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Sample records for planck radiation formula

  1. A better presentation of Planck's radiation law

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Introductory physics and astronomy courses commonly use Wien's displacement law to explain the colors of blackbodies, including the Sun and other stars, in terms of their temperatures. We argue here that focusing on the peak of the blackbody spectrum is misleading for three reasons. First, the Planck curve is too broad for an individual spectral color to stand out. Second, the location of the peak of the Planck curve depends on the choice of the independent variable in the plot. And third, Wi...

  2. Planck's radiation law: is a quantum-classical perspective possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocco, Michele

    2016-05-01

    Planck's radiation law provides the solution to the blackbody problem that marks the decline of classical physics and the rise of the quantum theory of the radiation field. Here, we venture to suggest the possibility that classical physics might be equally suitable to deal with the blackbody problem. A classical version of the Planck's radiation law seems to be achievable if we learn from the quantum-classical correspondence between classical Mie theory and quantum-mechanical wave scattering from spherical scatterers (partial wave analysis). This correspondence designs a procedure for countable energy levels of the radiation trapped within the blackbody treated within the multipole approach of classical electrodynamics (in place of the customary and problematic expansion in terms of plane waves that give rise to the ultraviolet catastrophe). In turn, introducing the Boltzmann discretization of energy levels, the tools of classical thermodynamics and statistical theory become available for the task. On the other hand, the final result depends on a free parameter whose physical units are those of an action. Tuning this parameter on the value given by the Planck constant makes the classical result agree with the canonical Planck's radiation law.

  3. Corrections to the Cardy-Verlinde formula at the Planck scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, M.

    2017-02-01

    The possible corrections to the thermodynamic quantities of higher dimensional Schwa-rzschild black hole have been investigated by considering the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) and the modified dispersion relation (MDR) separately. The quantum gravitational corrections to the Hawking temperature, energy and entropy of the black hole have been calculated based on both the GUP and the MDR analysis. The explicit form of the corrections are worked out up to the sixth power of the Planck length. The impacts of GUP and MDR have been used separately to obtain the quantum gravitational corrections to the Cardy-Verlinde (C-V) formula. It has been shown that the usual C-V entropy formula receives some new corrections. Also the renormalized form of the C-V formula has been introduced by redefining Virasoro operator and central charge within both the GUP and the MDR. Through comparison of the corrections obtained from GUP and MDR approaches it has been found that the results of these two alternative approaches should be identical if one uses the suitable expansion coefficients.

  4. Low-energy expansion formula for one-dimensional Fokker-Planck and Schr\\"odinger equations with periodic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Miyazawa, Toru

    2011-01-01

    We study the low-energy behavior of the Green function for one-dimensional Fokker-Planck and Schr\\"odinger equations with periodic potentials. We derive a formula for the power series expansion of reflection coefficients in terms of the wave number, and apply it to the low-energy expansion of the Green function.

  5. Quantum corrections to the Larmor radiation formula in scalar electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Higuchi, A

    2009-01-01

    We use the semi-classical approximation in perturbative scalar quantum electrodynamics to calculate the quantum correction to the Larmor radiation formula to first order in Planck's constant in the non-relativistic approximation, choosing the initial state of the charged particle to be a momentum eigenstate. We calculate this correction in two cases: in the first case the charged particle is accelerated by a time-dependent but space-independent vector potential whereas in the second case it is accelerated by a time-independent vector potential which is a function of one spatial coordinate. We find that the corrections in these two cases are different even for a charged particle with the same classical motion. The correction in each case turns out to be non-local in time in contrast to the classical approximation.

  6. (Lack of) Cosmological evidence for dark radiation after Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, Licia; Mortlock, Daniel J; Peiris, Hiranya V

    2013-01-01

    We use Bayesian model comparison to determine whether extensions to Standard-Model neutrino physics -- primarily additional effective numbers of neutrinos and/or massive neutrinos -- are merited by the latest cosmological data. Given the significant advances in cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations represented by the Planck data, we examine whether Planck temperature and CMB lensing data, in combination with lower redshift data, have strengthened (or weakened) the previous findings. We conclude that the state-of-the-art cosmological data do not show evidence for deviations from the standard cosmological model (which has three massless neutrino families). This does not mean that the model is necessarily correct -- in fact we know it is incomplete as neutrinos are not massless -- but it does imply that deviations from the standard model (e.g., non-zero neutrino mass) are too small compared to the current experimental uncertainties to be inferred from cosmological data alone.

  7. Non-thermal WIMPs as "Dark Radiation" in Light of ATACAMA, SPT, WMAP9 and Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Kelso, Chris; Queiroz, Farinaldo S

    2013-01-01

    The Planck and WMAP9 satellites, as well as the ATACAMA and South Pole telescopes, have recently presented results on the angular power spectrum of the comic microwave background. Data tentatively point to the existence of an extra radiation component in the early universe. Here, we show that this extra component can be mimicked by ordinary WIMP dark matter particles whose majority is cold, but with a small fraction being non-thermally produced in a relativistic state. We present a few example theories where this scenario is explicitly realized, and explore the relevant parameter space consistent with BBN, CMB and Structure Formation bounds.

  8. Dark Radiation or Warm Dark Matter from long lived particle decays in the light of Planck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Bari, Pasquale, E-mail: P.Di-Bari@soton.ac.uk; King, Stephen F., E-mail: S.F.King@soton.ac.uk; Merle, Alexander, E-mail: A.Merle@soton.ac.uk

    2013-07-09

    Although Planck data supports the standard ΛCDM model, it still allows for the presence of Dark Radiation corresponding up to about half an extra standard neutrino species. We propose a scenario for obtaining a fractional “effective neutrino species” from a thermally produced particle which decays into a much lighter stable relic plus standard fermions. At lifetimes much longer than ∼1 s, both the relic particles and the non-thermal neutrino component contribute to Dark Radiation. By increasing the stable-to-unstable particle mass ratio, the relic particle no longer acts as Dark Radiation but instead becomes a candidate for Warm Dark Matter with mass O(1 keV–100 GeV). In both cases it is possible to address the lithium problem.

  9. The eras of radiation, matter, and dark energy: new information from the Planck Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Cahill, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Data released by the Planck Collaboration in 2015 imply new dates for the era of radiation, the era of matter, and the era of dark energy. The era of radiation ended, and the era of matter began, when the density of radiation dropped below that of matter. This happened 51,953 \\pm 2236 years after the time of infinite redshift when the ratio a(t)/a_0 of scale factors was (2.9332 \\pm 0.0711) x 10^{-4}. The era of matter ended, and the era of dark energy began, when the density of matter dropped below that of dark energy (assumed constant). This happened 10.1928 \\pm 0.0375 Gyr after the time of infinite redshift when the scale-factor ratio was 0.7646 \\pm 0.0168. The era of dark energy started 3.606 billion years ago. In this pedagogical paper, five figures trace the evolution of the densities of radiation and matter, the scale factor, and the redshift through the eras of radiation, matter, and dark energy.

  10. The Radiation Reaction of a Point Electron as a Planck Vacuum Response Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The polarizability of the Planck vacuum (PV transforms the bare Coulomb field $e_*/r^2$ of a point charge into the observed field $e/r^2$, where $e_*$ and $e$ are the bare and observed electronic charges respectively. In uniform motion this observed field is transformed into the well-known relativistic electric and magnetic fields by the interaction taking place between the bare-charge field and the PV continuum. Given the involvement of the PV in both these transformations, it is reasonable to conclude that the negative-energy PV must also be connected to the radiation reaction or damping force of an accelerated point electron. This short paper examines that conclusion by comparing it to an early indication that the point electron problem may involve more than just a massive point charge.

  11. The Radiation Reaction of a Point Electron as a Planck Vacuum Response Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The polarizability of the Planck vacuum (PV transforms the bare Coulomb field e = r 2 of a point charge into the observed field e = r 2 , where e and e are the bare and observed electronic charges respectively [1]. In uniform motion this observed field is transformed into the well-known relativistic electric and magnetic fields [2, p.380] by the interac- tion taking place between the bare-charge field and the PV continuum. Given the in- volvement of the PV in both these transformations, it is reasonable to conclude that the negative-energy PV must also be connected to the radiation reaction or damping force of an accelerated point electron. This short paper examines that conclusion by compar- ing it to an early indication [3] that the point electron problem may involve more than just a massive point charge.

  12. "The Theory of Heat Radiation" Revisited: A Commentary on the Validity of Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Emission and Max Planck's Claim of Universality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Affirming Kirchhoff’s Law of thermal emission, Max Planck conferred upon his own equation and its constants, h and k , universal significance. All arbitrary cavities were said to behave as blackbodies. They were thought to contain b lack, or normal radiation, which depended only upon temperature and frequency of observation, irrespective of the nature of the cavity walls. Today, laboratory blackbodies a re specialized, heated devices whose interior walls are lined with highly absorptive surfaces, such as graphite, soot, or other sophisticated materials. Such evidence repeatedly calls into question Kirchhoff’s Law, as nothing in the laboratory is independent of the nature of the walls. By focusing on Max Planck’s classic text, “ The Theory of Heat Radiation ’, it can be demonstrated that the German physicist was unable to properly justify Kirchhoff’s Law. At every turn, he was confronted with the fact that materials possess frequency dependent reflectivity and absorptivity, but he often chose to sidestep these realities. He used polarized light to derive Kirchhoff’s Law, when it is well known that blackbody radiation is never polar- ized. Through the use of an element, d σ , at the bounding surface between two media, he reached the untenable position that arbitrary materials have the same reflective prop- erties. His Eq.40 ( ρ = ρ ′ , constituted a dismissal of experimental reality. It is evident that if one neglects reflection, then all cavities must be black. Unable to ensure that perfectly reflecting cavities can be filled with black radiation, Planck inserted a minute carbon particle, which he qualified as a “catalyst”. In fact, it was acting as a perfect absorber, fully able to provide, on its own, the radiation sought. In 1858, Balfour Stew- art had outlined that the proper treatment of cavity radiation must include reflection. Yet, Max Planck did not cite the Scottish scientist. He also d id not correctly address

  13. A simple formula for the net long-wave radiation flux in the southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zapadka

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses problems of estimating the net long-wave radiation flux at the sea surface on the basis of easily measurable meteorological quantities (air and sea surface temperatures, near-surface water vapour pressure, cloudiness. Empirical data and existing formulae are compared. Additionally, an improved formula for the southern Baltic region is introduced, with a systematic error of less than 1 W -2 and a statistical error of less than 20 W -2.

  14. Climatic features of the Mediterranean Sea detected by the analysis of the longwave radiative bulk formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Schiano

    Full Text Available Some important climatic features of the Mediterranean Sea stand out from an analysis of the systematic discrepancies between direct measurements of longwave radiation budget and predictions obtained by the most widely used bulk formulae. In particular, under clear-sky conditions the results show that the surface values of both air temperature and humidity over the Mediterranean Sea are larger than those expected over an open ocean with the same amount of net longwave radiation. Furthermore, the twofold climatic regime of the Mediterranean region strongly affects the downwelling clear-sky radiation. This study suggests that a single bulk formula with constant numerical coefficients is unable to reproduce the fluxes at the surface for all the seasons.

    Key words: Meteorology and Atmospheric dynamics (radiative processes – Oceanography: general (marginal and semienclosed seas; marine meteorology

  15. Constraints on the lepton asymmetry and radiation energy density: Implications for PLANCK

    CERN Document Server

    Popa, Lucia Aurelia

    2008-01-01

    By using most of the present CMB and LSS measurements and the BBN constraints on the primordial helium abundance, Y_p, we set bounds on the radiation content of the Universe and neutrino properties. We consider lepton asymmetric cosmological models parametrized by the neutrino degeneracy parameter \\xi_{\

  16. Study of the radiation and radioactivity in dairy formulas; Estudio de la radiacion y radiactividad en formulas lacteas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mireles G, F.; Pinedo V, J.L.; Quirino T, L.L.; Davila R, J.I.; Rios M, C.; Leal A, B.; Lopez del Rio, H. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, UAZ, Cipres 10, Frac. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)]. e-mail: fmireles@cantera.reduaz.mx

    2006-07-01

    The radiation and natural radioactivity is present in the man's food chain, like it is the case of the milk, and it comes from the natural series of radioactive decay of the {sup 238} U, {sup 235} U and {sup 232} Th, and of the {sup 40} K radioisotope. Since the radioisotopes can be found in floor of where its are transferred to the grasses and in the water that serve as food and of drinking to the cows, then to enter the milk and its derived to the human consumption. In this work it is presented the study of the radiation and gamma radioactivity of 40 samples of dairy formulas of the trademarks and presentations more sold in the market of the private and public sectors. The measurements of the gamma ray spectra were carried out with a spectrometry system based on an Hyper pure Germanium detector (HPGe). The detector has a resolution (FWHM) of 1.9 keV for an energy of the gamma ray of 1.332 keV of the {sup 60} Co. This study presents the results of the concentration in activity of dairy formulations of the radioisotopes of interest. Also, the results are related with possible damages to the health. (Author)

  17. Emerging Hawking-Like Radiation from Gravitational Bremsstrahlung Beyond the Planck Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafaloni, Marcello; Colferai, Dimitri; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2015-10-23

    We argue that, as a consequence of the graviton's spin-2, its bremsstrahlung in trans-Planckian-energy (E≫M(P)) gravitational scattering at small deflection angle can be nicely expressed in terms of helicity-transformation phases and their transfer within the scattering process. The resulting spectrum exhibits deeply sub-Planckian characteristic energies of order M(P)(2)/E≪M(P) (reminiscent of Hawking radiation), a suppressed fragmentation region, and a reduced rapidity plateau, in broad agreement with recent classical estimates.

  18. The bumpy road Max Planck from radiation theory to the quantum (1896-1906)

    CERN Document Server

    Badino, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    This book examines the different areas of knowledge, traditions, and conceptual resources that contributed to the building of Max Planck’s theory of radiation. It presents an insightful comparative analysis that not only sheds light upon a fundamental chapter in the history of modern physics, but also enlarges our understanding of how theoreticians work. Coverage offers a deep investigation into the technical aspects behind the theory and extends in time the notion of quantum revolution. It also presents a full-fledged discussion of the combinatorial part of Planck’s theory and places emphasis on the epistemological role of mathematical practices. By painstakingly reconstructing both the electromagnetic and the combinatorial part of Planck’s black-body theory, the author shows how some apparently merely technical resources, such as the Fourier series, effectively contributed to shape the final form of Planck’s theory. For decades, historians have debated the conditions of possibility of Max Planck’s...

  19. Effects of soot absorption coefficient-Planck function correlation on radiative heat transfer in oxygen-enriched propane turbulent diffusion flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consalvi, J. L.; Nmira, F.

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this article is to quantify the influence of the soot absorption coefficient-Planck function correlation on radiative loss and flame structure in an oxygen-enhanced propane turbulent diffusion flame. Calculations were run with and without accounting for this correlation by using a standard k-ε model and the steady laminar flamelet model (SLF) coupled to a joint Probability Density Function (PDF) of mixture fraction, enthalpy defect, scalar dissipation rate, and soot quantities. The PDF transport equation is solved by using a Stochastic Eulerian Field (SEF) method. The modeling of soot production is carried out by using a flamelet-based semi-empirical acetylene/benzene soot model. Radiative heat transfer is modeled by using a wide band correlated-k model and turbulent radiation interactions (TRI) are accounted for by using the Optically-Thin Fluctuation Approximation (OTFA). Predicted soot volume fraction, radiant wall heat flux distribution and radiant fraction are in good agreement with the available experimental data. Model results show that soot absorption coefficient and Planck function are negatively correlated in the region of intense soot emission. Neglecting this correlation is found to increase significantly the radiative loss leading to a substantial impact on flame structure in terms of mean and rms values of temperature. In addition mean and rms values of soot volume fraction are found to be less sensitive to the correlation than temperature since soot formation occurs mainly in a region where its influence is low.

  20. COMPUTATIONAL FLOW MODELLING OF FORMULA-SAE SIDEPODS FOR OPTIMUM RADIATOR HEAT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. DE SILVA

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Formula SAE vehicles, over the program’s history have showcased a myriad of aerodynamic packages, each claiming specific quantitative and qualitative features. This paper attempts to critique differing aerodynamic sidepod designs and their effect upon radiator heat management. Various features from inlet size, sidepod shape and size, presence of an undertray, suspension cover, gills and chimneys are analysed for their effects. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analyses are performed in the FLUENT environment, with the aid of GAMBIT meshing software and SolidWorks modelling.

  1. Radiative see-saw formula in nonsupersymmetric (10) with dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mina K Parida

    2012-11-01

    In (10), the type-I and type-II see-saw scales ≥ 1012 GeV are far away from being probed by direct experimental tests. In the absence of supersymmetry, we show how experimentally verifiable radiative see-saw formula of Ma type is realized in non-SUSY (10) while fulfilling the twin objectives: precision gauge coupling unification and dark matter. This model is expected to have a dramatic impact on neutrino physics, dark matter and all fermion masses and mixings.

  2. Monitoring ultraviolet (UV) radiation inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii in dry infant formula using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Lu, Xiaonan; Swanson, Barry G; Rasco, Barbara A; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen associated with dry infant formula presenting a high risk to low birth weight neonates. The inactivation of C. sakazakii in dry infant formula by ultraviolet (UV) radiation alone and combined with hot water treatment at temperatures of 55, 60, and 65 °C were applied in this study. UV radiation with doses in a range from 12.1 ± 0.30 kJ/m² to 72.8 ± 1.83 kJ/m² at room temperature demonstrated significant inactivation of C. sakazakii in dry infant formula (P radiation combining 60 °C hot water treatment increased inactivation of C. sakazakii cells significantly (P radiation on C. sakazakii inactivation kinetics (D value) were not observed in infant formula reconstituted in 55 and 65 °C water (P > 0.05). The inactivation mechanism was investigated using vibrational spectroscopy. Infrared spectroscopy detected significant stretching mode changes of macromolecules on the basis of spectral features, such as DNA, proteins, and lipids. Minor changes on cell membrane composition of C. sakazakii under UV radiation could be accurately and correctly monitored by infrared spectroscopy coupled with 2nd derivative transformation and principal component analysis.

  3. Ideal Quantum Gases with Planck Scale Limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    A thermodynamic system of non-interacting quantum particles changes its statistical distribution formulas if there is a universal limitation for the size of energetic quantum leaps (magnitude of quantum leaps smaller than Planck energy). By means of a restriction of the a priori equiprobability postulate one can reach a thermodynamic foundation of these corrected distribution formulas. The number of microstates is determined by means of a suitable counting method and combined with thermodynamics via the Boltzmann principle. The result is that, for particle energies that come close to the Planck energy, the thermodynamic difference between fermion and boson distribution vanishes. Both distributions then approximate a Boltzmann distribution. The wave and particle character of the quantum particles, too, can be influenced by choosing the size of the temperature and particle energy parameters relative to the Planck energy, as you can see from the associated fluctuation formulas. In the case of non-relativistic de...

  4. Planck stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    A star that collapses gravitationally can reach a further stage of its life, where quantum-gravitational pressure counteracts weight. The duration of this stage is very short in the star proper time, yielding a bounce, but extremely long seen from the outside, because of the huge gravitational time dilation. Since the onset of quantum-gravitational effects is governed by energy density --not by size-- the star can be much larger than planckian in this phase. The object emerging at the end of the Hawking evaporation of a black hole can can then be larger than planckian by a factor $(m/m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P})^n$, where $m$ is the mass fallen into the hole, $m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P}$ is the Planck mass, and $n$ is positive. The existence of these objects alleviates the black-hole information paradox. More interestingly, these objects could have astrophysical and cosmological interest: they produce a detectable signal, of quantum gravitational origin, around the $10^{-14} cm$ wavelength.

  5. String inflation after Planck 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, C.P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton ON (Canada); Cicoli, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Quevedo, F., E-mail: cburgess@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: mcicoli@ictp.it, E-mail: F.Quevedo@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Abdus Salam ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy)

    2013-11-01

    We briefly summarize the impact of the recent Planck measurements for string inflationary models, and outline what might be expected to be learned in the near future from the expected improvement in sensitivity to the primordial tensor-to-scalar ratio. We comment on whether these models provide sufficient added value to compensate for their complexity, and ask how they fare in the face of the new constraints on non-gaussianity and dark radiation. We argue that as a group the predictions made before Planck agree well with what has been seen, and draw conclusions from this about what is likely to mean as sensitivity to primordial gravitational waves improves.

  6. Comprehensive Bayesian analysis of rare (semi)leptonic and radiative [Formula: see text] decays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujean, Frederik; Bobeth, Christoph; van Dyk, Danny

    The available data on [Formula: see text] decays are in good agreement with the Standard Model when permitting subleading power corrections of about [Formula: see text] at large hadronic recoil. Constraining new-physics effects in [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], the data still demand the same size of power corrections as in the Standard Model. In the presence of chirality-flipped operators, all but one of the power corrections reduce substantially. The Bayes factors are in favor of the Standard Model. Using new lattice inputs for [Formula: see text] form factors and under our minimal prior assumption for the power corrections, the favor shifts toward models with chirality-flipped operators. We use the data to further constrain the hadronic form factors in [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] transitions.

  7. A more accurate formula for calculating the net longwave radiation flux in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zapadka

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A new, more accurate formula for calculating the net longwave radiation fluxLW ↑↓ has been devised for the Baltic Sea region. To this end,the following sets of simultaneously measured data regarding the longwave radiation of the sea andthe atmosphere were used: the temperatures of the sea surface and its contiguous air layer,the water vapour pressure in the air above the water, and the cloud cover.These data were gathered during numerous research cruises in the Baltic in 2000-03 and were supplemented by satellitedata from Karlsson (2001 characterising the cloud cover over the whole Baltic. The formulaestablished for LW ↑↓ can be written in the form of three alternative equations,differing with respect to their cloud cover functions:LW ↑↓ =0.985σT4s - σT4a (0.685+0.00452e{(1 + d n2 average for all cloud types (Z1(1 + din2 separately for low-, mid- and high-level clouds (Z2(1 + dinϒi separately for low-, mid- and high-level clouds (Z3where σ - Stefan-Boltzmann constant; Ts - sea surface temperature [K]; Ta - air temperature [K]; e - water vapour pressure [mbar]; n - total cloud amount [0 - 1]; d - mean empirical dimensionless coefficient, determined for all cloud types or for particular months (see Tables 3 and 4; da - empirical coefficient determined for the quadratic function: d1 = 0.39 for low-level clouds, d2 = 0.305 for mid-level clouds, d3 = 0.22 for high-level clouds; di - empirical coefficient determined as follows: d1 = 0.39 for low-level clouds when γ1 = 1.3, d2 = 0.29 for mid-level clouds when γ2 = 1.1; d3 = 0.17 for high-level clouds when γ3 = 0.96. The improved accuracy of this formula (RMSE ≅ 10 W m-2 is due chiefly to the establishment of functions and coefficients characterising the cloud cover over the Baltic in particular months of the year and their incorporation into it.

  8. The Planck Telescope reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    The mechanical division of EADS-Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen is currently engaged with the development, manufacturing and testing of the advanced dimensionally stable composite reflectors for the ESA satellite borne telescope Planck. The objective of the ESA mission Planck is to analyse the first light that filled the universe, the cosmic microwave background radiation. Under contract of the Danish Space Research Institute and ESA EADS-Astrium GmbH is developing the all CFRP primary and secondary reflectors for the 1.5-metre telescope which is the main instrument of the Planck satellite. The operational frequency ranges from to 25 GHz to 1000 GHz. The demanding high contour accuracy and surface roughness requirements are met. The design provides the extreme dimensional stability required by the cryogenic operational environment at around 40 K. The elliptical off-axis reflectors display a classical lightweight sandwich design with CFRP core and facesheets. Isostatic mounts provide the interfaces to the telescope structure. Protected VDA provides the reflecting surface. The manufacturing is performed at the Friedrichshafen premises of EADS-Space Transportation GmbH, the former Dornier composite workshops. Advanced manufacturing technologies like true angle lay-up by CNC fibre placement and filament winding are utilized. The protected coating is applied at the CAHA facilities at the Calar Alto Observatory, Spain. The exhaustive environmental testing is performed at the facilities of IABG, Munich (mechanical testing) and for the cryo-optical tests at CSL Liege. The project is in advanced state with both Qualification Models being under environmental testing. The flight models will be delivered in 2004. The paper gives an overview over the requirements and the main structural features how these requirements are met. Special production aspects and available test results are reported.

  9. Gravitational radiation reaction in the binary pulsar and the quadrupole-formula controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damour, T.

    1983-09-01

    The orbital motion of a binary pulsar system is investigated analytically. The two-body problem is reduced to a one-body problem, which is solved while terms of the order c to the -5th are disregarded; then the full problem is solved to the order G cubed by the variation of arbitrary constants, an aproach based on earlier work by Bel et al. (1981), Damour and Deruelle (1981), and Damour (1982, 1983). The isolated Schwarzschild mass' of each compact object is employed, rather than the integral of a Newtonian density, and the derivation does not involve quadrupole moment, energy flux at infinity, balance equations, energy, angular momentum, or radiation-damping force. No acceleration of the system center of mass is found, and the quantitative calculations of the secular decrease in the periastron-return time are shown to agree with the 'quadrupole formula' and with the secular acceleration of the orbital motion of PSR 1913+16 observed by Taylor et al. (1979).

  10. Theory of laser enhancement and suppression of cold reactions: the fermion-boson 6Li+7Li2(variant Planck's over 2pi omega0) 6Li7Li+7Li radiative collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Parker, Gregory A; Brumer, Paul; Thanopulos, Ioannis; Shapiro, Moshe

    2008-03-28

    We present a nonperturbative time-dependent quantum mechanical theory of the laser catalysis and control of a bifurcating A+BC(variant Planck's over 2pi omega(0))ABC*(v)(variant Planck's over 2pi omega(0) )AB+C reaction, with ABC*(v) denoting an intermediate, electronically excited, complex of ABC in the vth vibrational state. We apply this theory to the low collision energy fermion-boson light-induced exchange reaction, (6)Li((2)S)+(7)Li(2)((3)Sigma(u)(+))(variant Planck's over 2pi omega(0))((6)Li(7)Li(7)Li)*(variant Planck's over 2pi omega(0))(6)Li(7)Li((3)Sigma(+))+(7)Li((2)S). We show that at very low collision energies and energetically narrow (approximately 0.01 cm(-1)) initial reactant wave packets, it is possible to tune the yield of the exchange reaction from 0 to near-unity (yield >or=99%) values. Controllability is somewhat reduced at collisions involving energetically wider (approximately 1 cm(-1)) initial reactant wave packets. At these energetic bandwidths, the radiative reactive control, although still impressive, is limited to the 0%-76% reactive-probabilities range.

  11. A Planck Vacuum Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Both the big-bang and the quasi-steady-state cosmologies originate in some type of Planck state. This paper presents a new cosmological theory based on the Planck- vacuum negative-energy state, a state consisting of a degenerate collection of negative- energy Planck particles. A heuristic look at the Einstein field equation provides a con- vincing argument that such a vacuum state could provide a theoretical explanation for the visible universe.

  12. Growth Index after Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the possible deviation from the standard $\\Lambda$CDM model and the Einstein's gravity theory in the dynamical perspectives, the growth index $\\gamma_L$ was proposed. Recently, thanks to the measurement of the cosmic growth rate via the redshift-space distortion, one can understand the evolution of density contrast through $f\\sigma_8(z)$, where $f(z)=d\\ln \\delta/d \\ln a$ is the growth rate of matter and $\\sigma_8(z)$ is the rms amplitude of the density contrast $\\delta$ at the comoving $8h^{-1}$ Mpc scale. In this paper, we use the red-shift space distortion data points to investigate the growth index on the bases of the Einstein's gravity theory and a modified gravity theory under the assumption $f=\\Omega_m(a)^{\\gamma_L}$. To fix the background evolution, the cosmic observational data points from the type Ia supernovae SNLS3, cosmic microwave background radiation from {\\it Planck} and baryon acoustic oscillation are used. Via the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, the $\\gamma_L$ values were obta...

  13. Planck Early Results: I. The Planck mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2011-01-01

    The European Space Agency’s Planck satellite was launched on 14 May 2009, and has been surveying the sky stably and continuously since 13 August 2009. Its performance is well in line with expectations, and it will continue to gather scientific data until the end of its cryogenic lifetime. We give...

  14. Invariants of Fokker-Planck equations

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Sumiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A weak invariant of a stochastic system is defined in such a way that its expectation value with respect to the distribution function as a solution of the associated Fokker-Planck equation is constant in time. A general formula is given for time evolution of fluctuations of the invariants. An application to the problem of share price in finance is illustrated. It is shown how this theory makes it possible to reduce the growth rate of the fluctuations.

  15. Decoherence and Planck's Radiation Law

    CERN Document Server

    Vecchi, I

    2000-01-01

    The present note is devoted to an analysis of a crucial aspect of currentdecoherence theory. Its main point is that the claims on the diagonalisation ofthe density matrix are based on questionable hidden assumptions, conflictingwith accepted physical results.

  16. Retrospective analysis of linac-based radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations and testing of the Flickinger formula in predicting radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetin, I.A. [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (Belgium). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Marmara Univ., Ustkaynarca/Pendik (Turkey). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Ates, R.; Dhaens, J.; Storme, G. [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (Belgium). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-12-15

    Background and purpose: The aim of the study was to validate the use of linac-based radiosurgery in arteriovenous malformation (AVM) patients and to predict complications using an integrated logistic formula (ILF) in comparison with clinical outcomes. Patients and methods: The results of radiosurgery in 92 AVM patients were examined. All patients were treated with linac-based radiosurgery. Of these, 70 patients were followed for 12-45 months (median, 24 months) and were analyzed. The treated volume varied from 0.09 to 26.95 cm{sup 3} (median, 2.3 cm{sup 3}) and the median marginal dose was 20 Gy (range, 10.4-22). The median 12-Gy volume was 9.94 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.74-60.09 cm{sup 3}). Patients and lesion characteristics potentially affecting nidus obliteration and excellent outcome were evaluated by performing a log-rank test and univariate and multivariate analyses. The risk for radiation injury (RRI) was calculated with an integrated logistic formula. The predictive power of the RRI was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: Follow-up magnetic resonance (MR) angiography revealed complete AVM obliteration in 56 of 70 patients. The MR angiography confirmed an obliteration rate of 80%. The annual hemorrhage rate was 1.4% for the first 2 years after radiosurgery and 0% thereafter. The number of patients with an excellent outcome was 48 (68%). Factors associated with better obliteration were higher radiation dose to the lesion margins [12-Gy volume (V12) > 10 cm{sup 3}], small volume, and a Pollock-Flickinger score less than 1.49; those predicting excellent outcomes were V12 < 10 cm{sup 3}, small volume, and Pollock-Flickinger score less than 1.49, as determined by multivariate analyses. Factors associated with radiation injury were V12 > 10 cm{sup 3} (p=0.03) and volume greater than 2 cm{sup 3} (p=0.001), as determined by a univariate analysis. The analyses showed an ROC of 0.66. Conclusion: These data

  17. Planck-Kerr Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, C H

    2003-01-01

    A quantum gravitational instability is identified at Planck scales between non-spinning extreme Schwarzschild black holes and spinning extreme Kerr black holes, which produces a turbulent Planck particle gas. Planck inertial vortex forces balance gravitational forces as the Planck turbulence cascades to larger scales and the universe expands and cools. Turbulent mixing of temperature fluctuations and viscous dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy provide irreversibilities necessary to sustain the process to the strong force freeze out temperature where inflation begins. Turbulent temperature fluctuations are fossilized when they are stretched by inflation beyond the horizon scale of causal connection. As the horizon of the expanding universe grows, the fluctuations seed patterns of nucleosynthesis, and these seed the formation of structure in the plasma epoch. Fossil big bang turbulence is supported by extended self similarity coefficients computed for cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies tha...

  18. Planck driven by vision, broken by war

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Brandon R

    2015-01-01

    Planck's Law, an equation used by physicists to determine the radiation leaking from any object in the universe, was described by Albert Einstein as "the basis of all twentieth-century physics." Max Planck is credited with being the father of quantum theory, and his work laid the foundation for our modern understanding of matter and energetic processes. But Planck's story is not well known, especially in the United States. A German physicist working during the first half of the twentieth century, his library, personal journals, notebooks, and letters were all destroyed with his home in World War II. What remains, other than his contributions to science, are handwritten letters in German shorthand, and tributes from other scientists of the time, including his close friend Albert Einstein. In Planck: Driven by Vision, Broken by War, Brandon R. Brown interweaves the voices and writings of Planck, his family, and his contemporaries-with many passages appearing in English for the first time-to create a portrait of...

  19. The Planck mission

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchet, François R

    2014-01-01

    These lecture from the 100th Les Houches summer school on "Post-planck cosmology" of July 2013 discuss some aspects of the Planck mission, whose prime objective was a very accurate measurement of the temperature anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). We announced our findings a few months ago, on March 21$^{st}$, 2013. I describe some of the relevant steps we took to obtain these results, sketching the measurement process, how we processed the data to obtain full sky maps at 9 different frequencies, and how we extracted the CMB temperature anisotropies map and angular power spectrum. I conclude by describing some of the main cosmological implications of the statistical characteristics of the CMB we found. Of course, this is a very much shortened and somewhat biased view of the \\Planck\\ 2013 results, written with the hope that it may lead some of the students to consult the original papers.

  20. Cosmology with the Planck Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Sketched out in 1992, selected by ESA in 1996, and launched in 2009, the Planck satellite was shut off in 2013, after a measuring mission that exceeded all expectations. The Planck collaboration delivered a first set of cosmological data and results in March 21st 2013, and the full set in February 2015. Part of the data delivery is a "definitive" map of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), its angular power spectrum together with their full statistical characterisation. The 2015 delivery also includes pioneering polarisation data. The temperature anisotropy map displays minuscule variations as a function of the observing direction, of rms ~100microK, of the fossil radiation around its mean temperature of 2.725K. Other maps reveal the CMB polarisation. The anisotropies are the imprint of the primordial fluctuations which initiated the growth of the large scale structures of the Universe, as transformed by their evolution, in particular during the first 370 000 years, as well as finer e...

  1. PSM: Planck Sky Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashdown, Mark; Aumont, Jonathan; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Banday, Anthony; Basak, Soumen; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Betoule, Marc; Bouchet, François; Castex, Guillaume; Clements, Dave; Da Silva, Antonio; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Delabrouille, Jacques; Dickinson, Clive; Dodu, Fabrice; Dolag, Klaus; Elsner, Franz; Fauvet, Lauranne; Faÿ, Gilles; Giardino, Giovanna; Gonzalez-Nuevo, Joaquin; le Jeune, Maude; Leach, Samuel; Lesgourgues, Julien; Liguori, Michele; Macias, Juan; Massardi, Marcella; Matarrese, Sabino; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Melin, Jean-Baptiste; Miville-Deschênes, Marc-Antoine; Montier, Ludovic; Mottet, Sylvain; Paladini, Roberta; Partridge, Bruce; Piffaretti, Rocco; Prézeau, Gary; Prunet, Simon; Ricciardi, Sara; Roman, Matthieu; Schaefer, Bjorn; Toffolatti, Luigi

    2012-08-01

    The Planck Sky Model (PSM) is a global representation of the multi-component sky at frequencies ranging from a few GHz to a few THz. It summarizes in a synthetic way as much of our present knowledge as possible of the GHz sky. PSM is a complete and versatile set of programs and data that can be used for the simulation or the prediction of sky emission in the frequency range of typical CMB experiments, and in particular of the Planck sky mission. It was originally developed as part of the activities of Planck component separation Working Group (or "Working Group 2" - WG2), and of the ADAMIS team at APC. PSM gives users the opportunity to investigate the model in some depth: look at its parameters, visualize its predictions for all individual components in various formats, simulate sky emission compatible with a given parameter set, and observe the modeled sky with a synthetic instrument. In particular, it makes possible the simulation of sky emission maps as could be plausibly observed by Planck or other CMB experiments that can be used as inputs for the development and testing of data processing and analysis techniques.

  2. Radiation mean free path for non—LTE fully ionized medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangJun

    1998-01-01

    Radiation mean free path (RMFP) is the function of radiation temperature,electron temperature and material density,and needsto apply Planck mean and Rosseland mean,respectively,in the regions of rarefaction wave andshock wave.The analytical formulae for the two kinds of RMFP have been given,by which the RMFP have been calculated for the interesting small atomic number Z.The calculated results show that theRMFP in non-local-thermal-equilibrium (non-LTE) and in LTE are obviously different and PlanckRMFP is 30 times less than Rosseland one.

  3. Planck Early Results: The thermal performance of Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Baker, M; Balbi, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit, A; Bernard, J P; Bersanelli, M; Bhandari, P; Bhatia, R; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borders, J; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bowman, B; Bradshaw, T; Breelle, E; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cabella, P; Camus, P; Cantalupo, C M; Cappellini, B; Cardoso, J F; Catalano, A; Cayon, L; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chambelland, J P; Charra, J; Charra, M; Chiang, L Y; Chiang, C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Collaudin, B; Colombi, S; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Crook, M; Cuttaia, F; Damasio, C; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Gasperis, G; de Rosa, A; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J M; Desert, F -X; Doerl, U; Dolag, K; Donzelli, S; Dore, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enslin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Foley, S; Forni, O; Fosalba, P; Fourmond, J J; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Gavila, E; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Heraud, Y; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Gorski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Guyot, G; Harrison, D; Helou, G; Henrot-Versille, S; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Hoyland, R J; Huffenberger, K M; Israelsson, U; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knox, L; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J M; Lami, P; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lilje, P B; Lopez-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macias-Perez, J F; Maciaszek, T; MacTavish, C J; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mann, R; Maris, M; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Melot, F; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Miville-Deschenes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Mora, J; Morgante, G; Morisset, N; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, A; Naselsky, P; Nash, A; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Pajot, F; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, D; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Plaszczynski, S; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Poutanen, T; Prezeau, G; Prina, M; Prunet, S; Puget, J L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rubiino-Martin, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Schaefer, B M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, P; Smoot, G F; Starck, J -L; Stassi, P; Stivoli, F; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Torre, J -P; Tristram, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Vibert, L; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, C; White, S D M; Wilkinson, A; Wilson, P; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zhang, B; Zonca, A

    2011-01-01

    The performance of the Planck instruments in space is enabled by their low operating temperatures, 20K for LFI and 0.1K for HFI, achieved through a combination of passive radiative cooling and three active mechanical coolers. Active coolers were chosen to minimize straylight on the detectors and to maximize lifetime. The scientific requirement for very broad frequency led to two detector technologies with widely different temperature and cooling needs. This made use of a helium cryostat, as used by previous cryogenic space missions (IRAS, COBE, ISO, SPITZER, AKARI), infeasible. Radiative cooling is provided by three V-groove radiators and a large telescope baffle. The active coolers are a hydrogen sorption cooler (<20K), a 4He Joule-Thomson cooler (4.7K), and a 3He-4He dilution cooler (1.4K and 0.1K). The flight system was at ambient temperature at launch and cooled in space to operating conditions. The bolometer plate of the High Frequency Instrument reached 93mK on 3 July 2009, 50 days after launch. The ...

  4. Axion hot dark matter bounds after Planck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archidiacono, Maria; Hannestad, Steen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Mirizzi, Alessandro [II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Raffelt, Georg [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Wong, Yvonne Y.Y., E-mail: archi@phys.au.dk, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@desy.de, E-mail: raffelt@mpp.mpg.de, E-mail: yvonne.y.wong@unsw.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2013-10-01

    We use cosmological observations in the post-Planck era to derive limits on thermally produced cosmological axions. In the early universe such axions contribute to the radiation density and later to the hot dark matter fraction. We find an upper limit m{sub a} < 0.67 eV at 95% C.L. after marginalising over the unknown neutrino masses, using CMB temperature and polarisation data from Planck and WMAP respectively, the halo matter power spectrum extracted from SDSS-DR7, and the local Hubble expansion rate H{sub 0} released by the Carnegie Hubble Program based on a recalibration of the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project sample. Leaving out the local H{sub 0} measurement relaxes the limit somewhat to 0.86 eV, while Planck+WMAP alone constrain the axion mass to 1.01 eV, the first time an upper limit on m{sub a} has been obtained from CMB data alone. Our axion limit is therefore not very sensitive to the tension between the Planck-inferred H{sub 0} and the locally measured value. This is in contrast with the upper limit on the neutrino mass sum, which we find here to range from Σ m{sub ν} < 0.27 eV at 95% C.L. combining all of the aforementioned observations, to 0.84 eV from CMB data alone.

  5. Quantum Theory without Planck's Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Ralston, John P

    2012-01-01

    Planck's constant was introduced as a fundamental scale in the early history of quantum mechanics. We find a modern approach where Planck's constant is absent: it is unobservable except as a constant of human convention. Despite long reference to experiment, review shows that Planck's constant cannot be obtained from the data of Ryberg, Davisson and Germer, Compton, or that used by Planck himself. In the new approach Planck's constant is tied to macroscopic conventions of Newtonian origin, which are dispensable. The precision of other fundamental constants is substantially improved by eliminating Planck's constant. The electron mass is determined about 67 times more precisely, and the unit of electric charge determined 139 times more precisely. Improvement in the experimental value of the fine structure constant allows new types of experiment to be compared towards finding "new physics." The long-standing goal of eliminating reliance on the artifact known as the International Prototype Kilogram can be accompl...

  6. Localizability and the planck mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ne`eman, Y. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel). Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences]|[Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Center for Particle Physics

    1993-06-01

    The author combines the assumption of environmental decoherence, as the mechanism generating the classical (i.e. no quantum interferences) nature of spacetime, with the limit on its other classical feature, point-like continuity, namely Planck length. As a result, quantum extended objects with masses larger than Planck mass have to derive their quantum behavior from long-range correlations; objects with masses smaller than Planck mass cannot display classical behavior.

  7. Planck intermediate results XXXI. Microwave survey of Galactic supernova remnants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.

    2016-01-01

    The all-sky Planck survey in 9 frequency bands was used to search for emission from all 274 known Galactic supernova remnants. Of these, 16 were detected in at least two Planck frequencies. The radio-through-microwave spectral energy distributions were compiled to determine the mechanism for micr......The all-sky Planck survey in 9 frequency bands was used to search for emission from all 274 known Galactic supernova remnants. Of these, 16 were detected in at least two Planck frequencies. The radio-through-microwave spectral energy distributions were compiled to determine the mechanism...... for microwave emission. In only one case, IC 443, is there high-frequency emission clearly from dust associated with the supernova remnant. In all cases, the low-frequency emission is from synchrotron radiation. As predicted for a population of relativistic particles with energy distribution that extends...

  8. Planck intermediate results: XLVII. Planck constraints on reionization history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate constraints on cosmic reionization extracted from the Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. We combine the Planck CMB anisotropy data in temperature with the low-multipole polarization data to fit ΛCDM models with various parameterizations of the reionization history. We o...

  9. Planck 2013 results. XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.;

    2013-01-01

    The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS) is the catalogue of sources detected in the Planck nominal mission data. It consists of nine single-frequency catalogues of compact sources containing reliable sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. The PCCS covers th...

  10. Planck satellite to be presented to media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Planck will make the most accurate maps yet of the microwave background radiation that fills space. It will be sensitive to temperature variations of a few millionths of a degree and will map the full sky in nine wavelengths. The immediate outcome of the Big Bang and the initial conditions for the evolution in the universe’s structure are the primary target of this important mission. From the results, a great deal more will be learnt not only about the nature and amount of dark matter, the ‘missing mass’ of the universe, but also about the nature of dark energy and the expansion of the universe itself. To address such challenging objectives, Planck will need to operate at very low, stable temperatures. Once in space, its detectors will have to be cooled to temperature levels close to absolute zero (-273.15ºC), ranging from -253ºC to only a few tenths of a degree above absolute zero. The Planck spacecraft thus has to be a marvel of cryotechnology. After integration, Planck will start a series of tests that will continue into early-2008. It will be launched by end-July 2008 in a dual-launch configuration with Herschel, ESA’s mission to study the formation of galaxies, stars and planetary systems in the infrared. Interested media are invited to fill in the reply form below. Note to editors The Planck spacecraft was built by AAS Cannes, the prime contractor, leading a consortium of industrial partners with the AAS industry branch in Turin, Italy, responsible for the satellite’s service module. ESA and the Danish National Space Centre (Copenhagen, Denmark) are responsible for the hardware provision of Planck’s telescope mirrors, manufactured by EADS Astrium (Friedrichshafen, Germany). AAS Cannes is also responsible for the payload module, the platform that hosts the telescope and the two onboard instruments, HFI and LFI. The instruments themselves are being supplied by a consortium of scientists and institutes led by the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale

  11. Planck 2015 results. XIII. Cosmological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Chluba, J.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Farhang, M.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Gerbino, M.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Giusarma, E.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marchini, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martinelli, M.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rouillé d'Orfeuil, B.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Said, N.; Salvatelli, V.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Spinelli, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents cosmological results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Our results are in very good agreement with the 2013 analysis of the Planck nominal-mission temperature data, but with increased precision. The temperature and polarization power spectra are consistent with the standard spatially-flat 6-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations (denoted "base ΛCDM" in this paper). From the Planck temperature data combined with Planck lensing, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H0 = (67.8 ± 0.9) km s-1Mpc-1, a matter density parameter Ωm = 0.308 ± 0.012, and a tilted scalar spectral index with ns = 0.968 ± 0.006, consistent with the 2013 analysis. Note that in this abstract we quote 68% confidence limits on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters. We present the first results of polarization measurements with the Low Frequency Instrument at large angular scales. Combined with the Planck temperature and lensing data, these measurements give a reionization optical depth of τ = 0.066 ± 0.016, corresponding to a reionization redshift of z_re=8.8+1.7-1.4. These results are consistent with those from WMAP polarization measurements cleaned for dust emission using 353-GHz polarization maps from the High Frequency Instrument. We find no evidence for any departure from base ΛCDM in the neutrino sector of the theory; for example, combining Planck observations with other astrophysical data we find Neff = 3.15 ± 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, consistent with the value Neff = 3.046 of the Standard Model of particle physics. The sum of neutrino masses is constrained to ∑ mν data. Adding the BKP B-mode data to our analysis leads to a tighter constraint of r0.002 data leads to strong constraints on deviations from a purely adiabatic spectrum of

  12. Effects of extended dry storage of powdered infant milk formula on susceptibility of Enterobacter sakazakii to hot water and ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Shaker, Reyad R; Ayyash, Mutamed M; Olaimat, Amin N; Al-Hasan, Ashraf S Abu; Kadora, Khaled M; Holley, Richard A

    2008-05-01

    Infant milk formula has been identified as a potential source of Enterobacter sakazakii, which has been implicated in neonatal meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis. This study was undertaken to determine whether the length of E. sakazakii storage in powdered infant milk formula (PIMF) affected the ability of the pathogen to survive subsequent reconstitution of the powder with hot water or treatment with gamma radiation. Five E. sakazakii strains were mixed individually with PIMF and kept for up to 12 months at 25 degrees C. After storage PIMF was reconstituted with water at 60 to 100 degrees C or was exposed to radiation. Without any treatment secondary to drying, E. sakazakii counts decreased Dry storage decreased thermal resistance but increased resistance of E. sakazakii to ionizing radiation in PIMF. Reconstitution of contaminated powder with water at 70 degrees C after 1 month of dry storage reduced E. sakazakii viability slightly, > 2 log/g, and after powder was stored for 12 months all E. sakazakii strains were eliminated. In contrast, desiccation substantially increased the resistance of E. sakazakii strains to ionizing radiation. Although the D-value for E. sakazakii IMF1 following overnight storage in PIMF was 0.98 kGy, > 4 kGy was required to kill 1.5 log/g of the same strain that had survived 12 months in dry PIMF. Results suggested that low-dose irradiation will more effectively eliminate E. sakazakii from PIMF if the treatment is applied shortly after PIMF manufacture.

  13. The Radiation Magnetic Force (FmR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    The detection of Circular Magnetic Field (CMF), associated with electrons movement, not incorporated in theoretical works; is introduced as elements of attraction and repulsion for magnetic force between two conductors carrying electric currents; it also created magnetic force between charged particles and magnetic field, or Lorentz force; CMF contain energy of Electromagnetic Radiation (EM-R); a relationship has been established between the magnetic part of the EM-R, and radiation force, showing the magnetic force as a frequency controlled entity, in which a Radiation Magnetic Force formula is derived, the force embedded EM-Wave, similar to Electromagnetic Radiation Energy given by Planck's formula; the force is accountable for electron removal from atom in the Photoelectric Effects, stabilizing orbital atoms, excitation and ionization atoms, initiating production of secondary EM-R in Compton Effect mechanism; the paper aimed at reviving the wave nature of EM-R, which could reflects in a better understanding of the microscopic-world.

  14. Study of Planck's Law with a Small USB Grating Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratil, Zdenek; Dosoudilova, Lenka; Jurmanova, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an experiment to study Planck's radiation law is presented. The spectra of a heated furnace and of a halogen lamp under various conditions were measured with a small USB grating spectrometer and fitted using Planck's law. The temperature determined from the fit was then compared with the results of comparative temperature…

  15. Planck's High Temperature Catastrophe in Observational Astronomy:- (NASA proves Planck wrong)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Clarence A.

    2009-03-01

    Planck's black body radiation law ( IP=c1 λ^51e^c2λT -1) predicts that a hotter body (higher T) should always emit more intensely than a colder body (lower T) throughout the entire EMR spectrum. However, space age infrared astronomy contradicts this prediction! It is now known that as observation moves from the visible to the near-, mid- and far infrared; increasingly cold celestial objects come into view while hotter ones fade and disappear (http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmicclassroom/irtutori al/irregions.html). Were Planck's law valid, the hottest stars would never disappear; and colder objects would not be detected. This can only be described as a high temperature catastrophe (BAPS, April Meeting 2008, H12.3, St Louis, MO) for Planck's law! On the other hand, Gall's black body radiation law ( IG=σT^6b^2λe^-λTb) (http://sites.google.com/site/purefieldphysics) predicts that as wavelength increases, there is a crossover point above which a colder object will emit more intensely than a hotter one. Hence colder objects will appear and hotter ones will eventually disappear from view. The crossover point for black bodies at 6000K and 100K is 12.066 microns. These calculations with Gall's law are in overall agreement with observational infrared astronomy.

  16. CMB anomalies after Planck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Dominik J.; Copi, Craig J.; Huterer, Dragan; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2016-09-01

    Several unexpected features have been observed in the microwave sky at large angular scales, both by WMAP and by Planck. Among those features is a lack of both variance and correlation on the largest angular scales, alignment of the lowest multipole moments with one another and with the motion and geometry of the solar system, a hemispherical power asymmetry or dipolar power modulation, a preference for odd parity modes and an unexpectedly large cold spot in the Southern hemisphere. The individual p-values of the significance of these features are in the per mille to per cent level, when compared to the expectations of the best-fit inflationary ΛCDM model. Some pairs of those features are demonstrably uncorrelated, increasing their combined statistical significance and indicating a significant detection of CMB features at angular scales larger than a few degrees on top of the standard model. Despite numerous detailed investigations, we still lack a clear understanding of these large-scale features, which seem to imply a violation of statistical isotropy and scale invariance of inflationary perturbations. In this contribution we present a critical analysis of our current understanding and discuss several ideas of how to make further progress.

  17. CMB Anomalies after Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Dominik J; Huterer, Dragan; Starkman, Glenn D

    2015-01-01

    Several unexpected features have been observed in the microwave sky at large angular scales, both by WMAP an by Planck. Among those features is a lack of both variance and correlation on the largest angular scales, alignment of the lowest multipole moments with one another and with the motion and geometry of the Solar System, a hemispherical power asymmetry or dipolar power modulation, a preference for odd parity modes and an unexpectedly large cold spot in the Southern hemisphere. The individual p-values of the significance of these features are in the per mille to per cent level, when compared to the expectations of the best-fit inflationary $\\Lambda$CDM model. Some pairs of those features are demonstrably uncorrelated, increasing their combined statistical significance and indicating a significant detection of CMB features at angular scales larger than a few degrees on top of the standard model. Despite numerous detailed investigations, we still lack a clear understanding of these large-scale features, whi...

  18. Makeham's Formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    Makeham's formula is an actuarial formula expressing the present value of a payment stream in terms of its repayments instead of the payments themselves. The formula is largely neglected in the finance literature, but -- as this paper shows -- it has a number of useful applications in fixed income...... analysis. We use Makeham's formula to decompose the return on a bond investment into interest payments, realized capital gains and accrued capital gains for a variety of accounting rules for measuring accruals in order to study the theoretical properties of these accounting rules, their taxation...

  19. Astrophysical formulae

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    1978-01-01

    This volume is a reference source of fundamental formulae in physics and astrophysics. In contrast to most of the usual compendia it carefully explains the physical assumptions entering the formulae. All the important results of physical theories are covered: electrodynamics, hydrodynamics, general relativity, atomic and nuclear physics, and so on. Over 2100 formulae are included, and the original papers for the formulae are cited together with papers on modern applications in a bibliography of over 1900 entries. For this new edition, a chapter on space, time, matter and cosmology has been included and the other chapters have been carefully revised.

  20. General Formula for Estimation of Monthly Mean Global Solar Radiation in Different Climates on the South and North Coasts of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Sabziparvar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Using sunshine duration, cloud cover, relative humidity, average of maximum temperature, and ground albedo as the input of several radiation models, the monthly average daily solar radiation on horizontal surface in various coastal cities of the South (25.23∘ N and the North (38.42∘ N of Iran are estimated. Several radiation models are tested and further are revised by taking into consideration the effects of relative humidity, ground albedo, and Sun-Earth distance. Model validation is performed by using up to 13 years (1988–2000 of daily solar observations. Errors are calculated using MBE, MABE, MPE, and RMSE statistical criteria (see nomenclature and further a general formula which estimates the global radiation in different climates of coastal regions is suggested. The proposed method shows a good agreement (less than 7% deviation with the long-term pyranometric data. In comparison with other works done so far, the suggested method performs a higher degree of accuracy for those of two regions. The model results can be extended to other locations in coastal regions where solar data are not available.

  1. Planck 2016 intermediate results. XLVII. Planck constraints on reionization history

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, R; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Ballardini, M; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Basak, S; Battye, R; Benabed, K; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Carron, J; Chiang, H C; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Di Valentino, E; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fantaye, Y; Finelli, F; Forastieri, F; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frolov, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Gerbino, M; Ghosh, T; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hivon, E; Huang, Z; Ili_, S; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knox, L; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Langer, M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Levrier, F; Lewis, A; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; López-Caniego, M; Ma, Y -Z; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Matarrese, S; Mauri, N; McEwen, J D; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Molinari, D; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Moss, A; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Patanchon, G; Patrizii, L; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Plaszczynski, S; Polastri, L; Polenta, G; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Racine, B; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renzi, A; Rocha, G; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Ruiz-Granados, B; Salvati, L; Sandri, M; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Sirri, G; Sunyaev, R; Suur-Uski, A -S; Tauber, J A; Tenti, M; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Trombetti, T; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, F; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; White, M; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2016-01-01

    We investigate constraints on cosmic reionization extracted from the Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. We combine the Planck CMB anisotropy data in temperature with the low-multipole polarization data to fit {\\Lambda}CDM models with various parameterizations of the reionization history. We obtain a Thomson optical depth {\\tau}=0.058 +/- 0.012 for the commonly adopted instantaneous reionization model. This confirms, with only data from CMB anisotropies, the low value suggested by combining Planck 2015 results with other data sets and also reduces the uncertainties. We reconstruct the history of the ionization fraction using either a symmetric or an asymmetric model for the transition between the neutral and ionized phases. To determine better constraints on the duration of the reionization process, we also make use of measurements of the amplitude of the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich (kSZ) effect using additional information from the high resolution Atacama Cosmology Telescope and South Pole Telescope...

  2. Planck 2013 results. XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schammel, M.P.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Walter, B.; Wandelt, B.D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS) is the catalogue of sources detected in the first 15 months of Planck operations, the "nominal" mission. It consists of nine single-frequency catalogues of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. The PCCS covers the frequency range 30--857\\,GHz with higher sensitivity (it is 90% complete at 180 mJy in the best channel) and better angular resolution (from ~33' to ~5') than previous all-sky surveys in this frequency band. By construction its reliability is >80% and more than 65% of the sources have been detected at least in two contiguous Planck channels. In this paper we present the construction and validation of the PCCS, its contents and its statistical characterization.

  3. Primordial features and Planck polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Smoot, George F; Starobinsky, Alexei A

    2016-01-01

    With the Planck 2015 Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization data, we examine possibility of having features in the primordial power spectrum (PPS). We revisit the Wiggly Whipped Inflation (WWI) framework and demonstrate how generation of some particular primordial features can improve the fit to Planck data. WWI potential allows the scalar field to transit from a steeper potential to a nearly flat potential through a discontinuity either in potential or in its derivatives. Using Planck 2015 data, we constrain the primordial features in the context of Wiggly Whipped Inflation and present the features that are supported both by temperature and polarization. WWI model provides upto $\\sim12-14$ improvement in $\\chi^2$ fit to the data with respect to the best fit power law model considering combined temperature and polarization data from Planck and B-mode polarization data from BICEP and Planck dust map. We use 2-4 extra parameters in the WWI model compared to the featureless strict slow ro...

  4. Now Broadcasting in Planck Definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Craig [Fermilab

    2013-07-08

    If reality has finite information content, space has finite fidelity. The quantum wave function that encodes spatial relationships may be limited to information that can be transmitted in a "Planck broadcast", with a bandwidth given by the inverse of the Planck time, about $2\\times 10^{43}$ bits per second. Such a quantum system can resemble classical space-time on large scales, but locality emerges only gradually and imperfectly. Massive bodies are never perfectly at rest, but very slightly and slowly fluctuate in transverse position, with a spectrum of variation given by the Planck time. This distinctive new kind of noise associated with quantum geometry would not have been noticed up to now, but may be detectable in a new kind of experiment.

  5. Radio observations of Planck clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, Ruta

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a number of new galaxy clusters have been detected by the ESA-Planck satellite, the South Pole Telescope and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Several of the newly detected clusters are massive, merging systems with disturbed morphology in the X-ray surface brightness. Diffuse radio sources in clusters, called giant radio halos and relics, are direct probes of cosmic rays and magnetic fields in the intra-cluster medium. These radio sources are found to occur mainly in massive merging clusters. Thus, the new SZ-discovered clusters are good candidates to search for new radio halos and relics. We have initiated radio observations of the clusters detected by Planck with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. These observations have already led to the detection of a radio halo in PLCKG171.9-40.7, the first giant halo discovered in one of the new Planck clusters.

  6. Improved Fokker-Planck Equation for Resonance Line Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Rybicki, G B

    2006-01-01

    A new Fokker-Planck equation is developed for treating resonance line scattering, especially relevant to the treatment of Lyman alpha in the early universe. It is a "corrected" form of the equation of Rybicki & Dell'Antonio that now obeys detailed balance, so that the approach to thermal equilibrium is properly described. The new equation takes into account the energy changes due to scattering off moving particles, the recoil term of Basko, and stimulated scattering. One result is a surprising unification of the equation for resonance line scattering and the Kompaneets equation. An improved energy exchange formula due to resonance line scattering is derived. This formula is compared to previous formulas of Madau, Meikson, & Rees (1997) and Chen & Miralda-Escud\\'e (2004).

  7. 100 years of Planck's quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Duck, Ian M

    2000-01-01

    This invaluable book takes the reader from Planck's discovery of the quantum in 1900 to the most recent interpretations and applications of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics.The introduction of the quantum idea leads off the prehistory of quantum mechanics, featuring Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Compton, and de Broglie's immortal contributions. Their original discovery papers are featured with explanatory notes and developments in Part 1.The invention of matrix mechanics and quantum mechanics by Heisenberg, Born, Jordan, Dirac, and Schrödinger is presented next, in Part 2.Following that, in Part 3,

  8. Astrophysical components from Planck maps

    CERN Document Server

    Burigana, Carlo; Paoletti, Daniela; Mandolesi, Nazzareno; Natoli, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The Planck Collaboration has recently released maps of the microwave sky in both temperature and polarization. Diffuse astrophysical components (including Galactic emissions, cosmic far infrared (IR) background, y-maps of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect) and catalogs of many thousands of Galactic and extragalactic radio and far-IR sources, and galaxy clusters detected through the SZ effect are the main astrophysical products of the mission. A concise overview of these results and of astrophysical studies based on Planck data is presented.

  9. Plateau Inflation and Planck Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    A new family of inflationary models is introduced and analysed. The behaviour of the parameters characterising the models suggest preferred values, which generate the most interesting testable predictions. Results are further improved if late reheating and/or a subsequent period of thermal inflation is taken into account. Specific model realisations consider a sub-Planckian inflaton variation or a potential without fine-tuning of mass scales, based on the Planck and GUT scales. A toy model realisation in the context of global and local supersymmetry is examined and results fitting the Planck observations are determined.

  10. Planck Scale to Hubble Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Sidharth, B G

    1998-01-01

    Within the context of the usual semi classical investigation of Planck scale Schwarzchild Black Holes, as in Quantum Gravity, and later attempts at a full Quantum Mechanical description in terms of a Kerr-Newman metric including the spinorial behaviour, we attempt to present a formulation that extends from the Planck scale to the Hubble scale. In the process the so called large number coincidences as also the hitherto inexplicable relations between the pion mass and the Hubble Constant, pointed out by Weinberg, turn out to be natural consequences in a consistent description.

  11. Planck early results. XVI. The Planck view of nearby galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Theall-sky coverage of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) provides an unsurpassed survey of galaxies at submillimetre (submm) wavelengths, representing a major improvement in the numbers of galaxies detected, as well as the range of far-IR/submm wavelengths over which they ...

  12. Planck pre-launch status: The Planck mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauber, J. A.; Mandoles, N.; Puget, J.-L.

    2010-01-01

    The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, launched on 14 May 2009, is the third-generation space experiment in the field of cosmic microwave background (CMB) research. It will image the anisotropies of the CMB over the whole sky, with unprecedented sensitivity ( ~ 2 × 10-6) and angular...

  13. Planck Early Results: The thermal performance of Planck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2011-01-01

    . The bolometer plate of the High Frequency Instrument reached 93mK on 3 July 2009, 50 days after launch. The solar panel always faces the Sun, shadowing the rest of Planck, and operates at a mean temperature of 384 K. At the other end of the spacecraft, the telescope bae operates at 42.3K and the telescope...

  14. Analytical formulae to calculate the solid angle subtended at an arbitrarily positioned point source by an elliptical radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Mahmoud I., E-mail: mabbas@physicist.net [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, 21511 Alexandria (Egypt); Hammoud, Sami [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Beirut Arab University, Beirut (Lebanon); Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Art, Lebanese International University (Lebanon); Ibrahim, Tarek; Sakr, Mohamed [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Beirut Arab University, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2015-01-21

    In this article, we introduce a direct analytical mathematical method for calculating the solid angle, Ω, subtended at a point by closed elliptical contours. The solid angle is required in many areas of optical and nuclear physics to estimate the flux of particle beam of radiation and to determine the activity of a radioactive source. The validity of the derived analytical expressions was successfully confirmed by the comparison with some published data (Numerical Method)

  15. Invariance principle and model reduction for the Fokker-Planck equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    The principle of dynamic invariance is applied to obtain closed moment equations from the Fokker-Planck kinetic equation. The analysis is carried out to explicit formulae for computation of the lowest eigenvalue and of the corresponding eigenfunction for arbitrary potentials. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'.

  16. The Planck Blackbody Spectrum Follows from the Structure of Relativistic Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Timothy H

    2016-01-01

    Here we show that within classical physics, the Planck blackbody spectrum can be derived directly from the structure of relativistic spacetime. In noninertial frames, thermal radiation at positive temperature is connected directly to zero-point radiation whose spectrum follows from the geodesic structure of the spacetime. The connection between zero-point radiation and thermal radiation at postive temperature is through a time-dilating conformal transformation in the noninertial frame. Transferring the spectrum back to Minskowski spacetime, the Planck spectrum is obtained.

  17. Primordial features and Planck polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Smoot, George F.; Starobinsky, Alexei A.

    2016-09-01

    With the Planck 2015 Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization data, we search for possible features in the primordial power spectrum (PPS). We revisit the Wiggly Whipped Inflation (WWI) framework and demonstrate how generation of some particular primordial features can improve the fit to Planck data. WWI potential allows the scalar field to transit from a steeper potential to a nearly flat potential through a discontinuity either in potential or in its derivatives. WWI offers the inflaton potential parametrizations that generate a wide variety of features in the primordial power spectra incorporating most of the localized and non-local inflationary features that are obtained upon reconstruction from temperature and polarization angular power spectrum. At the same time, in a single framework it allows us to have a background parameter estimation with a nearly free-form primordial spectrum. Using Planck 2015 data, we constrain the primordial features in the context of Wiggly Whipped Inflation and present the features that are supported both by temperature and polarization. WWI model provides more than 13 improvement in χ2 fit to the data with respect to the best fit power law model considering combined temperature and polarization data from Planck and B-mode polarization data from BICEP and Planck dust map. We use 2-4 extra parameters in the WWI model compared to the featureless strict slow roll inflaton potential. We find that the differences between the temperature and polarization data in constraining background cosmological parameters such as baryon density, cold dark matter density are reduced to a good extent if we use primordial power spectra from WWI. We also discuss the extent of bispectra obtained from the best potentials in arbitrary triangular configurations using the BI-spectra and Non-Gaussianity Operator (BINGO).

  18. Analyzing Planck-Like Data with Wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, J. L.; Barreiro, R. B.; Cayón, L.; Martinez-González, E.; Ruiz, G. A.; Diaz, F. J.; Argüeso, F.; Toffolatti, L.

    Basics on the continuous and discrete wavelet transform with two scales are outlined. We study maps representing anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) and the relation to the standard approach, based on the Cl's, is establised through the introduction of a wavelet spectrum. We apply this technique to small angular scale CMB map simulations of size 12.8 x 12.8 degrees and filtered with a 4'.5 Gaussian beam. This resolution resembles the experimental one expected for future high resolution experiments (e.g. the Planck mission). We consider temperature fluctuations derived from standard, open and flat-Lambda CDM models. We also introduce Gaussian noise (uniform and non-uniform) at different S/N levels and results are given regarding denoising.

  19. Planck 2013 results. XXXI. Consistency of the Planck data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.

    2014-01-01

    by deviation of the ratio from unity) between 70 and 100 GHz power spectra averaged over 70 ≤∫≥ 390 at the 0.8% level, and agreement between 143 and 100 GHz power spectra of 0.4% over the same ` range. These values are within and consistent with the overall uncertainties in calibration given in the Planck 2013...... foreground emission. In this paper, we analyse the level of consistency achieved in the 2013 Planck data. We concentrate on comparisons between the 70, 100, and 143 GHz channel maps and power spectra, particularly over the angular scales of the first and second acoustic peaks, on maps masked for diuse....../100 ratio. Correcting for this, the 70, 100, and 143 GHz power spectra agree to 0.4% over the first two acoustic peaks. The likelihood analysis that produced the 2013 cosmological parameters incorporated uncertainties larger than this. We show explicitly that correction of the missing near sidelobe power...

  20. Planck 2013 results. XXXI. Consistency of the Planck data

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A.J; Barreiro, R.B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Levy, A; Bernard, J.P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bond, J.R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F.R; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J.F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H.C; Christensen, P.R; Clements, D.L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L.P.L; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B.P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R.D; Davis, R.J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Desert, F.X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J.M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Dore, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Ensslin, T.A; Eriksen, H.K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F.K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versille, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S.R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M; Jaffe, T.R; Jaffe, A.H; Jones, W.C; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lahteenmaki, A; Lamarre, J.M; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C.R; Leonardi, R; Leon-Tavares, J; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P.B; Linden-Vornle, M; Lopez-Caniego, M; Lubin, P.M; Macias-Perez, J.F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Martin, P.G; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P.R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschenes, M.A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C.A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, D; Pearson, T.J; Perdereau, O; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Pratt, G.W; Prunet, S; Puget, J.L; Rachen, J.P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G.; Roudier, G; Rubino-Martin, J.A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Scott, D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A.S; Sygnet, J.F; Tauber, J.A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L.A; Wandelt, B.D; Wehus, I K; White, S D M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    The Planck design and scanning strategy provide many levels of redundancy that can be exploited to provide tests of internal consistency. One of the most important is the comparison of the 70 GHz (amplifier) and 100 GHz (bolometer) channels. Based on different instrument technologies, with feeds located differently in the focal plane, analysed independently by different teams using different software, and near the minimum of diffuse foreground emission, these channels are in effect two different experiments. The 143 GHz channel has the lowest noise level on Planck, and is near the minimum of unresolved foreground emission. In this paper, we analyse the level of consistency achieved in the 2013 Planck data. We concentrate on comparisons between the 70, 100, and 143 GHz channel maps and power spectra, particularly over the angular scales of the first and second acoustic peaks, on maps masked for diffuse Galactic emission and for strong unresolved sources. Difference maps covering angular scales from 8°...

  1. Inflationary paradigm after Planck 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Guth, Alan H; Nomura, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    Models of cosmic inflation posit an early phase of accelerated expansion of the universe, driven by the dynamics of one or more scalar fields in curved spacetime. Though detailed assumptions about fields and couplings vary across models, inflation makes specific, quantitative predictions for several observable quantities, such as the flatness parameter ($\\Omega_k = 1 - \\Omega$) and the spectral tilt of primordial curvature perturbations ($n_s - 1 = d \\ln {\\cal P}_{\\cal R} / d \\ln k$), among others---predictions that match the latest observations from the {\\it Planck} satellite to very good precision. In the light of data from {\\it Planck} as well as recent theoretical developments in the study of eternal inflation and the multiverse, we address recent criticisms of inflation by Ijjas, Steinhardt, and Loeb. We argue that their conclusions rest on several problematic assumptions, and we conclude that cosmic inflation is on a stronger footing than ever before.

  2. Inflationary paradigm after Planck 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guth, Alan H., E-mail: guth@ctp.mit.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kaiser, David I., E-mail: dikaiser@mit.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Nomura, Yasunori, E-mail: ynomura@berkeley.edu [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, and Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-06-02

    Models of cosmic inflation posit an early phase of accelerated expansion of the universe, driven by the dynamics of one or more scalar fields in curved spacetime. Though detailed assumptions about fields and couplings vary across models, inflation makes specific, quantitative predictions for several observable quantities, such as the flatness parameter (Ω{sub k}=1−Ω) and the spectral tilt of primordial curvature perturbations (n{sub s}−1=dlnP{sub R}/dlnk), among others—predictions that match the latest observations from the Planck satellite to very good precision. In the light of data from Planck as well as recent theoretical developments in the study of eternal inflation and the multiverse, we address recent criticisms of inflation by Ijjas, Steinhardt, and Loeb. We argue that their conclusions rest on several problematic assumptions, and we conclude that cosmic inflation is on a stronger footing than ever before.

  3. Inflationary paradigm after Planck 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Alan H.; Kaiser, David I.; Nomura, Yasunori

    2014-06-01

    Models of cosmic inflation posit an early phase of accelerated expansion of the universe, driven by the dynamics of one or more scalar fields in curved spacetime. Though detailed assumptions about fields and couplings vary across models, inflation makes specific, quantitative predictions for several observable quantities, such as the flatness parameter (Ωk = 1 - Ω) and the spectral tilt of primordial curvature perturbations (ns - 1 = dln ⁡PR / dln ⁡ k), among others-predictions that match the latest observations from the Planck satellite to very good precision. In the light of data from Planck as well as recent theoretical developments in the study of eternal inflation and the multiverse, we address recent criticisms of inflation by Ijjas, Steinhardt, and Loeb. We argue that their conclusions rest on several problematic assumptions, and we conclude that cosmic inflation is on a stronger footing than ever before.

  4. Black Body Detector Temperature from Gall and Planck Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Clarence A.

    2009-05-01

    The laws of Gall (http://sites.google.com/site/purefieldphysics) and Planck are generally defined with zero intensity at 0 K. However actual measurements involve detectors above absolute zero. These detectors must also be treated as approximate black body radiators. The zero intensity reference point is thus defined by the radiated intensity at the detector temperature. Planck's law thus becomes ( IP=c1λ^51e^c2λT;-1-c1λ^51e^c2λTd;-1) where Td is the detector temperature. Provided that T>Td;;;IP;is;always>0. Thus from a Planck perspective, wavelength increase should not be a factor in defining detector temperature. The corresponding expression for Gall's law is ( IG=σT^6b^2λe^-λTb-σTd^6b^2λe^-λTdb) . Above the crossover wavelength (http://absimage.aps.org/image/MWSMAR09-2008-000004.pdf), even though T>Td;;;IG<0. From a Gall perspective, this sets a limit on the long wavelength range for a given detector temperature. Longer wavelength measurements require lower detector temperatures. For a 6000 K black body radiator, the long wavelength crossover limits for detectors at 300 K, 100 K and 4 K are 9.138, 12.066 and 21.206 microns respectively.

  5. Max Planck et les quanta

    CERN Document Server

    Boudenot, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    « Les atomes, dit Jean Perrin en 1913, ne sont pas ces éléments éternels et insécables dont l'irréductible simplicité donnait au possible une borne, et, dans leur inimaginable petitesse, nous commençons à pressentir un fourmillement prodigieux de mondes nouveaux ». C'est bien dans un monde totalement nouveau, le monde quantique, que nous a fait pénétrer la découverte des quanta par Max Planck. Son article de 1900 est le déclencheur de l'une des plus grandes révolutions scientifiques de tous les temps. Les trente années qui suivent sont les plus riches de la physique ; Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Sommerfeld, de Broglie, Schrödinger, Heisenberg, Dirac, Born, Pauli… reconstruisent la physique sur de nouvelles bases sur fond de conflit des générations. Le monde est par ailleurs secoué par la guerre, Max Planck est tourmenté et vit des épreuves personnelles dramatiques. C'est l'homme, aussi bien que l'oeuvre, que les auteurs ont tenté de dépeindre dans cet ouvrage. Ils ont également souhait�...

  6. Primordial power spectrum from Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Souradeep, Tarun

    2014-01-01

    Using modified Richardson-Lucy algorithm we reconstruct the primordial power spectrum (PPS) from Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropy data. In our analysis we use different combinations of angular power spectra from Planck to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum and locate possible features. Performing an extensive error analysis we found the dip near $\\ell\\sim750-850$ represents the most prominent feature in the data. Feature near $\\ell\\sim1800-2000$ is detectable with high confidence only in 217 GHz spectrum and is apparently consequence of a small systematic as described in the revised Planck 2013 papers. Fixing the background cosmological parameters and the foreground nuisance parameters to their best fit baseline values, we report that the best fit power law primordial power spectrum is consistent with the reconstructed form of the PPS at 2$\\sigma$ C.L. of the estimated errors (apart from the local features mentioned above). As a consistency test, we found the...

  7. Planck Intermediate Results. IX. Detection of the Galactic haze with Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Balbi, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Burigana, C; Cabella, P; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Cayón, L; Chary, R -R; Chiang, L -Y; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombo, L P L; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; D'Arcangelo, O; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Gasperis, G; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dobler, G; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Dörl, U; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giardino, G; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jagemann, T; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leonardi, R; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Osborne, S; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Savini, G; Schaefer, B M; Scott, D; Smoot, G F; Stivoli, F; Sudiwala, R; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; White, M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2012-01-01

    Using precise full-sky observations from Planck, and applying several methods of component separation, we identify and characterize the emission from the Galactic "haze" at microwave wavelengths. The haze is a distinct component of diffuse Galactic emission, roughly centered on the Galactic centre, and extends to |b| ~35 deg in Galactic latitude and |l| ~15 deg in longitude. By combining the Planck data with observations from the WMAP we are able to determine the spectrum of this emission to high accuracy, unhindered by the large systematic biases present in previous analyses. The derived spectrum is consistent with power-law emission with a spectral index of -2.55 +/- 0.05, thus excluding free-free emission as the source and instead favouring hard-spectrum synchrotron radiation from an electron population with a spectrum (number density per energy) dN/dE ~ E^-2.1. At Galactic latitudes |b|<30 deg, the microwave haze morphology is consistent with that of the Fermi gamma-ray "haze" or "bubbles," indicating ...

  8. German science. Max Planck charts new path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, R

    2000-06-09

    Germany's premier basic research organization, the Max Planck Society, released a long-awaited blueprint for change during its annual meeting this week, recommending that the society's nearly 3000 scientists embrace more interdisciplinary and international projects in a range of new research priorities. The report, called Max Planck 2000-Plus, is the product of an 18-month-long internal review. Its recommendations were formulated by some two dozen Max Planck researchers and administrators, who sought input from every institute.

  9. Planck Charges, Planck Currents and The Hermitic Shangri-La for Magnetic Monopole

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Yanbin; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of Planck charges are summarized and extended in a consistent and unified manner to include Planck currents. These Planck parameters form a set of indicators serving as the boundary markers signaling the buffer zone separating the quantum gravity physics beyond Planck energy scale from the ordinary physics below the Planck scale. Combining the concepts of Planck charges with the Dirac electric-magnetic charge quantization relation, a lower bound is discovered and attributed to the value of magnetic monopole as half of the Planck magnetic monopole. The value of the running electric fine structure constant is required to be confined to a restricted interval to keep physics involving magnetic monopoles below the Planck scale. It provides a prediction about the hermitic Shangri-La, a remote place the magnetic monopoles are inhabiting near the boundary but still within the scope of ordinary physics. It opens a window of hope to the theoretical and/or experimental probe for magnetic monopoles realizing...

  10. Generalized Klein-Nishina formula

    CERN Document Server

    Krajewska, K; Kamiński, J Z

    2015-01-01

    The generalized Klein-Nishina formula for Compton scattering of charged particles by a finite train of pulses is derived in the framework of quantum electrodynamics. The formula also applies to classical Thomson scattering provided that frequencies of generated radiation are smaller that the cut-off frequency. The validity of the formula for incident pulses of different durations is illustrated by numerical examples. The positions of the well-resolved Compton peaks, with the clear labeling by integer orders, opens up the possibility of the precise diagnostics of properties of relativistically intense, short laser pulses. This includes their peak intensity, the carrier-envelope phase, and their polarization properties.

  11. SETI at Planck Energy: When Particle Physicists Become Cosmic Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Lacki, Brian C

    2015-01-01

    What is the meaning of the Fermi Paradox -- are we alone or is starfaring rare? Can general relativity be united with quantum mechanics? The searches for answers to these questions could intersect. It is known that an accelerator capable of energizing particles to the Planck scale requires cosmic proportions. The energy required to run a Planck accelerator is also cosmic, of order 100 M_sun c^2 for a hadron collider, because the natural cross section for Planck physics is so tiny. If aliens are interested in fundamental physics, they could resort to cosmic engineering for their experiments. These colliders are detectable through the vast amount of "pollution" they produce, motivating a YeV SETI program. I investigate what kinds of radiation they would emit in a fireball scenario, and the feasibility of detecting YeV radiation at Earth, particularly YeV neutrinos. Although current limits on YeV neutrinos are weak, Kardashev 3 YeV neutrino sources appear to be at least 30--100 Mpc apart on average, if they are ...

  12. Planck-LFI radiometers tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttaia, F; Stringhetti, L; Terenzi, L; Villa, F; Butler, R C; Franceschi, E [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, INAF, via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Mennella, A; Tomasi, M; Bersanelli, M; Cappellini, B; Franceschet, C; Hoyland, R [Universita degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Maris, M; Frailis, M [INAF / OATS, via Tiepolo 11, 34143 Trieste (Italy); Cuevas, L P [Research and Scientific Support Department of ESA, ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); D' Arcangelo, O [IFP-CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20013 Milano (Italy); Davis, R; Lowe, S [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Gregorio, A [University of Trieste, Department of Physics, via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Leonardi, R, E-mail: cuttaia@iasfbo.inaf.i [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    This paper describes the Planck Low Frequency Instrument tuning activities performed through the ground test campaigns, from Unit to Satellite Levels. Tuning is key to achieve the best possible instrument performance and tuning parameters strongly depend on thermal and electrical conditions. For this reason tuning has been repeated several times during ground tests and it has been repeated in flight before starting nominal operations. The paper discusses the tuning philosophy, the activities and the obtained results, highlighting developments and changes occurred during test campaigns. The paper concludes with an overview of tuning performed during the satellite cryogenic test campaign (Summer 2008) and of the plans for the just started in-flight calibration.

  13. Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations

    CERN Document Server

    Bogachev, Vladimir I; Röckner, Michael; Shaposhnikov, Stanislav V

    2015-01-01

    This book gives an exposition of the principal concepts and results related to second order elliptic and parabolic equations for measures, the main examples of which are Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations for stationary and transition probabilities of diffusion processes. Existence and uniqueness of solutions are studied along with existence and Sobolev regularity of their densities and upper and lower bounds for the latter. The target readership includes mathematicians and physicists whose research is related to diffusion processes as well as elliptic and parabolic equations.

  14. Probing nuclear rates with Planck and BICEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Lesgourgues, Julien; Mangano, Gianpiero; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Miele, Gennaro; Pisanti, Ofelia

    2014-01-01

    Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) relates key cosmological parameters to the primordial abundance of light elements. In this paper, we point out that the recent observations of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies by the Planck satellite and by the BICEP2 experiment constrain these parameters with such a high level of accuracy that the primordial deuterium abundance can be inferred with remarkable precision. For a given cosmological model, one can obtain independent information on nuclear processes in the energy range relevant for BBN, which determine the eventual ^2H/H yield. In particular, assuming the standard cosmological model, we show that a combined analysis of Planck data and of recent deuterium abundance measurements in metal-poor damped Lyman-alpha systems provides independent information on the cross section of the radiative capture reaction d(p,\\gamma)^3He converting deuterium into helium. Interestingly, the result is higher than the values suggested by a fit of present experimental data in the B...

  15. Large Scale Anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background with Planck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frejsel, Anne Mette

    This thesis focuses on the large scale anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and their possible origins. The investigations consist of two main parts. The first part is on statistical tests of the CMB, and the consistency of both maps and power spectrum. We find that the Planck data...... is very consistent, while the WMAP 9 year release appears more contaminated by non-CMB residuals than the 7 year release. The second part is concerned with the anomalies of the CMB from two approaches. One is based on an extended inflationary model as the origin of one specific large scale anomaly, namely....... Here we find evidence that the Planck CMB maps contain residual radiation in the loop areas, which can be linked to some of the large scale CMB anomalies: the point-parity asymmetry, the alignment of quadrupole and octupole and the dipolemodulation....

  16. Large Scale Anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background with Planck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frejsel, Anne Mette

    This thesis focuses on the large scale anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and their possible origins. The investigations consist of two main parts. The first part is on statistical tests of the CMB, and the consistency of both maps and power spectrum. We find that the Planck data...... is very consistent, while the WMAP 9 year release appears more contaminated by non-CMB residuals than the 7 year release. The second part is concerned with the anomalies of the CMB from two approaches. One is based on an extended inflationary model as the origin of one specific large scale anomaly, namely....... Here we find evidence that the Planck CMB maps contain residual radiation in the loop areas, which can be linked to some of the large scale CMB anomalies: the point-parity asymmetry, the alignment of quadrupole and octupole and the dipolemodulation....

  17. Application of Generalized Fokker-Planck Theory To Electron And Photon Transport In Tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Olbrant, Edgar

    2009-01-01

    We study a deterministic method for particle transport in tissue in selected medical applications. Generalized Fokker-Planck (GFP) theory has been developed to improve the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation in cases where scattering is forward-peaked and where there is a sufficient amount of large-angle scattering. We compare grid-based numerical solutions to Fokker-Planck and Generalized Fokker-Planck (GFP) in realistic applications. Electron dose calculations in heterogeneous parts of the human body are performed. Accurate electron scattering cross sections are therefore included and their incorporation in our model is extensively described. Moreover, we solve GFP approximations of the radiative transport equation to investigate reflectance and transmittance of light in tissue. All results are compared with either Monte Carlo or discrete-ordinates transport solutions.

  18. The Compton Radius, the de Broglie Radius, the Planck Constant, and the Bohr Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Bohr orbits of the hydrogen atom and the Planck constant can be derived classically from the Maxwell equations and the assumption that there is a variation in the electron’s velocity about its average value [1]. The resonant nature of the circulating electron and its induced magnetic and Faraday fields prevents a radiative collapse of the electron into the nuclear proton. The derived Planck constant is h = 2 e 2 = c , where e , , and c are the electronic charge, the fine structure constant, and the speed of light. The fact that the Planck vacuum (PV theory [2] derives the same Planck constant independently of the above implies that the two derivations are related. The following highlights that connection.

  19. The Compton Radius, the de Broglie Radius, the Planck Constant, and the Bohr Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Bohr orbits of the hydrogen atom and the Planck constant can be derived classically from the Maxwell equations and the assumption that there is a variation in the electron's velocity about its average value. The resonant nature of the circulating electron and its induced magnetic and Faraday fields prevents a radiative collapse of the electron into the nuclear proton. The derived Planck constant is $h=2pi e^2/alpha c$, where $e$, $alpha$, and $c$ are the electronic charge, the fine structure constant, and the speed of light. The fact that the Planck vacuum (PV theory derives the same Planck constant independently of the above implies that the two derivations are related. The following highlights that connection.

  20. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding Print ... a lactation specialist. previous continue All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  1. Dyons near the Planck scale

    CERN Document Server

    Laperashvili, L V; Laperashvili, Larisa

    2006-01-01

    In the present talk we suggest a new model of preons-dyons making composite quark-leptons and bosons, described by the supersymmetric string-inspired flipped E_6\\times \\tilde E_6 gauge group of symmetry. This investigation predicts the possible extension of the Standard Model to the Family replicated gauge group model of type G^{N_{fam}}, where N_{fam} is the number of families. Here E_6 and \\tilde E_6 are non-dual and dual sectors of theory with hyper-electric g and hyper-magnetic \\tilde g charges, respectively. Our model is based on the recent theory of composite non-Abelian flux tubes in SQCD. Considering the breakdown of E_6 (and \\tilde E_6) at the Planck scale into the SU(6)\\times U(1) gauge group, we have shown that the six types of composite N = 1 supersymmetric non-Abelian flux tubes are created by the condensation of spreons-dyons near the Planck scale and have fluxes quantized according to the Z_6 center group of SU(6): \\Phi_n = n\\Phi_0 (n = \\pm 1,\\pm 2,\\pm 3). These fluxes give three types of k-str...

  2. Planck 2013 results. III. LFI systematic uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.;

    2013-01-01

    We present the current estimate of instrumental and systematic effect uncertainties for the Planck-Low Frequency Instrument relevant to the firstrelease of the Planck cosmological results.We give an overview of the main effects and of the tools and methods applied to assess residuals in mapsand p...

  3. Possible signature of distant foreground in the Planck data

    CERN Document Server

    Yershov, V N; Raikov, A A

    2014-01-01

    By using the Planck map of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation we have checked and confirmed the existence of a correlation between supernova (SN) redshifts, $z_{\\rm SN}$, and CMB temperature fluctuations at the SNe locations, $T_{\\rm SN}$, which we previously reported for the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the Planck data is $r=+0.38\\pm 0.08$ which indicates that the correlation is statistically significant (the signal is about $5\\sigma$ above the noise level). The correlation becomes even stronger for the type Ia subsample of SNe, $r_{\\rm Ia}=+0.45\\pm 0.09$, whereas for the rest of the SNe it is vanishing. By checking the slopes of the regression lines $T_{\\rm SN} / z_{\\rm SN}$ for Planck's different frequency bands we have also excluded the possibility of this anomaly being caused by the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. The remaining possibility is some, unaccounted for, contribution to the CMB from distant ($z>0.3$) foreground through either the int...

  4. New constraints on primordial gravitational waves from Planck 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Luca; Salvati, Laura; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    We show that the new precise measurements of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies made by the Planck satellite significantly improves previous constraints on the cosmic gravitational waves background (CGWB) at frequencies f >10-15 Hz. On scales smaller than the horizon at the time of decoupling, primordial gravitational waves contribute to the total radiation content of the Universe. Considering adiabatic perturbations, CGWB affects temperature and polarization CMB power spectra and matter power spectrum in a manner identical to relativistic particles. Considering the latest Planck results we constrain the CGWB energy density to Ωgwh2 CMB power spectra with lensing, BAO and primordial Deuterium abundance observations, we obtain Ωgwh2 < 1.2 ×10-6 at 95% CL, improving previous Planck bounds by a factor 3 and the recent direct upper limit from the LIGO and VIRGO experiments a factor 2. A combined analysis of future satellite missions as COrE and EUCLID could improve current bound by more than an order of magnitude.

  5. Blackbody Radiation Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    at the indicated wavelength and temperature, Planck’s equation. This equation represents the monochromatic radiant intensity at a particular wavelength from a perfect radiator maintained at the indicated temperature.

  6. New limits on Planck scale Lorentz violation in QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, T; Liberati, S; Mattingly, D; Stecker, F W

    2004-07-09

    Constraints on possible Lorentz symmetry violation (LV) of order E/M(Planck) for electrons and photons in the framework of effective field theory (EFT) are discussed. Using (i) the report of polarized MeV emission from GRB021206 and (ii) the absence of vacuum Cerenkov radiation from synchrotron electrons in the Crab Nebula, we improve previous bounds by 10(-10) and 10(-2), respectively. We also show that the LV parameters for positrons and electrons are different, discuss electron helicity decay, and investigate how prior constraints are modified by the relations between LV parameters implied by EFT.

  7. Planck scale operators, inflation and fine tuning

    CERN Document Server

    Marunovic, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet completion of the standard model plus gravity at and beyond the Planck scale is a daunting problem to which no generally accepted solution exists. Principal obstacles include (a) lack of data at the Planck scale (b) nonrenormalizability of gravity and (c) unitarity problem. Here we make a simple observation that, if one treats all Planck scale operators of equal canonical dimension democratically, one can tame some of the undesirable features of these models. With a reasonable amount of fine tuning one can satisfy slow roll conditions required in viable inflationary models. That remains true even when the number of such operators becomes very large.

  8. Planck early results. II. The thermal performance of Planck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bréelle, E.; Bucher, M.; Delabrouille, J.

    2011-01-01

    detector technologies with widely different temperature and cooling needs. Active coolers could satisfy these needs; a helium cryostat, as used by previous cryogenic space missions (IRAS, COBE, ISO, Spitzer, AKARI), could not. Radiative cooling is provided by three V-groove radiators and a large telescope...

  9. Dirac's monopole, quaternions, and the Zassenhaus formula

    CERN Document Server

    Soloviev, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Starting from the quaternionic quantization scheme proposed by Emch and Jadczyk for describing the motion of a quantum particle in the magnetic monopole field, we derive an algorithm for finding the differential representation of the star product generated by the quaternionic Weyl correspondence on phase-space functions. This procedure is illustrated by explicit calculation of the star product up to the second order in the Planck constant. Our main tools are an operator analog of the twisted convolution and the Zassenhaus formula for the products of exponentials of noncommuting operators.

  10. Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child. Does using infant formula increase risk for dental fluorosis? Because most infant formulas contain low levels of ... I use affect my child’s chance of getting dental fluorosis? Three types of infant formula are available in ...

  11. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A What's in this article? All About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding Challenges All About Formula Feeding Formula Feeding Challenges Making a Choice en español Lactancia materna versus lactancia artificial Choosing whether to breastfeed or formula feed their ...

  12. A new blackbody radiation law based on fractional calculus and its application to NASA COBE data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyajima, Minoru; Mizoguchi, Takuya; Suzuki, Naomichi

    2015-12-01

    By applying fractional calculus to the equation proposed by M. Planck in 1900, we obtain a new blackbody radiation law described by a Mittag-Leffler (ML) function. We have analyzed NASA COBE data by means of a non-extensive formula with a parameter (q - 1) , a formula proposed by Ertik et al. with a fractional parameter (α - 1) , and our new formula including a parameter (p - 1) , as well as the Bose-Einstein distribution with a dimensionless chemical potential μ. It can be said that one role of the fractional parameter (p - 1) is almost the same as that of chemical potential (μ) as well as that of the parameter (q - 1) in the non-extensive approach.

  13. Kubo formulas for dispersion in heterogeneous periodic nonequilibrium systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, T.; Dean, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    We consider the dispersion properties of tracer particles moving in nonequilibrium heterogeneous periodic media. The tracer motion is described by a Fokker-Planck equation with arbitrary spatially periodic (but constant in time) local diffusion tensors and drifts, eventually with the presence of obstacles. We derive a Kubo-like formula for the time-dependent effective diffusion tensor valid in any dimension. From this general formula, we derive expressions for the late time effective diffusion tensor and drift in these systems. In addition, we find an explicit formula for the late finite-time corrections to these transport coefficients. In one dimension, we give a closed analytical formula for the transport coefficients. The formulas derived here are very general and provide a straightforward method to compute the dispersion properties in arbitrary nonequilibrium periodic advection-diffusion systems.

  14. HEALPix in Planck and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hivon, Eric; Reinecke, Martin; Gorski, Krzysztof M.

    2015-08-01

    The Hierarchical Equal Area iso-Latitude Pixelation of the Sphere (HEALPix, http://healpix.sf.net) is both a mathematical pixelation of the sphere and a suite of software tools implementing it in many different languages (C, C++, Fortran, IDL/GDL, Java, Python). It has been used in the simulation, observation and analysis of WMAP, Planck and many other CMB and astronomical missions and has become a standard tool used in many different astronomical fields, such as large galaxy surveys (eg, SDSS), 3D structure of the Galaxy (eg, GAIA), high energy cosmic rays (eg, Pierre Auger Observatory), ..., and is fully supported by many Virtual Observatory visualization tools (eg, Aladin).Third party developments have implemented new functionalities like wavelet analysis, Minkowski functionals, structures identification, and propose wrappings or translations of HEALPix functionalities in other languages (eg, Matlab/Octave, Yorick).This talk will review what is currently possible with HEALPix, in terms of simulations, Spherical Harmonics transforms, data processing, visualization, statistical analyses, search of local extrema, pixel queries, I/O, and the projected developments including database storage and queries, multi-resolution dataset (MOC),

  15. How accurate are the nonlinear chemical Fokker-Planck and chemical Langevin equations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima, Ramon; Thomas, Philipp; Straube, Arthur V

    2011-08-28

    The chemical Fokker-Planck equation and the corresponding chemical Langevin equation are commonly used approximations of the chemical master equation. These equations are derived from an uncontrolled, second-order truncation of the Kramers-Moyal expansion of the chemical master equation and hence their accuracy remains to be clarified. We use the system-size expansion to show that chemical Fokker-Planck estimates of the mean concentrations and of the variance of the concentration fluctuations about the mean are accurate to order Ω(-3∕2) for reaction systems which do not obey detailed balance and at least accurate to order Ω(-2) for systems obeying detailed balance, where Ω is the characteristic size of the system. Hence, the chemical Fokker-Planck equation turns out to be more accurate than the linear-noise approximation of the chemical master equation (the linear Fokker-Planck equation) which leads to mean concentration estimates accurate to order Ω(-1∕2) and variance estimates accurate to order Ω(-3∕2). This higher accuracy is particularly conspicuous for chemical systems realized in small volumes such as biochemical reactions inside cells. A formula is also obtained for the approximate size of the relative errors in the concentration and variance predictions of the chemical Fokker-Planck equation, where the relative error is defined as the difference between the predictions of the chemical Fokker-Planck equation and the master equation divided by the prediction of the master equation. For dimerization and enzyme-catalyzed reactions, the errors are typically less than few percent even when the steady-state is characterized by merely few tens of molecules.

  16. The PLANCK LFI flight model ortho-mode transducers

    CERN Document Server

    D'Arcangelo, O; Figini, L; Pagana, E; Villa, F; Pecora, M; Battaglia, P; Bersanelli, M; Butler, R C; Garavaglia, S; Guzzi, P; Mandolesi, N; Sozzi, C; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12005

    2009-01-01

    The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the ESA Planck CMB mission is an array of 22 ultra sensitive pseudocorrelation radiometers working at 30, 44, and 70 GHz. LFI has been calibrated and delivered for integration with the satellite to the European Space Agency on November 2006. The aim of Planck is to measure the anisotropy and polarization of the Cosmic Background Radiation with a sensitivity and angular resolution never reached before over the full sky. LFI is intrinsically sensitive to polarization thanks to the use of Ortho-Mode Transducers (OMT) located between the feedhorns and the pseudo-correlation radiometers. The OMTs are microwave passive components that divide the incoming radiation into two linear orthogonal components. A set of 11 OMTs (2 at 30 GHz, 3 at 44 GHz, and 6 at 70 GHz) were produced and tested. This work describes the design, development and performance of the eleven Flight Model OMTs of LFI. The final design was reached after several years of development. At first, Elegant Bread Boar...

  17. Planck 2013 results. XXXII. The updated Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.;

    2015-01-01

    We update the all-sky Planck catalogue of 1227 clusters and cluster candidates (PSZ1) published in March 2013, derived from detections of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect using the first 15.5 months of Planck satellite observations. As an addendum, we deliver an updated version of the PSZ1...

  18. Planck 2015 results: XXVI. The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arguëso, F.;

    2016-01-01

    The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources is a list of discrete objects detected in single-frequency maps from the full duration of the Planck mission and supersedes previous versions. It consists of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. Compact sour...

  19. Planck intermediate results. XXVI. Optical identification and redshifts of Planck clusters with the RTT150 telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.;

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with the Russian-Turkish 1.5m telescope (RTT150), as a part of the optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck collaboration. During this time period approximately 20% of all dark...

  20. Manipulation with Formulae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>An equation which gives a general rule for a particular type of problem is called a formula. Frequently it is convenient to transform a formula,that is,express the formula with a dif- ferent subject.Consider the formula C=2πr;the subject is C.However,if we divide both sides by 2π:

  1. Parallelized Vlasov-Fokker-Planck solver for desktop personal computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeldt, Patrik; Brosi, Miriam; Schwarz, Markus; Steinmann, Johannes L.; Müller, Anke-Susanne

    2017-03-01

    The numerical solution of the Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation is a well established method to simulate the dynamics, including the self-interaction with its own wake field, of an electron bunch in a storage ring. In this paper we present Inovesa, a modularly extensible program that uses opencl to massively parallelize the computation. It allows a standard desktop PC to work with appropriate accuracy and yield reliable results within minutes. We provide numerical stability-studies over a wide parameter range and compare our numerical findings to known results. Simulation results for the case of coherent synchrotron radiation will be compared to measurements that probe the effects of the microbunching instability occurring in the short bunch operation at ANKA. It will be shown that the impedance model based on the shielding effect of two parallel plates can not only describe the instability threshold, but also the presence of multiple regimes that show differences in the emission of coherent synchrotron radiation.

  2. Quantum Larmor radiation from a moving charge in an electromagnetic plane wave background

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Gen; 10.1142/S0217751X12501424

    2012-01-01

    We extend our previous work [Phys. Rev. D83 045030 (2011)], which investigated the first-order quantum effect in the Larmor radiation from a moving charge in a spatially homogeneous time-dependent electric field. Specifically, we investigate the quantum Larmor radiation from a moving charge in a monochromatic electromagnetic plane wave background based on the scalar quantum electrodynamics at the lowest order of the perturbation theory. Using the in-in formalism, we derive the theoretical formula of the total radiation energy from a charged particle in the initial states being at rest and being in a relativistic motion. Expanding the theoretical formula in terms of the Planck constant \\hbar, we obtain the first-order quantum effect on the Larmor radiation. The quantum effect generally suppresses the total radiation energy compared with the prediction of the classical Larmor formula, which is a contrast to the previous work. The reason is explained by the fact that the radiation from a moving charge in a monoc...

  3. Planck 2015 results. XIII. Cosmological parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Chluba, J.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Farhang, M.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Gerbino, M.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Giusarma, E.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marchini, A.; Martin, P.G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; d'Orfeuil, B.Rouille; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Said, N.; Salvatelli, V.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Spinelli, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the CMB. These data are consistent with the six-parameter inflationary LCDM cosmology. From the Planck temperature and lensing data, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H0= (67.8 +/- 0.9) km/s/Mpc, a matter density parameter Omega_m = 0.308 +/- 0.012 and a scalar spectral index with n_s = 0.968 +/- 0.006. (We quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% limits on other parameters.) Combined with Planck temperature and lensing data, Planck LFI polarization measurements lead to a reionization optical depth of tau = 0.066 +/- 0.016. Combining Planck with other astrophysical data we find N_ eff = 3.15 +/- 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom and the sum of neutrino masses is constrained to < 0.23 eV. Spatial curvature is found to be |Omega_K| < 0.005. For LCDM we find a limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r <0.11 consistent with the B-mode constraints fr...

  4. Planck 2013 results. XVI. Cosmological parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Haissinski, J.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T.J.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results based on Planck measurements of the CMB temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. The Planck spectra at high multipoles are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter LCDM cosmology. In this model Planck data determine the cosmological parameters to high precision. We find a low value of the Hubble constant, H0=67.3+/-1.2 km/s/Mpc and a high value of the matter density parameter, Omega_m=0.315+/-0.017 (+/-1 sigma errors) in excellent agreement with constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent-level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We present results from an analysis of extensions to the standard cosmology, using astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data. None of these models are favoured significantly over standard LCDM. The deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity is insensitive to the additi...

  5. Planck 2015. XX. Constraints on inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Handley, W.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Ma, Y.Z.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shiraishi, M.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J.P.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-20

    We present the implications for cosmic inflation of the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in both temperature and polarization based on the full Planck survey. The Planck full mission temperature data and a first release of polarization data on large angular scales measure the spectral index of curvature perturbations to be $n_\\mathrm{s} = 0.968 \\pm 0.006$ and tightly constrain its scale dependence to $d n_s/d \\ln k =-0.003 \\pm 0.007$ when combined with the Planck lensing likelihood. When the high-$\\ell$ polarization data is included, the results are consistent and uncertainties are reduced. The upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is $r_{0.002} < 0.11$ (95% CL), consistent with the B-mode polarization constraint $r< 0.12$ (95% CL) obtained from a joint BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck analysis. These results imply that $V(\\phi) \\propto \\phi^2$ and natural inflation are now disfavoured compared to models predicting a smaller tensor-to-scalar ratio, such as $R^2$ ...

  6. Halo and subhalo demographics with Planck cosmological parameters: Bolshoi-Planck and MultiDark-Planck simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Behroozi, Peter; Primack, Joel; Klypin, Anatoly; Lee, Christoph; Hellinger, Doug

    2016-10-01

    We report and provide fitting functions for the abundance of dark matter haloes and subhaloes as a function of mass, circular velocity, and redshift from the new Bolshoi-Planck and MultiDark-Planck ΛCDM cosmological simulations, based on the Planck parameters. We also report halo mass accretion rates and concentrations. We show that the higher cosmological matter density of the Planck parameters compared with the WMAP parameters leads to higher abundance of massive haloes at high redshifts. We find that the median halo spin parameter {λ _B}= J(√{2}M_virR_virV_vir)^{-1} is nearly independent of redshift, leading to predicted evolution of galaxy sizes that is consistent with observations, while the significant decrease with redshift in median {λ _P}= J|E|^{-1/2}G^{-1}M^{-5/2} predicts more decrease in galaxy sizes than is observed. Using the Tully-Fisher and Faber-Jackson relations between galaxy velocity and mass, we show that a simple model of how galaxy velocity is related to halo maximum circular velocity leads to increasing overprediction of cosmic stellar mass density as redshift increases beyond z ˜ 1, implying that such velocity-mass relations must change at z ≳ 1. By making a realistic model of how observed galaxy velocities are related to halo circular velocity, we show that recent optical and radio observations of the abundance of galaxies are in good agreement with our ΛCDM simulations. Our halo demographics are based on updated versions of the ROCKSTAR and CONSISTENT TREES codes, and this paper includes appendices explaining all of their outputs. This paper is an introduction to a series of related papers presenting other analyses of the Bolshoi-Planck and MultiDark-Planck simulations.

  7. Evaluation of blackbody radiation emitted by arbitrarily shaped bodies using the source model technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sister, Ilya; Leviatan, Yehuda; Schächter, Levi

    2017-06-12

    Planck's famous blackbody radiation law was derived under the assumption that the dimensions of the radiating body are significantly larger than the radiated wavelengths. What is unique about Planck's formula is the fact that it is independent of the exact loss mechanism and the geometry. Therefore, for a long period of time, it was regarded as a fundamental property of all materials. Deviations from its predictions were attributed to imperfections and referred to as the emissivity of the specific body, a quantity which was always assumed to be smaller than unity. Recent studies showed that the emission spectrum is affected by the geometry of the body and in fact, in a limited frequency range, the emitted spectrum may exceed Planck's prediction provided the typical size of the body is of the same order of magnitude as the emitted wavelength. For the investigation of the blackbody radiation from an arbitrarily shaped body, we developed a code which incorporates the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) and the source model technique (SMT). The former determines the correlation between the quasi-microscopic current densities in the body and the latter is used to solve the electromagnetic problem numerically. In this study we present the essence of combining the two concepts. We verify the validity of our code by comparing its results obtained for the case of a sphere against analytic results and discuss how the accuracy of the solution is assessed in the general case. Finally, we illustrate several configurations in which the emitted spectrum exceeds Planck's prediction as well as cases in which the geometrical resonances of the body are revealed.

  8. Local analyses of Planck maps with Minkowski functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, C. P.; Bernui, A.; Marques, G. A.; Ferreira, I. S.

    2016-09-01

    Minkowski functionals (MF) are excellent tools to investigate the statistical properties of the cosmic background radiation (CMB) maps. Between their notorious advantages is the possibility to use them efficiently in patches of the CMB sphere, which allow studies in masked skies, inclusive analyses of small sky regions. Then, possible deviations from Gaussianity are investigated by comparison with MF obtained from a set of Gaussian isotropic simulated CMB maps to which are applied the same cut-sky masks. These analyses are sensitive enough to detect contaminations of small intensity like primary and secondary CMB anisotropies. Our methodology uses the MF, widely employed to study non-Gaussianities in CMB data, and asserts Gaussian deviations only when all of them points out an exceptional χ2 value, at more than 2.2σ confidence level, in a given sky patch. Following this rigorous procedure, we find 13 regions in the foreground-cleaned Planck maps that evince such high levels of non-Gaussian deviations. According to our results, these non-Gaussian contributions show signatures that can be associated to the presence of hot or cold spots in such regions. Moreover, some of these non-Gaussian deviations signals suggest the presence of foreground residuals in those regions located near the Galactic plane. Additionally, we confirm that most of the regions revealed in our analyses, but not all, have been recently reported in studies done by the Planck collaboration. Furthermore, we also investigate whether these non-Gaussian deviations can be possibly sourced by systematics, like inhomogeneous noise and beam effect in the released Planck data, or perhaps due to residual Galactic foregrounds.

  9. Planck 2015 results: V. LFI calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a description of the pipeline used to calibrate the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) timelines into thermodynamic temperatures for the Planck 2015 data release, covering four years of uninterrupted operations. As in the 2013 data release, our calibrator is provided by the spin......-synchronous modulation of the cosmic microwave background dipole, but we now use the orbital component, rather than adopting the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) solar dipole. This allows our 2015 LFI analysis to provide an independent Solar dipole estimate, which is in excellent agreement with that of HFI...... to the 2013 Planck data release, thus reducing the discrepancy with the power spectrum measured by WMAP. We estimate that the LFI calibration uncertainty is now at the level of 0.20% for the 70 GHz map, 0.26% for the 44 GHz map, and 0.35% for the 30 GHz map. We provide a detailed description of the impact...

  10. Planck 2013 results. XII. Diffuse component separation

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Cruz, M; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huey, G; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leach, S; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Marcos-Caballero, A; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mikkelsen, K; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Salerno, E; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savini, G; Schiavon, F; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Varis, J; Viel, M; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Wilkinson, A; Xia, J -Q; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    Planck has produced detailed all-sky observations over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz. These observations allow robust reconstruction of the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations over nearly the full sky, as well as new constraints on Galactic foregrounds. This paper describes the component separation framework adopted by Planck. We test four foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived using qualitatively different component separation algorithms. The quality of our reconstructions is evaluated through detailed simulations and internal comparisons, and shown through various tests to be internally consistent and robust for CMB power spectrum and cosmological parameter estimation up to l = 2000. The parameter constraints on LambdaCDM cosmologies derived from these maps are consistent with those presented in the cross-spectrum based Planck likelihood analysis. We choose two of the CMB maps for specific scientific goals. We also present maps and frequency spectra of the Galact...

  11. Planck 2013 results. IX. HFI spectral response

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; North, C; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rusholme, B; Santos, D; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) spectral response was determined through a series of ground based tests conducted with the HFI focal plane in a cryogenic environment prior to launch. The main goal of the spectral transmission tests was to measure the relative spectral response (including out-of-band signal rejection) of all HFI detectors. This was determined by measuring the output of a continuously scanned Fourier transform spectrometer coupled with all HFI detectors. As there is no on-board spectrometer within HFI, the ground-based spectral response experiments provide the definitive data set for the relative spectral calibration of the HFI. The spectral response of the HFI is used in Planck data analysis and component separation, this includes extraction of CO emission observed within Planck bands, dust emission, Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources, and intensity to polarization leakage. The HFI spectral response data have also been used to provide unit conversion and colour correction analysis tools. Ver...

  12. Cosmological constraints on neutrinos with Planck data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, M. [Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire, Bat.200, 91400 Orsay (France)

    2015-07-15

    Neutrinos take part in the dance of the evolving Universe influencing its history from leptogenesis, to Big Bang nucleosynthesis, until late time structure formation. This makes cosmology, and in particular one of its primary observables the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), an unusual but valuable tool for testing Neutrino Physics. The best measurement to date of full-sky CMB anisotropies comes from the Planck satellite launched in 2009 by the European Space Agency (ESA) and successful follower of COBE and WMAP. Testing Planck data against precise theoretical predictions allow us to shed light on various interesting open questions such as the value of the absolute scale of neutrino masses or their energy density. We revise here the results concerning neutrinos obtained by the Planck Collaboration in the 2013 data release.

  13. Planck Scale Gravity Test with Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibyan, V.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum or torsion gravity models predict unusual properties of space-time at very short distances. In particular, near the Planck length, around 10-35m, empty space may behave as a crystal, singly or doubly refractive. However, this hypothesis remains uncheckable for any direct measurement since the smallest distance accessible in experiment is about 10-19m at the LHC. Here I propose a laboratory test to measure the space refractivity and birefringence induced by gravity. A sensitivity from 10-31m down to the Planck length could be reached at existent GeV and future TeV energy lepton accelerators using laser Compton scattering. There are already experimental hints for gravity signature at distances approaching the Planck length by 5-7 orders of magnitude, derived from SLC and HERA data.

  14. Testing Planck-Scale Gravity with Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibyan, Vahagn

    2012-10-01

    Quantum or torsion gravity models predict unusual properties of space-time at very short distances. In particular, near the Planck length, around 10-35m, empty space may behave as a crystal, singly or doubly refractive. However, this hypothesis remains uncheckable for any direct measurement, since the smallest distance accessible in experiment is about 10-19m at the LHC. Here I propose a laboratory test to measure the space refractivity and birefringence induced by gravity. A sensitivity from 10-31m down to the Planck length could be reached at existent GeV and future TeV energy lepton accelerators using laser Compton scattering. There are already experimental hints for gravity signature at distances approaching the Planck length by 5-7 orders of magnitude, derived from SLC and HERA data.

  15. Excel 2013 formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Walkenbach, John

    2013-01-01

    Maximize the power of Excel 2013 formulas with this must-have Excel reference John Walkenbach, known as ""Mr. Spreadsheet,"" is a master at deciphering complex technical topics and Excel formulas are no exception. This fully updated book delivers more than 800 pages of Excel 2013 tips, tricks, and techniques for creating formulas that calculate, developing custom worksheet functions with VBA, debugging formulas, and much more. Demonstrates how to use all the latest features in Excel 2013 Shows how to create financial formulas and tap into the power of array formulas

  16. Planck LFI flight model feed horns

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, F; Pecora, M; Figini, L; Nesti, R; Simonetto, A; Sozzi, C; Sandri, M; Battaglia, P; Guzzi, P; Bersanelli, M; Butler, R C; Mandolesi, N; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12004

    2010-01-01

    this paper is part of the Prelaunch status LFI papers published on JINST: http://www.iop.org/EJ/journal/-page=extra.proc5/jinst The Low Frequency Instrument is optically interfaced with the ESA Planck telescope through 11 corrugated feed horns each connected to the Radiometer Chain Assembly (RCA). This paper describes the design, the manufacturing and the testing of the flight model feed horns. They have been designed to optimize the LFI optical interfaces taking into account the tight mechanical requirements imposed by the Planck focal plane layout. All the eleven units have been successfully tested and integrated with the Ortho Mode transducers.

  17. The CMB Derivatives of Planck's Beam Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Rathaus, Ben

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the anisotropy in cosmic microwave background Planck maps due to the coupling between its beam asymmetry and uneven scanning strategy. Introducing a pixel space estimator based on the temperature gradients, we find a highly significant (~20 \\sigma) preference for these to point along ecliptic latitudes. We examine the scale dependence, morphology and foreground sensitivity of this anisotropy, as well as the capability of detailed Planck simulations to reproduce the effect, which is crucial for its removal, as we demonstrate in a search for the weak lensing signature of cosmic defects.

  18. Blind Search for Variability in Planck Data

    CERN Document Server

    Rachen, Jörg P; Reinecke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The sky is full of variable and transient sources on all time scales, from milliseconds to decades. Planck's regular scanning strategy makes it an ideal instrument to search for variable sky signals in the millimetre and submillimetre regime, on time scales from hours to several years. A precondition is that instrumental noise and systematic effects, caused in particular by non-symmetric beam shapes, are properly removed. We present a method to perform a full sky blind search for variable and transient objects at all Planck frequencies.

  19. Massive Gauge Fields and the Planck Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, G D

    2004-01-01

    The present work is devoted to massive gauge fields in special relativity with two fundamental constants-the velocity of light, and the Planck length, so called doubly special relativity (DSR). The two invariant scales are accounted for by properly modified boost parameters. Within above framework we construct the vector potential as the (1/2,0)x(0,1/2) direct product, build the associated field strength tensor together with the Dirac spinors and use them to calculate various observables as functions of the Planck length.

  20. Halo and Subhalo Demographics with Planck Cosmological Parameters: Bolshoi-Planck and MultiDark-Planck Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Puebla, Aldo; Primack, Joel; Klypin, Anatoly; Lee, Christoph; Hellinger, Doug

    2016-01-01

    We report and provide fitting functions for the abundance of dark matter halos and subhalos as a function of mass, circular velocity, and redshift from the new Bolshoi-Planck and MultiDark-Planck $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological simulations, based on the Planck cosmological parameters. We also report the halo mass accretion rates, which may be connected with galaxy star formation rates. We show that the higher cosmological matter density of the Planck parameters compared with the WMAP parameters leads to higher abundance of massive halos at high redshifts. We find that the median halo spin parameter $\\lambda_{\\rm B} = J(2M_{\\rm vir}R_{\\rm vir}V_{\\rm vir})^{-1}$ is nearly independent of redshift, leading to predicted evolution of galaxy sizes that is consistent with observations, while the significant decrease with redshift in median $\\lambda_{\\rm P} = J|E|^{-1/2}G^{-1}M^{-5/2}$ predicts more decrease in galaxy sizes than is observed. Using the Tully-Fisher and Faber-Jackson relations between galaxy velocity and mass...

  1. Highly Accurate Photogrammetric Measurements of the Planck Reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Parian, J.; Gruen, Armin; Cozzani, Alessandro

    2006-06-01

    The Planck mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) is designed to image the anisotropies of the Cosmic Background Radiation Field over the whole sky. To achieve this aim, sophisticated reflectors are used as part of the Planck telescope receiving system. The system consists of secondary and primary reflectors which are sections of two different ellipsoids of revolution with mean diameters of 1 and 1.6 meters. Deformations of the reflectors which influence the optical parameters and the gain of receiving signals are investigated in vacuum and at very low temperatures. For this investigation, among the various high accuracy measurement techniques, photogrammetry was selected. With respect to the photogrammetric measurements, special considerations had to be taken into account in design steps, measurement arrangement and data processing to achieve very high accuracies. The determinability of additional parameters of the camera under the given network configuration, datum definition, reliability and precision issues as well as workspace limits and propagating errors from different sources are considered. We have designed an optimal photogrammetric network by heuristic simulation for the flight model of the primary and the secondary reflectors with relative precisions better than 1:1000000 and 1:400000 to achieve the requested accuracies. A least squares best fit ellipsoid method was developed to determine the optical parameters of the reflectors. In this paper we will report about the procedures, the network design and the results of real measurements.

  2. Planck intermediate results. XIII. Constraints on peculiar velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Balbi, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Levy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bikmaev, I; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cabella, P; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, L -Y; Chon, G; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Cuttaia, F; Da Silva, A; Dahle, H; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Gasperis, G; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Democles, J; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Dore, O; Doerl, U; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Ensslin, T A; Finelli, F; Flores-Cacho, I; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Frommert, M; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Genova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Holmes, W A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jasche, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Khamitov, I; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lahteenmaki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leonardi, R; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vornle, M; Lopez-Caniego, M; Macias-Perez, J F; Maino, D; Mak, D S Y; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marleau, F; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschenes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Norgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Pagano, L; Paoletti, D; Perdereau, O; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Puisieux, S; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Roman, M; Rubino-Martin, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Spencer, L; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Welikala, N; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zibin, J P; Zonca, A

    2013-01-01

    Using \\Planck\\ data combined with the Meta Catalogue of X-ray detected Clusters of galaxies (MCXC), we address the study of peculiar motions by searching for evidence of the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (kSZ). By implementing various filters designed to extract the kSZ generated at the positions of the clusters, we obtain consistent constraints on the radial peculiar velocity average, root mean square (rms), and local bulk flow amplitude at different depths. For the whole cluster sample of average redshift 0.18, the measured average radial peculiar velocity with respect to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation at that redshift, i.e., the kSZ monopole, amounts to $72 \\pm 60$\\,km\\,s$^{-1}$. This constitutes less than 1\\,% of the relative Hubble velocity of the cluster sample with respect to our local CMB frame. From a subset of this cluster sample \\Planck\\ finds the radial peculiar velocity rms to be below 800\\,km\\,s$^{-1}$ at the 95\\,% confidence level, which is around three times the $\\Lambda$CD...

  3. New constraints on primordial gravitational waves from Planck 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Pagano, Luca; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    We show that the new precise measurements of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies made by the Planck satellite significantly improves previous constraints on the cosmic gravitational waves background (CGWB) at frequencies $f>10^{-15}$ Hz. On scales smaller than the comoving horizon at the time of decoupling, primordial gravitational waves contribute to the total radiation content of the Universe. Considering adiabatic perturbations, CGWB affects temperature and polarization CMB power spectra and matter power spectrum in a manner identical to relativistic particles. Considering the latest Planck results we constrain the CGWB energy density to $\\Omega_{\\rm gw} h^2 <2.5\\times 10^{-6} $ at 95\\% c.l. Combining CMB power spectra with lensing, BAO and primordial Deuterium abundance observations, we obtain $\\Omega_{\\rm gw} h^2 <1.7\\times 10^{-6} $ at 95\\% c.l., improving previous cosmological bounds by a factor 5 and the recent direct upper limit from the LIGO and VIRGO ex...

  4. Planck 2013 results. II. Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falvella, M. C.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Morisset, N.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Robbers, G.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    We describe the data processing pipeline of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing centre (DPC) to create and characterize full-sky maps based on the first 15.5 months of operations at 30, 44, and 70 GHz. In particular, we discuss the various steps involved in reducing the data, from telemetry packets through to the production of cleaned, calibrated timelines and calibrated frequency maps. Data are continuously calibrated using the modulation induced on the mean temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation by the proper motion of the spacecraft. Sky signals other than the dipole are removed by an iterative procedure based on simultaneous fitting of calibration parameters and sky maps. Noise properties are estimated from time-ordered data after the sky signal has been removed, using a generalized least squares map-making algorithm. A destriping code (Madam) is employed to combine radiometric data and pointing information into sky maps, minimizing the variance of correlated noise. Noise covariance matrices, required to compute statistical uncertainties on LFI and Planck products, are also produced. Main beams are estimated down to the ≈- 20 dB level using Jupiter transits, which are also used for the geometrical calibration of the focal plane.

  5. Planck early results. V. The Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacchei, A.; Maino, D.; Baccigalupi, C.; Bersanelli, M.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cuttaia, F.; de Zotti, G.; Dick, J.; Frailis, M.; Galeotta, S.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Knoche, J.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; López-Caniego, M.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Matthai, F.; Meinhold, P. R.; Mennella, A.; Morgante, G.; Morisset, N.; Natoli, P.; Pasian, F.; Perrotta, F.; Polenta, G.; Poutanen, T.; Reinecke, M.; Ricciardi, S.; Rohlfs, R.; Sandri, M.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Valiviita, J.; Villa, F.; Zonca, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Bedini, L.; Bennett, K.; Binko, P.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bremer, M.; Cabella, P.; Cappellini, B.; Chen, X.; Colombo, L.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Troia, G.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Donzelli, S.; Dörl, U.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falvella, M. C.; Finelli, F.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Gasparo, F.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giardino, G.; Gómez, F.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hell, R.; Herranz, D.; Hovest, W.; Huynh, M.; Jewell, J.; Juvela, M.; Kisner, T. S.; Knox, L.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lilje, P. B.; Lubin, P. M.; Maggio, G.; Marinucci, D.; Martínez-González, E.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Meharga, M. T.; Melchiorri, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Moss, A.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Pagano, L.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pearson, D.; Pettorino, V.; Pietrobon, D.; Prézeau, G.; Procopio, P.; Puget, J.-L.; Quercellini, C.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Robbers, G.; Rocha, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Salerno, E.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Silk, J. I.; Smoot, G. F.; Sternberg, J.; Stivoli, F.; Stompor, R.; Tofani, G.; Toffolatti, L.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Vielva, P.; Vittorio, N.; Vuerli, C.; Wade, L. A.; Watson, R.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.

    2011-12-01

    We describe the processing of data from the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) used in production of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC). In particular, we discuss the steps involved in reducing the data from telemetry packets to cleaned, calibrated, time-ordered data (TOD) and frequency maps. Data are continuously calibrated using the modulation of the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation induced by the motion of the spacecraft. Noise properties are estimated from TOD from which the sky signal has been removed using a generalized least square map-making algorithm. Measured 1/f noise knee-frequencies range from ~100 mHz at 30 GHz to a few tens of mHz at 70GHz. A destriping code (Madam) is employed to combine radiometric data and pointing information into sky maps, minimizing the variance of correlated noise. Noise covariance matrices required to compute statistical uncertainties on LFI and Planck products are also produced. Main beams are estimated down to the ≈-10dB level using Jupiter transits, which are also used for geometrical calibration of the focal plane. Corresponding author: A. Zacchei, e-mail: zacchei@oats.inaf.it

  6. Analysis on the Accuracy of Maximum Conversion Efficiency Formulae of Solar Radiation%太阳辐射最大转化效率公式的精度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚双霞; 刘林华

    2011-01-01

    There are five typical approximate formulae of maximum conversion efficiency, which are often used for the second law analysis of the utilization of terrestrial solar radiation. Based on Candau's definition of radiative exergy and solar spectral radiation databank developed by Gueymard, the maximum conversion efficiencies (exergy-to-energy ratio) of terrestrial solar radiation under different air mass and tilt angle were obtained and taken as benchmark solution. The accuracies of these five typical approximate formulae of maximum conversion efficiency were compared and analyzed under different atmospheric condition and tilt angle. The results show that, for maximum conversion efficiency of terrestrial solar radiation, the approximate formulae that proposed by Petela, Spanner, Parrot and Jeter overestimates, while that proposed by Badescu underestimates largely. Atmospheric condition heavily affects maximum conversion efficiency of terrestrial solar radiation. The influence of atmospheric condition should be taken into account on the exact computation of maximum conversion efficiency of terrestrial solar radiation for the second law analysis of solar energy conversion systems.%在对应用地表太阳辐射的系统进行热力学第二定律分析时,经常采用5个典型的太阳辐射最大转化效率计算公式.在Candau给出的辐射(火用)的定义和Gueymard公布的太阳光谱辐射数据的基础上,该文首先获得了不同大气条件和接收面下地表太阳辐射的最大转化效率(火用)和能间比值),并将其作为基准数据,比较和分析了不同大气条件和接收面下由5个典型公式计算得到的地表太阳辐射最大转化效率的精度.结果表明由Petela、Spanner、Parrot和Jeter提出的公式的计算结果高估了地表太阳辐射的最大转化效率,而由Badescu提出的公式计算得到的结果远远低估了地表太阳辐射的最大转化效率.大气条件对地表太阳辐射最大转化效率

  7. Infant formulas - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... based formulas. These formulas are made with cow's milk protein that has been changed to be more like ... be helpful for infants who have allergies to milk protein and for those with skin rashes or wheezing ...

  8. Prebiotics in infant formula

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenplas,Yvan; DE GREEF, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota ...

  9. Electromagnetic Radiation in Multiply Connected Robertson-Walker Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1993-01-01

    Maxwell's equations on a topologically nontrivial cosmological background are studied. The cosmology is locally determined by a Robertson-Walker line element, but the spacelike slices are open hyperbolic manifolds, whose topology and geometry may vary in time. In this context the spectral resolution of Maxwell's equations in terms of horospherical elementary waves generated at infinity of hyperbolic space is given. The wave fronts are orthogonal to bundles of unstable geodesic rays, and the eikonal of geometric optics appears just as the phase of the horospherical waves. This fact is used to attach to the unstable geodesic rays a quantum mechanical momentum. In doing so the quantized energy-momentum tensor of the radiation field is constructed in a geometrically and dynamically transparent way, without appealing to the intricacies of the second quantization. In particular Planck's radiation formula, and the bearing of the multiply connected topology on the fluctuations in the temperature of the background rad...

  10. Planck 2013 results. V. LFI calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.;

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the methods employed to photometrically calibrate the data acquired by the Low Frequency Instrument on Planck. Our calibration is based on the Solar Dipole, caused by motion of the Solar System with respect to the CMB rest frame, which provides a signal of a few mK with the same spectr...

  11. Planck 2015 results: XIII. Cosmological parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    of the theory; for example, combining Planck observations with other astrophysical data we find Neff = 3.15 ± 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, consistent with the value Neff = 3.046 of the Standard Model of particle physics. The sum of neutrino masses is constrained to â'mν

  12. Planck 2013 results. XIV. Zodiacal emission

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colley, J.-M.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Mottet, S.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; O'Sullivan, C.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polegre, A. M.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Smoot, G. F.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Planck satellite provides a set of all-sky maps at nine frequencies from 30 GHz to 857 GHz. Planets, minor bodies, and diffuse interplanetary dust emission (IPD) are all observed. The IPD can be separated from Galactic and other emissions because Planck views a given point on the celestial sphere multiple times, through different columns of IPD. We use the Planck data to investigate the behaviour of zodiacal emission over the whole sky at sub-millimetre and millimetre wavelengths. We fit the Planck data to find the emissivities of the various components of the COBE zodiacal model -- a diffuse cloud, three asteroidal dust bands, a circumsolar ring, and an Earth-trailing feature. The emissivity of the diffuse cloud decreases with increasing wavelength, as expected from earlier analyses. The emissivities of the dust bands, however, decrease less rapidly, indicating that the properties of the grains in the bands are different from those in the diffuse cloud. We fit the small amount of Galactic emission seen t...

  13. Planck 2013 results. IX. HFI spectral response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.;

    2013-01-01

    The Planck HFI spectral response was determined through a series of ground based tests conducted with the HFI focal plane in a cryogenic environment prior to launch. The main goal of the spectral transmission tests is to measure the relative spectral response (including the level of out-of-band s...

  14. The Planck On-Flight Forecaster (POFF)

    CERN Document Server

    Massardi, M

    2009-01-01

    The Planck On-Fligh Forecaster (POFF) is a tool to predict when a position in the sky will be within a selected angular distance from any receiver direction of the Planck satellite according to its pre-programmed observational strategy. This tool has been developed in the framework of the Planck LFI Core Team activities, but it is now used by the whole collaboration. In this paper we will describe the tool and its applications to plan observations with other instruments of point sources which are expected to enhance the possibilities of scientific exploitation of the Planck satellite data, once they will be publicly available. Collecting simultaneous multi-frequency data, like those that can be planned with the POFF, will help, on one hand, to investigate variability of point sources and, on the other, to reconstruct point source spectral energy distributions on wide frequency ranges minimizing the effects due to source variability. POFF is a combination of IDL routines which combine the publicly available in...

  15. Planck 2013 results. XXII. Constraints on inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the implications of the Planck data for cosmic inflation. The Planck nominal mission temperature anisotropy measurements, combined with the WMAP large-angle polarization, constrain the scalar spectral index to $n_s = 0.9603 \\pm 0.0073$, ruling out exact scale invariance at over 5 $\\sigma$. Planck establishes an upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r 2 do not provide a good fit to the data. Planck does not find statistically significant running of the scalar spectral index, obtaining $d n_s/d ln k = -0.0134 \\pm 0.0090$. Several analyses dropping the slow-roll approximation are carried out, including detailed model comparison and inflationary potential reconstruction. We also investigate whether the primordial power spectrum contains any features. We find that models with a parameterized oscillatory feature improve the fit $\\chi^2$ by ~ 10; however, Bayesian evidence does not prefer these models. We constrain several single-field inflation models with generalized Lagrangians by combining pow...

  16. CAS, Max Planck Society to Enhance Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ According to a briefing issued by the CAS Bureau of In ternational Cooperation on May 8, 2004, CAS and the Max Planck Society (MPS) in Germany are considering to establish a multidisciplinary institute in Shanghai to conduct research into computational biology. The move is applauded as a fresh step in promoting Sino-German S&T cooperation.

  17. The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources

    CERN Document Server

    López-Caniego, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS) is the catalogue of sources detected in the first 15 months of Planck operations, the nominal mission. It consists of nine single-frequency catalogues of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. The PCCS covers the frequency range 30 -- 857 GHz with higher sensitivity and better angular resolution than previous all-sky surveys in the microwave band. It is 90 percent complete at 180 mJy in the best channel, and the resolution ranges from 32.88 to 4.33 arc minutes. By construction its reliability is greater than 80 percent, and more than 65 percent of the sources have been detected at least in two contiguous Planck channels. Many of the Planck PCCS sources can be associated with stars with dust shells, stellar cores, radio galaxies, blazars, infrared luminous galaxies and Galactic interstellar medium features. Here we summarize the construction and validation of the PCCS, its contents and its statistical characterization.

  18. Kähler potentials for Planck inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Diederik; Scalisi, Marco; Zavala Carrasco, Ivonne

    2013-01-01

    We assess which Kahler potentials in supergravity lead to viable single-field inflationary models that are consistent with Planck. We highlight the role of symmetries, such as shift, Heisenberg and supersymmetry, in these constructions. Also the connections to string theory are pointed out. Finally,

  19. Planck 2015 results: XV. Gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.;

    2016-01-01

    We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40σ), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator, we detect lensing at a significance of 5σ. We...

  20. Designing State Aid Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Planck high-z source candidates catalog (PHZ) (Planck+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Catalano, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; De Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macias-Perez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Welikala, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-11-01

    We present in this work the Planck List of Highredshift Source Candidates (the "PHZ"), which includes 2151 sources distributed over 26% of the sky, with redshifts likely to be greater than 2. (2 data files).

  2. Planck 2015 results. XV. Gravitational lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40σ), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator, we detect lensing at a significance of 5σ. We cross-check the accuracy of our measurement using the wide frequency coverage and complementarity of the temperature and polarization measurements. Public products based on this measurement include an estimate of the lensing potential over approximately 70% of the sky, an estimate of the lensing potential power spectrum in bandpowers for the multipole range 40 ≤ L ≤ 400, and an associated likelihood for cosmological parameter constraints. We find good agreement between our measurement of the lensing potential power spectrum and that found in the ΛCDM model that best fits the Planck temperature and polarization power spectra. Using the lensing likelihood alone we obtain a percent-level measurement of the parameter combination σ8Ω0.25m = 0.591 ± 0.021. We combine our determination of the lensing potential with the E-mode polarization, also measured by Planck, to generate an estimate of the lensing B-mode. We show that this lensing B-mode estimate is correlated with the B-modes observed directly by Planck at the expected level and with a statistical significance of 10σ, confirming Planck's sensitivity to this known sky signal. We also correlate our lensing potential estimate with the large-scale temperature anisotropies, detecting a cross-correlation at the 3σ level, as expected because of dark energy in the concordance ΛCDM model.

  3. Excel2003 Formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Walkenbach, John

    2011-01-01

    Everything you need to know about* Mastering operators, error values, naming techniques, and absolute versus relative references* Debugging formulas and using the auditing tools* Importing and exporting XML files and mapping the data to specific cells* Using Excel 2003's rights management feature* Working magic with array formulas* Developing custom formulas to produce the results you needHere's the formula for Excel excellenceFormulas are the lifeblood of spreadsheets, and no one can bring a spreadsheet to life like John Walkenbach. In this detailed reference guide, he delves deeply into unde

  4. Planck 2013 results. II. Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cappellini, B; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Cruz, M; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falvella, M C; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Gaier, T C; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Kangaslahti, P; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Lindholm, V; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Salerno, E; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; White, S D M; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    We describe the data processing pipeline of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing centre (DPC) to create and characterize full-sky maps based on the first 15.5 months of operations at 30, 44 and 70 GHz. In particular, we discuss the various steps involved in reducing the data, starting from telemetry packets through to the production of cleaned, calibrated timelines and calibrated frequency maps. Data are continuously calibrated using the modulation induced on the mean temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation by the proper motion of the spacecraft. Sky signals other than the dipole are removed by an iterative procedure based on simultaneous fitting of calibration parameters and sky maps. Noise properties are estimated from time-ordered data after the sky signal has been removed, using a generalized least square map-making algorithm. A destriping code (Madam) is employed to combine radiometric data and pointing information into sky maps, minimizing the variance of correlated...

  5. The Planck-LFI flight model ortho-mode transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Arcangelo, O; Simonetto, A; Figini, L; Garavaglia, S; Sozzi, C [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma - CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Pagana, E; Villa, F; Butler, R C; Mandolesi, N [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, INAF, via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Pecora, M; Battaglia, P; Guzzi, P [Thales Alenia Space Italia, S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090 Vimodrone (Italy); Bersanelli, M, E-mail: ocleto@ifp.cnr.i [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the ESA Planck CMB mission is an array of 22 ultra sensitive pseudocorrelation radiometers working at 30, 44, and 70 GHz. LFI has been calibrated and delivered for integration with the satellite to the European Space Agency on November 2006. The aim of Planck is to measure the anisotropy and polarization of the Cosmic Background Radiation with a sensitivity and angular resolution never reached before over the full sky. LFI is intrinsically sensitive to polarization thanks to the use of Ortho-Mode Transducers (OMT) located between the feedhorns and the pseudo-correlation radiometers. The OMTs are microwave passive components that divide the incoming radiation into two linear orthogonal components. A set of 11 OMTs (2 at 30 GHz, 3 at 44 GHz, and 6 at 70 GHz) were produced and tested. This work describes the design, development and performance of the eleven Flight Model OMTs of LFI. The final design was reached after several years of development. At first, Elegant Bread Board OMTs were produced to investigate the manufacturing technology and design requirements. Then, a set of 3 Qualification Model (QM) OMTs were designed, manufactured and tested in order to freeze the design and the manufacturing technology for the flight units. Finally, the Flight Models were produced and tested. It is shown that all the OMT units have been accepted for flight and the electromagnetic performance is at least marginally compliant with the requirements. Mechanically, the units passed all the thermoelastic qualification tests after a reworking necessary after the QM campaign.

  6. FOKKER-PLANCK ANALYSIS OF TRANSVERSE COLLECTIVE INSTABILITIES IN ELECTRON STORAGE RINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, R. R.

    2017-06-25

    We analyze single bunch transverse instabilities due to wakefields using a Fokker-Planck model. We expand on the work of Suzuki [1], writing out the linear matrix equation including chromaticity, both dipolar and quadrupolar transverse wakefields, and the effects of damping and diffusion due to the synchrotron radiation. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors determine the collective stability of the beam, and we show that the predicted threshold current for transverse instability and the profile of the unstable agree well with tracking simulations. In particular, we find that predicting collective stability for high energy electron beams at moderate to large values of chromaticity requires the full Fokker-Planck analysis to properly account for the effects of damping and diffusion due to synchrotron radiation.

  7. Fokker-Planck analysis of transverse collective instabilities in electron storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Ryan R.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze single bunch transverse instabilities due to wakefields using a Fokker-Planck model. We first expand on the work of T. Suzuki, Part. Accel. 12, 237 (1982) to derive the theoretical model including chromaticity, both dipolar and quadrupolar transverse wakefields, and the effects of damping and diffusion due to the synchrotron radiation. We reduce the problem to a linear matrix equation, whose eigenvalues and eigenvectors determine the collective stability of the beam. We then show that various predictions of the theory agree quite well with results from particle tracking simulations, including the threshold current for transverse instability and the profile of the unstable mode. In particular, we find that predicting collective stability for high energy electron beams at moderate to large values of chromaticity requires the full Fokker-Planck analysis to properly account for the effects of damping and diffusion due to synchrotron radiation.

  8. Observational constraints on variable equation of state parameters of dark matter and dark energy after Planck

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh Kumar; Lixin Xu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study a cosmological model in general relativity within the framework of spatially flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker space–time filled with ordinary matter (baryonic), radiation, dark matter and dark energy, where the latter two components are described by Chevallier–Polarski–Linder equation of state parameters. We utilize the observational data sets from SNLS3, BAO and Planck + WMAP9 + WiggleZ measurements of matter power spectrum to constrain the model parameters. We find th...

  9. Analytical opacity formulas for low Z plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubiano, J; Rodriguez, R; Gil, J M; Florido, R; Martel, P; Mendoza, M A; Suarez, D [Departamento de FIasica, Universidad de Las Palmas de GC, 35017 Las Palmas de GC (Spain); Minguez, E [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear DENIM. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28019 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jgarcia@dfis.ulpgc.es

    2008-05-01

    The accurate computation of radiative opacities is basic in the ICF target physics analysis, in which the radiation is an important feature to determine in detail. For this reason, accurate analytical formulas for giving mean opacities versus temperature and density of the plasma seem to be a useful tool. In this work we analyse some analytical expressions found in the literature for the opacity low Z plasmas in a wide range of temperature and densities. The validity of these formulas for computing the opacity under NLTE conditions is investigated using the new code ABAKO.

  10. Planck 2015 results. XV. Gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Lewis, A; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; White, M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40 sigma), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator we detect lensing at a significance of 5 sigma. We cross-check the accuracy of our measurement using the wide frequency coverage and complementarity of the temperature and polarization measurements. Public products based on this measurement include an estimate of the lensing potential over approximately 70% of the sky, an estimate of the lensing potential power spectrum in bandpowers for the multipole range 40Planck temperature and polarization power spectra. Using the lensing likelihood alone we obtain a percent-level measurement of ...

  11. Planck 2013 results. III. LFI systematic uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, L -Y; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Cruz, M; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dick, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Gaier, T C; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Kangaslahti, P; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Lindholm, V; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, D; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    We present the current estimate of instrumental and systematic effect uncertainties for the Planck-Low Frequency Instrument relevant to the first release of the Planck cosmological results. We give an overview of the main effects and of the tools and methods applied to assess residuals in maps and power spectra. We also present an overall budget of known systematic effect uncertainties, which are dominated sidelobe straylight pick-up and imperfect calibration. However, even these two effects are at least two orders of magnitude weaker than the cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations as measured in terms of the angular temperature power spectrum. A residual signal above the noise level is present in the multipole range $\\ell<20$, most notably at 30 GHz, and is likely caused by residual Galactic straylight contamination. Current analysis aims to further reduce the level of spurious signals in the data and to improve the systematic effects modelling, in particular with respect to straylight and calibra...

  12. Complete reionization constraints from Planck 2015 polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Chen He; Miranda, Vinicius; Hu, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    We conduct an analysis of the Planck 2015 data that is complete in reionization observables from the large angle polarization E -mode spectrum in the redshift range 6 data, this single analysis can be used to infer constraints on any model for reionization in the same range; we develop an effective likelihood approach for applying these constraints to models. By allowing for an arbitrary ionization history, this technique tests the robustness of inferences on the total optical depth from the usual steplike transition assumption, which is important for the interpretation of many other cosmological parameters such as the dark energy and neutrino mass. The Planck 2015 data not only allow a high redshift z >15 component to the optical depth but prefer it at the 2 σ level. This preference is associated with excess power in the multipole range 10 ≲ℓ≲20 and may indicate high redshift ionization sources or unaccounted for systematics and foregrounds in the 2015 data.

  13. Probing the Planck Scale with Proton Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnik, Roni; Larson, Daniel T.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Thormeier, Marc

    2004-04-28

    We advocate the idea that proton decay may probe physics at the Planck scale instead of the GUT scale. This is possible because supersymmetric theories have dimension-5 operators that can induce proton decay at dangerous rates, even with R-parity conservation. These operators are expected to be suppressed by the same physics that explains the fermion masses and mixings. We present a thorough analysis of nucleon partial lifetimes in models with a string-inspired anomalous U(1)_X family symmetry which is responsible for the fermionic mass spectrum as well as forbidding R-parity violating interactions. Protons and neutrons can decay via R-parity conserving non-renormalizable superpotential terms that are suppressed by the Planck scale and powers of the Cabibbo angle. Many of the models naturally lead to nucleon decay near present limits without any reference to grand unification.

  14. Planck 2015 results. XX. Constraints on inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hamann, J.; Handley, W.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Münchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Shiraishi, M.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J. P.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    We present the implications for cosmic inflation of the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in both temperature and polarization based on the full Planck survey, which includes more than twice the integration time of the nominal survey used for the 2013 release papers. The Planck full mission temperature data and a first release of polarization data on large angular scales measure the spectral index of curvature perturbations to be ns = 0.968 ± 0.006 and tightly constrain its scale dependence to dns/ dlnk = -0.003 ± 0.007 when combined with the Planck lensing likelihood. When the Planck high-ℓ polarization data are included, the results are consistent and uncertainties are further reduced. The upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r0.002inflation are now disfavoured compared to models predicting a smaller tensor-to-scalar ratio, such as R2 inflation. We search for several physically motivated deviations from a simple power-law spectrum of curvature perturbations, including those motivated by a reconstruction of the inflaton potential not relying on the slow-roll approximation. We find that such models are not preferred, either according to a Bayesian model comparison or according to a frequentist simulation-based analysis. Three independent methods reconstructing the primordial power spectrum consistently recover a featureless and smooth PR(k) over the range of scales 0.008 Mpc-1 ≲ k ≲ 0.1 Mpc-1. At large scales, each method finds deviations from a power law, connected to a deficit at multipoles ℓ ≈ 20-40 in the temperature power spectrum, but at an uncompelling statistical significance owing to the large cosmic variance present at these multipoles. By combining power spectrum and non-Gaussianity bounds, we constrain models with generalized Lagrangians, including Galileon models and axion monodromy models. The Planck data are consistent with adiabatic primordial perturbations, and the estimated values for the

  15. Planck 2013 results. XII. Diffuse component separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2014-01-01

    presented in the cross-spectrum based Planck likelihood analysis. We choose two of the CMB maps for specific scientific goals. We also present maps and frequency spectra of the Galactic low-frequency, CO, and thermal dust emission. The component maps are found to provide a faithful representation of the sky...... foregrounds, including thermal dust and line emission from molecular carbon monoxide (CO). This paper describes the component separation framework adopted by Planck for many cosmological analyses, including CMB power spectrum determination and likelihood construction on large angular scales, studies...... of primordial non-Gaussianity and statistical isotropy, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, gravitational lensing, and searches for topological defects. We test four foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived using qualitatively different component separation algorithms. The quality of our reconstructions is evaluated...

  16. Planck 2013 results. XII. Component separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    analysis. We choose two of the CMB maps for specific scientific goals. We also present maps and frequency spectra of the Galactic low-frequency, CO, and thermal dust emission. The component maps are found to provide a faithful representation of the sky, as evaluated by simulations. For the low...... foregrounds. This paper describes the component separation framework adopted by Planck. We test four foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived using qualitatively different component separation algorithms. The quality of our reconstructions is evaluated through detailed simulations and internal comparisons......, and shown through various tests to be internally consistent and robust for CMB power spectrum and cosmological parameter estimation up to l = 2000. The parameter constraints on LambdaCDM cosmologies derived from these maps are consistent with those presented in the cross-spectrum based Planck likelihood...

  17. Newtons Principia Mathematica Philosophia und Plancks Elementarkonstanten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompe, R.; Treder, H.-J.

    Die Newtonschen Prinzipien, zusammen mit den Planckschen Elementarkonstanten, erweisen sich als gesichertes Fundament der Physik und der exakten Wissenschaften aller Richtungen.Der Begriffsfundus der Physik ist ausreichend für alle physikalischen aber auch weiterreichenden Probleme anderer Naturwissenschaften und Technik. Es zeigt sich, daß die klassische Physik von vornherein so angelegt wurde, daß sie über die Physik der makroskopischen Körper weit hinaus-greifen kann.Translated AbstractNewton's Principia Mathematica Philosophia and Planck's Elementary ConstantsTogether with Planck's elementary constants Newton's principles prove a guaranteed basis of physics and exact sciences of all directions.The conceptions in physics are competent at all physical problems as well as technology too. Classical physics was founded in such a way to reach far beyond the physics of macroscopic bodies.

  18. The Planck Vacuum and the Schwarzschild Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Planck vacuum (PV is assumed to be the source of the visible universe. So under conditions of sufficient stress, there must exist a pathway through which energy from the PV can travel into this universe. Conversely, the passage of energy from the visible universe to the PV must also exist under the same stressful conditions. The following examines two versions of the Schwarzschild metric equation for compatability with this open-pathway idea.

  19. Complete Reionization Constraints from Planck 2015 Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Chen He; Hu, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    We conduct an analysis of the Planck 2015 data that is complete in reionization observables from the large angle polarization $E$-mode spectrum in the redshift range $6 15$ component to the optical depth but prefer it at the $2\\sigma$ level. This preference is associated with excess power in the multipole range $10 \\lesssim \\ell \\lesssim 20$ and may indicate high redshift ionization sources or unaccounted for systematics and foregrounds in the 2015 data.

  20. Stabilising the Planck mass shortly after inflation

    CERN Document Server

    van de Bruck, Carsten; Robinson, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    We consider a model of the early universe which consists of two scalar fields: the inflaton, and a second field which drives the stabilisation of the Planck mass (or gravitational constant). We show that the non-minimal coupling of this second field to the Ricci scalar sources a non-adiabatic pressure perturbation. By performing a fully numerical calculation we find, in turn, that this boosts the amplitude of the primordial power spectrum after inflation.

  1. Inflation after Planck: and the winners are

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    We review the constraints that the recently released Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Planck data put on inflation and we argue that single field slow-roll inflationary scenarios (with minimal kinetic term) are favored. Then, within this class of models, by means of Bayesian inference, we show how one can rank the scenarios according to their performances, leading to the identification of ``the best models of inflation''.

  2. Planck 2015 results. V. LFI calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaglia, P; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Christensen, P R; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renzi, A; Rocha, G; Romelli, E; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vassallo, T; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a description of the pipeline used to calibrate the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) timelines into thermodynamic temperatures for the Planck 2015 data release, covering 4 years of uninterrupted operations. As in the 2013 data release, our calibrator is provided by the spin-synchronous modulation of the CMB dipole, exploiting both the orbital and solar components. Our 2015 LFI analysis provides an independent Solar dipole estimate in excellent agreement with that of HFI and within $1\\sigma$ (0.3 % in amplitude) of the WMAP value. This 0.3 % shift in the peak-to-peak dipole temperature from WMAP and a global overhaul of the iterative calibration code increases the overall level of the LFI maps by 0.45 % (30 GHz), 0.64 % (44 GHz), and 0.82 % (70 GHz) in temperature with respect to the 2013 Planck data release, thus reducing the discrepancy with the power spectrum measured by WMAP. We estimate that the LFI calibration uncertainty is at the level of 0.20 % for the 70 GHz map, 0.26 % for the 44 GHz...

  3. Astrochemical Properties of Planck Cold Clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatematsu, Ken’ichi; Liu, Tie; Ohashi, Satoshi; Sanhueza, Patricio; Nguyễn Lu’o’ng, Quang; Hirota, Tomoya; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Hirano, Naomi; Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Thompson, Mark A.; Fuller, Gary; Wu, Yuefang; Li, Di; Di Francesco, James; Kim, Kee-Tae; Wang, Ke; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Juvela, Mika; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Cunningham, Maria; Saito, Masao; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Tóth, L. Viktor; He, Jinhua; Sakai, Takeshi; Kim, Jungha; JCMT Large Program “SCOPE” collaboration; TRAO Key Science Program “TOP” collaboration

    2017-02-01

    We observed 13 Planck cold clumps with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope/SCUBA-2 and with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope. The N2H+ distribution obtained with the Nobeyama telescope is quite similar to SCUBA-2 dust distribution. The 82 GHz HC3N, 82 GHz CCS, and 94 GHz CCS emission are often distributed differently with respect to the N2H+ emission. The CCS emission, which is known to be abundant in starless molecular cloud cores, is often very clumpy in the observed targets. We made deep single-pointing observations in DNC, HN13C, N2D+, and cyclic-C3H2 toward nine clumps. The detection rate of N2D+ is 50%. Furthermore, we observed the NH3 emission toward 15 Planck cold clumps to estimate the kinetic temperature, and confirmed that most targets are cold (≲20 K). In two of the starless clumps we observed, the CCS emission is distributed as it surrounds the N2H+ core (chemically evolved gas), which resembles the case of L1544, a prestellar core showing collapse. In addition, we detected both DNC and N2D+. These two clumps are most likely on the verge of star formation. We introduce the chemical evolution factor (CEF) for starless cores to describe the chemical evolutionary stage, and analyze the observed Planck cold clumps.

  4. SPECTRAL IMAGING OF GALAXY CLUSTERS WITH PLANCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata,” via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Rasia, E., E-mail: herve.bourdin@roma2.infn.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico of Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34121 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-12-20

    The Sunyaev–Zeldovich (SZ) effect is a promising tool for detecting the presence of hot gas out to the galaxy cluster peripheries. We developed a spectral imaging algorithm dedicated to the SZ observations of nearby galaxy clusters with Planck, with the aim of revealing gas density anisotropies related to the filamentary accretion of materials, or pressure discontinuities induced by the propagation of shock fronts. To optimize an unavoidable trade-off between angular resolution and precision of the SZ flux measurements, the algorithm performs a multi-scale analysis of the SZ maps as well as of other extended components, such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and the Galactic thermal dust. The demixing of the SZ signal is tackled through kernel-weighted likelihood maximizations. The CMB anisotropies are further analyzed through a wavelet analysis, while the Galactic foregrounds and SZ maps are analyzed via a curvelet analysis that best preserves their anisotropic details. The algorithm performance has been tested against mock observations of galaxy clusters obtained by simulating the Planck High Frequency Instrument and by pointing at a few characteristic positions in the sky. These tests suggest that Planck should easily allow us to detect filaments in the cluster peripheries and detect large-scale shocks in colliding galaxy clusters that feature favorable geometry.

  5. Planck intermediate results. XXVI. Optical identification and redshifts of Planck clusters with the RTT150 telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Barrena, R; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bikmaev, I; Böhringer, H; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Burenin, R; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Carvalho, P; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Chon, G; Christensen, P R; Churazov, E; Clements, D L; Colombo, L P L; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Dahle, H; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Flores-Cacho, I; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Fromenteau, S; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Gilfanov, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Hempel, A; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Khamitov, I; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Mac\\'\\ias-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Mart\\'\\inez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschenes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Roman, M; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Mart\\'\\in, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vibert, L; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with the Russian-Turkish 1.5-m telescope (RTT150), as a part of the optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck collaboration. During this time period approximately 20% of all dark and grey clear time available at the telescope was devoted to observations of Planck objects. Some observations of distant clusters were also done at the 6-m Bolshoy Telescope Azimutal'ny (BTA) of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In total, deep, direct images of more than one hundred fields were obtained in multiple filters. We identified 47 previously unknown galaxy clusters, 41 of which are included in the Planck catalogue of SZ sources. The redshifts of 65 Planck clusters were measured spectroscopically and 14 more were measured photometrically. We discuss the details of cluster optical identifications and redshift measurements. We also present new spectroscopic redhifts f...

  6. Infant feeding: formula, solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barness, L A

    1985-04-01

    This article discusses and evaluates current formulas, traces their continual improvement (based largely on new information on breast milk composition), and then discusses the question of supplemental feedings.

  7. China's Formula,Go!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yinghong; Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ On the first day of November,when Jenson Button cheered his first Formula I World Championship 2009 at the final race of the season in Abu Dhabi,Chinese young university students were busy preparing for their own Formula event.According to a press conference on October 19,2009 in Beijing,the first Formula SAE-China (FSAE) event has set off,and will be officially launch its final race next year from October 14 to October 17 at Shanghai International Circuit,where will also be the Formula 12010 China stop again in next April.

  8. Study on the Formula of Green Environmental Protection Radiator Coolant Hose for Automobile%绿色环保的汽车散热器冷却液胶管配方研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯宇旋

    2012-01-01

    The Author studied the application of sulfur donor vulcanization system and peroxide vulcanization system in automobile radiator coolant hose material,made the new formulation design from the economic and environmental protection angle,and tested the properties.The author through the analysis of experimental results,found out the best proportion of sulfur donor vulcanization system formula.By comparing the experimental results,in the same conditions,the sulfur donor vulcanization system of EPDM had greater tensile strength,elongation at break and tear strength.Moreover,the heat-resistant attributer of optimized sulfur donor vulcanization system was relatively close to the one of peroxide vulcanization system.The new formula was very practical.%笔者研究了硫磺给予体硫化体系与过氧化物硫化体系在汽车散热器冷却液胶管材料中的应用,从经济环保的角度进行了新的配方设计,并进行了性能测试。通过对实验结果分析,确定硫磺给予体硫化体系配方的最佳比例。通过对比实验,结果表明:同等条件下,EPDM的硫磺给予体硫化体系对比过氧化物硫化体系有较大的拉伸强度、拉断伸长率、撕裂强度。而且耐热性能方面优化硫磺给予体硫化体系也与过氧化物硫化体系比较接近。新配方实用性强。

  9. Tube formula, Berezinians, and Dwork formula

    CERN Document Server

    Khudaverdian, Hovhannes M

    2007-01-01

    We consider an example of tubes of hypersurfaces in Euclidean space and generalise the tube formula to supercase. By this we assign to a point of the hypersurface in superspace a rational characteristic function. Does this rational function appear when we calculate the zeta-function of an arithmetic variety?

  10. PLANCK, the Satellite: a New Experimental Test of General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available If the origin of a microwave background (EMB is the Earth, what would be its density and associated dipole anisotropy measured at different altitudes from the surface of the Earth? The mathematical methods of the General Theory of Relativity are applied herein to answer these questions. The density of the EMB is answered by means of Einstein’s equations for the electromagnetic field of the Earth. The dipole anisotropy, which is due to the rapid motion of the source (the Earth in the weak intergalactic field, is analysed by using the geodesic equations for light-like particles (photons, which are mediators for electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the EMB decreases with altitude so that the density of its energy at the altitude of the COBE orbit (900km is 0.68 times less than that at the altitude of a U2 aeroplane (25 km. Furthermore, the density at the 2nd Lagrange point (1.5 million km, the position of the WMAP and PLANCK satellites should be only 1E-7 of the value detected by a U2 aeroplane or at the COBE orbit. The dipole anisotropy of the EMB doesn’t depend on altitude from the surface of the Earth, it should be the same irrespective of the altitude at which measurements are taken. This result is in support to the experimental and observational analysis conducted by P.-M. Robitaille, according to which the 2.7 K microwave background, first observed by Penzias and Wilson, is not of cosmic origin, but of the Earth, and is generated by the oceans. WMAP indicated the same anisotropy of the microwave background at the 2nd Lagrange point that near the Earth. Therefore when PLANCK, which is planned on July, 2008, will manifest the 2.7 K monopole microwave signal deceased at the 2nd Langrange point, it will be a new experimental verification of Einstein’s theory.

  11. General forecasting correcting formula

    OpenAIRE

    Harin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    A general forecasting correcting formula, as a framework for long-use and standardized forecasts, is created. The formula provides new forecasting resources and new possibilities for expansion of forecasting including economic forecasting into the areas of municipal needs, middle-size and small-size business and, even, to individual forecasting.

  12. Perfect IFG-formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Allen L

    2008-01-01

    IFG logic is a variant of the independence-friendly logic of Hintikka and Sandu. We answer the question: ``Which IFG-formulas are equivalent to ordinary first-order formulas?'' We use the answer to show that the ordinary cylindric set algebra over a structure can be embedded into a reduct of the IFG-cylindric set algebra over the structure.

  13. Formula misasi?! / Sten Soomlais

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomlais, Sten

    2008-01-01

    Formula Student on kõrgkoolide masinaehituse ja/või autotehnika tudengite meeskondade vaheline iga-aastane tootearendusvõistlus, mis kujutab endast väikese vormelauto projekteerimist, ehitamist ja võidusõitmist ringrajal. Lisa: Formula Student Eestis

  14. General forecasting correcting formula

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A general forecasting correcting formula, as a framework for long-use and standardized forecasts, is created. The formula provides new forecasting resources and new possibilities for expansion of forecasting including economic forecasting into the areas of municipal needs, middle-size and small-size business and, even, to individual forecasting.

  15. Prebiotics in infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited.

  16. Prebiotics in infant formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  17. Formula misasi?! / Sten Soomlais

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomlais, Sten

    2008-01-01

    Formula Student on kõrgkoolide masinaehituse ja/või autotehnika tudengite meeskondade vaheline iga-aastane tootearendusvõistlus, mis kujutab endast väikese vormelauto projekteerimist, ehitamist ja võidusõitmist ringrajal. Lisa: Formula Student Eestis

  18. The Morphology of the Anomalous Microwave Emission in the Planck 2015 data release

    CERN Document Server

    von Hausegger, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    We calculate weighted mosaic correlations between the recently published Planck 2015 foreground maps - both anomalous microwave emission (AME) maps, free-free emission, synchrotron radiation and thermal dust emission. The weighting coefficients are constructed taking account of the signal-to-error ratio given by the data product. Positive correlation is found for AME compared with thermal dust emission as well as synchrotron radiation. We find AME and free-free emission tending to be anti-correlated, however, when investigating different scales, their relationship appears to be more complex. We argue that dust particles responsible for AME are pushed out of hot zones in the interstellar medium (ISM).

  19. A Neural-Network based estimator to search for primordial non-Gaussianity in Planck CMB maps

    CERN Document Server

    Novaes, C P; Ferreira, I S; Wuensche, C A

    2014-01-01

    We present an upgraded combined estimator, based on Minkowski Functionals and a Neural Network, with excellent performance in detecting primordial non-Gaussianity in simulated maps that also contain a weighted mixture of Galactic contaminations, besides real pixel's noise from Planck cosmic microwave background radiation data. We rigorously test the ef\\/ficiency of our estimator considering several plausible scenarios for for residual non-Gaussianities in the foreground-cleaned Planck maps, with the intuition to optimize the training procedure of the Neural Network to discriminate between contaminations with primordial and secondary non-Gaussian signatures. With a validated estimator's performance, showing more than $97 \\%$ of hits in a variety of cases, we look for constraining the primordial non-Gaussianity in large angular scales analyses of the Planck maps. For the $\\mathtt{SMICA}$ map we found that ${f}_{\\rm \\,NL} = 44 \\pm 14$, at $2\\sigma$ confidence level, which is in excellent agreement with the WMAP-...

  20. Parallelized Vlasov-Fokker-Planck solver for desktop personal computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Schönfeldt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The numerical solution of the Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation is a well established method to simulate the dynamics, including the self-interaction with its own wake field, of an electron bunch in a storage ring. In this paper we present Inovesa, a modularly extensible program that uses opencl to massively parallelize the computation. It allows a standard desktop PC to work with appropriate accuracy and yield reliable results within minutes. We provide numerical stability-studies over a wide parameter range and compare our numerical findings to known results. Simulation results for the case of coherent synchrotron radiation will be compared to measurements that probe the effects of the microbunching instability occurring in the short bunch operation at ANKA. It will be shown that the impedance model based on the shielding effect of two parallel plates can not only describe the instability threshold, but also the presence of multiple regimes that show differences in the emission of coherent synchrotron radiation.

  1. Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    spectrum. The Planck values for some of these parameters and others derived from them are significantly different from those previously determined. Several large scale anomalies in the CMB temperature distribution detected earlier by WMAP are confirmed with higher confidence. Planck sets new limits...... on the number and mass of neutrinos, and has measured gravitational lensing of CMB anisotropies at 25 sigma. Planck finds no evidence for non-Gaussian statistics of the CMB anisotropies. There is some tension between Planck and WMAP results; this is evident in the power spectrum and results for some...... the robust detection of the E-mode polarization signal around CMB hot- and cold-spots....

  2. Planck 2013 results. XII. Diffuse component separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dobler, G.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huey, G.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schiavon, F.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Wilkinson, A.; Xia, J.-Q.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    Planck has produced detailed all-sky observations over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz. These observations allow robust reconstruction of the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations over nearly the full sky, as well as new constraints on Galactic foregrounds, including thermal dust and line emission from molecular carbon monoxide (CO). This paper describes the component separation framework adopted by Planck for many cosmological analyses, including CMB power spectrum determination and likelihood construction on large angular scales, studies of primordial non-Gaussianity and statistical isotropy, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, gravitational lensing, and searches for topological defects. We test four foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived using qualitatively different component separation algorithms. The quality of our reconstructions is evaluated through detailed simulations and internal comparisons, and shown through various tests to be internally consistent and robust for CMB power spectrum and cosmological parameter estimation up to ℓ = 2000. The parameter constraints on ΛCDM cosmologies derived from these maps are consistent with those presented in the cross-spectrum based Planck likelihood analysis. We choose two of the CMB maps for specific scientific goals. We also present maps and frequency spectra of the Galactic low-frequency, CO, and thermal dust emission. The component maps are found to provide a faithful representation of the sky, as evaluated by simulations, with the largest bias seen in the CO component at 3%. For the low-frequency component, the spectral index varies widely over the sky, ranging from about β = -4 to - 2. Considering both morphology and prior knowledge of the low frequencycomponents, the index map allows us to associate a steep spectral index (β -2.3 with strong free-free emission, and intermediate values with synchrotron emission.

  3. Planck 2015 results: VI. LFI mapmaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the mapmaking procedure applied to Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data. The mapmaking step takes as input the calibrated timelines and pointing information. The main products are sky maps of I, Q, and U Stokes components. For the first time, we present polarization maps......-resolution versions of the maps and corresponding noise covariance matrices. These serve as input in later analysis steps and parameter estimation. The noise covariance matrices are validated through noise Monte Carlo simulations. The residual noise in the map products is characterized through analysis of half...

  4. Planck 2015 results. XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Pelkonen, V -M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC), an all-sky catalogue of Galactic cold clump candidates detected by Planck. This catalogue is the full version of the Early Cold Core (ECC) catalogue, which was made available in 2011 with the Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and contained 915 high S/N sources. It is based on the Planck 48 months mission data that are currently being released to the astronomical community. The PGCC catalogue is an observational catalogue consisting exclusively of Galactic cold sources. The three highest Planck bands (857, 545, 353 GHz) have been combined with IRAS data at 3 THz to perform a multi-frequency detection of sources colder than their local environment. After rejection of possible extragalactic contaminants, the PGCC catalogue contains 13188 Galactic sources spread across the whole sky, i.e., from the Galactic plane to high latitudes, following the spatial distribution of the main molecular cloud complexes. The median temperature of PGCC so...

  5. Planck 2013 results. XXIX. The Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources: Addendum

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Aussel, H; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Barrena, R; Bartelmann, M; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bikmaev, I; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Böhringer, H; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burenin, R; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cardoso, J -F; Carvalho, P; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, H C; Chiang, L -Y; Chon, G; Christensen, P R; Churazov, E; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Da Silva, A; Dahle, H; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Démoclès, J; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Feroz, F; Ferragamo, A; Finelli, F; Flores-Cacho, I; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Fromenteau, S; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Gilfanov, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Grainge, K J B; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; N,; Groeneboom, E; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Hempel, A; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Hurley-Walker, N; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Khamitov, I; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; León-Tavares, J; Lesgourgues, J; Li, C; Liddle, A; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; MacTavish, C J; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Mei, S; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mikkelsen, K; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nastasi, A; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Nesvadba, N P H; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Olamaie, M; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrott, Y C; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rumsey, C; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Saunders, R D E; Savini, G; Schammel, M P; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Shimwell, T W; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Streblyanska, A; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tramonte, D; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vibert, L; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; White, M; White, S D M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    We update the all-sky Planck catalogue of 1227 clusters and cluster candidates (PSZ1) published in March 2013, derived from Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect detections using the first 15.5 months of Planck satellite observations. Addendum. We deliver an updated version of the PSZ1 catalogue, reporting the further confirmation of 86 Planck-discovered clusters. In total, the PSZ1 now contains 947 confirmed clusters, of which 214 were confirmed as newly discovered clusters through follow-up observations undertaken by the Planck Collaboration. The updated PSZ1 contains redshifts for 913 systems, of which 736 (~80.6%) are spectroscopic, and associated mass estimates derived from the Y_z mass proxy. We also provide a new SZ quality flag, derived from a novel artificial neural network classification of the SZ signal, for the remaining 280 candidates. Based on this assessment, the purity of the updated PSZ1 catalogue is estimated to be 94%. In this release, we provide the full updated catalogue and an additional readme ...

  6. Planck Intermediate Results. IX. Detection of the Galactic haze with Planck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.;

    2013-01-01

    , and extends to |b| ~35 deg in Galactic latitude and |l| ~15 deg in longitude. By combining the Planck data with observations from the WMAP we are able to determine the spectrum of this emission to high accuracy, unhindered by the large systematic biases present in previous analyses. The derived spectrum...

  7. Planck intermediate results: IV. the XMM-Newton validation programme for new Planck galaxy clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.;

    2013-01-01

    -Faint Source Catalogue does not guarantee that the SZ candidate is a bona fide cluster. Nevertheless, most Planck clusters appear in RASS maps, with a significance greater than 2σ being a good indication that the candidate is a real cluster. Candidate validation from association with SDSS galaxy overdensity...

  8. Planck 2013 results. XXIX. Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Aussel, H.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Barrena, R.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bohringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P.R.; Churazov, E.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Democles, J.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Feroz, F.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fromenteau, S.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Genova-Santos, R.T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Grainge, K.J.B.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; N, E.Groeneboom; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Hempel, A.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Li, C.; Liddle, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; MacTavish, C.J.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nesvadba, N.P.H.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Olamaie, M.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrott, Y.C.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rumsey, C.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Saunders, R.D.E.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shimwell, T.W.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the all-sky Planck catalogue of clusters and cluster candidates derived from Sunyaev--Zeldovich (SZ) effect detections using the first 15.5 months of Planck satellite observations. The catalogue contains 1227 entries, making it over six times the size of the Planck Early SZ (ESZ) sample and the largest SZ-selected catalogue to date. It contains 861 confirmed clusters, of which 178 have been confirmed as clusters, mostly through follow-up observations, and a further 683 are previously-known clusters. The remaining 366 have the status of cluster candidates, and we divide them into three classes according to the quality of evidence that they are likely to be true clusters. The Planck SZ catalogue is the deepest all-sky cluster catalogue, with redshifts up to about one, and spans the broadest cluster mass range from (0.1 to 1.6) 10^{15}Msun. Confirmation of cluster candidates through comparison with existing surveys or cluster catalogues is extensively described, as is the statistical characterization...

  9. Planck 2015 results: XXVII. The second Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.;

    2016-01-01

    We present the all-sky Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources detected from the 29 month full-mission data. The catalogue (PSZ2) is the largest SZ-selected sample of galaxy clusters yet produced and the deepest systematic all-sky surveyof galaxy clusters. It contains 1653 detections, ...

  10. Planck intermediate results. XIX. An overview of the polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Alina, D; Alves, M I R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Arzoumanian, D; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bracco, A; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; Pino, E M de Gouveia Dal; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Ferrière, K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Guillet, V; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D L; Helou, G; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Magalhães, A M; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Poidevin, F; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the large-scale polarized sky as seen by Planck HFI at 353 GHz, which is the most sensitive Planck channel for dust polarization. We construct and analyse large-scale maps of dust polarization fraction and polarization direction, while taking account of noise bias and possible systematic effects. We find that the maximum observed dust polarization fraction is high (pmax > 18%), in particular in some of the intermediate dust column density (AV < 1mag) regions. There is a systematic decrease in the dust polarization fraction with increasing dust column density, and we interpret the features of this correlation in light of both radiative grain alignment predictions and fluctuations in the magnetic field orientation. We also characterize the spatial structure of the polarization angle using the angle dispersion function and find that, in nearby fields at intermediate latitudes, the polarization angle is ordered over extended areas that are separated by filamentary structures, which appear a...

  11. Foreground removal from Planck Sky Model temperature maps using a MLP neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Hebert, K.

    2009-01-01

    Unfortunately, the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation is contaminated by emission originating in the Milky Way (synchrotron, free-free and dust emission). Since the cosmological information is statistically in nature, it is essential to remove this foreground emission and leave the CMB...... with no systematic errors. To demonstrate the feasibility of a simple multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network for extracting the CMB temperature signal, we have analyzed a specific data set, namely the Planck Sky Model maps, developed for evaluation of different component separation methods before including them...... in the Planck data analysis pipeline. It is found that a MLP neural network can provide a CMB map of about 80% of the sky to a very high degree uncorrelated with the foreground components. Also the derived power spectrum shows little evidence for systematic errors....

  12. Dark Radiation and Inflationary Freedom after Planck 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Gerbino, Martina; Giusarma, Elena; Mena, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The simplest inflationary models predict a primordial power spectrum (PPS) of the curvature fluctuations that can be described by a power-law function that is nearly scale-invariant. It has been shown, however, that the low-multipole spectrum of the CMB anisotropies may hint the presence of some features in the shape of the scalar PPS, which could deviate from its canonical power-law form. We study the possible degeneracies of this non-standard PPS with the neutrino anisotropies, the neutrino masses, the effective number of relativistic species and a sterile neutrino or a thermal axion mass. The limits on these additional parameters are less constraining in a model with a non-standard PPS when only including the temperature auto-correlation spectrum measurements in the data analyses. The inclusion of the polarization spectra noticeably helps in reducing the degeneracies, leading to results that typically show no deviation from the $\\Lambda$CDM model with a standard power-law PPS.

  13. Readability Formulas: Pluses and Minuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygiel, Mary Ann

    1982-01-01

    Examines readability formulas and examples of their misuse. Analyzes an essay by George Orwell which was given a grade 10 readability level by one formula and discusses characteristics of Orwell's style that refute the accuracy of formula rating. (HTH)

  14. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly...

  15. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  16. Inflationary paradigm in trouble after Planck2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Loeb, Abraham

    2013-06-01

    Recent results from the Planck satellite combined with earlier observations from WMAP, ACT, SPT and other experiments eliminate a wide spectrum of more complex inflationary models and favor models with a single scalar field, as reported by the Planck Collaboration. More important, though, is that all the simplest inflaton models are disfavored statistically relative to those with plateau-like potentials. We discuss how a restriction to plateau-like models has three independent serious drawbacks: it exacerbates both the initial conditions problem and the multiverse-unpredictability problem and it creates a new difficulty that we call the inflationary "unlikeliness problem." Finally, we comment on problems reconciling inflation with a standard model Higgs, as suggested by recent LHC results. In sum, we find that recent experimental data disfavors all the best-motivated inflationary scenarios and introduces new, serious difficulties that cut to the core of the inflationary paradigm. Forthcoming searches for B-modes, non-Gaussianity and new particles should be decisive.

  17. PLANCK LFI Level 1 Processing During Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, N.; Rohlfs, R.; Türler, M.; Meharga, M.; Binko, P.; Beck, M.; Frailis, M.; Zacchei, A.; Galeotta, S.

    2008-08-01

    The PLANCK satellite with two on-board instruments, a Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) and a High Frequency Instrument (HFI) is foreseen to be launched in August 2008 with Ariane 5. The Data Processing Centre (DPC) in Trieste, Italy for LFI is responsible for processing the PLANCK LFI data. The ISDC data centre in Switzerland is responsible for developing/installing and maintaining the software for the LFI Level 1 data processing presented here. The main tasks of the Level 1 processing are to retrieve the daily available consolidated scientific and housekeeping (HK) data of the LFI instrument from the Mission Operation Centre in Darmstadt (MOC); to sort them by time and by type (detector, observing mode, etc...); to extract the spacecraft attitude information from auxiliary files; to flag the data according to several criteria; and to archive the resulting Time Ordered Information (TOI). The TOI data generated by the level 1 pipeline are the input for the more scientific LFI level 2 processing. The TOI are first stored in FITS format and then ingested into the Data Management Component (DMC) system, which is the interface to the LFI DPC database. In addition, the ISDC also developed software tools to display and perform a quick look analysis of the data.

  18. The Planck Scale from Top Condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Yang; Ponton, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    We propose a scenario in which the Planck scale is dynamically linked to the electroweak scale induced by top condensation. The standard model field content, without the Higgs, is promoted to a 5D warped background. The only additional ingredient is a 5D fermion with the quantum numbers of the right-handed top. Localization of the zero-modes leads, at low energies, to a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model that also stabilizes the radion field dynamically thus explaining the hierarchy between the Planck scale and v_EW = 174 GeV. The top mass arises dynamically from the electroweak breaking condensate. The other standard model fermion masses arise naturally from higher-dimension operators, and the fermion mass hierarchies and flavor structure can be explained from the localization of the zero-modes in the extra dimension. The model is easily consistent with the electroweak precision data, since the Kaluza-Klein scale is predicted to be about two orders of magnitude above the electroweak scale. This little hierarchy is a d...

  19. Planck 2013 results. V. LFI calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cappellini, B; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Gaier, T C; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Kangaslahti, P; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, D; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the methods employed to photometrically calibrate the data acquired by the Low Frequency Instrument on Planck. Our calibration is based on a combination of the Orbital Dipole plus the Solar Dipole, caused respectively by the motion of the Planck spacecraft with respect to the Sun and by motion of the Solar System with respect to the CMB rest frame. The latter provides a signal of a few mK with the same spectrum as the CMB anisotropies and is visible throughout the mission. In this data release we rely on the characterization of the Solar Dipole as measured by WMAP. We also present preliminary results (at 44GHz only) on the study of the Orbital Dipole, which agree with the WMAP value of the Solar System speed within our uncertainties. We compute the calibration constant for each radiometer roughly once per hour, in order to keep track of changes in the detectors' gain. Since non-idealities in the optical response of the beams proved to be important, we implemented a fast convolution algorithm which ...

  20. Inflationary paradigm in trouble after Planck2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ijjas, Anna, E-mail: aijjas@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); University Observatory Munich, 81679 Munich (Germany); Steinhardt, Paul J., E-mail: steinh@princeton.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-06-25

    Recent results from the Planck satellite combined with earlier observations from WMAP, ACT, SPT and other experiments eliminate a wide spectrum of more complex inflationary models and favor models with a single scalar field, as reported by the Planck Collaboration. More important, though, is that all the simplest inflaton models are disfavored statistically relative to those with plateau-like potentials. We discuss how a restriction to plateau-like models has three independent serious drawbacks: it exacerbates both the initial conditions problem and the multiverse-unpredictability problem and it creates a new difficulty that we call the inflationary “unlikeliness problem.” Finally, we comment on problems reconciling inflation with a standard model Higgs, as suggested by recent LHC results. In sum, we find that recent experimental data disfavors all the best-motivated inflationary scenarios and introduces new, serious difficulties that cut to the core of the inflationary paradigm. Forthcoming searches for B-modes, non-Gaussianity and new particles should be decisive.

  1. Planck 2013 results. XIII. Galactic CO emission

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Alves, M.I.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigaluppi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R. -R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L. -Y; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J. -M.; Dempsey, J.T.; Desert, F. -X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enblin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fukui, Y.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Handa, T.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hily-Blant, P.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M. -A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moore, T.J.T.; Morgante, G.; Morino, J.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Nakajima, T.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Okuda, T.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Preezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J. -L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Thomas, H.S.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torii, K.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yoda, H. Yamamoto T.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    Rotational transition lines of CO play a major role in molecular radio astronomy and in particular in the study of star formation and the Galactic structure. Although a wealth of data exists in the Galactic plane and some well-known molecular clouds, there is no available CO high sensitivity all-sky survey to date. Such all-sky surveys can be constructed using the \\Planck\\ HFI data because the three lowest CO rotational transition lines at 115, 230 and 345 GHz significantly contribute to the signal of the 100, 217 and 353 GHz HFI channels respectively. Two different component separation methods are used to extract the CO maps from Planck HFI data. The maps obtained are then compared to one another and to existing external CO surveys. From these quality checks the best CO maps in terms of signal to noise and/or residual foreground contamination are selected. Three sets of velocity-integrated CO emission maps are produced: Type 1 maps of the CO (1-0), (2-1), and (3-2) rotational transitions with low foreground ...

  2. Planck 2015 results. XVIII. Background geometry & topology

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; De Rosa, A.; De Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Feeney, S.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McEwen, J.D.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Tent, F. Van; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full-sky CMB maps from the 2015 Planck release allow us to detect departures from global isotropy on the largest scales. We present the first searches using CMB polarization for correlations induced by a non-trivial topology with a fundamental domain intersecting, or nearly intersecting, the last scattering surface (at comoving distance $\\chi_{rec}$). We specialize to flat spaces with toroidal and slab topologies, finding that explicit searches for the latter are sensitive to other topologies with antipodal symmetry. These searches yield no detection of a compact topology at a scale below the diameter of the last scattering surface. The limits on the radius $R_i$ of the largest sphere inscribed in the topological domain (at log-likelihood-ratio $\\Delta\\ln{L}>-5$ relative to a simply-connected flat Planck best-fit model) are $R_i>0.97\\chi_{rec}$ for the cubic torus and $R_i>0.56\\chi_{rec}$ for the slab. The limit for the cubic torus from the matched-circles search is numerically equivalent, $R_i>0.97\\chi_{rec}...

  3. Geometrization of Trace Formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Frenkel, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Following our joint work arXiv:1003.4578 with Robert Langlands, we make the first steps toward developing geometric methods for analyzing trace formulas in the case of the function field of a curve defined over a finite field. We also suggest a conjectural framework of geometric trace formulas for curves defined over the complex field, which exploits the categorical version of the geometric Langlands correspondence.

  4. THE PLANCK ABSOLUTE ENTRORY OF THE BLACK HOLE%黑洞的普朗克绝对熵公式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传安

    2001-01-01

    利用黑洞热力学第一定律和第三定律分别导出黑洞的普朗克绝对 熵公式,该公式表明黑洞熵与黑洞视界的全面积成正比. 并进一步证明了黑洞的普朗克绝对 熵就是经典热力学熵.%Using the first and third law of the black hole mechanics, we have derived the form ula of the Planck absolute entrory of the black hole. The formula represents that the entrory of the black hole should be proprotional to the total area of the inner and outer horizons. And we have proven that the Planck absolute entrory of the black hole should be the classical thermodynamic entropy.

  5. Planck pre-launch status: The optical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauber, J. A.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Ade, P. A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Planck is a scientific satellite that represents the next milestone in space-based research related to the cosmic microwave background, and in many other astrophysical fields. Planck was launched on 14 May of 2009 and is now operational. The uncertainty in the optical response of its detectors...

  6. Planck early results. XIV. ERCSC validation and extreme radio sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavonen, N.; León-Tavares, J.; Savolainen, P.

    2011-01-01

    Planck's all-sky surveys at 30-857 GHz provide an unprecedented opportunity to follow the radio spectra of a large sample of extragalactic sources to frequencies 2-20 times higher than allowed by past, large-area, ground-based surveys. We combine the results of the Planck Early Release Compact So...

  7. Planck intermediate results XXXI. Microwave survey of Galactic supernova remnants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.;

    2016-01-01

    The all-sky Planck survey in 9 frequency bands was used to search for emission from all 274 known Galactic supernova remnants. Of these, 16 were detected in at least two Planck frequencies. The radio-through-microwave spectral energy distributions were compiled to determine the mechanism for micr...

  8. Understanding the Planck blackbody spectrum and Landau diamagnetism within classical electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Timothy H.

    2016-11-01

    Electromagnetism is a relativistic theory, and one must exercise care in coupling this theory with nonrelativistic classical mechanics and with nonrelativistic classical statistical mechanics. Indeed historically, both the blackbody radiation spectrum and diamagnetism within classical theory have been misunderstood because of two crucial failures: (1) the neglect of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, and (2) the use of erroneous combinations of nonrelativistic mechanics with relativistic electrodynamics. Here we review the treatment of classical blackbody radiation, and show that the presence of Lorentz-invariant classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation can explain both the Planck blackbody spectrum and Landau diamagnetism at thermal equilibrium within classical electromagnetic theory. The analysis requires that relativistic electromagnetism is joined appropriately with simple nonrelativistic mechanical systems which can be regarded as the zero-velocity limits of relativistic systems, and that nonrelativistic classical statistical mechanics is applied only in the low-frequency limit when zero-point energy makes no contribution.

  9. Composite Inflation in the light of 2015 Planck data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channuie, Phongpichit

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we examine cosmological constraints on models of composite inflation based on the slow-roll approximation by using the recent Planck measurement. We compare the spectral index of curvature perturbation (and its running) and the tensor-to-scalar ratio predicted by such models with Planck 2015 data. We find that the predictions of technicolor inflation are nicely consistent with the Planck analysis. Moreover, the predictions from the second model, glueball inflation, are in good agreement with the Planck data at 2σC.L. However, the final two models, super glueball inflation and orientifold inflation, favor only the rather large value of the tensor-to-scalar ratio of which the predictions are in tension with the Planck analysis.

  10. Planck intermediate results XXXVI. Optical identification and redshifts of Planck SZ sources with telescopes at the Canary Islands observatories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.;

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with telescopes at the Canary Islands observatories as part of the general optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck Collaboration. In total, 78 SZ sources are discussed. Deep-i...

  11. Planck intermediate results XXV. The Andromeda galaxy as seen by Planck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Andromeda galaxy (M 31) is one of a few galaxies that has sufficient angular size on the sky to be resolved by the Planck satellite. Planck has detected M 31 in all of its frequency bands, and has mapped out the dust emission with the High Frequency Instrument, clearly resolving multiple spiral...... 22 K in the nucleus to 14 K outside of the 10 kpc ring. Finally, we measure the integrated spectrum of the whole galaxy, which we find to be well-fitted with a global dust temperature of (18.2 +/- 1.0) K with a spectral index of 1.62 +/- 0.11 (assuming a single modified blackbody), and a significant...

  12. Inflationary paradigm in trouble after Planck2013

    CERN Document Server

    Ijjas, Anna; Loeb, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    The recent Planck satellite combined with earlier results eliminate a wide spectrum of more complex inflationary models and favor models with a single scalar field, as reported in the analysis of the collaboration. More important, though, is that all the simplest inflaton models are disfavored by the data while the surviving models -- namely, those with plateau-like potentials -- are problematic. We discuss how the restriction to plateau-like models leads to three independent problems: it exacerbates both the initial conditions problem and the multiverse-unpredictability problem and it creates a new difficulty which we call the inflationary "unlikeliness problem." Finally, we comment on problems reconciling inflation with a standard model Higgs, as suggested by recent LHC results. In sum, we find that recent experimental data disfavors all the best-motivated inflationary scenarios and introduces new, serious difficulties that cut to the core of the inflationary paradigm. Forthcoming searches for B-modes, non-...

  13. Planck 2015 results. III. LFI systematic uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Basak, S; Battaglia, P; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Catalano, A; Christensen, P R; Colombo, L P L; Cruz, M; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Doré, O; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Frailis, M; Franceschet, C; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D L; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Keihäen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; Lindholm, V; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Meinhold, P R; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Noviello, F; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vassallo, T; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zibin, J P; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the current accounting of systematic effect uncertainties for the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) that are relevant to the 2015 release of the Planck cosmological results, showing the robustness and consistency of our data set, especially for polarization analysis. We use two complementary approaches: (i) simulations based on measured data and physical models of the known systematic effects; and (ii) analysis of difference maps containing the same sky signal ("null-maps"). The LFI temperature data are limited by instrumental noise. At large angular scales the systematic effects are below the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature power spectrum by several orders of magnitude. In polarization the systematic uncertainties are dominated by calibration uncertainties and compete with the CMB $E$-modes in the multipole range 10-20. Based on our model of all known systematic effects, we show that these effects introduce a slight bias of around $0.2\\,\\sigma$ on the reionization optical depth derived ...

  14. Planck 2015 results. VI. LFI mapmaking

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Christensen, P R; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; Lindholm, V; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renzi, A; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vassallo, T; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the mapmaking procedure applied to Planck LFI (Low Frequency Instrument) data. The mapmaking step takes as input the calibrated timelines and pointing information. The main products are sky maps of $I,Q$, and $U$ Stokes components. For the first time, we present polarization maps at LFI frequencies. The mapmaking algorithm is based on a destriping technique, enhanced with a noise prior. The Galactic region is masked to reduce errors arising from bandpass mismatch and high signal gradients. We apply horn-uniform radiometer weights to reduce effects of beam shape mismatch. The algorithm is the same as used for the 2013 release, apart from small changes in parameter settings. We validate the procedure through simulations. Special emphasis is put on the control of systematics, which is particularly important for accurate polarization analysis. We also produce low-resolution versions of the maps, and corresponding noise covariance matrices. These serve as input in later analysis steps and para...

  15. Generalized Stochastic Fokker-Planck Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Henri Chavanis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider a system of Brownian particles with long-range interactions. We go beyond the mean field approximation and take fluctuations into account. We introduce a new class of stochastic Fokker-Planck equations associated with a generalized thermodynamical formalism. Generalized thermodynamics arises in the case of complex systems experiencing small-scale constraints. In the limit of short-range interactions, we obtain a generalized class of stochastic Cahn-Hilliard equations. Our formalism has application for several systems of physical interest including self-gravitating Brownian particles, colloid particles at a fluid interface, superconductors of type II, nucleation, the chemotaxis of bacterial populations, and two-dimensional turbulence. We also introduce a new type of generalized entropy taking into account anomalous diffusion and exclusion or inclusion constraints.

  16. Spectral imaging of galaxy clusters with Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Bourdin, H; Rasia, E

    2016-01-01

    The Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect is a promising tool for detecting the presence of hot gas out to the galaxy cluster peripheries. We developed a spectral imaging algorithm dedicated to the SZ observations of nearby galaxy clusters with Planck, with the aim of revealing gas density anisotropies related to the filamentary accretion of materials, or pressure discontinuities induced by the propagation of shock fronts. To optimize an unavoidable trade-off between angular resolution and precision of the SZ flux measurements, the algorithm performs a multiscale analysis of the SZ maps as well as of other extended components, such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and the Galactic thermal dust. The demixing of the SZ signal is tackled through kernel weighted likelihood maximizations. The CMB anisotropies are further analyzed through a wavelet analysis, while the Galactic foregrounds and SZ maps are analyzed via a curvelet analysis that best preserves their anisotropic details. The algorithm perfo...

  17. Proton Decay and the Planck Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Larson, D T

    2005-01-01

    Even without grand unification, proton decay can be a powerful probe of physics at the highest energy scales. Supersymmetric theories with conserved R-parity contain Planck-suppressed dimension 5 operators that give important contributions to nucleon decay. These operators are likely controlled by flavor physics, which means current and near future proton decay experiments might yield clues about the fermion mass spectrum. I present a thorough analysis of nucleon partial lifetimes in supersymmetric one-flavon Froggatt-Nielsen models with a single U(1)_X family symmetry which is responsible for the fermionic mass spectrum as well as forbidding R-parity violating interactions. Many of the models naturally lead to nucleon decay near present limits without any reference to grand unification.

  18. Void Profile from Planck Lensing Potential Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantavat, Teeraparb; Sawangwit, Utane; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2017-02-01

    We use the lensing potential map from Planck CMB lensing reconstruction analysis and the “Public Cosmic Void Catalog” to measure the stacked void lensing potential. We have made an attempt to fit the HSW void profile parameters from the stacked lensing potential. In this profile, four parameters are needed to describe the shape of voids with different characteristic radii R V . However, we have found that after reducing the background noise by subtracting the average background, there is a residue lensing power left in the data. The inclusion of the environment shifting parameter, {γ }V, is necessary to get a better fit to the data with the residue lensing power. We divide the voids into two redshift bins: cmass1 (0.45Digital Sky Survey voids reside in an underdense region.

  19. Planck 2015 results. XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Galactic cold clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    We present the Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC), an all-sky catalogue of Galactic cold clump candidates detected by Planck. This catalogue is the full version of the Early Cold Core (ECC) catalogue, which was made available in 2011 with the Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and which contained 915 high signal-to-noise sources. It is based on the Planck 48-month mission data that are currently being released to the astronomical community. The PGCC catalogue is an observational catalogue consisting exclusively of Galactic cold sources. The three highest Planck bands (857, 454, and 353 GHz) have been combined with IRAS data at 3 THz to perform a multi-frequency detection of sources colder than their local environment. After rejection of possible extragalactic contaminants, the PGCC catalogue contains 13188 Galactic sources spread across the whole sky, i.e., from the Galactic plane to high latitudes, following the spatial distribution of the main molecular cloud complexes. The median temperature of PGCC sources lies between 13 and 14.5 K, depending on the quality of the flux density measurements, with a temperature ranging from 5.8 to 20 K after removing the sources with the top 1% highest temperature estimates. Using seven independent methods, reliable distance estimates have been obtained for 5574 sources, which allows us to derive their physical properties such as their mass, physical size, mean density, and luminosity.The PGCC sources are located mainly in the solar neighbourhood, but also up to a distance of 10.5 kpc in the direction of the Galactic centre, and range from low-mass cores to large molecular clouds. Because of this diversity and because the PGCC catalogue contains sources in very different environments, the catalogue is useful for investigating the evolution from molecular clouds to cores. Finally, it also includes 54 additional sources located in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds.

  20. A Parallelized Vlasov-Fokker-Planck-Solver for Desktop PCs

    CERN Document Server

    Schönfeldt,; Brosi,; Miriam,; Schwarz,; Markus,; Steinmann,; L., Johannes; Müller,; Anke-Susanne,

    2016-01-01

    The numerical solution of the Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation is a well established method to simulate the dynamics, including the self-interaction with its own wake field, of an electron bunch in a storage ring. In this paper we present Inovesa, a modularly extensible program that uses OpenCL to massively parallelize the computation. It allows a standard desktop PC to work with appropriate accuracy and yield reliable results within minutes. We provide numerical stability-studies over a wide parameter range and compare our numerical findings to known results. Simulation results for the case of coherent synchrotron radiation will be compared to measurements that probe the effects of the micro-bunching instability occurring in the short bunch operation at ANKA. It will be shown that the impedance model based on the shielding effect of two parallel plates can not only describe the instability threshold, but also the presence of multiple regimes that show differences in the emission of coherent synchrotron radiatio...

  1. Local analyses of Planck maps with Minkowski Functionals

    CERN Document Server

    Novaes, C P; Marques, G A; Ferreira, I S

    2016-01-01

    Minkowski Functionals (MF) are excellent tools to investigate the statistical properties of the cosmic background radiation (CMB) maps. Between their notorious advantages is the possibility to use them efficiently in patches of the CMB sphere, which allow studies in masked skies, inclusive analyses of small sky regions. Then, possible deviations from Gaussianity are investigated by comparison with MF obtained from a set of Gaussian isotropic simulated CMB maps to which are applied the same cut-sky masks. These analyses are sensitive enough to detect contaminations of small intensity like primary and secondary CMB anisotropies. Our methodology uses the MF, widely employed to study non-Gaussianities in CMB data, and asserts Gaussian deviations only when all of them points out an exceptional $\\chi^2$ value, at more than $2.2 \\sigma$ confidence level, in a given sky patch. Following this rigorous procedure, we find 13 regions in the foreground-cleaned Planck maps that evince such high levels of non-Gaussian devia...

  2. Planck Early Results: The Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Zacchei, A; Baccigalupi, C; Bersanelli, M; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F; de Zotti, G; Dick, J; Frailis, M; Galeotta, S; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Knoche, J; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leahy, J P; López-Caniego, M; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Matthai, F; Meinhold, P R; Mennella, A; Morgante, G; Morisset, N; Natoli, P; Pasian, F; Perrotta, F; Polenta, G; Poutanen, T; Reinecke, M; Ricciardi, S; Rohlfs, R; Sandri, M; Suur-Uski, A -S; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Valiviita, J; Villa, F; Zonca, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Bedini, L; Bennett, K; Binko, P; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bremer, M; Cabella, P; Cappellini, B; Chen, X; Colombo, L; Cruz, M; Curto, A; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Gasperis, G; de Rosa, A; de Troia, G; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Donzelli, S; Dörl, U; Efstathiou, G; En\\sslin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falvella, M C; Finelli, F; Franceschi, E; Gaier, T C; Gasparo, F; Génova-Santos, R T; Giardino, G; Gómez, F; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hell, R; Herranz, D; Hovest, W; Jewell, J; Juvela, M; Kisner, T S; Knox, L; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Leonardi, R; León-Tavares, J; Lilje, P B; Lubin, P M; Maggio, G; Marinucci, D; Martínez-González, E; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Meharga, M T; Melchiorri, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Moss, A; N\\orgaard-Nielsen, H U; Pagano, L; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pearson, D; Pettorino, V; Pietrobon, D; Prézeau, G; Procopio, P; Puget, J -L; Quercellini, C; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Robbers, G; Rocha, G; Rubi\; Salerno, E; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Silk, J I; Smoot, G F; Sternberg, J; Stivoli, F; Stompor, R; Tofani, G; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Vielva, P; Vittorio, N; Vuerli, C; Wade, L A; Watson, R; White, S D M; Wilkinson, A

    2011-01-01

    We describe the data processing pipeline employed by the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) Data Processing Centre (DPC) to create and characterize the frequency maps used by the ERCSC (Early Release Compact Source Catalogue) first product of Planck to become public. In particular, we discuss the various steps involved in reducing the data, starting from telemetry (TM)packets through to the production of cleaned calibrated timelines and calibrated frequency maps. Data are continuously calibrated using the modulation induced on the mean temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation by the proper motion of the spacecraft. The sky signals other than the dipole are removed by an iterative procedure based on simultaneous fitting of calibration parameters and sky maps. Noise properties are estimated from time-ordered data where the sky signal is removed using a Generalized Least Square map-making algorithm. The measured 1/f noise knee-frequencies range from \\sim 100 mHz at 30 GHz to a few tens of mHz at 70 G...

  3. Planck early results. XXV. Thermal dust in nearby molecular clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.

    2011-01-01

    , and the dust optical depth at 250 μm τ250. The temperature map illustrates the cooling of the dust particles in thermal equilibrium with the incident radiation field, from 16 - 17 K in the diffuse regions to 13 - 14 K in the dense parts. The distribution of spectral indices is centred at 1.78, with a standard......Planck allows unbiased mapping of Galactic sub-millimetre and millimetre emission from the most diffuse regions to the densest parts of molecular clouds. We present an early analysis of the Taurus molecular complex, on line-of-sight-averaged data and without component separation. The emission...... blackbody. Significant positive residuals are also detected in the molecular regions and in the 217 GHz and 100 GHz bands, mainly caused by the contribution of the J = 2 → 1 and J = 1 → 0 12CO and 13CO emission lines. We derive maps of the dust temperature T, the dust spectral emissivity index β...

  4. Hint of relic gravitational waves in the Planck and WMAP data

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Wen; Huang, Qing-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Relic gravitational waves (RGWs) leave well-understood imprints on the anisotropies in the temperature and polarization of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. In the TT and TE information channels, which have been well observed by WMAP and Planck missions, RGWs compete with density perturbations mainly at low multipoles. It is dangerous to include high-multipole CMB data in the search for gravitational waves, as the spectral indices may not be constants. In this paper, we repeat our previous work [W.Zhao & L.P.Grishchuk, Phys.Rev.D {\\bf 82}, 123008 (2010)] by utilizing the Planck TT and WMAP TE data in the low-multipole range $\\ell\\le100$. We find that our previous result is confirmed {with higher confidence}. The constraint on the tensor-to-scalar ratio from Planck TT and WMAP TE data is $r\\in [0.06,~0.60]$ (68% C.L.) with a peak around $r\\sim 0.2$. Correspondingly, the spectral index at the pivot wavenumber $k_*=0.002$Mpc$^{-1}$ is $n_s=1.13^{+0.07}_{-0.08}$, which is larger than 1 at more than...

  5. Planck intermediate results. XXV. The Andromeda Galaxy as seen by Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Battye, R; Benabed, K; Bendo, G; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-HéEraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Israel, F P; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Mac\\'\\ias-PéErez, J F; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Mart\\'\\inez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Pearson, T J; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Mart\\'\\in, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    The Andromeda Galaxy (M31) is one of a few galaxies that has sufficient angular size on the sky to be resolved by the Planck satellite. Planck has detected M31 in all of its frequency bands, and has mapped out the dust emission with the High Frequency Instrument, clearly resolving multiple spiral arms and sub-features. We examine the morphology of this long-wavelength dust emission as seen by Planck, including a study of its outermost spiral arms, and investigate the dust heating mechanism across M31. We find that dust dominating the longer wavelength emission ($\\gtrsim 0.3$ mm) is heated by the diffuse stellar population (as traced by 3.6 $\\mu$m emission), with the dust dominating the shorter wavelength emission heated by a mix of the old stellar population and star-forming regions (as traced by 24 $\\mu$m emission). We also fit spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for individual 5' pixels and quantify the dust properties across the galaxy, taking into account these different heating mechanisms, finding that ...

  6. Planck Intermediate Results. I. Further validation of new Planck clusters with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Balbi, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Bernard, J -P; Böhringer, H; Bonaldi, A; Borrill, J; Bourdin, H; Brown, M L; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cabella, P; Cardoso, J -F; Carvalho, P; Catalano, A; Cayón, L; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, L -Y; Chon, G; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colafrancesco, S; Colombi, S; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Cuttaia, F; Da Silva, A; Dahle, H; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Gasperis, G; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Démoclés, J; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Flores-Cacho, I; Forni, O; Fosalba, P; Frailis, M; Fromenteau, S; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; González-Nuevo, J; González-Riestra, R; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D; Hempel, A; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hornstrup, A; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jasche, J; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Leonardi, R; Liddle, A; Lilje, P B; López-Caniego, M; Luzzi, G; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mann, R; Marleau, F; Marshall, D J; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Osborne, S; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Savini, G; Schaefer, B M; Scott, D; Smoot, G F; Starck, J -L; Stivoli, F; Sutton, D; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Valenziano, L; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wandelt, B D; Weller, J; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A

    2011-01-01

    We present further results from the ongoing XMM-Newton validation follow-up of Planck cluster candidates, detailing X-ray observations of eleven candidates detected at a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.5Planck's capability to detect clusters up to high z . The X-ray properties of the new clusters appear to be similar to previous new detections by Planck at lower z and higher SZ flux: the majority are X-ray underluminous for their mass and have a disturbed morphology. We detect a first indication for Malmquist bias in the Y_SZ-Y_X ...

  7. Planck intermediate results. XXXIX. The Planck list of high-redshift source candidates

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The Planck mission, thanks to its large frequency range and all-sky coverage, has a unique potential for systematically detecting the brightest, and rarest, submillimetre sources on the sky, including distant objects in the high-redshift Universe traced by their dust emission. A novel method, based on a component-separation procedure using a combination of Planck and IRAS data, has been applied to select the most luminous cold submm sources with spectral energy distributions peaking between 353 and 857GHz at 5' resolution. A total of 2151 Planck high-z source candidates (the PHZ) have been detected in the cleanest 26% of the sky, with flux density at 545GHz above 500mJy. Embedded in the cosmic infrared background close to the confusion limit, these high-z candidates exhibit colder colours than their surroundings, consistent with redshifts z>2, assuming a dust temperature of 35K and a spectral index of 1.5. First follow-up observations obtained from optical to submm have confirmed that this list consists of tw...

  8. Planck 2015 results. XXVI. The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Argueso, F.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Beichman, C.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bohringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Sanghera, H.S.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tornikoski, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Walter, B.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources is a catalogue of sources detected in single-frequency maps from the full duration of the Planck mission and supersedes previous versions of the Planck compact source catalogues. It consists of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. Compact sources detected in the lower frequency channels are assigned to the PCCS2, while at higher frequencies they are assigned to one of two sub-catalogues, the PCCS2 or PCCS2E, depending on their location on the sky. The first of these catalogues covers most of the sky and allows the user to produce subsamples at higher reliabilities than the target 80% integral reliability of the catalogue. The PCCS2E contains sources detected in sky regions where the diffuse emission makes it difficult to quantify the reliability of the detections. Both the PCCS2 and PCCS2E include polarization measurements, in the form of polarized flux densities, or upper limits, and orientation angles for all seven pol...

  9. Effect of Yangyinqingfe Formula on the Cobalt -60 Radiation Exposed Lung Fibroblast Proliferation%养阴清肺方对钴60照射后肺成纤维细胞增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彪; 侯炜; 王兵

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察养阴清肺方对钴60照射后肺成纤维细胞增殖的情况。方法将肺成纤维细胞HPF分别经0 Gy、3 Gy、5 Gy、8 Gy钴60射线照射后,分别在24、48、72 h后用MTT法检测不同剂量射线对HPF增殖的影响,采用促进HPF增殖作用最强(细胞生存率最高)的照射剂量作为本实验的最佳照射剂量。制备养阴清肺组、激素组、中药加激素组及空白组的含药血清,将HPF细胞经最佳照射剂量照射后,分别用四组含药血清培养HPF,培养24、48、72 h后采用MTT法检测各组490 nm OD值,计算各组药物对HPF细胞的抑制率。结果各照射剂量组间均有差异( P﹤0.05),其中8 Gy对肺成纤维细胞增殖的作用最明显;各时相空白组与药物组之间均有差异( P﹤0.05),且中药组、激素组与中药加激素组之间差异均有统计学意义( P﹤0.05)。结论中药联合激素对细胞增殖的抑制力较单用中药或者单用激素较强。%Objective To observe Yangyinqingfei Formula for the cobalt-60 irradiation lung fibro-blast proliferation situation. Methods HPF lung fibroblasts were exposed by radiation of 0 Gy,3 Gy,5 Gy,8 Gy of cobalt-60 respectively,and MTT method was used to observe the proliferation of HPF with different doses of radiation. The dose that promoted strongest HPF proliferation( highest cell viability)was chosen to be the optimal dose in this experiment. After exposed to optimal dose of radiation,HPF cells were cultured re-spectively in preparation of drug-contained serum with Yangyinqingfei,hormone,Chinese medicine plus hor-mone and blank serum. After 24,48,72 hours of culture,MTT method was used to detect 490 nm OD values so as to calculate HPF inhibitory rates in each group. Results The radiation dose were different among groups(P﹤0. 05),and 8Gy on lung fibroblast proliferation was most obvious;at each time point,there were significant differences between the control group and the

  10. The Pico's formula Generalization

    OpenAIRE

    Sergiu Cataranciuc; Marina Holban

    2007-01-01

    The Pico formula generalizations are obtained for area calculation of a polygon P through the determination of special nodes of the network in which this P is placed. The case of the polygon with rational coordinates of its vertexes is examined, as well as the case of the polygon with holes. In the case of three-dimensional space a formula of volume calculation for some polyhedrons, such as prism and tetrahedron is presented. On the basis of theoretic outcomes an algorithm that can be applied...

  11. The Pico's formula Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Cataranciuc

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The Pico formula generalizations are obtained for area calculation of a polygon P through the determination of special nodes of the network in which this P is placed. The case of the polygon with rational coordinates of its vertexes is examined, as well as the case of the polygon with holes. In the case of three-dimensional space a formula of volume calculation for some polyhedrons, such as prism and tetrahedron is presented. On the basis of theoretic outcomes an algorithm that can be applied in calculation for areas of plane figure is elaborated.

  12. Planck intermediate results. XXXIX. The Planck list of high-redshift source candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Catalano, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Welikala, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Planck mission, thanks to its large frequency range and all-sky coverage, has a unique potential for systematically detecting the brightest, and rarest, submillimetre sources on the sky, including distant objects in the high-redshift Universe traced by their dust emission. A novel method, based on a component-separation procedure using a combination of Planck and IRAS data, has been validated and characterized on numerous simulations, and applied to select the most luminous cold submillimetre sources with spectral energy distributions peaking between 353 and 857 GHz at 5' resolution. A total of 2151 Planck high-z source candidates (the PHZ) have been detected in the cleanest 26% of the sky, with flux density at 545 GHz above 500 mJy. Embedded in the cosmic infrared background close to the confusion limit, these high-z candidates exhibit colder colours than their surroundings, consistent with redshifts z > 2, assuming a dust temperature of Txgal = 35 K and a spectral index of βxgal = 1.5. Exhibiting extremely high luminosities, larger than 1014L⊙, the PHZ objects may be made of multiple galaxies or clumps at high redshift, as suggested by a first statistical analysis based on a comparison with number count models. Furthermore, first follow-up observations obtained from optical to submillimetre wavelengths, which can be found in companion papers, have confirmed that this list consists of two distinct populations. A small fraction (around 3%) of the sources have been identified as strongly gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at redshift 2 to 4, while the vast majority of the PHZ sources appear as overdensities of dusty star-forming galaxies, having colours consistent with being at z > 2, and may be considered as proto-cluster candidates. The PHZ provides an original sample, which is complementary to the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich Catalogue (PSZ2); by extending the population of virialized massive galaxy clusters detected below z population of sources at

  13. Strong Nuclear Gravitational Constant and the Origin of Nuclear Planck Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshavatharam U. V. S.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether it may be real or an equivalent, existence of strong nuclear gravitational con- stant G S is assumed. Its value is obtained from Fermi’s weak coupling constant as G S = 6 : 9427284 10 31 m 3 / kg sec 2 and thus “nuclear planck scale” is defined. For strong interaction existence of a new integral charged “confined fermion” of mass 105.383 MeV is assumed. Strong coupling constant is the ratio of nuclear planck energy = 11.97 MeV and assumed 105.383 MeV. 1 s = X s is defined as the strong interaction mass gen- erator. With 105.383 MeV fermion various nuclear unit radii are fitted. Fermi’s weak coupling constant, strong interaction upper limit and Bohr radius are fitted at funda- mental level. Considering Fermi’s weak coupling constant and nuclear planck length a new number X e = 294.8183 is defined for fitting the electron, muon and tau rest masses. Using X s , X e and 105 : 32 = 0 : 769 MeV as the Coulombic energy constant = E c , en- ergy coe cients of the semi-empirical mass formula are estimated as E v = 16 : 32 MeV ; E s = 19 : 37 MeV ; E a = 23 : 86 MeV and E p = 11 : 97 MeV where Coulombic energy term contains [ Z ] 2 : Starting from Z = 2 nuclear binding energy is fitted with two terms along with only one energy constant = 0.769 MeV. Finally nucleon mass and its excited levels are fitted.

  14. Research Timeline: Formulaic language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Creating a timeline for formulaic language is far from simple, because several partially independent lines of research have contributed to the emerging picture. Each exhibits cycles of innovation and consolidation over time: domains take a leading role in developing new knowledge and then fall back, while another area comes to the fore. Thus, some…

  15. Formula Based Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Doug; Picus, Lawrence O.

    1999-01-01

    Recognizing that traditional salary bargaining is divisive and that teacher salaries should remain competitive, Temple City (California) Unified School District has been experimenting with formula-based compensation for the past four years. Primary benefits are lack of conflict over salary increases, which are determined before negotiating other…

  16. The Formula Essay Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluska, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Bruce Pirie offers the following criticism about formula essays: "What does a five-paragraph essay teach about writing? It teaches that there are rules, and that those rules take the shape of a preordained form, like a cookie-cutter, into which we can pour ideas and expect them to come out well shaped." He goes on to discredit such essays as being…

  17. Perturbative expansion of irreversible work in Fokker-Planck equation à la quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, T.

    2017-08-01

    We discuss the systematic expansion of the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation with the help of the eigenfunctions of the time-dependent Fokker-Planck operator. The expansion parameter is the time derivative of the external parameter which controls the form of an external potential. Our expansion corresponds to the perturbative calculation of the adiabatic motion in quantum mechanics. With this method, we derive a new formula to calculate the irreversible work order by order, which is expressed as the expectation value with a pseudo density matrix. Applying this method to the case of the harmonic potential, we show that the first order term of the expansion gives the exact result. Because we do not need to solve the coupled differential equations of moments, our method simplifies the calculations of various functions such as the fluctuation of the irreversible work per unit time. We further investigate the exact optimized protocol to minimize the irreversible work by calculating its variation with respect to the control parameter itself.

  18. Planck intermediate results. XXI. Comparison of polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust at 353 GHz with optical interstellar polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Alina, D; Aniano, G; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Beichman, C; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fanciullo, L; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Guillet, V; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D L; Helou, G; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Magalhães, A M; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Poidevin, F; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    The Planck survey provides unprecedented full-sky coverage of the submillimetre polarized emission from Galactic dust, bringing new constraints on the properties of dust. The dust grains that emit the radiation seen by Planck in the submillimetre also extinguish and polarize starlight in the optical. Using ancillary catalogues of interstellar polarization and extinction of starlight, we obtain the degree of polarization, $p_V$, and the optical depth in the $V$ band to the star, $\\tau_V$. We extract the submillimetre polarized intensity, $P_S$, and total intensity, $I_S$, measured toward these stars in the Planck 353 GHz channel. We compare the position angle measured in the optical with that measured at 353 GHz, and the column density measure $E(B - V)$ with that inferred from the Planck product map of the submillimetre dust optical depth. For those lines of sight suitable for this comparison, we measure the polarization ratios $R_{S/V} = (P_S/I_S)/(p_V/\\tau_V)$ and $R_{P/p} = P_S / p_V$ through a correlation...

  19. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: cross correlation with Planck maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, Thibaut; Calabrese, Erminia; Dunkley, Joanna; Næss, Sigurd [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Addison, Graeme E.; Hincks, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hasselfield, Matthew; Hlozek, Renée [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Das, Sudeep [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Devlin, Mark J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, U.S.A (United States); Dünner, Rolando; Infante, Leopoldo [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Gralla, Megan; Marriage, Tobias A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Huffenberger, Kevin [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Keen Physics Building, 77 Chieftan Way, Tallahassee, Florida (United States); Kosowsky, Arthur [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15260 (United States); Moodley, Kavilan [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4041 (South Africa); Niemack, Michael D., E-mail: Thibaut.Louis@astro.ox.ac.uk [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); and others

    2014-07-01

    We present the temperature power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background obtained by cross-correlating maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 and 218 GHz with maps from the Planck satellite at 143 and 217 GHz, in two overlapping regions covering 592 square degrees. We find excellent agreement between the two datasets at both frequencies, quantified using the variance of the residuals between the ACT power spectra and the ACT × Planck cross-spectra. We use these cross-correlations to measure the calibration of the ACT data at 148 and 218 GHz relative to Planck, to 0.7% and 2% precision respectively. We find no evidence for anisotropy in the calibration parameter. We compare the Planck 353 GHz power spectrum with the measured amplitudes of dust and cosmic infrared background (CIB) of ACT data at 148 and 218 GHz. We also compare planet and point source measurements from the two experiments.

  20. Planck intermediate results. XLII. Large-scale Galactic magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, R; Alves, M I R; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Doré, O; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Ferrière, K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D L; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hobson, M; Hornstrup, A; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Masi, S; Melchiorri, A; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Oppermann, N; Orlando, E; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Perotto, L; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Strong, A W; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2016-01-01

    Recent models for the large-scale Galactic magnetic fields in the literature were largely constrained by synchrotron emission and Faraday rotation measures. We select three different but representative models and compare their predicted polarized synchrotron and dust emission with that measured by the Planck satellite. We first update these models to match the Planck synchrotron products using a common model for the cosmic-ray leptons. We discuss the impact on this analysis of the ongoing problems of component separation in the Planck microwave bands and of the uncertain cosmic-ray spectrum. In particular, the inferred degree of ordering in the magnetic fields is sensitive to these systematic uncertainties. We then compare the resulting simulated emission to the observed dust emission and find that the dust predictions do not match the morphology in the Planck data, particularly the vertical profile in latitude. We show how the dust data can then be used to further improve these magnetic field models, particu...

  1. Black hole remnants due to Planck-length deformed QFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkes, Alain R. P.; Maziashvili, Michael; Silagadze, Zurab K.

    2016-10-01

    It was argued in a number of papers that the gravitational potential calculated by using the modified QFT that follows from the Planck-length deformed uncertainty relation implies the existence of black hole (BH) remnants of the order of the Planck mass. Usually, this sort of QFTs are endowed with two specific features, the modified dispersion relation, which is universal, and the concept of minimum length, which, however, is not universal. While the emergence of the minimum length most readily leads to the idea of the BH remnants, here, we examine the behavior of the potential that follows from the Planck-length deformed QFT in the absence of the minimum length and show that it might also lead to the formation of the Planck mass BHs in some particular cases. The calculations are made for higher-dimensional case as well. Such BH remnants might be considered as a possible candidates for the dark-matter.

  2. PRISM: Recovery of the primordial spectrum from Planck data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lanusse, François; Paykari, P; Starck, J.-L; Sureau, F; Bobin, J; Rassat, A

    2014-01-01

    .... It provides an indirect probe of inflation or other structure-formation mechanisms. In this Letter, we recover the primordial power spectrum from the Planck PR1 dataset, using our recently published algorithm PRISM. Methods...

  3. Fokker-Planck formalism in magnetic resonance simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuprov, Ilya

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Fokker-Planck formalism for non-biological magnetic resonance simulations, describes its existing applications and proposes some novel ones. The most attractive feature of Fokker-Planck theory compared to the commonly used Liouville - von Neumann equation is that, for all relevant types of spatial dynamics (spinning, diffusion, stationary flow, etc.), the corresponding Fokker-Planck Hamiltonian is time-independent. Many difficult NMR, EPR and MRI simulation problems (multiple rotation NMR, ultrafast NMR, gradient-based zero-quantum filters, diffusion and flow NMR, off-resonance soft microwave pulses in EPR, spin-spin coupling effects in MRI, etc.) are simplified significantly in Fokker-Planck space. The paper also summarises the author's experiences with writing and using the corresponding modules of the Spinach library - the methods described below have enabled a large variety of simulations previously considered too complicated for routine practical use.

  4. Planck 2013 results. XXIII. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ade, P.A.R; Rachen, J.P; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    The two fundamental assumptions of the standard cosmological model - that the initial fluctuations are statistically isotropic and Gaussian - are rigorously tested using maps of the CMB anisotropy from the \\Planck\\ satellite...

  5. Planck 2015 results: XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we...... consider the CMB anisotropy maps derived from the multi-frequency Planck data by several component-separation methods. For the temperature anisotropies, we find excellent agreement between results based on these sky maps over both a very large fraction of the sky and a broad range of angular scales......, finding the morphology of stacked peaks to be consistent with the expectations of statistically isotropic simulations. Where they overlap, these results are consistent with the Planck 2013 analysis based on the nominal mission data and provide our most thorough view of the statistics of the CMB...

  6. Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bowyer, J.W.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carr, R.; Casale, M.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Foley, S.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Freschi, M.; Fromenteau, S.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Gallegos, J.; Gandolfo, B.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Haissinski, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lowe, S.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McDonald, A.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miniscalco, R.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Smoot, G.F.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Taylor, D.; Terenzi, L.; Texier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Tuttlebee, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Watson, C.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    The ESA's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early universe, was launched on May 2009 and has been surveying the microwave and submillimetre sky since August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration publicly released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.5 months of Planck operations, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper describes the mission and its performance, and gives an overview of the processing and analysis of the data, the characteristics of the data, the main scientific results, and the science data products and papers in the release. Scientific results include robust support for the standard, six parameter LCDM model of cosmology and improved measurements for the parameters that define this model, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum. The Planck values for some of these parameters and others derived from them are significantly different fr...

  7. Case Study: Enteral formula: Selecting the right formula for your ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renée Blaauw, Division of Human Nutrition, Stellenbosch University. Anna-Lena du Toit, Dietetics .... standard enteral formulae require specialized renal formulae. Respiratory. • Modified .... not yet referred for renal replacement therapy (RRT).

  8. Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Aussel, H.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Barrena, R.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Blanchard, A.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bourdin, H.; Bowyer, J. W.; Bridges, M.; Brown, M. L.; Bucher, M.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carr, R.; Carvalho, P.; Casale, M.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Churazov, E.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Déchelette, T.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Démoclès, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dick, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fabre, O.; Falgarone, E.; Falvella, M. C.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Filliard, C.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Foley, S.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Freschi, M.; Fromenteau, S.; Frommert, M.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Gallegos, J.; Galli, S.; Gandolfo, B.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Girard, D.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Haissinski, J.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hansen, M.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Hempel, A.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huey, G.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Ilić, S.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jasche, J.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kalberla, P.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihänen, E.; Kerp, J.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kiiveri, K.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Li, C.; Liddle, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lowe, S.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matsumura, T.; Matthai, F.; Maurin, L.; Mazzotta, P.; McDonald, A.; McEwen, J. D.; McGehee, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Millea, M.; Miniscalco, R.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Morisset, N.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; O'Sullivan, C.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T. J.; Peel, M.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Pullen, A. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Rahlin, A.; Räth, C.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Riazuelo, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Robbers, G.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Sanselme, L.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Schiavon, F.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Smith, K.; Smoot, G. F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Taylor, D.; Terenzi, L.; Texier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torre, J.-P.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Tuttlebee, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vibert, L.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, C.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; Welikala, N.; Weller, J.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Winkel, B.; Xia, J.-Q.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J. P.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched 14 May 2009 and has been scanning the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously since 12 August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.5 months of Planck data, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the mission and its performance, the processing, analysis, and characteristics of the data, the scientific results, and the science data products and papers in the release. The science products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and diffuse extragalactic foregrounds, a catalogue of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources, and a list of sources detected through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. The likelihood code used to assess cosmological models against the Planck data and a lensing likelihood are described. Scientific results include robust support for the standard six-parameter ΛCDM model of cosmology and improved measurements of its parameters, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum. The Planck values for these parameters and others derived from them are significantly different from those previously determined. Several large-scale anomalies in the temperature distribution of the CMB, first detected by WMAP, are confirmed with higher confidence. Planck sets new limits on the number and mass of neutrinos, and has measured gravitational lensing of CMB anisotropies at greater than 25σ. Planck finds no evidence for non-Gaussianity in the CMB. Planck's results agree well with results from the measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations. Planck finds a lower Hubble constant than found in some more local measures. Some tension is also present between the amplitude of matter fluctuations (σ8) derived from

  9. Planck 2013 Results. XXIV. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Planck nominal mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps yield unprecedented constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG).Using three optimal bispectrum estimators, separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal, we obtain consistent values for the primordiallocal, equilateral...... and Minkowski functional estimators. Beyond estimates of individual shapeamplitudes, we present model-independent, three-dimensional reconstructions of the Planck CMB bispectrum and thus derive constraints onearly-Universe scenarios that generate primordial NG, including general single-field models of inflation...

  10. Constraints on cosmological parameters from Planck and BICEP2 data

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    We show that the tension introduced by the detection of large amplitude gravitational wave power by the BICEP2 experiment with temperature anisotropy measurements by the Planck mission is alleviated in models where extra light species contribute to the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom. We also show that inflationary models based on S-dual potentials are in agreement with Planck and BICEP2 data.

  11. Why Planck (the Satellite) could have been Zel'dovich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    In this brief paper, I cannot provide an overall review of the Planck results to date. Instead I will focus on a handful of results from both Planck and related cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments that reflect Ya. B. Zel'dovich's legacy in cosmology. These include the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in clusters of galaxies and in the cosmic web, and a map of the overall distribution of mass in the Universe derived from CMB maps.

  12. Gauge-flation confronted with Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Namba, Ryo; Peloso, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Gauge-flation is a recently proposed model in which inflation is driven solely by a non-Abelian gauge field thanks to a specific higher order derivative operator. The nature of the operator is such that it does not introduce ghosts. We compute the cosmological scalar and tensor perturbations for this model, improving over an existing computation. We then confront these results with the Planck data. The model is characterized by the quantity \\gamma = (g^2 Q^2)/H^2 (where g is the gauge coupling constant, Q the vector vev, and H the Hubble rate). For \\gamma < 2, the scalar perturbations show a strong tachyonic instability. In the stable region, the scalar power spectrum n_s is too low at small \\gamma, while the tensor-to-scalar ratio r is too high at large \\gamma. No value of \\gamma leads to acceptable values for n_s and r, and so the model is ruled out by the CMB data. The same behavior with \\gamma was obtained in Chromo-natural inflation, a model in which inflation is driven by a pseudo-scalar coupled to a...

  13. Dynamically Induced Planck Scale and Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Kannike, Kristjan; Pizza, Liberato; Racioppi, Antonio; Raidal, Martti; Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Theories where the Planck scale is dynamically generated from dimensionless interactions provide predictive inflationary potentials and super-Planckian field variations. We first study the minimal single-field realisation in the low-energy effective field theory limit, finding the predictions $n_s \\approx 0.96$ for the spectral index and $r \\approx 0.13$ for the tensor-to-scalar ratio, close to those of a quadratic potential. Next we consider agravity as a dimensionless quantum gravity theory finding a multi-field inflation that converges towards an attractor trajectory that predicts $n_s\\approx 0.96$ and $0.003

  14. Planck intermediate results XXXIX. The Planck list of high-redshift source candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    Planck high-z source candidates (the PHZ) have been detected in the cleanest 26% of the sky, with flux density at 545 GHz above 500 mJy. Embedded in the cosmic infrared background close to the confusion limit, these high-z candidates exhibit colder colours than their surroundings, consistent...... as strongly gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at redshift 2 to 4, while the vast majority of the PHZ sources appear as overdensities of dusty star-forming galaxies, having colours consistent with being at z > 2, and may be considered as proto-cluster candidates. The PHZ provides an original sample...

  15. Planck early results. IX. XMM-Newton follow-up for validation of Planck cluster candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.;

    2011-01-01

    to observe a sample of S/N > 5 candidates. The sensitivity and spatial resolution of XMM-Newton allows unambiguous discrimination between clusters and false candidates. The 4 false candidates have S/N = 4.1. A total of 21 candidates are confirmed as extended X-ray sources. Seventeen are single clusters...... suggest that Planck may have started to reveal a non-negligible population of massive dynamically perturbed objects that is under-represented in X-ray surveys. However, despite their particular properties, these new clusters appear to follow the Y500-YX relation established for X-ray selected objects...

  16. Planck early results. IX. XMM-Newton follow-up for validation of Planck cluster candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We present the XMM-Newton follow-up for confirmation of Planck cluster candidates. Twenty-five candidates have been observed to date using snapshot (∼10 ks) exposures, ten as part of a pilot programme to sample a low range of signal-to-noise ratios (4 ... of variable quality). The new clusters span the redshift range 0.09 ≲ z ≲ 0.54, with a median redshift of z ∼ 0.37. A first determination is made of their X-ray properties including the characteristic size, which is used to improve the estimate of the SZ Compton parameter, Y 500. The follow-up validation...

  17. Signatures of Planck corrections in a spiralling axion inflation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, John [Dept. of Physics, University of Lancaster,Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-08

    The minimal sub-Planckian axion inflation model accounts for a large scalar-to-tensor ratio via a spiralling trajectory in the field space of a complex field Φ. Here we consider how the predictions of the model are modified by Planck scale-suppressed corrections. In the absence of Planck corrections the model is equivalent to a ϕ{sup 4/3} chaotic inflation model. Planck corrections become important when the dimensionless coupling ξ of |Φ|{sup 2} to the topological charge density of the strongly-coupled gauge sector FF{sup ~} satisfies ξ∼1. For values of |Φ| which allow the Planck corrections to be understood via an expansion in powers of |Φ|{sup 2}/M{sub Pl}{sup 2}, we show that their effect is to produce a significant modification of the tensor-to-scalar ratio from its ϕ{sup 4/3} chaotic inflation value without strongly modifying the spectral index. In addition, to leading order in |Φ|{sup 2}/M{sub Pl}{sup 2}, the Planck modifications of n{sub s} and r satisfy a consistency relation, Δn{sub s}=−Δr/16. Observation of these modifications and their correlation would allow the model to be distinguished from a simple ϕ{sup 4/3} chaotic inflation model and would also provide a signature for the influence of leading-order Planck corrections.

  18. Robust Weak-lensing Mass Calibration of Planck Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    von der Linden, Anja; Allen, Steven W; Applegate, Douglas E; Kelly, Patrick L; Morris, R Glenn; Wright, Adam; Allen, Mark T; Burchat, Patricia R; Burke, David L; Donovan, David; Ebeling, Harald

    2014-01-01

    In light of the tension in cosmological constraints reported by the Planck team between their SZ-selected cluster counts and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropies, we compare the Planck cluster mass estimates with robust, weak-lensing mass measurements from the Weighing the Giants (WtG) project. For the 22 clusters in common between the Planck cosmology sample and WtG, we find an overall mass ratio of $\\left = 0.688 \\pm 0.072$. Extending the sample to clusters not used in the Planck cosmology analysis yields a consistent value of $\\left = 0.698 \\pm 0.062$ from 38 clusters in common. Identifying the weak-lensing masses as proxies for the true cluster mass (on average), these ratios are $\\sim 1.6\\sigma$ lower than the default mass bias of 0.8 assumed in the Planck cluster analysis. Adopting the WtG weak-lensing-based mass calibration would substantially reduce the tension found between the Planck cluster count cosmology results and those from CMB temperature anisotropies. We also find modes...

  19. Calibrating the Planck Cluster Mass Scale with Cluster Velocity Dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Stefania; Mei, Simona; Stanford, Spencer A.; Bartlett, James G.; Melin, Jean-Baptiste; Lawrence, Charles R.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Shim, Hyunjin; Marleau, Francine; Stern, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    We measure the Planck cluster mass bias using dynamical mass measurements based on velocity dispersions of a subsample of 17 Planck-detected clusters. The velocity dispersions were calculated using redshifts determined from spectra that were obtained at the Gemini observatory with the GMOS multi-object spectrograph. We correct our estimates for effects due to finite aperture, Eddington bias, and correlated scatter between velocity dispersion and the Planck mass proxy. The result for the mass bias parameter, (1-b), depends on the value of the galaxy velocity bias, {b}{{v}}, adopted from simulations: (1-b)=(0.51+/- 0.09){b}{{v}}3. Using a velocity bias of {b}{{v}}=1.08 from Munari et al., we obtain (1-b)=0.64+/- 0.11, i.e., an error of 17% on the mass bias measurement with 17 clusters. This mass bias value is consistent with most previous weak-lensing determinations. It lies within 1σ of the value that is needed to reconcile the Planck cluster counts with the Planck primary cosmic microwave background constraints. We emphasize that uncertainty in the velocity bias severely hampers the precision of the measurements of the mass bias using velocity dispersions. On the other hand, when we fix the Planck mass bias using the constraints from Penna-Lima et al., based on weak-lensing measurements, we obtain a positive velocity bias of {b}{{v}}≳ 0.9 at 3σ .

  20. Quantifying discordance in the 2015 Planck CMB spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Addison, G E; Watts, D J; Bennett, C L; Halpern, M; Hinshaw, G; Weiland, J L

    2015-01-01

    We examine the internal consistency of the Planck 2015 cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropy power spectrum. We show that tension exists between cosmological constant cold dark matter (LCDM) model parameters inferred from multipoles l=1000, particularly the CDM density, Omega_ch^2, which is discrepant at 2.5 sigma for a Planck-motivated prior on the optical depth, tau=0.07+/-0.02. We find some parameter tensions to be larger than previously reported because of inaccuracy in the code used by the Planck Collaboration to generate model spectra. The Planck l>=1000 constraints are also in tension with low-redshift data sets, including Planck's own measurement of the CMB lensing power spectrum (2.4 sigma), and the most precise baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale determination (2.5 sigma). The Hubble constant predicted by Planck from l>=1000, H_0=64.1+/-1.7 km/s/Mpc, disagrees with the most precise local distance ladder measurement of 73.0+/-2.4 km/s/Mpc at the 3.0 sigma level, while the Planc...

  1. Monitoring of the reflectors of ESA's Planck telescope by close-range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parian, Jafar Amiri; Gruen, Armin; Cozzani, Alessandro

    2007-11-01

    The Planck mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) is designed to image the anisotropies of the Cosmic Background Radiation Field over the whole sky. Planck's objective is to analyze, with the highest accuracy ever achieved, the remnants of the radiation that filled the universe immediately after the Big Bang, which we observe today as the cosmic microwave background. To achieve this aim well-manufactured reflectors are used as parts of the Planck telescope receiving system. The system consists of the Secondary and Primary Reflectors which are sections of two different ellipsoids of revolution with diameters of 1.1 and 1.9 meters. Deformations of the reflectors which influence the optical parameters and the gain of receiving signals are investigated in vacuum and at temperatures down to 95K, using close-range photogrammetric techniques. We have designed an optimal close-range photogrammetric network by heuristic simulation for the Primary and Secondary Reflectors with a mean relative precision better than 1:1,000,000 and 1:400,000, respectively, to achieve the requested accuracies. Special considerations have been taken into account in different steps of design, such as the determinability of additional parameters under the given network configuration, datum definition, reliability and precision issues as well as workspace limits and propagating errors from different sources of errors. A least squares best-fit ellipsoid was developed to determine the optical parameters of the reflector. We present our procedure and the results of processing the photogrammetric measurements of the Flight Models of the Primary and Secondary Reflectors which were executed by Thales Alenia Space France under ESA-ESTEC contract in vacuum and at very low temperatures.

  2. Formulas of Revised MRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Bregni

    2013-04-01

    innovation to the main process functioning. As a result, the proposed algorithm copes better with demand uncertainty, lowers the system nervousness and also removes the need for continuous forecast adjustments, thereby improving the ease in managing the material flow, allowing the development of new forms of collaboration among different supply chain partners and the creation of new business networks. The algorithm is presented in formulas to describe in detail each procedure step and calculations.

  3. Planck Intermediate Results. XXXVI. Optical identification and redshifts of Planck SZ sources with telescopes in the Canary Islands Observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Barrena, R; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bikmaev, I; Böhringer, H; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Burenin, R; Burigana, C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Chon, G; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Dahle, H; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Ferragamo, A; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Fromenteau, S; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D L; Hempel, A; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Khamitov, I; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; León-Tavares, J; Levrier, F; Lietzen, H; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Perdereau, O; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Stolyarov, V; Streblyanska, A; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tramonte, D; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with telescopes at the Canary Islands observatories, as part of the general optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck collaboration. In total, 78 SZ sources are discussed. Deep imaging observations were obtained for most of those sources; spectroscopic observations in either in long-slit or multi-object modes were obtained for many. We found optical counterparts for 73 of the 78 candidates. This sample includes 53 spectroscopic redshifts determinations, 20 of them obtained with a multi-object spectroscopic mode. The sample contains new redshifts for 27 Planck clusters that were not included in the first Planck SZ source catalogue (PSZ1).

  4. General correcting formula of forecasting?

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A general correcting formula of forecasting (as a framework for long-use and standardized forecasts) is proposed. The formula provides new forecasting resources and areas of application including economic forecasting.

  5. General correcting formula of forecasting?

    OpenAIRE

    Harin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    A general correcting formula of forecasting (as a framework for long-use and standardized forecasts) is proposed. The formula provides new forecasting resources and areas of application including economic forecasting.

  6. Analytical opacity formulas for ICF elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minguez, E. E-mail: minguez@denim.upm.es; Martel, P.; Gil, J.M.; Rubiano, J.G.; Rodriguez, R

    2002-01-01

    Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) opacity codes have been developed by the Instituto de Fusion Nuclear (DENIM) during the last years. JIMENA code (Laser and Particle Beams 6 (1998) 265; Laser and Particle Beams 10 (1992) 651) is an opacity code that solves self-consistently, for each temperature and density, the radial Dirac equation with a local spherically symmetrical potential. Very recently we have developed a new opacity code, called ANALOP, that uses an analytical potential (JQSRT 54 (1995) 621), which can include density and temperature effects for atomic data calculations. Opacities are determined with these two codes for selected elements at different plasma conditions. This work is focused on the determination of Rosseland and Planck mean analytical formulas for several single elements used in ICF targets. A scaling law of these mean opacities is given as a function of the plasma parameters: electron temperature and plasma density. These opacities have been tested with numerical results from other codes and with available experimental results.

  7. The physicist. Max Planck and the decay of the world; Der Physiker. Max Planck und das Zerfallen der Welt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Ernst Peter

    2010-06-15

    The live of the physicist Max Planck was as exciting, conflicting, and rich on catastrophes as the epoch, in which he lived. Ernst Peter Fischer draws in this fascinatingly told biography the eventful history of the Nobel-price bearer and illustrates simultaneously the unique attainment of Planck, the quantum theory of whom not only revolted the science but also changed fundamentally our picture of the world.

  8. Planck intermediate results. XXIII. Galactic plane emission components derived from Planck with ancillary data

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Alves, M I R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Crill, B P; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Pearson, T J; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reich, W; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Strong, A W; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tibbs, C T; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    Planck data when combined with ancillary data provide a unique opportunity to separate the diffuse emission components of the inner Galaxy. The purpose of the paper is to elucidate the morphology of the various emission components in the strong star-formation region lying inside the solar radius and to clarify the relationship between the various components. The region of the Galactic plane covered is l=300-0-60deg where star-formation is highest and the emission is strong enough to make meaningful component separation. The latitude widths in this longitude range lie between 1deg and 2deg, which correspond to FWHM z-widths of 100-200pc at a typical distance of 6kpc. The four emission components studied here are synchrotron, free-free, anomalous microwave emission (AME), and thermal (vibrational) dust emission. These components are identified by constructing spectral energy distributions (SEDs) at positions along the Galactic plane using the wide frequency coverage of Planck (28.4-857GHz) in combination with l...

  9. Planck Intermediate Results. IV. The XMM-Newton validation programme for new Planck clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Balbi, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Bernard, J -P; Bikmaev, I; Böhringer, H; Bonaldi, A; Borgani, S; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Brown, M L; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cabella, P; Carvalho, P; Catalano, A; Cayón, L; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, L -Y; Chon, G; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colafrancesco, S; Colombi, S; Crill, B P; Cuttaia, F; Da Silva, A; Dahle, H; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Gasperis, G; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Démoclès, J; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Flores-Cacho, I; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Frommert, M; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; González-Riestra, R; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jagemann, T; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leach, S; Leonardi, R; Liddle, A; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vornle, M; López-Caniego, M; Luzzi, G; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mann, R; Marleau, F; Marshall, D J; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Mei, S; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Norgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Osborne, S; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Perdereau, O; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Piffaretti, R; Plaszczynski, S; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Smoot, G F; Stanford, A; Stivoli, F; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Valenziano, L; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Welikala, N; Weller, J; White, S D M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2012-01-01

    We present the final results from the XMM-Newton validation follow-up of new Planck cluster candidates. We observed 15 new candidates, detected with signal-to-noise ratios between 4.0 and 6.1 in the 15.5-month nominal Planck survey. The candidates were selected using ancillary data flags derived from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) and Digitized Sky Survey all-sky maps, with the aim of pushing into the low SZ flux, high- z regime and testing RASS flags as indicators of candidate reliability. 14 new clusters were detected by XMM-Newton, 10 single clusters and 2 double systems. Redshifts from X-ray spectroscopy lie in the range 0.2 to 0.9, with six clusters at z>0.5. Estimated M500 ranges from 2.5 X 10^14 to 8 X 10^14 Msun. We discuss our results in the context of the full XMM validation programme, in which 51 new clusters have been detected. This includes 4 double and 2 triple systems, some of which are chance projections on the sky of clusters at different redshifts. Association with a source from the RASS-Br...

  10. Twisting formula of epsilon factors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SAZZAD ALI BISWAS

    2017-09-01

    For characters of a non-Archimedean local field we have explicit formula for epsilon factors. But in general, we do not have any generalized twisting formula of epsilon factors. In this paper, we give a generalized twisting formula of epsilon factorsvia local Jacobi sums.

  11. Gauge-flation confronted with Planck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namba, Ryo; Dimastrogiovanni, Emanuela; Peloso, Marco, E-mail: namba@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: ema@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: peloso@physics.umn.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Gauge-flation is a recently proposed model in which inflation is driven solely by a non-Abelian gauge field thanks to a specific higher order derivative operator. The nature of the operator is such that it does not introduce ghosts. We compute the cosmological scalar and tensor perturbations for this model, improving over an existing computation. We then confront these results with the Planck data. The model is characterized by the quantity γ ≡ g{sup 2}Q{sup 2}/H{sup 2} (where g is the gauge coupling constant, Q the vector vev, and H the Hubble rate). For γ < 2, the scalar perturbations show a strong tachyonic instability. In the stable region, the scalar power spectrum n{sub s} is too low at small γ, while the tensor-to-scalar ratio r is too high at large γ. No value of γ leads to acceptable values for n{sub s} and r, and so the model is ruled out by the CMB data. The same behavior with γ was obtained in Chromo-natural inflation, a model in which inflation is driven by a pseudo-scalar coupled to a non-Abelian gauge field. When the pseudo-scalar can be integrated out, one recovers the model of Gauge-flation plus corrections. It was shown that this identification is very accurate at the background level, but differences emerged in the literature concerning the perturbations of the two models. On the contrary, our results show that the analogy between the two models continues to be accurate also at the perturbative level.

  12. Measurement of prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] production in [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; König, A; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rad, N; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Strauss, J; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Dvornikov, O; Makarenko, V; Mossolov, V; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Zykunov, V; Shumeiko, N; Alderweireldt, S; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Lauwers, J; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Lowette, S; Moortgat, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Skovpen, K; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Parijs, I; Brun, H; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Delannoy, H; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Goldouzian, R; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Luetic, J; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Randle-Conde, A; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Vannerom, D; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Cimmino, A; Cornelis, T; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Gul, M; Khvastunov, I; Poyraz, D; Salva, S; Schöfbeck, R; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Bakhshiansohi, H; Beluffi, C; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; De Visscher, S; Delaere, C; Delcourt, M; Francois, B; Giammanco, A; Jafari, A; Komm, M; Krintiras, G; Lemaitre, V; Magitteri, A; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Wertz, S; Beliy, N; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Hensel, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; Da Silveira, G G; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mora Herrera, C; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; Dogra, S; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Moon, C S; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Fang, W; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chen, Y; Cheng, T; Jiang, C H; Leggat, D; Liu, Z; Romeo, F; Ruan, M; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Zhang, H; Zhao, J; Ban, Y; Chen, G; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; González Hernández, C F; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Sculac, T; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Ferencek, D; Kadija, K; Mesic, B; Susa, T; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Tsiakkouri, D; Finger, M; Finger, M; Carrera Jarrin, E; Assran, Y; Elkafrawy, T; Mahrous, A; Kadastik, M; Perrini, L; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Veelken, C; Eerola, P; Pekkanen, J; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Järvinen, T; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Ghosh, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Kucher, I; Locci, E; Machet, M; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Abdulsalam, A; Antropov, I; Arleo, F; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Cadamuro, L; Chapon, E; Charlot, C; Davignon, O; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Jo, M; Lisniak, S; Miné, P; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; Pigard, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Strebler, T; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Zghiche, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Aubin, A; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Buttignol, M; Chabert, E C; Chanon, N; Collard, C; Conte, E; Coubez, X; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Le Bihan, A-C; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Bernet, C; Boudoul, G; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Courbon, B; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Grenier, G; Ille, B; Lagarde, F; Laktineh, I B; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Pequegnot, A L; Perries, S; Popov, A; Sabes, D; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Khvedelidze, A; Tsamalaidze, Z; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Feld, L; Kiesel, M K; Klein, K; Lipinski, M; Preuten, M; Schomakers, C; Schulz, J; Verlage, T; Albert, A; Brodski, M; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Endres, M; Erdmann, M; Erdweg, S; Esch, T; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hamer, M; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Knutzen, S

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the measurement of [Formula: see text] meson production in proton-proton ([Formula: see text]) and proton-lead ([Formula: see text]) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of [Formula: see text] by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The data samples used in the analysis correspond to integrated luminosities of 28[Formula: see text] and 35[Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] collisions, respectively. Prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] mesons, the latter produced in the decay of [Formula: see text] hadrons, are measured in their dimuon decay channels. Differential cross sections are measured in the transverse momentum range of [Formula: see text], and center-of-mass rapidity ranges of [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]). The nuclear modification factor, [Formula: see text], is measured as a function of both [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Small modifications to the [Formula: see text] cross sections are observed in [Formula: see text] relative to [Formula: see text] collisions. The ratio of [Formula: see text] production cross sections in [Formula: see text]-going and Pb-going directions, [Formula: see text], studied as functions of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], shows a significant decrease for increasing transverse energy deposited at large pseudorapidities. These results, which cover a wide kinematic range, provide new insight on the role of cold nuclear matter effects on prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] production.

  13. Two carrier temperatures non-equilibrium generalized Planck law for semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibelli, François; Lombez, Laurent; Guillemoles, Jean-François

    2016-10-01

    Planck's law of radiation describes the light emitted by a blackbody. This law has been generalized in the past for the case of a non-blackbody material having a quasi Fermi-level splitting: the lattice of the material and the carriers are then considered in an isothermal regime. Hot carrier spectroscopy deals with carriers out of the isothermal regime, as their respective temperatures (THe ≠ THh) are considered to be different than that of the lattice (TL). Here we show that Fermi-Dirac distribution temperature for each type of carrier still determine an effective radiation temperature: an explicit relationship is given involving the effective masses. Moreover, we show how to determine, in principle with an additional approximation, the carrier temperatures (THe, THh) and the corresponding absolute electrochemical potentials from photoluminescence measurements.

  14. Analysis of straightening formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devadatta M. Kulkarni

    1988-01-01

    standard bitableaux (or the set of standard monomials in minors gives a free basis for a polynomial ring in a matrix of indeterminates over a field. The straightening formula expresses a nonstandard bitableau as an integral linear cobmbination of standard bitableaux. In this paper we analyse the exchanges in the process of straightening a nonstandard pure tableau of depth two. We give precisely the number of steps required to straighten a given violation of a nonstandard tableau. We also characterise the violation which is eliminated in a single step.

  15. BICEP2, Planck, spinorial space-time, pre-Big Bang.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mestres Luis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of Cosmology is currently undergoing a positive and constructive crisis. Controversies concerning inflation are not really new. But after the 2013-2014 Planck and BICEP2 announcements, and the more recent joint analysis by Planck, BICEP2 and the Keck Array (PBKA, the basic issues can involve more direct links between the Mathematical Physics aspects of cosmological patterns and the interpretation of experimental results. Open questions and new ideas on the foundations of Cosmology can emerge, while future experimental and observational programs look very promising. The BICEP2 result reporting an excess of B-mode polarization signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB radiation was initially presented as a signature of primordial gravitational waves from cosmic inflation. But polarized dust emission can be at the origin of such a signal, and the evidence claimed by BICEP2 is no longer secure after the PBKA analysis. Furthermore, even assuming that significant CMB B-mode polarization has indeed been generated by the early Universe, its theoretical and cosmological interpretation would be far from obvious. Inflationary gravitational waves are not the only possible source of primordial CMB B-modes. Alternative cosmologies such as pre-Big Bang patterns and the spinorial space-time (SST we introduced in 1996-97 can naturally produce this polarization. Furthermore, the SST automatically generates for each comoving observer a local privileged space direction (PSD whose existence may have been confirmed by Planck data. If such a PSD exists, vector perturbations have most likely been strong in the early Universe and may have produced CMB B-modes. Pre-Big Bang cosmologies can also generate gravitational waves in the early Universe without inflation. After briefly describing detectors devoted to the study of the CMB polarization, we discuss the situation emerging from BICEP2 results, Planck results and the PBKA analysis. In particular, we

  16. Calibrating the Planck cluster mass scale with CLASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna-Lima, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Rozo, E.; Melin, J.-B.; Merten, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Postman, M.; Rykoff, E.

    2017-08-01

    We determine the mass scale of Planck galaxy clusters using gravitational lensing mass measurements from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). We have compared the lensing masses to the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) mass proxy for 21 clusters in common, employing a Bayesian analysis to simultaneously fit an idealized CLASH selection function and the distribution between the measured observables and true cluster mass. We used a tiered analysis strategy to explicitly demonstrate the importance of priors on weak lensing mass accuracy. In the case of an assumed constant bias, bSZ, between true cluster mass, M500, and the Planck mass proxy, MPL, our analysis constrains 1-bSZ = 0.73 ± 0.10 when moderate priors on weak lensing accuracy are used, including a zero-mean Gaussian with standard deviation of 8% to account for possible bias in lensing mass estimations. Our analysis explicitly accounts for possible selection bias effects in this calibration sourced by the CLASH selection function. Our constraint on the cluster mass scale is consistent with recent results from the Weighing the Giants program and the Canadian Cluster Comparison Project. It is also consistent, at 1.34σ, with the value needed to reconcile the Planck SZ cluster counts with Planck's base ΛCDM model fit to the primary cosmic microwave background anisotropies.

  17. Planck 2015 results. XXI. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Casaponsa, B; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fergusson, J; Fernandez-Cobos, R; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Ilić, S; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Langer, M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Ma, Y -Z; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Marcos-Caballero, A; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Schaefer, B M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the ISW effect from the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data release. The CMB is cross-correlated with different LSS tracers: the NVSS, SDSS and WISE catalogues, and the Planck 2015 convergence lensing map. This cross-correlation yields a detection at $4\\,\\sigma$, where most of the signal-to-noise is due to the Planck lensing and NVSS. In fact, the ISW effect is detected only from the Planck data (through the ISW-lensing bispectrum) at $\\approx 3\\,\\sigma$, which is similar to the detection level achieved by combining the cross-correlation signal coming from all the catalogues. This cross-correlation analysis is performed only with the Planck temperature data, since the polarization scales available in the 2015 release do not permit significant improvement of the CMB-LSS cross-correlation detectability. Nevertheless, polarization data is used to study the anomalously large ISW signal previously reported through the aperture photometry on stacked CMB features at the locat...

  18. Planck Visualization Project: Seeing and Hearing the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, J.

    2010-08-01

    The Planck Mission, launched May 14, 2009, will measure the sky over nine frequency channels, with temperature sensitivity of a few microKelvin, and angular resolution of up to 5 arc minutes. Planck is expected to provide the data needed to set tight constraints on cosmological parameters, study the ionization history of the Universe, probe the dynamics of the inflationary era, and test fundamental physics. The Planck Education and Public Outreach collaborators at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the University of California, Santa Barbara and Purdue University are preparing a variety of materials to present the science goals of the Planck Mission to the public. Two products currently under development are an interactive simulation of the mission which can be run in a virtual reality environment, and an interactive presentation on interpreting the power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background with music. In this paper we present a brief overview of CMB research and the Planck Mission, and discuss how to explain, to non-technical audiences, the theory of how we derive information about the early universe from the power spectrum of the CMB by using the physics of music.

  19. Planck intermediate results XXIX. All-sky dust modelling with Planck, IRAS, and WISE observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.

    2016-01-01

    . The present work extends the DL dust modelling carried out on nearby galaxies using Herschel and Spitzer data to Galactic dust emission. We employ the DL dust model to generate maps of the dust mass surface density Sigma(Md), the dust optical extinction A(V), and the starlight intensity heating the bulk......We present all-sky modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS, andWISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL, ApJ, 657, 810). We study the performance and results of this model, and discuss implications for future dust modelling...... of the dust, parametrized by U-min. The DL model reproduces the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) satisfactorily over most of the sky, with small deviations in the inner Galactic disk and in low ecliptic latitude areas, presumably due to zodiacal light contamination. In the Andromeda galaxy (M31...

  20. Statistical measures of Planck scale signal correlations in interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Craig J. [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kwon, Ohkyung [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-22

    A model-independent statistical framework is presented to interpret data from systems where the mean time derivative of positional cross correlation between world lines, a measure of spreading in a quantum geometrical wave function, is measured with a precision smaller than the Planck time. The framework provides a general way to constrain possible departures from perfect independence of classical world lines, associated with Planck scale bounds on positional information. A parametrized candidate set of possible correlation functions is shown to be consistent with the known causal structure of the classical geometry measured by an apparatus, and the holographic scaling of information suggested by gravity. Frequency-domain power spectra are derived that can be compared with interferometer data. As a result, simple projections of sensitivity for specific experimental set-ups suggests that measurements will directly yield constraints on a universal time derivative of the correlation function, and thereby confirm or rule out a class of Planck scale departures from classical geometry.

  1. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cross Correlation with Planck maps

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Thibaut; Hasselfield, Matthew; Bond, J Richard; Calabrese, Erminia; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J; Dunkley, Joanna; Dünner, Rolando; Gralla, Megan; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Huffenberger, Kevin; Infante, Leopoldo; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marriage, Tobias A; Moodley, Kavilan; Næss, Sigurd; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Michael R; Page, Lyman A; Partridge, Bruce; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Jonathan L; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Walter, Benjamin Z; Wollack, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    We present the temperature power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background obtained by cross-correlating maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 and 218 GHz with maps from the Planck satellite at 143 and 217 GHz, in two overlapping regions covering 592 square degrees. We find excellent agreement between the two datasets at both frequencies, quantified using the variance of the residuals between the ACT power spectra and the ACTxPlanck cross-spectra. We use these cross-correlations to calibrate the ACT data at 148 and 218 GHz, to 0.7% and 2% precision respectively. We find no evidence for anisotropy in the calibration parameter. We compare the Planck 353 GHz power spectrum with the measured amplitudes of dust and cosmic infrared background (CIB) of ACT data at 148 and 218 GHz. We also compare planet and point source measurements from the two experiments.

  2. A Map-Making for the Planck Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Natoli, P; Gheller, C; Vittorio, N

    2001-01-01

    We present a parallel implementation of a map-making algorithm for CMB anisotropy experiments which is both fast and efficient. We show for the first time a Maximum Likelihood, minimum variance map obtained by processing the entire data stream expected from the Planck Surveyor, under the assumption of a symmetric beam profile. Here we restrict ourselves to the case of the 30 GHz channel of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument. The extension to Planck higher frequency channels is straightforward. If the satellite pointing periodicity is good enough to average data that belong to the same sky circle, then the code runs very efficiently on workstations. The serial version of our code also runs on very competitive time-scales the map-making pipeline for current and forthcoming balloon borne experiments.

  3. Planck 2015 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.; Alves, M.I.R.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaglia, P.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Casaponsa, B.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Chluba, J.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Eisenhardt, P.R.M.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fantaye, Y.; Farhang, M.; Feeney, S.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Feroz, F.; Finelli, F.; Florido, E.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Genova-Santos, R.T.; Gerbino, M.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Giusarma, E.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Grainge, K.J.B.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Handley, W.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Ilic, S.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jin, T.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Karakci, A.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J.P.; Lellouch, E.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lindholm, V.; Liu, H.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Ma, Y.Z.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Mak, D.S.Y.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marchini, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Marinucci, D.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J.D.; McGehee, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moreno, R.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Mottet, S.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nastasi, A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Olamaie, M.; Oppermann, N.; Orlando, E.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Peel, M.; Peiris, H.V.; Pelkonen, V.M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrott, Y.C.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Romelli, E.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; d'Orfeuil, B.Rouille; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rumsey, C.; Rusholme, B.; Said, N.; Salvatelli, V.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Sanghera, H.S.; Santos, D.; Saunders, R.D.E.; Sauve, A.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B.M.; Schammel, M.P.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shimwell, T.W.; Shiraishi, M.; Smith, K.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L.D.; Spinelli, M.; Stanford, S.A.; Stern, D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Strong, A.W.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Texier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tornikoski, M.; Tristram, M.; Troja, A.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vassallo, T.; Vidal, M.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Walter, B.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I.K.; Welikala, N.; Weller, J.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J.P.; Zonca, A.

    2015-01-01

    The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched 14~May 2009 and scanned the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously between 12~August 2009 and 23~October 2013. In February~2015, ESA and the Planck Collaboration released the second set of cosmology products based on data from the entire Planck mission, including both temperature and polarization, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the main characteristics of the data and the data products in the release, as well as the associated cosmological and astrophysical science results and papers. The science products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, and diffuse foregrounds in temperature and polarization, catalogues of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources (including separate catalogues of Sunyaev-Zeldovich clusters and Galactic col...

  4. Planck intermediate results: VIII. Filaments between interacting clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castex, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.

    2013-01-01

    . The Planck satellite has provided hundreds of detections of the hot gas in clusters of galaxies via the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect and is an ideal instrument for studying extended low-density media through the tSZ effect. In this paper we use the Planck data to search for signatures...... of this intercluster medium. We obtain a temperature of kT = 7.1 ± 0.9 keV (consistent with previous estimates) and a baryon density of (3.7 ± 0.2) × 10-4 cm -3. Conclusions. The Planck satellite mission has provided the first SZ detection of the hot and diffuse intercluster gas. © 2013 ESO....

  5. Planck 2015 results. XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Akrami, Y.; Aluri, P.K.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Casaponsa, B.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Liu, H.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Pant, N.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J.P.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we consider the CMB anisotropy maps derived from the multi-frequency Planck data by several component-separation methods. For the temperature anisotropies, we find excellent agreement between results based on these sky maps over both a very large fraction of the sky and a broad range of angular scales, establishing that potential foreground residuals do not affect our studies. Tests of skewness, kurtosis, multi-normality, N-point functions, and Minkowski functionals indicate consistency with Gaussianity, while a power deficit at large angular scales is manifested in several ways, for example low map variance. The results of a peak statistics analysis are consistent with the expectations of a Gaussian random field. The "Cold S...

  6. Planck 2015 results: XXI. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect from the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data release. This secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy caused by the large-scale time-evolving gravitational potential is probed from different perspectives....... The CMB is cross-correlated with different large-scale structure (LSS) tracers: radio sources from the NVSS catalogue; galaxies from the optical SDSS and the infrared WISE surveys; and the Planck 2015 convergence lensing map. The joint cross-correlation of the CMB with the tracers yields a detection at 4σ...... scales available in the 2015 release do not permit significant improvement of the CMB-LSS cross-correlation detectability. Nevertheless, the Planck polarization data are used to study the anomalously large ISW signal previously reported through the aperture photometry on stacked CMB features...

  7. Gaseous microflow modeling using the Fokker-Planck equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. K.; Thantanapally, Chakradhar; Ansumali, Santosh

    2016-12-01

    We present a comparative study of gaseous microflow systems using the recently introduced Fokker-Planck approach and other methods such as: direct simulation Monte Carlo, lattice Boltzmann, and variational solution of Boltzmann-BGK. We show that this Fokker-Plank approach performs efficiently at intermediate values of Knudsen number, a region where direct simulation Monte Carlo becomes expensive and lattice Boltzmann becomes inaccurate. We also investigate the effectiveness of a recently proposed Fokker-Planck model in simulations of heat transfer, as a function of relevant parameters such as the Prandtl, Knudsen numbers. Furthermore, we present simulation of shock wave as a function of Mach number in transonic regime. Our results suggest that the performance of the Fokker-Planck approach is superior to that of the other methods in transition regime for rarefied gas flow and transonic regime for shock wave.

  8. Galactic interstellar filaments as probed by LOFAR and Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Zaroubi, S; de Bruyn, A G; Boulanger, F; Bracco, A; Kooistra, R; Alves, M I R; Brentjens, M A; Ferrière, K; Ghosh, T; Koopmans, L V E; Levrier, F; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Montier, L; Pandey, V N; Soler, J D

    2015-01-01

    Recent Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) observations at 115-175 MHz of a field at medium Galactic latitudes (centered at the bright quasar 3C196) have shown striking filamentary structures in polarization that extend over more than 4 degrees across the sky. In addition, the Planck satellite has released full sky maps of the dust emission in polarization at 353GHz. The LOFAR data resolve Faraday structures along the line of sight, whereas the Planck dust polarization maps probe the orientation of the sky projected magnetic field component. Hence, no apparent correlation between the two is expected. Here we report a surprising, yet clear, correlation between the filamentary structures, detected with LOFAR, and the magnetic field orientation, probed by the Planck satellite. This finding points to a common, yet unclear, physical origin of the two measurements in this specific area in the sky. A number of follow-up multi- frequency studies are proposed to shed light on this unexpected finding.

  9. Herschel-ATLAS: Planck sources in the Phase 1 fields

    CERN Document Server

    Herranz, D; Clements, D L; Clemens, M; De Zotti, G; López-Caniego, M; Lapi, A; Rodighiero, G; Danese, L; Fu, H; Cooray, A; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; Bonavera, L; Carrera, F J; Dole, H; Eales, S; Ivison, R J; Jarvis, M; Lagache, G; Massardi, M; Michalowski, M J; Negrello, M; Rigby, E; Scott, D; Valiante, E; Valtchanov, I; Van der Werf, P; Auld, R; Buttiglione, S; Dariush, A; Dunne, L; Hopwood, R; Hoyos, C; Ibar, E; Maddox, S

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a cross-correlation of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalog (ERCSC) with the catalog of Herschel-ATLAS sources detected in the Phase 1 fields, covering 134.55 deg2. There are 28 ERCSC sources detected by Planck at 857 GHz in this area. As many as 16 of them are probably high Galactic latitude cirrus; 10 additional sources can be clearly identified as bright, low-z galaxies; one further source is resolved by Herschel as two relatively bright sources; and the last is resolved into an unusual condensation of low-flux, probably high-redshift point sources, around a strongly lensed Herschel-ATLAS source at z = 3.26. Our results demonstrate that the higher sensitivity and higher angular resolution H-ATLAS maps provide essential information for the interpretation of candidate sources extracted from Planck sub-mm maps.

  10. Improving Planck calibration by including frequency-dependent relativistic corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Quartin, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The Planck satellite detectors are calibrated in the 2015 release using the "orbital dipole", which is the time-dependent dipole generated by the Doppler effect due to the motion of the satellite around the Sun. Such an effect has also relativistic time-dependent corrections of relative magnitude 10^(-3), due to coupling with the "solar dipole" (the motion of the Sun compared to the CMB rest frame), which are included in the data calibration by the Planck collaboration. We point out that such corrections are subject to a frequency-dependent multiplicative factor. This factor differs from unity especially at the highest frequencies, relevant for the HFI instrument. Since currently Planck calibration errors are dominated by systematics, to the point that polarization data is currently unreliable at large scales, such a correction can in principle be highly relevant for future data releases.

  11. Improving Planck calibration by including frequency-dependent relativistic corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartin, Miguel; Notari, Alessio

    2015-09-01

    The Planck satellite detectors are calibrated in the 2015 release using the "orbital dipole", which is the time-dependent dipole generated by the Doppler effect due to the motion of the satellite around the Sun. Such an effect has also relativistic time-dependent corrections of relative magnitude 10-3, due to coupling with the "solar dipole" (the motion of the Sun compared to the CMB rest frame), which are included in the data calibration by the Planck collaboration. We point out that such corrections are subject to a frequency-dependent multiplicative factor. This factor differs from unity especially at the highest frequencies, relevant for the HFI instrument. Since currently Planck calibration errors are dominated by systematics, to the point that polarization data is currently unreliable at large scales, such a correction can in principle be highly relevant for future data releases.

  12. Fokker-Planck Equation and Thermodynamic System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Lucia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The non-linear Fokker-Planck equation or Kolmogorov forward equation is currently successfully applied for deep analysis of irreversibility and it gives an excellent approximation near the free energy minimum, just as Boltzmann’s definition of entropy follows from finding the maximum entropy state. A connection to Fokker-Planck dynamics and the free energy functional is presented and discussed—this approach has been particularly successful to deal with metastability. We focus our attention on investigating and discussing the fundamental role of dissipation analysis in metastable systems. The major novelty of our approach is that the obtained results enable us to reveal an appealing, and previously unexplored relationship between Fokker-Planck equation and the associated free energy functional. Namely, we point out that the dynamics may be regarded as a gradient flux, or a steepest descent, for the free energy.

  13. Radiation processes in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, Wallace H

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this book is twofold: to provide a brief, simple introduction to the theory of radiation and its application in astrophysics and to serve as a reference manual for researchers. The first part of the book consists of a discussion of the basic formulas and concepts that underlie the classical and quantum descriptions of radiation processes. The rest of the book is concerned with applications. The spirit of the discussion is to present simple derivations that will provide some insight into the basic physics involved and then to state the exact results in a form useful for applications. The reader is referred to the original literature and to reviews for rigorous derivations.The wide range of topics covered is illustrated by the following table of contents: Basic Formulas for Classical Radiation Processes; Basic Formulas for Quantum Radiation Processes; Cyclotron and Synchrotron Radiation; Electron Scattering; Bremsstrahlung and Collision Losses; Radiative Recombination; The Photoelectric Effect; a...

  14. Noise properties of the Planck-LFI receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, P; Leonardi, R [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Aja, B; Artal, E; Fuente, M L de la [Departamento de Ingenieria de Comunicaciones, Universidad de Cantabria, Avenida Los Castros s/n. 39005, Santander (Spain); Battaglia, P; Franceschet, C [Thales Alenia Space Italia S.p.A., IUEL - Scientific Instruments, S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090 Vimodrone Milano (Italy); Bersanelli, M [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartamento di Fisica, via Celoria 16, 20133, Milano (Italy); Blackhurst, E; Davis, R [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Butler, C R; Cuttaia, F; Franceschi, E [INAF/IASF, via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Cuevas, L P [ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, Postbus 299 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); D' Arcangelo, O [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milan (Italy); Frailis, M; Galeotta, S [INAF/OATs, via Tiepolo, 11, 34143 Trieste (Italy); Gaier, T [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Gregorio, A [University of Trieste, Department of Physics, via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Hoyland, R, E-mail: peterm@cfi.ucsb.ed [Instituto de AstrofIsica de Canarias, C/ VIa Lactea S/N, E-38200, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    The Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers have been tested extensively during several dedicated campaigns. The present paper reports the principal noise properties of the LFI radiometers. A brief description of the LFI radiometers is given along with details of the test campaigns relevant to determination of noise properties. Current estimates of flight sensitivities, 1/f parameters, and noise effective bandwidths are presented. The LFI receivers exhibit exceptional 1/f noise, and their white noise performance is sufficient for the science goals of Planck.

  15. Planck early results. VII. The Early Release Compact Source Catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2011-01-01

    the entire sky once and 60% of the sky a second time by Planck, thereby comprising the first high sensitivity radio/submillimetre observations of the entire sky. Four source detection algorithms were run as part of the ERCSC pipeline. A Monte-Carlo algorithm based on the injection and extraction...... of artificial sources into the Planck maps was implemented to select reliable sources among all extracted candidates such that the cumulative reliability of the catalogue is ≤90%. There is no requirement on completeness for the ERCSC. As a result of the Monte-Carlo assessment of reliability of sources from...

  16. Planck 2015 results. XXI. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Casaponsa, B.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Ilić, S.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a study of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect from the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data release. This secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy caused by the large-scale time-evolving gravitational potential is probed from different perspectives. The CMB is cross-correlated with different large-scale structure (LSS) tracers: radio sources from the NVSS catalogue; galaxies from the optical SDSS and the infrared WISE surveys; and the Planck 2015 convergence lensing map. The joint cross-correlation of the CMB with the tracers yields a detection at 4σ where most of the signal-to-noise is due to the Planck lensing and the NVSS radio catalogue. In fact, the ISW effect is detected from the Planck data only at ≈3σ (through the ISW-lensing bispectrum), which is similar to the detection level achieved by combining the cross-correlation signal coming from all the galaxy catalogues mentioned above. We study the ability of the ISW effect to place constraints on the dark-energy parameters; in particular, we show that ΩΛ is detected at more than 3σ. This cross-correlation analysis is performed only with the Planck temperature data, since the polarization scales available in the 2015 release do not permit significant improvement of the CMB-LSS cross-correlation detectability. Nevertheless, the Planck polarization data are used to study the anomalously large ISW signal previously reported through the aperture photometry on stacked CMB features at the locations of known superclusters and supervoids, which is in conflict with ΛCDM expectations. We find that the current Planck polarization data do not exclude that this signal could be caused by the ISW effect. In addition, the stacking of the Planck lensing map on the locations of superstructures exhibits a positive cross-correlation with these large-scale structures. Finally, we have improved our previous reconstruction of the ISW temperature fluctuations by combining the

  17. Testing the principle of equivalence with Planck surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Popa, L A; Mandolesi, N

    2002-01-01

    We consider the effect of the violation of the equivalence principle (VEP) by the massive neutrino component on the Cosmic Microwave Background angular power specrum. We show that in the presence of adiabatic and isocurvature primordial density perturbations the Planck surveyor can place limits on the maximal VEP by the massive neutrino component at the level of 10^ -5, valid in the general relativity, for the case in which the gravity is the single source of VEP. This work has been performed within the framework of the {\\sc Planck}/LFI activities.

  18. Planck intermediate results XXIV. Constraints on variations in fundamental constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.;

    2015-01-01

    Any variation in the fundamental physical constants, more particularly in the fine structure constant, a, or in the mass of the electron, me, affects the recombination history of the Universe and cause an imprint on the cosmic microwave background angular power spectra. We show that the Planck data...... of the electron, me, and in the simultaneous variation of the two constants. We examine in detail the degeneracies between fundamental constants and the cosmological parameters, in order to compare the limits obtained from Planck and WMAP and to determine the constraining power gained by including other...

  19. Planck intermediate results: XVI. Profile likelihoods for cosmological parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, J.G.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Delabrouille, J.

    2014-01-01

    mass distribution. By applying the Feldman-Cousins prescription, we again obtain results very similar to those of the Bayesian methodology. However, the profile-likelihood analysis of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) combination (Planck+WP+highL) reveals a minimum well within the unphysical...... negative-mass region. We show that inclusion of the Planck CMB-lensing information regularizes this issue, and provide a robust frequentist upper limit σmv ≤0:26 eV (95% confidence) from the CMB+lensing+BAO data combination. © ESO 2014....

  20. Planck 2015 results IX. Diffuse component separation: CMB maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.

    2016-01-01

    We present foreground-reduced cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz....... As in 2013, four different CMB component separation algorithms are applied to these observations, providing a measure of stability with respect to algorithmic and modelling choices. The resulting polarization maps have rms instrumental noise ranging between 0.21 and 0.27μK averaged over 55′ pixels...

  1. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Bojanov, Borislav

    2009-09-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Feynman formulae for evolution semigroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. A. Butko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper systematically describes an approach to solution of initial and initial-boundary value problems for evolution equations based on the representation of the corresponding evolution semigroups with the help of Feynman formulae. The article discusses some of the methods of constructing Feynman formulae for different evolution semigroups, presents specific examples of solutions of evolution equations. In particular, Feynman formula is obtained for evolution semigroups generated by multiplicative perturbations of generators of some initial semigroups. In this case semigroups on a Banach space of continuous functions defined on an arbitrary metric space are considered; Feynman formulae are constructed with the help of operator families, which are Chernoff equivalent to the initial unperturbed semigroups. The present result generalizes the author's paper \\Feynman formula for semigroups with multiplicative perturbed generators" and some of the results of the joint with O.G. Smolyanov and R.L. Schilling paper \\Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Feynman formulae for some Feller processes and their perturbations". The approach to the construction of Feynman formulae for semigroups with multiplicative and additive perturbed generators is illustrated with examples of the Cauchy problem for the Schrodinger equation, the approximation of transition probabilities of some Markov processes.Further, a wider class of additive and multiplicative perturbations of a particular generator | the Laplace operator | is considered in the paper. And Feynman formula for the solution of the Cauchy problem for a second order parabolic equation with unbounded variable coefficients is proved. In addition, the article describes a method for constructing Feynman formulae for solutions of the Cauchy | Dirichlet problem for parabolic differential equations. The method is also illustrated by a second order parabolic equation with variable coefficients. These results generalize some

  3. Digital Repository of Mathematical Formulae

    OpenAIRE

    Howard S. Cohl; McClain, Marjorie A.; Saunders, Bonita V.; Schubotz, Moritz; Williams, Janelle C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the NIST Digital Repository of Mathematical Formulae (DRMF) is to create a digital compendium of mathematical formulae for orthogonal polynomials and special functions (OPSF) and of associated mathematical data. The DRMF addresses needs of working mathematicians, physicists and engineers: providing a platform for publication and interaction with OPSF formulae on the web. Using MediaWiki extensions and other existing technology (such as software and macro collections developed f...

  4. Semi-analytical formulas for the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaninetti L.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The absolute visual magnitude as function of the observed color (B-V, also named Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, can be described through five equations; that when calibrated stars are available means eight constants. The developed framework allows to deduce the remaining physical parameters, mass, radius and luminosity. This new technique is applied to the first 10 pc, the first 50 pc, the Hyades and to the determination of the distance of a cluster. The case of the white dwarfs is analyzed assuming the absence of calibrated data: our equation produces a smaller χ2 with respect to the standard color-magnitude calibration when applied to the Villanova Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs. The theoretical basis of the formulas for the colors and the bolometric correction of the stars is clarified by a Taylor expansion in the temperature of the Planck distribution.

  5. Planck early results. XIII. Statistical properties of extragalactic radio sources in the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.;

    2011-01-01

    and ACT surveys over small fractions of the sky. An analysis of source spectra, exploiting Planck's uniquely broad spectral coverage, finds clear evidence of a steepening of the mean spectral index above about 70 GHz. This implies that, at these frequencies, the contamination of the CMB power spectrum......The data reported in Planck's Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) are exploited to measure the number counts (dN/dS) of extragalactic radio sources at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz. Due to the full-sky nature of the catalogue, this measurement extends to the rarest and brightest...... sources in the sky. At lower frequencies (30, 44, and 70 GHz) our counts are in very good agreement with estimates based on WMAP data, being somewhat deeper at 30 and 70 GHz, and somewhat shallower at 44 GHz. Planck's source counts at 143 and 217 GHz join smoothly with the fainter ones provided by the SPT...

  6. Formula vs. Fractured Formula in Contest Persuasive Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Christina L.

    In the past decade, contest persuasive speaking has become a product that student competitors produce and perform. A perversion of the contest formula has removed the element of persuasion from the formula. Competition rules suggest that a student's purposes in participating in forensics events should include inspiring, reinforcing, or changing…

  7. Visible sector inflation and the right thermal history in light of Planck data

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lingfei; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Inflation creates perturbations for the large scale structures in the universe, but it also dilutes everything. Therefore it is pertinent that the end of inflation must explain how to excite the Standard Model {\\it dof} along with the dark matter. In this paper we will briefly discuss the role of visible sector inflaton candidates which are embedded within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and discuss their merit on how well they match the current data from the Planck. Since the inflaton carries the Standard Model charges their decay naturally produces all the relevant {\\it dof} with no {\\it dark/hidden sector radiation} and no isocurvature fluctuations. We will first discuss a single supersymmetric flat direction model of inflation and demonstrate what parameter space is allowed by the Planck and the LHC. We will also consider where the perturbations are created by another light field which decays after inflation, known as a {\\it curvaton}. The late decay of the curvaton can create observable ...

  8. Characterization and Physical Explanation of Energetic Particles on Planck HFI Instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Catalano, A; Atik, Y; Benoit, A; Bréele, E; Bock, J J; Camus, P; Charra, M; Crill, B P; Coron, N; Coulais, A; Désert, F -X; Fauvet, L; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Guillaudin, O; Holmes, W; Jones, W C; Lamarre, J -M; Macías-Pérez, J; Martinez, M; Miniussi, A; Monfardini, A; Pajot, F; Patanchon, G; Pelissier, A; Piat, M; Puget, J -L; Renault, C; Rosset, C; Santos, D; Sauvé, A; Spencer, L; Sudiwala, R

    2014-01-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) has been surveying the sky continuously from the second Lagrangian point (L2) between August 2009 and January 2012. It operates with 52 high impedance bolometers cooled at 100mK in a range of frequency between 100 GHz and 1THz with unprecedented sensivity, but strong coupling with cosmic radiation. At L2, the particle flux is about 5 $cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ and is dominated by protons incident on the spacecraft. Protons with an energy above 40MeV can penetrate the focal plane unit box causing two different effects: glitches in the raw data from direct interaction of cosmic rays with detectors (producing a data loss of about 15% at the end of the mission) and thermal drifts in the bolometer plate at 100mK adding non-gaussian noise at frequencies below 0.1Hz. The HFI consortium has made strong efforts in order to correct for this effect on the time ordered data and final Planck maps. This work intends to give a view of the physical explanation of the glitches observed in the ...

  9. Nonparametric Forecasts of the CMB Angular Power Spectra for the Planck Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Aghamousa, Amir; Souradeep, Tarun

    2013-01-01

    The Planck mission, designed for making measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation with unprecedented accuracy and angular resolution, is expected to release its first data set in the near future. For the first time in the CMB history, extensive measurements of the CMB polarization will be made available for the entire sky. Such precise and rich data are expected to contain a great wealth of information about the Universe. The information in the CMB data is conveniently represented in terms of angular power spectra for temperature and polarization. A proper estimation of these CMB power spectra from data is the first step in making inferences about the Universe and, in particular, cosmological parameters that govern the Universe. In this paper, we provide forecasts for the $TT$, $EE$, and $TE$ angular power spectra for the Planck mission. Our forecasts are made using synthetic data based on the best-fit $\\Lambda$CDM model while conforming to the characteristics and parameters of the Planc...

  10. The Planck Sorption Cooler: Using Metal Hydrides to Produce 20 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David P.; Bowman, R.; Prina, M.; Wilson, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has built and delivered two continuous closed cycle hydrogen Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers for the ESA Planck mission, which will measure the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background. The metal hydride compressor consists of six sorbent beds containing LaNi4.78Sn0.22 alloy and a low pressure storage bed of the same material. Each sorbent bed contains a separate gas-gap heat switch that couples or isolates the bed with radiators during the compressor operating cycle. ZrNiHx hydride is used in this heat switch. The Planck compressor produces hydrogen gas at a pressure of 48 Bar by heating the hydride to approx.450 K. This gas passes through a cryogenic cold end consisting of a tube-in-tube heat exchanger, three pre-cooling stages to bring the gas to nominally 52 K, a JT value to expand the gas into the two-phase regime at approx.20 K, and two liquid - vapor heat exchangers that must remove 190 and 646 mW of heat respectively.

  11. CMB constraint on dark matter annihilation after Planck 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Nakayama, Kazunori, E-mail: kazunori@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Toyokazu [Institute for Basic Science, Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe, Daejeon 34051 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-10

    We update the constraint on the dark matter annihilation cross section by using the recent measurements of the CMB anisotropy by the Planck satellite. We fully calculate the cascade of dark matter annihilation products and their effects on ionization, heating and excitation of the hydrogen, hence do not rely on any assumption on the energy fractions that cause these effects.

  12. Fokker-Planck Study of Tokamak Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIBingren; LONGYongxing; DONGJiaqi; LIWenzhong; JIAOYiming; WANGAike

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we add a subroutine for describing the electron cyclotron resonant heating calculation to the Fokker-Planck code. By analyzing the wave-particle resonance condition in tokamak plasma and the fast motion of electrons along magnetic field lines, suitable quasi-linear diffusion coefficients are given.

  13. Planck 2015 results: XIV. Dark energy and modified gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    , and coupled DE. In addition to the latest Planck data, for our main analyses, we use background constraints from baryonic acoustic oscillations, type-Ia supernovae, and local measurements of the Hubble constant. We further show the impact of measurements of the cosmological perturbations, such as redshift...

  14. Planck early results. XIV. ERCSC validation and extreme radio sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavonen, N.; León-Tavares, J.; Savolainen, P.;

    2011-01-01

    by Planck. The ERCSC source positions and flux density scales are found to be consistent with the ground-based observations. We present and discuss the spectral energy distributions of a sample of "extreme" radio sources, to illustrate the richness of the ERCSC for the study of extragalactic radio sources...

  15. Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauber, Jan; Bartlett, J.G.; Bucher, M.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the Planck 2013 likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations that accounts for all known relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. We use this likelihood to derive our best...

  16. Planck early results. V. The Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    León-Tavares, J.; Falvella, M.C.; Stompor, R.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the processing of data from the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) used in production of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC). In particular, we discuss the steps involved in reducing the data from telemetry packets to cleaned, calibrated, time-ordered data (TOD) and ...

  17. Planck early results. V. The Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    León-Tavares, J.; Falvella, M.C.; Stompor, R.;

    2011-01-01

    We describe the processing of data from the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) used in production of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC). In particular, we discuss the steps involved in reducing the data from telemetry packets to cleaned, calibrated, time-ordered data (TOD) and ...

  18. Excess B-modes extracted from the Planck polarization maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.

    2016-07-01

    One of the main obstacles for extracting the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from mm/submm observations is the pollution from the main Galactic components: synchrotron, free-free and thermal dust emission. The feasibility of using simple neural networks to extract CMB has been demonstrated on both temperature and polarization data obtained by the WMAP satellite. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of neural networks for extracting the CMB signal from the Planck polarization data with high precision. Both auto-correlation and cross-correlation power spectra within a mask covering about 63 % of the sky have been used together with a ``high pass filter'' in order to minimize the influence of the remaining systematic errors in the Planck Q and U maps. Using the Planck 2015 released polarization maps, a BB power spectrum have been extracted by Multilayer Perceptron neural networks. This spectrum contains a bright feature with signal to noise ratios ≃ 4.5 within 200 ≤ l ≤ 250. The spectrum is significantly brighter than the BICEP2 2015 spectrum, with a spectral behaviour quite different from the ``canonical'' models (weak lensing plus B-modes spectra with different tensor to scalar ratios). The feasibility of the neural network to remove the residual systematics from the available Planck polarization data to a high level has been demonstrated.

  19. Analytical Solution of the Time Fractional Fokker-Planck Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutradhar T.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A nonperturbative approximate analytic solution is derived for the time fractional Fokker-Planck (F-P equation by using Adomian’s Decomposition Method (ADM. The solution is expressed in terms of Mittag- Leffler function. The present method performs extremely well in terms of accuracy, efficiency and simplicity.

  20. Planck 2015 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.; Alves, M. I. R.; Argüeso, F.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaglia, P.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Bock, J. J.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carvalho, P.; Casaponsa, B.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Chluba, J.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Fantaye, Y.; Farhang, M.; Feeney, S.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Feroz, F.; Finelli, F.; Florido, E.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Gerbino, M.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Giusarma, E.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Grainge, K. J. B.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hamann, J.; Handley, W.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Ilić, S.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jin, T.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Karakci, A.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kiiveri, K.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J. P.; Lellouch, E.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Lilley, M.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; Liu, H.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mak, D. S. Y.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marchini, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martinelli, M.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J. D.; McGehee, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moreno, R.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Mottet, S.; Münchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nastasi, A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Olamaie, M.; Oppermann, N.; Orlando, E.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Peel, M.; Peiris, H. V.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrott, Y. C.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Romelli, E.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; Rouillé d'Orfeuil, B.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rumsey, C.; Rusholme, B.; Said, N.; Salvatelli, V.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Sanghera, H. S.; Santos, D.; Saunders, R. D. E.; Sauvé, A.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Schammel, M. P.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Shimwell, T. W.; Shiraishi, M.; Smith, K.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L. D.; Spinelli, M.; Stanford, S. A.; Stern, D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Strong, A. W.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Texier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tornikoski, M.; Tramonte, D.; Tristram, M.; Troja, A.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vassallo, T.; Vibert, L.; Vidal, M.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Walter, B.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; Welikala, N.; Weller, J.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J. P.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, which is dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched on 14 May 2009. It scanned the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously between 12 August 2009 and 23 October 2013. In February 2015, ESA and the Planck Collaboration released the second set of cosmology products based ondata from the entire Planck mission, including both temperature and polarization, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the main characteristics of the data and the data products in the release, as well as the associated cosmological and astrophysical science results and papers. The data products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, diffuse foregrounds in temperature and polarization, catalogues of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources (including separate catalogues of Sunyaev-Zeldovich clusters and Galactic cold clumps), and extensive simulations of signals and noise used in assessing uncertainties and the performance of the analysis methods. The likelihood code used to assess cosmological models against the Planck data is described, along with a CMB lensing likelihood. Scientific results include cosmological parameters derived from CMB power spectra, gravitational lensing, and cluster counts, as well as constraints on inflation, non-Gaussianity, primordial magnetic fields, dark energy, and modified gravity, and new results on low-frequency Galactic foregrounds.

  1. CMB constraint on dark matter annihilation after Planck 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kawasaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We update the constraint on the dark matter annihilation cross section by using the recent measurements of the CMB anisotropy by the Planck satellite. We fully calculate the cascade of dark matter annihilation products and their effects on ionization, heating and excitation of the hydrogen, hence do not rely on any assumption on the energy fractions that cause these effects.

  2. Stability and size of galaxies from Planck's constant

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, S; De Siena, S; Illuminati, F; Capozziello, Salvatore; Martino, Salvatore De; Siena, Silvio De; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    1999-01-01

    Stability and characterisitic geometrical and kinematical sizes of galaxies are strictly related to a minimal characteristic action whose value is of order $h$, the Planck constant. We infer that quantum mechanics, in some sense, determines the structure and the size of galaxies.

  3. Multi-diffusive nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Mauricio S.; Casas, Gabriela A.; Nobre, Fernando D.

    2017-02-01

    Nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations, characterized by more than one diffusion term, have appeared recently in literature. Here, it is shown that these equations may be derived either from approximations in a master equation, or from a Langevin-type approach. An H-theorem is proven, relating these Fokker-Planck equations to an entropy composed by a sum of contributions, each of them associated with a given diffusion term. Moreover, the stationary state of the Fokker-Planck equation is shown to coincide with the equilibrium state, obtained by extremization of the entropy, in the sense that both procedures yield precisely the same equation. Due to the nonlinear character of this equation, the equilibrium probability may be obtained, in most cases, only by means of numerical approaches. Some examples are worked out, where the equilibrium probability distribution is computed for nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations presenting two diffusion terms, corresponding to an entropy characterized by a sum of two contributions. It is shown that the resulting equilibrium distribution, in general, presents a form that differs from a sum of the equilibrium distributions that maximizes each entropic contribution separately, although in some cases one may construct such a linear combination as a good approximation for the equilibrium distribution.

  4. Galactic interstellar filaments as probed by LOFAR and Planck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaroubi, S.; Jelić, V.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Boulanger, F.; Bracco, A.; Kooistra, R.; Alves, M. I. R.; Brentjens, M. A.; Ferrière, K.; Ghosh, T.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Levrier, F.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Montier, L.; Pandey, V. N.; Soler, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) observations at 115-175 MHz of a field at medium Galactic latitudes (centred at the bright quasar 3C196) have shown striking filamentary structures in polarization that extend over more than 4° across the sky. In addition, the Planck satellite has released full sky

  5. Planck intermediate results. VIII. Filaments between interacting clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Balbi, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bhatia, R; Böhringer, H; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bourdin, H; Burigana, C; Cabella, P; Cardoso, J -F; Castex, G; Catalano, A; Cayón, L; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, L -Y; Chon, G; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colafrancesco, S; Colombo, L P L; Comis, B; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Cuttaia, F; Da Silva, A; Dahle, H; Danese, L; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Gasperis, G; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Dörl, U; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Flores-Cacho, I; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Frommert, M; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Gilfanov, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D; Hempel, A; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hovest, W; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jagemann, T; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leonardi, R; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Luzzi, G; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marleau, F; Marshall, D J; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Mei, S; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Osborne, S; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Piffaretti, R; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Roman, M; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Savini, G; Schaefer, B M; Scott, D; Smoot, G F; Starck, J -L; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Valenziano, L; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Welikala, N; White, S D M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2012-01-01

    About half of the baryons of the Universe are expected to be in the form of filaments of hot and low density intergalactic medium. Most of these baryons remain undetected even by the most advanced X-ray observatories which are limited in sensitivity to the diffuse low density medium. The Planck satellite has provided hundreds of detections of the hot gas in clusters of galaxies via the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect and is an ideal instrument for studying extended low density media through the tSZ effect. In this paper we use the Planck data to search for signatures of a fraction of these missing baryons between pairs of galaxy clusters. Cluster pairs are good candidates for searching for the hotter and denser phase of the intergalactic medium (which is more easily observed through the SZ effect). Using an X-ray catalogue of clusters and the Planck data, we select physical pairs of clusters as candidates. Using the Planck data we construct a local map of the tSZ effect centered on each pair of galaxy...

  6. Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Lindholm, V.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rahlin, A.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Sanselme, L.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present the Planck likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations. We use this likelihood to derive the Planck CMB power spectrum over three decades in l, covering 2 = 50, we employ a correlated Gaussian likelihood approximation based on angular cross-spectra derived from the 100, 143 and 217 GHz channels. We validate our likelihood through an extensive suite of consistency tests, and assess the impact of residual foreground and instrumental uncertainties on cosmological parameters. We find good internal agreement among the high-l cross-spectra with residuals of a few uK^2 at l <= 1000. We compare our results with foreground-cleaned CMB maps, and with cross-spectra derived from the 70 GHz Planck map, and find broad agreement in terms of spectrum residuals and cosmological parameters. The best-fit LCDM cosmology is in excellent agreement with preliminary Planck polarisation spectra. The standard LCDM cosmology is well constrained b...

  7. Planck 2015 results: II. Low Frequency Instrument data processings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.;

    2016-01-01

    We present an updated description of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing pipeline, associated with the 2015 data release. We point out the places where our results and methods have remained unchanged since the 2013 paper and we highlight the changes made for the 2015 release...

  8. Planck intermediate results: XIII. Constraints on peculiar velocities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.; Le Jeune, M.;

    2014-01-01

    Using Planck data combined with the Meta Catalogue of X-ray detected Clusters of galaxies (MCXC), we address the study of peculiar motions by searching for evidence of the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (kSZ). By implementing various filters designed to extract the kSZ generated at the position...

  9. TWO REMARKS ON SCHWARZ FORMULA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Xiaqi; Luo Peizhu

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses two problems. Firstly the authors give the Schwarz formula for a holomorphic function in unit disc when the boundary value of its real part is in the class H of generalized functions in the sense of Hua. Secondly the authors use the classical Schwarz formula to give a new proof of the zero free region of the Riemann zeta-function.

  10. The Riemann-Hurwitz formula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, F.

    2016-01-01

    Let ϕ : S → T be a surjective holomorphic map between compact Riemann surfaces. There is a formula relating the various invariants involved: the genus of S, the genus of T, the degree of ϕ and the amount of ramification. Riemann used this formula in case T has genus zero. Contemporaries referred to

  11. Go-ahead for ESA's new millennium space observatories Planck and FIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Planck and FIRST will be launched together in the year 2007. Planck is a cosmology mission, designed to test the models describing the origin and evolution of the early Universe. It will do so by studying the Cosmic Background Radiation, a light emitted shortly after the Big Bang that fills the whole Universe and can be detected today, like an "echo" of that primeval explosion. Astronomers consider it a "fossil" radiation, since it holds a lot of information about both the past and the future of the Universe. "Planck will determine fundamental characteristics of the Universe, such as its geometry, its density, and the rate at which it expands. It will also provide important clues as to the kind of matter that fills the Universe", explains Planck Project Scientist Jan Tauber, at ESA's European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in The Netherlands. More precisely, the task of Planck will be to measure the temperature of the "echo" of the Big Bang over the whole sky. Though at the time of its emission the Cosmic Background Radiation was very hot, some 3000 degrees, it has since expanded and cooled together with the entire cosmos to a much lower temperature, namely about minus 270 degrees centigrade (3 degrees Kelvin). Planck will look for differences in this temperature as slight as a few microkelvin, thin variations like clots that are, in fact, the "seeds" of the huge condensations of matter in today's Universe. "It will be like watching the birth of the galaxies, the galaxy clusters, all the large-scale structures that we observe today", Tauber says. The two instruments on board Planck, now approved by ESA, are the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) and the High Frequency Instrument (HFI).They will cover a very broad range of frequencies (between 30 and 857 Gigahertz). The HFI will be designed and built by a Consortium of about 20 institutes led by Jean-Loup Puget of the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay (France). The LFI will be designed and built

  12. Algebraic Proofs over Noncommutative Formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Tzameret, Iddo

    2010-01-01

    We study possible formulations of algebraic propositional proof systems operating with noncommutative formulas. We observe that a simple formulation gives rise to systems at least as strong as Frege---yielding a semantic way to define a Cook-Reckhow (i.e., polynomially verifiable) algebraic analogue of Frege proofs, different from that given in [BIKPRS96,GH03]. We then turn to an apparently weaker system, namely, polynomial calculus (PC) where polynomials are written as ordered formulas ("PC over ordered formulas", for short). This is an algebraic propositional proof system that operates with noncommutative polynomials in which the order of products in all monomials respects a fixed linear order on the variables, and where proof-lines are written as noncommutative formulas. We show that the latter proof system is strictly stronger than resolution, polynomial calculus and polynomial calculus with resolution (PCR) and admits polynomial-size refutations for the pigeonhole principle and the Tseitin's formulas. We...

  13. Planck 2015 results. XXVII. The Second Planck Catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Barrena, R; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Battye, R; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bikmaev, I; Böhringer, H; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burenin, R; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Carvalho, P; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Chon, G; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Dahle, H; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Eisenhardt, P R M; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fergusson, J; Feroz, F; Ferragamo, A; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Grainge, K J B; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Hempel, A; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jin, T; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Khamitov, I; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mak, D S Y; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Mei, S; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nastasi, A; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Olamaie, M; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrott, Y C; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rozo, E; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rumsey, C; Rusholme, B; Rykoff, E S; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Saunders, R D E; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Schammel, M P; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Shimwell, T W; Spencer, L D; Stanford, S A; Stern, D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Streblyanska, A; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tramonte, D; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; White, S D M; Wright, E L; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the all-sky Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources detected from the 29 month full-mission data. The catalogue (PSZ2) is the largest SZ-selected sample of galaxy clusters yet produced and the deepest all-sky catalogue of galaxy clusters. It contains 1653 detections, of which 1203 are confirmed clusters with identified counterparts in external data-sets, and is the first SZ-selected cluster survey containing > 103 confirmed clusters. We present a detailed analysis of the survey selection function in terms of its completeness and statistical reliability, placing a lower limit of 83% on the purity. Using simulations, we find that the Y5R500 estimates are robust to pressure-profile variation and beam systematics, but accurate conversion to Y500 requires. the use of prior information on the cluster extent. We describe the multi-wavelength search for counterparts in ancillary data, which makes use of radio, microwave, infra-red, optical and X-ray data-sets, and which places emphasis on the ro...

  14. Planck intermediate results. XXIX. All-sky dust modelling with Planck, IRAS, and WISE observations

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Alves, M I R; Aniano, G; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Levy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Couchot, F; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Dore, O; Douspis, M; Draine, B T; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Ensslin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Gjerlow, E; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Gorski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Guillet, V; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versille, S; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Holmes, W A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vornle, M; Lopez-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macias-Perez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschenes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Norgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Roudier, G; Rubio-Martin, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Ysard, N; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    We present all-sky dust modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS and WISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL). We study the performance of this model and present implications for future dust modelling. The present work extends to the full sky the dust modelling carried out on nearby galaxies using Herschel and Spitzer data. We employ the DL dust model to generate maps of the dust mass surface density, the dust optical extinction AV, and the starlight intensity heating the bulk of the dust, parametrized by Umin. We test the model by comparing these maps with independent estimates of the dust optical extinction AV . In molecular clouds, we compare the DL AV estimates with maps generated from stellar optical observations from the 2MASS survey. The DL AV estimates are a factor of about 3 larger than values estimated from 2MASS observations. In the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) we compare the DL optical extinction AV estimates with optical est...

  15. Planck early results: XMM-Newton follow-up for validation of Planck cluster candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Balbi, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartelmann, M; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bhatia, R; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Brown, M L; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cabella, P; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Cayòn, L; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R R; Chiang, L Y; Chiang, C; Chon, G; Christensen, P R; Churazov, E; Clements, D L; Colafrancesco, S; Colombi, S; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Cuttaia, F; Da Silva, A; Dahle, H; Danese, L; de Bernardis, P; de Gasperis, G; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Dörl, U; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Ensslin, T A; Finelli, F; Flores, I; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Fromenteau, S; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hovest, W; Hoyland, R J; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knox, L; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leonardi, R; Linden-Vornle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J -F; MacTavish, C J; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mann, R; Maris, M; Marleau, F; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, A; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Norgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Pajot, F; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Piffaretti, R; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rubiõo-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Schaefer, B M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Smoot, G F; Starck, J -L; Stivoli, F; Stolyarov, V; Sunyaev, R; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Vibert, L; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wandelt, B D; White, S D M; White, M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2011-01-01

    We present the XMM-Newton follow-up for validation of Planck cluster candidates. Twenty-five candidates have been observed to date using snapshot (~10 ksec) exposures: ten as part of a pilot programme to sample a low range of signal-to-noise ratios (45 candidates. The sensitivity and spatial resolution of XMM-Newton allows unambiguous discrimination between clusters and false candidates. A total of 21 candidates are confirmed as extended X-ray sources. Seventeen are single clusters, the majority of which are found to have highly irregular and disturbed morphologies. The remaining four sources are multiple systems, including the unexpected discovery of a supercluster at z=0.45. For most of the sources we are able to derive a redshift estimate from the X-ray Fe K line (albeit of variable quality). The new clusters span the redshift range 0.09 <~ z <~ 0.54 with a median redshift of z ~ 0.37. A first estimate is made of their X-ray properties including the characteristic size, which is used to improve the S...

  16. Planck intermediate results I. Further validation of new Planck clusters with XMM-Newton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Collaboration, Planck; Arnaud, M.

    2012-01-01

    . The sample was selected in order to test internal SZ quality flags, and the pertinence of these flags is discussed in light of the validation results. Ten of the candidates are found to be bona fide clusters lying below the RASS flux limit. Redshift estimates are available for all confirmed systems via X......-ray Fe-line spectroscopy. They lie in the redshift range 0.19 z z. The X-ray properties of the new clusters appear to be similar to previous new detections by Planck at lower z and higher SZ flux: the majority are X-ray underluminous...... of candidates previously confirmed with XMM-Newton. The X-ray and optical redshifts for a total of 20 clusters are found to be in excellent agreement. We also show that useful lower limits can be put on cluster redshifts using X-ray data only via the use of the Y-X vs. Y-SZ and X-ray flux F-X vs. Y-SZ relations....

  17. Planck's Dusty GEMS: Gravitationally lensed high-redshift galaxies discovered with the Planck survey

    CERN Document Server

    Canameras, R; Guery, D; McKenzie, T; Koenig, S; Petitpas, G; Dole, H; Frye, B; Flores-Cacho, I; Montier, L; Negrello, M; Beelen, A; Boone, F; Dicken, D; Lagache, G; Floch, E Le; Altieri, B; Bethermin, M; Chary, R; De Zotti, G; Giard, M; Kneissl, R; Krips, M; Malhotra, S; Martinache, C; Omont, A; Pointecouteau, E; Puget, J -L; Scott, D; Soucail, G; Valtchanov, I; Welikala, N; Yan, L

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of 11 bright far-IR/submm sources discovered through a combination of the Planck survey and follow-up Herschel-SPIRE imaging. Each source has a redshift z=2.2-3.6 obtained through a blind redshift search with EMIR at the IRAM 30-m telescope. Interferometry obtained at IRAM and the SMA, and optical/near-infrared imaging obtained at the CFHT and the VLT reveal morphologies consistent with strongly gravitationally lensed sources. Additional photometry was obtained with JCMT/SCUBA-2 and IRAM/GISMO at 850 um and 2 mm, respectively. All objects are bright, isolated point sources in the 18 arcsec beam of SPIRE at 250 um, with spectral energy distributions peaking either near the 350 um or the 500 um bands of SPIRE, and with apparent far-infrared luminosities of up to 3x10^14 L_sun. Their morphologies and sizes, CO line widths and luminosities, dust temperatures, and far-infrared luminosities provide additional empirical evidence that these are strongly gravitationally lensed high-redshift gala...

  18. Numerically optimized band boundaries of Planck mean absorption coefficients in air plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloc, P.; Aubrecht, V.; Bartlova, M.

    2017-08-01

    Radiation heat transfer plays an important role in the energy balance of plasma in an electric arc and its accurate prediction is essential for the development of new electrical devices. Unfortunately, a very complex spectrum of the absorption coefficient makes accurate radiation heat transfer calculations a very challenging task, especially with complex geometries. Numerical approximation of the absorption coefficient is therefore commonly used to reduce computing demands. This paper presents our contribution to the topic of computing requirements reduction, namely the problem of frequency band selection for mean absorption coefficients (MACs). We show that, with the proper band distribution and averaging method, even a very low number of bands can be sufficient for an accurate approximation of the real radiation heat transfer. The band selection process is based upon numerical optimization with a mean value of each band being calculated as a line limited Planck MAC. Both the line limiting factor and associated characteristic plasma absorption length are investigated in detail and an optimal value equal to the three plasma radii is proposed. Tables for three bands mean absorption coefficients in air at the pressure of 1 bar and temperature range spanning from 300 K to 30 kK are included in this paper. These tables serve as input parameters for a fast evaluation of radiation transfer using either the P1 or discrete ordinates method (DOM) approximation with satisfactory accuracy.

  19. Planck early results. XIII. Statistical properties of extragalactic radio sources in the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The data reported in Planck's Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) are exploited to measure the number counts (dN/dS) of extragalactic radio sources at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz. Due to the full-sky nature of the catalogue, this measurement extends to the rarest and brightest sou...

  20. Planck intermediate results XXIII. Galactic plane emission components derived from Planck with ancillary data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.;

    2015-01-01

    Planck data when combined with ancillary data provide a unique opportunity to separate the diuse emission components of the inner Galaxy.The purpose of the paper is to elucidate the morphology of the various emission components in the strong star-formation region lying inside thesolar radius and ...

  1. Planck 2013 results. XXV. Searches for cosmic strings and other topological defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    -Goto cosmic strings, as well as field theory strings for which radiative effects are important, thus spanning the range of theoretical uncertainty in strings models. We have added the angular power spectrum from strings to that for a simple adiabatic model, with the extra fraction defined as $f_{10......Planck data have been used to provide stringent new constraints on cosmic strings and other defects. We describe forecasts of the CMB power spectrum induced by cosmic strings, calculating these from network models and simulations using line-of-sight Boltzmann solvers. We have studied Nambu......}$ at multipole $\\ell=10$. This parameter has been added to the standard six parameter fit using COSMOMC with flat priors. For the Nambu-Goto string model, we have obtained a constraint on the string tension of $G\\mu/c^2

  2. Searching for primordial non-Gaussianity in Planck CMB maps using a combined estimator

    CERN Document Server

    Novaes, C P; Ferreira, I S; Wuensche, C A

    2013-01-01

    The extensive search for deviations from Gaussianity in cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) data is very important due to the information about the very early moments of the universe encoded there. Recent analyses from Planck CMB data do not exclude the presence of non-Gaussianity of small amplitude, although they are consistent with the Gaussian hypothesis. The use of different techniques is essential to provide information about types and amplitudes of non-Gaussianities in the CMB data. In particular, we find interesting to construct an estimator based upon the combination of two powerful statistical tools that appears to be sensitive enough to detect tiny deviations from Gaussianity in CMB maps. This estimator combines the Minkowski functionals with a Neural Network, maximizing a tool widely used to study non-Gaussian signals with a reinforcement of another tool designed to identify patterns in a data set. We test our estimator by analyzing simulated CMB maps contaminated with different amounts of ...

  3. Self-Consistent Fokker-Planck Treatment Of Particle Distributions in Astrophysical Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Nayakshin, S; Nayakshin, Sergei; Melia, Fulvio

    1997-01-01

    High-energy, multi-component plasmas in which pair creation and annihilation, lepton-lepton scattering, lepton-proton scattering, and Comptonization all contribute to establishing the particle and photon distributions, are present in a broad range of compact astrophysical objects. Earlier work has included much of the microphysics needed to account for electron-photon and electron-proton interactions, but little has been done to handle the redistribution of the particles as a result of their Coulomb interaction with themselves in an arbitrary case. Our goal here is to use a Fokker-Planck approach in order to develop a fully self-consistent theory for the interaction of arbitrarily distributed particles and radiation to arrive at an accurate representation of the high-energy plasma in these sources. We conduct several tests representative of two dominant segments of parameter space and discuss physical implications of the non-Maxwellian distribution function. Approximate analytical forms for the electron distr...

  4. A viable Starobinsky-like inflationary scenario in the light of Planck and BICEP2 results

    CERN Document Server

    Basilakos, S; Solà, J

    2014-01-01

    The recent CMB data from Planck and BICEP2 observations have opened a new window for inflationary cosmology. In this Essay we compare three Starobinsky-like inflationary scenarios: (i) the original Starobinsky proposal; (ii) a family of dynamically broken SUGRA models; and (iii) a class of "decaying" vacuum $\\Lambda(H)$ cosmologies. We then focus on the $\\Lambda(H)$ variant, which spans the complete cosmic history of the universe from an early inflationary stage, followed by the "graceful exit" into the standard radiation regime, the matter epoch and, finally, the late-time accelerated expansion. Computing the effective potential we find that the "running" $\\Lambda(H)$ models also provide a prediction for the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the CMB spectrum, $r \\simeq 0.16$, which is compatible to within $1\\sigma$ with the value $r=0.20^{+0.07}_{-0.05}$ recently measured by the BICEP2 collaboration.

  5. Planck 2013 results. XXVII. Doppler boosting of the CMB: Eppur si muove

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2013-01-01

    Our velocity relative to the rest frame of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) generates a dipole temperature anisotropy on the sky whichhas been well measured for more than 30 years, and has an accepted amplitude of v/c = 1.23 x 10-3, or v = 369 km-1. In addition to thissignal generated...... by Doppler boosting of the CMB monopole, our motion also modulates and aberrates the CMB temperature fluctuations (as wellas every other source of radiation at cosmological distances). This is an order 10-3 effect applied to fluctuations which are already one part inroughly 105, so it is quite small....... Nevertheless, it becomes detectable with the all-sky coverage, high angular resolution, and low noise levels of thePlanck satellite. Here we report a first measurement of this velocity signature using the aberration and modulation eects on the CMB temperatureanisotropies, finding a component in the known...

  6. The Formula of Plague Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2015-01-01

    it is possible to establish a stable formula for plague narratives despite the spread over centuries and in different text types, and to explain this formula and possible variations of it. The initial and tentative hypothesis is that a formulaic narrative structure exists for accounts, both documentary...... and fictional, of epidemics. The samples include: Exodus, History of the Peloponnesian War, Samuel Pepys’ Diary, A Journal of the Plague Year, The Last Man, The Plague in Bergamo, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, Doomsday, The Dead Zone, World War Z. An Oral History of the Zombie War, Pandemic...

  7. Methods of Writing Constitutional Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raos, N.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical formulas, as well as any linguistic entity, have to fulfill two basic requirements – expressiveness and economy, i.e. they have to express the maximal meaning with minimal means. Besides, chemical formula, being a scientific notation, has not to convey vague and scientifically unapproved meanings. This article presents the development of various kinds of chemical formulas and discusses their meaning in the historical context. Special attention is paid to line notation, developed for computers (WLN, SMILES, InChI etc.. We also discuss Seymour B. Elk's "biparametric nomenclature", based on the concept of 3-simplex, which was claimed to be universally applicable to all classes of compounds.

  8. APPLICABILITY OF SEDIMENT TRANSPORT FORMULAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chih Ted YANG; Caian HUANG

    2001-01-01

    The paper provides a comprehensive testing of the applicability of 13 sediment transport formulas under different flow and sediment conditions. The dimensionless parameters used for testing the reliability and sensitivity of formulas are dimensionless particle diameter, relative depth, Froude number, relative shear velocity, dimensionless unit stream power, and sediment concentration. A total of 3,391 sets of laboratory and river data are used in the tests. Engineers may find the test results useful to their selection of formulas under different flow and sediment conditions.

  9. Review of atomic mass formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Takahiro [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering

    1997-07-01

    Wapstra and Audi`s Table is famous for evaluation of experimental data of atomic nuclear masses (1993/1995 version) which estimated about 2000 kinds of nuclei. The error of atomic mass of formula is 0.3 MeV-0.8 MeV. Four kinds of atomic mass formula: JM (Jaenecke and Masson), TUYY (Tachibana, Uno, Yamada and Yamada), FRDM (Moeller, Nix, Myers and Swiatecki) and ETFSI (Aboussir, Pearson, Dutta and Tondeur) and their properties (number of parameter and error etc.) were explained. An estimation method of theoretical error of mass formula was presented. It was estimated by the theoretical error of other surrounding nuclei. (S.Y.)

  10. CHY formula and MHV amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Yi-jian; Wu, Yong-shi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relation between the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula and the maximal-helicity-violating (MHV) amplitudes of Yang-Mills and gravity in four dimensions. We prove that only one special rational solution of the scattering equations found by Weinzierl support the MHV amplitudes. Namely, localized at this solution, the integrated CHY formula reproduces the Parke-Taylor formula for Yang-Mills amplitudes as well as the Hodges formula for gravitational amplitudes. This is achieved by developing techniques, in a manifestly M\\"obius covariant formalism, to explicitly compute relevant reduced Pfaffians/determinants. We observe and prove two interesting properties (or identities), which facilitate the computations. We also check that all the other $(n-3)!-1$ solutions to the scattering equations do not support the MHV amplitudes, and prove analytically that this is indeed true for the other special rational solution proposed by Weinzierl, that actually supports the anti-MHV amplitudes.

  11. Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer ...

  12. Explicit Formulas for Meixner Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Kruchinin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using notions of composita and composition of generating functions, we show an easy way to obtain explicit formulas for some current polynomials. Particularly, we consider the Meixner polynomials of the first and second kinds.

  13. On generalizations of Verlinde's formula

    CERN Document Server

    Bántay, P

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that traces of mapping classes of finite order may be expressed by Verlinde-like formulae. The 3D topological argument is explained, and the resulting trace identities for modular matrix elements are presented.

  14. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  15. Methods of Writing Constitutional Formulas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raos, N; Miličević, A

    2012-01-01

    ... – expressiveness and economy, i.e. they have to express the maximal meaning with minimal means. Besides, chemical formula, being a scientific notation, has not to convey vague and scientifically unapproved meanings...

  16. Quantum computing of semiclassical formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgeot, B; Giraud, O

    2008-04-01

    We show that semiclassical formulas such as the Gutzwiller trace formula can be implemented on a quantum computer more efficiently than on a classical device. We give explicit quantum algorithms which yield quantum observables from classical trajectories, and which alternatively test the semiclassical approximation by computing classical actions from quantum evolution. The gain over classical computation is in general quadratic, and can be larger in some specific cases.

  17. Planck 2015 results: I. Overview of products and scientific results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.

    2016-01-01

    Collaboration released the second set of cosmology products based ondata from the entire Planck mission, including both temperature and polarization, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the main characteristics of the data...... Galactic and extragalactic sources (including separate catalogues of Sunyaev-Zeldovich clusters and Galactic cold clumps), and extensive simulations of signals and noise used in assessing uncertainties and the performance of the analysis methods. The likelihood code used to assess cosmological models...... against the Planck data is described, along with a CMB lensing likelihood. Scientific results include cosmological parameters derived from CMB power spectra, gravitational lensing, and cluster counts, as well as constraints on inflation, non-Gaussianity, primordial magnetic fields, dark energy...

  18. Probing cosmological isotropy with Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengaly, C. A. P.; Bernui, A.; Ferreira, I. S.; Alcaniz, J. S.

    2017-04-01

    We probe the statistical isotropy hypothesis of the large-scale structure with the second Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (PSZ2) galaxy clusters data set. Our analysis adopts a statistical-geometrical method that compares the two-point angular-correlation function of objects in antipodal patches of the sky. Given possible observational biases, such as the presence of anisotropic sky cuts and the non-uniform exposure of Planck's instrumentation, ensembles of Monte Carlo realizations are produced in order to assess the significance of our results. When these observational effects are properly taken into account, we find neither evidence for preferred directions in the sky nor signs of large-angle features in the galaxy clusters celestial distribution. The PSZ2 data set is, therefore, in good concordance with the fundamental hypothesis of large-angle isotropy of cosmic objects.

  19. Planck early results. VI. The High Frequency Instrument data processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, M.; Castex, G.; Colley, J.-M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the processing of the 336 billion raw data samples from the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) which we performed to produce six temperature maps from the first 295 days of Planck-HFI survey data. These maps provide an accurate rendition of the sky emission at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545...... and 857 GHz with an angular resolution ranging from 9.9 to 4.4′. The white noise level is around 1.5 μK degree or less in the 3 main CMB channels (100-217 GHz). The photometric accuracy is better than 2% at frequencies between 100 and 353 GHz and around 7% at the two highest frequencies. The maps created...... to be of high quality and we expect that with further refinements of the data processing we should be able to achieve, or exceed, the science goals of the Planck project. © ESO, 2011....

  20. Bounds on very low reheating scenarios after Planck

    CERN Document Server

    de Salas, P F; Mangano, G; Miele, G; Pastor, S; Pisanti, O

    2015-01-01

    We consider the case of very low reheating scenarios ($T_{\\rm RH}\\sim\\mathcal{O}({\\rm MeV})$) with a better calculation of the production of the relic neutrino background (with three-flavor oscillations). At 95% confidence level, a lower bound on the reheating temperature $T_{\\rm RH}>4.1$ MeV is obtained from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, while $T_{\\rm RH}>4.3$ MeV from Planck data for very light ($\\sum m_i = 0.06$ eV) neutrinos. If neutrino masses are allowed to vary, Planck data yield $T_{\\rm RH}>4.7$ MeV, the most stringent bound on the reheating temperature to date. Neutrino masses as large as 1 eV are possible for very low reheating temperatures.

  1. Planck 2015 results. XIV. Dark energy and modified gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Ma, Y.Z.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marchini, A.; Martin, P.G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Salvatelli, V.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B.M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-20

    We study the implications of Planck data for models of dark energy (DE) and modified gravity (MG), beyond the cosmological constant scenario. We start with cases where the DE only directly affects the background evolution, considering Taylor expansions of the equation of state, principal component analysis and parameterizations related to the potential of a minimally coupled DE scalar field. When estimating the density of DE at early times, we significantly improve present constraints. We then move to general parameterizations of the DE or MG perturbations that encompass both effective field theories and the phenomenology of gravitational potentials in MG models. Lastly, we test a range of specific models, such as k-essence, f(R) theories and coupled DE. In addition to the latest Planck data, for our main analyses we use baryonic acoustic oscillations, type-Ia supernovae and local measurements of the Hubble constant. We further show the impact of measurements of the cosmological perturbations, such as redshif...

  2. Planck-scale-modified dispersion relations in FRW spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Rosati, Giacomo; Marciano, Antonino; Matassa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In recent years Planck-scale modifications of the dispersion relation have been attracting increasing interest also from the viewpoint of possible applications in astrophysics and cosmology, where spacetime curvature cannot be neglected. Nonetheless the interplay between Planck-scale effects and spacetime curvature is still poorly understood, particularly in cases where curvature is not constant. These challenges have been so far postponed by relying on an ansatz, first introduced by Jacob and Piran. We here propose a general strategy of analysis of the effects of modifications of dispersion relation in FRW spacetimes, applicable both to cases where the relativistic equivalence of frames is spoiled ("preferred-frame scenarios") and to the alternative possibility of "DSR-relativistic theories", theories that are fully relativistic but with relativistic laws deformed so that the modified dispersion relation is observer independent. We show that the Jacob-Piran ansatz implicitly assumes that spacetime translatio...

  3. Constraints on Cosmological Parameters: Combining Planck With Other Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    The recent measurements from Planck have set a new high bar for accuracy in the measurement of cosmological parameters. In parallel, new and increasingly accurate measurements of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, Type Ia supernovae, and the Hubble Constant offer independent probes of various cosmological parameters. The increased accuracy in cosmic microwave background fluctuation measurements make direct comparisons with other methods even more critical, given the intrinsic physical degeneracies amongst different cosmological parameters in the acoustic oscillation spectrum. There has been fundamental progress over the last couple of decades in measuring extragalactic distances. I will discuss the current limits, and the prospects for reaching 1% uncertainty in measurement of the Hubble constant, which, combined with measurements from Planck, will be critical for providing independent constraints on dark energy, the geometry, and matter density of the universe.

  4. Dark matter implications of the WMAP-Planck Haze

    CERN Document Server

    Egorov, Andrey E; Pierpaoli, Elena; Pietrobon, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Gamma rays and microwave observations of the Galactic Center and surrounding areas indicate the presence of anomalous emission, whose origin remains ambiguous. The possibility of dark matter (DM) annihilation explaining both signals through prompt emission at gamma-rays and secondary emission at microwave frequencies from interactions of high-energy electrons produced in annihilation with the Galactic magnetic fields has attracted much interest in recent years. We investigate the DM interpretation of the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess by searching for the associated synchrotron in the WMAP-Planck data. Considering various magnetic field and cosmic-ray propagation models, we predict the synchrotron emission due to DM annihilation in our Galaxy, and compare it with the WMAP-Planck data at 23-70GHz. In addition to standard microwave foregrounds, we separately model the microwave counterpart to the Fermi Bubbles and the signal due to DM, and use component separation techniques to extract the signal associated w...

  5. Estimating the uncorrelated dark energy evolution in the Planck era

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, F Y

    2013-01-01

    The equation of state (EOS), $w(z)$, is the most important parameter of dark energy. We reconstruct the evolution of this EOS in a model-independent way using the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) data from Planck and other observations, such as type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), the baryonic acoustic oscillation measurements (SDSS, 6dF, BOSS, and WiggleZ), and the Hubble parameter value $H(z)$. The results show that the EOS is consistent with the cosmological constant at the $2\\sigma$ confidence level, not preferring a dynamical dark energy. The uncorrelated EOS of dark energy constraints from Planck CMB data are much tighter than those from the WMAP 9-year CMB data.

  6. The Observational Status of Cosmic Inflation after Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    The observational status of inflation after the Planck 2013 and 2015 results and the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck joint analysis is discussed. These pedagogical lecture notes are intended to serve as a technical guide filling the gap between the theoretical articles on inflation and the experimental works on astrophysical and cosmological data. After a short discussion of the central tenets at the basis of inflation (negative self-gravitating pressure) and its experimental verifications, it reviews how the most recent Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy measurements constrain cosmic inflation. The fact that vanilla inflationary models are, so far, preferred by the observations is discussed and the reason why plateau-like potential versions of inflation are favored within this subclass of scenarios is explained. Finally, how well the future measurements, in particular of $B$-Mode CMB polarization or primordial gravity waves, will help to improve our knowledge about inflation is also investigated.

  7. Planck 2013 results. XIX. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2014-01-01

    Based on cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps from the 2013 Planck Mission data release, this paper presents the detection of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, that is, the correlation between the CMB and large-scale evolving gravitational potentials. The significance of detection ranges...... from 2 to 4σ, depending on which method is used. We investigated three separate approaches, which essentially cover all previous studies, and also break new ground. (i) We correlated the CMB with the Planck reconstructed gravitational lensing potential (for the first time). This detection was made...... on a combination of radio (NVSS) and optical (SDSS) data. (iii) We used aperture photometry on stacked CMB fields at the locations of known large-scale structures, which yielded and confirms a 4σ signal, over a broader spectral range, when using a previously explored catalogue, but shows strong discrepancies...

  8. Planck 2013 results. XXIII. Isotropy and Statistics of the CMB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    The two fundamental assumptions of the standard cosmological model - that the initial fluctuations are statistically isotropic and Gaussian - are rigorously tested using maps of the CMB anisotropy from the \\Planck\\ satellite. The detailed results are based on studies of four independent estimates...... of the CMB that are compared to simulations using a fiducial $\\Lambda$CDM model and incorporating essential aspects of the \\Planck\\ measurement process. Deviations from isotropy have been found and demonstrated to be robust against component separation algorithm, mask and frequency dependence. Many......, we find that the quadrupole-octopole alignment is also connected to a low observed variance of the CMB signal. The dipolar power asymmetry is now found to persist to much smaller angular scales, and can be described in the low-$\\ell$ regime by a phenomenological dipole modulation model. Finally...

  9. Evolving Planck Mass in Classically Scale-Invariant Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Kannike, K; Spethmann, C; Veermäe, H

    2016-01-01

    We consider classically scale-invariant theories with non-minimally coupled scalar fields, where the Planck mass and the hierarchy of physical scales are dynamically generated. The classical theories possess a fixed point, where scale invariance is spontaneously broken. In these theories, however, the Planck mass becomes unstable in the presence of explicit sources of scale invariance breaking, such as non-relativistic matter and cosmological constant terms. We quantify the constraints on such classical models from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis that lead to an upper bound on the non-minimal coupling and require trans-Planckian field values. We show that quantum corrections to the scalar potential can stabilise the fixed point close to the minimum of the Coleman-Weinberg po- tential. The time-averaged motion of the evolving fixed point is strongly suppressed, thus the limits on the evolving gravitational constant from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and other measurements do not presently constrain this class of theories....

  10. Planck 2013 results. II. The Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the data processing pipeline of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing centre (DPC) to create and characterize full-sky maps based on the first 15.5 months of operations at 30, 44, and 70 GHz. In particular, we discuss the various steps involved in reducing the data...... using Jupiter transits, which are also used for the geometrical calibration of the focal plane....

  11. Equilibrium distribution of heavy quarks in fokker-planck dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton; Rafelski

    2000-01-01

    We obtain an explicit generalization, within Fokker-Planck dynamics, of Einstein's relation between drag, diffusion, and the equilibrium distribution for a spatially homogeneous system, considering both the transverse and longitudinal diffusion for dimension n>1. We provide a complete characterization of the equilibrium distribution in terms of the drag and diffusion transport coefficients. We apply this analysis to charm quark dynamics in a thermal quark-gluon plasma for the case of collisional equilibration.

  12. Loop quantum gravity and Planck-size black hole entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Corichi, A; Fernandez-Borja, E; Corichi, Alejandro; Diaz-Polo, Jacobo; Fernandez-Borja, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    The Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) program is briefly reviewed and one of its main applications, namely the counting of black hole entropy within the framework is considered. In particular, recent results for Planck size black holes are reviewed. These results are consistent with an asymptotic linear relation (that fixes uniquely a free parameter of the theory) and a logarithmic correction with a coefficient equal to -1/2. The account is tailored as an introduction to the subject for non-experts.

  13. Loop quantum gravity and Planck-size black hole entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corichi, Alejandro [Instituto de Matematicas, Unidad Morelia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM-Campus Morelia, A. Postal 61-3, Morelia, Michoacan 58090 (Mexico); Diaz-Polo, Jacobo [Departamento de AstronomIa y AstrofIsica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot-46100, Valencia (Spain); Fernandez-Borja, Enrique [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC. Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot-46100, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    The Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) program is briefly reviewed and one of its main applications, namely the counting of black hole entropy within the framework is considered. In particular, recent results for Planck size black holes are reviewed. These results are consistent with an asymptotic linear relation (that fixes uniquely a free parameter of the theory) and a logarithmic correction with a coefficient equal to -1/2. The account is tailored as an introduction to the subject for non-experts.

  14. Planck intermediate results XXIV. Constraints on variations in fundamental constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2015-01-01

    cosmological probes. We conclude that independent time variations of the fine structure constant and of the mass of the electron are constrained by Planck to Δ Α/Α = (3.6±3.7) x 10-3 and Δ me/me = (4 ±11) x 10-3 at the 68% confidence level. We also investigate the possibility of a spatial variation of the fine...

  15. Scalar-Qed β-FUNCTIONS Near Planck's Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Gentil O.

    The Renormalization Group Flow Equations of the Scalar-QED model near Planck's scale are computed within the framework of the average effective action. Exact Flow Equations, corrected by Einstein Gravity, for the running self-interacting scalar coupling parameter and for the running v.e.v. of ϕ*ϕ, are computed taking into account threshold effects. Analytic solutions are given in the infrared and ultraviolet limits.

  16. Critical Design Decisions of The Planck LFI Level 1 Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, N.; Rohlfs, R.; Türler, M.; Meharga, M.; Binko, P.; Beck, M.; Frailis, M.; Zacchei, A.

    2010-12-01

    The PLANCK satellite with two on-board instruments, a Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) and a High Frequency Instrument (HFI) has been launched on May 14th with Ariane 5. The ISDC Data Centre for Astrophysics in Versoix, Switzerland has developed and maintains the Planck LFI Level 1 software for the Data Processing Centre (DPC) in Trieste, Italy. The main tasks of the Level 1 processing are to retrieve the daily available scientific and housekeeping (HK) data of the LFI instrument, the Sorption Cooler and the 4k Cooler data from Mission Operation Centre (MOC) in Darmstadt; to sort them by time and by type (detector, observing mode, etc...); to extract the spacecraft attitude information from auxiliary files; to flag the data according to several criteria; and to archive the resulting Time Ordered Information (TOI), which will then be used to produce maps of the sky in different spectral bands. The output of the Level 1 software are the TOI files in FITS format, later ingested into the Data Management Component (DMC) database. This software has been used during different phases of the LFI instrument development. We started to reuse some ISDC components for the LFI Qualification Model (QM) and we completely rework the software for the Flight Model (FM). This was motivated by critical design decisions taken jointly with the DPC. The main questions were: a) the choice of the data format: FITS or DMC? b) the design of the pipelines: use of the Planck Process Coordinator (ProC) or a simple Perl script? c) do we adapt the existing QM software or do we restart from scratch? The timeline and available manpower are also important issues to be taken into account. We present here the orientation of our choices and discuss their pertinence based on the experience of the final pre-launch tests and the start of real Planck LFI operations.

  17. Thermal susceptibility of the Planck-LFI receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terenzi, L; Morgante, G; Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F [INAF - IASF Bologna, via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Colin, A [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Av. Los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain); Mennella, A; Tomasi, M; Bersanelli, M [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Battaglia, P; Lapolla, M; Franceschet, C [Thales Alenia Space Italia, Sede di Milano, S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090, Vimodrone (Italy); D' Arcangelo, O [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milan (Italy); Davis, R [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Galeotta, S [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, Trieste 34143 (Italy); Gregorio, A [University of Trieste, Department of Physics, via Valerio 2, Trieste 34127 (Italy); Hughes, N; Jukkala, P [DA-Design Oy, Keskuskatu 29, FI-31600, Jokioinen (Finland); Kettle, D [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Laaninen, M [Ylinen Electronics Oy, Teollisuustie 9A, FIN-02700 Kauniainen (Finland); Salmon, M J, E-mail: terenzi@iasfbo.inaf.i

    2009-12-15

    This paper describes the impact of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument front end physical temperature fluctuations on the output signal. The origin of thermal instabilities in the instrument are discussed, and an analytical model of their propagation and impact on the receivers signal is described. The experimental test setup dedicated to evaluate these effects during the instrument ground calibration is reported together with data analysis methods. Finally, main results obtained are discussed and compared to the requirements.

  18. FIFPC, a fast ion Fokker--Planck code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, R.H.; Callen, J.D.; Rome, J.A.; Smith, J.

    1976-07-01

    A computer code is described which solves the Fokker--Planck equation for the velocity space distribution of fast ions injected into a tokamak plasma. The numerical techniques are described and use of the code is outlined. The program is written in FORTRAN IV and is modularized in order to provide greater flexibility to the user. A program listing is provided and the results of sample cases are presented.

  19. Planck 2015 results: XIX. Constraints on primordial magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    perturbations; the effect on CMB polarization induced by Faraday rotation; the impact of PMFs on the ionization history; magnetically-induced non-Gaussianities and related non-zero bispectra; and the magnetically-induced breaking of statistical isotropy. We present constraints on the amplitude of PMFs......G. The analysis of the Faraday rotation of CMB polarization by PMFs uses the Planck power spectra in EE and BB at 70 GHz and gives B1 Mpc

  20. Magnetic fields in the Planck theory of sonoluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PrevenslikTV

    1998-01-01

    Sonoluminescence(SL) observed in the cavitation of water may be explained by the Planck theory of SL that treats the bubbles as collapsing miniature masers having optical waves standing in resonance with the dimensions of bubble cavity,Microwaves are created from the Planck energy of the standing waves provided the bubble wall may be treated as a perfect blackbody surface.In the ultraviolet,liquid H2O is srongly absorbent and the bubble approaches a Planck blackbody enclosure.The micrwaves are created at frequencies proportional to the bubble collapse velocity and are absorbed by the dipoles of the H2O and other bubble wall molecules.Intense electric fields develop as the liquid H2O bubble wall undergoes dielectric polarization.By this theory,free electrons are created in SL as the electric fields breakdown;the presence of free electrons is required if any magnetic field effect is to be observed in SL.Both local and global magnetic effects on SL are described.The local effect is based on the magnetic pressure due to the electrons moving as currents inside the bubble.The global effect is an accumulatio of local effects at the voids throughout the liquid H2O causing a reduction in the bulk modulus.Numerical solutions of the Rayleigh-Plesset(R-P) equation are presented that show the effect of applied magnetic field on SL to be the global effect causing a reduction in the bulk modulus.Consistent with the Planck theory of SL,the R-P simulations show the suppression of Sl intensity with magentic field to be parabolic and the SL intensity to be linear with collapse velocity.

  1. Synchrotron radiation with radiation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert W.; Wasserman, Ira

    1991-04-01

    A rigorous discussion is presented of the classical motion of a relativistic electron in a magnetic field and the resulting electromagnetic radiation when radiation reaction is important. In particular, for an electron injected with initial energy gamma(0), a systematic perturbative solution to the Lorentz-Dirac equation of motion is developed for field strengths satisfying gamma(0) B much less than 6 x 10 to the 15th G. A particularly accurate solution to the electron orbital motion in this regime is found and it is demonstrated how lowest-order corrections can be calculated. It is shown that the total energy-loss rate corresponds to what would be found using the exact Larmor power formula without including radiation reaction. Provided that the particle energy and field strength satisfy the same contraint, it is explicitly demonstrated that the intuitive prescription for calculating the time-integrated radiation spectrum described above is correct.

  2. Off-line radiometric analysis of Planck-LFI data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasi, M; Mennella, A; Bersanelli, M [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Galeotta, S; Maris, M [LFI-DPC INAF-OATs, Via Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy); Lowe, S R [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Mendes, L [Planck Science Office, European Space Agency, ESAC, P.O. box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Leonardi, R; Meinhold, P [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Villa, F; Sandri, M; Cuttaia, F; Terenzi, L; Valenziano, L; Butler, R C [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti, 101, 40129, Bologna (Italy); Cappellini, B [INAF-IASF Milano, Via E. Bassini 15, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gregorio, A [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Via Valerio, 2 Trieste I-34127 (Italy); Salmon, M J [Departamento de IngenierIa de Comunicaciones, Universidad de Cantabria, Avenida de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain); Binko, P [ISDC Data Centre for Astrophysics, University of Geneva, ch. d' Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); D' Arcangelo, O, E-mail: tomasi@lambrate.inaf.i [IFP-CNR, Via Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    The Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) is an array of 22 pseudo-correlation radiometers on-board the Planck satellite to measure temperature and polarization anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in three frequency bands (30, 44 and 70 GHz). To calibrate and verify the performances of the LFI, a software suite named LIFE has been developed. Its aims are to provide a common platform to use for analyzing the results of the tests performed on the single components of the instrument (RCAs, Radiometric Chain Assemblies) and on the integrated Radiometric Array Assembly (RAA). Moreover, its analysis tools are designed to be used during the flight as well to produce periodic reports on the status of the instrument. The LIFE suite has been developed using a multi-layered, cross-platform approach. It implements a number of analysis modules written in RSI IDL, each accessing the data through a portable and heavily optimized library of functions written in C and C++. One of the most important features of LIFE is its ability to run the same data analysis codes both using ground test data and real flight data as input. The LIFE software suite has been successfully used during the RCA/RAA tests and the Planck Integrated System Tests. Moreover, the software has also passed the verification for its in-flight use during the System Operations Verification Tests, held in October 2008.

  3. Planck 2015 results. VII. HFI TOI and beam processing

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, R; Aghanim, N; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bertincourt, B; Bielewicz, P; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leahy, J P; Lellouch, E; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Moreno, R; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Mottet, S; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Sauvé, A; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) has observed the full sky at six frequencies (100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz) in intensity and at four frequencies in linear polarization (100, 143, 217, and 353 GHz). In order to obtain sky maps, the time-ordered information (TOI) containing the detector and pointing samples must be processed and the angular response must be assessed. The full mission TOI is included in the Planck 2015 release. This paper describes the HFI TOI and beam processing for the 2015 release. HFI calibration and map-making are described in a companion paper. The main pipeline has been modified since the last release (2013 nominal mission in intensity only), by including a correction for the non-linearity of the warm readout and by improving the model of the bolometer time response. The beam processing is an essential tool that derives the angular response used in all the Planck science papers and we report an improvement in the effective beam window function uncertainty of more than a...

  4. Excess B-modes extracted from the Planck polarization maps

    CERN Document Server

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U

    2016-01-01

    One of the main obstacles for extracting the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from mm/submm observations is the pollution from the main Galactic components: synchrotron, free-free and thermal dust emission. The feasibility of using simple neural networks to extract CMB has been demonstrated on both temperature and polarization data obtained by the WMAP satellite. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of neural networks for extracting the CMB signal from the Planck polarization data with high precision. Both auto-correlation and cross-correlation power spectra within a mask covering about 63 percent of the sky have been used together with a 'high pass filter' in order to minimize the influence of the remaining systematic errors in the Planck Q and U maps. Using the Planck 2015 released polarization maps, a BB power spectrum have been extracted by \\textit{Multilayer Perceptron} neural networks. This spectrum contains a bright feature with signal to noise ratios $\\simeq$ 4.5 within 200 $...

  5. Inflation after False Vacuum Decay observational Prospects after Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Bousso, Raphael; Senatore, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    We assess potential signals of the formation of our universe by the decay of a false vacuum. Negative spatial curvature is one possibility, but the window for its detection is now small. However, another possible signal is a suppression of the CMB power spectrum at large angles. This arises from the steepening of the effective potential as it interpolates between a flat inflationary plateau and the high barrier separating us from our parent vacuum. We demonstrate that these two effects can be parametrically separated in angular scale. Observationally, the steepening effect appears to be excluded at large l; but it remains consistent with the slight lack of power below l about 30 found by the WMAP and Planck collaborations. We give two simple models which improve the fit to the Planck data; one with observable curvature and one without. Despite cosmic variance, we argue that future CMB polarization and most importantly large-scale structure observations should be able to corroborate the Planck anomaly if it is...

  6. Calibrating the Planck Cluster Mass Scale with CLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Penna-Lima, M; Rozo, E; Melin, J -B; Merten, J; Evrard, A E; Postman, M; Rykoff, E

    2016-01-01

    We determine the mass scale of Planck galaxy clusters using gravitational lensing mass measurements from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). We compare the lensing masses to the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) mass proxy for 21 clusters in common, employing a Bayesian analysis to simultaneously fit an idealized CLASH selection function and the distribution between the measured observables and true cluster mass. We use a tiered analysis strategy to explicitly demonstrate the importance of priors on weak lensing mass accuracy. In the case of an assumed constant bias, $b_{SZ}$, between true cluster mass, $M_{500}$, and the Planck mass proxy, $M_{PL}$, our analysis constrains $1- b_{SZ} = 0.73 \\pm 0.10$ when moderate priors on weak lensing accuracy are used. Our analyses explicitly accounts for possible selection bias effects in this calibration sourced by the CLASH selection function. Our constraint on the cluster mass scale is consistent with recent results from the Weighing the Giants p...

  7. Planck Early Results: The Early Release Compact Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Balbi, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bhatia, R; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cabella, P; Cantalupo, C M; Cappellini, B; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Cayón, L; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Dörl, U; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; En\\sslin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Fosalba, P; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Haissinski, J; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Hoyland, R J; Huffenberger, K M; Huynh, M; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knox, L; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; León-Tavares, J; Leroy, C; Lilje, P B; Linden-V\\ornle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; MacTavish, C J; Maffei, B; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mann, R; Maris, M; Marleau, F; Marshall, D J; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, A; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; N\\orgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Piffaretti, R; Plaszczynski, S; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubi\; Rusholme, B; Sajina, A; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savini, G; Schaefer, B M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, P; Smoot, G F; Starck, J -L; Stivoli, F; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Torre, J -P; Tristram, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; White, S D M; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2011-01-01

    A brief description of the methodology of construction, contents and usage of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC), including the Early Cold Cores (ECC) and the Early Sunyaev-Zeldovich (ESZ) cluster catalogue is provided. The catalogue is based on data that consists of mapping the entire sky once and 60% of the sky a second time by Planck. A Monte-Carlo algorithm based on the injection and extraction of artificial sources into the Planck maps was implemented to select reliable sources among all extracted candidates such that the cumulative reliability of the catalogue is >=90%. As a result of the Monte-Carlo assessment of the reliability of sources from different techniques, the PowellSnakes source extraction technique was used at the 5 frequencies between 30 and 143 GHz while the SExtractor technique was used between 217 and 857 GHz. The 10 sigma photometric flux density limit of the catalogue at |b|>30 deg is 0.49, 1.0, 0.67, 0.5, 0.33, 0.28, 0.25, 0.47 and 0.82 Jy at each of the nine f...

  8. Expected constraints on the Galactic magnetic field using PLANCK data

    CERN Document Server

    Fauvet, L; Jaffe, T R; Banday, A J; Désert, F -X; Santos, D

    2012-01-01

    We explore in this paper the ability to constrain the Galactic magnetic field intensity and spatial distribution with the incoming data from the Planck satellite experiment. We perform realistic simulations of the Planck observations at the polarized frequency bands from 30 to 353 GHz for two all-sky surveys as expected for the nominal mission. These simulations include CMB, synchrotron and thermal dust Galactic emissions and instrumental noise. (Note that systematic effects are not considered in this paper). For the synchrotron and thermal dust Galactic emissions we use a coherent 3D model of the Galaxy describing its mater density and the magnetic field direction and intensity. We first simulate the synchrotron and dust emissions at 408 MHz and 545 GHz, respectively, and then we extrapolate them to the Planck frequency bands. We perform a likelihood analysis to compare the simulated data to a set of models obtained by varying the pitch angle of the regular magnetic field spatial distribution, the relative a...

  9. An Efficient Numerical Approach for Nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Dustin; Vedula, Prakash

    2009-03-01

    Fokker-Planck equations which are nonlinear with respect to their probability densities that occur in many nonequilibrium systems relevant to mean field interaction models, plasmas, classical fermions and bosons can be challenging to solve numerically. To address some underlying challenges in obtaining numerical solutions, we propose a quadrature based moment method for efficient and accurate determination of transient (and stationary) solutions of nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations. In this approach the distribution function is represented as a collection of Dirac delta functions with corresponding quadrature weights and locations, that are in turn determined from constraints based on evolution of generalized moments. Properties of the distribution function can be obtained by solution of transport equations for quadrature weights and locations. We will apply this computational approach to study a wide range of problems, including the Desai-Zwanzig Model (for nonlinear muscular contraction) and multivariate nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations describing classical fermions and bosons, and will also demonstrate good agreement with results obtained from Monte Carlo and other standard numerical methods.

  10. Gravitational effects on vanishing Higgs potential at the Planck scale

    CERN Document Server

    Haba, Naoyuki; Takahashi, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Yuya

    2014-01-01

    We investigate gravitational effects on so-called multiple point criticality principle (MPCP) at the Planck scale. The MPCP requires two degenerate vacua, whose necessary conditions are expressed by vanishing Higgs quartic coupling ($\\lambda(M_{\\rm Pl})=0$) and vanishing its $\\beta$-function ($\\beta_\\lambda(M_{\\rm Pl})=0$). In order to satisfy the conditions, we find that the top pole mass and the Higgs mass should be $170.8\\,{\\rm GeV} \\lesssim M_t\\lesssim 171.7\\, {\\rm GeV}$ and $M_h=125.7\\pm0.4\\, {\\rm GeV}$, respectively, as well as suitable magnitude of gravitational effects (a coefficient of gravitational contribution as $|a_\\lambda| > 2$). In this case, however, since the Higgs quartic coupling $\\lambda$ becomes negative below the Planck scale, two vacua are not degenerate. We find that $M_h \\gtrsim 131.5\\, {\\rm GeV}$ with $M_t \\gtrsim 174\\, {\\rm GeV}$ is required by the realization of the MPCP. Therefore, the MPCP at the Planck scale cannot be realized in the SM and also the SM with gravity since $M_h \\g...

  11. Singular perturbation solutions of steady-state Poisson-Nernst-Planck systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang-Sheng; He, Dongdong; Wylie, Jonathan J; Huang, Huaxiong

    2014-02-01

    We study the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) system with an arbitrary number of ion species with arbitrary valences in the absence of fixed charges. Assuming point charges and that the Debye length is small relative to the domain size, we derive an asymptotic formula for the steady-state solution by matching outer and boundary layer solutions. The case of two ionic species has been extensively studied, the uniqueness of the solution has been proved, and an explicit expression for the solution has been obtained. However, the case of three or more ions has received significantly less attention. Previous work has indicated that the solution may be nonunique and that even obtaining numerical solutions is a difficult task since one must solve complicated systems of nonlinear equations. By adopting a methodology that preserves the symmetries of the PNP system, we show that determining the outer solution effectively reduces to solving a single scalar transcendental equation. Due to the simple form of the transcendental equation, it can be solved numerically in a straightforward manner. Our methodology thus provides a standard procedure for solving the PNP system and we illustrate this by solving some practical examples. Despite the fact that for three ions, previous studies have indicated that multiple solutions may exist, we show that all except for one of these solutions are unphysical and thereby prove the existence and uniqueness for the three-ion case.

  12. Fokker-Planck description for a linear delayed Langevin equation with additive Gaussian noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuggioli, Luca; McKetterick, Thomas John; Kenkre, V. M.; Chase, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    We construct an equivalent probability description of linear multi-delay Langevin equations subject to additive Gaussian white noise. By exploiting the time-convolutionless transform and a time variable transformation we are able to write a Fokker-Planck equation (FPE) for the 1-time and for the 2-time probability distributions valid irrespective of the regime of stability of the Langevin equations. We solve exactly the derived FPEs and analyze the aging dynamics by studying analytically the conditional probability distribution. We discuss explicitly why the initially conditioned distribution is not sufficient to describe fully out a non-Markov process as both preparation and observation times have bearing on its dynamics. As our analytic procedure can also be applied to linear Langevin equations with memory kernels, we compare the non-Markov dynamics of a one-delay system with that of a generalized Langevin equation with an exponential as well as a power law memory. Application to a generalization of the Green-Kubo formula is also presented.

  13. Millimeter and submillimeter excess emission in M 33 revealed by Planck and LABOCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermelo, I.; Relaño, M.; Lisenfeld, U.; Verley, S.; Kramer, C.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Boquien, M.; Xilouris, E. M.; Albrecht, M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Previous studies have shown the existence of an excess of emission at submillimeter (submm) and millimeter (mm) wavelengths in the spectral energy distribution (SED) of many low-metallicity galaxies. The so-called "submm excess", whose origin remains unknown, challenges our understanding of the dust properties in low-metallicity environments. Aims: The goal of the present study is to model separately the emission from the star forming (SF) component and the emission from the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) in the nearby spiral galaxy M 33 in order to determine whether both components can be well fitted using radiation transfer models or whether there is an excess of submm emission associated with one or both of them. Methods: We decomposed the observed SED of M 33 into its SF and diffuse components. Mid-infrared (MIR) and far-infrared (FIR) fluxes were extracted from Spitzer and Herschel data. At submm and mm wavelengths, we used ground-based observations from APEX to measure the emission from the SF component and data from the Planck space telescope to estimate the diffuse emission. Both components were separately fitted using radiation transfer models based on standard dust properties (i.e., emissivity index β = 2) and a realistic geometry. The large number of previous studies helped us to estimate the thermal radio emission and to constrain an important part of the input parameters of the models. Both modeled SEDs were combined to build the global SED of M 33. In addition, the radiation field necessary to power the dust emission in our modeling was compared with observations from GALEX, Sloan, and Spitzer. Results: Our modeling is able to reproduce the observations at MIR and FIR wavelengths, but we found a strong excess of emission at submm and mm wavelengths where the model expectations severely underestimate the LABOCA and Planck fluxes. We also found that the ultraviolet (UV) radiation escaping the galaxy is 70% higher than the model predictions

  14. Planck intermediate results: II. Comparison of sunyaev-zeldovich measurements from planck and from the arcminute microkelvin imager for 11 galaxy clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.;

    2013-01-01

    , there is a tendency for AMI to find the Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal to be smaller in angular size and fainter than Planck. Significant discrepancies exist for the three remaining clusters in the sample, namely A1413, A1914, and the newly-discovered Planck cluster PLCKESZ G139.59+24.18. The robustness of the analysis...

  15. Gravitational radiation resistance, radiation damping and field fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, G.

    1981-03-01

    Application is made of two different generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorems and their derivations to the calculation of the gravitational quadrupole radiation resistance using the radiation-reaction force given by Misner, Thorne and Wheeler and the usual tidal force on one hand and the tidal force and the free gravitational radiation field on the other hand. The quantum-mechanical version (including thermal generalizations) of the well known classical quadrupole radiation damping formula is obtained as a function of the radiation resistance.

  16. Planck 2013 results. XXI. Power spectrum and high-order statistics of the Planck all-sky Compton parameter map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed the first all-sky map of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 100 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck survey. This map shows an obvious galaxy cluster tSZ signal that is well matched...... with blindly detected clusters in the Planck SZ catalogue. To characterize the signal in the tSZ map we have computed its angular power spectrum. At large angular scales (l thermal dust emission. At small angular scales (l > 500) the clustered cosmic......-Gaussianity of the Compton parameter map is further characterized by computing its 1D probability distribution function and its bispectrum. The measured tSZ power spectrum and high order statistics are used to place constraints on sigma(8)....

  17. Planck intermediate results. VIII. Filaments between interacting clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, J. G. Bartlett E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bikmaev, I.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bourdin, H.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Comis, B.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Démoclès, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, T.; Giard, M.; Gilfanov, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Hempel, A.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jagemann, T.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Khamitov, I.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Luzzi, G.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Marshall, D. J.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Mei, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschènes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Piffaretti, R.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Scott, D.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Valenziano, L.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Welikala, N.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2013-02-01

    Context. About half of the baryons of the Universe are expected to be in the form of filaments of hot and low-density intergalactic medium. Most of these baryons remain undetected even by the most advanced X-ray observatories, which are limited in sensitivity to the diffuse low-density medium. Aims: The Planck satellite has provided hundreds of detections of the hot gas in clusters of galaxies via the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect and is an ideal instrument for studying extended low-density media through the tSZ effect. In this paper we use the Planck data to search for signatures of a fraction of these missing baryons between pairs of galaxy clusters. Methods: Cluster pairs are good candidates for searching for the hotter and denser phase of the intergalactic medium (which is more easily observed through the SZ effect). Using an X-ray catalogue of clusters and the Planck data, we selected physical pairs of clusters as candidates. Using the Planck data, we constructed a local map of the tSZ effect centred on each pair of galaxy clusters. ROSAT data were used to construct X-ray maps of these pairs. After modelling and subtracting the tSZ effect and X-ray emission for each cluster in the pair, we studied the residuals on both the SZ and X-ray maps. Results: For the merging cluster pair A399-A401 we observe a significant tSZ effect signal in the intercluster region beyond the virial radii of the clusters. A joint X-ray SZ analysis allows us to constrain the temperature and density of this intercluster medium. We obtain a temperature of kT = 7.1 ± 0.9 keV (consistent with previous estimates) and a baryon density of (3.7 ± 0.2) × 10-4 cm-3. Conclusions: The Planck satellite mission has provided the first SZ detection of the hot and diffuse intercluster gas.

  18. Universal Property of Quantum Gravity implied by Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy and Boltzmann formula

    CERN Document Server

    Saida, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    We search for a universal property of quantum gravity. By "universal", we mean the independence from any existing model of quantum gravity (such as the super string theory, loop quantum gravity, causal dynamical triangulation, and so on). To do so, we try to put the basis of our discussion on theories established by some experiments. Thus, we focus our attention on thermodynamical and statistical-mechanical basis of the black hole thermodynamics: Let us assume that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is given by the Boltzmann formula applied to the underlying theory of quantum gravity. Under this assumption, the conditions justifying Boltzmann formula together with uniqueness of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy imply a reasonable universal property of quantum gravity. The universal property indicates a repulsive gravity at Planck length scale, otherwise stationary black holes can not be regarded as thermal equilibrium states of gravity. Further, in semi-classical level, we discuss a possible correction of Einstein equat...

  19. New supplements to infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach Adiv, Orly; Berant, Moshe; Shamir, Raanan

    2004-12-01

    Foods, which, in addition to their nutritional attributes, contain also elements that are considered to be health-promoting, have been termed "functional foods". In this regard, human milk has gained recognition as being the ultimate functional food for infants - by its biological compatibility, nutritional value and the undisputed added value of its health promoting qualities. Intensive research activity has recently evolved in a quest to identify and define the components of human milk that might confer disease-preventing and health-enhancing properties and to determine the instances and clinical conditions in which these factors become particularly important. The outcome of such research would also provide a rationale for advocating the supplementation of commercial infant formulas with such substances. In effect, the body of data accumulated from scientific and clinical studies on nucleotides, probiotics, prebiotics and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk and as additives to infant formula, has become regarded as convincing enough by the infant formula industry so as to launch into the market formulas supplemented with one or more of these factors - in an effort to emulate human milk and its beneficial effects. The following review is intended for the reader to obtain a general idea of the new supplements that have been introduced to infant formulas. We summarize the pertinent experimental and clinical observations concerning each of the supplements, pointing out their potential specific benefits, their possible disadvantages and the issues that still remain unresolved.

  20. Derivation and implementation of the boundary integral formula for the convective acoustic wave equation in time domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Woo; Lee, Duck Joo

    2014-12-01

    Kirchhoff's formula for the convective wave equation is derived using the generalized function theory. The generalized convective wave equation for a stationary surface is obtained, and the integral formulation, the convective Kirchhoff's formula, is derived. The formula has a similar form to the classical Kirchhoff's formula, but an additional term appears due to a moving medium effect. For convenience, the additional term is manipulated to a final form as the classical Kirchhoff's formula. The frequency domain boundary integral can be obtained from the current time domain boundary integral form. The derived formula is verified by comparison with the analytic solution of source in the uniform flow. The formula is also utilized as a boundary integral equation. Time domain boundary element method (BEM) analysis using the boundary integral equation is conducted, and the results show good agreement with the analytical solution. The formula derived here can be useful for sound radiation and scattering by arbitrary bodies in a moving medium in the time domain.

  1. Positive Formulas in Intuitionistic and Minimal Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, D.; Zhao, Z.; Aher, M.; Hole, D.; Jeřábek, E.; Kupke, C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate the positive, i.e. ¬,⊥-free formulas of intuitionistic propositional and predicate logic, IPC and IQC, and minimal logic, MPC and MQC. For each formula φ of IQC we define the positive formula φ+ that represents the positive content of φ. The formulas φ and φ+ exhibit t

  2. Two Notes on Numerical Differentiation Formulae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Hua-sheng

    2012-01-01

    Some new conclusions on asymptotic properties and inverse problems of numerical differentiation formulae have been drawn in this paper.In the first place,several asymptotic properties of intermediate points of numerical differentiation formulae are presented by using Taylor's formula.And then,based on the ideas of algebraic accuracy,several inverse problems of numerical differentiation formulae are given.

  3. The Formula of Plague Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2015-01-01

    The article is a narratological investigation of a selection of plague tales. The selection spans millennia and different text types, technologies and genres, from The Bible to apocalyptical films, iPhone games and testimonials from Médecins Sans Frontières. The research question is whether...... it is possible to establish a stable formula for plague narratives despite the spread over centuries and in different text types, and to explain this formula and possible variations of it. The initial and tentative hypothesis is that a formulaic narrative structure exists for accounts, both documentary...... and fictional, of epidemics. The samples include: Exodus, History of the Peloponnesian War, Samuel Pepys’ Diary, A Journal of the Plague Year, The Last Man, The Plague in Bergamo, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, Doomsday, The Dead Zone, World War Z. An Oral History of the Zombie War, Pandemic...

  4. The XMM Cluster Survey: Predicted overlap with the Planck Cluster Catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Viana, Pedro T P; Ramos, Elsa P R G; Liddle, Andrew R; Lloyd-Davies, E J; Romer, A Kathy; Kay, Scott T; Collins, Chris A; Hilton, Matt; Hosmer, Mark; Hoyle, Ben; Mehrtens, Nicola; Miller, Christopher J; Sahlén, Martin; Stanford, S Adam; Stott, John P

    2011-01-01

    We present a list of 15 clusters of galaxies, serendipitously detected by the XMM Cluster Survey (XCS), that have a high probability of detection by the Planck Surveyor satellite. Three of them already appear in the Planck Early Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (ESZ) catalogue. The estimation of the Planck detection probability assumes the flat {\\Lambda}CDM cosmology most compatible with WMAP-7 data. It takes into account the XCS selection function and Planck sensitivity, as well as the covariance of the cluster X-ray luminosity, temperature, and integrated comptonization parameter, as a function of cluster mass and redshift, determined by the Millennium Gas Simulations. We also characterise the properties of the galaxy clusters in the final data release of the XCS that we expect Planck will have detected by the end of its extended mission. Finally, we briefly discuss possible joint applications of the XCS and Planck data.

  5. On corrected formula for irradiated graphene quantum conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsova, N. E.

    2017-09-01

    Graphene membrane irradiated by weak activating periodic electric field in terahertz range is considered. The corrected formula for the graphene quantum conductivity is found. The obtained formula gives complex conjugate results when radiation polarization direction is clockwise or it is opposite clockwise. The found formula allows us to see that the graphene membrane is an oscillating contour. Its eigen frequency coincides with a singularity point of the conductivity and depends on the electrons concentration. So the graphene membrane could be used as an antenna or a transistor and its eigen frequency could be tuned by doping in a large terahertz-infrared frequency range. The obtained formula allows us also to calculate the graphene membrane quantum inductivity and capacitance. The found dependence on electrons concentration is consistent with experiments. The method of the proof is based on study of the time-dependent density matrix. The exact solution of von Neumann equation for density matrix is found for our case in linear approximation on the external field. On this basis the induced current is studied and then the formula for quantum conductivity as a function of external field frequency and temperature is obtained. The method of the proof suggested in this paper could be used to study other problems. The found formula for quantum conductivity can be used to correct the SPPs Dispersion Relation and for the description of radiation process. It would be useful to take the obtained results into account when constructing devices containing graphene membrane nanoantenna. Such project could make it possible to create wireless communications among nanosystems. This would be promising research area of energy harvesting applications.

  6. Reasoning on Schemata of Formulae

    CERN Document Server

    Echenim, Mnacho

    2012-01-01

    A logic is presented for reasoning on iterated sequences of formulae over some given base language. The considered sequences, or "schemata", are defined inductively, on some algebraic structure (for instance the natural numbers, the lists, the trees etc.). A proof procedure is proposed to relate the satisfiability problem for schemata to that of finite disjunctions of base formulae. It is shown that this procedure is sound, complete and terminating, hence the basic computational properties of the base language can be carried over to schemata.

  7. CHY formulae in 4d

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a rather general way to reduce integrands with polarisation involved in the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulae, such as the reduced Pfaffian and its compactification, as well as the new object for F3 amplitude. We prove that the reduced Pfaffian vanishes unless on a certain set of solutions. It leads us to build up the 4d CHY formulae using spinors, which strains off many useless solutions. The supersymmetrization is straightforward and may provide a hint to understanding ambitwistor string in 4d.

  8. Geometric formula for prism deflection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Apoorva G Wagh; Veer Chand Rakhecha

    2004-08-01

    While studying neutron deflections produced by a magnetic prism, we have stumbled upon a simple `geometric' formula. For a prism of refractive index close to unity, the deflection simply equals the product of the refractive power − 1 and the base-to-height ratio of the prism, regardless of the apex angle. The base and height of the prism are measured respectively along and perpendicular to the direction of beam propagation within the prism. The geometric formula greatly simplifies the optimisation of prism parameters to suit any specific experiment.

  9. Cubature formulas on combinatorial graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Pesenson, Isaac Z

    2011-01-01

    Many contemporary applications, for example, cataloging of galaxies, document analysis, face recognition, learning theory, image processing, operate with a large amount of data which is often represented as a graph embedded into a high dimensional Euclidean space. The variety of problems arising in contemporary data processing requires development on graphs such topics of the classical harmonic analysis as Shannon sampling, splines, wavelets, cubature formulas. The goal of the paper is to establish cubature formulas on finite combinatorial graphs. The results have direct applications to problems that arise in connection with data filtering, data denoising and data dimension reduction.

  10. Exact solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation from an nth order supersymmetric quantum mechanics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, IPN, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: xbataxel@gmail.com; Rivas, Jesus Morales [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco, CBI - Area de Fisica Atomica Molecular Aplicada, Av. San Pablo 180, Reynosa Azcapotzalco, 02200 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: jmr@correo.azc.uam.mx; Pena Gil, Jose Juan [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco, CBI - Area de Fisica Atomica Molecular Aplicada, Av. San Pablo 180, Reynosa Azcapotzalco, 02200 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: jjpg@correo.azc.uam.mx; Garcia-Ravelo, Jesus [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, IPN, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: ravelo@esfm.ipn.mx; Roy, Pinaki [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta-700108 (India)], E-mail: pinaki@isical.ac.in

    2009-04-20

    We generalize the formalism of nth order Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics (n-SUSY) to the Fokker-Planck equation for constant diffusion coefficient and stationary drift potential. The SUSY partner drift potentials and the corresponding solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation are given explicitly. As an application, we generate new solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation by means of our first- and second-order transformation.

  11. Millimeter and Submillimeter Excess Emission in M33 revealed by Planck and LABOCA

    CERN Document Server

    Hermelo, I; Lisenfeld, U; Verley, S; Kramer, C; Ruiz-Lara, T; Boquien, M; Xilouris, E M; Albrecht, M

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the existence of an excess of emission at submillimeter (submm) and millimeter (mm) wavelengths in the spectral energy distribution (SED) of many low-metallicity galaxies. The goal of the present study is to model separately the emission from the star forming (SF) component and the emission from the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) in the nearby spiral galaxy M33. We decomposed the observed SED of M33 into its SF and diffuse components. Mid-infrared (MIR) and far-infrared (FIR) fluxes were extracted from Spitzer and Herschel data. At submm and mm wavelengths, we used ground-based observations from APEX to measure the emission from the SF component and data from the Planck space telescope to estimate the diffuse emission. Both components were separately fitted using radiation transfer models based on standard dust properties and a realistic geometry. Both modeled SEDs were combined to build the global SED of M33. In addition, the radiation field necessary to power the dust emission...

  12. Planck Early Results: New Light on Anomalous Microwave Emission from Spinning Dust Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Balbi, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bhatia, R; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cabella, P; Cappellini, B; Cardoso, J -F; Casassus, S; Catalano, A; Cayón, L; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Gasperis, G; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Dickinson, C; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Dörl, U; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; En\\sslin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hovest, W; Hoyland, R J; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knox, L; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leonardi, R; Lilje, P B; Linden-V\\ornle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; MacTavish, C J; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mann, R; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, A; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; N\\orgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Plaszczynski, S; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Poutanen, T; Prézeau, G; Procopio, P; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reich, W; Reinecke, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubi\; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, P; Smoot, G F; Starck, J -L; Stivoli, F; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Torre, J -P; Tristram, M; Tuovinen, J; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Varis, J; Verstraete, L; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wilkinson, A; Ysard, N; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2011-01-01

    Anomalous microwave emission (AME) has been observed by numerous experiments in the frequency range ~10-60 GHz. Using Planck maps and multi-frequency ancillary data, we have constructed spectra for two known AME regions: the Perseus and Rho Ophiuchus molecular clouds. The spectra are well fitted by a combination of free-free radiation, cosmic microwave background, thermal dust, and electric dipole radiation from small spinning dust grains. The spinning dust spectra are the most precisely measured to date, and show the high frequency side clearly for the first time. The spectra have a peak in the range 20-40 GHz and are detected at high significances of 17.1sigma and 10.4sigma, respectively. In Perseus, spinning dust in the dense molecular gas can account for most of the AME; the low density neutral gas appears to play a minor role. In Rho Ophiuchus, the ~30 GHz peak is dominated by dense molecular gas, but there is an indication of an extended tail at frequencies 50-100 GHz, which can be accounted for by irra...

  13. Joint analysis of BICEP2/keck array and Planck Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, P A R; Aghanim, N; Ahmed, Z; Aikin, R W; Alexander, K D; Arnaud, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barkats, D; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Benton, S J; Bernard, J-P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bischoff, C A; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Brevik, J A; Bucher, M; Buder, I; Bullock, E; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Buza, V; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J-F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chary, R-R; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Connors, J; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J-M; Désert, F-X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dowell, C D; Duband, L; Ducout, A; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Dvorkin, C; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Filippini, J P; Finelli, F; Fliescher, S; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Gjerløw, E; Golwala, S R; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Halpern, M; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Hasselfield, M; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hilton, G C; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hovest, W; Hristov, V V; Huffenberger, K M; Hui, H; Hurier, G; Irwin, K D; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Karakci, A; Karkare, K S; Kaufman, J P; Keating, B G; Kefeli, S; Keihänen, E; Kernasovskiy, S A; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kovac, J M; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kuo, C L; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J-M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leitch, E M; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Lewis, A; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Lueker, M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Mason, P; Matarrese, S; Megerian, K G; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M-A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nguyen, H T; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Brient, R; Ogburn, R W; Orlando, A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Pryke, C; Puget, J-L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Richter, S; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Schwarz, R; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Sheehy, C D; Spencer, L D; Staniszewski, Z K; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A-S; Sygnet, J-F; Tauber, J A; Teply, G P; Terenzi, L; Thompson, K L; Toffolatti, L; Tolan, J E; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Turner, A D; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vibert, L; Vielva, P; Vieregg, A G; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Weber, A C; Wehus, I K; White, M; White, S D M; Willmert, J; Wong, C L; Yoon, K W; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-03-13

    We report the results of a joint analysis of data from BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck. BICEP2 and Keck Array have observed the same approximately 400  deg^{2} patch of sky centered on RA 0 h, Dec. -57.5°. The combined maps reach a depth of 57 nK deg in Stokes Q and U in a band centered at 150 GHz. Planck has observed the full sky in polarization at seven frequencies from 30 to 353 GHz, but much less deeply in any given region (1.2  μK deg in Q and U at 143 GHz). We detect 150×353 cross-correlation in B modes at high significance. We fit the single- and cross-frequency power spectra at frequencies ≥150  GHz to a lensed-ΛCDM model that includes dust and a possible contribution from inflationary gravitational waves (as parametrized by the tensor-to-scalar ratio r), using a prior on the frequency spectral behavior of polarized dust emission from previous Planck analysis of other regions of the sky. We find strong evidence for dust and no statistically significant evidence for tensor modes. We probe various model variations and extensions, including adding a synchrotron component in combination with lower frequency data, and find that these make little difference to the r constraint. Finally, we present an alternative analysis which is similar to a map-based cleaning of the dust contribution, and show that this gives similar constraints. The final result is expressed as a likelihood curve for r, and yields an upper limit r_{0.05}<0.12 at 95% confidence. Marginalizing over dust and r, lensing B modes are detected at 7.0σ significance.

  14. Planck focal plane instruments: advanced modelization and combined analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonca, Andrea; Mennella, Aniello

    2012-08-01

    This thesis is the result of my work as research fellow at IASF-MI, Milan section of the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, part of INAF, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica. This work started in January 2006 in the context of the PhD school program in Astrophysics held at the Physics Department of Universita' degli Studi di Milano under the supervision of Aniello Mennella. The main topic of my work is the software modelling of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers. The LFI is one of the two instruments on-board the European Space Agency Planck Mission for high precision measurements of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). I was also selected to participate at the International Doctorate in Antiparticles Physics, IDAPP. IDAPP is funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR) and coordinated by Giovanni Fiorentini (Universita' di Ferrara) with the objective of supporting the growing collaboration between the Astrophysics and Particles Physics communities. It is an international program in collaboration with the Paris PhD school, involving Paris VI, VII and XI Universities, leading to a double French-Italian doctoral degree title. My work was performed with the co-tutoring of Jean-Michel Lamarre, Instrument Scientist of the High Frequency Instrument (HFI), the bolometric instrument on-board Planck. Thanks to this collaboration I had the opportunity to work with the HFI team for four months at the Paris Observatory, so that the focus of my activity was broadened and included the study of cross-correlation between HFI and LFI data. Planck is the first CMB mission to have on-board the same satellite very different detection technologies, which is a key element for controlling systematic effects and improve measurements quality.

  15. 论宇宙五大力的计算公式%Discussion on the Computational Formulas of Five Forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王根喜

    2012-01-01

    通过三联数字宇宙模型提出两条基本假设:普朗克力为宇宙的大统一力,引力子运动的速度为反速度,在此两条假设的基础上推导出宇宙中普朗克力、强力、弱力、引力及电磁力的计算公式.%Two basic assumptions are proposed trough the triple digital universe model: the Planck force is the grand unified force of the universe and the speed of the graviton movement is the anti-speed, on the basis of two assumptions, computational formulas of Planck force, strong force, weak force, gravity and electromagnetic force in universe are derived.

  16. Fundamental formulae for wave-energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falnes, Johannes; Kurniawan, Adi

    2015-03-01

    The time-average wave power that is absorbed from an incident wave by means of a wave-energy conversion (WEC) unit, or by an array of WEC units-i.e. oscillating immersed bodies and/or oscillating water columns (OWCs)-may be mathematically expressed in terms of the WEC units' complex oscillation amplitudes, or in terms of the generated outgoing (diffracted plus radiated) waves, or alternatively, in terms of the radiated waves alone. Following recent controversy, the corresponding three optional expressions are derived, compared and discussed in this paper. They all provide the correct time-average absorbed power. However, only the first-mentioned expression is applicable to quantify the instantaneous absorbed wave power and the associated reactive power. In this connection, new formulae are derived that relate the 'added-mass' matrix, as well as a couple of additional reactive radiation-parameter matrices, to the difference between kinetic energy and potential energy in the water surrounding the immersed oscillating WEC array. Further, a complex collective oscillation amplitude is introduced, which makes it possible to derive, by a very simple algebraic method, various simple expressions for the maximum time-average wave power that may be absorbed by the WEC array. The real-valued time-average absorbed power is illustrated as an axisymmetric paraboloid defined on the complex collective-amplitude plane. This is a simple illustration of the so-called 'fundamental theorem for wave power'. Finally, the paper also presents a new derivation that extends a recently published result on the direction-average maximum absorbed wave power to cases where the WEC array's radiation damping matrix may be singular and where the WEC array may contain OWCs in addition to oscillating bodies.

  17. Planck revealed bulk motion of Centaurus A lobes

    CERN Document Server

    De Paolis, F; Nucita, A A; Ingrosso, G; Kashin, A L; Khachatryan, H G; Mirzoyan, S; Yegorian, G; Jetzer, Ph; Qadir, A; Vetrugno, D

    2015-01-01

    Planck data towards the active galaxy Centaurus A are analyzed in the 70, 100 and 143 GHz bands. We find a temperature asymmetry of the northern radio lobe with respect to the southern one that clearly extends at least up to 5 degrees from the Cen A center and diminishes towards the outer regions of the lobes. That transparent parameter - the temperature asymmetry - thus has to carry a principal information, i.e. indication on the line-of-sight bulk motion of the lobes, while the increase of that asymmetry at smaller radii reveals the differential dynamics of the lobes as expected at ejections from the center.

  18. Planck 2015 results. II. Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Ballardini, M; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Basak, S; Battaglia, P; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Castex, G; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Christensen, P R; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschet, C; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; Lindholm, V; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oppermann, N; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renzi, A; Rocha, G; Romelli, E; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vassallo, T; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    We present an updated description of the Planck Low Frequency (LFI) data processing pipeline, associated with the 2015 data release. We point out the places in which our results and methods have remained unchanged since the 2013 paper and we highlight the changes made for the 2015 release, describing the products (especially timelines) and the ways in which they were obtained. We demonstrate that the pipeline is self-consistent (principally based on simulations) and report all null tests. We refer to other related papers where more detailed descriptions on the LFI data processing pipeline may be found if needed.

  19. Planck-scale effects on WIMP dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane M Boucenna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There exists a widely known conjecture that gravitational effects violate global symmetries. We study the effect of global-symmetry violating higher-dimension operators induced by Planck-scale physics on the properties of WIMP dark matter. Using an effective description, we show that the lifetime of the WIMP dark matter candidate can satisfy cosmological bounds under reasonable assumptions regarding the strength of the dimension-five operators. On the other hand, the indirect WIMP dark matter detection signal is significantly enhanced due to new decay channels.

  20. Tree Level Potential on Brane after Planck and BICEP2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Ferricha-Alami; A. Safsafi; L. Lahlou; H. Chakir; M. Bennai

    2015-06-01

    The recent detection of degree scale B-mode polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) by the BICEP2 experiment implies that the inflationary ratio of tensor-to-scalar fluctuations is = 0.2$^{+0.07}_{-0.05}$, which has opened a new window in the cosmological investigation. In this regard, we propose a study of the tree level potential inflation in the framework of the Randall–Sundrum type-2 braneworld model. We focus on three branches of the potential, where we evaluate some values of brane tension . We discuss how the various inflationary perturbation parameters can be compatible with recent Planck and BICEP2 observations.

  1. Planck 2015 results. XIV. Dark energy and modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marchini, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martinelli, M.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Salvatelli, V.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    We study the implications of Planck data for models of dark energy (DE) and modified gravity (MG) beyond the standard cosmological constant scenario. We start with cases where the DE only directly affects the background evolution, considering Taylor expansions of the equation of state w(a), as well as principal component analysis and parameterizations related to the potential of a minimally coupled DE scalar field. When estimating the density of DE at early times, we significantly improve present constraints and find that it has to be below ~2% (at 95% confidence) of the critical density, even when forced to play a role for z CMB lensing.

  2. Cryogenic environment and performance for testing the Planck radiometers

    CERN Document Server

    Terenzi, L; Laaninen, M; Battaglia, P; Cavaliere, F; De Rosa, A; Hughes, N; Jukkala, P; Kilpiä, V -H; Morgante, G; Tomasi, M; Varis, J; Bersanelli, M; Butler, R C; Ferrari, F; Franceschet, C; Leutenegger, P; Mandolesi, N; Mennella, A; Silvestri, R; Stringhetti, L; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Villa, F; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12015

    2010-01-01

    This paper is part of the Prelaunch status LFI papers published on JINST: http://www.iop.org/EJ/journal/-page=extra.proc5/jinst The Planck LFI Radiometer Chain Assemblies (RCAs) have been calibrated in two dedicated cryogenic facilities. In this paper the facilities and the related instrumentation are described. The main satellite thermal interfaces for the single chains have to be reproduced and stability requirements have to be satisfied. Setup design, problems occurred and improving solutions implemented are discussed. Performance of the cryogenic setup are reported.

  3. Planck 2013 results. XVIII. Gravitational lensing-infrared background correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    The multi-frequency capability of the Planck satellite provides information both on the integrated history of star formation (via the cosmic infrared background, or CIB) and on the distribution of dark matter (via the lensing effect on the cosmic microwave background, or CMB). The conjunction of these two unique probes allows us to measure directly the connection between dark and luminous matter in the high redshift (1 1. We measure directly the SFR density with around 2 sigma significance for three redshift bins between z=1 and 7, thus opening a new window into the study of the formation of stars at early times.

  4. Planck-scale gravity test at PETRA. Letter of intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharibyan, V.; Balewski, K.

    2016-02-15

    Quantum or torsion gravity models predict unusual properties of space- time at very short distances. In particular, near the Planck length, around 10{sup -35} m, empty space may behave as a crystal, singly or doubly refractive. This hypothesis, however, remains uncheckable for any direct measurement since the smallest distance accessible in experiment is about 10{sup -19} m at the LHC. Here we propose a laboratory test to measure space birefringence or refractivity induced by gravity. A sensitivity 10{sup -31} m for doubly and 10{sup -28} m for singly refractive vacuum could be reached with PETRA 6 GeV beam exploring UV laser Compton scattering.

  5. Planck 2015 results. IX. Diffuse component separation: CMB maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Casaponsa, B.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    We present foreground-reduced cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz, and by 1.9 for frequencies between 100 and 857 GHz. In addition, systematic errors in the forms of temperature-to-polarization leakage, analogue-to-digital conversion uncertainties, and very long time constant errors have been dramatically reduced, to the extent that the cosmological polarization signal may now be robustly recovered on angular scales ℓ ≳ 40. On the very largest scales, instrumental systematic residuals are still non-negligible compared to the expected cosmological signal, and modes with ℓ< 20 are accordingly suppressed in the current polarization maps by high-pass filtering. As in 2013, four different CMB component separation algorithms are applied to these observations, providing a measure of stability with respect to algorithmic and modelling choices. The resulting polarization maps have rms instrumental noise ranging between 0.21 and 0.27μK averaged over 55' pixels, and between 4.5 and 6.1μK averaged over 3.4 parcm pixels. The cosmological parameters derived from the analysis of temperature power spectra are in agreement at the 1σ level with the Planck 2015 likelihood. Unresolved mismatches between the noise properties of the data and simulations prevent a satisfactory description of the higher-order statistical properties of the polarization maps. Thus, the primary applications of these polarization maps are those that do not require massive simulations for accurate estimation of uncertainties, for instance estimation of cross-spectra and cross-correlations, or stacking analyses. However, the amplitude of primordial non-Gaussianity is consistent with zero within 2σ for all local, equilateral, and orthogonal configurations of the bispectrum

  6. A Fractional Fokker-Planck Model for Anomalous Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    anderson, Johan; Moradi, Sara

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of anomalous diffusion using a Fokker-Planck description with fractional velocity derivatives. The distribution functions are found using numerical means for varying degree of fractionality observing the transition from a Gaussian distribution to a L\\'evy distribution. The statistical properties of the distribution functions are assessed by a generalized expectation measure and entropy in terms of Tsallis statistical mechanics. We find that the ratio of the generalized entropy and expectation is increasing with decreasing fractionality towards the well known so-called sub-diffusive domain, indicating a self-organising behavior.

  7. Is there a new physics between electroweak and Planck scales?

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2007-01-01

    We argue that there may be no intermediate particle physics energy scale between the Planck mass $M_{Pl}\\sim 10^{19}$ GeV and the electroweak scale $M_W \\sim 100$ GeV. At the same time, the number of problems of the Standard Model (neutrino masses and oscillations, dark matter, baryon asymmetry of the Universe, strong CP-problem, gauge coupling unification, inflation) could find their solution at $M_{Pl}$ or $M_W$. The crucial experimental predictions of this point of view are outlined.

  8. Planck-scale gravity test at PETRA -- Letter of Intent

    CERN Document Server

    Gharibyan, Vahagn

    2016-01-01

    Quantum or torsion gravity models predict unusual properties of space-time at very short distances. In particular, near the Planck length, around $10^{-35}m$, empty space may behave as a crystal, singly or doubly refractive. This hypothesis, however, remains uncheckable for any direct measurement since the smallest distance accessible in experiment is about $10^{-19}m$ at the LHC. Here we propose a laboratory test to measure space birefringence or refractivity induced by gravity. A sensitivity $10^{-31}m$ for doubly and $10^{-28}m$ for singly refractive vacuum could be reached with PETRA 6 GeV beam exploring UV laser Compton scattering.

  9. Variable Cosmological Constant as a Planck Scale Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, I L; Espana-Bonet, C; Ruiz-Lapuente, P; Shapiro, Ilya L.; Sola, Joan; Espana-Bonet, Cristina; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar

    2003-01-01

    We construct a semiclassical FLRW cosmological model assuming a running cosmological constant (CC). It turns out that the CC becomes variable at arbitrarily low energies due to the remnant quantum effects of the heaviest particles, e.g. the Planck scale physics. These effects are universal in the sense that they lead to a low-energy structure common to a large class of high-energy theories. Remarkably, the uncertainty concerning the unknown high-energy dynamics is accumulated into a single parameter \

  10. Developing the Vertex Formula Meaningfully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebesniak, Amy L.; Burgoa, A. Aaron

    2015-01-01

    As teachers working with students in entry-level algebra classes, authors Amy Nebesniak and A. Aaron Burgoa realized that their instruction was a major factor in how their students viewed mathematics. They often presented students with abstract formulas that seemed to appear out of thin air. One instance occurred while they were teaching students…

  11. Recurrence Formulas for Fibonacci Sums

    CERN Document Server

    Brandao, Adilson J V

    2008-01-01

    In this article we present a new recurrence formula for a finite sum involving the Fibonacci sequence. Furthermore, we state an algorithm to compute the sum of a power series related to Fibonacci series, without the use of term-by-term differentiation theorem

  12. Design Formulas for VUV and X-Ray FELs

    CERN Document Server

    Saldin, Evgeny L; Yurkov, Mikhail V

    2004-01-01

    Simple formulas for optimization of VUV and X-ray SASE FELs are presented. The FEL gain length and the optimal beta-function are explicitly expressed in terms of the electron beam and undulator parameters. The FEL saturation length is estimated taking into account energy diffusion due to quantum fluctuations of the undulator radiation. Examples of the FEL optimization are given. Parameters of a SASE FEL, operating at the Compton wavelength, are suggested.

  13. Gravitational radiation from a rotating magnetic dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Hacyan, Shahen

    2016-01-01

    The gravitational radiation emitted by a rotating magnetic dipole is calculated. Formulas for the polarization amplitudes and the radiated power are obtained in closed forms, considering both the near and radiation zones of the dipole. For a neutron star, a comparison is made with other sources of gravitational and electromagnetic radiation.

  14. Planck intermediate results XXIII. Galactic plane emission components derived from Planck with ancillary data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2015-01-01

    Planck data when combined with ancillary data provide a unique opportunity to separate the diuse emission components of the inner Galaxy.The purpose of the paper is to elucidate the morphology of the various emission components in the strong star-formation region lying inside thesolar radius...... 100 pc. Thenarrow synchrotron component has a low-frequency brightness spectral index β synch ≈-2.7 that is similar to the broad synchrotron componentindicating that they are both populated by the cosmic ray electrons of the same spectral index. The width of this narrow synchrotron component...

  15. Linear analysis of the momentum cooling Fokker-Planck equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenzweig, J.B.

    1989-05-04

    In order to optimize the extraction scheme used to take antiprotons out of the accumulator, it is necessary to understand the basic processes involved. At present, six antiproton bunches per Tevatron store are removed sequentially by RF unstacking from the accumulator. The phase space dynamics of this process, with its accompanying phase displacement deceleration and phase space dilution of portions of the stack, can be modelled by numerical solution of the longitudinal equations of motion for a large number of particles. We have employed the tracking code ESME for this purpose. In between RF extractions, however, the stochastic cooling system is turned on for a short time, and we must take into account the effect of momentum stochastic cooling on the antiproton energy spectrum. This process is described by the Fokker-Planck equation, which models the evolution of the antiproton stack energy distribution by accounting for the cooling through an applied coherent drag force and the competing heating of the stack due to diffusion, which can arise from intra-beam scattering, amplifier noise and coherent (Schottky) effects. In this note we examine the aspects of the Fokker-Planck in the regime where the nonlinear terms due to Schottky effects are small. This discussion ultimately leads to solution of the equation in terms of an orthonormal set of functions which are closely related to the quantum simple-harmonic oscillator wave-functions. 5 refs.

  16. PRISM: Recovery of the primordial spectrum from Planck data

    CERN Document Server

    Lanusse, F; Starck, J -L; Sureau, F; Bobin, J

    2014-01-01

    The primordial power spectrum describes the initial perturbations that seeded the large-scale structure we observe today. It provides an indirect probe of inflation or other structure-formation mechanisms. In this letter, using our recently published PRISM algorithm, we recover the primordial power spectrum from Planck PR1 dataset. PRISM is a sparsity-based inversion method, which aims at recovering features in the primordial power spectrum from the empirical power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The ill-posed inverse problem involved is regularised using a sparsity prior on features in the primordial power spectrum in a wavelet dictionary. Although this non-parametric method does not assume a strong prior on the shape of the primordial power spectrum, it is able to recover both its global shape and localised features. As a results, this approach presents a robust way of detecting deviations from the currently favoured scale-invariant spectrum. We apply PRISM to 100 Planck simulated data to...

  17. Planck intermediate results. XXIV. Constraints on variation of fundamental constants

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Dore, O.; Dupac, X.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fabre, O.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prunet, S.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roudier, G.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Uzan, J.P.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2015-01-01

    Any variation of the fundamental physical constants, and more particularly of the fine structure constant, $\\alpha$, or of the mass of the electron, $m_e$, would affect the recombination history of the Universe and cause an imprint on the cosmic microwave background angular power spectra. We show that the Planck data allow one to improve the constraint on the time variation of the fine structure constant at redshift $z\\sim 10^3$ by about a factor of 5 compared to WMAP data, as well as to break the degeneracy with the Hubble constant, $H_0$. In addition to $\\alpha$, we can set a constraint on the variation of the mass of the electron, $m_{\\rm e}$, and on the simultaneous variation of the two constants. We examine in detail the degeneracies between fundamental constants and the cosmological parameters, in order to compare the limits obtained from Planck and WMAP and to determine the constraining power gained by including other cosmological probes. We conclude that independent time variations of the fine structu...

  18. Planck 2015 results. XIX. Constraints on primordial magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Chluba, J.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Florido, E.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shiraishi, M.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-01-01

    We predict and investigate four types of imprint of a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies: the impact of PMFs on the CMB spectra; the effect on CMB polarization induced by Faraday rotation; magnetically-induced non-Gaussianities; and the magnetically-induced breaking of statistical isotropy. Overall, Planck data constrain the amplitude of PMFs to less than a few nanogauss. In particular, individual limits coming from the analysis of the CMB angular power spectra, using the Planck likelihood, are $B_{1\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}}< 4.4$ nG (where $B_{1\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}}$ is the comoving field amplitude at a scale of 1 Mpc) at 95% confidence level, assuming zero helicity, and $B_{1\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}}< 5.6$ nG when we consider a maximally helical field. For nearly scale-invariant PMFs we obtain $B_{1\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}}<2.1$ nG and $B_{1\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}}<0.7$ nG if the impact of PMFs on the ionization history of the Universe is included in the analysis...

  19. Planck 2015 results. X. Diffuse component separation: Foreground maps

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, R; Aghanim, N; Alves, M I R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    Planck has mapped the microwave sky in nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz in temperature and seven bands between 30 and 353 GHz in polarization. In this paper we consider the problem of diffuse astrophysical component separation, and process these maps within a Bayesian framework to derive a consistent set of full-sky astrophysical component maps. For the temperature analysis, we combine the Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP sky maps and the Haslam et al. 408 MHz map to derive a joint model of CMB, synchrotron, free-free, spinning dust, CO, line emission in the 94 and 100 GHz channels, and thermal dust emission. Full-sky maps are provided with angular resolutions varying between 7.5 arcmin and 1 deg. Global parameters (monopoles, dipoles, relative calibration, and bandpass errors) are fitted jointly with the sky model, and best-fit values are tabulated. For polarization, the model includes CMB, synchrotron, and thermal dust emission. These models provide excellent fits to the observed data, wi...

  20. Joint Planck and WMAP Assessment of Low CMB Multipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Iqbal, Asif; Souradeep, Tarun; Malik, Manzoor A

    2015-01-01

    The remarkable progress in cosmic microwave background (CMB) studies over past decade has led to the era of precision cosmology in striking agreement with the $\\Lambda$CDM model. However, the lack of power in the CMB temperature anisotropies at large angular scales (low-$\\ell$), as has been confirmed by the recent Planck data also (up to $\\ell=40$), is still an open problem. One can avoid to seek an explanation for this problem by attributing the lack of power to cosmic variance or can look for explanations i.e., different inflationary potentials or initial conditions for inflation to begin with, non-trivial topology, ISW effect etc. Features in the primordial power spectrum (PPS) motivated by the early universe physics has been the most common solution to address this problem. In the present work we also follow this approach and consider a set of PPS which have features and constrain the parameters of those using WMAP 9 year and Planck data employing Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis. The prominent fe...

  1. Planck scale effects on the thermodynamics of photon gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruk, Mir Mehedi; Rahman, Md. Muktadir

    2016-11-01

    A particular framework for quantum gravity is the doubly special relativity formalism that introduces a new observer-independent scale (the Planck scale). We resort to the methods of statistical mechanics in this framework to determine how the deformed dispersion relation affects the thermodynamics of a photon gas. The ensuing modifications to the density of states, partition function, pressure, internal energy, entropy, free energy, and specific heat are calculated. These results are compared with the outcome obtained in the Lorentz violating model of Camacho and Marcias [Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 39, 1175 (2007)]. The two types of models predict different results due to different spacetime structures near the Planck scale. The resulting modifications can be interpreted as a consequence of the deformed Lorentz symmetry present in the particular model we have considered. In the low energy limit, our calculation coincides with the usual results of photon thermodynamics in special relativity theory, in contrast to the study presented in an earlier article [Phys. Rev. D 81, 085039 (2010)].

  2. Planck 2015 results. IX. Diffuse component separation: CMB maps

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Casaponsa, B.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present foreground-reduced CMB maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz, and by 1.9 for frequencies between 100 and 857 GHz. In addition, systematic errors in the forms of temperature-to-polarization leakage, analogue-to-digital conversion uncertainties, and very long time constant errors have been dramatically reduced, to the extent that the cosmological polarization signal may now be robustly recovered on angular scales $\\ell\\gtrsim40$. On the very largest scales, instrumental systematic residuals are still non-negligible compared to the expected cosmological signal, and modes with $\\ell < 20$ are accordingly suppressed in the current polarization maps by high-pass filtering. As in 2013, four different CMB component separation algorithms are applied to these observations, providing a measure of stability with re...

  3. CMB lensing from SPT+Planck and cross-correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Yuuki; SPT Collaboration; DES Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) SZ survey has observed 2500 square degrees of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) to high accuracy down to 1 arcminute resolution at 150GHz. The Planck satellite has also observed the same patch of the CMB sky at 143GHz, but the two experiments were designed to measure temperature anisotropies optimally at different angular scales. By combining data from these two experiments, we are able to produce a temperature map that has an improved signal-to-noise ratio at all scales. This combined temperature map is used to produce a CMB weak lensing map, which we use for cosmological parameter and cross-correlation analyses. In particular, the SPT footprint has significant overlap with the Dark Energy Survey (DES) observing region, which allows us to cross-correlate the CMB lensing map with galaxy density and galaxy shear measurements obtained by DES. In this talk, I will present the SPT+Planck combining procedure, the CMB lensing reconstruction pipeline, tests performed to verify the lensing map, and finally the cross-correlation measurements.

  4. Weyl Current, Scale-Invariant Inflation and Planck Scale Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Pedro G; Ross, Graham G

    2016-01-01

    Scalar fields, $\\phi_i$ can be coupled non-minimally to curvature and satisfy the general criteria: (i) the theory has no mass input parameters, including the Planck mass; (ii) the $\\phi_i$ have arbitrary values and gradients, but undergo a general expansion and relaxation to constant values that satisfy a nontrivial constraint, $K(\\phi_i) =$ constant; (iii) this constraint breaks scale symmetry spontaneously, and the Planck mass is dynamically generated; (iv) there can be adequate inflation associated with slow roll in a scale invariant potential subject to the constraint; (v) the final vacuum can have a small to vanishing cosmological constant (vi) large hierarchies in vacuum expectation values can naturally form; (vii) there is a harmless dilaton which naturally eludes the usual constraints on massless scalars. These models are governed by a global Weyl scale symmetry and its conserved current, $K_\\mu$ . At the quantum level the Weyl scale symmetry can be maintained by an invariant specification of renorma...

  5. Planck pre-launch status: High Frequency Instrument polarization calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Rosset, C; Ponthieu, N; Ade, P; Catalano, A; Conversi, L; Couchot, F; Crill, B P; Désert, F -X; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Haïssinski, J; Henrot-Versillé, S; Holmes, W; Jones, W C; Lamarre, J -M; Lange, A; Leroy, C; Macías-Pérez, J; Maffei, B; de Marcillac, P; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Montier, L; Noviello, F; Pajot, F; Perdereau, O; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Puget, J -L; Ristorcelli, I; Savini, G; Sudiwala, R; Veneziani, M; Yvon, D

    2010-01-01

    The High Frequency Instrument of Planck will map the entire sky in the millimeter and sub-millimeter domain from 100 to 857 GHz with unprecedented sensitivity to polarization ($\\Delta P/T_{\\tiny cmb} \\sim 4\\cdot 10^{-6}$) at 100, 143, 217 and 353 GHz. It will lead to major improvements in our understanding of the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies and polarized foreground signals. Planck will make high resolution measurements of the $E$-mode spectrum (up to $\\ell \\sim 1500$) and will also play a prominent role in the search for the faint imprint of primordial gravitational waves on the CMB polarization. This paper addresses the effects of calibration of both temperature (gain) and polarization (polarization efficiency and detector orientation) on polarization measurements. The specific requirements on the polarization parameters of the instrument are set and we report on their pre-flight measurement on HFI bolometers. We present a semi-analytical method that exactly accounts for the scanning strategy of...

  6. Cryogenic characterization of the Planck sorption cooler system flight model

    CERN Document Server

    Morgante, G; Melot, F; Stassi, P; Terenzi, L; Wilson, P; Hernandez, B; Wade, L; Gregorio, A; Bersanelli, M; Butler, C; Mandolesi, N; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12016

    2009-01-01

    This paper is part of the Prelaunch status LFI papers published on JINST: http://www.iop.org/EJ/journal/-page=extra.proc5/1748-0221 Two continuous closed-cycle hydrogen Joule-Thomson (J-T) sorption coolers have been fabricated and assembled by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the European Space Agency (ESA) Planck mission. Each refrigerator has been designed to provide a total of ~ 1W of cooling power at two instrument interfaces: they directly cool the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) around 20K while providing a pre-cooling stage for a 4 K J-T mechanical refrigerator for the High Frequency Instrument (HFI). After sub-system level validation at JPL, the cryocoolers have been delivered to ESA in 2005. In this paper we present the results of the cryogenic qualification and test campaigns of the Nominal Unit on the flight model spacecraft performed at the CSL (Centre Spatial de Liege) facilities in 2008. Test results in terms of input power, cooling power, temperature, and temperature fluctuations o...

  7. Off-line radiometric analysis of Planck/LFI data

    CERN Document Server

    Tomasi, M; Galeotta, S; Lowe, S R; Mendes, L; Leonardi, R; Villa, F; Cappellini, B; Gregorio, A; Meinhold, P; Sandri, M; Cuttaia, F; Terenzi, L; Maris, M; Valenziano, L; Salmon, M J; Bersanelli, M; Binko, P; Butler, R C; D'Arcangelo, O; Fogliani, S; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Gasparo, F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Malaspina, M; Mandolesi, N; Manzato, P; Meharga, M; Morgante, G; Morisset, N; Pasian, F; Perrotta, F; Rohlfs, R; Turler, M; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12020

    2009-01-01

    The Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) is an array of 22 pseudo-correlation radiometers on-board the Planck satellite to measure temperature and polarization anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in three frequency bands (30, 44 and 70 GHz). To calibrate and verify the performances of the LFI, a software suite named LIFE has been developed. Its aims are to provide a common platform to use for analyzing the results of the tests performed on the single components of the instrument (RCAs, Radiometric Chain Assemblies) and on the integrated Radiometric Array Assembly (RAA). Moreover, its analysis tools are designed to be used during the flight as well to produce periodic reports on the status of the instrument. The LIFE suite has been developed using a multi-layered, cross-platform approach. It implements a number of analysis modules written in RSI IDL, each accessing the data through a portable and heavily optimized library of functions written in C and C++. One of the most important features ...

  8. Loop Quantum Gravity and the The Planck Regime of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    2013-01-01

    The very early universe provides the best arena we currently have to test quantum gravity theories. The success of the inflationary paradigm in accounting for the observed inhomogeneities in the cosmic microwave background already illustrates this point to a certain extent because the paradigm is based on quantum field theory on the curved cosmological space-times. However, this analysis excludes the Planck era because the background space-time satisfies Einstein's equations all the way back to the big bang singularity. Using techniques from loop quantum gravity, the paradigm has now been extended to a self-consistent theory from the Planck regime to the onset of inflation, covering some 11 orders of magnitude in curvature. In addition, for a narrow window of initial conditions, there are departures from the standard paradigm, with novel effects, such as a modification of the consistency relation involving the scalar and tensor power spectra and a new source for non-Gaussianities. Thus, the genesis of the lar...

  9. From Planck Constant to Isomorphicity Through Justice Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidajatullah-Maksoed, Widastra

    2015-05-01

    Robert E. Scott in his ``Chaos theory and the Justice Paradox'', William & Mary Law Review, v 35, I 1, 329 (1993) wrotes''...As we approach the 21-st Century, the signs of social disarray are everywhere. Social critics observe the breakdown of core structure - the nuclear family, schools, neighborhoods & political groups''. For completions for ``soliton'' first coined by Morikazu TODA, comparing the ``Soliton on Scott-Russell aqueduct on the Union Canal near Heriot-WATT University, July 12, 1995 to Michael Stock works: ``a Fine WATT-Balance: Determination of Planck constant & Redefinition of Kilogram'', January 2011, we can concludes the inherencies between `chaos' & `soliton'. Further through ``string theory'' from Michio KAKU sought statements from Peter Mayr: Stringy world brane & Exponential hierarchy'', JHEP 11 (2000): ``if the 5-brane is embedded in flat 10-D space time, the 6-D Planck mass on the brane is infinite'' who also describes the relation of isomorphicity & ``string theory'', from whom denotes the smart city. Replace this text with your abstract body. Incredible acknowledgments to HE. Mr. Drs. P. SWANTORO & HE. Mr. Dr-HC Jakob OETAMA.

  10. Planck 2013 results. XIX. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Genova-Santos, R.T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Ilic, S.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jasche, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B.M.; Schiavon, F.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, M.; Xia, J.Q.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    Based on CMB maps from the 2013 Planck Mission data release, this paper presents the detection of the ISW effect, i.e., the correlation between the CMB and large-scale evolving gravitational potentials. The significance of detection ranges from 2 to 4 sigma, depending on which method is used. We investigate three separate approaches, which cover essentially all previous studies, as well as breaking new ground. (i) Correlation of the CMB with the Planck reconstructed gravitational lensing potential (for the first time). This detection is made using the lensing-induced bispectrum; the correlation between lensing and the ISW effect has a significance close to 2.5 sigma. (ii) Cross-correlation with tracers of LSS, yielding around 3 sigma significance, based on a combination of radio (NVSS) and optical (SDSS) data. (iii) Aperture photometry on stacked CMB fields at the locations of known large-scale structures, which yields a 4 sigma signal when using a previously explored catalogue, but shows strong discrepancies...

  11. Dynamic validation of the Planck-LFI thermal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasi, M; Bersanelli, M; Mennella, A [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Cappellini, B [INAF IASF Milano, Via Bassini, 15, 20133, Milano (Italy); Gregorio, A [University of Trieste, Department of Physics, via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Colombo, F; Lapolla, M [Thales Alenia Space Italia S.p.A., IUEL - Scientific Instruments, S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090 Vimodrone (Mi) (Italy); Terenzi, L; Morgante, G; Butler, R C; Mandolesi, N; Valenziano, L [INAF IASF Bologna, via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Galeotta, S; Maris, M; Zacchei, A [LFI-DPC INAF-OATs, via Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) is an array of cryogenically cooled radiometers on board the Planck satellite, designed to measure the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 30, 44 and 70 GHz. The thermal requirements of the LFI, and in particular the stringent limits to acceptable thermal fluctuations in the 20 K focal plane, are a critical element to achieve the instrument scientific performance. Thermal tests were carried out as part of the on-ground calibration campaign at various stages of instrument integration. In this paper we describe the results and analysis of the tests on the LFI flight model (FM) performed at Thales Laboratories in Milan (Italy) during 2006, with the purpose of experimentally sampling the thermal transfer functions and consequently validating the numerical thermal model describing the dynamic response of the LFI focal plane. This model has been used extensively to assess the ability of LFI to achieve its scientific goals: its validation is therefore extremely important in the context of the Planck mission. Our analysis shows that the measured thermal properties of the instrument show a thermal damping level better than predicted, therefore further reducing the expected systematic effect induced in the LFI maps. We then propose an explanation of the increased damping in terms of non-ideal thermal contacts.

  12. Planck early results. VI. The High Frequency Instrument data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck HFI Core Team; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Ansari, R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Banday, A. J.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bradshaw, T.; Bucher, M.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, C.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colley, J.-M.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Cressiot, C.; Crill, B. P.; Crook, M.; de Bernardis, P.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Efstathiou, G.; Filliard, C.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Girard, D.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gispert, R.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Griffin, M.; Guyot, G.; Haissinski, J.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hills, R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Kaplan, J.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lange, A. E.; Lasenby, A.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Marleau, F.; Marshall, D. J.; Masi, S.; Matsumura, T.; McAuley, I.; McGehee, P.; Melin, J.-B.; Mercier, C.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Mortlock, D.; Murphy, A.; Nati, F.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peacocke, T.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Ponthieu, N.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Reach, W. T.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Riazuelo, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Saha, R.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Shellard, P.; Spencer, L.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Thum, C.; Torre, J.-P.; Touze, F.; Tristram, M.; van Leeuwen, F.; Vibert, L.; Vibert, D.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Woodcraft, A.; Yurchenko, V.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2011-12-01

    We describe the processing of the 336 billion raw data samples from the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) which we performed to produce six temperature maps from the first 295 days of Planck-HFI survey data. These maps provide an accurate rendition of the sky emission at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545 and 857 GHz with an angular resolution ranging from 9.9 to 4.4'. The white noise level is around 1.5 μK degree or less in the 3 main CMB channels (100-217 GHz). The photometric accuracy is better than 2% at frequencies between 100 and 353 GHz and around 7% at the two highest frequencies. The maps created by the HFI Data Processing Centre reach our goals in terms of sensitivity, resolution, and photometric accuracy. They are already sufficiently accurate and well-characterised to allow scientific analyses which are presented in an accompanying series of early papers. At this stage, HFI data appears to be of high quality and we expect that with further refinements of the data processing we should be able to achieve, or exceed, the science goals of the Planck project. Corresponding author: F. R. Bouchet, e-mail: bouchet@iap.fr

  13. Cryogenic characterization of the Planck sorption cooler system flight model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgante, G; Terenzi, L; Butler, C; Mandolesi, N [INAF - IASF Bologna, via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Pearson, D; Wilson, P; Hernandez, B; Wade, L [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena California 91109 (United States); Melot, F; Stassi, P [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie 53 Avenue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Gregorio, A [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, via Valerio 2 - I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bersanelli, M, E-mail: morgante@iasfbo.inaf.i [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, - I20133 Milano (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    Two continuous closed-cycle hydrogen Joule-Thomson (J-T) sorption coolers have been fabricated and assembled by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the European Space Agency (ESA) Planck mission. Each refrigerator has been designed to provide a total of {approx} 1W of cooling power at two instrument interfaces: they directly cool the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) around 20K while providing a pre-cooling stage for a 4 K J-T mechanical refrigerator for the High Frequency Instrument (HFI). After sub-system level validation at JPL, the cryocoolers have been delivered to ESA in 2005. In this paper we present the results of the cryogenic qualification and test campaigns of the Nominal Unit on the flight model spacecraft performed at the CSL (Centre Spatial de Liege) facilities in 2008. Test results in terms of input power, cooling power, temperature, and temperature fluctuations over the flight allowable ranges for these interfaces are reported and analyzed with respect to mission requirements.

  14. Planck satellite constraints on pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson quintessence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smer-Barreto, Vanessa; Liddle, Andrew R.

    2017-01-01

    The pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Boson (PNGB) potential, defined through the amplitude M4 and width f of its characteristic potential V(phi) = M4[1 + cos(phi/f)], is one of the best-suited models for the study of thawing quintessence. We analyse its present observational constraints by direct numerical solution of the scalar field equation of motion. Observational bounds are obtained using Supernovae data, cosmic microwave background temperature, polarization and lensing data from Planck, direct Hubble constant constraints, and baryon acoustic oscillations data. We find the parameter ranges for which PNGB quintessence gives a viable theory for dark energy. This exact approach is contrasted with the use of an approximate equation-of-state parametrization for thawing theories. We also discuss other possible parameterization choices, as well as commenting on the accuracy of the constraints imposed by Planck alone. Overall our analysis highlights a significant prior dependence to the outcome coming from the choice of modelling methodology, which current data are not sufficient to override.

  15. Level 1 on-ground telemetry handling in Planck LFI

    CERN Document Server

    Zacchei, A; Maris, M; Morisset, N; Rohlfs, R; Meharga, M; Binko, P; Turler, M; Galeotta, S; Gasparo, F; Franceschi, E; Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F; D'Arcangelo, O; Fogliani, S; Gregorio, A; Leonardi, R; Lowe, S R; Maino, D; Maggio, G; Malaspina, M; Mandolesi, N; Manzato, P; Meinhold, P; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Morgante, G; Pasian, F; Perrotta, F; Sandri, M; Stringhetti, L; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Zonca, A; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12019

    2009-01-01

    The Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) will observe the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) by covering the frequency range 30-70 GHz in three bands. The primary instrument data source are the temperature samples acquired by the 22 radiometers mounted on the Planck focal plane. Such samples represent the scientific data of LFI. In addition, the LFI instrument generates the so called housekeeping data by sampling regularly the on-board sensors and registers. The housekeeping data provides information on the overall health status of the instrument and on the scientific data quality. The scientific and housekeeping data are collected on-board into telemetry packets compliant with the ESA Packet Telemetry standards. They represent the primary input to the first processing level of the LFI Data Processing Centre. In this work we show the software systems which build the LFI Level 1. A real-time assessment system, based on the ESA SCOS 2000 generic mission control system, has the main purpose of monitoring the hou...

  16. Excess B‐modes extracted from the Planck polarization maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    One of the main obstacles for extracting the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from mm/submm observations is the pollution from the main Galactic components: synchrotron, free‐free and thermal dust emission. The feasibility of using simple neural networks to extract CMB has been demonstrated on b...... tensor to scalar ratios). The feasibility of the neural network to remove the residual systematics from the available Planck polarization data to a high level has been demonstrated. (© 2016 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)......One of the main obstacles for extracting the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from mm/submm observations is the pollution from the main Galactic components: synchrotron, free‐free and thermal dust emission. The feasibility of using simple neural networks to extract CMB has been demonstrated...... on both temperature and polarization data obtained by the WMAP satellite. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of neural networks for extracting the CMB signal from the Planck polarization data with high precision. Both auto‐correlation and cross‐correlation power spectra within...

  17. Molecular environments of 51 Planck cold clumps in Orion complex

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie; Zhang, Huawei

    2012-01-01

    A mapping survey towards 51 Planck cold clumps projected on Orion complex was performed with J=1-0 lines of $^{12}$CO and $^{13}$CO at the 13.7 m telescope of Purple Mountain Observatory. The mean column densities of the Planck gas clumps range from 0.5 to 9.5$\\times10^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$, with an average value of (2.9$\\pm$1.9)$\\times10^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$. While the mean excitation temperatures of these clumps range from 7.4 to 21.1 K, with an average value of 12.1$\\pm$3.0 K. The averaged three-dimensional velocity dispersion $\\sigma_{3D}$ in these molecular clumps is 0.66$\\pm$0.24 km s$^{-1}$. Most of the clumps have $\\sigma_{NT}$ larger than or comparable with $\\sigma_{Therm}$. The H$_{2}$ column density of the molecular clumps calculated from molecular lines correlates with the aperture flux at 857 GHz of the dust emission. Through analyzing the distributions of the physical parameters, we suggest turbulent flows can shape the clump structure and dominate their density distribution in large scale, but not affect ...

  18. A Dynamic Dark Information Energy Consistent with Planck Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Gough

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The 2013 cosmology results from the European Space Agency Planck spacecraft provide new limits to the dark energy equation of state parameter. Here we show that Holographic Dark Information Energy (HDIE, a dynamic dark energy model, achieves an optimal fit to the published datasets where Planck data is combined with other astrophysical measurements. HDIE uses Landauer’s principle to account for dark energy by the energy equivalent of information, or entropy, of stellar heated gas and dust. Combining Landauer’s principle with the Holographic principle yields an equation of state parameter determined solely by star formation history, effectively solving the “cosmic coincidence problem”. While HDIE mimics a cosmological constant at low red-shifts, z < 1, the small difference from a cosmological constant expected at higher red-shifts will only be resolved by the next generation of dark energy instrumentation. The HDIE model is shown to provide a viable alternative to the main cosmological constant/vacuum energy and scalar field/ quintessence explanations.

  19. Origin of the Blue Continuum Radiation in the Flare Spectra of dMe Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morchenko, E. S.

    2016-12-01

    Calculations of the emission spectrum of a homogeneous plane layer of pure hydrogen plasma taking into account nonlinear effects (the influence of bremsstrahlung and recombination radiation of the layer itself on its Menzel factors) show that the Planck radiation (the blue component of the optical continuum) during the impulsive phase of large flares on dMe stars originates from the deep (nearphotospheric) layers of the atmosphere. Radiative cooling of the gas behind the front of a stationary shock propagating toward the photosphere of a red dwarf is not capable to create the Planck radiation observed at the peak brightness of the flares.

  20. Koide's Mass Formula for Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannen, Carl

    2006-05-01

    We derive Koide's mass formula as an eigenvector equation. We show that to within current experimental error, the square roots of the masses of the charged leptons follow the simple equation (m^-n)^0.5 = μ1(1 + √2(δ1+ 2nπ/3)) where δ1 is the interesting number .22222204717(48) and μ1 is a constant. Next we generalize the Koide formula to the neutrinos by assuming that the square root of the mass of the smallest neutrino must be taken to be negative. Then masses of the simple form (m^0n)^0.5 = μ0(1 + √2(δ1+ π/12 + 2nπ/3)) where 3;μ0= 3^12 ;μ1, satisfy recent neutrino oscillation measurements close to the centers of the error bars. Finally, we discuss the preon model for the fermions that led to the above discovery.

  1. The Callias index formula revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Gesztesy, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    These lecture notes aim at providing a purely analytical and accessible proof of the Callias index formula. In various branches of mathematics (particularly, linear and nonlinear partial differential operators, singular integral operators, etc.) and theoretical physics (e.g., nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics, condensed matter physics, and quantum field theory), there is much interest in computing Fredholm indices of certain linear partial differential operators. In the late 1970’s, Constantine Callias found a formula for the Fredholm index of a particular first-order differential operator (intimately connected to a supersymmetric Dirac-type operator) additively perturbed by a potential, shedding additional light on the Fedosov-Hörmander Index Theorem. As a byproduct of our proof we also offer a glimpse at special non-Fredholm situations employing a generalized Witten index.

  2. Blackhole formula and example relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Philip

    Black hole formula 1) Second dimension (x,y) f(x)=y Energy E=m*c2 2) Third dimension (x,y,z) really x=y=z Black hole formula Root(c2)=c=Root(E/m) As mass go the velocity of light, mass become black hole so there are energy as multiply by mass. Example relativity When E=m*c2 1) Root(c2)=c=Root(E/m) 2) 3*c*Root(c2)=3*c*Root(E/m)=3*c2 From 1) to 2) as an example, As velocity is faster, mass increased. It means when velocity is increased, sec(time) is slower, and m(distance) is increased. The number is good to study physics.

  3. Planck early results. XV. Spectral energy distributions and radio continuum spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aatrokoski, J.; Lavonen, N.; León-Tavares, J.

    2011-01-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multifrequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are co...

  4. Planck early results. XV. Spectral energy distributions and radio continuum spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aatrokoski, J.; Lavonen, N.; León-Tavares, J.;

    2011-01-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multifrequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are co...

  5. Planck intermediate results. X. Physics of the hot gas in the Coma cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planck Collaboration, [No Value; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bikmaev, I.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bourdin, H.; Brown, M. L.; Brown, S. D.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Churazov, E.; Clements, D. L.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Démoclès, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; D