COSmIC experimental setup is composed of a Pulsed Discharge Nozzle (PDN) expansion, that generates a plasma in the stream of a free supersonic jet expansion, coupled to two high-sensitivity, complementary in situ diagnostics: a Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) systems for photonic detection [2, 3], and a Reflectron Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ReTOF-MS) for mass detection [4].Recent results obtained using COSmIC will be highlighted. In particular, the progress that has been achieved in an on-going study investigating the formation and the characterization of laboratory analogs of Titan's aerosols generated from gas-phase molecular precursors [5] will be presented. Plans for future laboratory experiments on planetary molecules and aerosols in the growing field of planetary laboratory astrophysics will also be addressed, as well as the implications of studies underway for astronomical observations.References: [1] Salama F., in Organic Matter in Space, IAU S251, Kwok & Sandford eds, CUP, S251, 4, 357 (2008).[2] Biennier L., Salama, F., Allamandola L., & Scherer J., J. Chem. Phys., 118, 7863 (2003)[3] Tan X, & Salama F., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 84318 (2005)[4] Ricketts C., Contreras C., Walker, R., Salama F., Int. J. Mass Spec, 300

  11. Spatio-kinematic modelling: Testing the link between planetary nebulae and close binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, David; Tyndall, Amy A.; Huckvale, Leo; Prouse, Barnabas; Lloyd, Myfanwy

    2011-01-01

    It is widely believed that central star binarity plays an important role in the formation and evolution of aspherical planetary nebulae, however observational support for this hypothesis is lacking. Here, we present the most recent results of a continuing programme to model the morphologies of all planetary nebulae known to host a close binary central star. Initially, this programme allows us to compare the inclination of the nebular symmetry axis to that of the binary plane, testing the theo...

  12. Journal Bearing Analysis Suite Released for Planetary Gear System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewe, David E.; Clark, David A.

    2005-01-01

    Planetary gear systems are an efficient means of achieving high reduction ratios with minimum space and weight. They are used in helicopter, aerospace, automobile, and many industrial applications. High-speed planetary gear systems will have significant dynamic loading and high heat generation. Hence, they need jet lubrication and associated cooling systems. For units operating in critical applications that necessitate high reliability and long life, that have very large torque loading, and that have downtime costs that are significantly greater than the initial cost, hydrodynamic journal bearings are a must. Computational and analytical tools are needed for sufficiently accurate modeling to facilitate optimal design of these systems. Sufficient physics is needed in the model to facilitate parametric studies of design conditions that enable optimal designs. The first transient journal bearing code to implement the Jacobsson-Floberg-Olsson boundary conditions, using a mass-conserving algorithm devised by Professor Emeritus Harold Elrod of Columbia University, was written by David E. Brewe of the U.S. Army at the NASA Lewis Research Center1 in 1983. Since then, new features and improved modifications have been built into the code by several contributors supported through Army and NASA funding via cooperative agreements with the University of Toledo (Professor Ted Keith, Jr., and Dr. Desikakary Vijayaraghavan) and National Research Council Programs (Dr. Vijayaraghavan). All this was conducted with the close consultation of Professor Elrod and the project management of David Brewe.

  13. Looking for the Coldest Atmospheres: a Search for Planetary Mass Companions around T and Y Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanive, Clemence

    2017-08-01

    We propose to obtain WFC3/IR imaging of the very coolest brown dwarfs (T planetary-mass companions to these objects. Companions discovered by this program would likely be analogues of the 250 K brown dwarf WISE 0855 and would provide vital benchmark objects for theoretical models, closing the gap in mass and temperature between brown dwarfs and planets. Finding such an object as a member of a binary system would be even more valuable as it would allow for the measurement of dynamical masses. We recently placed the first constraints to date on the binary frequency for brown dwarfs with spectral types >T8. This program will triple our current sample size, a requirement in order to confirm our current results and compare substellar binary properties for various spectral type and age populations. The WFC3/IR plate will allow us to probe near equal-mass binaries down to separations of 0.2 (2-3 AU for the typical distances of our targets). True cool companions should show strong absorption around 1.4 um as a result of the deep water absorption band observed at that wavelength in substellar spectra. We therefore propose observations in the WFC3 F127M and F139M filters which will allow us to robustly identify bona fide candidates and distinguish them from background stars based on this spectral feature. Most of our targets lack suitable NGS AO guide stars or LGS AO tip-tilt stars to be observed with ground-based telescopes, and the 1.4 um water band is often unobservable from the ground due to telluric water absorption. WFC3 on HST is thus the only instrument suitable for these observations.

  14. Formation of moon induced gaps in dense planetary rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grätz, F.; Seiß, M.; Spahn, F.

    2017-09-01

    Recent works have shown that bodies embedded in planetary rings create S-shaped density modula- tions called propellers if their mass deceeds a certain threshold or cause a gap around the entire circumference of the disc if the embedded bodies mass exceeds it. Two counteracting physical processes govern the dynamics and determine what structure is created: The gravitational disturber excerts a torque on nearby disc particles, sweeping them away from itself on both sides thus depleting the discs density and forming a gap. Diffusive spreading of the disc material due to collisions counteracts the gravitational scattering and has the tendency to fill the gap. We develop a nonlinear diffusion model that accounts for those two counteracting processes and describes the azimutally averaged surface density profile an embedded moon creates in planetary rings. The gaps width depends on the moons mass, its radial position and the rings viscosity allowing us to estimate the rings viscosity in the vicinity of the Encke and Keeler gap in Saturns A-Ring and compare it to previous measurements. We show that for the Keeler gap the time derivative of the semi-major axis as derived by Goldreich and Tremaine 1980 is underestimated yielding an underestimated viscosity for the ring. We therefore derive a corrected expression for said time derivative by fitting the solutions of Hill's equations for an ensemble of test particles. Furthermore we estimate the masses for potentionally unseen moonlets in the C-Ring and Cassini division.

  15. Mass Medication Clinic (MMC) Patient Medical Assistant (PMA) System Training Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-06-2-0045 TITLE: Mass Medication Clinic (MMC) Patient ...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Mass Medication Clinic (MMC) Patient Medical Assistant (PMA) System Training Initiative 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-2...sections will describe the events, results, and accomplishments of this study. With validation through this project the Patient Medical Assistant

  16. Primordial atmosphere incorporation in planetary embryos and the origin of Neon in terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaupart, Etienne; Charnoz, Sebatien; Moreira, Manuel

    2017-09-01

    The presence of Neon in terrestrial planet mantles may be attributed to the implantation of solar wind in planetary precursors or to the dissolution of primordial solar gases captured from the accretionary disk into an early magma ocean. This is suggested by the Neon isotopic ratio similar to those of the Sun observed in the Earth mantle. Here, we evaluate the second hypothesis. We use general considerations of planetary accretion and atmospheric science. Using current models of terrestrial planet formation, we study the evolution of standard planetary embryos with masses in a range of 0.1-0.2 MEarth, where MEarth is the Earth's mass, in an annular region at distances between 0.5 and 1.5 Astronomical Units from the star. We determine the characteristics of atmospheres that can be captured by such embryos for a wide range of parameters and calculate the maximum amount of Neon that can be dissolved in the planet. Our calculations may be directly transposed to any other planet. However, we only know of the amount of Neon in the Earth's solid mantle. Thus we use Earth to discuss our results. We find that the amount of dissolved Neon is too small to account for the present-day Neon contents of the Earth's mantle, if the nebular gas disk completely disappears before the largest planetary embryos grow to be ∼0.2 MEarth. This leaves solar irradiation as the most likely source of Neon in terrestrial planets for the most standard case of planetary formation models.

  17. Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    4 Abstract Planetary defense against asteroids should be a major concern for every government in the world . Millions of asteroids and...helps make Planetary Defense viable because defending the Earth against asteroids benefits from all the above technologies. So if our planet security...information about their physical characteristics so we can employ the right strategies. It is a crucial difference if asteroids are made up of metal

  18. Exciting an Initially Cold Asteroid Belt Through a Planetary Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deienno, Rogerio; Izidoro, Andre; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Gomes, Rodney; Nesvorny, David; Raymond, Sean N.

    2018-04-01

    The main asteroid belt (MB) is low in mass but dynamically excited, with much larger eccentricities and inclinations than the planets. In recent years, the Grand Tack model has been the predominant model capable of reconciling the formation of the terrestrial planets with a depleted but excited MB. Despite this success, the Grand Tack is still not generally accepted because of uncertainties in orbital migration. It was recently proposed that chaotic early evolution of Jupiter and Saturn could excite the initially cold MB. However, hydrodynamical simulations predict that the giant planets should generally emerge from the gas disk phase on orbits characterized by resonant and regular motion. Here we propose a new mechanism to excite the MB during the giant planets' ('Nice model') instability, which is expected to have included repeated close encounters between Jupiter and one or more ice giants ('Jumping Jupiter' -- JJ). We show that when Jupiter temporarily reaches a high enough level of excitation, both in eccentricity and inclination, it induces strong forced vectors of eccentricity and inclination within the MB region. Because during the JJ instability Jupiter's orbit 'jumps' around, forced vectors keep changing both in magnitude and phase throughout the whole MB region. The entire cold primordial MB can thus be excited as a natural outcome of the JJ instability. Furthermore, we show that the subsequent evolution of the Solar System is capable of reshaping the resultant MB to its present day orbital state, and that a strong mass depletion is always associated to the JJ instability phase.

  19. Solar planetary systems stardust to terrestrial and extraterrestrial planetary sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Asit B

    2017-01-01

    The authors have put forth great efforts in gathering present day knowledge about different objects within our solar system and universe. This book features the most current information on the subject with information acquired from noted scientists in this area. The main objective is to convey the importance of the subject and provide detailed information on the physical makeup of our planetary system and technologies used for research. Information on educational projects has also been included in the Radio Astronomy chapters.This information is a real plus for students and educators considering a career in Planetary Science or for increasing their knowledge about our planetary system

  20. Evolutionary effects of mass loss in low-mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renzini, A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of mass loss on the evolution of low-mass stars (actual mass smaller than 1.4 solar masses) are reviewed. The case of globular cluster stars is discussed in some detail, and it is shown that evolutionary theory sets quite precise limits to the mass-loss rate in population II red giants. The effects of mass loss on the final evolutionary stages of stars producing white dwarfs is also discussed. In particular, the interaction of the wind from the hot central star with the surrounding planetary nebula is considered. Finally, the problem of the origin of hydrogen-deficient stars is briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  1. Globulettes as Seeds of Brown Dwarfs and Free-Floating Planetary-Mass Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahm, G. F.; Grenman, T.; Fredriksson, S.; Kristen, H.

    2007-04-01

    to form central low-mass objects long before the ionization front, driven by the impinging Lyman photons, has penetrated far into the globulette. Hence, the globulettes may be one source in the formation of brown dwarfs and free-floating planetary-mass objects in the galaxy. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  2. Planetary Taxonomy: Label Round Bodies "Worlds"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, Jean-Luc; Levison, H. F.

    2009-05-01

    The classification of planetary bodies is as important to Astronomy as taxonomy is to other sciences. The etymological, historical, and IAU definitions of planet rely on a dynamical criterion, but some authors prefer a geophysical criterion based on "roundness". Although the former criterion is superior when it comes to classifying newly discovered objects, the conflict need not exist if we agree to identify the subset of "round" planetary objects as "worlds". This addition to the taxonomy would conveniently recognize that "round" objects such as Earth, Europa, Titan, Triton, and Pluto share some common planetary-type processes regardless of their distance from the host star. Some of these worlds are planets, others are not. Defining how round is round and handling the inevitable transition objects are non-trivial tasks. Because images at sufficient resolution are not available for the overwhelming majority of newly discovered objects, the degree of roundness is not a directly observable property and is inherently problematic as a basis for classification. We can tolerate some uncertainty in establishing the "world" status of a newly discovered object, and still establish its planet or satellite status with existing dynamical criteria. Because orbital parameters are directly observable, and because mass can often be measured either from orbital perturbations or from the presence of companions, the dynamics provide a robust and practical planet classification scheme. It may also be possible to determine which bodies are dynamically dominant from observations of the population magnitude/size distribution.

  3. Evolutionary sequence of models of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vil'koviskij, Eh.Ya.; Kondrat'eva, L.N.; Tambovtseva, L.V.

    1983-01-01

    The evolutionary sequences of model planetary nebulae of different masses have been calculated. The computed emission line intensities are compared with the observed ones by means of the parameter ''reduced size of the nebula'', Rsub(n). It is shown that the evolution tracks of Schonberner for the central stars are consistent with the observed data. Part of ionized mass Mi in any nebulae does not not exceed 0.3 b and in the average Msu(i) 3 years at actual values of radius Rsub(i) <0.025 ps. Then the luminosity growth slows down to the maximum temperature which central star reaches and decreases with sharp decrease of the star luminosity. At that, the radius of ionized zone of greater mass nebulae can even decrease, inspite of the constant expansion of the nebula. As a result nebulae of great masses having undergone the evolution can be included in the number of observed compact objects (Rsub(n) < 0.1 ps)

  4. New and misclassified planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohoutek, L.

    1978-01-01

    Since the 'Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae' 226 new objects have been classified as planetary nebulae. They are summarized in the form of designations, names, coordinates and the references to the discovery. Further 9 new objects have been added and called 'proto-planetary nebulae', but their status is still uncertain. Only 34 objects have been included in the present list of misclassified planetary nebulae although the number of doubtful cases is much larger. (Auth.)

  5. The Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS): A Comprehensive Dusty Photoionization Model of NGC6781.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Ueta, Toshiya; van Hoof, Peter A M; Sahai, Raghvendra; Aleman, Isabel; Zijlstra, Albert A; Chu, You-Hua; Villaver, Eva; Leal-Ferreira, Marcelo L; Kastner, Joel; Szczerba, Ryszard; Exter, Katrina M

    2017-08-01

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 6781 to investigate the physical conditions of each of its ionized, atomic, and molecular gas and dust components and the object's evolution, based on panchromatic observational data ranging from UV to radio. Empirical nebular elemental abundances, compared with theoretical predictions via nucleosynthesis models of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, indicate that the progenitor is a solar-metallicity, 2.25-3.0 M ⊙ initial-mass star. We derive the best-fit distance of 0.46 kpc by fitting the stellar luminosity (as a function of the distance and effective temperature of the central star) with the adopted post-AGB evolutionary tracks. Our excitation energy diagram analysis indicates high-excitation temperatures in the photodissociation region (PDR) beyond the ionized part of the nebula, suggesting extra heating by shock interactions between the slow AGB wind and the fast PN wind. Through iterative fitting using the Cloudy code with empirically derived constraints, we find the best-fit dusty photoionization model of the object that would inclusively reproduce all of the adopted panchromatic observational data. The estimated total gas mass (0.41 M ⊙ ) corresponds to the mass ejected during the last AGB thermal pulse event predicted for a 2.5 M ⊙ initial-mass star. A significant fraction of the total mass (about 70%) is found to exist in the PDR, demonstrating the critical importance of the PDR in PNe that are generally recognized as the hallmark of ionized/H + regions.

  6. Tandem Mass Spectrometry on a Miniaturized Laser Desorption Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Cornish, Timothy; Getty, Stephanie A.; Brinckerhoff, William B.

    2016-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MSMS) is a powerful and widely-used technique for identifying the molecular structure of organic constituents of a complex sample. Application of MSMS to the study of unknown planetary samples on a remote space mission would contribute to our understanding of the origin, evolution, and distribution of extraterrestrial organics in our solar system. Here we report on the realization of MSMS on a miniaturized laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LD-TOF-MS), which is one of the most promising instrument types for future planetary missions. This achievement relies on two critical components: a curved-field reflectron and a pulsed-pin ion gate. These enable use of the complementary post-source decay (PSD) and laser-assisted collision induced dissociation (L-CID) MSMS methods on diverse measurement targets with only modest investment in instrument resources such as volume and weight. MSMS spectra of selected molecular targets in various organic standards exhibit excellent agreement when compared with results from a commercial, laboratory-scale TOF instrument, demonstrating the potential of this powerful technique in space and planetary environments.

  7. Dust in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.

    1980-01-01

    A two-component dust model is suggested to explain the infrared emission from planetary nebulae. A cold dust component located in the extensive remnant of the red-giant envelope exterior to the visible nebula is responsible for the far-infrared emission. A ward dust component, which is condensed after the formation of the planetary nebula and confined within the ionized gas shell, emits most of the near- and mid-infrared radiation. The observations of NGC 7027 are shown to be consisten with such a model. The correlation of silicate emission in several planetary nebulae with an approximately +1 spectral index at low radio frequencies suggests that both the silicate and radio emissions originate from the remnant of the circumstellar envelope of th precursor star and are observable only while the planetary nebula is young. It is argued that oxygen-rich stars as well as carbon-rich stars can be progenitors of planetary nebulae

  8. MASS-RADIUS RELATIONSHIPS FOR VERY LOW MASS GASEOUS PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Stevenson, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the Kepler spacecraft has detected a sizable aggregate of objects, characterized by giant-planet-like radii and modest levels of stellar irradiation. With the exception of a handful of objects, the physical nature, and specifically the average densities, of these bodies remain unknown. Here, we propose that the detected giant planet radii may partially belong to planets somewhat less massive than Uranus and Neptune. Accordingly, in this work, we seek to identify a physically sound upper limit to planetary radii at low masses and moderate equilibrium temperatures. As a guiding example, we analyze the interior structure of the Neptune-mass planet Kepler-30d and show that it is acutely deficient in heavy elements, especially compared with its solar system counterparts. Subsequently, we perform numerical simulations of planetary thermal evolution and in agreement with previous studies, show that generally, 10-20 M ⊕ , multi-billion year old planets, composed of high density cores and extended H/He envelopes can have radii that firmly reside in the giant planet range. We subject our results to stability criteria based on extreme ultraviolet radiation, as well as Roche-lobe overflow driven mass-loss and construct mass-radius relationships for the considered objects. We conclude by discussing observational avenues that may be used to confirm or repudiate the existence of putative low mass, gas-dominated planets.

  9. A Common Probe Design for Multiple Planetary Destinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, H. H.; Allen, G. A., Jr.; Alunni, A. I.; Amato, M. J.; Atkinson, D. H.; Bienstock, B. J.; Cruz, J. R.; Dillman, R. A.; Cianciolo, A. D.; Elliott, J. O.; hide

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric probes have been successfully flown to planets and moons in the solar system to conduct in situ measurements. They include the Pioneer Venus multi-probes, the Galileo Jupiter probe, and Huygens probe. Probe mission concepts to five destinations, including Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, have all utilized similar-shaped aeroshells and concept of operations, namely a 45-degree sphere cone shape with high density heatshield material and parachute system for extracting the descent vehicle from the aeroshell. Each concept designed its probe to meet specific mission requirements and to optimize mass, volume, and cost. At the 2017 International Planetary Probe Workshop (IPPW), NASA Headquarters postulated that a common aeroshell design could be used successfully for multiple destinations and missions. This "common probe"� design could even be assembled with multiple copies, properly stored, and made available for future NASA missions, potentially realizing savings in cost and schedule and reducing the risk of losing technologies and skills difficult to sustain over decades. Thus the NASA Planetary Science Division funded a study to investigate whether a common probe design could meet most, if not all, mission needs to the five planetary destinations with extreme entry environments. The Common Probe study involved four NASA Centers and addressed these issues, including constraints and inefficiencies that occur in specifying a common design. Study methodology: First, a notional payload of instruments for each destination was defined based on priority measurements from the Planetary Science Decadal Survey. Steep and shallow entry flight path angles (EFPA) were defined for each planet based on qualification and operational g-load limits for current, state-of-the-art instruments. Interplanetary trajectories were then identified for a bounding range of EFPA. Next, 3-degrees-of-freedom simulations for entry trajectories were run using the entry state

  10. Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) for Planetary Atmospheric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra Bahamon, Tatiana; Cimo, Giuseppe; Duev, Dmitry; Gurvits, Leonid; Molera Calves, Guifre; Pogrebenko, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    The Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) is a technique that allows the determination of the radial velocity and lateral coordinates of planetary spacecraft with very high accuracy (Duev, 2012). The setup of the experiment consists of several ground stations from the European VLBI Network (EVN) located around the globe, which simultaneously perform Doppler tracking of a spacecraft carrier radio signal, and are subsequently processed in a VLBI-style in phase referencing mode. Because of the accurate examination of the changes in phase and amplitude of the radio signal propagating from the spacecraft to the multiple stations on Earth, the PRIDE technique can be used for several fields of planetary research, among which planetary atmospheric studies, gravimetry and ultra-precise celestial mechanics of planetary systems. In the study at hand the application of this technique for planetary atmospheric investigations is demonstrated. As a test case, radio occultation experiments were conducted with PRIDE having as target ESA's Venus Express, during different observing sessions with multiple ground stations in April 2012 and March 2014. Once each of the stations conducts the observation, the raw data is delivered to the correlation center at the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE) located in the Netherlands. The signals are processed with a high spectral resolution and phase detection software package from which Doppler observables of each station are derived. Subsequently the Doppler corrected signals are correlated to derive the VLBI observables. These two sets of observables are used for precise orbit determination. The reconstructed orbit along with the Doppler observables are used as input for the radio occultation processing software, which consists of mainly two modules, the geometrical optics module and the ray tracing inversion module, from which vertical density profiles, and subsequently, temperature and pressure profiles of Venus

  11. Invited Article: First Flight in Space of a Wide-field-of-view Soft X-Ray Imager Using Lobster-Eye Optics: Instrument Description and Initial Flight Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael; Porter, F. Scott; Sibeck, David G.; Carter, Jenny A.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chomay, Dennis J.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Galeazzi, Massiniliano; Keller, John; Koutroumpa, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development, launch into space, and initial results from a prototype wide eld-of-view (FOV) soft X-ray imager that employs Lobster-eye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM) is the rst instrument using this type of optics launched into space and provides proof-of-concept for future ight instruments capable of imaging structures such as the terrestrial cusp, the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere, comets, the moon, and the solar wind interaction with planetary bodies like Venus and Mars.

  12. Invited Article: First flight in space of a wide-field-of-view soft x-ray imager using lobster-eye optics: Instrument description and initial flight results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R; Porter, F Scott; Sibeck, David G; Carter, Jenny A; Chiao, Meng P; Chornay, Dennis J; Cravens, Thomas E; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Keller, John W; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Kujawski, Joseph; Kuntz, Kip; Read, Andy M; Robertson, Ina P; Sembay, Steve; Snowden, Steven L; Thomas, Nicholas; Uprety, Youaraj; Walsh, Brian M

    2015-07-01

    We describe the development, launch into space, and initial results from a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs lobster-eye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The sheath transport observer for the redistribution of mass is the first instrument using this type of optics launched into space and provides proof-of-concept for future flight instruments capable of imaging structures such as the terrestrial cusp, the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere, comets, the Moon, and the solar wind interaction with planetary bodies like Venus and Mars [Kuntz et al., Astrophys. J. (in press)].

  13. The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE): In Situ Geochronology for Planetary Robotic Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The Potassium (K) - Argon (Ar) Laser Experiment (KArLE) will make in situ noble-gas geochronology measurements aboard planetary robotic landers and roverss. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is used to measure the K abun-dance in a sample and to release its noble gases; the evolved Ar is measured by mass spectrometry (MS); and rela-tive K content is related to absolute Ar abundance by sample mass, determined by optical measurement of the ablated volume. KArLE measures a whole-rock K-Ar age to 10% or better for rocks 2 Ga or older, sufficient to resolve the absolute age of many planetary samples. The LIBS-MS approach is attractive because the analytical components have been flight proven, do not require further technical development, and provide complementary measurements as well as in situ geochronology.

  14. Planetary Data System (PDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Planetary Data System (PDS) is an archive of data products from NASA planetary missions, which is sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. We actively...

  15. A Study of Planetary Nebulae using the Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    A planetary nebula is formed following an intermediate-mass (1-8 solar M) star's evolution off of the main sequence; it undergoes a phase of mass loss whereby the stellar envelope is ejected and the core is converted into a white dwarf. Planetary nebulae often display complex morphologies such as waists or torii, rings, collimated jet-like outflows, and bipolar symmetry, but exactly how these features form is unclear. To study how the distribution of dust in the interstellar medium affects their morphology, we utilize the Faint Object InfraRed CAmera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) to obtain well-resolved images of four planetary nebulae--NGC 7027, NGC 6543, M2-9, and the Frosty Leo Nebula--at wavelengths where they radiate most of their energy. We retrieve mid infrared images at wavelengths ranging from 6.3 to 37.1 micron for each of our targets. IDL (Interactive Data Language) is used to perform basic analysis. We select M2-9 to investigate further; analyzing cross sections of the southern lobe reveals a slight limb brightening effect. Modeling the dust distribution within the lobes reveals that the thickness of the lobe walls is higher than anticipated, or rather than surrounding a vacuum surrounds a low density region of tenuous dust. Further analysis of this and other planetary nebulae is needed before drawing more specific conclusions.

  16. Faint-Source-Star Planetary Microlensing: The Discovery of the Cold Gas-Giant Planet OGLE-2014-BLG-0676Lb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattenbury, N. J.; Bennett, D. P.; Sumi, T.; Koshimoto, N.; Bond, I. A.; Udalski, A.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Maoz, D.; Jorgensen, U. G.; Barry, R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a planet OGLE-2014-BLG-0676Lb via gravitational microlensing. Observations for the lensing event were made by the following groups: Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics; Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment; Wise Observatory; RoboNETLas Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope; Microlensing Network for the Detection of Small Terrestrial Exoplanets; and -FUN. All analyses of the light-curve data favoura lens system comprising a planetary mass orbiting a host star. The most-favoured binary lens model has a mass ratio between the two lens masses of (4.78 +/- 0.13) 10(exp -3). Subject to some important assumptions, a Bayesian probability density analysis suggests the lens system comprises a 3.09(+1.02/-1.12) MJ planet orbiting a 0.62(+0.20/-0.22) solar mass host star at a deprojected orbital separation of 4.40(+2.16/-1.46) au. The distance to the lens system is 2.22(+0.96/-0.83) kpc. Planet OGLE-2014-BLG-0676Lb provides additional data to the growing number of cool planets discover redusing gravitational microlensing against which planetary formation theories may be tested. Most of the light in the baseline of this event is expected to come from the lens and thus high-resolution imaging observations could confirm our planetary model interpretation.

  17. Planetary Science Training for NASA's Astronauts: Preparing for Future Human Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Evans, C. A.; Graff, T. G.; Young, K. E.; Zeigler, R.

    2017-02-01

    Astronauts selected in 2017 and in future years will carry out in situ planetary science research during exploration of the solar system. Training to enable this goal is underway and is flexible to accommodate an evolving planetary science vision.

  18. MEASURING THE MASS OF SOLAR SYSTEM PLANETS USING PULSAR TIMING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, D. J.; Hobbs, G. B.; Manchester, R. N.; Edwards, R. T.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Sarkissian, J. M.; Backer, D. C.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Van Straten, W.; Coles, W.; Demorest, P. B.; Ferdman, R. D.; Purver, M. B.; Folkner, W. M.; Hotan, A. W.; Kramer, M.; Lommen, A. N.; Nice, D. J.; Stairs, I. H.

    2010-01-01

    High-precision pulsar timing relies on a solar system ephemeris in order to convert times of arrival (TOAs) of pulses measured at an observatory to the solar system barycenter. Any error in the conversion to the barycentric TOAs leads to a systematic variation in the observed timing residuals; specifically, an incorrect planetary mass leads to a predominantly sinusoidal variation having a period and phase associated with the planet's orbital motion about the Sun. By using an array of pulsars (PSRs J0437-4715, J1744-1134, J1857+0943, J1909-3744), the masses of the planetary systems from Mercury to Saturn have been determined. These masses are consistent with the best-known masses determined by spacecraft observations, with the mass of the Jovian system, 9.547921(2) x10 -4 M sun , being significantly more accurate than the mass determined from the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft, and consistent with but less accurate than the value from the Galileo spacecraft. While spacecraft are likely to produce the most accurate measurements for individual solar system bodies, the pulsar technique is sensitive to planetary system masses and has the potential to provide the most accurate values of these masses for some planets.

  19. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces (e.g., Varnes, 1974). Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962 (Hackman, 1962). Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete

  20. Planetary Missions of the 20th Century*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V. I.; Huntress, W. T.; Shevalev, I. L.

    2002-09-01

    Among of the highlights of the 20th century were flights of spacecraft to other bodies of the Solar System. This paper describes briefly the missions attempted, their goals, and fate. Information is presented in five tables on the missions launched, their goals, mission designations, dates, discoveries when successful, and what happened if they failed. More detailed explanations are given in the accompanying text. It is shown how this enterprise developed and evolved step by step from a politically driven competition to intense scientific investigations and international cooperation. Initially, only the USA and USSR sent missions to the Moon and planets. Europe and Japan joined later. The USSR carried out significant research in Solar System exploration until the end of the 1980s. The Russian Federation no longer supports robotic planetary exploration for economic reasons, and it remains to be seen whether the invaluable Russian experience in planetary space flight will be lost. Collaboration between Russian and other national space agencies may be a solution.

  1. Preparing Planetary Scientists to Engage Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, C. B.; Shaner, A. J.; Hackler, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    While some planetary scientists have extensive experience sharing their science with audiences, many can benefit from guidance on giving presentations or conducting activities for students. The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) provides resources and trainings to support planetary scientists in their communication efforts. Trainings have included sessions for students and early career scientists at conferences (providing opportunities for them to practice their delivery and receive feedback for their poster and oral presentations), as well as separate communication workshops on how to engage various audiences. LPI has similarly begun coaching planetary scientists to help them prepare their public presentations. LPI is also helping to connect different audiences and their requests for speakers to planetary scientists. Scientists have been key contributors in developing and conducting activities in LPI education and public events. LPI is currently working with scientists to identify and redesign short planetary science activities for scientists to use with different audiences. The activities will be tied to fundamental planetary science concepts, with basic materials and simple modifications to engage different ages and audience size and background. Input from the planetary science community on these efforts is welcome. Current results and resources, as well as future opportunities will be shared.

  2. LOW-MASS PLANETS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS WITH NET VERTICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS: THE PLANETARY WAKE AND GAP OPENING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Zhaohuan; Stone, James M.; Rafikov, Roman R., E-mail: zhzhu@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: jstone@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: rrr@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Some regions in protoplanetary disks are turbulent, while some regions are quiescent (e.g. the dead zone). In order to study how planets open gaps in both inviscid hydrodynamic disk (e.g. the dead zone) and the disk subject to magnetorotational instability (MRI), we carried out both shearing box two-dimensional inviscid hydrodynamical simulations and three-dimensional unstratified magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations (having net vertical magnetic fields) with a planet at the box center. We found that, due to the nonlinear wave steepening, even a low mass planet can open gaps in both cases, in contradiction to the ''thermal criterion'' for gap opening. In order to understand if we can represent the MRI turbulent stress with the viscous {alpha} prescription for studying gap opening, we compare gap properties in MRI-turbulent disks to those in viscous HD disks having the same stress, and found that the same mass planet opens a significantly deeper and wider gap in net vertical flux MHD disks than in viscous HD disks. This difference arises due to the efficient magnetic field transport into the gap region in MRI disks, leading to a larger effective {alpha} within the gap. Thus, across the gap, the Maxwell stress profile is smoother than the gap density profile, and a deeper gap is needed for the Maxwell stress gradient to balance the planetary torque density. Comparison with previous results from net toroidal flux/zero flux MHD simulations indicates that the magnetic field geometry plays an important role in the gap opening process. We also found that long-lived density features (termed zonal flows) produced by the MRI can affect planet migration. Overall, our results suggest that gaps can be commonly produced by low mass planets in realistic protoplanetary disks, and caution the use of a constant {alpha}-viscosity to model gaps in protoplanetary disks.

  3. LOW-MASS PLANETS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS WITH NET VERTICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS: THE PLANETARY WAKE AND GAP OPENING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhaohuan; Stone, James M.; Rafikov, Roman R.

    2013-01-01

    Some regions in protoplanetary disks are turbulent, while some regions are quiescent (e.g. the dead zone). In order to study how planets open gaps in both inviscid hydrodynamic disk (e.g. the dead zone) and the disk subject to magnetorotational instability (MRI), we carried out both shearing box two-dimensional inviscid hydrodynamical simulations and three-dimensional unstratified magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations (having net vertical magnetic fields) with a planet at the box center. We found that, due to the nonlinear wave steepening, even a low mass planet can open gaps in both cases, in contradiction to the ''thermal criterion'' for gap opening. In order to understand if we can represent the MRI turbulent stress with the viscous α prescription for studying gap opening, we compare gap properties in MRI-turbulent disks to those in viscous HD disks having the same stress, and found that the same mass planet opens a significantly deeper and wider gap in net vertical flux MHD disks than in viscous HD disks. This difference arises due to the efficient magnetic field transport into the gap region in MRI disks, leading to a larger effective α within the gap. Thus, across the gap, the Maxwell stress profile is smoother than the gap density profile, and a deeper gap is needed for the Maxwell stress gradient to balance the planetary torque density. Comparison with previous results from net toroidal flux/zero flux MHD simulations indicates that the magnetic field geometry plays an important role in the gap opening process. We also found that long-lived density features (termed zonal flows) produced by the MRI can affect planet migration. Overall, our results suggest that gaps can be commonly produced by low mass planets in realistic protoplanetary disks, and caution the use of a constant α-viscosity to model gaps in protoplanetary disks.

  4. Predictions for microlensing planetary events from core accretion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wei; Mao, Shude; Penny, Matthew; Gould, Andrew; Gendron, Rieul

    2014-01-01

    We conduct the first microlensing simulation in the context of a planet formation model. The planet population is taken from the Ida and Lin core accretion model for 0.3 M ☉ stars. With 6690 microlensing events, we find that for a simplified Korea Microlensing Telescopes Network (KMTNet), the fraction of planetary events is 2.9%, out of which 5.5% show multiple-planet signatures. The numbers of super-Earths, super-Neptunes, and super-Jupiters detected are expected to be almost equal. Our simulation shows that high-magnification events and massive planets are favored by planet detections, which is consistent with previous expectation. However, we notice that extremely high-magnification events are less sensitive to planets, which is possibly because the 10 minute sampling of KMTNet is not intensive enough to capture the subtle anomalies that occur near the peak. This suggests that while KMTNet observations can be systematically analyzed without reference to any follow-up data, follow-up observations will be essential in extracting the full science potential of very high magnification events. The uniformly high-cadence observations expected for KMTNet also result in ∼55% of all detected planets not being caustic crossing, and more low-mass planets even down to Mars mass being detected via planetary caustics. We also find that the distributions of orbital inclinations and planet mass ratios in multiple-planet events agree with the intrinsic distributions.

  5. Predictions for microlensing planetary events from core accretion theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wei; Mao, Shude [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Penny, Matthew; Gould, Andrew [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Gendron, Rieul, E-mail: weizhu@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-10

    We conduct the first microlensing simulation in the context of a planet formation model. The planet population is taken from the Ida and Lin core accretion model for 0.3 M {sub ☉} stars. With 6690 microlensing events, we find that for a simplified Korea Microlensing Telescopes Network (KMTNet), the fraction of planetary events is 2.9%, out of which 5.5% show multiple-planet signatures. The numbers of super-Earths, super-Neptunes, and super-Jupiters detected are expected to be almost equal. Our simulation shows that high-magnification events and massive planets are favored by planet detections, which is consistent with previous expectation. However, we notice that extremely high-magnification events are less sensitive to planets, which is possibly because the 10 minute sampling of KMTNet is not intensive enough to capture the subtle anomalies that occur near the peak. This suggests that while KMTNet observations can be systematically analyzed without reference to any follow-up data, follow-up observations will be essential in extracting the full science potential of very high magnification events. The uniformly high-cadence observations expected for KMTNet also result in ∼55% of all detected planets not being caustic crossing, and more low-mass planets even down to Mars mass being detected via planetary caustics. We also find that the distributions of orbital inclinations and planet mass ratios in multiple-planet events agree with the intrinsic distributions.

  6. Spatiokinematical models of five planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbadin, F.

    1984-01-01

    The [OOOI] and Hα expansion velocity fields in the planetary nebulae NGC6058 and 6804 and the [OIII], Hα and [NII] expansion velocity fields in NGC6309, 6751 and 6818, were obtained from high dispersion spectra. Spatiokinematical models of the nebulae were derived assuming an expansion velocity of the gas proportional to the distance from the central star and using the expansion velocity-radius correlation previously given. The observational parameters of the nebulae (radius, mass and expansion velocity) and of the exciting stars (temperature, radius and luminosity) closely fit the suggested evolutionary model for this class of objects. (author)

  7. Suppressed Far-UV Stellar Activity and Low Planetary Mass Loss in the WASP-18 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, L.; Koskinen, T.; France, K.; Cubillos, P. E.; Haswell, C. A.; Lanza, A. F.; Pillitteri, I.

    2018-03-01

    WASP-18 hosts a massive, very close-in Jupiter-like planet. Despite its young age (extinction (E(B-V) ≈ 0.01 mag) and then the interstellar medium (ISM) column density for a number of ions, concluding that ISM absorption is not the origin of the anomaly. We measure the flux of the four stellar emission features detected in the COS spectrum (C II, C III, C IV, Si IV). Comparing the C II/C IV flux ratio measured for WASP-18 with that derived from spectra of nearby stars with known age, we see that the far-UV spectrum of WASP-18 resembles that of old (>5 Gyr), inactive stars, in stark contrast with its young age. We conclude that WASP-18 has an intrinsically low activity level, possibly caused by star–planet tidal interaction, as suggested by previous studies. Re-scaling the solar irradiance reference spectrum to match the flux of the Si IV line, yields an XUV integrated flux at the planet orbit of 10.2 erg s‑1 cm‑2. We employ the rescaled XUV solar fluxes to models of the planetary upper atmosphere, deriving an extremely low thermal mass-loss rate of 10‑20 M J Gyr‑1. For such high-mass planets, thermal escape is not energy limited, but driven by Jeans escape. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from MAST at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #13859. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 092.D-0587.

  8. Observation-based estimation of aerosol-induced reduction of planetary boundary layer height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jun; Sun, Jianning; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Minghuai; Guo, Weidong; Fu, Congbin

    2017-09-01

    Radiative aerosols are known to influence the surface energy budget and hence the evolution of the planetary boundary layer. In this study, we develop a method to estimate the aerosol-induced reduction in the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) based on two years of ground-based measurements at a site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), at Nanjing University, China, and radiosonde data from the meteorological station of Nanjing. The observations show that increased aerosol loads lead to a mean decrease of 67.1 W m-2 for downward shortwave radiation (DSR) and a mean increase of 19.2 W m-2 for downward longwave radiation (DLR), as well as a mean decrease of 9.6 Wm-2 for the surface sensible heat flux (SHF) in the daytime. The relative variations of DSR, DLR and SHF are shown as a function of the increment of column mass concentration of particulate matter (PM2.5). High aerosol loading can significantly increase the atmospheric stability in the planetary boundary layer during both daytime and nighttime. Based on the statistical relationship between SHF and PM2.5 column mass concentrations, the SHF under clean atmospheric conditions (same as the background days) is derived. In this case, the derived SHF, together with observed SHF, are then used to estimate changes in the PBLH related to aerosols. Our results suggest that the PBLH decreases more rapidly with increasing aerosol loading at high aerosol loading. When the daytime mean column mass concentration of PM2.5 reaches 200 mg m-2, the decrease in the PBLH at 1600 LST (local standard time) is about 450 m.

  9. High-resolution simulations of the final assembly of Earth-like planets. 2. Water delivery and planetary habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Sean N; Quinn, Thomas; Lunine, Jonathan I

    2007-02-01

    The water content and habitability of terrestrial planets are determined during their final assembly, from perhaps 100 1,000-km "planetary embryos " and a swarm of billions of 1-10-km "planetesimals. " During this process, we assume that water-rich material is accreted by terrestrial planets via impacts of water-rich bodies that originate in the outer asteroid region. We present analysis of water delivery and planetary habitability in five high-resolution simulations containing about 10 times more particles than in previous simulations. These simulations formed 15 terrestrial planets from 0.4 to 2.6 Earth masses, including five planets in the habitable zone. Every planet from each simulation accreted at least the Earth's current water budget; most accreted several times that amount (assuming no impact depletion). Each planet accreted at least five water-rich embryos and planetesimals from the past 2.5 astronomical units; most accreted 10-20 water-rich bodies. We present a new model for water delivery to terrestrial planets in dynamically calm systems, with low-eccentricity or low-mass giant planets-such systems may be very common in the Galaxy. We suggest that water is accreted in comparable amounts from a few planetary embryos in a " hit or miss " way and from millions of planetesimals in a statistically robust process. Variations in water content are likely to be caused by fluctuations in the number of water-rich embryos accreted, as well as from systematic effects, such as planetary mass and location, and giant planet properties.

  10. Bipolar nebulae and type I planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, N.; Peimbert, M.

    1983-01-01

    It is suggested that the bipolar nature of PN of type I can be explained in terms of their relatively massive progenitors (Msub(i) 2.4 Msub(o)), that had to lose an appreciable fraction of their mass and angular momentum during their planetary nebulae stage. The following objects are discussed in relation with this suggestion: NGC 6302, NGC 2346, NGC 2440, CRL 618, Mz-3 and M2-9. It is found that CRL 618 is overbundant in N/O by a factor of 5-10 relative to the Orion Nebula. (author)

  11. The Solar Connections Observatory for Planetary Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Harris, Walter M.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection theme roadmap calls for comparative study of how the planets, comets, and local interstellar medium (LISM) interact with the Sun and respond to solar variability. Through such a study we advance our understanding of basic physical plasma and gas dynamic processes, thus increasing our predictive capabilities for the terrestrial, planetary, and interplanetary environments where future remote and human exploration will occur. Because the other planets have lacked study initiatives comparable to the terrestrial ITM, LWS, and EOS programs, our understanding of the upper atmospheres and near space environments on these worlds is far less detailed than our knowledge of the Earth. To close this gap we propose a mission to study {\\it all) of the solar interacting bodies in our planetary system out to the heliopause with a single remote sensing space observatory, the Solar Connections Observatory for Planetary Environments (SCOPE). SCOPE consists of a binocular EUV/FUV telescope operating from a remote, driftaway orbit that provides sub-arcsecond imaging and broadband medium resolution spectro-imaging over the 55-290 nm bandpass, and high (R>10$^{5}$ resolution H Ly-$\\alpha$ emission line profile measurements of small scale planetary and wide field diffuse solar system structures. A key to the SCOPE approach is to include Earth as a primary science target. From its remote vantage point SCOPE will be able to observe auroral emission to and beyond the rotational pole. The other planets and comets will be monitored in long duration campaigns centered when possible on solar opposition when interleaved terrestrial-planet observations can be used to directly compare the response of both worlds to the same solar wind stream and UV radiation field. Using a combination of observations and MHD models, SCOPE will isolate the different controlling parameters in each planet system and gain insight into the underlying physical processes that define the

  12. Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, M.

    2007-06-01

    The Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is a proposed NASA Discovery mission to image and characterize extrasolar giant planets in orbits with semi-major axes between 2 and 10 AU. EPIC will provide insights into the physical nature of a variety of planets in other solar systems complimenting radial velocity (RV) and astrometric planet searches. It will detect and characterize the atmospheres of planets identified by radial velocity surveys, determine orbital inclinations and masses, characterize the atmospheres around A and F type stars which cannot be found with RV techniques, and observe the inner spatial structure and colors of debris disks. The robust mission design is simple and flexible ensuring mission success while minimizing cost and risk. The science payload consists of a heritage optical telescope assembly (OTA), and visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) instrument.

  13. NOMINAL VALUES FOR SELECTED SOLAR AND PLANETARY QUANTITIES: IAU 2015 RESOLUTION B3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prša, Andrej [Villanova University, Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science, 800 Lancaster Ave., Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Harmanec, Petr [Astronomical Institute of the Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holešovičkách 2, CZ-180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mamajek, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States); Asplund, Martin [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Capitaine, Nicole [SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC, LNE, 61 avenue de lObservatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Depagne, Éric [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9 Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); Haberreiter, Margit [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos/World Radiation Center, Dorfstrasse 33, Davos (Switzerland); Hekker, Saskia [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Hilton, James [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States); Kopp, Greg [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, CO 80303-7814 (United States); and others

    2016-08-01

    In this brief communication we provide the rationale for and the outcome of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) resolution vote at the XXIXth General Assembly in Honolulu, Hawaii, in 2015, on recommended nominal conversion constants for selected solar and planetary properties. The problem addressed by the resolution is a lack of established conversion constants between solar and planetary values and SI units: a missing standard has caused a proliferation of solar values (e.g., solar radius, solar irradiance, solar luminosity, solar effective temperature, and solar mass parameter) in the literature, with cited solar values typically based on best estimates at the time of paper writing. As precision of observations increases, a set of consistent values becomes increasingly important. To address this, an IAU Working Group on Nominal Units for Stellar and Planetary Astronomy formed in 2011, uniting experts from the solar, stellar, planetary, exoplanetary, and fundamental astronomy, as well as from general standards fields to converge on optimal values for nominal conversion constants. The effort resulted in the IAU 2015 Resolution B3, passed at the IAU General Assembly by a large majority. The resolution recommends the use of nominal solar and planetary values, which are by definition exact and are expressed in SI units. These nominal values should be understood as conversion factors only, not as the true solar/planetary properties or current best estimates. Authors and journal editors are urged to join in using the standard values set forth by this resolution in future work and publications to help minimize further confusion.

  14. NOMINAL VALUES FOR SELECTED SOLAR AND PLANETARY QUANTITIES: IAU 2015 RESOLUTION B3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prša, Andrej; Harmanec, Petr; Torres, Guillermo; Mamajek, Eric; Asplund, Martin; Capitaine, Nicole; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Depagne, Éric; Haberreiter, Margit; Hekker, Saskia; Hilton, James; Kopp, Greg

    2016-01-01

    In this brief communication we provide the rationale for and the outcome of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) resolution vote at the XXIXth General Assembly in Honolulu, Hawaii, in 2015, on recommended nominal conversion constants for selected solar and planetary properties. The problem addressed by the resolution is a lack of established conversion constants between solar and planetary values and SI units: a missing standard has caused a proliferation of solar values (e.g., solar radius, solar irradiance, solar luminosity, solar effective temperature, and solar mass parameter) in the literature, with cited solar values typically based on best estimates at the time of paper writing. As precision of observations increases, a set of consistent values becomes increasingly important. To address this, an IAU Working Group on Nominal Units for Stellar and Planetary Astronomy formed in 2011, uniting experts from the solar, stellar, planetary, exoplanetary, and fundamental astronomy, as well as from general standards fields to converge on optimal values for nominal conversion constants. The effort resulted in the IAU 2015 Resolution B3, passed at the IAU General Assembly by a large majority. The resolution recommends the use of nominal solar and planetary values, which are by definition exact and are expressed in SI units. These nominal values should be understood as conversion factors only, not as the true solar/planetary properties or current best estimates. Authors and journal editors are urged to join in using the standard values set forth by this resolution in future work and publications to help minimize further confusion.

  15. Single rotating stars and the formation of bipolar planetary nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Segura, G. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico); Villaver, E. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Langer, N. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Yoon, S.-C. [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Manchado, A., E-mail: ggs@astrosen.unam.mx [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Via Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-03-10

    We have computed new stellar evolution models that include the effects of rotation and magnetic torques under different hypotheses. The goal is to test whether a single star can sustain the rotational velocities needed in the envelope for magnetohydrodynamical(MHD) simulations to shape bipolar planetary nebulae (PNe) when high mass-loss rates take place. Stellar evolution models with main sequence masses of 2.5 and 5 M {sub ☉} and initial rotational velocities of 250 km s{sup –1} have been followed through the PNe formation phase. We find that stellar cores have to be spun down using magnetic torques in order to reproduce the rotation rates observed for white dwarfs. During the asymptotic giant branch phase and beyond, the magnetic braking of the core has a practically null effect on increasing the rotational velocity of the envelope since the stellar angular momentum is efficiently removed by the wind. We have also tested the best possible case scenarios in rather non-physical contexts to give enough angular momentum to the envelope. We find that we cannot get the envelope of a single star to rotate at the speeds needed for MHD simulations to form bipolar PNe. We conclude that single stellar rotators are unlikely to be the progenitors of bipolar PNe under the current MHD model paradigm.

  16. Planetary Data Archiving Plan at JAXA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Iku; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Yamamoto, Yukio; Abe, Masanao; Okada, Tatsuaki; Imamura, Takeshi; Sobue, Shinichi; Takashima, Takeshi; Terazono, Jun-Ya

    After the successful rendezvous of Hayabusa with the small-body planet Itokawa, and the successful launch of Kaguya to the moon, Japanese planetary community has gotten their own and full-scale data. However, at this moment, these datasets are only available from the data sites managed by each mission team. The databases are individually constructed in the different formats, and the user interface of these data sites is not compatible with foreign databases. To improve the usability of the planetary archives at JAXA and to enable the international data exchange smooth, we are investigating to make a new planetary database. Within a coming decade, Japan will have fruitful datasets in the planetary science field, Venus (Planet-C), Mercury (BepiColombo), and several missions in planning phase (small-bodies). In order to strongly assist the international scientific collaboration using these mission archive data, the planned planetary data archive at JAXA should be managed in an unified manner and the database should be constructed in the international planetary database standard style. In this presentation, we will show the current status and future plans of the planetary data archiving at JAXA.

  17. Teaching, learning, and planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    The progress accomplished in the first five months of the three-year grant period of Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration is presented. The objectives of this project are to discover new education products and services based on space science, particularly planetary exploration. An Exploration in Education is the umbrella name for the education projects as they are seen by teachers and the interested public. As described in the proposal, our approach consists of: (1) increasing practical understanding of the potential role and capabilities of the research community to contribute to basic education using new discoveries; (2) developing an intellectual framework for these contributions by supplying criteria and templates for the teacher's stories; (3) attracting astronomers, engineers, and technical staff to the project and helping them form productive education partnerships for the future, (4) exploring relevant technologies and networks for authoring and communicating the teacher's stories; (5) enlisting the participation of potential user's of the teacher's stories in defining the products; (6) actually producing and delivering many educationally useful teacher's stories; and (7) reporting the pilot study results with critical evaluation. Technical progress was made by assembling our electronic publishing stations, designing electronic publications based on space science, and developing distribution approaches for electronic products. Progress was made addressing critical issues by developing policies and procedures for securing intellectual property rights and assembling a focus group of teachers to test our ideas and assure the quality of our products. The following useful materials are being produced: the TOPS report; three electronic 'PictureBooks'; one 'ElectronicArticle'; three 'ElectronicReports'; ten 'PrinterPosters'; and the 'FaxForum' with an initial complement of printed materials. We have coordinated with planetary scientists and astronomers

  18. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2010. Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces. Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962. Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete. Terrestrial geologic maps published by

  19. Stellar mass spectrum within massive collapsing clumps. I. Influence of the initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yueh-Ning; Hennebelle, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Context. Stars constitute the building blocks of our Universe, and their formation is an astrophysical problem of great importance. Aim. We aim to understand the fragmentation of massive molecular star-forming clumps and the effect of initial conditions, namely the density and the level of turbulence, on the resulting distribution of stars. For this purpose, we conduct numerical experiments in which we systematically vary the initial density over four orders of magnitude and the turbulent velocity over a factor ten. In a companion paper, we investigate the dependence of this distribution on the gas thermodynamics. Methods: We performed a series of hydrodynamical numerical simulations using adaptive mesh refinement, with special attention to numerical convergence. We also adapted an existing analytical model to the case of collapsing clouds by employing a density probability distribution function (PDF) ∝ρ-1.5 instead of a lognormal distribution. Results: Simulations and analytical model both show two support regimes, a thermally dominated regime and a turbulence-dominated regime. For the first regime, we infer that dN/d logM ∝ M0, while for the second regime, we obtain dN/d logM ∝ M-3/4. This is valid up to about ten times the mass of the first Larson core, as explained in the companion paper, leading to a peak of the mass spectrum at 0.2 M⊙. From this point, the mass spectrum decreases with decreasing mass except for the most diffuse clouds, where disk fragmentation leads to the formation of objects down to the mass of the first Larson core, that is, to a few 10-2 M⊙. Conclusions: Although the mass spectra we obtain for the most compact clouds qualitatively resemble the observed initial mass function, the distribution exponent is shallower than the expected Salpeter exponent of - 1.35. Nonetheless, we observe a possible transition toward a slightly steeper value that is broadly compatible with the Salpeter exponent for masses above a few solar masses

  20. MOA-2010-BLG-311: A PLANETARY CANDIDATE BELOW THE THRESHOLD OF RELIABLE DETECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, J. C.; Hung, L.-W.; Gould, A.; Gaudi, B. S.; Bond, I. A.; Allen, W.; Monard, L. A. G.; Albrow, M. D.; Fouqué, P.; Dominik, M.; Tsapras, Y.; Udalski, A.; Zellem, R.; Bos, M.; Christie, G. W.; DePoy, D. L.; Dong, Subo; Drummond, J.; Gorbikov, E.; Han, C.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze MOA-2010-BLG-311, a high magnification (A max > 600) microlensing event with complete data coverage over the peak, making it very sensitive to planetary signals. We fit this event with both a point lens and a two-body lens model and find that the two-body lens model is a better fit but with only Δχ 2 ∼ 80. The preferred mass ratio between the lens star and its companion is q = 10 –3.7±0.1 , placing the candidate companion in the planetary regime. Despite the formal significance of the planet, we show that because of systematics in the data the evidence for a planetary companion to the lens is too tenuous to claim a secure detection. When combined with analyses of other high-magnification events, this event helps empirically define the threshold for reliable planet detection in high-magnification events, which remains an open question.

  1. MOA-2010-BLG-311: A PLANETARY CANDIDATE BELOW THE THRESHOLD OF RELIABLE DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, J. C.; Hung, L.-W.; Gould, A.; Gaudi, B. S. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bond, I. A. [Institute for Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, Auckland 1330 (New Zealand); Allen, W. [Vintage Lane Observatory, Blenheim (New Zealand); Monard, L. A. G. [Bronberg Observatory, Centre for Backyard Astrophysics, Pretoria (South Africa); Albrow, M. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8020 (New Zealand); Fouque, P. [IRAP, CNRS, Universite de Toulouse, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Dominik, M. [SUPA, University of St. Andrews, School of Physics and Astronomy, North Haugh, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Tsapras, Y. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740B Cortona Drive, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Zellem, R. [Department of Planetary Sciences/LPL, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bos, M. [Molehill Astronomical Observatory, North Shore City, Auckland (New Zealand); Christie, G. W. [Auckland Observatory, P.O. Box 24-180, Auckland (New Zealand); DePoy, D. L. [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Dong, Subo [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Drummond, J. [Possum Observatory, Patutahi (New Zealand); Gorbikov, E. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverley Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Han, C., E-mail: liweih@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: rzellem@lpl.arizona.edu, E-mail: tim.natusch@aut.ac.nz [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, 410 Seongbong-Rho, Hungduk-Gu, Chongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Collaboration: muFUN Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; PLANET Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; MiNDSTEp Consortium; and others

    2013-05-20

    We analyze MOA-2010-BLG-311, a high magnification (A{sub max} > 600) microlensing event with complete data coverage over the peak, making it very sensitive to planetary signals. We fit this event with both a point lens and a two-body lens model and find that the two-body lens model is a better fit but with only {Delta}{chi}{sup 2} {approx} 80. The preferred mass ratio between the lens star and its companion is q = 10{sup -3.7{+-}0.1}, placing the candidate companion in the planetary regime. Despite the formal significance of the planet, we show that because of systematics in the data the evidence for a planetary companion to the lens is too tenuous to claim a secure detection. When combined with analyses of other high-magnification events, this event helps empirically define the threshold for reliable planet detection in high-magnification events, which remains an open question.

  2. Kinematics of galactic planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiosa, M.I.; Khromov, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    The classical method of determining the components of the solar motion relative to the centroid of the system of planetary nebulae with known radial velocities is investigated. It is shown that this method is insensitive to random errors in the radial velocities and that low accuracy in determining the coordinates of the solar apex and motion results from the insufficient number of planetaries with measured radial velocities. The planetary nebulae are found not to satisfy well the law of differential galactic rotation with circular orbits. This is attributed to the elongation of their galactic orbits. A method for obtaining the statistical parallax of planetary nebulae is considered, and the parallax calculated from the tau components of their proper motion is shown to be the most reliable

  3. Improving accessibility and discovery of ESA planetary data through the new planetary science archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, A. J.; Docasal, R.; Rios, C.; Barbarisi, I.; Saiz, J.; Vallejo, F.; Besse, S.; Arviset, C.; Barthelemy, M.; De Marchi, G.; Fraga, D.; Grotheer, E.; Heather, D.; Lim, T.; Martinez, S.; Vallat, C.

    2018-01-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific data sets through various interfaces at http://psa.esa.int. Mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standards which all new ESA planetary missions shall follow and the need to update the interfaces to the archive, the PSA has undergone an important re-engineering. In order to maximise the scientific exploitation of ESA's planetary data holdings, significant improvements have been made by utilising the latest technologies and implementing widely recognised open standards. To facilitate users in handling and visualising the many products stored in the archive which have spatial data associated, the new PSA supports Geographical Information Systems (GIS) by implementing the standards approved by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The modernised PSA also attempts to increase interoperability with the international community by implementing recognised planetary science specific protocols such as the PDAP (Planetary Data Access Protocol) and EPN-TAP (EuroPlanet-Table Access Protocol). In this paper we describe some of the methods by which the archive may be accessed and present the challenges that are being faced in consolidating data sets of the older PDS3 version of the standards with the new PDS4 deliveries into a single data model mapping to ensure transparent access to the data for users and services whilst maintaining a high performance.

  4. Spitzer Light Curves of the Young, Planetary-mass TW Hya Members 2MASS J11193254–1137466AB and WISEA J114724.10–204021.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin K.; Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.

    2018-06-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope time-series photometry at 3.6 and 4.5 μm of 2MASS J11193254‑1137466AB and WISEA J114724.10‑204021.3, two planetary-mass, late-type (∼L7) brown dwarf members of the ∼10 Myr old TW Hya Association. These observations were taken in order to investigate whether or not a tentative trend of increasing variability amplitude with decreasing surface gravity seen for L3–L5.5 dwarfs extends to later-L spectral types and to explore the angular momentum evolution of low-mass objects. We examine each light curve for variability and find a rotation period of 19.39+0.33 ‑0.28 hr and semi-amplitudes of 0.798+0.081 ‑0.083% at 3.6 μm and 1.108+0.093 ‑0.094% at 4.5 μm for WISEA J114724.10‑204021.3. For 2MASS J11193254‑1137466AB, we find a single period of 3.02+0.04 ‑0.03 hr with semi-amplitudes of 0.230+0.036 ‑0.035% at 3.6 μm and 0.453 ± 0.037% at 4.5 μm, which we find is possibly due to the rotation of one component of the binary. Combining our results with 12 other late-type L dwarfs observed with Spitzer from the literature, we find no significant differences between the 3.6 μm amplitudes of low surface gravity and field gravity late-type L brown dwarfs at Spitzer wavelengths, and find tentative evidence (75% confidence) of higher amplitude variability at 4.5 μm for young, late-type Ls. We also find a median rotation period of young brown dwarfs (10–300 Myr) of ∼10 hr, more than twice the value of the median rotation period of field-age brown dwarfs (∼4 hr), a clear signature of brown dwarf rotational evolution.

  5. The complex itinerary of Leibniz’s planetary theory physical convictions, metaphysical principles and Keplerian inspiration

    CERN Document Server

    Bussotti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This book presents new insights into Leibniz’s research on planetary theory and his system of pre-established harmony. Although some aspects of this theory have been explored in the literature, others are less well known. In particular, the book offers new contributions on the connection between the planetary theory and the theory of gravitation. It also provides an in-depth discussion of Kepler’s influence on Leibniz’s planetary theory and, more generally, on Leibniz’s concept of pre-established harmony. Three initial chapters presenting the mathematical and physical details of Leibniz’s works provide a frame of reference. The book then goes on to discuss research on Leibniz’s conception of gravity and the connection between Leibniz and Kepler. .

  6. Cognitive Planetary Transitions: An Astrobiological Perspective on the "Sapiezoic Eon".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinspoon, D. H.

    2016-12-01

    threats we survived through cooperation and innovation. Our current dilemmas require the same skills applied on larger temporal and spatial scales. Although right now we are initiating a mass extinction, in the long run by preventing future extinctions and prolonging the life of the biosphere we could be the best thing that ever happened to planet Earth.

  7. Planetary Magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.T.

    1980-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft have now probed the magnetic fields of all the terrestrial planets, the moon, Jupiter, and Saturn. These measurements reveal that dynamos are active in at least four of the planets, Mercury, the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn but that Venus and Mars appear to have at most only very weak planetary magnetic fields. The moon may have once possessed an internal dynamo, for the surface rocks are magnetized. The large satellites of the outer solar system are candidates for dynamo action in addition to the large planets themselves. Of these satellites the one most likely to generate its own internal magnetic field is Io

  8. ELLIPTICAL GALAXY MASSES OUT TO FIVE EFFECTIVE RADII: THE REALM OF DARK MATTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deason, A. J; Belokurov, V.; Evans, N. W.; McCarthy, I. G.

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the masses of elliptical galaxies out to five effective radii using planetary nebulae and globular clusters as tracers. A sample of 15 elliptical galaxies with a broad variation in mass is compiled from the literature. A distribution function-maximum likelihood analysis is used to estimate the overall potential slope, normalization, and velocity anisotropy of the tracers. We assume power-law profiles for the potential and tracer density and a constant velocity anisotropy. The derived potential power-law indices lie in between the isothermal and Keplerian regime and vary with mass: there is tentative evidence that the less massive galaxies have steeper potential profiles than the more massive galaxies. We use stellar mass-to-light ratios appropriate for either a Chabrier/KTG (Kroupa, Tout and Gilmore) or Salpeter initial mass function to disentangle the stellar and dark matter components. The fraction of dark matter within five effective radii increases with mass, in agreement with several other studies. We employ simple models to show that a combination of star formation efficiency and baryon extent are able to account for this trend. These models are in good agreement with both our measurements out to five effective radii and recent Sloan Lens ACS Survey measurements within one effective radii when a universal Chabrier/KTG initial mass function is adopted.

  9. Planetary Simulation Chambers bring Mars to laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateo-Marti, E.

    2016-07-01

    Although space missions provide fundamental and unique knowledge for planetary exploration, they are always costly and extremely time-consuming. Due to the obvious technical and economical limitations of in-situ planetary exploration, laboratory simulations are among the most feasible research options for making advances in planetary exploration. Therefore, laboratory simulations of planetary environments are a necessary and complementary option to expensive space missions. Simulation chambers are economical, more versatile, and allow for a higher number of experiments than space missions. Laboratory-based facilities are able to mimic the conditions found in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of a majority of planetary objects. Number of relevant applications in Mars planetary exploration will be described in order to provide an understanding about the potential and flexibility of planetary simulation chambers systems: mainly, stability and presence of certain minerals on Mars surface; and microorganisms potential habitability under planetary environmental conditions would be studied. Therefore, simulation chambers will be a promising tools and necessary platform to design future planetary space mission and to validate in-situ measurements from orbital or rover observations. (Author)

  10. Observations of the planetary nebula RWT 152 with OSIRIS/GTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, A.; Miranda, L. F.; Olguín, L.; Solano, E.; Ulla, A.

    2016-11-01

    RWT 152 is one of the few known planetary nebulae with an sdO central star. We present subarcsecond red tunable filter Hα imaging and intermediate-resolution, long-slit spectroscopy of RWT 152 obtained with OSIRIS/GTC (Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy/Gran Telescopio Canarias) with the goal of analysing its properties. The Hα image reveals a bipolar nebula with a bright equatorial region and multiple bubbles in the main lobes. A faint circular halo surrounds the main nebula. The nebular spectra reveal a very low excitation nebula with weak emission lines from H+, He+ and double-ionized metals, and absence of emission lines from neutral and single-ionized metals, except for an extremely faint [N II] λ6584 emission line. These spectra may be explained if RWT 152 is a density-bounded planetary nebula. Low nebular chemical abundances of S, O, Ar, N and Ne are obtained in RWT 152, which, together with the derived high peculiar velocity (˜ 92-131 km s-1), indicate that this object is a halo planetary nebula. The available data are consistent with RWT 152 evolving from a low-mass progenitor (˜1 M⊙) formed in a metal-poor environment.

  11. The real-time control of planetary rovers through behavior modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David P.

    1991-01-01

    It is not yet clear of what type, and how much, intelligence is needed for a planetary rover to function semi-autonomously on a planetary surface. Current designs assume an advanced AI system that maintains a detailed map of its journeys and the surroundings, and that carefully calculates and tests every move in advance. To achieve these abilities, and because of the limitations of space-qualified electronics, the supporting rover is quite sizable, massing a large fraction of a ton, and requiring technology advances in everything from power to ground operations. An alternative approach is to use a behavior driven control scheme. Recent research has shown that many complex tasks may be achieved by programming a robot with a set of behaviors and activation or deactivating a subset of those behaviors as required by the specific situation in which the robot finds itself. Behavior control requires much less computation than is required by tradition AI planning techniques. The reduced computation requirements allows the entire rover to be scaled down as appropriate (only down-link communications and payload do not scale under these circumstances). The missions that can be handled by the real-time control and operation of a set of small, semi-autonomous, interacting, behavior-controlled planetary rovers are discussed.

  12. Planetary Nebulae and their parent stellar populations. Tracing the mass assembly of M87 and Intracluster light in the Virgo cluster core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaboldi, Magda; Longobardi, Alessia; Gerhard, Ortwin

    2016-08-01

    The diffuse extended outer regions of galaxies are hard to study because they are faint, with typical surface brightness of 1% of the dark night sky. We can tackle this problem by using resolved star tracers which remain visible at large distances from the galaxy centers. This article describes the use of Planetary Nebulae as tracers and the calibration of their properties as indicators of the star formation history, mean age and metallicity of the parent stars in the Milky Way and Local Group galaxies. We then report on the results from a deep, extended, planetary nebulae survey in a 0.5 deg2 region centered on the brightest cluster galaxy NGC 4486 (M87) in the Virgo cluster core, carried out with SuprimeCam@Subaru and FLAMES-GIRAFFE@VLT. Two planetary nebulae populations are identified out to 150 kpc distance from the center of M87. One population is associated with the M87 halo and the second one with the intracluster light in the Virgo cluster core. They have different line-of-sight velocity and spatial distributions, as well as different planetary nebulae specific frequencies and luminosity functions. The intracluster planetary nebulae in the surveyed region correspond to a luminosity of four times the luminosity of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The M87 halo planetary nebulae trace an older, more metal-rich, parent stellar population. A substructure detected in the projected phase-space of the line-of-sight velocity vs. major axis distance for the M87 halo planetary nebulae provides evidence for the recent accretion event of a satellite galaxy with luminosity twice that of M33. The satellite stars were tidally stripped about 1 Gyr ago, and reached apocenter at a major axis distance of 60-90 kpc from the center of M87. The M87 halo is still growing significantly at the distances where the substructure is detected.

  13. Mass loss on the Asymptotic Giant Branch

    OpenAIRE

    Zijlstra, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Mass loss on the Asymptotic Giant Branch provides the origin of planetary nebulae. This paper reviews several relevant aspects of AGB evolution: pulsation properties, mass loss formalisms and time variable mass loss, evidence for asymmetries on the AGB, binarity, ISM interaction, and mass loss at low metallicity. There is growing evidence that mass loss on the AGB is already asymmetric, but with spherically symmetric velocity fields. The origin of the rings may be in pulsational instabilities...

  14. KEPLER-LIKE MULTI-PLEXING FOR MASS PRODUCTION OF MICROLENS PARALLAXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, Andrew [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Horne, Keith, E-mail: gould@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: kdh1@st-andrews.ac.uk [SUPA, University of St Andrews, School of Physics and Astronomy, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-20

    We show that a wide-field Kepler-like satellite in solar orbit could obtain microlens parallaxes for several thousand events per year that are identified from the ground, yielding masses and distances for several dozen planetary events. This is roughly an order of magnitude larger than previously considered narrow-angle designs. Such a satellite would, in addition, roughly double the number of planet detections (and mass/distance determinations). It would also yield a trove of brown-dwarf binaries with masses, distances, and (frequently) full orbits, enable new probes of the stellar mass function, and identify isolated black-hole candidates. We show that the actual Kepler satellite, even with degraded pointing, can demonstrate these capabilities and make substantial initial inroads into the science potential. We discuss several ''Deltas'' to the Kepler satellite aimed at optimizing microlens parallax capabilities. Most of these would reduce costs. The wide-angle approach advocated here has only recently become superior to the old narrow-angle approach, due to the much larger number of ground-based microlensing events now being discovered.

  15. KEPLER-LIKE MULTI-PLEXING FOR MASS PRODUCTION OF MICROLENS PARALLAXES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, Andrew; Horne, Keith

    2013-01-01

    We show that a wide-field Kepler-like satellite in solar orbit could obtain microlens parallaxes for several thousand events per year that are identified from the ground, yielding masses and distances for several dozen planetary events. This is roughly an order of magnitude larger than previously considered narrow-angle designs. Such a satellite would, in addition, roughly double the number of planet detections (and mass/distance determinations). It would also yield a trove of brown-dwarf binaries with masses, distances, and (frequently) full orbits, enable new probes of the stellar mass function, and identify isolated black-hole candidates. We show that the actual Kepler satellite, even with degraded pointing, can demonstrate these capabilities and make substantial initial inroads into the science potential. We discuss several ''Deltas'' to the Kepler satellite aimed at optimizing microlens parallax capabilities. Most of these would reduce costs. The wide-angle approach advocated here has only recently become superior to the old narrow-angle approach, due to the much larger number of ground-based microlensing events now being discovered

  16. Kepler-like Multi-plexing for Mass Production of Microlens Parallaxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Andrew; Horne, Keith

    2013-12-01

    We show that a wide-field Kepler-like satellite in solar orbit could obtain microlens parallaxes for several thousand events per year that are identified from the ground, yielding masses and distances for several dozen planetary events. This is roughly an order of magnitude larger than previously considered narrow-angle designs. Such a satellite would, in addition, roughly double the number of planet detections (and mass/distance determinations). It would also yield a trove of brown-dwarf binaries with masses, distances, and (frequently) full orbits, enable new probes of the stellar mass function, and identify isolated black-hole candidates. We show that the actual Kepler satellite, even with degraded pointing, can demonstrate these capabilities and make substantial initial inroads into the science potential. We discuss several "Deltas" to the Kepler satellite aimed at optimizing microlens parallax capabilities. Most of these would reduce costs. The wide-angle approach advocated here has only recently become superior to the old narrow-angle approach, due to the much larger number of ground-based microlensing events now being discovered.

  17. AN INITIAL MASS FUNCTION STUDY OF THE DWARF STARBURST GALAXY NGC 4214

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J. E.; Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Chandar, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Lee, J. C.; Whitmore, B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Elmegreen, B. G. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Kennicutt, R. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kissel, J. S. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Da Silva, Robert L.; Krumholz, Mark R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Dopita, M. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frogel, Jay A. [Galaxies Unlimited, 1 Tremblant Court, Lutherville, MD (United States); Kim, Hwihyun, E-mail: jandrews@astro.umass.edu, E-mail: callzetti@astro.umass.edu [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    The production rate of ionizing photons in young ({<=}8 Myr), unresolved stellar clusters in the nearby irregular galaxy NGC 4214 is probed using multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data. We normalize the ionizing photon rate by the cluster mass to investigate the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (IMF). We have found that within the uncertainties the upper end of the stellar IMF appears to be universal in this galaxy, and that deviations from a universal IMF can be attributed to stochastic sampling of stars in clusters with masses {approx}<10{sup 3} M{sub Sun }. Furthermore, we have found that there does not seem to be a dependence of the maximum stellar mass on the cluster mass. We have also found that for massive clusters, feedback may cause an underrepresentation in H{alpha} luminosities, which needs to be taken into account when conducting this type of analysis.

  18. The critical binary star separation for a planetary system origin of white dwarf pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Dimitri; Xu, Siyi; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    The atmospheres of between one quarter and one half of observed single white dwarfs in the Milky Way contain heavy element pollution from planetary debris. The pollution observed in white dwarfs in binary star systems is, however, less clear, because companion star winds can generate a stream of matter which is accreted by the white dwarf. Here, we (i) discuss the necessity or lack thereof of a major planet in order to pollute a white dwarf with orbiting minor planets in both single and binary systems, and (ii) determine the critical binary separation beyond which the accretion source is from a planetary system. We hence obtain user-friendly functions relating this distance to the masses and radii of both stars, the companion wind, and the accretion rate on to the white dwarf, for a wide variety of published accretion prescriptions. We find that for the majority of white dwarfs in known binaries, if pollution is detected, then that pollution should originate from planetary material.

  19. The double-degenerate, super-Chandrasekhar nucleus of the planetary nebula Henize 2-428.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander-García, M; Rodríguez-Gil, P; Corradi, R L M; Jones, D; Miszalski, B; Boffin, H M J; Rubio-Díez, M M; Kotze, M M

    2015-03-05

    The planetary nebula stage is the ultimate fate of stars with masses one to eight times that of the Sun (M(⊙)). The origin of their complex morphologies is poorly understood, although several mechanisms involving binary interaction have been proposed. In close binary systems, the orbital separation is short enough for the primary star to overfill its Roche lobe as the star expands during the asymptotic giant branch phase. The excess gas eventually forms a common envelope surrounding both stars. Drag forces then result in the envelope being ejected into a bipolar planetary nebula whose equator is coincident with the orbital plane of the system. Systems in which both stars have ejected their envelopes and are evolving towards the white dwarf stage are said to be double degenerate. Here we report that Henize 2-428 has a double-degenerate core with a combined mass of ∼1.76M(⊙), which is above the Chandrasekhar limit (the maximum mass of a stable white dwarf) of 1.4M(⊙). This, together with its short orbital period (4.2 hours), suggests that the system should merge in 700 million years, triggering a type Ia supernova event. This supports the hypothesis of the double-degenerate, super-Chandrasekhar evolutionary pathway for the formation of type Ia supernovae.

  20. The Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, C.; Besse, S.; Barbarisi, I.; Arviset, C.; De Marchi, G.; Barthelemy, M.; Coia, D.; Costa, M.; Docasal, R.; Fraga, D.; Heather, D. J.; Lim, T.; Macfarlane, A.; Martinez, S.; Rios, C.; Vallejo, F.; Said, J.

    2017-09-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://psa.esa.int. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA has started to implement a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standards, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation.

  1. Interactive investigations into planetary interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, I.

    2015-12-01

    Many processes in Earth science are difficult to observe or visualize due to the large timescales and lengthscales over which they operate. The dynamics of planetary mantles are particularly challenging as we cannot even look at the rocks involved. As a result, much teaching material on mantle dynamics relies on static images and cartoons, many of which are decades old. Recent improvements in computing power and technology (largely driven by game and web development) have allowed for advances in real-time physics simulations and visualizations, but these have been slow to affect Earth science education.Here I demonstrate a teaching tool for mantle convection and seismology which solves the equations for conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in real time, allowing users make changes to the simulation and immediately see the effects. The user can ask and answer questions about what happens when they add heat in one place, or take it away from another place, or increase the temperature at the base of the mantle. They can also pause the simulation, and while it is paused, create and visualize seismic waves traveling through the mantle. These allow for investigations into and discussions about plate tectonics, earthquakes, hot spot volcanism, and planetary cooling.The simulation is rendered to the screen using OpenGL, and is cross-platform. It can be run as a native application for maximum performance, but it can also be embedded in a web browser for easy deployment and portability.

  2. HPS: A space fission power system suitable for near-term, low-cost lunar and planetary bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, M.G.; Poston, D.I.; Ranken, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    Near-term, low-cost space fission power systems can enhance the feasibility and utility of lunar and planetary bases. One such system, the Heatpipe Power System (HPS), is described in this paper. The HPS draws on 40 yr of United States and international experience to enable a system that can be developed in <5 yr at a cost of <$100M. Total HPS mass is <600 kg at 5 kWe and <2000 kg at 50 kWe, assuming that thermoelectric power conversion is used. More advanced power conversion systems could reduce system mass significantly. System mass for planetary surface systems also may be reduced (1) if indigenous material is used for radiation shielding and (2) because of the positive effect of the gravitational field on heatpipe operation. The HPS is virtually non-radioactive at launch and is passively subcritical during all credible launch accidents. Full-system electrically heated testing is possible, and a ground nuclear power test is not needed for flight qualification. Fuel burnup limits are not reached for several decades, thus giving the system long-life potential

  3. Considerations in the Design of Future Planetary Laser Altimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Zuber, M. T.; Sun, X.

    2017-12-01

    Planetary laser altimeters have generally been designed to provide high accuracy measurements of the nadir range to an uncooperative surface for deriving the shape of the target body, and sometimes specifically for identifying and characterizing potential landing sites. However, experience has shown that in addition to the range measurement, other valuable observations can be acquired, including surface reflectance and surface roughness, despite not being given high priority in the original altimeter design or even anticipated. After nearly 2 decades of planetary laser altimeter design, the requirements are evolving and additional capabilities are becoming equally important. The target bodies, once the terrestrial planets, are now equally asteroids and moons that in many cases do not permit simple orbital operations due to their small mass, radiation issues, or spacecraft fuel limitations. In addition, for a number of reasons, it has become necessary to perform shape determination from a much greater range, even thousands of kilometers, and thus ranging is becoming as important as nadir altimetry. Reflectance measurements have also proved important for assessing the presence of ice, water or CO2, and laser pulse spreading informed knowledge of surface roughness; all indicating a need for improved instrument capability. Recently, the need to obtain accurate range measurement to laser reflectors on landers or on a planetary surface is presenting new science opportunities but for which current designs are far from optimal. These changes to classic laser altimetry have consequences for many instrument functions and capabilities, including beam divergence, laser power, number of beams and detectors, pixelation, energy measurements, pointing stability, polarization, laser wavelengths, and laser pulse rate dependent range. We will discuss how a new consideration of these trades will help make lidars key instruments to execute innovative science in future planetary

  4. Plate tectonics and planetary habitability: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Plate tectonics is one of the major factors affecting the potential habitability of a terrestrial planet. The physics of plate tectonics is, however, still far from being complete, leading to considerable uncertainty when discussing planetary habitability. Here, I summarize recent developments on the evolution of plate tectonics on Earth, which suggest a radically new view on Earth dynamics: convection in the mantle has been speeding up despite its secular cooling, and the operation of plate tectonics has been facilitated throughout Earth's history by the gradual subduction of water into an initially dry mantle. The role of plate tectonics in planetary habitability through its influence on atmospheric evolution is still difficult to quantify, and, to this end, it will be vital to better understand a coupled core-mantle-atmosphere system in the context of solar system evolution. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Chemistry in the final stages of stellar evolution: Millimeter and submillimeter observations of supergiants and planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessica Louise

    High mass loss rates in evolved stars make them the major contributors to recycling processed material back into the interstellar medium. This mass loss creates large circumstellar shells, rich in molecular material. This dissertation presents millimeter and submillimeter studies of the end stages of low mass and high mass stars in order to probe their molecular content in more detail. In low mass stars, the molecular material is carried on into the planetary nebula (PN) stage. Observations of CS, HCO+, and CO in planetary nebulae (PNe) of various post-asymptotic giant branch ages have shown that molecular abundances in these objects do not significantly vary with age, as previously thought. More detailed observations of the slightly oxygen-rich PN NGC 6537 resulted in the detection of CN, HCN, HNC, CCH, CS, SO, H 2CO, HCO+ and N2H+, as well as numerous 13C isotopologues. Observations of the middle-aged PN M2-48 showed the presence of CN, HCN, HNC, CS, SO, SO2, SiO, HCO+, N2H+, and several 13C isotopologues. These observations represent the first detections of CS, SO, SO2, and SiO in any planetary nebula. The implications of these observations are discussed. A 1 mm spectral survey of the supergiant star NML Cygni has been carried out with the Arizona Radio Observatory Submillimeter Telescope resulting in the observation of 102 emission features arising from 17 different molecules and 4 unidentified features. The line profiles observed in this circumstellar shell are asymmetric and vary between different molecules, akin to what has been seen in another supergiant, VY Canis Majoris. The non-LTE radiative transfer code ESCAPADE has been used to model molecular abundances in the various asymmetric outflows of VY Canis Majoris, showing just how chemically and kinematically complex these supergiant circumstellar envelopes really are.

  6. Bringing Terramechanics to bear on Planetary Rover Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, L.

    2007-08-01

    Thus far, planetary rovers have been successfully operated on the Earth's moon and on Mars. In particular, the two NASA Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) ,Spirit' and ,Opportunity' are still in sustained daily operations at two sites on Mars more than 3 years after landing there. Currently, several new planetary rover missions are in development targeting Mars (the US Mars Science Lab vehicle for launch in 2009 and ESA's ExoMars rover for launch in 2013), with lunar rover missions under study by China and Japan for launches around 2012. Moreover, the US Constellation program is preparing pre-development of lunar rovers for initially unmanned and, subsequently, human missions to the Moon with a corresponding team dedicated to mobility system development having been set up at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Given this dynamic environment, it was found timely to establish an expert group on off-the-road mobility as relevant for robotic vehicles that would involve individuals representing the various on-going efforts on the different continents. This was realized through the International Society of Terrain-Vehicle Systems (ISTVS), a research organisation devoted to terramechanics and to the ,science' of off-the-road vehicle development which as a result is just now establishing a Technical Group on Terrestrial and Planetary Rovers. Members represent space-related as well as military research institutes and universities from the US, Germany, Italy, and Japan. The group's charter for 2007 is to define its objectives, functions, organizational structure and recommended research objectives to support planetary rover design and development. Expected areas of activity of the ISTVS-sponsored group include: the problem of terrain specification for planetary rovers; identification of limitations in modelling of rover mobility; a survey of existing rover mobility testbeds; the consolidation of mobility predictive models and their state of validation; sensing and real

  7. On the problem of secular variability in the stellar initial mass function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meusinger, H.

    1987-01-01

    The hypothesis of secular variations in the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is studied. It is found that neither the present-day mass function of the nearby main sequence field stars nor the velocity distribution of these stars are contradictory with this hypothesis. The luminosity functions of unbiased kinematically defined age-groups of the nearby stars also provide no strong constraints. Simple evoluion models with time-dependent IMF and star formation rate enable to fit the data of blue irregular galaxies. Some problems with an universal IMF are pointed out. (author)

  8. The Initial-Final Mass Relationship: Spectroscopy of White Dwarfs in NGC 2099 (M37)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalirai, Jasonjot Singh; Richer, Harvey B.; Reitzel, David; Hansen, Brad M. S.; Rich, R. Michael; Fahlman, Gregory G.; Gibson, Brad K.; von Hippel, Ted

    2005-01-01

    We present new observations of very faint white dwarfs (WDs) in the rich open star cluster NGC 2099 (M37). Following deep, wide-field imaging of the cluster using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we have now obtained spectroscopic observations of candidate WDs using both the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on Gemini North and the Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer on Keck. Of our 24 WD candidates (all fainter than V=22.4), 21 are spectroscopically confirmed to be bona fide WDs, four or five of which are most likely field objects. Fitting 18 of the 21 WD spectra with model atmospheres, we find that most WDs in this cluster are quite massive (0.7-0.9 Msolar), as expected given the cluster's young age (650 Myr) and, hence, high turnoff mass (~2.4 Msolar). We determine a new initial-final mass relationship and almost double the number of existing data points from previous studies. The results indicate that stars with initial masses between 2.8 and 3.4 Msolar lose 70%-75% of their mass through stellar evolution. For the first time, we find some evidence of a metallicity dependence on the initial-final mass relationship. Based on observations with Gemini (run ID GN-2002B-Q-11) and Keck. Gemini is an international partnership managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. The W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  9. Richest Planetary System Discovered - Up to seven planets orbiting a Sun-like star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Astronomers using ESO's world-leading HARPS instrument have discovered a planetary system containing at least five planets, orbiting the Sun-like star HD 10180. The researchers also have tantalising evidence that two other planets may be present, one of which would have the lowest mass ever found. This would make the system similar to our Solar System in terms of the number of planets (seven as compared to the Solar System's eight planets). Furthermore, the team also found evidence that the distances of the planets from their star follow a regular pattern, as also seen in our Solar System. "We have found what is most likely the system with the most planets yet discovered," says Christophe Lovis, lead author of the paper reporting the result. "This remarkable discovery also highlights the fact that we are now entering a new era in exoplanet research: the study of complex planetary systems and not just of individual planets. Studies of planetary motions in the new system reveal complex gravitational interactions between the planets and give us insights into the long-term evolution of the system." The team of astronomers used the HARPS spectrograph, attached to ESO's 3.6-metre telescope at La Silla, Chile, for a six-year-long study of the Sun-like star HD 10180, located 127 light-years away in the southern constellation of Hydrus (the Male Water Snake). HARPS is an instrument with unrivalled measurement stability and great precision and is the world's most successful exoplanet hunter. Thanks to the 190 individual HARPS measurements, the astronomers detected the tiny back and forth motions of the star caused by the complex gravitational attractions from five or more planets. The five strongest signals correspond to planets with Neptune-like masses - between 13 and 25 Earth masses [1] - which orbit the star with periods ranging from about 6 to 600 days. These planets are located between 0.06 and 1.4 times the Earth-Sun distance from their central star. "We also have

  10. Technology under Planetary Protection Research (PPR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Planetary protection involves preventing biological contamination on both outbound and sample return missions to other planetary bodies. Numerous areas of research...

  11. Connection between Dynamically Derived Initial Mass Function Normalization and Stellar Population Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Cappellari, Michele; Alatalo, Katherine; Bayet, Estelle; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization αdyn ≡

  12. Virtual reality and planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Michael W.

    Exploring planetary environments is central to NASA's missions and goals. A new computing technology called Virtual Reality has much to offer in support of planetary exploration. This technology augments and extends human presence within computer-generated and remote spatial environments. Historically, NASA has been a leader in many of the fundamental concepts and technologies that comprise Virtual Reality. Indeed, Ames Research Center has a central role in the development of this rapidly emerging approach to using computers. This ground breaking work has inspired researchers in academia, industry, and the military. Further, NASA's leadership in this technology has spun off new businesses, has caught the attention of the international business community, and has generated several years of positive international media coverage. In the future, Virtual Reality technology will enable greatly improved human-machine interactions for more productive planetary surface exploration. Perhaps more importantly, Virtual Reality technology will democratize the experience of planetary exploration and thereby broaden understanding of, and support for, this historic enterprise.

  13. Virtual reality and planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    Exploring planetary environments is central to NASA's missions and goals. A new computing technology called Virtual Reality has much to offer in support of planetary exploration. This technology augments and extends human presence within computer-generated and remote spatial environments. Historically, NASA has been a leader in many of the fundamental concepts and technologies that comprise Virtual Reality. Indeed, Ames Research Center has a central role in the development of this rapidly emerging approach to using computers. This ground breaking work has inspired researchers in academia, industry, and the military. Further, NASA's leadership in this technology has spun off new businesses, has caught the attention of the international business community, and has generated several years of positive international media coverage. In the future, Virtual Reality technology will enable greatly improved human-machine interactions for more productive planetary surface exploration. Perhaps more importantly, Virtual Reality technology will democratize the experience of planetary exploration and thereby broaden understanding of, and support for, this historic enterprise.

  14. Spectral Feature Analysis of Minerals and Planetary Surfaces in an Introductory Planetary Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Using an ALTA II reflectance spectrometer, the USGS digital spectral library, graphs of planetary spectra, and a few mineral hand samples, one can teach how light can be used to study planets and moons. The author created the hands-on, inquiry-based activity for an undergraduate planetary science course consisting of freshman to senior level…

  15. PLANETARY CANDIDATES FROM THE FIRST YEAR OF THE K2 MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Latham, David W.; Bieryla, Allyson; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Welsh, Sophie; Johnson, John Asher [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Buchhave, Lars A., E-mail: avanderburg@cfa.harvard.edu [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2016-01-15

    The Kepler Space Telescope is currently searching for planets transiting stars along the ecliptic plane as part of its extended K2 mission. We processed the publicly released data from the first year of K2 observations (Campaigns 0, 1, 2, and 3) and searched for periodic eclipse signals consistent with planetary transits. Out of the 59,174 targets that we searched, we detect 234 planetary candidates around 208 stars. These candidates range in size from gas giants to smaller than the Earth, and range in orbital periods from hours to over a month. We conducted initial reconnaissance spectroscopy of 68 of the brighter candidate host stars, and present high-resolution optical spectra for these stars. We make all of our data products, including light curves, spectra, and vetting diagnostics available to users online.

  16. FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS AND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF YOUNG AND FIELD AGE OBJECTS WITH MASSES SPANNING THE STELLAR TO PLANETARY REGIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Rice, Emily L. [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, 2800 Victory Blvd, Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline; Cruz, Kelle L. [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Van Gordon, Mollie M. [Department of Geography, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Looper, Dagny L. [Tisch School of the Arts, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2015-09-10

    We combine optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared spectra and photometry to construct expanded spectral energy distributions for 145 field age (>500 Myr) and 53 young (lower age estimate <500 Myr) ultracool dwarfs (M6-T9). This range of spectral types includes very low mass stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary mass objects, providing fundamental parameters across both the hydrogen and deuterium burning minimum masses for the largest sample assembled to date. A subsample of 29 objects have well constrained ages as probable members of a nearby young moving group. We use 182 parallaxes and 16 kinematic distances to determine precise bolometric luminosities (L{sub bol}) and radius estimates from evolutionary models give semi-empirical effective temperatures (T{sub eff}) for the full range of young and field age late-M, L, and T dwarfs. We construct age-sensitive relationships of luminosity, temperature, and absolute magnitude as functions of spectral type and absolute magnitude to disentangle the effects of degenerate physical parameters such as T{sub eff}, surface gravity, and clouds on spectral morphology. We report bolometric corrections in J for both field age and young objects and find differences of up to a magnitude for late-L dwarfs. Our correction in Ks shows a larger dispersion but not necessarily a different relationship for young and field age sequences. We also characterize the NIR–MIR reddening of low gravity L dwarfs and identify a systematically cooler T{sub eff} of up to 300 K from field age objects of the same spectral type and 400 K cooler from field age objects of the same M{sub H} magnitude.

  17. NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Preparing the Next Generation of Planetary Mission Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, L. L.; Budney, C. J.; Sohus, A.; Wheeler, T.; Urban, A.; NASA Planetary Science Summer School Team

    2011-12-01

    Sponsored by NASA's Planetary Science Division, and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Planetary Science Summer School prepares the next generation of engineers and scientists to participate in future solar system exploration missions. Participants learn the mission life cycle, roles of scientists and engineers in a mission environment, mission design interconnectedness and trade-offs, and the importance of teamwork. For this professional development opportunity, applicants are sought who have a strong interest and experience in careers in planetary exploration, and who are science and engineering post-docs, recent PhDs, and doctoral students, and faculty teaching such students. Disciplines include planetary science, geoscience, geophysics, environmental science, aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, and materials science. Participants are selected through a competitive review process, with selections based on the strength of the application and advisor's recommendation letter. Under the mentorship of a lead engineer (Dr. Charles Budney), students select, design, and develop a mission concept in response to the NASA New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity. They develop their mission in the JPL Advanced Projects Design Team (Team X) environment, which is a cross-functional multidisciplinary team of professional engineers that utilizes concurrent engineering methodologies to complete rapid design, analysis and evaluation of mission concept designs. About 36 students participate each year, divided into two summer sessions. In advance of an intensive week-long session in the Project Design Center at JPL, students select the mission and science goals during a series of six weekly WebEx/telecons, and develop a preliminary suite of instrumentation and a science traceability matrix. Students assume both a science team and a mission development role with JPL Team X mentors. Once at JPL, students participate in a series of Team X project design sessions

  18. Abundances in planetary nebulae: NGC 1535, NGC 6629, He2-108, and Tc1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Surendiranath, R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    Context. Models have been made of stars of a given mass that produce planetary nebulae that usually begin on the AGB (although they may begin earlier) and run to the white dwarf stage. While these models cover the so-called dredge-up phases when nuclear reactions occur and the newly formed products

  19. Abundances in planetary nebulae : NGC1535, NGC6629, He2-108, and Tc1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Surendiranath, R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    Context. Models have been made of stars of a given mass that produce planetary nebulae that usually begin on the AGB (although they may begin earlier) and run to the white dwarf stage. While these models cover the so-called dredge-up phases when nuclear reactions occur and the newly formed products

  20. Design and realization of a space-borne reflectron time of flight mass spectrometer: electronics and measuring head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devoto, P.

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis is the design of the electronics of a time of flight mass spectrometer, the making and the vacuum tests of a prototype which can be put onboard a satellite. A particular effort was necessary to decrease to the maximum the mass and electric consumption of the spectrometer, which led to the development of new circuits. The work completed during this thesis initially concerns the electronics of the measuring equipment which was conceived in a concern for modularity. A complete 'reflectron' type mass spectrometer was then designed, simulated and developed. The built prototype, which uses the developed electronics, was exposed to ion flows of different masses and energies in the CESR vacuum chambers. Its measured performances validate the implemented principles and show that an identical mass spectrometer can be put onboard a satellite with profit, for planetary or solar missions. (author)

  1. Computer studies of the evolution of planetary and satellite systems. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barricelli, N.A.; Aashamar, K.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes two computer experiments carried out with a CDC-Cyber 74 program for computer simulation of a large number of objects in orbit about a central body or primary. The first experiment was started with 125 planets of which the two largest ones had coplanar orbits and masses comparable to those of Jupiter and Saturn, respectively. Their semi-major axes and eccentricities were, however, much larger. The smaller planets had a distribution promoting the formation of an axial meeting area. The experiment gives information relevant to the question of focusing of planetary orbits into a common plane and to the question of the formation and stability of an axial meeting area. Together with the next experiment, it also gives information about the development of commensurabilities (or resonances) with the largest planets. The second experiment started with 55 planets none of them with a mass greater than about 20% of Jupiter's but several of them with orbits close to a common plane. The aim of the experiment was to investigate whether successive captures followed by planetary fusion could lead to the formation of major planets comparable to Jupiter and Saturn, and in similar orbits. Also this experiment gives information relevant to the commensurability problem. (Auth.)

  2. Confirmation and characterization of young planetary companions hidden in the HST NICMOS archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, Laurent

    2013-10-01

    We propose to conduct WFC3 high contrast observations of six faint planetary candidates orbiting young {1 to 100 Myrs} stars identified in archival HST NICMOS coronagraphic data as part of our team's program AR-12652. Such rare objects are of the utmost importance to comparative exo-planetology as their physical properties reflect the initial conditions of still poorly constrained planetary formation mechanisms. Moreover directly imaged systems are precious artifacts in the expanding exo-planetary treasure trove as they are readily available for spectroscopic characterization. Our statistical analysis, which combines population synthesis models and empirical inspections of the entire NICMOS field of view for all sources observed in coronaraphic mode, almost guarantees that one of these six faint candidates is associated with its putative host star. We will conduct our observation in four near infrared filter, F125W, F160W to establish the baseline luminosity of our candidates and in F127M and F139M in order to probe the depth their water absorption features, characteristic of substellar /exo-planetary like atmospheres. Because of the youth of our targets, this program, which only requires a modest 12 HST orbits, will almost certainly identify and image a young or adolescent exo-planet.

  3. The NASA Planetary Data System Roadmap Study for 2017 - 2026

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Gaddis, L. R.; Law, E.; Beyer, R. A.; Crombie, M. K.; Ebel, D. S. S.; Ghosh, A.; Grayzeck, E.; Morgan, T. H.; Paganelli, F.; Raugh, A.; Stein, T.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Weber, R. C.; Banks, M.; Powell, K.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) is the formal archive of >1.2 petabytes of data from planetary exploration, science, and research. Initiated in 1989 to address an overall lack of attention to mission data documentation, access, and archiving, the PDS has evolved into an online collection of digital data managed and served by a federation of six science discipline nodes and two technical support nodes. Several ad hoc mission-oriented data nodes also provide complex data interfaces and access for the duration of their missions. The recent Planetary Data System Roadmap Study for 2017 to 2026 involved 15 planetary science community members who collectively prepared a report summarizing the results of an intensive examination of the current state of the PDS and its organization, management, practices, and data holdings (https://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/roadmap/PlanetaryDataSystemRMS17-26_20jun17.pdf). The report summarizes the history of the PDS, its functions and characteristics, and how it has evolved to its present form; also included are extensive references and documentary appendices. The report recognizes that as a complex, evolving, archive system, the PDS must constantly respond to new pressures and opportunities. The report provides details on the challenges now facing the PDS, 19 detailed findings, suggested remediations, and a summary of what the future may hold for planetary data archiving. The findings cover topics such as user needs and expectations, data usability and discoverability (i.e., metadata, data access, documentation, and training), tools and file formats, use of current information technologies, and responses to increases in data volume, variety, complexity, and number of data providers. In addition, the study addresses the possibility of archiving software, laboratory data, and measurements of physical samples. Finally, the report discusses the current structure and governance of the PDS and its impact on how archive growth, technology, and new

  4. X-ray observations of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.; Tarafdar, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Einstein satellite was used to observe 19 planetary nebulae and X-ray emission was detected from four planetary nebulae. The EXOSAT satellite observed 12 planetary nebulae and five new sources were detected. An Einstein HRI observation shows that NGC 246 is a point source, implying that the X-rays are from the central star. Most of the detected planetary nebulae are old and the X-rays are observed during the later stage of planetary nebulae/central star evolution, when the nebula has dispersed sufficiently and/or when the central star gets old and the heavy elements in the atmosphere settle down due to gravitation. However in two cases where the central star is sufficiently luminous X-rays were observed, even though they were young nebulae; the X-radiation ionizes the nebula to a degree, to allow negligible absorption in the nebula. Temperature T x is obtained using X-ray flux and optical magnitude and assuming the spectrum is blackbody. T x agrees with Zanstra temperature obtained from optical Helium lines. (author)

  5. Planetary Drilling and Resources at the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Drilling on the Moon and Mars is an important capability for both scientific and resource exploration. The unique requirements of spaceflight and planetary environments drive drills to different design approaches than established terrestrial technologies. A partnership between NASA and Baker Hughes Inc. developed a novel approach for a dry rotary coring wireline drill capable of acquiring continuous core samples at multi-meter depths for low power and mass. The 8.5 kg Bottom Hole Assembly operated at 100 We and without need for traditional drilling mud or pipe. The technology was field tested in the Canadian Arctic in sandstone, ice and frozen gumbo. Planetary resources could play an important role in future space exploration. Lunar regolith contains oxygen and metals, and water ice has recently been confirmed in a shadowed crater at the Moon.s south pole. Mars possesses a CO2 atmosphere, frozen water ice at the poles, and indications of subsurface aquifers. Such resources could provide water, oxygen and propellants that could greatly simplify the cost and complexity of exploration and survival. NASA/JSC/EP/JAG

  6. Improving Planetary Rover Attitude Estimation via MEMS Sensor Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Javier; Poulakis, Pantelis; Köhler, Johan; Del-Cerro, Jaime; Barrientos, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are currently being considered in the space sector due to its suitable level of performance for spacecrafts in terms of mechanical robustness with low power consumption, small mass and size, and significant advantage in system design and accommodation. However, there is still a lack of understanding regarding the performance and testing of these new sensors, especially in planetary robotics. This paper presents what is missing in the field: a complete methodology regarding the characterization and modeling of MEMS sensors with direct application. A reproducible and complete approach including all the intermediate steps, tools and laboratory equipment is described. The process of sensor error characterization and modeling through to the final integration in the sensor fusion scheme is explained with detail. Although the concept of fusion is relatively easy to comprehend, carefully characterizing and filtering sensor information is not an easy task and is essential for good performance. The strength of the approach has been verified with representative tests of novel high-grade MEMS inertia sensors and exemplary planetary rover platforms with promising results. PMID:22438761

  7. A new planetary structure fabrication process using phosphoric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Christoph; Pawelke, Roland H.; Schlauf, Thomas; Reissner, Alexander; Makaya, Advenit

    2018-02-01

    Minimising the launch mass is an important aspect of exploration mission planning. In-situ resource utilisation (ISRU) can improve this by reducing the amount of terrestrial materials needed for planetary exploration activities. We report on a recently concluded investigation into the requirements and available technologies for creating hardware on extra-terrestrial bodies, using the limited resources available on site. A trade-off of ISRU technologies for hardware manufacturing was conducted. A new additive manufacturing process suitable for fabricating structures on the Moon or Mars was developed. The process uses planetary regolith as the base material and concentrated phosphoric acid as the liquid binder. Mixing the reagents creates a sticky construction paste that slowly solidifies into a hard, rock-like material. Prior to solidification, the paste is extruded in layers, creating the desired structures in a 3D printing process. We used Martian regolith simulant JSC-Mars-1A, but the process is not selective towards regolith composition. Samples were exposed to thermal cycles and were mechanically characterised. Reduced-scale demonstrator structures were printed to demonstrate structure fabrication using the developed process.

  8. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Masset, Frédéric; Velasco, David; Lega, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential ( r s ), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk ( γ ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r s or γ , up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r s and γ in our study.

  9. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Exploration: Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection and the Protection of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly; Vonau, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Forward contamination concerns will affect release of gases and discharge of liquids and solids, including what may be left behind after planetary vehicles are abandoned upon return to Earth. A crew of four using a state of the art ECLSS could generate as much as 4.3 metric tons of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes and trash during a 500-day surface stay. These may present issues and concerns for both planetary protection and planetary science. Certainly, further closure of ECLSS systems will be of benefit by greater reuse of consumable products and reduced generation of waste products. It can be presumed that planetary protection will affect technology development by constraining how technologies can operate: limiting or prohibiting certain kinds of operations or processes (e.g. venting); necessitating that other kinds of operations be performed (e.g. sterilization; filtration of vent lines); prohibiting what can be brought on a mission (e.g. extremophiles); creating needs for new capabilities/ technologies (e.g. containment). Although any planned venting could include filtration to eliminate micro-organisms from inadvertently exiting the spacecraft, it may be impossible to eliminate or filter habitat structural leakage. Filtration will add pressure drops impacting size of lines and ducts, affect fan size and energy requirements, and add consumable mass. Technologies that may be employed to remove biomarkers and microbial contamination from liquid and solid wastes prior to storage or release may include mineralization technologies such as incineration, super critical wet oxidation and pyrolysis. These technologies, however, come with significant penalties for mass, power and consumables. This paper will estimate the nature and amounts of materials generated during Mars

  10. Cold aqueous planetary geochemistry with FREZCHEM from modeling to the search for life at the limits

    CERN Document Server

    Marion, Giles M

    2007-01-01

    This book explicitly investigates issues of astrobiological relevance in the context of cold aqueous planetary geochemistry. At the core of the technical chapters is the FREZCHEM model, initially developed over many years by one of the authors to quantify aqueous electrolyte properties and chemical thermodynamics at subzero temperatures. FREZCHEM, of general relevance to biogeochemists and geochemical modelers, cold planetary scientists, physicochemists and chemical engineers, is subsequently applied to the exploration of biogeochemical applications to solar systems bodies in general, and to speculations about the limits for life in cold environments in particular.

  11. The NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) Network: A Key Resource for Accessing and Using Planetary Spatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The role of the NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) Network is evolving as new science-ready spatial data products continue to be created and as key historical planetary data sets are digitized. Specifically, the RPIF Network is poised to serve specialized knowledge and services in a user-friendly manner that removes most barriers to locating, accessing, and exploiting planetary spatial data, thus providing a critical data access role within a spatial data infrastructure. The goal of the Network is to provide support and training to a broad audience of planetary spatial data users. In an effort to meet the planetary science community's evolving needs, we are focusing on the following objectives: Maintain and improve the delivery of historical data accumulated over the past four decades so as not to lose critical, historical information. This is being achieved by systematically digitizing fragile materials, allowing increased access and preserving them at the same time. Help users locate, access, visualize, and exploit planetary science data. Many of the facilities have begun to establish Guest User Facilities that allow researchers to use and/or be trained on GIS equipment and other specialized tools like Socet Set/GXP photogrammetry workstations for generating digital elevation maps. Improve the connection between the Network nodes while also leveraging the unique resources of each node. To achieve this goal, each facility is developing and sharing searchable databases of their collections, including robust metadata in a standards compliant way. Communicate more effectively and regularly with the planetary science community in an effort to make potential users aware of resources and services provided by the Network, while also engaging community members in discussions about community needs. Provide a regional resource for the science community, colleges, universities, museums, media, and the public to access planetary data. Introduce new strategies for

  12. Classification of ISO SWS 01 spectra of proto-planetary nebulae: a search for precursors of planetary nebulae with [WR] central stars

    OpenAIRE

    Szczerba, R.; Stasi{ń}ska, G.; Siódmiak, N.; Górny, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    We have analyzed ISO SWS 01 observations for 61 proto-planetary nebulae candidates and classified their spectra according to their dominant chemistry. On the basis of our classification and the more general classification of SWS 01 spectra by Kraemer et al. (2002) we discuss the connection between proto-planetary nebulae candidates and planetary nebulae, with emphasis on possible precursors of planetary nebulae with [WR] central stars.

  13. Design and realization of a space-borne reflectron time of flight mass spectrometer: electronics and measuring head; Conception et realisation d'un spectrometre de masse a temps de vol spatialisable de type 'reflectron' electronique et tete de mesure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devoto, P

    2006-03-15

    The purpose of this thesis is the design of the electronics of a time of flight mass spectrometer, the making and the vacuum tests of a prototype which can be put onboard a satellite. A particular effort was necessary to decrease to the maximum the mass and electric consumption of the spectrometer, which led to the development of new circuits. The work completed during this thesis initially concerns the electronics of the measuring equipment which was conceived in a concern for modularity. A complete 'reflectron' type mass spectrometer was then designed, simulated and developed. The built prototype, which uses the developed electronics, was exposed to ion flows of different masses and energies in the CESR vacuum chambers. Its measured performances validate the implemented principles and show that an identical mass spectrometer can be put onboard a satellite with profit, for planetary or solar missions. (author)

  14. An ecological compass for planetary engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2012-10-01

    Proposals to address present-day global warming through the large-scale application of technology to the climate system, known as geoengineering, raise questions of environmental ethics relevant to the broader issue of planetary engineering. These questions have also arisen in the scientific literature as discussions of how to terraform a planet such as Mars or Venus in order to make it more Earth-like and habitable. Here we draw on insights from terraforming and environmental ethics to develop a two-axis comparative tool for ethical frameworks that considers the intrinsic or instrumental value placed upon organisms, environments, planetary systems, or space. We apply this analysis to the realm of planetary engineering, such as terraforming on Mars or geoengineering on present-day Earth, as well as to questions of planetary protection and space exploration.

  15. Collecting, Managing, and Visualizing Data during Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. E.; Graff, T. G.; Bleacher, J. E.; Whelley, P.; Garry, W. B.; Rogers, A. D.; Glotch, T. D.; Coan, D.; Reagan, M.; Evans, C. A.; Garrison, D. H.

    2017-12-01

    While the Apollo lunar surface missions were highly successful in collecting valuable samples to help us understand the history and evolution of the Moon, technological advancements since 1969 point us toward a new generation of planetary surface exploration characterized by large volumes of data being collected and used to inform traverse execution real-time. Specifically, the advent of field portable technologies mean that future planetary explorers will have vast quantities of in situ geochemical and geophysical data that can be used to inform sample collection and curation as well as strategic and tactical decision making that will impact mission planning real-time. The RIS4E SSERVI (Remote, In Situ and Synchrotron Studies for Science and Exploration; Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute) team has been working for several years to deploy a variety of in situ instrumentation in relevant analog environments. RIS4E seeks both to determine ideal instrumentation suites for planetary surface exploration as well as to develop a framework for EVA (extravehicular activity) mission planning that incorporates this new generation of technology. Results from the last several field campaigns will be discussed, as will recommendations for how to rapidly mine in situ datasets for tactical and strategic planning. Initial thoughts about autonomy in mining field data will also be presented. The NASA Extreme Environments Mission Operations (NEEMO) missions focus on a combination of Science, Science Operations, and Technology objectives in a planetary analog environment. Recently, the increase of high-fidelity marine science objectives during NEEMO EVAs have led to the ability to evaluate how real-time data collection and visualization can influence tactical and strategic planning for traverse execution and mission planning. Results of the last few NEEMO missions will be discussed in the context of data visualization strategies for real-time operations.

  16. Challenges to Constraining Exoplanet Masses via Transmission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batalha, Natasha E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16802 (United States); Kempton, Eliza M.-R. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, 1116 8th Avenue, Grinnell, IA 50112 (United States); Mbarek, Rostom, E-mail: neb149@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    MassSpec , a method for determining the mass of a transiting exoplanet from its transmission spectrum alone, was proposed by de Wit and Seager. The premise of this method relies on the planet’s surface gravity being extracted from the transmission spectrum via its effect on the atmospheric scale height, which in turn determines the strength of absorption features. Here, we further explore the applicability of MassSpec to low-mass exoplanets—specifically those in the super-Earth size range for which radial velocity determinations of the planetary mass can be extremely challenging and resource intensive. Determining the masses of these planets is of the utmost importance because their nature is otherwise highly unconstrained. Without knowledge of the mass, these planets could be rocky, icy, or gas-dominated. To investigate the effects of planetary mass on transmission spectra, we present simulated observations of super-Earths with atmospheres made up of mixtures of H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}, both with and without clouds. We model their transmission spectra and run simulations of each planet as it would be observed with James Webb Space Telescope using the NIRISS, NIRSpec, and MIRI instruments. We find that significant degeneracies exist between transmission spectra of planets with different masses and compositions, making it impossible to unambiguously determine the planet’s mass in many cases.

  17. Challenges to Constraining Exoplanet Masses via Transmission Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalha, Natasha E.; Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Mbarek, Rostom

    2017-01-01

    MassSpec , a method for determining the mass of a transiting exoplanet from its transmission spectrum alone, was proposed by de Wit and Seager. The premise of this method relies on the planet’s surface gravity being extracted from the transmission spectrum via its effect on the atmospheric scale height, which in turn determines the strength of absorption features. Here, we further explore the applicability of MassSpec to low-mass exoplanets—specifically those in the super-Earth size range for which radial velocity determinations of the planetary mass can be extremely challenging and resource intensive. Determining the masses of these planets is of the utmost importance because their nature is otherwise highly unconstrained. Without knowledge of the mass, these planets could be rocky, icy, or gas-dominated. To investigate the effects of planetary mass on transmission spectra, we present simulated observations of super-Earths with atmospheres made up of mixtures of H 2 O and H 2 , both with and without clouds. We model their transmission spectra and run simulations of each planet as it would be observed with James Webb Space Telescope using the NIRISS, NIRSpec, and MIRI instruments. We find that significant degeneracies exist between transmission spectra of planets with different masses and compositions, making it impossible to unambiguously determine the planet’s mass in many cases.

  18. Space and Planetary Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel

    2018-02-01

    The space and multitude of celestial bodies surrounding Earth hold a vast wealth of resources for a variety of space and terrestrial applications. The unlimited solar energy, vacuum, and low gravity in space, as well as the minerals, metals, water, atmospheric gases, and volatile elements on the Moon, asteroids, comets, and the inner and outer planets of the Solar System and their moons, constitute potential valuable resources for robotic and human space missions and for future use in our own planet. In the short term, these resources could be transformed into useful materials at the site where they are found to extend mission duration and to reduce the costly dependence from materials sent from Earth. Making propellants and human consumables from local resources can significantly reduce mission mass and cost, enabling longer stays and fueling transportation systems for use within and beyond the planetary surface. Use of finely grained soils and rocks can serve for habitat construction, radiation protection, solar cell fabrication, and food growth. The same material could also be used to develop repair and replacement capabilities using advanced manufacturing technologies. Following similar mining practices utilized for centuries on Earth, identifying, extracting, and utilizing extraterrestrial resources will enable further space exploration, while increasing commercial activities beyond our planet. In the long term, planetary resources and solar energy could also be brought to Earth if obtaining these resources locally prove to be no longer economically or environmentally acceptable. Throughout human history, resources have been the driving force for the exploration and settling of our planet. Similarly, extraterrestrial resources will make space the next destination in the quest for further exploration and expansion of our species. However, just like on Earth, not all challenges are scientific and technological. As private companies start working toward

  19. THE XO PLANETARY SURVEY PROJECT: ASTROPHYSICAL FALSE POSITIVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poleski, Radosaw; McCullough, Peter R.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Burke, Christopher J.; Machalek, Pavel; Janes, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Searches for planetary transits find many astrophysical false positives as a by-product. There are four main types analyzed in the literature: a grazing-incidence eclipsing binary (EB) star, an EB star with a small radius companion star, a blend of one or more stars with an unrelated EB star, and a physical triple star system. We present a list of 69 astrophysical false positives that had been identified as candidates of transiting planets of the on-going XO survey. This list may be useful in order to avoid redundant observation and characterization of these particular candidates that have been independently identified by other wide-field searches for transiting planets. The list may be useful for those modeling the yield of the XO survey and surveys similar to it. Subsequent observations of some of the listed stars may improve mass-radius relations, especially for low-mass stars. From the candidates exhibiting eclipses, we report three new spectroscopic double-line binaries and give mass function estimations for 15 single-line spectroscopic binaries.

  20. On planetary nebulae as sources of carbon dust: Infrared emission from planetary nebulae of the galactic halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinerstein, H.L.; Lester, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers examine here the characteristics of the infrared emission from the four planetary nebulae which are believed on the basis of their low overall metallicities to belong to the halo population. These nebulae are of particular interest because they are the most metal-poor ionized nebulae known in our Galaxy, and offer the opportunity to probe possible dependences of the dust properties on nebular composition. Researchers present fluxes extracted from co-addition of the IRAS data, as well as ground-based near infrared measurements. Each of the four halo objects, including the planetary nebula in the globular cluster M15, is detected in at least one infrared band. Researchers compare the estimated infrared excesses of these nebulae (IRE, the ratio of measured infrared power to the power available in the form of resonantly-trapped Lyman alpha photons) to those of disk planetary nebulae with similar densities but more normal abundances. Three of the halo planetaries have IRE values similar to those of the disk nebulae, despite the fact that their Fe- and Si-peak gas phase abundances are factors of 10 to 100 lower. However, these halo nebulae have normal or elevated C/H ratios, due to nuclear processing and mixing in their red giant progenitors. Unlike the other halo planetaries, DDDM1 is deficient in carbon as well as in the other light metals. This nebula has a substantially lower IRE than the other halo planetaries, and may be truly dust efficient. Researchers suggest that the deficiency is due to a lack of the raw material for producing carbon-based grains, and that the main bulk constituent of the dust in these planetary nebulae is carbon

  1. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE 0.94-DAY PERIOD TRANSITING PLANETARY SYSTEM WASP-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, John; Anderson, D. R.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.; Mathiasen, M.; Browne, P.; Glitrup, M.; Joergensen, U. G.; Harpsoee, K.; Liebig, C.; Maier, G.; Bozza, V.; Calchi Novati, S.; Mancini, L.; Burgdorf, M.; Dreizler, S.; Hessman, F.; Hundertmark, M.; Finet, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present high-precision photometry of five consecutive transits of WASP-18, an extrasolar planetary system with one of the shortest orbital periods known. Through the use of telescope defocusing we achieve a photometric precision of 0.47-0.83 mmag per observation over complete transit events. The data are analyzed using the JKTEBOP code and three different sets of stellar evolutionary models. We find the mass and radius of the planet to be M b = 10.43 ± 0.30 ± 0.24 M Jup and R b = 1.165 ± 0.055 ± 0.014 R Jup (statistical and systematic errors), respectively. The systematic errors in the orbital separation and the stellar and planetary masses, arising from the use of theoretical predictions, are of a similar size to the statistical errors and set a limit on our understanding of the WASP-18 system. We point out that seven of the nine known massive transiting planets (M b > 3 M Jup ) have eccentric orbits, whereas significant orbital eccentricity has been detected for only four of the 46 less-massive planets. This may indicate that there are two different populations of transiting planets, but could also be explained by observational biases. Further radial velocity observations of low-mass planets will make it possible to choose between these two scenarios.

  2. Planetary rovers robotic exploration of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Ellery, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The increasing adoption of terrain mobility – planetary rovers – for the investigation of planetary surfaces emphasises their central importance in space exploration. This imposes a completely new set of technologies and methodologies to the design of such spacecraft – and planetary rovers are indeed, first and foremost, spacecraft. This introduces vehicle engineering, mechatronics, robotics, artificial intelligence and associated technologies to the spacecraft engineer’s repertoire of skills. Planetary Rovers is the only book that comprehensively covers these aspects of planetary rover engineering and more. The book: • discusses relevant planetary environments to rover missions, stressing the Moon and Mars; • includes a brief survey of previous rover missions; • covers rover mobility, traction and control systems; • stresses the importance of robotic vision in rovers for both navigation and science; • comprehensively covers autonomous navigation, path planning and multi-rover formations on ...

  3. Planetary climates (princeton primers in climate)

    CERN Document Server

    Ingersoll, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This concise, sophisticated introduction to planetary climates explains the global physical and chemical processes that determine climate on any planet or major planetary satellite--from Mercury to Neptune and even large moons such as Saturn's Titan. Although the climates of other worlds are extremely diverse, the chemical and physical processes that shape their dynamics are the same. As this book makes clear, the better we can understand how various planetary climates formed and evolved, the better we can understand Earth's climate history and future.

  4. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm: Consequence of Questioning Popular Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Herndon, J.

    2014-05-01

    Progress in science involves replacing less precise understanding with more precise understanding. In science and in science education one should always question popular ideas; ask "What's wrong with this picture?" Finding limitations, conflicts or circumstances that require special ad hoc consideration sometimes is the key to making important discoveries. For example, from thermodynamic considerations, I found that the 'standard model of solar system formation' leads to insufficiently massive planetary cores. That understanding led me to discover a new indivisible planetary science paradigm. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures, accumulating heterogeneously on the basis of volatility with liquid core-formation preceding mantle-formation; the interior states of oxidation resemble that of the Abee enstatite chondrite. Core-composition was established during condensation based upon the relative solubilities of elements, including uranium, in liquid iron in equilibrium with an atmosphere of solar composition at high pressures and high temperatures. Uranium settled to the central region and formed planetary nuclear fission reactors, producing heat and planetary magnetic fields. Earth's complete condensation included a ~300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions, associated with the thermonuclear ignition of the Sun, stripped the gases away from the Earth and the inner planets. The T-Tauri outbursts stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System, forming the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. With its massive gas/ice shell

  5. The US planetary exploration program opportunities for international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Opportunities for international participation in US-sponsored interplanetary missions are discussed on the basis of the recommendations of the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration of the National Academy of Sciences Space Science Board. The initial core missions suggested are a Venus radar mapper, a Mars geoscience/climatology orbiter, a comet-rendezvous/asteroid-flyby mission, and a Titan probe/radar mapper. Subsequent core missions are listed, and the need for cooperation in planning and development stages to facilitate international participation is indicated.

  6. In-situ Planetary Subsurface Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Weber, R. C.; Dimech, J. L.; Kedar, S.; Neal, C. R.; Siegler, M.

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical and seismic instruments are considered the most effective tools for studying the detailed global structures of planetary interiors. A planet's interior bears the geochemical markers of its evolutionary history, as well as its present state of activity, which has direct implications to habitability. On Earth, subsurface imaging often involves massive data collection from hundreds to thousands of geophysical sensors (seismic, acoustic, etc) followed by transfer by hard links or wirelessly to a central location for post processing and computing, which will not be possible in planetary environments due to imposed mission constraints on mass, power, and bandwidth. Emerging opportunities for geophysical exploration of the solar system from Venus to the icy Ocean Worlds of Jupiter and Saturn dictate that subsurface imaging of the deep interior will require substantial data reduction and processing in-situ. The Real-time In-situ Subsurface Imaging (RISI) technology is a mesh network that senses and processes geophysical signals. Instead of data collection then post processing, the mesh network performs the distributed data processing and computing in-situ, and generates an evolving 3D subsurface image in real-time that can be transmitted under bandwidth and resource constraints. Seismic imaging algorithms (including traveltime tomography, ambient noise imaging, and microseismic imaging) have been successfully developed and validated using both synthetic and real-world terrestrial seismic data sets. The prototype hardware system has been implemented and can be extended as a general field instrumentation platform tailored specifically for a wide variety of planetary uses, including crustal mapping, ice and ocean structure, and geothermal systems. The team is applying the RISI technology to real off-world seismic datasets. For example, the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (LSPE) deployed during the Apollo 17 Moon mission consisted of four geophone instruments

  7. An Ion-Propelled Cubesat for Planetary Defense and Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christopher T.; Wirz, Richard; Lai, Hairong; Li, Jian-Yang; Connors, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Small satellites can reduce the cost of launch by riding along with other payloads on a large rocket or being launched on a small rocket, but are perceived as having limited capabilities. This perception can be at least partially overcome by innovative design, including ample in-flight propulsion. This allows achieving multiple targets and adaptive exploration. Ion propulsion has been pioneered on Deep Space 1 and honed on the long-duration, multiple-planetary body mission Dawn. Most importantly, the operation of such a mission is now well- understood, including navigation, communication, and science operations for remote sensing. We examined different mission concepts that can be used for both planetary defense and planetary science near 1 AU. Such a spacecraft would travel in the region between Venus and Mars, allowing a complete inventory of material above, including objects down to about 10m diameter to be inventoried. The ion engines could be used to approach these bodies slowly and carefully and allow the spacecraft to map debris and follow its collisional evolution throughout its orbit around the Sun, if so desired. The heritage of Dawn operations experience enables the mission to be operated inexpensively, and the engineering heritage will allow it to be operated for many trips around the Sun.

  8. Non-planetary Science from Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, M.; Rabe, K.; Daniels, K.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary science is naturally focussed on the issues of the origin and history of solar systems, especially our own. The implications of an early turbulent history of our solar system reach into many areas including the origin of Earth's oceans, of ores in the Earth's crust and possibly the seeding of life. There are however other areas of science that stand to be developed greatly by planetary missions, primarily to small solar system bodies. The physics of granular materials has been well-studied in Earth's gravity, but lacks a general theory. Because of the compacting effects of gravity, some experiments desired for testing these theories remain impossible on Earth. Studying the behavior of a micro-gravity rubble pile -- such as many asteroids are believed to be -- could provide a new route towards exploring general principles of granular physics. These same studies would also prove valuable for planning missions to sample these same bodies, as techniques for anchoring and deep sampling are difficult to plan in the absence of such knowledge. In materials physics, first-principles total-energy calculations for compounds of a given stoichiometry have identified metastable, or even stable, structures distinct from known structures obtained by synthesis under laboratory conditions. The conditions in the proto-planetary nebula, in the slowly cooling cores of planetesimals, and in the high speed collisions of planetesimals and their derivatives, are all conditions that cannot be achieved in the laboratory. Large samples from comets and asteroids offer the chance to find crystals with these as-yet unobserved structures as well as more exotic materials. Some of these could have unusual properties important for materials science. Meteorites give us a glimpse of these exotic materials, several dozen of which are known that are unique to meteorites. But samples retrieved directly from small bodies in space will not have been affected by atmospheric entry, warmth or

  9. CIRS-lite, a Fourier Transform Spectrometer for Low-Cost Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasunas, J.; Bly, V.; Edgerton, M.; Gong, Q.; Hagopian, J.; Mamakos, W.; Morelli, A.; Pasquale, B.; Strojny, C.

    2011-01-01

    Passive spectroscopic remote sensing of planetary atmospheres and surfaces in the thermal infrared is a powerful tool for obtaining information about surface and atmospheric temperatures, composition, and dynamics (via the thermal wind equation). Due to its broad spectral coverage, the Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) is particularly suited to the exploration and discovery of molecular species. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) developed the CIRS (Composite Infrared Spectrometer) FTS for the NASA/ESA Cassini mission to the Saturnian system. CIRS observes Saturn, Titan, icy moons such as Enceladus, and the rings in thermal self-emission over the spectral range of 7 to 1000 ell11. CIRS has given us important new insights into stratospheric composition and jets on Jupiter and Saturn, the cryo-geyser and thermal stripes on Enceladus, and the winter polar vortex on Titan. CIRS has a mass of 43 kg, contrasted with the earlier GSFC FTS, pre-Voyager IRIS (14 kg). Future low-cost planetary missions will have very tight constraints on science payload mass, thus we must endeavor to return to IRIS-level mass while maintaining CIRS-level science capabilities ("do more with less"). CIRS-lite achieves this by pursuing: a) more sensitive infrared detectors (high Tc superconductor) to enable smaller optics. b) changed long wavelength limit from 1000 to 300 microns to reduce diffraction by smaller optics. c) CVD (chemical vapor deposition) diamond beam-splitter for broad spectral coverage. d) single FTS architecture instead of a dual FTS architecture. e) novel materials, such as single crystal silicon for the input telescope primary.

  10. Migration-induced architectures of planetary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuszkiewicz, Ewa; Podlewska-Gaca, Edyta

    2012-06-01

    The recent increase in number of known multi-planet systems gives a unique opportunity to study the processes responsible for planetary formation and evolution. Special attention is given to the occurrence of mean-motion resonances, because they carry important information about the history of the planetary systems. At the early stages of the evolution, when planets are still embedded in a gaseous disc, the tidal interactions between the disc and planets cause the planetary orbital migration. The convergent differential migration of two planets embedded in a gaseous disc may result in the capture into a mean-motion resonance. The orbital migration taking place during the early phases of the planetary system formation may play an important role in shaping stable planetary configurations. An understanding of this stage of the evolution will provide insight on the most frequently formed architectures, which in turn are relevant for determining the planet habitability. The aim of this paper is to present the observational properties of these planetary systems which contain confirmed or suspected resonant configurations. A complete list of known systems with such configurations is given. This list will be kept by us updated from now on and it will be a valuable reference for studying the dynamics of extrasolar systems and testing theoretical predictions concerned with the origin and the evolution of planets, which are the most plausible places for existence and development of life.

  11. Lessons learned from planetary science archiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, J.; Grayzeck, E.

    2006-01-01

    The need for scientific archiving of past, current, and future planetary scientific missions, laboratory data, and modeling efforts is indisputable. To quote from a message by G. Santayama carved over the entrance of the US Archive in Washington DC “Those who can not remember the past are doomed to repeat it.” The design, implementation, maintenance, and validation of planetary science archives are however disputed by the involved parties. The inclusion of the archives into the scientific heritage is problematic. For example, there is the imbalance between space agency requirements and institutional and national interests. The disparity of long-term archive requirements and immediate data analysis requests are significant. The discrepancy between the space missions archive budget and the effort required to design and build the data archive is large. An imbalance exists between new instrument development and existing, well-proven archive standards. The authors present their view on the problems and risk areas in the archiving concepts based on their experience acquired within NASA’s Planetary Data System (PDS) and ESA’s Planetary Science Archive (PSA). Individual risks and potential problem areas are discussed based on a model derived from a system analysis done upfront. The major risk for a planetary mission science archive is seen in the combination of minimal involvement by Mission Scientists and inadequate funding. The authors outline how the risks can be reduced. The paper ends with the authors view on future planetary archive implementations including the archive interoperability aspect.

  12. Gas Dynamics in Planetary Nebulae: From Macro-structures to FLIERs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinotto, Mario

    2000-10-01

    Purpose of this paper is to clarify how Planetary Nebulae (PNe) are very interesting laboratories to study cosmic gas dynamics. I first recall the history of PNe which are generated from low and intermediate mass stars through successive mass loss processes starting in the Reg Giant phase of evolution and continuing also after the termination of the pulsed AGB phase, where most of the nebular mass is believed to be ejected. The correponding stellar winds are the ingredients of the nebula. Their initial properties and subsequent mutual interactions, under the action of the evolving stellar radiation field, are responsible for the properties of the nebula. The observed structures of PNe are considered in detail. Larger scale macroscopic structures (MACS) are examined separately from quite smaller scale microscopic structures (MICS). The formation of MACS, at least in cases of round to moderately elliptical PNe, is shown to be reasonably well understood in terms of existing hydrodynamical models. Considering the kinematical behaviour, MICS can be separated into FLIERs (Fast Low Ionization Emitting Regions) and SLOWERs (slowly moving). Attention is focussed on FLIERs and on the proposed mechanisms to interpret them. Recent observations with the Hubble Space Telescope have provided us with a wealth of detailed (subarcsec) information on the nebular structures. The inner structure of FLIERs is here illustrated to consist of substructures of various shapes with an high degree of individually from object to object, also within the same PN. These new data call for deeper thoretical efforts to solve the problems of cosmic gas dynamics, posed by their observed properties. An ample account is given of the most relevant original works, in an effort to allow the non specialist reader to quickly become acquainted with the status of art in the various aspects of the subject.

  13. Autonomous Trans-Antartic expeditions: an initiative for advancing planetary mobility system technology while addressing Earth science objectives in Antartica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.; Schenker, P.; Blamont, J.

    2001-01-01

    A workshop on Antartic Autonomous Scientific Vehicles and Traverses met at the National Geographic Society in February to discuss scientific objectives and benefits of the use of rovers such as are being developed for use in planetary exploration.

  14. The occurrence of Jovian planets and the habitability of planetary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2001-01-01

    Planets of mass comparable to or larger than Jupiter's have been detected around over 50 stars, and for one such object a definitive test of its nature as a gas giant has been accomplished with data from an observed planetary transit. By virtue of their strong gravitational pull, giant planets define the dynamical and collisional environment within which terrestrial planets form. In our solar system, the position and timing of the formation of Jupiter determined the am...

  15. SPEX: The spectropolarimeter for planetary EXploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snik, F.; Rietjens, J.H.H.; Harten, G. van; Stam, D.M.; Keller, C.U.; Smit, J.M.; Laan, E.C.; Verlaan, A.L.; Horst, R. ter; Navarro, R.; Wielinga, K.; Moon, S.G.; Voors, R.

    2010-01-01

    SPEX (Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration) is an innovative, compact instrument for spectropolarimetry, and in particular for detecting and characterizing aerosols in planetary atmospheres. With its ∼1-liter volume it is capable of full linear spectropolarimetry, without moving parts. The

  16. Mass loss rates in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, C. de; Nieuwenhuijzen, H.; Hucht, K.A. van der

    1988-01-01

    From the literature we collected values for the rate of mass loss for 271 stars, nearly all of population I, and of spectral types 0 through M. Rates of stellar mass loss determined according to six different methods were compared and appear to yield the same result per star within the limits of errors; this is true regardless of the star's position in the HR-diagram. Thus average rates of mass loss were determined, and weights were allocated to the M-determinations for each star. In addition we studied some groups of other stars: fast rotators (22 Be-type stars), and chemically evolved stars (31 Wolf-Rayet stars; 11 C- and 4 S-type stars and 15 nuclei of planetary nebulae). The chemically evolved stars have rates of mass loss which are larger than those of ''normal'' stars occupying the same positions in the Hertzprung-Russel diagram, by factors: 160 for Wolf-Rayet stars; 11 for C-type stars, and by estimated factors of 10 3 to 10 4 for the nuclei of planetary nebulae

  17. A super-Earth transiting a nearby low-mass star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, David; Berta, Zachory K; Irwin, Jonathan; Burke, Christopher J; Nutzman, Philip; Buchhave, Lars A; Lovis, Christophe; Bonfils, Xavier; Latham, David W; Udry, Stéphane; Murray-Clay, Ruth A; Holman, Matthew J; Falco, Emilio E; Winn, Joshua N; Queloz, Didier; Pepe, Francesco; Mayor, Michel; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry

    2009-12-17

    A decade ago, the detection of the first transiting extrasolar planet provided a direct constraint on its composition and opened the door to spectroscopic investigations of extrasolar planetary atmospheres. Because such characterization studies are feasible only for transiting systems that are both nearby and for which the planet-to-star radius ratio is relatively large, nearby small stars have been surveyed intensively. Doppler studies and microlensing have uncovered a population of planets with minimum masses of 1.9-10 times the Earth's mass (M[symbol:see text]), called super-Earths. The first constraint on the bulk composition of this novel class of planets was afforded by CoRoT-7b (refs 8, 9), but the distance and size of its star preclude atmospheric studies in the foreseeable future. Here we report observations of the transiting planet GJ 1214b, which has a mass of 6.55M[symbol:see text]), and a radius 2.68 times Earth's radius (R[symbol:see text]), indicating that it is intermediate in stature between Earth and the ice giants of the Solar System. We find that the planetary mass and radius are consistent with a composition of primarily water enshrouded by a hydrogen-helium envelope that is only 0.05% of the mass of the planet. The atmosphere is probably escaping hydrodynamically, indicating that it has undergone significant evolution during its history. The star is small and only 13 parsecs away, so the planetary atmosphere is amenable to study with current observatories.

  18. An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Pepe, Francesco; Alibert, Yann; Benz, Willy; Bouchy, François; Correia, Alexandre C M; Laskar, Jacques; Mordasini, Christoph; Queloz, Didier; Santos, Nuno C; Udry, Stéphane; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Sivan, Jean-Pierre

    2006-05-18

    Over the past two years, the search for low-mass extrasolar planets has led to the detection of seven so-called 'hot Neptunes' or 'super-Earths' around Sun-like stars. These planets have masses 5-20 times larger than the Earth and are mainly found on close-in orbits with periods of 2-15 days. Here we report a system of three Neptune-mass planets with periods of 8.67, 31.6 and 197 days, orbiting the nearby star HD 69830. This star was already known to show an infrared excess possibly caused by an asteroid belt within 1 au (the Sun-Earth distance). Simulations show that the system is in a dynamically stable configuration. Theoretical calculations favour a mainly rocky composition for both inner planets, while the outer planet probably has a significant gaseous envelope surrounding its rocky/icy core; the outer planet orbits within the habitable zone of this star.

  19. PC 11: Symbiotic star or planetary nebulae?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Moreno, A.; Moreno, H.; Cortes, G.

    1987-01-01

    PC 11 is an object listed in Perek and Kohoutek (1967) Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae as PK 331 -5 0 1. Some authors suggest that it is not a planetary nebula, but that it has some characteristics (though not all) of symbiotic stars. We have made photographic, spectrophotometric and spectroscopic observations of PC 11. The analysis of the results suggests that it is a young planetary nebula. (Author)

  20. The early evolution of stars and planets with varying mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, S.K.

    1980-09-01

    In this thesis some aspects of stellar and planetary evolution with varying mass are examined. It is divided into two sections. The first section deals with the evolution of stars in the pre-main-sequence phase with mass accretion while in the second section we discuss the spin angular momentum of the planets with mass loss. (author)

  1. Precise Chemical Analyses of Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, David; Schweitzer, Jeffrey; Meyer, Charles; Trombka, Jacob; Freund, Friedemann; Economou, Thanasis; Yen, Albert; Kim, Soon Sam; Treiman, Allan H.; Blake, David; hide

    1996-01-01

    We identify the chemical elements and element ratios that should be analyzed to address many of the issues identified by the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX). We determined that most of these issues require two sensitive instruments to analyze the necessary complement of elements. In addition, it is useful in many cases to use one instrument to analyze the outermost planetary surface (e.g. to determine weathering effects), while a second is used to analyze a subsurface volume of material (e.g., to determine the composition of unaltered planetary surface material). This dual approach to chemical analyses will also facilitate the calibration of orbital and/or Earth-based spectral observations of the planetary body. We determined that in many cases the scientific issues defined by COMPLEX can only be fully addressed with combined packages of instruments that would supplement the chemical data with mineralogic or visual information.

  2. Stirling to Flight Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Kenneth E.; Mason, Lee S.; Ndu, Obi; Smith, Clayton; Withrow, James P.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has a consistent need for radioisotope power systems (RPS) to enable robotic scientific missions for planetary exploration that has been present for over four decades and will continue into the foreseeable future, as documented in the most recent Planetary Science Decadal Study Report. As RPS have evolved throughout the years, there has also grown a desire for more efficient power systems, allowing NASA to serve as good stewards of the limited plutonium-238 (238Pu), while also supporting the ever-present need to minimize mass and potential impacts to the desired science measurements. In fact, the recent Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) released in April 2015 resulted in several key conclusion regarding RPS, including affirmation that RPS will be necessary well into the 2030s (at least) and that 238Pu is indeed a precious resource requiring efficient utilization and preservation. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) combine a Stirling cycle engine powered by a radioisotope heater unit into a single generator system. Stirling engine technology has been under development at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in partnership with the Department of Energy (DOE) since the 1970's. The most recent design, the 238Pu-fueled Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), was offered as part of the NASA Discovery 2010 Announcement of Opportunity (AO). The Step-2 selections for this AO included two ASRG-enabled concepts, the Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) and the Comet Hopper (CHopper), although the only non-nuclear concept, InSight, was ultimately chosen. The DOE's ASRG contract was terminated in 2013. Given that SRGs utilize significantly less 238Pu than traditional Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) - approximately one quarter of the nuclear fuel, to produce similar electrical power output - they provide a technology worthy of consideration for meeting the aforementioned NASA objectives. NASA's RPS Program Office has recently investigated a new Stirling to

  3. One-dimensional, time dependent simulation of the planetary boundary layer over a 48-hour period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschke, D.; Gassmann, F.; Rudin, F.

    1978-05-01

    Results of a one-dimensional, time dependent simulation of the planetary boundary layer are given. First, a description of the mathematical model used is given and its approximations are discussed. Then a description of the initial and boundary conditions used for the simulation is given. Results are discussed with respect to their agreement with observed data and their precision. It can be demonstrated that a simulation of the planetary boundary layer is possible with satisfactory precision. The incompleteness of observed data gives, however, problems with their use and thus introduces uncertainties into the simulation. As a consequence, the report tries to point to the inherent limitations of such a simulation. (Auth.)

  4. Visualizing NASA's Planetary Data with Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, R. A.; Hancher, M. D.; Broxton, M.; Weiss-Malik, M.; Gorelick, N.; Kolb, E.

    2008-12-01

    There is a vast store of planetary geospatial data that has been collected by NASA but is difficult to access and visualize. As a 3D geospatial browser, the Google Earth client is one way to visualize planetary data. KML imagery super-overlays enable us to create a non-Earth planetary globe within Google Earth, and conversion of planetary meta-data allows display of the footprint locations of various higher-resolution data sets. Once our group, or any group, performs these data conversions the KML can be made available on the Web, where anyone can download it and begin using it in Google Earth (or any other geospatial browser), just like a Web page. Lucian Plesea at JPL offers several KML basemaps (MDIM, colorized MDIM, MOC composite, THEMIS day time infrared, and both grayscale and colorized MOLA). We have created TES Thermal Inertia maps, and a THEMIS night time infrared overlay, as well. Many data sets for Mars have already been converted to KML. We provide coverage polygons overlaid on the globe, whose icons can be clicked on and lead to the full PDS data URL. We have built coverage maps for the following data sets: MOC narrow angle, HRSC imagery and DTMs, SHARAD tracks, CTX, and HiRISE. The CRISM team is working on providing their coverage data via publicly-accessible KML. The MSL landing site process is also providing data for potential landing sites via KML. The Google Earth client and KML allow anyone to contribute data for everyone to see via the Web. The Earth sciences community is already utilizing KML and Google Earth in a variety of ways as a geospatial browser, and we hope that the planetary sciences community will do the same. Using this paradigm for sharing geospatial data will not only enable planetary scientists to more easily build and share data within the scientific community, but will also provide an easy platform for public outreach and education efforts, and will easily allow anyone to layer geospatial information on top of planetary data

  5. SmallSat Missions Traveling to Planetary Targets from Near-Earth-Space: Applications for Space Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espley, J. R.; Folta, D.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in propulsion technology and interplanetary navigation theoretically allow very small spacecraft to travel directly to planetary destinations from near-Earth-space. Because there are currently many launches with excess mass capability (NASA, military, and even commercial), we anticipate a dramatic increase in the number of opportunities for missions to planetary targets. Spacecraft as small as 12U CubeSats can use solar electric propulsion to travel from Earth-orbit to Mars-orbit in approximately 2-3 years. Space physics missions are particularly well suited for such mission architectures since state-of-the-art instrumentation to answer fundamental science questions can be accommodated in relatively small payload packages. For example, multi-point measurements of the martian magnetosphere, ionosphere, and crustal magnetic fields would yield important new science results regarding atmospheric escape and the geophysical history of the martian surface. These measurements could be accomplished by a pair of 12U CubeSats with world-class instruments that require only modest mass, power, and telemetry resources (e.g. Goddard's mini-fluxgate vector magnetometer).

  6. Ultraviolet spectroscopy of planetary nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maran, S.P.; Aller, L.H.; Gull, T.R.; Stecher, T.P.

    1982-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of three high excitation planetary nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds (LMC P40, SMC N2, SMC N5) were obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer. The results are analyzed together with new visual wavelength spectrophotometry of LMC P40 and published data on SMC N2 and SMC N5 to investigate chemical composition and in particular to make the first reliable estimates of the carbon abundance in extragalactic planetary nebulae. Although carbon is at most only slightly less abundant in the LMC and SMC planetary nebulae than in galactic planetaries, it is almost 40 times more abundant in the SMC planetaries than in the SMC interstellar medium, and is about 6 times more abundant in the LMC planetary than in the LMC interstellar medium. According to our limited sample, the net result of carbon synthesis and convective dredgeup in the progenitors of planetary nebulae, as reflected in the nebular carbon abundance, is roughly the same in the Galaxy, the LMC, and the SMC

  7. Dynamical Stability of Imaged Planetary Systems in Formation: Application to HL Tau

    OpenAIRE

    Tamayo, Daniel; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Menou, Kristen; Rein, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    A recent ALMA image revealed several concentric gaps in the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star HL Tau. We consider the hypothesis that these gaps are carved by planets, and present a general framework for understanding the dynamical stability of such systems over typical disk lifetimes, providing estimates for the maximum planetary masses. We collect these easily evaluated constraints into a workflow that can help guide the design and interpretation of new observational campaigns ...

  8. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  9. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  10. The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Thomas; Gopala Krishna, Barla; Crichton, Daniel J.

    2016-07-01

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) is a close association of partners with the aim of improving the quality of planetary science data and services to the end users of space based instrumentation. The specific mission of the IPDA is to facilitate global access to, and exchange of, high quality scientific data products managed across international boundaries. Ensuring proper capture, accessibility and availability of the data is the task of the individual member space agencies. The IPDA is focused on developing an international standard that allows discovery, query, access, and usage of such data across international planetary data archive systems. While trends in other areas of space science are concentrating on the sharing of science data from diverse standards and collection methods, the IPDA concentrates on promoting governing data standards that drive common methods for collecting and describing planetary science data across the international community. This approach better supports the long term goal of easing data sharing across system and agency boundaries. An initial starting point for developing such a standard will be internationalization of NASA's Planetary Data System's (PDS) PDS4 standard. The IPDA was formed in 2006 with the purpose of adopting standards and developing collaborations across agencies to ensure data is captured in common formats. It has grown to a dozen member agencies represented by a number of different groups through the IPDA Steering Committee. Member agencies include: Armenian Astronomical Society, China National Space Agency (CNSA), European Space Agency (ESA), German Aerospace Center (DLR), Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Italian Space Agency (ASI), Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), National Air and Space Administration (NASA), National Centre for Space Studies (CNES), Space Research Institute (IKI), UAE Space Agency, and UK Space Agency. The IPDA Steering Committee oversees the execution of

  11. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Jeffrey [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Masset, Frédéric; Velasco, David [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad s/n, 62210 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Lega, Elena, E-mail: jeffrey.fung@berkeley.edu [Université de la Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange UMR 7293, Nice (France)

    2017-03-01

    Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential ( r {sub s}), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk ( γ ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r {sub s} or γ , up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r {sub s} and γ in our study.

  12. OGLE-2017-BLG-0482Lb: A Microlensing Super-Earth Orbiting a Low-mass Host Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, C.; Hirao, Y.; Udalski, A.; Lee, C.-U.; Bozza, V.; Gould, A.; and; Abe, F.; Barry, R.; Bond, I. A.; Bennett, D. P.; Bhattacharya, A.; Donachie, M.; Evans, P.; Fukui, A.; Itow, Y.; Kawasaki, K.; Koshimoto, N.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Matsubara, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Munakata, H.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Ohnishi, K.; Ranc, C.; Rattenbury, N.; Saito, T.; Sharan, A.; Sullivan, D. J.; Sumi, T.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, P. J.; Yamada, T.; Yonehara, A.; The MOA Collaboration; Mróz, P.; Poleski, R.; Kozłowski, S.; Soszyński, I.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Szymański, M. K.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.; Rybicki, K.; Iwanek, P.; The OGLE Collaboration; Albrow, M. D.; Chung, S.-J.; Hwang, K.-H.; Jung, Y. K.; Kim, D.; Kim, W.-T.; Kim, H.-W.; Ryu, Y.-H.; Shin, I.-G.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Yee, J. C.; Zhu, W.; Cha, S.-M.; Kim, S.-L.; Kim, D.-J.; Lee, D.-J.; Lee, Y.; Park, B.-G.; Pogge, R. W.; The KMTNet Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    We report the discovery of a planetary system in which a super-Earth orbits a late M-dwarf host. The planetary system was found from the analysis of the microlensing event OGLE-2017-BLG-0482, wherein the planet signal appears as a short-term anomaly to the smooth lensing light curve produced by the host. Despite its weak signal and short duration, the planetary signal was firmly detected from the dense and continuous coverage by three microlensing surveys. We find a planet/host mass ratio of q ∼ 1.4 × 10‑4. We measure the microlens parallax {π }{{E}} from the long-term deviation in the observed lensing light curve, but the angular Einstein radius {θ }{{E}} cannot be measured because the source trajectory did not cross the planet-induced caustic. Using the measured event timescale and the microlens parallax, we find that the masses of the planet and the host are {M}{{p}}={9.0}-4.5+9.0 {M}\\oplus and {M}host}={0.20}-0.10+0.20 {M}ȯ , respectively, and the projected separation between them is {a}\\perp ={1.8}-0.7+0.6 au. The estimated distance to the lens is {D}{{L}}={5.8}-2.1+1.8 kpc. The discovery of the planetary system demonstrates that microlensing provides an important method to detect low-mass planets orbiting low-mass stars.

  13. Electrostatic Phenomena on Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2017-02-01

    The diverse planetary environments in the solar system react in somewhat different ways to the encompassing influence of the Sun. These different interactions define the electrostatic phenomena that take place on and near planetary surfaces. The desire to understand the electrostatic environments of planetary surfaces goes beyond scientific inquiry. These environments have enormous implications for both human and robotic exploration of the solar system. This book describes in some detail what is known about the electrostatic environment of the solar system from early and current experiments on Earth as well as what is being learned from the instrumentation on the space exploration missions (NASA, European Space Agency, and the Japanese Space Agency) of the last few decades. It begins with a brief review of the basic principles of electrostatics.

  14. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head, J.W.

    1978-12-01

    Developments reported at a meeting of principal investigators for NASA's planetology geology program are summarized. Topics covered include the following: constraints on solar system formation; asteriods, comets, and satellites; constraints on planetary interiors; volatiles and regoliths; instrument development techniques; planetary cartography; geological and geochemical constraints on planetary evolution; fluvial processes and channel formation; volcanic processes; Eolian processes; radar studies of planetary surfaces; cratering as a process, landform, and dating method; and the Tharsis region of Mars. Activities at a planetary geology field conference on Eolian processes are reported and techniques recommended for the presentation and analysis of crater size-frequency data are included

  15. Rocky Planetary Debris Around Young WDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensicke, B.

    2014-04-01

    The vast majority of all known planet host stars, including the Sun, will eventually evolve into red giants and finally end their lives as white dwarfs: extremely dense Earth-sized stellar embers. Only close-in planets will be devoured during the red-giant phase. In the solar system, Mars, the asteroid belt, and all the giant planets will escape evaporation, and the same is true for many of the known exo-planets. It is hence certain that a significant fraction of the known white dwarfs were once host stars to planets, and it is very likely that many of them still have remnants of planetary systems. The detection of metals in the atmospheres of white dwarfs is the unmistakable signpost of such evolved planetary systems. The strong surface gravity of white dwarfs causes metals to sink out of the atmosphere on time-scales much shorter than their cooling ages, leading unavoidably to pristine H/He atmospheres. Therefore any metals detected in the atmosphere of a white dwarf imply recent or ongoing accretion of planetary debris. In fact, planetary debris is also detected as circumstellar dust and gas around a number of white dwarfs. These debris disks are formed from the tidal disruption of asteroids or Kuiper belt-like objects, stirred up by left-over planets, and are subsequently accreted onto the white dwarf, imprinting their abundance pattern into its atmosphere. Determining the photospheric abundances of debris-polluted white dwarfs is hence entirely analogue to the use of meteorites, "rocks that fell from the sky", for measuring the abundances of planetary material in the solar system. I will briefly review this new field of exo-planet science, and then focus on the results of a large, unbiased COS snapshot survey of relatively young ( 20-100Myr) white dwarfs that we carried out in Cycle 18/19. * At least 30% of all white dwarfs in our sample are accreting planetary debris, and that fraction may be as high as 50%. * In most cases where debris pollution is detected

  16. Design of Virtual Environments for the Comprehension of Planetary Phenomena Based on Students' Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Christos; Mikropoulos, Tassos A.

    2003-01-01

    Explains the design and development of an educational virtual environment to support the teaching of planetary phenomena, particularly the movements of Earth and the sun, day and night cycle, and change of seasons. Uses an interactive, three-dimensional (3D) virtual environment. Initial results show that the majority of students enthused about…

  17. SMALL PLANETARY SATELLITE COLORS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is intended to include published colors of small planetary satellites published up through December 2003. Small planetary satellites are defined as all...

  18. The Formation of a Planetary Nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpaz, Amos

    1991-01-01

    Proposes a scenario to describe the formation of a planetary nebula, a cloud of gas surrounding a very hot compact star. Describes the nature of a planetary nebula, the number observed to date in the Milky Way Galaxy, and the results of research on a specific nebula. (MDH)

  19. Miniaturized Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope for In Situ Planetary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Abbott, Terry; Medley, Stephanie; Gregory, Don; Thaisen, Kevin; Taylor , Lawrence; Ramsey, Brian; Jerman, Gregory; Sampson, Allen; Harvey, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of remote planetary surfaces calls for the advancement of low power, highly-miniaturized instrumentation. Instruments of this nature that are capable of multiple types of analyses will prove to be particularly useful as we prepare for human return to the moon, and as we continue to explore increasingly remote locations in our Solar System. To this end, our group has been developing a miniaturized Environmental-Scanning Electron Microscope (mESEM) capable of remote investigations of mineralogical samples through in-situ topographical and chemical analysis on a fine scale. The functioning of an SEM is well known: an electron beam is focused to nanometer-scale onto a given sample where resulting emissions such as backscattered and secondary electrons, X-rays, and visible light are registered. Raster scanning the primary electron beam across the sample then gives a fine-scale image of the surface topography (texture), crystalline structure and orientation, with accompanying elemental composition. The flexibility in the types of measurements the mESEM is capable of, makes it ideally suited for a variety of applications. The mESEM is appropriate for use on multiple planetary surfaces, and for a variety of mission goals (from science to non-destructive analysis to ISRU). We will identify potential applications and range of potential uses related to planetary exploration. Over the past few of years we have initiated fabrication and testing of a proof-of-concept assembly, consisting of a cold-field-emission electron gun and custom high-voltage power supply, electrostatic electron-beam focusing column, and scanning-imaging electronics plus backscatter detector. Current project status will be discussed. This effort is funded through the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences - Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program.

  20. Modeling, Testing, and Characteristic Analysis of a Planetary Flywheel Inerter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ge

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the planetary flywheel inerter, which is a new type of ball screw inerter. A planetary flywheel consists of several planetary gears mounted on a flywheel bracket. When the flywheel bracket is driven by a screw and rotating, each planetary gear meshing with an outer ring gear generates a compound motion composed of revolution and rotation. Theoretical analysis shows that the output force of the planetary flywheel inerter is proportional to the relative acceleration of one terminal of the inerter to the other. Optimizing the gear ratio of the planetary gears to the ring gear allows the planetary flywheel to be lighter than its traditional counterpart, without any loss on the inertance. According to the structure of the planetary flywheel inerter, nonlinear factors of the inerter are analyzed, and a nonlinear dynamical model of the inerter is established. Then the parameters in the model are identified and the accuracy of the model is validated by experiment. Theoretical analysis and experimental data show that the dynamical characteristics of a planetary flywheel inerter and those of a traditional flywheel inerter are basically the same. It is concluded that a planetary flywheel can completely replace a traditional flywheel, making the inerter lighter.

  1. Exploiting jet binning to identify the initial state of high-mass resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Markus A.; Liebler, Stefan; Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Tackmann, Kerstin; Zeune, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    If a new high-mass resonance is discovered at the Large Hadron Collider, model-independent techniques to identify the production mechanism will be crucial to understand its nature and effective couplings to Standard Model particles. We present a powerful and model-independent method to infer the initial state in the production of any high-mass color-singlet system by using a tight veto on accompanying hadronic jets to divide the data into two mutually exclusive event samples (jet bins). For a resonance of several hundred GeV, the jet binning cut needed to discriminate quark and gluon initial states is in the experimentally accessible range of several tens of GeV. It also yields comparable cross sections for both bins, making this method viable already with the small event samples available shortly after a discovery. Theoretically, the method is made feasible by utilizing an effective field theory setup to compute the jet cut dependence precisely and model independently and to systematically control all sources of theoretical uncertainties in the jet binning, as well as their correlations. We use a 750 GeV scalar resonance as an example to demonstrate the viability of our method.

  2. Exploiting jet binning to identify the initial state of high-mass resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, Markus A.; Liebler, Stefan; Tackmann, Frank J.; Tackmann, Kerstin; Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Zeune, Lisa

    2016-05-01

    If a new high-mass resonance is discovered at the Large Hadron Collider, model-independent techniques to identify the production mechanism will be crucial to understand its nature and effective couplings to Standard Model particles. We present a powerful and model-independent method to infer the initial state in the production of any high-mass color-singlet system by using a tight veto on accompanying hadronic jets to divide the data into two mutually exclusive event samples (jet bins). For a resonance of several hundred GeV, the jet binning cut needed to discriminate quark and gluon initial states is in the experimentally accessible range of several tens of GeV. It also yields comparable cross sections for both bins, making this method viable already with the small event samples available shortly after a discovery. Theoretically, the method is made feasible by utilizing an effective field theory setup to compute the jet cut dependence precisely and model-independently and to systematically control all sources of theoretical uncertainties in the jet binning, as well as their correlations. We use a 750 GeV scalar resonance as an example to demonstrate the viability of our method.

  3. The effects of the initial mass function on the chemical evolution of elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Masi, Carlo; Matteucci, F.; Vincenzo, F.

    2018-03-01

    We describe the use of our chemical evolution model to reproduce the abundance patterns observed in a catalogue of elliptical galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4. The model assumes ellipticals form by fast gas accretion, and suffer a strong burst of star formation followed by a galactic wind, which quenches star formation. Models with fixed initial mass function (IMF) failed in simultaneously reproducing the observed trends with the galactic mass. So, we tested a varying IMF; contrary to the diffused claim that the IMF should become bottom heavier in more massive galaxies, we find a better agreement with data by assuming an inverse trend, where the IMF goes from being bottom heavy in less massive galaxies to top heavy in more massive ones. This naturally produces a downsizing in star formation, favouring massive stars in largest galaxies. Finally, we tested the use of the integrated Galactic IMF, obtained by averaging the canonical IMF over the mass distribution function of the clusters where star formation is assumed to take place. We combined two prescriptions, valid for different SFR regimes, to obtain the Integrated Initial Mass Function values along the whole evolution of the galaxies in our models. Predicted abundance trends reproduce the observed slopes, but they have an offset relative to the data. We conclude that bottom-heavier IMFs do not reproduce the properties of the most massive ellipticals, at variance with previous suggestions. On the other hand, an IMF varying with galactic mass from bottom heavier to top heavier should be preferred.

  4. Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, James F.

    1997-01-01

    This grant was entitled 'Planetary Habitability' and the work performed under it related to elucidating the conditions that lead to habitable, i.e. Earth-like, planets. Below are listed publications for the past two and a half years that came out of this work. The main thrusts of the research involved: (1) showing under what conditions atmospheric O2 and O3 can be considered as evidence for life on a planet's surface; (2) determining whether CH4 may have played a role in warming early Mars; (3) studying the effect of varying UV levels on Earth-like planets around different types of stars to see whether this would pose a threat to habitability; and (4) studying the effect of chaotic obliquity variations on planetary climates and determining whether planets that experienced such variations might still be habitable. Several of these topics involve ongoing research that has been carried out under a new grant number, but which continues to be funded by NASA's Exobiology program.

  5. Planetary geology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasselt, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date interdisciplinary geoscience-focused overview of solid solar system bodies and their evolution, based on the comparative description of processes acting on them. Planetary research today is a strongly multidisciplinary endeavor with efforts coming from engineering and natural sciences. Key focal areas of study are the solid surfaces found in our Solar System. Some have a direct interaction with the interplanetary medium and others have dynamic atmospheres. In any of those cases, the geological records of those surfaces (and sub-surfaces) are key to understanding the Solar System as a whole: its evolution and the planetary perspective of our own planet. This book has a modular structure and is divided into 4 sections comprising 15 chapters in total. Each section builds upon the previous one but is also self-standing. The sections are:  Methods and tools Processes and Sources  Integration and Geological Syntheses Frontiers The latter covers the far-reaching broad topics of exo...

  6. Red giants as precursors of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renzini, A.

    1981-01-01

    It is generally accepted that Planetary Nebulae are produced by asymptotic giant-branch stars. Therefore, several properties of planetary nebulae are discussed in the framework of the current theory of stellar evolution. (Auth.)

  7. Remarks on mass and angular momenta for U(1){sup 2}-invariant initial data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaee, Aghil, E-mail: aak818@mun.ca; Kunduri, Hari K., E-mail: hkkunduri@mun.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador NL A1C 4P5 (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    We extend Brill’s positive mass theorem to a large class of asymptotically flat, maximal, U(1){sup 2}-invariant initial data sets on simply connected four dimensional manifolds Σ. Moreover, we extend the local mass angular momenta inequality result [A. Alaee and H. K. Kunduri, Classical Quantum Gravity 32(16), 165020 (2015)] for U(1){sup 2} invariant black holes to the case with nonzero stress energy tensor with positive matter density and energy-momentum current invariant under the above symmetries.

  8. Blue Marble Matches: Using Earth for Planetary Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama

    2009-01-01

    Goal: This activity is designed to introduce students to geologic processes on Earth and model how scientists use Earth to gain a better understanding of other planetary bodies in the solar system. Objectives: Students will: 1. Identify common descriptor characteristics used by scientists to describe geologic features in images. 2. Identify geologic features and how they form on Earth. 3. Create a list of defining/distinguishing characteristics of geologic features 4. Identify geologic features in images of other planetary bodies. 5. List observations and interpretations about planetary body comparisons. 6. Create summary statements about planetary body comparisons.

  9. Summary of the Third International Planetary Dunes Workshop: remote sensing and image analysis of planetary dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Lori K.; Hayward, Rosalyn K.; Horgan, Briony H.N.; Rubin, David M.; Titus, Timothy N.; Bishop, Mark A.; Burr, Devon M.; Chojnacki, Matthew; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.; Kerber, Laura; Gall, Alice Le; Michaels, Timothy I.; Neakrase, Lynn D.V.; Newman, Claire E.; Tirsch, Daniela; Yizhaq, Hezi; Zimbelman, James R.

    2013-01-01

    The Third International Planetary Dunes Workshop took place in Flagstaff, AZ, USA during June 12–15, 2012. This meeting brought together a diverse group of researchers to discuss recent advances in terrestrial and planetary research on aeolian bedforms. The workshop included two and a half days of oral and poster presentations, as well as one formal (and one informal) full-day field trip. Similar to its predecessors, the presented work provided new insight on the morphology, dynamics, composition, and origin of aeolian bedforms on Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan, with some intriguing speculation about potential aeolian processes on Triton (a satellite of Neptune) and Pluto. Major advancements since the previous International Planetary Dunes Workshop include the introduction of several new data analysis and numerical tools and utilization of low-cost field instruments (most notably the time-lapse camera). Most presentations represented advancement towards research priorities identified in both of the prior two workshops, although some previously recommended research approaches were not discussed. In addition, this workshop provided a forum for participants to discuss the uncertain future of the Planetary Aeolian Laboratory; subsequent actions taken as a result of the decisions made during the workshop may lead to an expansion of funding opportunities to use the facilities, as well as other improvements. The interactions during this workshop contributed to the success of the Third International Planetary Dunes Workshop, further developing our understanding of aeolian processes on the aeolian worlds of the Solar System.

  10. Mars Technology Program Planetary Protection Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the NASA Planetary Protection program are to preserve biological and organic conditions of solar-system bodies for future scientific exploration and to protect the Earth from potential hazardous extraterrestrial contamination. As the exploration of solar system continues, NASA remains committed to the implementation of planetary protection policy and regulations. To fulfill this commitment, the Mars Technology Program (MTP) has invested in a portfolio of tasks for developing necessary technologies to meet planetary protection requirements for the next decade missions.

  11. Planetary optical and infrared imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrile, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to obtain and analyze high spatial resolution charge coupled device (CCD) coronagraphic images of extra-solar planetary material and solar system objects. These data will provide information on the distribution of planetary and proto-planetary material around nearby stars leading to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the solar system. Imaging within our solar system will provide information on the current cloud configurations on the outer planets, search for new objects around the outer planets, and provide direct support for Voyager, Galileo, and CRAF by imaging material around asteroids and clouds on Neptune. Over the last year this program acquired multispectral and polarization images of the disk of material around the nearby star Beta Pictoris. This material is believed to be associated with the formation of planets and provides a first look at a planetary system much younger than our own. Preliminary color and polarization data suggest that the material is very low albedo and similar to dark outer solar system carbon rich material. A coronagraphic search for other systems is underway and has already examined over 100 nearby stars. Coronagraphic imaging provided the first clear look at the rings of Uranus and albedo limits for the ring arcs around Neptune

  12. Low-Mass Stars and Their Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montet, Benjamin Tyler

    In this thesis, I present seven studies aimed towards better understanding the demographics and physical properties of M dwarfs and their companions. These studies focus in turn on planetary, brown dwarf, and stellar companions to M dwarfs. I begin with an analysis of radial velocity and transit timing analyses of multi-transiting planetary systems, finding that if both signals are measured to sufficiently high precision the stellar and planetary masses can be measured to a high precision, eliminating a need for stellar models which may have systematic errors. I then combine long-term radial velocity monitoring and a direct imaging campaign to measure the occurrence rate of giant planets around M dwarfs. I find that 6.5 +/- 3.0% of M dwarfs host a Jupiter mass or larger planet within 20 AU, with a strong dependence on stellar metallicity. I then present two papers analyzing the LHS 6343 system, which contains a widely separated M dwarf binary (AB). Star A hosts a transiting brown dwarf (LHS 6343 C) with a 12.7 day period. By combining radial velocity data with transit photometry, I am able to measure the mass and radius of the brown dwarf to 2% precision, the most precise measurement of a brown dwarf to date. I then analyze four secondary eclipses of the LHS 6343 AC system as observed by Spitzer in order to measure the luminosity of the brown dwarf in both Spitzer bandpasses. I find the brown dwarf is consistent with theoretical models of an 1100 K T dwarf at an age of 5 Gyr and empirical observations of field T5-6 dwarfs with temperatures of 1070 +/- 130 K. This is the first non-inflated brown dwarf with a measured mass, radius, and multi-band photometry, making it an ideal test of evolutionary models of field brown dwarfs. Next, I present the results of an astrometric and radial velocity campaign to measure the orbit and masses of both stars in the GJ 3305 AB system, an M+M binary comoving with 51 Eridani, a more massive star with a directly imaged planetary

  13. SEMI-EMPIRICAL WHITE DWARF INITIAL-FINAL MASS RELATIONSHIPS: A THOROUGH ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMATIC UNCERTAINTIES DUE TO STELLAR EVOLUTION MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaris, Maurizio; Serenelli, Aldo; Weiss, Achim; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Using the most recent results about white dwarfs (WDs) in ten open clusters, we revisit semiempirical estimates of the initial-final mass relation (IFMR) in star clusters, with emphasis on the use of stellar evolution models. We discuss the influence of these models on each step of the derivation. One intention of our work is to use consistent sets of calculations both for the isochrones and the WD cooling tracks. The second one is to derive the range of systematic errors arising from stellar evolution theory. This is achieved by using different sources for the stellar models and by varying physical assumptions and input data. We find that systematic errors, including the determination of the cluster age, are dominating the initial mass values, while observational uncertainties influence the final mass primarily. After having determined the systematic errors, the initial-final mass relation allows us finally to draw conclusions about the physics of the stellar models, in particular about convective overshooting.

  14. The global coherence initiative: creating a coherent planetary standing wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCraty, Rollin; Deyhle, Annette; Childre, Doc

    2012-03-01

    The much anticipated year of 2012 is now here. Amidst the predictions and cosmic alignments that many are aware of, one thing is for sure: it will be an interesting and exciting year as the speed of change continues to increase, bringing both chaos and great opportunity. One benchmark of these times is a shift in many people from a paradigm of competition to one of greater cooperation. All across the planet, increasing numbers of people are practicing heart-based living, and more groups are forming activities that support positive change and creative solutions for manifesting a better world. The Global Coherence Initiative (GCI) is a science-based, co-creative project to unite people in heart-focused care and intention. GCI is working in concert with other initiatives to realize the increased power of collective intention and consciousness. The convergence of several independent lines of evidence provides strong support for the existence of a global information field that connects all living systems and consciousness. Every cell in our bodies is bathed in an external and internal environment of fluctuating invisible magnetic forces that can affect virtually every cell and circuit in biological systems. Therefore, it should not be surprising that numerous physiological rhythms in humans and global collective behaviors are not only synchronized with solar and geomagnetic activity, but disruptions in these fields can create adverse effects on human health and behavior. The most likely mechanism for explaining how solar and geomagnetic influences affect human health and behavior are a coupling between the human nervous system and resonating geomagnetic frequencies, called Schumann resonances, which occur in the earth-ionosphere resonant cavity and Alfvén waves. It is well established that these resonant frequencies directly overlap with those of the human brain and cardiovascular system. If all living systems are indeed interconnected and communicate with each other

  15. NASA's Planetary Science Missions and Participations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Doris; Green, James L.

    2017-04-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division (PSD) and space agencies around the world are collaborating on an extensive array of missions exploring our solar system. Planetary science missions are conducted by some of the most sophisticated robots ever built. International collaboration is an essential part of what we do. NASA has always encouraged international participation on our missions both strategic (ie: Mars 2020) and competitive (ie: Discovery and New Frontiers) and other Space Agencies have reciprocated and invited NASA investigators to participate in their missions. NASA PSD has partnerships with virtually every major space agency. For example, NASA has had a long and very fruitful collaboration with ESA. ESA has been involved in the Cassini mission and, currently, NASA funded scientists are involved in the Rosetta mission (3 full instruments, part of another), BepiColombo mission (1 instrument in the Italian Space Agency's instrument suite), and the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer mission (1 instrument and parts of two others). In concert with ESA's Mars missions NASA has an instrument on the Mars Express mission, the orbit-ground communications package on the Trace Gas Orbiter (launched in March 2016) and part of the DLR/Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer instruments going onboard the ExoMars Rover (to be launched in 2018). NASA's Planetary Science Division has continuously provided its U.S. planetary science community with opportunities to include international participation on NASA missions too. For example, NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs provide U.S. scientists the opportunity to assemble international teams and design exciting, focused planetary science investigations that would deepen the knowledge of our Solar System. The PSD put out an international call for instruments on the Mars 2020 mission. This procurement led to the selection of Spain and Norway scientist leading two instruments and French scientists providing a significant portion of another

  16. From circumstellar disks to planetary systems: observation and modeling of protoplanetary disks

    OpenAIRE

    Macías Quevedo, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The existence of exoplanetary systems was first predicted after the discovery of accretion disks around young stars. Nowadays, with nearly 3500 exoplanets discovered, and almost 5000 more candidates identified by the Kepler space mission, planetary systems are now known to be ubiquitous around low-mass stars. The formation of these systems takes place during the stellar formation itself, from the dust and gas orbiting around the star in the protoplanetary disks. However, the process that lead...

  17. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS (PALMS). IV. THE OUTER ARCHITECTURE OF M DWARF PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, Brendan P. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: bpbowler@caltech.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    to single M dwarfs between 10-100 AU is 2.8{sub −1.5}{sup +2.4}%. Altogether we find that giant planets, especially massive ones, are rare in the outskirts of M dwarf planetary systems. Although the first directly imaged planets were found around massive stars, there is currently no statistical evidence for a trend of giant planet frequency with stellar host mass at large separations as predicted by the disk instability model of giant planet formation.

  18. The Planetary Data System Web Catalog Interface--Another Use of the Planetary Data System Data Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S.; Bernath, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Planetary Data System Data Model consists of a set of standardized descriptions of entities within the Planetary Science Community. These can be real entities in the space exploration domain such as spacecraft, instruments, and targets; conceptual entities such as data sets, archive volumes, and data dictionaries; or the archive data products such as individual images, spectrum, series, and qubes.

  19. Planetary Data Archiving Activities of ISRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopala Krishna, Barla; D, Rao J.; Thakkar, Navita; Prashar, Ajay; Manthira Moorthi, S.

    composition & mineralogy of mars, Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA) to study the composition and density of the Martian neutral atmosphere and Lyman Alpha Photometer (LAP) to investigate the loss process of water in Martian atmosphere, towards fulfilling the mission objectives. Active archive created in PDS for some of the instrument data during the earth phase of the mission is being analysed by the PIs. The Mars science data from the onboard instruments is expected during September 2014. The next planetary mission planned to moon is Chandrayaan-2 which consists of an orbiter having five instruments (http://www.isro.org) viz, (i) Imaging IR Spectrometer (IIRS) for mineral mapping, (ii) TMC-2 for topographic mapping, (iii) MiniSAR to detect water ice in the permanently shadowed regions on the Lunar poles, up to a depth of a few meters, (iv) Large Area Soft X-ray spectrometer (CLASS) & Solar X-ray Monitor (XSM) for mapping the major elements present on the lunar surface and (v)Neutral Mass Spectrometer (ChACE2) to carry out a detailed study of the lunar exosphere towards moon exploration; a rover for some specific experiments and a Lander for technology experiment and demonstration. The data is planned to be archived in PDS standards.

  20. Converging on the Initial Mass Function of Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federrath, Christoph; Krumholz, Mark; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the origin of stellar masses—the initial mass function (IMF)— remains one of the most challenging problems in astrophysics. The IMF is a key ingredient for simulations of galaxy formation and evolution, and is used to calibrate star formation relations in extra-galactic observations. Modeling the IMF directly in hydrodynamical simulations has been attempted in several previous studies, but the most important processes that control the IMF remain poorly understood. This is because predicting the IMF from direct hydrodynamical simulations involves complex physics such as turbulence, magnetic fields, radiation feedback and mechanical feedback, all of which are difficult to model and the methods used have limitations in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. Moreover, a physical interpretation of the simulated IMFs requires a numerically converged solution at high resolution, which has so far not been convincingly demonstrated. Here we present a resolution study of star cluster formation aimed at producing a converged IMF. We compare a set of magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) adaptive-mesh-refinement simulations with three different implementations of the thermodynamics of the gas: 1) with an isothermal equation of state (EOS), 2) with a polytropic EOS, and 3) with a simple stellar heating feedback model. We show that in the simulations with an isothermal or polytropic EOS, the number of stars and their mass distributions depend on the numerical resolution. By contrast, the simulations that employ the simple radiative feedback module demonstrate convergence in the number of stars formed and in their IMFs. (paper)

  1. Biological life support systems for a Mars mission planetary base: Problems and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Kovaleva, N. P.; Lamaze, B.; Lobo, M.; Lasseur, Ch.

    The study develops approaches to designing biological life support systems for the Mars mission - for the flight conditions and for a planetary base - using experience of the Institute of Biophysics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBP SB RAS) with the Bios-3 system and ESA's experience with the MELISSA program. Variants of a BLSS based on using Chlorella and/or Spirulina and higher plants for the flight period of the Mars mission are analyzed. It is proposed constructing a BLSS with a closed-loop material cycle for gas and water and for part of human waste. A higher-plant-based BLSS with the mass exchange loop closed to various degrees is proposed for a Mars planetary base. Various versions of BLSS configuration and degree of closure of mass exchange are considered, depending on the duration of the Mars mission, the diet of the crew, and some other conditions. Special consideration is given to problems of reliability and sustainability of material cycling in BLSS, which are related to production of additional oxygen inside the system. Technologies of constructing BLSS of various configurations are proposed and substantiated. Reasons are given for using physicochemical methods in BLSS as secondary tools both during the flight and the stay on Mars.

  2. EVOLUTIONARY TRACKS OF TRAPPED, ACCRETING PROTOPLANETS: THE ORIGIN OF THE OBSERVED MASS-PERIOD RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Pudritz, Ralph E.

    2012-01-01

    The large number of observed exoplanets (∼>700) provides important constraints on their origin as deduced from the mass-period diagram of planets. The most surprising features in the diagram are (1) the (apparent) pileup of gas giants at a period of ∼500 days (∼1 AU) and (2) the so-called mass-period relation, which indicates that planetary mass is an increasing function of orbital period. We construct the evolutionary tracks of growing planets at planet traps in evolving protoplanetary disks and show that they provide a good physical understanding of how these observational properties arise. The fundamental feature of our model is that inhomogeneities in protoplanetary disks give rise to multiple (up to 3) trapping sites for rapid (type I) planetary migration of planetary cores. The viscous evolution of disks results in the slow radial movement of the traps and their cores from large to small orbital periods. In our model, the slow inward motion of planet traps is coupled with the standard core accretion scenario for planetary growth. As planets grow, type II migration takes over. Planet growth and radial movement are ultimately stalled by the dispersal of gas disks via photoevaporation. Our model makes a number of important predictions: that distinct sub-populations of planets that reflect the properties of planet traps where they have grown result in the mass-period relation, that the presence of these sub-populations naturally explains a pileup of planets at ∼1 AU, and that evolutionary tracks from the ice line do put planets at short periods and fill an earlier claimed p lanet desert — a sparse population of planets in the mass-semimajor axis diagram.

  3. Engaging Audiences in Planetary Science Through Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, C. B.; Mason, T.; Peticolas, L. M.; Hauck, K.

    2017-12-01

    One way to share compelling stories is through visuals. The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), in collaboration with Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) and Space Science Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley, has been working with planetary scientists to reach and engage audiences in their research through the use of visualizations. We will share how images and animations have been used in multiple mediums, including the planetarium, Science on a Sphere, the hyperwall, and within apps. Our objectives are to provide a tool that planetary scientists can use to tell their stories, as well as to increase audience awareness of and interest in planetary science. While scientists are involved in the selection of topics and the development of the visuals, LPI and partners seek to increase the planetary science community's awareness of these resources and their ability to incorporate them into their own public engagement efforts. This presentation will share our own resources and efforts, as well as the input received from scientists on how education and public engagement teams can best assist them in developing and using these resources, and disseminating them to both scientists and to informal science education venues.

  4. DESIGN FOR A BI-PLANETARY GEAR TRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef DREWNIAK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the design for a bi-planetary gear train. The project description is supplemented with calculations of kinematics, statics and meshing efficiency of the gear wheels included in the gear train. Excluded are calculations of strength and geometry of gears, shaft and rolling bearing, since they are similar to classical calculations for planetary gears. An assembly drawing in 2D and assembly drawings in 3D of the designed bi-planetary gear train are also shown. This gear train will form the main element of the research in hand.

  5. VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLE FOR PLANETARY INTERIORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Li; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. The variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory, which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying the variational principle to the planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From this principle, a universal mass–radius relation, an estimate of the error propagation from the equation of state to the mass–radius relation, and a form of the virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  6. Finite Element Residual Stress Analysis of Planetary Gear Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to simulate residual stress field of planetary gear is proposed. In this method, the finite element model of planetary gear is established and divided to tooth zone and profile zone, whose different temperature field is set. The gear's residual stress simulation is realized by the thermal compression stress generated by the temperature difference. Based on the simulation, the finite element model of planetary gear train is established, the dynamic meshing process is simulated, and influence of residual stress on equivalent stress of addendum, pitch circle, and dedendum of internal and external meshing planetary gear tooth profile is analyzed, according to non-linear contact theory, thermodynamic theory, and finite element theory. The results show that the equivalent stresses of planetary gear at both meshing and nonmeshing surface are significantly and differently reduced by residual stress. The study benefits fatigue cracking analysis and dynamic optimization design of planetary gear train.

  7. Life Support and Habitation and Planetary Protection Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, John A. (Editor); Race, Margaret S. (Editor); Fisher, John W. (Editor); Joshi, Jitendra A. (Editor); Rummel, John D. (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    A workshop entitled "Life Support and Habitation and Planetary Protection Workshop" was held in Houston, Texas on April 27-29, 2005 to facilitate the development of planetary protection guidelines for future human Mars exploration missions and to identify the potential effects of these guidelines on the design and selection of related human life support, extravehicular activity and monitoring and control systems. This report provides a summary of the workshop organization, starting assumptions, working group results and recommendations. Specific result topics include the identification of research and technology development gaps, potential forward and back contaminants and pathways, mitigation alternatives, and planetary protection requirements definition needs. Participants concluded that planetary protection and science-based requirements potentially affect system design, technology trade options, development costs and mission architecture. Therefore early and regular coordination between the planetary protection, scientific, planning, engineering, operations and medical communities is needed to develop workable and effective designs for human exploration of Mars.

  8. GALAXY FORMATION WITH COLD GAS ACCRETION AND EVOLVING STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Xi; Lin, W. P.; Skibba, Ramin; Chen, D. N.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function is especially useful to test the current model of galaxy formation. Observational data have revealed a few inconsistencies with predictions from the ΛCDM model. For example, most massive galaxies have already been observed at very high redshifts, and they have experienced only mild evolution since then. In conflict with this, semi-analytical models (SAMs) of galaxy formation predict an insufficient number of massive galaxies at high redshift and a rapid evolution between redshift 1 and 0. In addition, there is a strong correlation between star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass for star-forming galaxies, which can be roughly reproduced with the model, but with a normalization that is too low at high redshift. Furthermore, the stellar mass density obtained from the integral of the cosmic star formation history is higher than the measured one by a factor of 2. In this paper, we study these issues using an SAM that includes (1) cold gas accretion in massive halos at high redshift; (2) tidal stripping of stellar mass from satellite galaxies; and (3) an evolving stellar initial mass function (IMF; bottom-light) with a higher gas recycle fraction. Our results show that the combined effects from (1) and (2) can predict sufficiently massive galaxies at high redshifts and reproduce their mild evolution at low redshift, while the combined effects of (1) and (3) can reproduce the correlation between SFR and stellar mass for star-forming galaxies across a wide range of redshifts. A bottom-light/top-heavy stellar IMF could partly resolve the conflict between the stellar mass density and cosmic star formation history.

  9. Young planetary nebula with OH molecules - NGC 6302

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, H.E.; Phillips, J.A.; Terzian, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a sensitive survey of planetary nebulae in all four ground-state OH lines are reported. The results confirm that evolved planetary nebulas are not OH sources in general. However, one interesting object was not detected: an OH 1612 MHz maser in the young planetary nebula NGC 6302. This nebula may be in a brief evolutionary stage, similar to the young and compact planetary nebula Vy 2-2, where OH has already been detected. In addition, the results of further observations of NGC 6302 are reported, including VLA observations of the 1612 MHz line and continuum emission and detections of rotationally excited OH lines at 5-cm wavelength in absorption. 28 references

  10. The far-UV spectrum of the low-excitation planetary nebula HD 138403

    OpenAIRE

    Surdej, Jean; Heck, A.

    1982-01-01

    Two high-resolution far-UV spectra of the low-excitation planetary nebula HD 138403 are analyzed which were obtained with the IUE satellite over the wavelength range from 1170 to 2070 A. It is shown that the nebula's far-UV spectrum comprises a stellar continuum on which are superimposed a few emission lines, numerous interstellar absorption lines, and various types of P Cygni profiles. Evidence is examined for substantial mass loss from the central nucleus, with terminal velocities of the or...

  11. DUST COAGULATION IN THE VICINITY OF A GAP-OPENING JUPITER-MASS PLANET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carballido, Augusto; Matthews, Lorin S.; Hyde, Truell W., E-mail: Augusto_Carballido@baylor.edu [Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics and Engineering Research, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the coagulation of dust in and around a gap opened by a Jupiter-mass planet. To this end, we carry out a high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the gap environment, which is turbulent due to the magnetorotational instability. From the MHD simulation, we obtain values of the gas velocities, densities, and turbulent stresses (a) close to the gap edge, (b) in one of the two gas streams that accrete onto the planet, (c) inside the low-density gap, and (d) outside the gap. The MHD values are then input into a Monte Carlo dust-coagulation algorithm which models grain sticking and compaction. We also introduce a simple implementation for bouncing, for comparison purposes. We consider two dust populations for each region: one whose initial size distribution is monodisperse, with monomer radius equal to 1 μ m, and another one whose initial size distribution follows the Mathis–Rumpl–Nordsieck distribution for interstellar dust grains, with an initial range of monomer radii between 0.5 and 10 μ m. Without bouncing, our Monte Carlo calculations show steady growth of dust aggregates in all regions, and the mass-weighted (m-w) average porosity of the initially monodisperse population reaches extremely high final values of 98%. The final m-w porosities in all other cases without bouncing range between 30% and 82%. The efficiency of compaction is due to high turbulent relative speeds between dust particles. When bouncing is introduced, growth is slowed down in the planetary wake and inside the gap. Future studies will need to explore the effect of different planet masses and electric charge on grains.

  12. DUST COAGULATION IN THE VICINITY OF A GAP-OPENING JUPITER-MASS PLANET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carballido, Augusto; Matthews, Lorin S.; Hyde, Truell W.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the coagulation of dust in and around a gap opened by a Jupiter-mass planet. To this end, we carry out a high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the gap environment, which is turbulent due to the magnetorotational instability. From the MHD simulation, we obtain values of the gas velocities, densities, and turbulent stresses (a) close to the gap edge, (b) in one of the two gas streams that accrete onto the planet, (c) inside the low-density gap, and (d) outside the gap. The MHD values are then input into a Monte Carlo dust-coagulation algorithm which models grain sticking and compaction. We also introduce a simple implementation for bouncing, for comparison purposes. We consider two dust populations for each region: one whose initial size distribution is monodisperse, with monomer radius equal to 1 μ m, and another one whose initial size distribution follows the Mathis–Rumpl–Nordsieck distribution for interstellar dust grains, with an initial range of monomer radii between 0.5 and 10 μ m. Without bouncing, our Monte Carlo calculations show steady growth of dust aggregates in all regions, and the mass-weighted (m-w) average porosity of the initially monodisperse population reaches extremely high final values of 98%. The final m-w porosities in all other cases without bouncing range between 30% and 82%. The efficiency of compaction is due to high turbulent relative speeds between dust particles. When bouncing is introduced, growth is slowed down in the planetary wake and inside the gap. Future studies will need to explore the effect of different planet masses and electric charge on grains.

  13. Energy Balance Models and Planetary Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    We know that planetary dynamics can have a significant affect on the climate of planets. Planetary dynamics dominate the glacial-interglacial periods on Earth, leaving a significant imprint on the geological record. They have also been demonstrated to have a driving influence on the climates of other planets in our solar system. We should therefore expect th.ere to be similar relationships on extrasolar planets. Here we describe a simple energy balance model that can predict the growth and thickness of glaciers, and their feedbacks on climate. We will also describe model changes that we have made to include planetary dynamics effects. This is the model we will use at the start of our collaboration to handle the influence of dynamics on climate.

  14. Excitation of planetary electromagnetic waves in the inhomogeneous ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Rapoport

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a new method for the analysis of excitation and propagation of planetary electromagnetic waves (PEMW in the ionosphere of the Earth. The nonlinear system of equations for PEMW, valid for any height, from D to F regions, including intermediate altitudes between D and E and between E and F regions, is derived. In particular, we have found the system of nonlinear one-fluid MHD equations in the β-plane approximation valid for the ionospheric F region (Aburjania et al., 2003a, 2005. The series expansion in a "small" (relative to the local geomagnetic field non-stationary magnetic field has been applied only at the last step of the derivation of the equations. The small mechanical vertical displacement of the media is taken into account. We have shown that obtained equations can be reduced to the well-known system with Larichev–Reznik vortex solution in the equatorial region (see e.g. Aburjania et al., 2002. The excitation of planetary electromagnetic waves by different initial perturbations has been investigated numerically. Some means for the PEMW detection and data processing are discussed.

  15. The Low-mass Population in the Young Cluster Stock 8: Stellar Properties and Initial Mass Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose, Jessy; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Fang, Qiliang [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Haidian Qu, Beijing 100871 (China); Samal, Manash R. [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University 300, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan (China); Panwar, Neelam, E-mail: jessyvjose1@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2017-02-10

    The evolution of H ii regions/supershells can trigger a new generation of stars/clusters at their peripheries, with environmental conditions that may affect the initial mass function, disk evolution, and star formation efficiency. In this paper we study the stellar content and star formation processes in the young cluster Stock 8, which itself is thought to be formed during the expansion of a supershell. We present deep optical photometry along with JHK and 3.6 and 4.5 μ m photometry from UKIDSS and Spitzer -IRAC. We use multicolor criteria to identify the candidate young stellar objects in the region. Using evolutionary models, we obtain a median log(age) of ∼6.5 (∼3.0 Myr) with an observed age spread of ∼0.25 dex for the cluster. Monte Carlo simulations of the population of Stock 8, based on estimates for the photometric uncertainty, differential reddening, binarity, and variability, indicate that these uncertainties introduce an age spread of ∼0.15 dex. The intrinsic age spread in the cluster is ∼0.2 dex. The fraction of young stellar objects surrounded by disks is ∼35%. The K -band luminosity function of Stock 8 is similar to that of the Trapezium cluster. The initial mass function (IMF) of Stock 8 has a Salpeter-like slope at >0.5 M {sub ⊙} and flattens and peaks at ∼0.4 M {sub ⊙}, below which it declines into the substellar regime. Although Stock 8 is surrounded by several massive stars, there seems to be no severe environmental effect in the form of the IMF due to the proximity of massive stars around the cluster.

  16. Optical Spectra of Radio Planetary Nebulae in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne, J. L.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results from spectral observations of four (4 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. These were made using the Radcliffe 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland, South Africa. These radio PNe were originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA surveys of the SMC at 1.42 and 2.37~GHz, and were further confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3 cm (4arcsec/2arcsec. Optical PNe and radio candidates are within 2arcsec and may represent a sub-population of selected radio bright objects. Nebular ionized masses of these objects may be 2.6~$M_odot$ or greater, supporting the existence of PNe progenitor central stars with masses up to 8 $M_odot$.

  17. Optical spectra of radio planetary nebulae in the small Magellanic cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results from spectral observations of four (4 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. These were made using the Radcliffe 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland, South Africa. These radio PNe were originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA surveys of the SMC at 1.42 and 2.37 GHz, and were further confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3 cm (400 /200 . Optical PNe and radio candidates are within 200 and may represent a sub- population of selected radio bright objects. Nebular ionized masses of these objects may be 2.6 Mo or greater, supporting the existence of PNe progenitor central stars with masses up to 8 Mo.

  18. An online planetary exploration tool: ;Country Movers;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gede, Mátyás; Hargitai, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    Results in astrogeologic investigations are rarely communicated towards the general public by maps despite the new advances in planetary spatial informatics and new spatial datasets in high resolution and more complete coverage. Planetary maps are typically produced by astrogeologists for other professionals, and not by cartographers for the general public. We report on an application designed for students, which uses cartography as framework to aid the virtual exploration of other planets and moons, using the concepts of size comparison and travel time calculation. We also describe educational activities that build on geographic knowledge and expand it to planetary surfaces.

  19. Mars Technology Program: Planetary Protection Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of Planetary Protection Technology in the Mars Technology Program. The goal of the program is to develop technologies that will enable NASA to build, launch, and operate a mission that has subsystems with different Planetary Protection (PP) classifications, specifically for operating a Category IVb-equivalent subsystem from a Category IVa platform. The IVa category of planetary protection requires bioburden reduction (i.e., no sterilization is required) The IVb category in addition to IVa requirements: (i.e., terminal sterilization of spacecraft is required). The differences between the categories are further reviewed.

  20. What was the Initial Mass of Merging Black Holes in GW150914 ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Hiromichi; Umemura, Masayuki

    Recently, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has detected the gravitational wave (GW) event, GW150914, as a result of the merger of a ~30 M ⊙ black hole (BH) binary. So far, the merger of stellar-mass BHs has been thought to result from the evolution of binary stars. Here, we propose a novel path of the merger stemming from non-binary isolated stars. In our previous studies, we have found that multiple non-binary stellar-mass BHs whose separations are larger than 1000 AU can merge with each other under the gas-rich environments through the gas dynamical friction and three-body interaction. In this case, a considerable amount of gas can accrete onto BHs before the merger, that is, the initial mass of BHs can be lower than 30 M ⊙. To explore this possibility, we perform post-Newtonian N-body simulations on mergers of accreting stellar-mass BHs. Based on our simulations, we find that the BH merger in GW150914 from smaller seed BHs is likely to occur in galactic nuclear regions or dense interstellar cloud cores. Furthermore, we roughly estimate event rates to be ~0.4 yr-1 in galactic nuclear regions and ~8 yr-1 in dense interstellar cloud cores.

  1. CONNECTION BETWEEN DYNAMICALLY DERIVED INITIAL MASS FUNCTION NORMALIZATION AND STELLAR POPULATION PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Cappellari, Michele; Bayet, Estelle; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Crocker, Alison F.; Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Kuntschner, Harald; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; Naab, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS 3D project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization α dyn ≡ (M/L) stars /(M/L) Salp and absorption line strengths, and interpret these via single stellar population-equivalent ages, abundance ratios (measured as [α/Fe]), and total metallicity, [Z/H]. We find that old and alpha-enhanced galaxies tend to have on average heavier (Salpeter-like) mass normalization of the IMF, but stellar population does not appear to be a good predictor of the IMF, with a large range of α dyn at a given population parameter. As a result, we find weak α dyn -[α/Fe] and α dyn –Age correlations and no significant α dyn –[Z/H] correlation. The observed trends appear significantly weaker than those reported in studies that measure the IMF normalization via the low-mass star demographics inferred through stellar spectral analysis

  2. Connection between Dynamically Derived Initial Mass Function Normalization and Stellar Population Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Cappellari, Michele; Alatalo, Katherine; Bayet, Estelle; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2014-09-01

    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization αdyn ≡ (M/L)stars/(M/L)Salp and absorption line strengths, and interpret these via single stellar population-equivalent ages, abundance ratios (measured as [α/Fe]), and total metallicity, [Z/H]. We find that old and alpha-enhanced galaxies tend to have on average heavier (Salpeter-like) mass normalization of the IMF, but stellar population does not appear to be a good predictor of the IMF, with a large range of αdyn at a given population parameter. As a result, we find weak αdyn-[α/Fe] and αdyn -Age correlations and no significant αdyn -[Z/H] correlation. The observed trends appear significantly weaker than those reported in studies that measure the IMF normalization via the low-mass star demographics inferred through stellar spectral analysis.

  3. Instrumented Moles for Planetary Subsurface Regolith Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, L. O.; Coste, P. A.; Grzesik, A.; Knollenberg, J.; Magnani, P.; Nadalini, R.; Re, E.; Romstedt, J.; Sohl, F.; Spohn, T.

    2006-12-01

    Soil-like materials, or regolith, on solar system objects provide a record of physical and/or chemical weathering processes on the object in question and as such possess significant scientific relevance for study by landed planetary missions. In the case of Mars, a complex interplay has been at work between impact gardening, aeolian as well as possibly fluvial processes. This resulted in regolith that is texturally as well as compositionally layered as hinted at by results from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions which are capable of accessing shallow subsurface soils by wheel trenching. Significant subsurface soil access on Mars, i.e. to depths of a meter or more, remains to be accomplished on future missions. This has been one of the objectives of the unsuccessful Beagle 2 landed element of the ESA Mars Express mission having been equipped with the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO) subsurface soil sampling Mole system capable of self-penetration into regolith due to an internal electro-mechanical hammering mechanism. This lightweight device of less than 900 g mass was designed to repeatedly obtain and deliver to the lander regolith samples from depths down to 2 m which would have been analysed for organic matter and, specifically, organic carbon from potential extinct microbial activity. With funding from the ESA technology programme, an evolved Mole system - the Instrumented Mole System (IMS) - has now been developed to a readiness level of TRL 6. The IMS is to serve as a carrier for in situ instruments for measurements in planetary subsurface soils. This could complement or even eliminate the need to recover samples to the surface. The Engineering Model hardware having been developed within this effort is designed for accommodating a geophysical instrument package (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package, HP3) that would be capable of measuring regolith physical properties and planetary heat flow. The chosen design encompasses a two-body Mole

  4. Understanding Galactic planetary nebulae with precise/reliable nebular abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, D. A.; Ventura, P.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; Dell'Agli, F.; di Criscienzo, M.; Yagüe, A.

    2017-10-01

    We compare recent precise/reliable nebular abundances - as derived from high-quality optical spectra and the most recent ICFs - in a sample of Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) with nucleosynthesis predictions (HeCNOCl) from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) ATON models in the metallicity range Z ⊙/4 3.5 M⊙) solar/supersolar metallicity AGBs that experience hot bottom burning (HBB), but other formation channels in low-mass AGBs like extra mixing, stellar rotation, binary interaction, or He pre-enrichment cannot be disregarded until more accurate C/O ratios can be obtained. Two DC PNe show the imprint of advanced CNO processing and deep second dredge-up, suggesting progenitors masses close to the limit to evolve as core collapse supernovae (above 6 M⊙). Their actual C/O ratios, if confirmed, indicate contamination from the third dredge-up, rejecting the hypothesis that the chemical composition of such high-metallicity massive AGBs is modified exclusively by HBB.

  5. Optical observations of southern planetary nebula candidates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeSteene, GC; Sahu, KC; Pottasch, [No Value

    1996-01-01

    We present H alpha+[NII] images and low resolution spectra of 16 IRAS-selected, southern planetary nebula candidates previously detected in the radio continuum. The H alpha+[NII] images are presented as finding charts. Contour plots are shown for the resolved planetary nebulae. From these images

  6. THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND THE SURFACE DENSITY PROFILE OF NGC 6231

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Hwankyung [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Sejong University, 98, Kunja-dong, Kwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sana, Hugues [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekeok' , Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098-XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bessell, Michael S., E-mail: sungh@sejong.ac.kr, E-mail: H.Sana@uva.nl, E-mail: bessell@mso.anu.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, MSO, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2013-02-01

    We have performed new wide-field photometry of the young open cluster NGC 6231 to study the shape of the initial mass function (IMF) and mass segregation. We also investigated the reddening law toward NGC 6231 from optical to mid-infrared color excess ratios, and found that the total-to-selective extinction ratio is R{sub V} = 3.2, which is very close to the normal value. But many early-type stars in the cluster center show large color excess ratios. We derived the surface density profiles of four member groups, and found that they reach the surface density of field stars at about 10', regardless of stellar mass. The IMF of NGC 6231 is derived for the mass range 0.8-45 M{sub Sun }. The slope of the IMF of NGC 6231 ({Gamma} = -1.1 {+-} 0.1) is slightly shallower than the canonical value, but the difference is marginal. In addition, the mass function varies systematically, and is a strong function of radius-it is very shallow at the center, and very steep at the outer ring suggesting the cluster is mass segregated. We confirm the mass segregation for the massive stars (m {approx}> 8 M{sub Sun }) by a minimum spanning tree analysis. Using a Monte Carlo method, we estimate the total mass of NGC 6231 to be about 2.6 ({+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun }. We constrain the age of NGC 6231 by comparison with evolutionary isochrones. The age of the low-mass stars ranges from 1 to 7 Myr with a slight peak at 3 Myr. However, the age of the high-mass stars depends on the adopted models and is 3.5 {+-} 0.5 Myr from the non-rotating or moderately rotating models of Brott et al. as well as the non-rotating models of Ekstroem et al. But the age is 4.0-7.0 Myr if the rotating models of Ekstroem et al. are adopted. This latter age is in excellent agreement with the timescale of ejection of the high-mass runaway star HD 153919 from NGC 6231, albeit the younger age cannot be entirely excluded.

  7. Origin of a bottom-heavy stellar initial mass function in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekki, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the origin of a bottom-heavy stellar initial mass function (IMF) recently observed in elliptical galaxies by using chemical evolution models with a non-universal IMF. We adopt the variable Kroupa IMF with the three slopes (α 1 , α 2 , and α 3 ) dependent on metallicities ([Fe/H]) and densities (ρ g ) of star-forming gas clouds and thereby search for the best IMF model that can reproduce (1) the observed steep IMF slope (α 2 ∼ 3, i.e., bottom-heavy) for low stellar masses (m ≤ 1 M ☉ ) and (2) the correlation of α 2 with chemical properties of elliptical galaxies in a self-consistent manner. We find that if the IMF slope α 2 depends on both [Fe/H] and ρ g , then elliptical galaxies with higher [Mg/Fe] can have steeper α 2 (∼3) in our models. We also find that the observed positive correlation of stellar mass-to-light ratios (M/L) with [Mg/Fe] in elliptical galaxies can be quantitatively reproduced in our models with α 2 ∝β[Fe/H] + γlog ρ g , where β ∼ 0.5 and γ ∼ 2. We discuss whether the IMF slopes for low-mass (α 2 ) and high-mass stars (α 3 ) need to vary independently from each other to explain a number of IMF-related observational results self-consistently. We also briefly discuss why α 2 depends differently on [Fe/H] in dwarf and giant elliptical galaxies.

  8. On the Mass Distribution of Stellar-Mass Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkov O. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The observational stellar-mass black hole mass distribution exhibits a maximum at about 8 M⊙. It can be explained via the details of the massive star evolution, supernova explosions, or consequent black hole evolution. We propose another explanation, connected with an underestimated influence of the relation between the initial stellar mass and the compact remnant mass. We show that an unimodal observational mass distribution of black holes can be produced by a power-law initial mass function and a monotonic “remnant mass versus initial mass” relation.

  9. The activities and prospect of planetary protection research in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection is an important activities and responsibilities for space exploration. In Chinese manned missions, micro-organism research and protection has been developed in Shenzhou-9, Shenzhou-10 and Tiangong-2 missions. In the experiment facility of Lunar Palace-1, the micro-organism pollution and protection/control technology has been studied. In the lunar sample recovery mission and China Mars mission, the planetary protection has become an important issue. This paper introduced the research about planetary protection in China. The planetary protection activities, strategy and procedures have been suggested for future space exploration program to meet the requirement for planetary protection, such as cabin pollution isolation, pollutant detection, and so on.

  10. PLANETARY CARTOGRAPHY AND MAPPING: WHERE WE ARE TODAY, AND WHERE WE ARE HEADING FOR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Naß

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Planetary Cartography does not only provides the basis to support planning (e.g., landing-site selection, orbital observations, traverse planning and to facilitate mission conduct during the lifetime of a mission (e.g., observation tracking and hazard avoidance. It also provides the means to create science products after successful termination of a planetary mission by distilling data into maps. After a mission’s lifetime, data and higher level products like mosaics and digital terrain models (DTMs are stored in archives – and eventually into maps and higher-level data products – to form a basis for research and for new scientific and engineering studies. The complexity of such tasks increases with every new dataset that has been put on this stack of information, and in the same way as the complexity of autonomous probes increases, also tools that support these challenges require new levels of sophistication. In planetary science, cartography and mapping have a history dating back to the roots of telescopic space exploration and are now facing new technological and organizational challenges with the rise of new missions, new global initiatives, organizations and opening research markets. The focus of this contribution is to summarize recent activities in Planetary Cartography, highlighting current issues the community is facing to derive the future opportunities in this field. By this we would like to invite cartographers/researchers to join this community and to start thinking about how we can jointly solve some of these challenges.

  11. Planetary Cartography and Mapping: where we are Today, and where we are Heading For?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naß, A.; Di, K.; Elgner, S.; van Gasselt, S.; Hare, T.; Hargitai, H.; Karachevtseva, I.; Kersten, E.; Manaud, N.; Roatsch, T.; Rossi, A. P.; Skinner, J., Jr.; Wählisch, M.

    2017-07-01

    Planetary Cartography does not only provides the basis to support planning (e.g., landing-site selection, orbital observations, traverse planning) and to facilitate mission conduct during the lifetime of a mission (e.g., observation tracking and hazard avoidance). It also provides the means to create science products after successful termination of a planetary mission by distilling data into maps. After a mission's lifetime, data and higher level products like mosaics and digital terrain models (DTMs) are stored in archives - and eventually into maps and higher-level data products - to form a basis for research and for new scientific and engineering studies. The complexity of such tasks increases with every new dataset that has been put on this stack of information, and in the same way as the complexity of autonomous probes increases, also tools that support these challenges require new levels of sophistication. In planetary science, cartography and mapping have a history dating back to the roots of telescopic space exploration and are now facing new technological and organizational challenges with the rise of new missions, new global initiatives, organizations and opening research markets. The focus of this contribution is to summarize recent activities in Planetary Cartography, highlighting current issues the community is facing to derive the future opportunities in this field. By this we would like to invite cartographers/researchers to join this community and to start thinking about how we can jointly solve some of these challenges.

  12. Planetary geomorphology field studies: Washington and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Field studies of terrestrial landforms and the processes that shape them provide new directions to the study of planetary features. Investigations discussed address principally mudflow phenomena and drainage development. At the Valley of 10,000 Smokes (Katmai, AK) and Mount St. Helens, WA, studies of the development of erosional landforms (in particular, drainage) on fresh, new surfaces permitted analysis of the result of competition between geomorphic processes. Of specific interest is the development of stream pattern as a function of the competition between perennial seepage overland flow (from glacial or groundwater sources), ephemeral overland flow (from pluvial or seasonal melt sources), and ephemeral/perennial groundwater sapping, as a function of time since initial resurfacing, material properties, and seasonal/annual environmental conditions.

  13. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  14. Ogle-2012-blg-0724lb: A Saturn Mass Planet Around an M-dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Y.; Sumi, T.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Rattenbury, N.; Suzuki, D.; Koshimoto, N.; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a planet by the microlensing method, OGLE-2012-BLG-0724Lb. Although the duration of the planetary signal for this event was one of the shortest seen for a planetary event, the anomaly was well covered thanks to high-cadence observations taken by the survey groups OGLE and MOA. By analyzing the light curve, this planetary system is found to have a mass ratio q = (1.58 +/- 0.15) x 10(exp -3). By conducting a Bayesian analysis, we estimate that the host star is an M dwarf with a mass of M(sub L) = 0.29(+0.33/-0.16) solar mass located at D(sub L) = 6.7(+1.1/-1.2) kpc away from the Earth and the companion's mass is m(sub P) = 0.47(+0.54/-0.26) M(Jup). The projected planet- host separation is a falsum = 1.6(+0.4/-0.3) AU. Because the lens-source relative proper motion is relatively high, future highresolution images would detect the lens host star and determine the lens properties uniquely. This system is likely a Saturn-mass exoplanet around an M dwarf, and such systems are commonly detected by gravitational microlensing. This adds another example of a possible pileup of sub-Jupiters (0.2 less than m(sub P)/M(sub Jup) less than 1) in contrast to a lack of Jupiters (approximately 1-2 M(sub Jup)) around M dwarfs, supporting the prediction by core accretion models that Jupiter-mass or more massive planets are unlikely to form around M dwarfs.

  15. Stable Chlorine Isotopes and Elemental Chlorine by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Ion Chromatography; Martian Meteorites, Carbonaceous Chondrites and Standard Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, N.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Shih, C.-Y.; Fujitani, T.; Okano, O.

    2011-01-01

    Recently significantly large mass fractionation of stable chlorine isotopes has been reported for terrestrial and lunar samples [1,2]. In addition, in view of possible early solar system processes [3] and also potential perchlorate-related fluid/microbial activities on the Martian surface [4,5], a large chlorine isotopic fractionation might be expected for some types of planetary materials. Due to analytical difficulties of isotopic and elemental analyses, however, current chlorine analyses for planetary materials are controversial among different laboratories, particularly between IRMS (gas source mass spectrometry) and TIMS (Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry) groups [i.e. 1,6,7] for isotopic analyses, as well as between those doing pyrohydrolysis and other groups [i.e. 6,8]. Additional careful investigations of Cl isotope and elemental abundances are required to confirm real chlorine isotope and elemental variations for planetary materials. We have developed a TIMS technique combined with HF-leaching/ion chromatography at NASA JSC that is applicable to analysis of small amounts of meteoritic and planetary materials. We present here results for several standard rocks and meteorites, including Martian meteorites.

  16. Scope for a small circumsolar annular gravitational contribution to the Pioneer anomaly without affecting planetary orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Guy S. M.; Moore, Richard E. M.

    2013-10-01

    All proposed gravitational explanations of the Pioneer anomaly must crucially face the Equivalence Principle. Thus, if Pioneers 10 and 11 were influenced by anomalous gravitational effects in regions containing other Solar System bodies, then those bodies should likewise be influenced, irrespective of their shape, composition or mass. Although the lack of any observed influence upon planetary orbits severely constrains such explanations, here we aim to construct by computer modeling, hypothetical gravitating annuli having no gravitational impact on planetary orbits from Mercury to Neptune. One model has a central zone, free of radial gravitation in the annular plane, and an ‘onset’ beyond Saturn’s orbit, where sunward annular gravitation increases to match the Pioneer anomaly data. Sharp nulls are included so that Uranus and Neptune escape this influence. Such models can be proportionately reduced in mass: a 1 % contribution to the anomaly requires an annulus of approximately 1 Earth mass. It is thus possible to comply with the JPL assessment of newly recovered data attributing 80 %, or more, of the anomaly to spacecraft heat, which appears to allow small contributions from other causes. Following the possibility of an increasing Kuiper belt density at great ranges, another model makes an outward small anomalous gravitation in the TNO region, tallying with an observed slight indication of such an effect, suggesting that New Horizons may slightly accelerate in this region.

  17. A Speculation into the Origin of Neutral Globules In Planetary Nebulae: Could the Helix's Comets Really Be Comets?

    OpenAIRE

    Gussie, Grant

    1995-01-01

    A novel explanation for the origin of the cometary globules within NGC 7293 (the "Helix" planetary nebula) is examined; that these globules originate as massive cometary bodies at large astrocentric radii. The mass of such hypothetical cometary bodies would have to be several orders of magnitude larger than any such bodies observed in our solar system in order to supply the observed mass of neutral gas. It is however shown that comets at "outer Oort cloud" like distances are likely to survive...

  18. Formation of planetary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahic, A.

    1982-01-01

    It seemed appropriate to devote the 1980 School to the origin of the solar system and more particularly to the formation of planetary systems (dynamic accretion processes, small bodies, planetary rings, etc...) and to the physics and chemistry of planetary interiors, surface and atmospheres (physical and chemical constraints associated with their formation). This Summer School enabled both young researchers and hard-nosed scientists, gathered together in idyllic surroundings, to hold numerous discussions, to lay the foundations for future cooperation, to acquire an excellent basic understanding, and to make many useful contacts. This volume reflects the lectures and presentations that were delivered in this Summer School setting. It is aimed at both advanced students and research workers wishing to specialize in planetology. Every effort has been made to give an overview of the basic knowledge required in order to gain a better understanding of the origin of the solar system. Each article has been revised by one or two referees whom I would like to thank for their assistance. Between the end of the School in August 1980 and the publication of this volume in 1982, the Voyager probes have returned a wealth of useful information. Some preliminary results have been included for completeness

  19. Planetary Space Weather Services for the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Nicolas; Grande, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Under Horizon 2020, the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure (EPN2020-RI) will include an entirely new Virtual Access Service, WP5 VA1 "Planetary Space Weather Services" (PSWS) that will extend the concepts of space weather and space situational awareness to other planets in our Solar System and in particular to spacecraft that voyage through it. VA1 will make five entirely new 'toolkits' accessible to the research community and to industrial partners planning for space missions: a general planetary space weather toolkit, as well as three toolkits dedicated to the following key planetary environments: Mars (in support ExoMars), comets (building on the expected success of the ESA Rosetta mission), and outer planets (in preparation for the ESA JUICE mission to be launched in 2022). This will give the European planetary science community new methods, interfaces, functionalities and/or plugins dedicated to planetary space weather in the tools and models available within the partner institutes. It will also create a novel event-diary toolkit aiming at predicting and detecting planetary events like meteor showers and impacts. A variety of tools (in the form of web applications, standalone software, or numerical models in various degrees of implementation) are available for tracing propagation of planetary and/or solar events through the Solar System and modelling the response of the planetary environment (surfaces, atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres) to those events. But these tools were not originally designed for planetary event prediction and space weather applications. So WP10 JRA4 "Planetary Space Weather Services" (PSWS) will provide the additional research and tailoring required to apply them for these purposes. The overall objectives of this Joint Research Aactivities will be to review, test, improve and adapt methods and tools available within the partner institutes in order to make prototype planetary event and space weather services operational in

  20. DEFINITION OF THE GEAR’S GEOMETRY IN THE PLANETARY CYCLOIDAL TRANSMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir BEDNARCZYK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the design and operation of the planetary cycloidal transmission have been discussed. The transmission is a synthesis of the planetary and the straight-line mechanism. The planetary mechanism is made of a planetary gear set with rollers, which is critical for the proper work of the transmission. Its basic and most important element is the planetary cycloidal gear. Influence of the parameters determining the cycloidal profile of the gear on the gear’s geometry and the forces has been presented. The straight-line mechanism carrying the motion from the driving onto the driven unit of the transmission is made of the pins and bushes located in the holes of the planetary gears. The influence of the number and geometry of the elements on the forces and occuring in the holes of the planetary gears has been presented. Therefore, the properly defined geometry of the gear and of the material of which the gear is made is crucial for the safe operation of the planetary cycloidal transmission.

  1. THE MASS OF HD 38529c FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ASTROMETRY AND HIGH-PRECISION RADIAL VELOCITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Bean, Jacob L.; Barnes, Rory; Harrison, Thomas E.; Hatzes, Artie; Martioli, Eder; Nelan, Edmund P.

    2010-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor astrometric observations of the G4 IV star HD 38529 are combined with the results of the analysis of extensive ground-based radial velocity (RV) data to determine the mass of the outermost of two previously known companions. Our new RVs obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and velocities from the Carnegie-California group now span over 11 yr. With these data we obtain improved RV orbital elements for both the inner companion, HD 38529b, and the outer companion, HD 38529c. We identify a rotational period of HD 38529 (P rot = 31.65 ± 0fd17) with Fine Guidance Sensor photometry. The inferred star spot fraction is consistent with the remaining scatter in velocities being caused by spot-related stellar activity. We then model the combined astrometric and RV measurements to obtain the parallax, proper motion, perturbation period, perturbation inclination, and perturbation size due to HD 38529c. For HD 38529c we find P = 2136.1 ± 0.3 d, perturbation semimajor axis α = 1.05 ± 0.06 mas, and inclination i = 48. 0 3 ± 3. 0 7. Assuming a primary mass M * = 1.48 M sun , we obtain a companion mass M c = 17.6 +1.5 -1.2 M Jup , 3σ above a 13 M Jup deuterium burning, brown dwarf lower limit. Dynamical simulations incorporating this accurate mass for HD 38529c indicate that a near-Saturn mass planet could exist between the two known companions. We find weak evidence of an additional low amplitude signal that can be modeled as a planetary-mass (∼0.17 M Jup ) companion at P ∼194 days. Including this component in our modeling lowers the error of the mass determined for HD 38529c. Additional observations (RVs and/or Gaia astrometry) are required to validate an interpretation of HD 38529d as a planetary-mass companion. If confirmed, the resulting HD 38529 planetary system may be an example of a 'Packed Planetary System'.

  2. ROTATING STARS AND THE FORMATION OF BIPOLAR PLANETARY NEBULAE. II. TIDAL SPIN-UP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Segura, G. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860, Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico); Villaver, E. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Manchado, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Via Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Langer, N. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Yoon, S.-C., E-mail: ggs@astrosen.unam.mx [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-01

    We present new binary stellar evolution models that include the effects of tidal forces, rotation, and magnetic torques with the goal of testing planetary nebulae (PNs) shaping via binary interaction. We explore whether tidal interaction with a companion can spin-up the asymptotic giant brach (AGB) envelope. To do so, we have selected binary systems with main-sequence masses of 2.5 M {sub ⊙} and 0.8 M {sub ⊙} and evolve them allowing initial separations of 5, 6, 7, and 8 au. The binary stellar evolution models have been computed all the way to the PNs formation phase or until Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) is reached, whatever happens first. We show that with initial separations of 7 and 8 au, the binary avoids entering into RLOF, and the AGB star reaches moderate rotational velocities at the surface (∼3.5 and ∼2 km s{sup −1}, respectively) during the inter-pulse phases, but after the thermal pulses it drops to a final rotational velocity of only ∼0.03 km s{sup −1}. For the closest binary separations explored, 5 and 6 au, the AGB star reaches rotational velocities of ∼6 and ∼4 km s{sup −1}, respectively, when the RLOF is initiated. We conclude that the detached binary models that avoid entering the RLOF phase during the AGB will not shape bipolar PNs, since the acquired angular momentum is lost via the wind during the last two thermal pulses. This study rules out tidal spin-up in non-contact binaries as a sufficient condition to form bipolar PNs.

  3. DYNAMICS OF HUMIDITY DISTRIBUTION IN CROSS-SECTION OF FLAT MOULDING MASS SAMPLES IN INITIAL DRYING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Оsipov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to use an exponential dependence for description of humidity distribution in cross-section of flat clay mass samples of plastic formation in an initial drying stage. Dependences of exponential curve indices on time from drying start-up and size of an «active» zone of clay mass dehydration have been determined. Analytical-experimental methodology for calculation of maximum permissible humidity differential of moulding mass under crack formation conditions has been developed on the basis of thermo-elasticity model. Some regularities for an estimation of thinning agent usage while making-up mixture.

  4. Lay and Expert Perceptions of Planetary Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, Donald G.; Slovic, Paul

    2000-01-01

    As space scientists and engineers plan new missions to Mars and other planets in our solar system, they will face critical questions about the potential for biological contamination of planetary surfaces. In a society that places ever-increasing importance on the role of public involvement in science and technology policy, questions about risks of biological contamination will be examined and debated in the media, and will lead to the formation of public perceptions of planetary-contamination risks. These perceptions will, over time, form an important input to the development of space policy. Previous research in public and expert perceptions of technological risks and hazards has shown that many of the problems faced by risk-management organizations are the result of differing perceptions of risk (and risk management) between the general public and scientific and technical experts. These differences manifest themselves both as disagreements about the definition (and level) of risk associated with a scientific, technological or industrial enterprise, and as distrust about the ability of risk-management organizations (both public and private) to adequately protect people's health and safety. This report presents the results of a set of survey studies designed to reveal perceptions of planetary exploration and protection from a wide range of respondents, including both members of the general public and experts in the life sciences. The potential value of this research lies in what it reveals about perceptions of risk and benefit that could improve risk-management policies and practices. For example, efforts to communicate with the public about Mars sample return missions could benefit from an understanding of the specific concerns that nonscientists have about such a mission by suggesting areas of potential improvement in public education and information. Assessment of both public and expert perceptions of risk can also be used to provide an advanced signal of

  5. Standards-Based Open-Source Planetary Map Server: Lunaserv

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, N. M.; Silva, V. H.; Bowley, K. S.; Lanjewar, K. K.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-04-01

    Lunaserv is a planetary capable Web Map Service developed by the LROC SOC. It enables researchers to serve their own planetary data to a wide variety of GIS clients without any additional processing or download steps.

  6. Study on Cracking Mechanism of Hardened Planetary frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinghui

    2017-09-01

    Planetary carrier made by 45 steel appear quenching crack, which is analyzed in chemical composition, hardness test and metallographic microscopic structure. The reasons of quenching crack of planetary gear include the unreasonable structure of the planetary carrier, thinner annular wall on the base of the upper part, and in dangerous area of the 45 steel in the process of quenching. The faster cooling rate of quenching results in a centripetal stress with the thick-wall part, which is greater than the ultimate bearing capacity of the material.

  7. Initial evaluation and referral guidelines for management of pelvic/ovarian masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tien; Giede, Christopher; Salem, Shia; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Rosen, Barry; Bentley, James; Kupets, Rachel; Power, Patti; Renaud, Marie-Claude; Bryson, Peter; Davis, Donald B; Lau, Susie; Lotocki, Robert; Senikas, Vyta; Morin, Lucie; Bly, Stephen; Butt, Kimberly; Cargill, Yvonne M; Denis, Nanette; Gagnon, Robert; Hietala-Coyle, Marja Anne; Lim, Kenneth Ian; Ouellet, Annie; Raciot, Maria-Hélène

    2009-07-01

    To optimize the management of adnexal masses and to assist primary care physicians and gynaecologists determine which patients presenting with an ovarian mass with a significant risk of malignancy should be considered for gynaecologic oncology referral and management. Laparoscopic evaluation, comprehensive surgical staging for early ovarian cancer, or tumour debulking for advanced stage ovarian cancer. To optimize conservative versus operative management of women with possible ovarian malignancy and to optimize the involvement of gynaecologic oncologists in planning and delivery of treatment. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library, using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified by searching the web sites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. 1. Primary care physicians and gynaecologists should always consider the possibility of an underlying ovarian cancer in patients in any age group who present with an adnexal or ovarian mass. (II-2B) 2. Appropriate workup of a perimenopausal or postmenopausal woman presenting with an adnexal mass should include evaluation of symptoms and signs suggestive of malignancy, such as persistent pelvic/abdominal pain, urinary urgency/frequency, increased abdominal size/bloating, and difficulty eating. In addition, CA125 measurement should be considered. (II-2B) 3. Transvaginal or transabdominal ultrasound examination is recommended as part of the initial workup of a complex adnexal/ovarian mass. (II-2B) 4. Ultrasound reports should be standardized to include size and unilateral/bilateral location of the adnexal mass and

  8. Mass spectrometric researches in isotope cosmochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalan, K.

    1979-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of solar system processes, past and present, based on mass spectrometric researches on meteorites and moon samples are reviewed. The topics include the following : (1) Duration of nebular condensation, (2) Terminal stages of nucleosynthesis, (3) Planetary formation and evolution, (4) Heterogeneities in the solar nebula and (5) Solar wind composition. (auth.)

  9. Evidence for top-heavy stellar initial mass functions with increasing density and decreasing metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Michael; Kroupa, Pavel; Dabringhausen, Jörg; Pawlowski, Marcel S.

    2012-05-01

    Residual-gas expulsion after cluster formation has recently been shown to leave an imprint in the low-mass present-day stellar mass function (PDMF) which allowed the estimation of birth conditions of some Galactic globular clusters (GCs) such as mass, radius and star formation efficiency. We show that in order to explain their characteristics (masses, radii, metallicity and PDMF) their stellar initial mass function (IMF) must have been top heavy. It is found that the IMF is required to become more top heavy the lower the cluster metallicity and the larger the pre-GC cloud-core density are. The deduced trends are in qualitative agreement with theoretical expectation. The results are consistent with estimates of the shape of the high-mass end of the IMF in the Arches cluster, Westerlund 1, R136 and NGC 3603, as well as with the IMF independently constrained for ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs). The latter suggests that GCs and UCDs might have formed along the same channel or that UCDs formed via mergers of GCs. A Fundamental Plane is found which describes the variation of the IMF with density and metallicity of the pre-GC cloud cores. The implications for the evolution of galaxies and chemical enrichment over cosmological times are expected to be major.

  10. Terrestrial planet formation in a protoplanetary disk with a local mass depletion: A successful scenario for the formation of Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izidoro, A.; Winter, O. C. [UNESP, Univ. Estadual Paulista - Grupo de Dinâmica Orbital and Planetologia, Guaratinguetá, CEP 12.516-410, São Paulo (Brazil); Haghighipour, N. [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Tsuchida, M., E-mail: izidoro@feg.unesp.br, E-mail: nader@ifa.hawaii.edu [UNESP, Univ. Estadual Paulista, DCCE-IBILCE, São José do Rio Preto, CEP 15.054-000, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-02-10

    Models of terrestrial planet formation for our solar system have been successful in producing planets with masses and orbits similar to those of Venus and Earth. However, these models have generally failed to produce Mars-sized objects around 1.5 AU. The body that is usually formed around Mars' semimajor axis is, in general, much more massive than Mars. Only when Jupiter and Saturn are assumed to have initially very eccentric orbits (e ∼ 0.1), which seems fairly unlikely for the solar system, or alternately, if the protoplanetary disk is truncated at 1.0 AU, simulations have been able to produce Mars-like bodies in the correct location. In this paper, we examine an alternative scenario for the formation of Mars in which a local depletion in the density of the protosolar nebula results in a non-uniform formation of planetary embryos and ultimately the formation of Mars-sized planets around 1.5 AU. We have carried out extensive numerical simulations of the formation of terrestrial planets in such a disk for different scales of the local density depletion, and for different orbital configurations of the giant planets. Our simulations point to the possibility of the formation of Mars-sized bodies around 1.5 AU, specifically when the scale of the disk local mass-depletion is moderately high (50%-75%) and Jupiter and Saturn are initially in their current orbits. In these systems, Mars-analogs are formed from the protoplanetary materials that originate in the regions of disk interior or exterior to the local mass-depletion. Results also indicate that Earth-sized planets can form around 1 AU with a substantial amount of water accreted via primitive water-rich planetesimals and planetary embryos. We present the results of our study and discuss their implications for the formation of terrestrial planets in our solar system.

  11. Visualization of Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meishu; Su, Jun; Wang, Weiguo; Lu, Jianlong

    2017-01-01

    For this article, we use a 3D printer to print a surface similar to universal gravitation for demonstrating and investigating Kepler's laws of planetary motion describing the motion of a small ball on the surface. This novel experimental method allows Kepler's laws of planetary motion to be visualized and will contribute to improving the…

  12. The World is Spinning: Constraining the Origin of Supermassive Gas Giant Planets at Wide Separations Using Planetary Spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Marta; Knutson, Heather; Batygin, Konstantin; Benneke, Björn; Bowler, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Planetary spin can inform our understanding of planet accretion histories, which determine final masses and atmospheric compositions, as well as the formation of moons and rings. At present, the physics behind how gas giant planets spin up is still very poorly understood. We know that when giant planets form, they accrete material and angular momentum via a circumplanetary disk, causing the planet to spin up. In order to prevent planet spins from reaching break-up velocity, some mechanism must regulate these spins. However, there is currently no well-formulated picture for how planet spins evolve. This is in part due to the fact that there are very few measurements of giant planet spin rates currently available. Outside the solar system, to date there has only been one published spin measurement of a directly imaged planet, beta Pic b. We use Keck/NIRSPEC to measure spin rates for a sample of bound and free-floating directly imaged planetary mass objects, providing a first look at the distribution of spin rates for these objects.

  13. CONNECTION BETWEEN DYNAMICALLY DERIVED INITIAL MASS FUNCTION NORMALIZATION AND STELLAR POPULATION PARAMETERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermid, Richard M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia); Cappellari, Michele; Bayet, Estelle; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L. [Sub-Department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Alatalo, Katherine [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Blitz, Leo [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bois, Maxime [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA and CNRS, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Bournaud, Frédéric; Duc, Pierre-Alain [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp- CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Crocker, Alison F. [Ritter Astrophysical Observatory, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Kuntschner, Harald [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Khochfar, Sadegh [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Krajnović, Davor [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Naab, Thorsten, E-mail: richard.mcdermid@mq.edu.au [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); and others

    2014-09-10

    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS{sup 3D} project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization α{sub dyn} ≡ (M/L){sub stars}/(M/L){sub Salp} and absorption line strengths, and interpret these via single stellar population-equivalent ages, abundance ratios (measured as [α/Fe]), and total metallicity, [Z/H]. We find that old and alpha-enhanced galaxies tend to have on average heavier (Salpeter-like) mass normalization of the IMF, but stellar population does not appear to be a good predictor of the IMF, with a large range of α{sub dyn} at a given population parameter. As a result, we find weak α{sub dyn}-[α/Fe] and α{sub dyn} –Age correlations and no significant α{sub dyn} –[Z/H] correlation. The observed trends appear significantly weaker than those reported in studies that measure the IMF normalization via the low-mass star demographics inferred through stellar spectral analysis.

  14. Abundance determinations in HII regions and planetary nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Stasinska, Grazyna

    2002-01-01

    The methods of abundance determinations in HII regions and planetary nebulae are described, with emphasis on the underlying assumptions and inherent problems. Recent results on abundances in Galactic HII regions and in Galactic and extragalactic Planetary Nebulae are reviewed.

  15. Planetary Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  16. A bibliography of planetary geology principal investigators and their associates, 1981 - 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, J. B. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Over 800 publications submitted by researchers supported through NASA's Planetary Geology Program are cited and an author/editor index is provided. Entries are listed under the following subjects: (1) general interest topics; (2) solar system, comets, asteroids, and small bodies; (3) geologic mapping, geomorphology, and stratigraphy; (4) structure, tectonics, geologic and geophysical evolution; (5) impact craters: morphology, density, and geologic studies; (6) volcanism; (7) fluvial, mass wasting, and periglacial processes; (8) Eolian studies; (9) regolith, volatile, atmosphere, and climate; (10) remote sensing, radar, and photometry; and (11) cartography, photogrammetry, geodesy, and altimetry.

  17. The New Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and Discovery of Scientific Datasets from ESA's Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, David; Besse, Sebastien; Vallat, Claire; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; De Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Coia, Daniela; Costa, Marc; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; MacFarlane, Alan; Martinez, Santa; Rios, Carlos; Vallejo, Fran; Saiz, Jaime

    2017-04-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://psa.esa.int. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standard, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation. As of the end of 2016, the PSA is hosting data from all of ESA's planetary missions. This includes ESA's first planetary mission Giotto that encountered comet 1P/Halley in 1986 with a flyby at 800km. Science data from Venus Express, Mars Express, Huygens and the SMART-1 mission are also all available at the PSA. The PSA also contains all science data from Rosetta, which explored comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and asteroids Steins and Lutetia. The year 2016 has seen the arrival of the ExoMars 2016 data in the archive. In the upcoming years, at least three new projects are foreseen to be fully archived at the PSA. The BepiColombo mission is scheduled for launch in 2018. Following that, the ExoMars Rover Surface Platform (RSP) in 2020, and then the JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE). All of these will archive their data in the PSA. In addition, a few ground-based support programmes are also available, especially for the Venus Express and Rosetta missions. The newly designed PSA will enhance the user experience and will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data promoting one-click access to the scientific datasets with more customized views when needed. This includes a better integration with Planetary GIS analysis tools and Planetary interoperability services (search and retrieve data, supporting e.g. PDAP, EPN-TAP). It will also be up

  18. NASA Johnson Space Center's Planetary Sample Analysis and Mission Science (PSAMS) Laboratory: A National Facility for Planetary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division, part of the Exploration Integration and Science Directorate, houses a unique combination of laboratories and other assets for conducting cutting edge planetary research. These facilities have been accessed for decades by outside scientists, most at no cost and on an informal basis. ARES has thus provided substantial leverage to many past and ongoing science projects at the national and international level. Here we propose to formalize that support via an ARES/JSC Plane-tary Sample Analysis and Mission Science Laboratory (PSAMS Lab). We maintain three major research capa-bilities: astromaterial sample analysis, planetary process simulation, and robotic-mission analog research. ARES scientists also support planning for eventual human ex-ploration missions, including astronaut geological training. We outline our facility's capabilities and its potential service to the community at large which, taken together with longstanding ARES experience and expertise in curation and in applied mission science, enable multi-disciplinary planetary research possible at no other institution. Comprehensive campaigns incorporating sample data, experimental constraints, and mission science data can be conducted under one roof.

  19. Interoperability in the Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Diaz, C.

    2017-09-01

    The protocols and standards currently being supported by the recently released new version of the Planetary Science Archive at this time are the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP), the EuroPlanet- Table Access Protocol (EPN-TAP) and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. We explore these protocols in more detail providing scientifically useful examples of their usage within the PSA.

  20. Ups and downs in planetary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Carolyn S.

    1999-01-01

    The field of planetary science as it developed during the lifetimes of Gene and Carolyn Shoemaker has sustained a period of exciting growth. Surveying the skies for planet-crossing asteroids and comets and studying the results of their impact upon the planets, especially the Earth, was for Gene and Carolyn an intense and satisfying quest for knowledge. It all started when Gene envisioned man going to the Moon, especially himself. After that, one thing led to another: the study of nuclear craters and a comparison with Meteor Crater, Arizona; the Apollo project and a succession of unmanned space missions to the inner and outer planets; an awareness of cratering throughout our solar system; the search for near-Earth asteroids and comets; a study of ancient craters in Australia; and the impact of Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter. The new paradigm of impact cratering as a cause for mass extinction and the opening of space for the development of new life forms have been causes to champion.

  1. Understanding the mass-radius relation for sub-Neptunes: radius as a proxy for composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Eric D.; Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Transiting planet surveys like Kepler have provided a wealth of information on the distribution of planetary radii, particularly for the new populations of super-Earth- and sub-Neptune-sized planets. In order to aid in the physical interpretation of these radii, we compute model radii for low-mass rocky planets with hydrogen-helium envelopes. We provide model radii for planets 1-20 M {sub ⊕}, with envelope fractions 0.01%-20%, levels of irradiation 0.1-1000 times Earth's, and ages from 100 Myr to 10 Gyr. In addition we provide simple analytic fits that summarize how radius depends on each of these parameters. Most importantly, we show that at fixed H/He envelope fraction, radii show little dependence on mass for planets with more than ∼1% of their mass in their envelope. Consequently, planetary radius is to a first order a proxy for planetary composition, i.e., H/He envelope fraction, for Neptune- and sub-Neptune-sized planets. We recast the observed mass-radius relationship as a mass-composition relationship and discuss it in light of traditional core accretion theory. We discuss the transition from rocky super-Earths to sub-Neptune planets with large volatile envelopes. We suggest ∼1.75 R {sub ⊕} as a physically motivated dividing line between these two populations of planets. Finally, we discuss these results in light of the observed radius occurrence distribution found by Kepler.

  2. The Kepler Dichotomy in Planetary Disks: Linking Kepler Observables to Simulations of Late-stage Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, John; Ballard, Sarah

    2016-11-01

    NASA’s Kepler Mission uncovered a wealth of planetary systems, many with planets on short-period orbits. These short-period systems reside around 50% of Sun-like stars and are similarly prevalent around M dwarfs. Their formation and subsequent evolution is the subject of active debate. In this paper, we simulate late-stage, in situ planet formation across a grid of planetesimal disks with varying surface density profiles and total mass. We compare simulation results with observable characteristics of the Kepler sample. We identify mixture models with different primordial planetesimal disk properties that self-consistently recover the multiplicity, radius, period and period ratio, and duration ratio distributions of the Kepler planets. We draw three main conclusions. (1) We favor a “frozen-in” narrative for systems of short-period planets, in which they are stable over long timescales, as opposed to metastable. (2) The “Kepler dichotomy,” an observed phenomenon of the Kepler sample wherein the architectures of planetary systems appear to either vary significantly or have multiple modes, can naturally be explained by formation within planetesimal disks with varying surface density profiles. Finally, (3) we quantify the nature of the “Kepler dichotomy” for both GK stars and M dwarfs, and find that it varies with stellar type. While the mode of planet formation that accounts for high multiplicity systems occurs in 24% ± 7% of planetary systems orbiting GK stars, it occurs in 63% ± 16% of planetary systems orbiting M dwarfs.

  3. Planetary transit candidates in Corot-IRa01 field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpano, S.; Cabrera, J.; Alonso, R.; Barge, P.; Aigrain, S.; Almenara, J.-M.; Bordé, P.; Bouchy, F.; Carone, L.; Deeg, H. J.; de La Reza, R.; Deleuil, M.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Fressin, F.; Fridlund, M.; Gondoin, P.; Guillot, T.; Hatzes, A.; Jorda, L.; Lammer, H.; Léger, A.; Llebaria, A.; Magain, P.; Moutou, C.; Ofir, A.; Ollivier, M.; Janot-Pacheco, E.; Pätzold, M.; Pont, F.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Régulo, C.; Renner, S.; Rouan, D.; Samuel, B.; Schneider, J.; Wuchterl, G.

    2009-10-01

    Context: CoRoT is a pioneering space mission devoted to the analysis of stellar variability and the photometric detection of extrasolar planets. Aims: We present the list of planetary transit candidates detected in the first field observed by CoRoT, IRa01, the initial run toward the Galactic anticenter, which lasted for 60 days. Methods: We analysed 3898 sources in the coloured bands and 5974 in the monochromatic band. Instrumental noise and stellar variability were taken into account using detrending tools before applying various transit search algorithms. Results: Fifty sources were classified as planetary transit candidates and the most reliable 40 detections were declared targets for follow-up ground-based observations. Two of these targets have so far been confirmed as planets, CoRoT-1b and CoRoT-4b, for which a complete characterization and specific studies were performed. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27th 2006, has been developed and is operated by CNES, with contributions from Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA, Germany, and Spain. Four French laboratories associated with the CNRS (LESIA, LAM, IAS ,OMP) collaborate with CNES on the satellite development. First CoRoT data are available to the public from the CoRoT archive: http://idoc-corot.ias.u-psud.fr.

  4. Antibodies, synthetic peptides and related constructs for planetary health based on green chemistry in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C Caoili, Salvador Eugenio

    2018-03-01

    The contemporary Anthropocene is characterized by rapidly evolving complex global challenges to planetary health vis-a-vis sustainable development, yet innovation is constrained under the prevailing precautionary regime that regulates technological change. Small-molecule xenobiotic drugs are amenable to efficient large-scale industrial synthesis; but their pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, interactions and ultimate ecological impact are difficult to predict, raising concerns over initial testing and environmental contamination. Antibodies and similar agents can serve as antidotes and drug buffers or vehicles to address patient safety and decrease dosing requirements. More generally, peptidic agents including synthetic peptide-based constructs exemplified by vaccines can be used together with or instead of nonpeptidic xenobiotics, thus enabling advances in planetary health based on principles of green chemistry from manufacturing through final disposition.

  5. Multiple populations within globular clusters in Early-type galaxies Exploring their effect on stellar initial mass function estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantereau, W.; Usher, C.; Bastian, N.

    2018-05-01

    It is now well-established that most (if not all) ancient globular clusters host multiple populations, that are characterised by distinct chemical features such as helium abundance variations along with N-C and Na-O anti-correlations, at fixed [Fe/H]. These very distinct chemical features are similar to what is found in the centres of the massive early-type galaxies and may influence measurements of the global properties of the galaxies. Additionally, recent results have suggested that M/L variations found in the centres of massive early-type galaxies might be due to a bottom-heavy stellar initial mass function. We present an analysis of the effects of globular cluster-like multiple populations on the integrated properties of early-type galaxies. In particular, we focus on spectral features in the integrated optical spectrum and the global mass-to-light ratio that have been used to infer variations in the stellar initial mass function. To achieve this we develop appropriate stellar population synthesis models and take into account, for the first time, an initial-final mass relation which takes into consideration a varying He abundance. We conclude that while the multiple populations may be present in massive early-type galaxies, they are likely not responsible for the observed variations in the mass-to-light ratio and IMF sensitive line strengths. Finally, we estimate the fraction of stars with multiple populations chemistry that come from disrupted globular clusters within massive ellipticals and find that they may explain some of the observed chemical patterns in the centres of these galaxies.

  6. Regolith Derived Heat Shield for Planetary Body Entry and Descent System with In Situ Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Meuller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    . Platinum, titanium, helium 3, and other metals, elements and minerals are all high-value commodities in limited supply on Earth, and it may be profitable to mine these substances throughout the Solar System and return them to Earth, if an economical method can be found. To date, several private corporations have been launched to pursue these goals. Because the heat shield is the last element to be used in an Earth-return mission, a high penalty is paid in the propellant mass required to carry the heat shield to the destination and back. If the heat shield could be manufactured in space, and then outfitted on the spacecraft prior to the reentry at Earth, then significant propellant and mass savings could be achieved during launch and space operations. Preliminary mission architecture scenarios are described, which explain the potential benefits that may be derived from using an in-situ fabricated regolith heat shield. In order to prove that this is a feasible technology concept, this project successfully fabricated heat shield materials from mineral simulant materials of lunar and Martian regolith by two methods: 1) Sintering and 2) Binding the simulant with a "room-temperature vulcanizing" (RTV) silicone formulated to withstand high temperatures. Initially a third type of fabrication was planned using the hot waste stream from regolith ISRU processes. This fabrication method was discarded since the resulting samples would be too dense and brittle for heat shields. High temperature flame tests at KSC and subsequent arc jet tests at Ames Research Center (ARC) have proved promising. These coupon tests show favorable materials properties and have the potential to be a new way of fabricating heat shields for space entry into planetary atmospheres.

  7. A new planetary nebula in the outer reaches of the Galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viironen, K.; Mampaso, A.; L. M. Corradi, R.

    2011-01-01

    of a new planetary nebula towards the Anticentre direction, IPHASX J052531.19+281945.1 (PNG 178.1-04.0), is presented. The planetary nebula was discovered from the IPHAS survey. Long-slit follow-up spectroscopy was carried out to confirm its planetary nebula nature and to calculate its physical...... and chemical characteristics. The newly discovered planetary nebula turned out to be located at a very large galactocentric distance (D_GC=20.8+-3.8 kpc), larger than any previously known planetary nebula with measured abundances. Its relatively high oxygen abundance (12+log(O/H) = 8.36+-0.03) supports...

  8. Dynamical models to explain observations with SPHERE in planetary systems with double debris belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzoni, C.; Desidera, S.; Marzari, F.; Boccaletti, A.; Langlois, M.; Mesa, D.; Gratton, R.; Kral, Q.; Pawellek, N.; Olofsson, J.; Bonnefoy, M.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A. M.; Vigan, A.; Sissa, E.; Antichi, J.; Avenhaus, H.; Baruffolo, A.; Baudino, J. L.; Bazzon, A.; Beuzit, J. L.; Biller, B.; Bonavita, M.; Brandner, W.; Bruno, P.; Buenzli, E.; Cantalloube, F.; Cascone, E.; Cheetham, A.; Claudi, R. U.; Cudel, M.; Daemgen, S.; De Caprio, V.; Delorme, P.; Fantinel, D.; Farisato, G.; Feldt, M.; Galicher, R.; Ginski, C.; Girard, J.; Giro, E.; Janson, M.; Hagelberg, J.; Henning, T.; Incorvaia, S.; Kasper, M.; Kopytova, T.; LeCoroller, H.; Lessio, L.; Ligi, R.; Maire, A. L.; Ménard, F.; Meyer, M.; Milli, J.; Mouillet, D.; Peretti, S.; Perrot, C.; Rouan, D.; Samland, M.; Salasnich, B.; Salter, G.; Schmidt, T.; Scuderi, S.; Sezestre, E.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Wildi, F.; Zurlo, A.

    2018-03-01

    circular or eccentric orbit. We then consider multi-planetary systems: two and three equal-mass planets on circular orbits and two equal-mass planets on eccentric orbits in a packed configuration. As a final step, we compare each couple of values (Mp, ap), derived from the dynamical analysis of single and multiple planetary models, with the detection limits obtained with SPHERE. Results: For one single planet on a circular orbit we obtain conclusive results that allow us to exclude such a hypothesis since in most cases this configuration requires massive planets which should have been detected by our observations. Unsatisfactory is also the case of one single planet on an eccentric orbit for which we obtained high masses and/or eccentricities which are still at odds with observations. Introducing multi planetary architectures is encouraging because for the case of three packed equal-mass planets on circular orbits we obtain quite low masses for the perturbing planets which would remain undetected by our SPHERE observations. The case of two equal-mass planets on eccentric orbits is also of interest since it suggests the possible presence of planets with masses lower than the detection limits and with moderate eccentricity. Our results show that the apparent lack of planets in gaps between double belts could be explained by the presence of a system of two or more planets possibly of low mass and on eccentric orbits whose sizes are below the present detection limits. Based on observations collected at Paranal Observatory, ESO (Chile) Program ID: 095.C-0298, 096.C-0241, 097.C-0865, and 198.C-0209.

  9. Post-main-sequence planetary system evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    The fates of planetary systems provide unassailable insights into their formation and represent rich cross-disciplinary dynamical laboratories. Mounting observations of post-main-sequence planetary systems necessitate a complementary level of theoretical scrutiny. Here, I review the diverse dynamical processes which affect planets, asteroids, comets and pebbles as their parent stars evolve into giant branch, white dwarf and neutron stars. This reference provides a foundation for the interpretation and modelling of currently known systems and upcoming discoveries. PMID:26998326

  10. Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Planetary nomenclature, like terrestrial nomenclature, is used to uniquely identify a feature on the surface of a planet or satellite so that the feature can be...

  11. Vibration Based Diagnosis for Planetary Gearboxes Using an Analytical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of conventional vibration based diagnostic techniques to planetary gearboxes is a challenge because of the complexity of frequency components in the measured spectrum, which is the result of relative motions between the rotary planets and the fixed accelerometer. In practice, since the fault signatures are usually contaminated by noises and vibrations from other mechanical components of gearboxes, the diagnostic efficacy may further deteriorate. Thus, it is essential to develop a novel vibration based scheme to diagnose gear failures for planetary gearboxes. Following a brief literature review, the paper begins with the introduction of an analytical model of planetary gear-sets developed by the authors in previous works, which can predict the distinct behaviors of fault introduced sidebands. This analytical model is easy to implement because the only prerequisite information is the basic geometry of the planetary gear-set. Afterwards, an automated diagnostic scheme is proposed to cope with the challenges associated with the characteristic configuration of planetary gearboxes. The proposed vibration based scheme integrates the analytical model, a denoising algorithm, and frequency domain indicators into one synergistic system for the detection and identification of damaged gear teeth in planetary gearboxes. Its performance is validated with the dynamic simulations and the experimental data from a planetary gearbox test rig.

  12. Simulations of GCR interactions within planetary bodies using GEANT4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesick, K.; Feldman, W. C.; Stonehill, L. C.; Coupland, D. D. S.

    2017-12-01

    On planetary bodies with little to no atmosphere, Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) can hit the body and produce neutrons primarily through nuclear spallation within the top few meters of the surfaces. These neutrons undergo further nuclear interactions with elements near the planetary surface and some will escape the surface and can be detected by landed or orbiting neutron radiation detector instruments. The neutron leakage signal at fast neutron energies provides a measure of average atomic mass of the near-surface material and in the epithermal and thermal energy ranges is highly sensitive to the presence of hydrogen. Gamma-rays can also escape the surface, produced at characteristic energies depending on surface composition, and can be detected by gamma-ray instruments. The intra-nuclear cascade (INC) that occurs when high-energy GCRs interact with elements within a planetary surface to produce the leakage neutron and gamma-ray signals is highly complex, and therefore Monte Carlo based radiation transport simulations are commonly used for predicting and interpreting measurements from planetary neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy instruments. In the past, the simulation code that has been widely used for this type of analysis is MCNPX [1], which was benchmarked against data from the Lunar Neutron Probe Experiment (LPNE) on Apollo 17 [2]. In this work, we consider the validity of the radiation transport code GEANT4 [3], another widely used but open-source code, by benchmarking simulated predictions of the LPNE experiment to the Apollo 17 data. We consider the impact of different physics model options on the results, and show which models best describe the INC based on agreement with the Apollo 17 data. The success of this validation then gives us confidence in using GEANT4 to simulate GCR-induced neutron leakage signals on Mars in relevance to a re-analysis of Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer data. References [1] D.B. Pelowitz, Los Alamos National Laboratory, LA-CP-05

  13. Ideas for Testing of Planetary Gear Sets of Automotive Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achtenová Gabriela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the concept of modular stand, where is possible to provide tests of gear pairs with fixed axes from mechanical automotive gearboxes, as well as tests of separate planetary sets from automatic gearboxes. Special attention in the article will be paid to the variant dedicated for testing of planetary gear sets. This variant is particularly interesting because: 1 it is rarely described in the literature, and 2 this topology allows big simplification with respect to testing of standard gearwheels. In the planetary closed-loop stand it is possible to directly link two identical planetary sets. Without any bracing flange or other connecting clutches, shafts or gear sets, just two planetary sets face-to-face will be assembled and connected to the electric motor.

  14. Biological quarantine on international waters: an initiative for onboard protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yoshinori; Yano, Hajime; Funase, Ryu; Sekine, Yasuhito; Takai, Ken

    2012-07-01

    The research vessel Chikyu is expanding new frontiers in science, technology, and international collaboration through deep-sea expedition. The Chikyu (length: 210 m, gross tonnage: 56752 tons) has advanced and comprehensive scientific research facilities. One of the scientific purposes of the vessel is to investigate into unexplored biosphere (i.e., undescribed extremophiles) on the Earth. Therefore, "the onboard laboratory" provides us systematic microbiological protocols with a physical containment situation. In parallel, the onboard equipments provide sufficient space for fifty scientists and technical support staff. The helicopter deck also supports various logistics through transporting by a large scale helicopter (See, http://www.jamstec.go.jp/chikyu/eng/). Since the establishment of Panel on Planetary Protection (PPP) in Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), we have an international consensus about the development and promulgation of planetary protection knowledge, policy, and plans to prevent the harmful effects of biological contamination on the Earth (e.g., Rummel, 2002). However, the matter to select a candidate location of initial quarantine at BSL4 level is often problematic. To answer the key issue, we suggest that international waters can be a meaningful option with several advantages to conduct initial onboard-biological quarantine investigation. Hence, the research vessel Chikyu is promising for further PPP requirements (e.g., Enceladus sample return project: Tsou et al., 2012). Rummel, J., Seeking an international consensus in planetary protection: COSPAR's planetary protection panel. Advances in Space Research, 30, 1573-1575 (2002). Tsou, P. et al. LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus - A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life. Astrobiology, in press.

  15. On the production of He, C, and N by low- and intermediate-mass stars: a comparison of observed and model-predicted planetary nebula abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R. B. C.; Stephenson, B. G.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Kwitter, K. B.; Balick, B.

    2018-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to make a direct comparison between the measured and model-predicted abundances of He, C, and N in a sample of 35 well-observed Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe). All observations, data reductions, and abundance determinations were performed in house to ensure maximum homogeneity. Progenitor star masses (M ≤ 4 M⊙) were inferred using two published sets of post-asymptotic giant branch model tracks and L and Teff values. We conclude the following: (1) the mean values of N/O across the progenitor mass range exceeds the solar value, indicating significant N enrichment in the majority of our objects; (2) the onset of hot bottom burning appears to begin around 2 M⊙, i.e. lower than ∼5 M⊙ implied by theory; (3) most of our objects show a clear He enrichment, as expected from dredge-up episodes; (4) the average sample C/O value is 1.23, consistent with the effects of third dredge up; and (5) model grids used to compare to observations successfully span the distribution over metallicity space of all C/O and many He/H data points but mostly fail to do so in the case of N/O. The evident enrichment of N in PN and the general discrepancy between the observed and model-predicted N/O abundance ratios signal the need for extra mixing as an effect of rotation and/or thermohaline mixing in the models. The unexpectedly high N enrichment that is implied here for low-mass stars, if confirmed, will likely impact our conclusions about the source of N in the Universe.

  16. Elpasolite Planetary Ice and Composition Spectrometer (EPICS): A Low-Resource Combined Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehill, L. C.; Coupland, D. D. S.; Dallmann, N. A.; Feldman, W. C.; Mesick, K.; Nowicki, S.; Storms, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Elpasolite Planetary Ice and Composition Spectrometer (EPICS) is an innovative, low-resource gamma-ray and neutron spectrometer for planetary science missions, enabled by new scintillator and photodetector technologies. Neutrons and gamma rays are produced by cosmic ray interactions with planetary bodies and their subsequent interactions with the near-surface materials produce distinctive energy spectra. Measuring these spectra reveals details of the planetary near-surface composition that are not accessible through any other phenomenology. EPICS will be the first planetary science instrument to fully integrate the neutron and gamma-ray spectrometers. This integration is enabled by the elpasolite family of scintillators that offer gamma-ray spectroscopy energy resolutions as good as 3% FWHM at 662 keV, thermal neutron sensitivity, and the ability to distinguish gamma-ray and neutron signals via pulse shape differences. This new detection technology will significantly reduce size, weight, and power (SWaP) while providing similar neutron performance and improved gamma energy resolution compared to previous scintillator instruments, and the ability to monitor the cosmic-ray source term. EPICS will detect scintillation light with silicon photomultipliers rather than traditional photomultiplier tubes, offering dramatic additional SWaP reduction. EPICS is under development with Los Alamos National Laboratory internal research and development funding. Here we report on the EPICS design, provide an update on the current status of the EPICS development, and discuss the expected sensitivity and performance of EPICS in several potential missions to airless bodies.

  17. Reconfigurable Autonomy for Future Planetary Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughes, Guy

    Extra-terrestrial Planetary rover systems are uniquely remote, placing constraints in regard to communication, environmental uncertainty, and limited physical resources, and requiring a high level of fault tolerance and resistance to hardware degradation. This thesis presents a novel self-reconfiguring autonomous software architecture designed to meet the needs of extraterrestrial planetary environments. At runtime it can safely reconfigure low-level control systems, high-level decisional autonomy systems, and managed software architecture. The architecture can perform automatic Verification and Validation of self-reconfiguration at run-time, and enables a system to be self-optimising, self-protecting, and self-healing. A novel self-monitoring system, which is non-invasive, efficient, tunable, and autonomously deploying, is also presented. The architecture was validated through the use-case of a highly autonomous extra-terrestrial planetary exploration rover. Three major forms of reconfiguration were demonstrated and tested: first, high level adjustment of system internal architecture and goal; second, software module modification; and third, low level alteration of hardware control in response to degradation of hardware and environmental change. The architecture was demonstrated to be robust and effective in a Mars sample return mission use-case testing the operational aspects of a novel, reconfigurable guidance, navigation, and control system for a planetary rover, all operating in concert through a scenario that required reconfiguration of all elements of the system.

  18. Accurate Mass Measurements for Planetary Microlensing Events Using High Angular Resolution Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Beaulieu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The microlensing technique is a unique method to hunt for cold planets over a range of mass and separation, orbiting all varieties of host stars in the disk of our galaxy. It provides precise mass-ratio and projected separations in units of the Einstein ring radius. In order to obtain the physical parameters (mass, distance, orbital separation of the system, it is necessary to combine the result of light curve modeling with lens mass-distance relations and/or perform a Bayesian analysis with a galactic model. A first mass-distance relation could be obtained from a constraint on the Einstein ring radius if the crossing time of the source over the caustic is measured. It could then be supplemented by secondary constraints such as parallax measurements, ideally by using coinciding ground and space-born observations. These are still subject to degeneracies, like the orbital motion of the lens. A third mass-distance relation can be obtained thanks to constraints on the lens luminosity using high angular resolution observations with 8 m class telescopes or the Hubble Space Telescope. The latter route, although quite inexpensive in telescope time is very effective. If we have to rely heavily on Bayesian analysis and limited constraints on mass-distance relations, the physical parameters are determined to 30–40% typically. In a handful of cases, ground-space parallax is a powerful route to get stronger constraint on masses. High angular resolution observations will be able to constrain the luminosity of the lenses in the majority of the cases, and in favorable circumstances it is possible to derive physical parameters to 10% or better. Moreover, these constraints will be obtained in most of the planets to be discovered by the Euclid and WFIRST satellites. We describe here the state-of-the-art approaches to measure lens masses and distances with an emphasis on high angular resolution observations. We will discuss the challenges, recent results and

  19. Pebble-isolation mass: Scaling law and implications for the formation of super-Earths and gas giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsch, Bertram; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Johansen, Anders; Lega, Elena; Lambrechts, Michiel; Crida, Aurélien

    2018-04-01

    The growth of a planetary core by pebble accretion stops at the so-called pebble isolation mass, when the core generates a pressure bump that traps drifting pebbles outside its orbit. The value of the pebble isolation mass is crucial in determining the final planet mass. If the isolation mass is very low, gas accretion is protracted and the planet remains at a few Earth masses with a mainly solid composition. For higher values of the pebble isolation mass, the planet might be able to accrete gas from the protoplanetary disc and grow into a gas giant. Previous works have determined a scaling of the pebble isolation mass with cube of the disc aspect ratio. Here, we expand on previous measurements and explore the dependency of the pebble isolation mass on all relevant parameters of the protoplanetary disc. We use 3D hydrodynamical simulations to measure the pebble isolation mass and derive a simple scaling law that captures the dependence on the local disc structure and the turbulent viscosity parameter α. We find that small pebbles, coupled to the gas, with Stokes number τf gap at pebble isolation mass. However, as the planetary mass increases, particles must be decreasingly smaller to penetrate the pressure bump. Turbulent diffusion of particles, however, can lead to an increase of the pebble isolation mass by a factor of two, depending on the strength of the background viscosity and on the pebble size. We finally explore the implications of the new scaling law of the pebble isolation mass on the formation of planetary systems by numerically integrating the growth and migration pathways of planets in evolving protoplanetary discs. Compared to models neglecting the dependence of the pebble isolation mass on the α-viscosity, our models including this effect result in higher core masses for giant planets. These higher core masses are more similar to the core masses of the giant planets in the solar system.

  20. Design Tools for Cost-Effective Implementation of Planetary Protection Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Louise; Belz, Andrea; Evans, Michael; Kastner, Jason; Satter, Celeste; Spry, Andy

    2006-01-01

    Since the Viking missions to Mars in the 1970s, accounting for the costs associated with planetary protection implementation has not been done systematically during early project formulation phases, leading to unanticipated costs during subsequent implementation phases of flight projects. The simultaneous development of more stringent planetary protection requirements, resulting from new knowledge about the limits of life on Earth, together with current plans to conduct life-detection experiments on a number of different solar system target bodies motivates a systematic approach to integrating planetary protection requirements and mission design. A current development effort at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is aimed at integrating planetary protection requirements more fully into the early phases of mission architecture formulation and at developing tools to more rigorously predict associated cost and schedule impacts of architecture options chosen to meet planetary protection requirements.

  1. An Overview of the Planetary Data System Roadmap Study for 2017 - 2026

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Thomas H.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Gaddis, Lisa; Law, Emily; Beyer, Ross A.; Crombie, Kate; Ebel, Denton; Ghosh, Amitahba; Grayzeck, Edwin J.; Paganelli, Flora; Raugh, Anne C.; Stein, Thomas; Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Weber, Renee; E Banks, Maria; Powell, Kathryn

    2017-10-01

    NASA’s Planetary Data System (PDS) is the formal archive of >1.2 petabytes of data from planetary exploration, science, and research. Initiated in 1989 to address an overall lack of attention to mission data documentation, access, and archiving, the PDS has since evolved into an online collection of digital data managed and served by a federation of 6 science discipline nodes and 2 technical support nodes. Several ad-hoc mission-oriented data nodes also provide complex data interfaces and access for the duration of their missions.The new PDS Roadmap Study for 2017-2026 involved 15 planetary science community members who collectively prepared a report summarizing the results of an intensive examination of the current state of the PDS and its organization, management, practices, and data holdings (https://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/roadmap/PlanetaryDataSystemRMS17-26_20jun17.pdf). The report summarizes PDS history, its functions and characteristics, and its present form; also included are extensive references and documentary appendices. The report recognizes that as a complex evolving system, the PDS must respond to new pressures and opportunities. The report provides details on challenges now facing the PDS, 19 detailed findings and suggested remediations that could be used to respond to these findings, and a summary of the potential future of planetary data archiving. These findings cover topics such as user needs and expectations, data usability and discoverability (i.e., metadata, data access, documentation, and training), tools and file formats, use of current information technologies, and responses to increases in data volume, variety, complexity, and number of data providers. In addition, the study addresses the possibility of archiving software, laboratory data, and physical samples. Finally, the report discusses the current structure and governance of PDS and the impact of this on how archive growth, technology, and new developments are enabled and managed within

  2. TWO-DIMENSIONAL STUDY OF THE PROPAGATION OF PLANETARY WAKE AND THE INDICATION OF GAP OPENING IN AN INVISCID PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Takayuki; Suzuki, Takeru K.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the physical processes of gap formation in an inviscid protoplanetary disk with an embedded protoplanet using a two-dimensional local shearing-sheet model. The spiral density wave launched by the planet shocks and the angular momentum carried by the wave is transferred to the background flow. The exchange of the angular momentum can affect the mass flux in the vicinity of the planet to form an underdense region, or gap, around the planetary orbit. We first perform weakly nonlinear analyses to show that the specific vorticity formed by shock dissipation of the density wave can be a source of mass flux in the vicinity of the planet and that the gap can be opened even for low-mass planets unless the migration of the planet is substantial. We then perform high-resolution numerical simulations to check analytic consideration. By comparing the gap-opening timescale and type I migration timescale, we propose a criterion for the formation of underdense region around the planetary orbit that is qualitatively different from previous studies. The minimum mass required for the planet to form a dip is twice as small as previous studies if we incorporate the standard values of type I migration timescale, but it can be much smaller if there is a location in the disk where type I migration is halted.

  3. Planetary Nomenclature: An Overview and Update for 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Tenielle; Hayward, Rose; IAU Working GroupPlanetary System Nomenclature

    2017-10-01

    The task of naming planetary surface features, rings, and natural satellites is managed by the International Astronomical Union’s (IAU) Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN). There are currently 15,361 IAU-approved surface feature names on 41 planetary bodies, including moons and asteroids. The members of the WGPSN and its task groups have worked since the early 1970s to provide a clear, unambiguous system of planetary nomenclature that represents cultures and countries from all regions of Earth. WGPSN members include Rita Schulz (Chair) and 9 other members representing countries around the globe. The participation of knowledgeable scientists and experts in this process is vital to its success of the IAU WGPSN . Planetary nomenclature is a tool used to uniquely identify features on the surfaces of planets or satellites so they can be located, described, and discussed in publications, including peer-review journals, maps and conference presentations. Approved names are listed in the Transactions of the IAU and on the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature website. Any names currently in use that are not listed the Gazetteer are not official. Planetary names must adhere to rules and conventions established by the IAU WGPSN (see http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/Page/Rules for the complete list). The gazetteer includes an online Name Request Form (http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/FeatureNameRequest) that can be used by members of the professional science community. Name requests are first reviewed by one of six task groups (Mercury, Venus, Moon, Mars, Outer Solar System, and Small Bodies). After a task group has reviewed a proposal, it is submitted to the WGPSN. Allow four to six weeks for the review and approval process. Upon WGPSN approval, names are considered formally approved and it is then appropriate to use them in publications. Approved names are immediately entered into the database and shown on the website. Questions about the nomenclature

  4. Magnetic Fields of Extrasolar Planets: Planetary Interiors and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, T. Joseph

    2018-06-01

    Ground-based observations showed that Jupiter's radio emission is linked to its planetary-scale magnetic field, and subsequent spacecraft observations have shown that most planets, and some moons, have or had a global magnetic field. Generated by internal dynamos, magnetic fields are one of the few remote sensing means of constraining the properties of planetary interiors. For the Earth, its magnetic field has been speculated to be partially responsible for its habitability, and knowledge of an extrasolar planet's magnetic field may be necessary to assess its habitability. The radio emission from Jupiter and other solar system planets is produced by an electron cyclotron maser, and detections of extrasolar planetary electron cyclotron masers will enable measurements of extrasolar planetary magnetic fields. Based on experience from the solar system, such observations will almost certainly require space-based observations, but they will also be guided by on-going and near-future ground-based observations.This work has benefited from the discussion and participants of the W. M. Keck Institute of Space Studies "Planetary Magnetic Fields: Planetary Interiors and Habitability" and content within a white paper submitted to the National Academy of Science Committee on Exoplanet Science Strategy. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  5. Enhanced stability of steep channel beds to mass failure and debris flow initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prancevic, J.; Lamb, M. P.; Ayoub, F.; Venditti, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Debris flows dominate bedrock erosion and sediment transport in very steep mountain channels, and are often initiated from failure of channel-bed alluvium during storms. While several theoretical models exist to predict mass failures, few have been tested because observations of in-channel bed failures are extremely limited. To fill this gap in our understanding, we performed laboratory flume experiments to identify the conditions necessary to initiate bed failures in non-cohesive sediment of different sizes (D = 0.7 mm to 15 mm) on steep channel-bed slopes (S = 0.45 to 0.93) and in the presence of water flow. In beds composed of sand, failures occurred under sub-saturated conditions on steep bed slopes (S > 0.5) and under super-saturated conditions at lower slopes. In beds of gravel, however, failures occurred only under super-saturated conditions at all tested slopes, even those approaching the dry angle of repose. Consistent with theoretical models, mass failures under super-saturated conditions initiated along a failure plane approximately one grain-diameter below the bed surface, whereas the failure plane was located near the base of the bed under sub-saturated conditions. However, all experimental beds were more stable than predicted by 1-D infinite-slope stability models. In partially saturated sand, enhanced stability appears to result from suction stress. Enhanced stability in gravel may result from turbulent energy losses in pores or increased granular friction for failures that are shallow with respect to grain size. These grain-size dependent effects are not currently included in stability models for non-cohesive sediment, and they may help to explain better the timing and location of debris flow occurrence.

  6. Planetary Landscape Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    hydrosphere (no erosion). Adding new elements (differentiated body: horizon, atmosphere: blue/purple etc sky as visually important elements; complex lithology (mountains of tectonic ori- gin); atmosphere (which can alter temperature) and hydrosphere (erosion, rivers, de- position) a more complex landscape will appear. As a first step, by making a "landscape model", we can input general parameters of atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, the distance from the Sun, orbital parameters, last resurfacing date, age of the planet and the model will output the pos- 1 sible landscape elements in the planet. This can be refined by inputing the actual pa- rameters (place on planet, climate region etc.) from which the actual landscape can be the result. The landscape altering processes are: exogenic (impact), mass movement, endogenic (volcanism, thermal conditions), weathering, aeolic, fluvial, glacial, biogenic, antro- pogenic processes. Comparing planets and moons, all of these processes work on Earth, only half of them works on Mars and Venus, and even fewer on Mercury and Moon [3], where most of the surface is an "post-impact" landscape. A Planetary view. Science-fiction writers often describe planets with one characteris- tic: "desert planet", "ocean planet", "forest planet". Generally, planetary flyby missions verify these images (Europa - ice plain planet or Io - volcano world), but a orbiter mis- sion makes clear than in any planet, several significantly different landcape units are present, but from planet to planet, the average climatic and lithologic conditions do change and characterize the given planet. LANDSCAPE RESOURCES, LANDSCAPE "HOT SPOTS" Landscape hot spots has "high values" in the factors listed below. Physical landscape values. Small object not detectable from orbiters: individual rocks or the local physical characteristics of the upper layer of the regolith, the sediment or bedrock characteristics along with relief forms will be the important factors of

  7. Relation between radius and expansion velocity in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Y.H.; Kwitter, K.B.; Kaler, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    The expansion velocity-radius (R-V) relation for planetary nebulae is examined using the existing measurements of expansion velocities and recent calculations of radii. It is found that some of the previously alleged R-V relations for PN are not convincingly established. The scatter in the R-V plots may be due largely to stratification of ions in individual nebulae and to heterogeneity in the planetary nebula population. In addition, from new echelle/CCD observations of planetary nebulae, it is found that spatial information is essential in deriving the internal kinematic properties. Future investigations of R-V relations should be pursued separately for groups of planetaries with similar physical properties, and they should employ observations of appropriate low excitation lines in order to measure the expansion velocity at the surface of the nebula. 26 references

  8. Toward predictive scenarios of planetary migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruteau, Clement

    2008-01-01

    The recent detection of extra-solar planets has provided an exciting opportunity to test our theories of planet formation and evolution. An impressive result is the significant proportion of giant planets located much closer to their star than Mercury is from our own Sun. These planets should have formed further out in the protoplanetary disc, thus one needs to explain how they could move closer to their host star. Remarkably enough, such an explanation was proposed well before the discovery of the first exo-planet. It considered the interaction between a planet and the protoplanetary disc, which leads to a decrease of the planet's semi-major axis. This is known as planetary migration. Many studies have shown that the migration timescale of low-mass planets is much shorter than the lifetime of the disc. All planets should therefore have migrated to the vicinity of their host star. This is at least in contradiction with the locations of the planets in our Solar System. In order to elaborate predictive scenarios of planet formation and evolution, it is of primary interest to refine our understanding of disc-planet interactions. The inclusion of the disc self-gravity is an illustration of this. With analytical and numerical arguments, I show that discarding the self-gravity leads to a significant overestimate of the differential Lindblad torque for migrating low-mass planets. Another aspect explored in this thesis is the impact of the gas thermodynamics on migration. I show that the thermodynamic evolution of the disc induces an additional contribution to the corotation torque, which may dramatically slow down or even reverse the migration of low-mass planets. (author) [fr

  9. Helium shell flashes and ionization of planetary nebulae. Pt. 2. FG Sge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylenda, R.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical models have been constructed to study time-dependent effects in the nebulae (He 1-5) associated with FG Sge. Two cases have been considered: recombination of an initially stationary nebula of moderate excitation (Case A), and nonequilibrium ionization (and subsequent recombination) of an initially neutral nebula by a thermal pulse in the central star (Case B). Comparison with the observed spectrum does not allow to distinguish definitely between both cases. There are slight indications that the present state of He 1-5 is better reproduced in Case B which is also preferable from the point of view of the present theoretical knowledge of observational appearances of helium shell flashes in planetary nebula nuclei. The nebula has a normal chemical composition. (author)

  10. A high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer for planetary spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Sinton, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of a high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) is described for planetary and other astronomical spectroscopy in conjunction with the 88-inch telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The FTS system is designed for a broad range of uses, including double-beam laboratory spectroscopy, infrared gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The data system is well-suited to astronomical applications because of its great speed in acquiring and transforming data, and because of the enormous storage capability of the magnetic tape unit supplied with the system. The basic instrument is outlined 2nd some of the initial results from the first attempted use on the Mauna Kea 88-inch telescope are reported.

  11. International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite observations of seven high-excitation planetary nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, L H; Keyes, C D

    1980-03-01

    Observations of seven high-excitation planetary nebulae secured with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite were combined with extensive ground-based data to obtain electron densities, gas kinetic temperatures, and ionic concentrations. We then employed a network of theoretical model nebulae to estimate the factors by which observed ionic concentrations must be multiplied to obtain elemental abundances. Comparison with a large sample of nebulae for which extensive ground-based observations have been obtained shows nitrogen to be markedly enhanced in some of these objects. Possibly most, if not all, high-excitation nebulae evolve from stars that have higher masses than progenitors of nebulae of low-to-moderate excitation.

  12. New Measurements of s-Process Enrichments in Planetary Nebulae from High-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Karakas, Amanda; Sterling, Nicholas C.; Kaplan, Kyle

    2017-06-01

    We present preliminary results from a high-spectral resolution survey of near-infrared emission lines of neutron-capture elements in planetary nebulae using the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer, IGRINS (Park et al. 2014, SPIE. 9147, 1), which spans the H- and K-bands at spectral resolving power R ≈ 45,000. Both the [Kr III] and [Se IV] lines identified by Dinerstein (2001, ApJL, 550, L223) are seen in nearly all of an initial sample of ≈ 15 nebulae, with improved accuracy over earlier studies based on lower-resolution data (Sterling & Dinerstein 2008, ApJS, 174, 158; Sterling, Porter, & Dinerstein 2015, ApJS, 218, 25). Several new detections of the [Rb IV], [Cd IV], and [Ge VI] lines identified by Sterling et al. (2016, ApJL, 819, 9), as well as a [Br V] line, were made. About half the objects in this sample descend from stars with [Fe/H] = -0.7 ± 0.2 dex, while the remainder have -0.3 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ 0. We compare the measured enhancements of Se, Kr, Rb, and Cd with predictions of their production by slow-neutron captures (the s-process) during the AGB from theoretical evolutionary models for the corresponding metallicities and various initial masses. New nucleosynthesis calculations were carried out for [Fe/H] = -0.7 for initial masses between 1.1 and 3 M⊙ using the Monash stellar evolution and post-processing codes described in Karakas & Lugaro (2016, ApJ, 825, 26), which provides the nucleosynthesis predictions for the metal-rich end of our sample. The Monash models predict enrichments larger by factors of two or more than those from FRUITY (Cristallo et al. 2015, ApJS, 219, 40) and NuGRID (Pignatari et al. 2016, ApJS, 225, 24) models for the same masses and metallicities. We find that the Monash models are in substantially better agreement than the others with the abundances derived from the IGRINS observations.This work is based on data taken at the McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS was developed with support from

  13. Planetary Sciences Literature - Access and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneken, Edwin A.; ADS Team

    2017-10-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been around for over 2 decades, helping professional astronomers and planetary scientists navigate, without charge, through the increasingly complex environment of scholarly publications. As boundaries between disciplines dissolve and expand, the ADS provides powerful tools to help researchers discover useful information efficiently. In its new form, code-named ADS Bumblebee (https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu), it may very well answer questions you didn't know you had! While the classic ADS (http://ads.harvard.edu) focuses mostly on searching basic metadata (author, title and abstract), today's ADS is best described as a an "aggregator" of scholarly resources relevant to the needs of researchers in astronomy and planetary sciences, and providing a discovery environment on top of this. In addition to indexing content from a variety of publishers, data and software archives, the ADS enriches its records by text-mining and indexing the full-text articles (about 4.7 million in total, with 130,000 from planetary science journals), enriching its metadata through the extraction of citations and acknowledgments. Recent technology developments include a new Application Programming Interface (API), a new user interface featuring a variety of visualizations and bibliometric analysis, and integration with ORCID services to support paper claiming. The new ADS provides powerful tools to help you find review papers on a given subject, prolific authors working on a subject and who they are collaborating with (within and outside their group) and papers most read by by people who read recent papers on the topic of your interest. These are just a couple of examples of the capabilities of the new ADS. We currently index most journals covering the planetary sciences and we are striving to include those journals most frequently cited by planetary science publications. The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA

  14. The planetary scientist's companion

    CERN Document Server

    Lodders, Katharina

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive and practical book of facts and data about the Sun, planets, asteroids, comets, meteorites, the Kuiper belt and Centaur objects in our solar system. Also covered are properties of nearby stars, the interstellar medium, and extra-solar planetary systems.

  15. Measuring and interpreting X-ray fluorescence from planetary surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Alan; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Fraser, George; Kolbe, Michael; Krumrey, Michael; Mantero, Alfonso; Mantler, Michael; Peacock, Anthony; Pia, Maria-Grazia; Pullan, Derek; Schneider, Uwe G; Ulm, Gerhard

    2008-11-15

    As part of a comprehensive study of X-ray emission from planetary surfaces and in particular the planet Mercury, we have measured fluorescent radiation from a number of planetary analog rock samples using monochromatized synchrotron radiation provided by the BESSY II electron storage ring. The experiments were carried out using a purpose built X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer chamber developed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's national metrology institute. The XRF instrumentation is absolutely calibrated and allows for reference-free quantitation of rock sample composition, taking into account secondary photon- and electron-induced enhancement effects. The fluorescence data, in turn, have been used to validate a planetary fluorescence simulation tool based on the GEANT4 transport code. This simulation can be used as a mission analysis tool to predict the time-dependent orbital XRF spectral distributions from planetary surfaces throughout the mapping phase.

  16. Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Katherine; Rockström, Johan; Steffen, Will

    2009-01-01

    boundaries are rough, first estimates only, surrounded by large uncertainties and knowledge gaps. Filling these gaps will require major advancements in Earth System and resilience science. The proposed concept of "planetary boundaries" lays the groundwork for shifting our approach to governance...... and management, away from the essentially sectoral analyses of limits to growth aimed at minimizing negative externalities, toward the estimation of the safe space for human development. Planetary boundaries define, as it were, the boundaries of the "planetary playing field" for humanity if we want to be sure...

  17. Miniaturisation of imaging spectrometer for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossart, Pierre; Sémery, Alain; Réess, Jean-Michel; Combes, Michel

    2017-11-01

    Future planetary exploration on telluric or giant planets will need a new kind of instrumentation combining imaging and spectroscopy at high spectral resolution to achieve new scientific measurements, in particular for atmospheric studies in nadir configuration. We present here a study of a Fourier Transform heterodyne spectrometer, which can achieve these objectives, in the visible or infrared. The system is composed of a Michelson interferometer, whose mirrors have been replaced by gratings, a configuration studied in the early days of Fourier Transform spectroscopy, but only recently reused for space instrumentation, with the availability of large infrared mosaics. A complete study of an instrument is underway, with optical and electronic tests, as well as data processing analysis. This instrument will be proposed for future planetary missions, including ESA/Bepi Colombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter or Earth orbiting platforms.

  18. Low-mass Stars with Extreme Mid-Infrared Excesses: Potential Signatures of Planetary Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theissen, Christopher; West, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    I investigate the occurrence of extreme mid-infrared (MIR) excesses, a tracer of large amounts of dust orbiting stars, in low-mass stellar systems. Extreme MIR excesses, defined as an excess IR luminosity greater than 1% of the stellar luminosity (LIR/L* ≥ 0.01), have previously only been observed around a small number of solar-mass (M⊙) stars. The origin of this excess has been hypothesized to be massive amounts of orbiting dust, created by collisions between terrestrial planets or large planetesimals. Until recently, there was a dearth of low-mass (M* ≤ 0.6M⊙) stars exhibiting extreme MIR excesses, even though low-mass stars are ubiquitous (~70% of all stars), and known to host multiple terrestrial planets (≥ 3 planets per star).I combine the spectroscopic sample of low-mass stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (70,841 stars) with MIR photometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), to locate stars exhibiting extreme MIR excesses. I find the occurrence frequency of low-mass field stars (stars with ages ≥ 1 Gyr) exhibiting extreme MIR excesses is much larger than that for higher-mass field stars (0.41 ± 0.03% versus 0.00067 ± 0.00033%, respectively).In addition, I build a larger sample of low-mass stars based on stellar colors and proper motions using SDSS, WISE, and the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (8,735,004 stars). I also build a galactic model to simulate stellar counts and kinematics to estimate the number of stars missing from my sample. I perform a larger, more complete study of low-mass stars exhibiting extreme MIR excesses, and find a lower occurrence frequency (0.020 ± 0.001%) than found in the spectroscopic sample but that is still orders of magnitude larger than that for higher-mass stars. I find a slight trend for redder stars (lower-mass stars) to exhibit a higher occurrence frequency of extreme MIR excesses, as well as a lower frequency with increased stellar age. These samples probe important

  19. Mass loss from red giants - A simple evolutionary model for NGC 7027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jura, M.

    1984-01-01

    NGC 7027 is a young planetary nebula with the remnants of a red giant circumstellar envelope surrounding the central, ionized region. By comparing the outer molecular envelope with the inner ionized material, it is argued that the mass loss rate has decreased by at least a factor of 3, and more probably by about a factor of 10, during the past 1000 years. From this result, it is argued that the luminosity of the central star has also decreased substantially during the same time, consistent with models for the rapid evolution of stars just after they evolve off the asymptotic giant branch. In this picture, the distance to NGC 7027 is less than 1300 pc. NGC 7027 was the last (and best) example of a star where apparently the momentum in the outflowing mass /M(dot)v/ is considerably greater than the momentum in the radiation field (L/c). With the above description of this object, the evidence is now strong that quite often the mass lost from late-type giants is ultimately driven to infinity by radiation pressure on grains. If M(dot)v is as large as L/c for asymptotic branch stars, then it is expected that the total amount of mass lost during this stage of evolution is of the same magnitude as the initial mass of the star, and therefore this mass loss can profoundly affect the star's ultimate fate.

  20. The chemical composition of three planetary nebulae in the Magellanic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, R.J.; Killen, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Emission-line intensities in the planetary nebulae Henize 67 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and Henize 97 and 153 in the LMC along with the small SMC H II regions Henize 9, 61, and 81 were measured from photographic image-tube spectra taken with the 1.5 m telescope at Cerro Tololo. The relative abundances of H, He, N, O, Ne, S, and Ar in the nebulae were estimated and compared with the compositions of galactic planetary nebulae and previously studied H II regions in the Clouds. The results show that (1) the N/O ratios in the planetary nebulae are substantially higher than found in the H II regions of each Cloud; (2) He/H approx. = 0.18 in the SMC planetary nebula, but seems normal (approx.0.10) in the two LMC planetaries; and (3) the compositions of the three small SMC H II regions are similar to that of larger SMC H II regions studied previously. It is concluded that the N/H values in the shells of planetary nebulae may not depend on the metal content of the progenitor star as much as recent theoretical models suggest and that the N content of the gas in the Magellanic Clouds arises primarily from sources other than planetary nebulae

  1. Advances in Planetary Protection at the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, J. A.; Siegel, B.; Race, M.; Rummel, J. D.; Pugel, D. E.; Groen, F. J.; Kminek, G.; Conley, C. A.; Carosso, N. J.

    2018-02-01

    Planetary protection knowledge gaps that can be addressed by science performed at the Deep Space Gateway in the areas of human health and performance, space biology, and planetary sciences that enable future exploration in deep space, at Mars, and other targets.

  2. Reconstruction and visualization of planetary nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnor, Marcus; Kindlmann, Gordon; Hansen, Charles; Duric, Neb

    2005-01-01

    From our terrestrially confined viewpoint, the actual three-dimensional shape of distant astronomical objects is, in general, very challenging to determine. For one class of astronomical objects, however, spatial structure can be recovered from conventional 2D images alone. So-called planetary nebulae (PNe) exhibit pronounced symmetry characteristics that come about due to fundamental physical processes. Making use of this symmetry constraint, we present a technique to automatically recover the axisymmetric structure of many planetary nebulae from photographs. With GPU-based volume rendering driving a nonlinear optimization, we estimate the nebula's local emission density as a function of its radial and axial coordinates and we recover the orientation of the nebula relative to Earth. The optimization refines the nebula model and its orientation by minimizing the differences between the rendered image and the original astronomical image. The resulting model allows creating realistic 3D visualizations of these nebulae, for example, for planetarium shows and other educational purposes. In addition, the recovered spatial distribution of the emissive gas can help astrophysicists gain deeper insight into the formation processes of planetary nebulae.

  3. Common Envelope Evolution: Implications for Post-AGB Stars and Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhaus, J.

    2017-10-01

    Common envelopes (CE) are of broad interest as they represent one method by which binaries with initially long-period orbits of a few years can be converted into short-period orbits of a few hours. Despite their importance, the brief lifetimes of CE phases make them difficult to directly observe. Nevertheless, CE interactions are potentially common, can produce a diverse array of nebular shapes, and can accommodate current post-AGB and planetary nebula outflow constraints. Here, I discuss ongoing theoretical and computational work on CEs and speculate on what lies ahead for determining accurate outcomes of this elusive phase of evolution.

  4. HESS Opinions: A planetary boundary on freshwater use is misleading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heistermann, Maik

    2017-07-01

    In 2009, a group of prominent Earth scientists introduced the planetary boundaries (PB) framework: they suggested nine global control variables, and defined corresponding thresholds which, if crossed, could generate unacceptable environmental change. The concept builds on systems theory, and views Earth as a complex adaptive system in which anthropogenic disturbances may trigger non-linear, abrupt, and irreversible changes at the global scale, and push the Earth system outside the stable environmental state of the Holocene. While the idea has been remarkably successful in both science and policy circles, it has also raised fundamental concerns, as the majority of suggested processes and their corresponding planetary boundaries do not operate at the global scale, and thus apparently lack the potential to trigger abrupt planetary changes. This paper picks up the debate with specific regard to the planetary boundary on global freshwater use. While the bio-physical impacts of excessive water consumption are typically confined to the river basin scale, the PB proponents argue that water-induced environmental disasters could build up to planetary-scale feedbacks and system failures. So far, however, no evidence has been presented to corroborate that hypothesis. Furthermore, no coherent approach has been presented to what extent a planetary threshold value could reflect the risk of regional environmental disaster. To be sure, the PB framework was revised in 2015, extending the planetary freshwater boundary with a set of basin-level boundaries inferred from environmental water flow assumptions. Yet, no new evidence was presented, either with respect to the ability of those basin-level boundaries to reflect the risk of regional regime shifts or with respect to a potential mechanism linking river basins to the planetary scale. So while the idea of a planetary boundary on freshwater use appears intriguing, the line of arguments presented so far remains speculative and

  5. Planetary protection issues related to human missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, A.; Arnould, J.

    2008-09-01

    In accordance with the United Nations Outer Space Treaties [United Nations, Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, UN doc A/RES/34/68, resolution 38/68 of December 1979], currently maintained and promulgated by the Committee on Space Research [COSPAR Planetary Protection Panel, Planetary Protection Policy accepted by the COSPAR Council and Bureau, 20 October 2002, amended 24 March 2005, http://www.cosparhq.org/scistr/PPPolicy.htm], missions exploring the Solar system must meet planetary protection requirements. Planetary protection aims to protect celestial bodies from terrestrial contamination and to protect the Earth environment from potential biological contamination carried by returned samples or space systems that have been in contact with an extraterrestrial environment. From an exobiology perspective, Mars is one of the major targets, and several missions are currently in operation, in transit, or scheduled for its exploration. Some of them include payloads dedicated to the detection of life or traces of life. The next step, over the coming years, will be to return samples from Mars to Earth, with a view to increasing our knowledge in preparation for the first manned mission that is likely to take place within the next few decades. Robotic missions to Mars shall meet planetary protection specifications, currently well documented, and planetary protection programs are implemented in a very reliable manner given that experience in the field spans some 40 years. With regards to sample return missions, a set of stringent requirements has been approved by COSPAR [COSPAR Planetary Protection Panel, Planetary Protection Policy accepted by the COSPAR Council and Bureau, 20 October 2002, amended 24 March 2005, http://www.cosparhq.org/scistr/PPPolicy.htm], and technical challenges must now be overcome in order to preserve the Earth’s biosphere from any eventual contamination risk. In addition to the human dimension of

  6. Optical spectra of radio planetary nebulae in the large Magellanic Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present 11 spectra from 12 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. Originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA LMC surveys at 1.4, 4.8 and 8.64 GHz and confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3 cm (4' /2' , these complement data recently presented for candidate radio PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. Their spectra were obtained using the Radcliff 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland (South Africa. All of the optical PNe and radio candidates are within 2' and may represent a population of selected radio bright sample only. Nebular ionized masses of these objects are estimated to be as high as 1.8 Mfi, supporting the idea that massive PNe progenitor central stars lose much of their mass in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB phase or prior. We also identify a sub-population (33% of radio PNe candidates with prominent ionized iron emission lines.

  7. 75 FR 19661 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... includes the following topics: --Review European Space Agency-NASA Coordination on Planetary Protection... Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration... (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Protection Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC...

  8. Handbook of cosmic hazards and planetary defense

    CERN Document Server

    Allahdadi, Firooz

    2015-01-01

    Covers in a comprehensive fashion all aspects of cosmic hazards and possible strategies for contending with these threats through a comprehensive planetary defense strategy. This handbook brings together in a single reference work a rich blend of information about the various types of cosmic threats that are posed to human civilization by asteroids, comets, bolides, meteors, solar flares and coronal mass ejections, cosmic radiation and other types of threats that are only recently beginning to be understood and studied, such as investigation of the “cracks” in the protective shield provided by the Van Allen belts and the geomagnetosphere, of matter-antimatter collisions, orbital debris and radiological or biological contamination. Some areas that are addressed involve areas about which there is a good deal of information that has been collected for many decades by multiple space missions run by many different space agencies, observatories and scientific researchers. Other areas involving research and ...

  9. PLANETARY EMBRYO BOW SHOCKS AS A MECHANISM FOR CHONDRULE FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Christopher R.; Boley, Aaron C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Morris, Melissa A. [Physics Department State University of New York at Cortland Cortland, NY 13045 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    We use radiation hydrodynamics with direct particle integration to explore the feasibility of chondrule formation in planetary embryo bow shocks. The calculations presented here are used to explore the consequences of a Mars-size planetary embryo traveling on a moderately excited orbit through the dusty, early environment of the solar system. The embryo’s eccentric orbit produces a range of supersonic relative velocities between the embryo and the circularly orbiting gas and dust, prompting the formation of bow shocks. Temporary atmospheres around these embryos, which can be created via volatile outgassing and gas capture from the surrounding nebula, can non-trivially affect thermal profiles of solids entering the shock. We explore the thermal environment of solids that traverse the bow shock at different impact radii, the effects that planetoid atmospheres have on shock morphologies, and the stripping efficiency of planetoidal atmospheres in the presence of high relative winds. Simulations are run using adiabatic and radiative conditions, with multiple treatments for the local opacities. Shock speeds of 5, 6, and 7 km s{sup −1} are explored. We find that a high-mass atmosphere and inefficient radiative conditions can produce peak temperatures and cooling rates that are consistent with the constraints set by chondrule furnace studies. For most conditions, the derived cooling rates are potentially too high to be consistent with chondrule formation.

  10. Spectroscopic confirmation of young planetary-mass companions on wide orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, Brendan P. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Liu, Michael C.; Mann, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kraus, Adam L., E-mail: bpbowler@caltech.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We present moderate-resolution (R ∼ 4000-5000) near-infrared integral field spectroscopy of the young (1-5 Myr) 6-14 M {sub Jup} companions ROXs 42B b and FW Tau b obtained with Keck/OSIRIS and Gemini-North/NIFS. The spectrum of ROXs 42B b exhibits clear signs of low surface gravity common to young L dwarfs, confirming its extreme youth, cool temperature, and low mass. Overall, it closely resembles the free-floating 4-7 M {sub Jup} L-type Taurus member 2MASS J04373705+2331080. The companion to FW Tau AB is more enigmatic. Our optical and near-infrared spectra show strong evidence of outflow activity and disk accretion in the form of line emission from [S II], [O I], Hα, Ca II, [Fe II], Paβ, and H{sub 2}. The molecular hydrogen emission is spatially resolved as a single lobe that stretches ≈0.''1 (15 AU). Although the extended emission is not kinematically resolved in our data, its morphology resembles shock-excited H{sub 2} jets primarily seen in young Class 0 and Class I sources. The near-infrared continuum of FW Tau b is mostly flat and lacks the deep absorption features expected for a cool, late-type object. This may be a result of accretion-induced veiling, especially in light of its strong and sustained Hα emission (EW(Hα) ≳ 290 Å). Alternatively, FW Tau b may be a slightly warmer (M5-M8) accreting low-mass star or brown dwarf (0.03-0.15 M {sub ☉}) with an edge-on disk. Regardless, its young evolutionary stage is in stark contrast to its Class III host FW Tau AB, indicating a more rapid disk clearing timescale for the host binary system than for its wide companion. Finally, we present near-infrared spectra of the young (∼2-10 Myr) low-mass (12-15 M {sub Jup}) companions GSC 6214-210 B and SR 12 C and find they best resemble low-gravity M9.5 and M9 substellar templates.

  11. Escape and fractionation of volatiles and noble gases from Mars-sized planetary embryos and growing protoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odert, P.; Lammer, H.; Erkaev, N. V.; Nikolaou, A.; Lichtenegger, H. I. M.; Johnstone, C. P.; Kislyakova, K. G.; Leitzinger, M.; Tosi, N.

    2018-06-01

    Planetary embryos form protoplanets via mutual collisions, which can lead to the development of magma oceans. During their solidification, significant amounts of the mantles' volatile contents may be outgassed. The resulting H2O/CO2 dominated steam atmospheres may be lost efficiently via hydrodynamic escape due to the low gravity of these Moon- to Mars-sized objects and the high stellar EUV luminosities of the young host stars. Protoplanets forming from such degassed building blocks after nebula dissipation could therefore be drier than previously expected. We model the outgassing and subsequent hydrodynamic escape of steam atmospheres from such embryos. The efficient outflow of H drags along heavier species like O, CO2, and noble gases. The full range of possible EUV evolution tracks of a young solar-mass star is taken into account to investigate the atmospheric escape from Mars-sized planetary embryos at different orbital distances. The estimated envelopes are typically lost within a few to a few tens of Myr. Furthermore, we study the influence on protoplanetary evolution, exemplified by Venus. In particular, we investigate different early evolution scenarios and constrain realistic cases by comparing modeled noble gas isotope ratios with present observations. Isotope ratios of Ne and Ar can be reproduced, starting from solar values, under hydrodynamic escape conditions. Solutions can be found for different solar EUV histories, as well as assumptions about the initial atmosphere, assuming either a pure steam atmosphere or a mixture with accreted hydrogen from the protoplanetary nebula. Our results generally favor an early accretion scenario with a small amount of residual hydrogen from the protoplanetary nebula and a low-activity Sun, because in other cases too much CO2 is lost during evolution, which is inconsistent with Venus' present atmosphere. Important issues are likely the time at which the initial steam atmosphere is outgassed and/or the amount of CO2

  12. Dust in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    The author's review concentrates on theoretical aspects of dust in planetary nebulae (PN). He considers the questions: how much dust is there is PN; what is its composition; what effects does it have on the ionization structure, on the dynamics of the nebula. (Auth.)

  13. Planetary ring systems properties, structures, and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Carl D

    2018-01-01

    Planetary rings are among the most intriguing structures of our solar system and have fascinated generations of astronomers. Collating emerging knowledge in the field, this volume reviews our current understanding of ring systems with reference to the rings of Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and more. Written by leading experts, the history of ring research and the basics of ring–particle orbits is followed by a review of the known planetary ring systems. All aspects of ring system science are described in detail, including specific dynamical processes, types of structures, thermal properties and their origins, and investigations using computer simulations and laboratory experiments. The concluding chapters discuss the prospects of future missions to planetary rings, the ways in which ring science informs and is informed by the study of other astrophysical disks, and a perspective on the field's future. Researchers of all levels will benefit from this thorough and engaging presentation.

  14. Preliminary development of a global 3-D magnetohydrodynamic computational model for solar wind-cometary and planetary interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahara, S.S.

    1986-05-01

    This is the final summary report by Resource Management Associates, Inc., of the first year's work under Contract No. NASW-4011 to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The work under this initial phase of the contract relates to the preliminary development of a global, 3-D magnetohydrodynamic computational model to quantitatively describe the detailed continuum field and plasma interaction process of the solar wind with cometary and planetary bodies throughout the solar system. The work extends a highly-successful, observationally-verified computational model previously developed by the author, and is appropriate for the global determination of supersonic, super-Alfvenic solar wind flows past planetary obstacles. This report provides a concise description of the problems studied, a summary of all the important research results, and copies of the publications

  15. Planetary Space Weather Service: Part of the the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Manuel; Andre, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Over the next four years the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure will set up an entirely new European Planetary Space Weather service (PSWS). Europlanet RI is a part of of Horizon 2020 (EPN2020-RI, http://www.europlanet-2020-ri.eu). The Virtual Access Service, WP5 VA1 "Planetary Space Weather Services" will extend the concepts of space weather and space situational awareness to other planets in our Solar System and in particular to spacecraft that voyage through it. VA1 will make five entirely new 'toolkits' accessible to the research community and to industrial partners planning for space missions: a general planetary space weather toolkit, as well as three toolkits dedicated to the following key planetary environments: Mars (in support ExoMars), comets (building on the expected success of the ESA Rosetta mission), and outer planets (in preparation for the ESA JUICE mission to be launched in 2022). This will give the European planetary science community new methods, interfaces, functionalities and/or plugins dedicated to planetary space weather in the tools and models available within the partner institutes. It will also create a novel event-diary toolkit aiming at predicting and detecting planetary events like meteor showers and impacts. A variety of tools (in the form of web applications, standalone software, or numerical models in various degrees of implementation) are available for tracing propagation of planetary and/or solar events through the Solar System and modelling the response of the planetary environment (surfaces, atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres) to those events. But these tools were not originally designed for planetary event prediction and space weather applications. So WP10 JRA4 "Planetary Space Weather Services" (PSWS) will provide the additional research and tailoring required to apply them for these purposes. The overall objectives of this Joint Research Aactivities will be to review, test, improve and adapt methods and tools

  16. MODEL-INDEPENDENT STELLAR AND PLANETARY MASSES FROM MULTI-TRANSITING EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montet, Benjamin T.; Johnson, John Asher

    2013-01-01

    Precise exoplanet characterization requires precise classification of exoplanet host stars. The masses of host stars are commonly estimated by comparing their spectra to those predicted by stellar evolution models. However, spectroscopically determined properties are difficult to measure accurately for stars that are substantially different from the Sun, such as M-dwarfs and evolved stars. Here, we propose a new method to dynamically measure the masses of transiting planets near mean-motion resonances and their host stars by combining observations of transit timing variations with radial velocity (RV) measurements. We derive expressions to analytically determine the mass of each member of the system and demonstrate the technique on the Kepler-18 system. We compare these analytic results to numerical simulations and find that the two are consistent. We identify eight systems for which our technique could be applied if follow-up RV measurements are collected. We conclude that this analysis would be optimal for systems discovered by next-generation missions similar to TESS or PLATO, which will target bright stars that are amenable to efficient RV follow-up.

  17. Two-Step Resonance-Enhanced Desorption Laser Mass Spectrometry for In Situ Analysis of Organic-Rich Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, S. A.; Grubisic, A.; Uckert, K.; Li, X.; Cornish, T.; Cook, J. E.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.

    2016-01-01

    A wide diversity of planetary surfaces in the solar system represent high priority targets for in situ compositional and contextual analysis as part of future missions. The planned mission portfolio will inform our knowledge of the chemistry at play on Mars, icy moons, comets, and primitive asteroids, which can lead to advances in our understanding of the interplay between inorganic and organic building blocks that led to the evolution of habitable environments on Earth and beyond. In many of these environments, the presence of water or aqueously altered mineralogy is an important indicator of habitable environments that are present or may have been present in the past. As a result, the search for complex organic chemistry that may imply the presence of a feedstock, if not an inventory of biosignatures, is naturally aligned with targeted analyses of water-rich surface materials. Here we describe the two-step laser mass spectrometry (L2MS) analytical technique that has seen broad application in the study of organics in meteoritic samples, now demonstrated to be compatible with an in situ investigation with technique improvements to target high priority planetary environments as part of a future scientific payload. An ultraviolet (UV) pulsed laser is used in previous and current embodiments of laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDMS) to produce ionized species traceable to the mineral and organic composition of a planetary surface sample. L2MS, an advanced technique in laser mass spectrometry, is selective to the aromatic organic fraction of a complex sample, which can provide additional sensitivity and confidence in the detection of specific compound structures. Use of a compact two-step laser mass spectrometer prototype has been previously reported to provide specificity to key aromatic species, such as PAHs, nucleobases, and certain amino acids. Recent improvements in this technique have focused on the interaction between the mineral matrix and the

  18. Interdisciplinary Research Produces Results in the Understanding of Planetary Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Hayward, Rosalyn Kay; Bourke, Mary C.

    2010-08-01

    Second International Planetary Dunes Workshop: Planetary Analogs—Integrating Models, Remote Sensing, and Field Data; Alamosa, Colorado, 18-21 May 2010; Dunes and other eolian bed forms are prominent on several planetary bodies in our solar system. Despite 4 decades of study, many questions remain regarding the composition, age, and origins of these features, as well as the climatic conditions under which they formed. Recently acquired data from orbiters and rovers, together with terrestrial analogs and numerical models, are providing new insights into Martian sand dunes, as well as eolian bed forms on other terrestrial planetary bodies (e.g., Titan). As a means of bringing together terrestrial and planetary researchers from diverse backgrounds with the goal of fostering collaborative interdisciplinary research, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Carl Sagan Center for the Study of Life in the Universe, the Desert Research Institute, and the U.S. National Park Service held a workshop in Colorado. The small group setting facilitated intensive discussion of problems and issues associated with eolian processes on Earth, Mars, and Titan.

  19. Construction of blind shafts with the PVS 3500 planetary full shaft drilling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glogowski, P.; Kolditz, H.

    1992-01-01

    The PVS 3500 planetary full shaft drilling machine has proved as a prototype in the construction of two blind shafts. The drilling rate of 8 m/shift or 25.6 m 3 /MS is outstanding for the initial use of this drilling machine. Blind shafts were cut from the solid by a dry drilling method for the first time. It opens up the possibility of making available storage boreholes for larger quantities of radioactive waste with low activity and for toxic waste materials. (orig.)

  20. The design of long wavelength planetary SAR sensor and its applications for monitoring shallow sub-surface of Moon and planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.

    2015-12-01

    SAR observations over planetary surface have been conducted mainly in two ways. The first is the subsurface sounding, for example Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) and Shallow Surface Radar (SHARAD), using ground penetration capability of long wavelength electromagnetic waves. On the other hand, imaging SAR sensors using burst mode design have been employed to acquire surface observations in the presence of opaque atmospheres such as in the case of Venus and Titan. We propose a lightweight SAR imaging system with P/L band wavelength to cover the vertical observation gap of these planetary radar observation schemes. The sensor is for investigating prominent surface and near-subsurface geological structures and physical characteristics. Such measurements will support landers and rover missions as well as future manned missions. We evaluate required power consumption, and estimate mass and horizontal resolution, which can be as good as 3-7 meters. Initial specifications for P/L dual band SARs for the lunar case at 130 km orbital altitude were designed already based on a assumptions that sufficient size antenna (>3m width diameter or width about 3m and >10kg weight) can be equipped. Useful science measurements to be obtained include: (1) derivation of subsurface regolith depth; 2) Surface and shallow subsurface radar imaging, together with radar ranging techniques such as radargrammetry and inteferometry. The concepts in this study can be used as an important technical basis for the future solid plant/satellite missions and already proposed for the 2018 Korean Lunar mission.

  1. Automation and Robotics for space operation and planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemerlo, Melvin D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective of Automation and Robotics (A&R) research and developments at NASA in terms of its history, its current status, and its future. It covers artificial intelligence, telerobotics and planetary rovers, and it encompasses ground operations, operations in earth orbit, and planetary exploration.

  2. Vibration condition monitoring of planetary gearbox under varying external load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartelmus, W.; Zimroz, R. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-01-15

    The paper shows that for condition monitoring of planetary gearboxes it is important to identify the external varying load condition. In the paper, systematic consideration has been taken of the influence of many factors on the vibration signals generated by a system in which a planetary gearbox is included. These considerations give the basis for vibration signal interpretation, development of the means of condition monitoring, and for the scenario of the degradation of the planetary gearbox. Real measured vibration signals obtained in the industrial environment are processed. The signals are recorded during normal operation of the diagnosed objects, namely planetary gearboxes, which are a part of the driving system used in a bucket wheel excavator, used in lignite mines. It has been found that the most important factor of the proper planetary gearbox condition is connected with perturbation of arm rotation, where an arm rotation gives rise to a specific vibration signal whose properties are depicted by a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and Wigner-Ville distribution presented as a time-frequency map. The paper gives evidence that there are two dominant low-frequency causes that influence vibration signal modulation, i.e. the varying load, which comes from the nature of the bucket wheel digging process, and the arm/carrier rotation. These two causes determine the condition of the planetary gearboxes considered.

  3. The effect of carbon monoxide on planetary haze formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hörst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A, E-mail: sarah.horst@colorado.edu [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Organic haze plays a key role in many planetary processes ranging from influencing the radiation budget of an atmosphere to serving as a source of prebiotic molecules on the surface. Numerous experiments have investigated the aerosols produced by exposing mixtures of N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} to a variety of energy sources. However, many N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} atmospheres in both our solar system and extrasolar planetary systems also contain carbon monoxide (CO). We have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments to investigate the effect of CO on the formation and particle size of planetary haze analogues for a range of CO mixing ratios using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that CO strongly affects both number density and particle size of the aerosols produced in our experiments and indicates that CO may play an important, previously unexplored, role in aerosol chemistry in planetary atmospheres.

  4. Tips and Tools for Teaching Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, N. M.

    2011-10-01

    The poster will describe handson exercises with demonstrations, clicker questions and discussion to demonstrate how to help students understand planets on a deeper conceptual level. We'll also discuss ways to take the latest discoveries beyond "wow" and turn them into teachable moments. The goal is to give modern strategies for teaching planetary science, emphasizing physical concepts and comparative principles. All will be given digital copies of video clips, demonstration descriptions, clicker questions, web links and powerpoint slidesets on recent planetary science discoveries.

  5. Equation of state experiments and theory relevant to planetary modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.; Graboske, H.C. Jr.; Nellis, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    In recent years there have been a number of static and shockwave experiments on the properties of planetary materials. The highest pressure measurements, and the ones most relevant to planetary modelling, have been obtained by shock compression. Of particular interest to the Jovian group are results for H 2 , H 2 O, CH 4 and NH 3 . Although the properties of metallic hydrogen have not been measured, they have been the subject of extensive calculations. In addition recent shock wave experiments on iron report to have detected melting under Earth core conditions. From this data theoretical models have been developed for computing the equations of state of materials used in planetary studies. A compelling feature that has followed from the use of improved material properties is a simplification in the planetary models. (author)

  6. Russian Planetary Exploration History, Development, Legacy, Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Russia’s accomplishments in planetary space exploration were not achieved easily. Formerly, the USSR experienced frustration in trying to tame unreliable Molniya and Proton upper stages and in tracking spacecraft over long distances. This book will assess the scientific haul of data from the Venus and Mars missions and look at the engineering approaches. The USSR developed several generations of planetary probes: from MV and Zond to the Phobos type. The engineering techniques used and the science packages are examined, as well as the nature of the difficulties encountered which ruined several missions. The programme’s scientific and engineering legacy is also addressed, as well as its role within the Soviet space programme as a whole. Brian Harvey concludes by looking forward to future Russian planetary exploration (e.g Phobos Grunt sample return mission). Several plans have been considered and may, with a restoration of funding, come to fruition. Soviet studies of deep space and Mars missions (e.g. TMK, ...

  7. PLANETARY SYSTEM FORMATION IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK AROUND HL TAURI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Eiji; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Masahiko; Iguchi, Satoru, E-mail: eiji.akiyama@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: yasuhiro.hasegawa@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-02-20

    We reprocess the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) long-baseline science verification data taken toward HL Tauri. Assuming the observed gaps are opened up by currently forming, unseen bodies, we estimate the mass of such hypothetical bodies based on the following two approaches: the Hill radius analysis and a more elaborate approach developed from the angular momentum transfer analysis in gas disks. For the former, the measured gap widths are used for estimating the mass of the bodies, while for the latter, the measured gap depths are utilized. We show that their masses are comparable to or less than the mass of Jovian planets. By evaluating Toomre’s gravitational instability (GI) condition and cooling effect, we find that the GI might be a mechanism to form the bodies in the outer region of the disk. As the disk might be gravitationally unstable only in the outer region of the disk, inward planetary migration would be needed to construct the current architecture of the observed disk. We estimate the gap-opening mass and show that type II migration might be able to play such a role. Combining GIs with inward migration, we conjecture that all of the observed gaps may be a consequence of bodies that might have originally formed at the outer part of the disk, and have subsequently migrated to the current locations. While ALMA’s unprecedented high spatial resolution observations can revolutionize our picture of planet formation, more dedicated observational and theoretical studies are needed to fully understand the HL Tauri images.

  8. PLANETARY SYSTEM FORMATION IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK AROUND HL TAURI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Eiji; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Masahiko; Iguchi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    We reprocess the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) long-baseline science verification data taken toward HL Tauri. Assuming the observed gaps are opened up by currently forming, unseen bodies, we estimate the mass of such hypothetical bodies based on the following two approaches: the Hill radius analysis and a more elaborate approach developed from the angular momentum transfer analysis in gas disks. For the former, the measured gap widths are used for estimating the mass of the bodies, while for the latter, the measured gap depths are utilized. We show that their masses are comparable to or less than the mass of Jovian planets. By evaluating Toomre’s gravitational instability (GI) condition and cooling effect, we find that the GI might be a mechanism to form the bodies in the outer region of the disk. As the disk might be gravitationally unstable only in the outer region of the disk, inward planetary migration would be needed to construct the current architecture of the observed disk. We estimate the gap-opening mass and show that type II migration might be able to play such a role. Combining GIs with inward migration, we conjecture that all of the observed gaps may be a consequence of bodies that might have originally formed at the outer part of the disk, and have subsequently migrated to the current locations. While ALMA’s unprecedented high spatial resolution observations can revolutionize our picture of planet formation, more dedicated observational and theoretical studies are needed to fully understand the HL Tauri images

  9. Techniques for Engaging the Public in Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, Christine; Shaner, Andrew; Smith Hackler, Amanda

    2017-10-01

    Public audiences are often curious about planetary science. Scientists and education and public engagement specialists can leverage this interest to build scientific literacy. This poster will highlight research-based techniques the authors have tested with a variety of audiences, and are disseminating to planetary scientists through trainings.Techniques include:Make it personal. Audiences are interested in personal stories, which can capture the excitement, joy, and challenges that planetary scientists experience in their research. Audiences can learn more about the nature of science by meeting planetary scientists and hearing personal stories about their motivations, interests, and how they conduct research.Share relevant connections. Most audiences have very limited understanding of the solar system and the features and compositions of planetary bodies, but they enjoy learning about those objects they can see at night and factors that connect to their culture or local community.Demonstrate concepts. Some concepts can be clarified with analogies, but others can be demonstrated or modeled with materials. Demonstrations that are messy, loud, or that yield surprising results are particularly good at capturing an audience’s attention, but if they don’t directly relate to the key concept, they can serve as a distraction.Give them a role. Audience participation is an important engagement technique. In a presentation, scientists can invite the audience to respond to questions, pause to share their thoughts with a neighbor, or vote on an answer. Audiences can respond physically to prompts, raising hands, pointing, or clapping, or even moving to different locations in the room.Enable the audience to conduct an activity. People learn best by doing and by teaching others; simple hands-on activities in which the audience is discovering something themselves can be extremely effective at engaging audiences.This poster will cite examples of each technique, resources that

  10. The circulation pattern and day-night heat transport in the atmosphere of a synchronously rotating aquaplanet: Dependence on planetary rotation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, S.; Ishiwatari, M.; Nakajima, K.; Takahashi, Y. O.; Takehiro, S.; Onishi, M.; Hashimoto, G. L.; Kuramoto, K.; Hayashi, Y.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate a possible variety of atmospheric states realized on a synchronously rotating aquaplanet, an experiment studying the impact of planetary rotation rate is performed using an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) with simplified hydrological and radiative processes. The entire planetary surface is covered with a swamp ocean. The value of planetary rotation rate is varied from zero to the Earth's, while other parameters such as planetary radius, mean molecular weight and total mass of atmospheric dry components, and solar constant are set to the present Earth's values. The integration results show that the atmosphere reaches statistically equilibrium states for all runs; none of the calculated cases exemplifies the runaway greenhouse state. The circulation patterns obtained are classified into four types: Type-I characterized by the dominance of a day-night thermally direct circulation, Type-II characterized by a zonal wave number one resonant Rossby wave over a meridionally broad westerly jet on the equator, Type-III characterized by a long time scale north-south asymmetric variation, and Type-IV characterized by a pair of mid-latitude westerly jets. With the increase of planetary rotation rate, the circulation evolves from Type-I to Type-II and then to Type-III gradually and smoothly, whereas the change from Type-III to Type-IV is abrupt and discontinuous. Over a finite range of planetary rotation rate, both Types-III and -IV emerge as statistically steady states, constituting multiple equilibria. In spite of the substantial changes in circulation, the net energy transport from the day side to the night side remains almost insensitive to planetary rotation rate, although the partition into dry static energy and latent heat energy transports changes. The reason for this notable insensitivity is that the outgoing longwave radiation over the broad area of the day side is constrained by the radiation limit of a moist atmosphere, so that the

  11. Slope of the mass function of low-mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkov, O.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the modern method of obtaining the initial mass function contains a number of a uncertainties that can have a significant effect on the slope of the function in the low-mass section (m < m**). The influence of changes of the mass-luminosity relation, the scale of bolometric corrections, and the luminosity function on the form of the mass function is considered. The effect of photometrically unresolved binaries is also discussed. Some quantitative estimates are made, and it is shown that the slope of the initial mass function in the low-mass section can vary in wide ranges

  12. Mission-directed path planning for planetary rover exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Paul

    2005-07-01

    Robotic rovers uniquely benefit planetary exploration---they enable regional exploration with the precision of in-situ measurements, a combination impossible from an orbiting spacecraft or fixed lander. Mission planning for planetary rover exploration currently utilizes sophisticated software for activity planning and scheduling, but simplified path planning and execution approaches tailored for localized operations to individual targets. This approach is insufficient for the investigation of multiple, regionally distributed targets in a single command cycle. Path planning tailored for this task must consider the impact of large scale terrain on power, speed and regional access; the effect of route timing on resource availability; the limitations of finite resource capacity and other operational constraints on vehicle range and timing; and the mutual influence between traverses and upstream and downstream stationary activities. Encapsulating this reasoning in an efficient autonomous planner would allow a rover to continue operating rationally despite significant deviations from an initial plan. This research presents mission-directed path planning that enables an autonomous, strategic reasoning capability for robotic explorers. Planning operates in a space of position, time and energy. Unlike previous hierarchical approaches, it treats these dimensions simultaneously to enable globally-optimal solutions. The approach calls on a near incremental search algorithm designed for planning and re-planning under global constraints, in spaces of higher than two dimensions. Solutions under this method specify routes that avoid terrain obstacles, optimize the collection and use of rechargable energy, satisfy local and global mission constraints, and account for the time and energy of interleaved mission activities. Furthermore, the approach efficiently re-plans in response to updates in vehicle state and world models, and is well suited to online operation aboard a robot

  13. Long-period variables in the Magellanic Clouds: Supergiants, AGB stars, supernova precursors, planetary nebula precursors, and enrichment of the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, P.; Bessell, M.S.; Fox, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    Infrared JHK magnitudes and low-dispersion red spectra have been obtained for 90 long-period variables (LPVs) in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds. The LPVs fall into two distinct groups, core helium (or carbon) burning supergiants and stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). The supergiants have small pulsation amplitudes in K ( or approx. =5 M/sub sun/ produce supernovae while less massive stars produce planetary nebulae with nebula masses from approx.0.1--2.1 M/sub sun/. The coreburning red supergiants appear highly overluminous for their pulsation mass, indicating that they have lost up to half their mass since the main-sequence phase

  14. Natural Frequencies and Vibrating Modes for a Magnetic Planetary Gear Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhong Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic model for a magnetic planetary gear drive is proposed. Based on the model, the dynamic equations for the magnetic planetary gear drive are given. From the magnetic meshing forces and torques between the elements for the drive system, the tangent and radial magnetic meshing stiffness is obtained. Using these equations, the natural frequencies and the modes of the magnetic planetary gear drive are investigated. The sensitivity of the natural frequencies to the system parameters is discussed. Results show that the pole pair number and the air gap have obvious effects on the natural frequencies. For the planetary gear number larger than two, the vibrations of the drive system include the torsion mode of the center elements, the translation mode of the center elements, and the planet modes. For the planetary gear number equal to two, the planet mode does not occur, the crown mode and the sun gear mode occur.

  15. The Lunar and Planetary Institute Summer Intern Program in Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, G. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Since 1977, the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) Summer Inter