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Sample records for planck lfi end-to-end

  1. PLANCK LFI Level 1 Processing During Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, N.; Rohlfs, R.; Türler, M.; Meharga, M.; Binko, P.; Beck, M.; Frailis, M.; Zacchei, A.; Galeotta, S.

    2008-08-01

    The PLANCK satellite with two on-board instruments, a Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) and a High Frequency Instrument (HFI) is foreseen to be launched in August 2008 with Ariane 5. The Data Processing Centre (DPC) in Trieste, Italy for LFI is responsible for processing the PLANCK LFI data. The ISDC data centre in Switzerland is responsible for developing/installing and maintaining the software for the LFI Level 1 data processing presented here. The main tasks of the Level 1 processing are to retrieve the daily available consolidated scientific and housekeeping (HK) data of the LFI instrument from the Mission Operation Centre in Darmstadt (MOC); to sort them by time and by type (detector, observing mode, etc...); to extract the spacecraft attitude information from auxiliary files; to flag the data according to several criteria; and to archive the resulting Time Ordered Information (TOI). The TOI data generated by the level 1 pipeline are the input for the more scientific LFI level 2 processing. The TOI are first stored in FITS format and then ingested into the Data Management Component (DMC) system, which is the interface to the LFI DPC database. In addition, the ISDC also developed software tools to display and perform a quick look analysis of the data.

  2. Planck-LFI radiometers' spectral response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonca, A [INAF-IASF Milano, Via E. Bassini 15, 20133 Milano (Italy); Franceschet, C; Mennella, A; Bersanelli, M [Universita di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via G. Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Battaglia, P; Silvestri, R [Thales Alenia Space Italia S.p.A., S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090 Vimodrone, Milano (Italy); Villa, F; Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F; Mandolesi, N [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); D' Arcangelo, O [IFP-CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Artal, E [Departamento de IngenierIa de Comunicaciones, Universidad de Cantabria, Avenida de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain); Davis, R J [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Galeotta, S; Maris, M [INAF-OATs, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131, Trieste (Italy); Hughes, N; Jukkala, P; Kilpiae, V-H [DA-Design Oy, Keskuskatu 29, FI-31600, Jokioinen (Finland); Laaninen, M [Ylinen Electronics Oy, Teollisuustie 9A, FIN-02700, Kauniainen (Finland); Mendes, L, E-mail: andrea.zonca@fisica.unimi.i [ESA - ESAC, Camino bajo del Castillo, s/n, Villanueva de la Canada 28692 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) is an array of pseudo-correlation radiometers on board the Planck satellite, the ESA mission dedicated to precision measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background. The LFI covers three bands centred at 30, 44 and 70 GHz, with a goal bandwidth of 20% of the central frequency. The characterization of the broadband frequency response of each radiometer is necessary to understand and correct for systematic effects, particularly those related to foreground residuals and polarization measurements. In this paper we present the measured band shape of all the LFI channels and discuss the methods adopted for their estimation. The spectral characterization of each radiometer was obtained by combining the measured spectral response of individual units through a dedicated RF model of the LFI receiver scheme. As a consistency check, we also attempted end-to-end spectral measurements of the integrated radiometer chain in a cryogenic chamber. However, due to systematic effects in the measurement setup, only qualitative results were obtained from these tests. The measured LFI bandpasses exhibit a moderate level of ripple, compatible with the instrument scientific requirements.

  3. Planck 2015 results: V. LFI calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a description of the pipeline used to calibrate the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) timelines into thermodynamic temperatures for the Planck 2015 data release, covering four years of uninterrupted operations. As in the 2013 data release, our calibrator is provided by the spin......-synchronous modulation of the cosmic microwave background dipole, but we now use the orbital component, rather than adopting the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) solar dipole. This allows our 2015 LFI analysis to provide an independent Solar dipole estimate, which is in excellent agreement with that of HFI...... to the 2013 Planck data release, thus reducing the discrepancy with the power spectrum measured by WMAP. We estimate that the LFI calibration uncertainty is now at the level of 0.20% for the 70 GHz map, 0.26% for the 44 GHz map, and 0.35% for the 30 GHz map. We provide a detailed description of the impact...

  4. Planck LFI flight model feed horns

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, F; Pecora, M; Figini, L; Nesti, R; Simonetto, A; Sozzi, C; Sandri, M; Battaglia, P; Guzzi, P; Bersanelli, M; Butler, R C; Mandolesi, N; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12004

    2010-01-01

    this paper is part of the Prelaunch status LFI papers published on JINST: http://www.iop.org/EJ/journal/-page=extra.proc5/jinst The Low Frequency Instrument is optically interfaced with the ESA Planck telescope through 11 corrugated feed horns each connected to the Radiometer Chain Assembly (RCA). This paper describes the design, the manufacturing and the testing of the flight model feed horns. They have been designed to optimize the LFI optical interfaces taking into account the tight mechanical requirements imposed by the Planck focal plane layout. All the eleven units have been successfully tested and integrated with the Ortho Mode transducers.

  5. Planck 2015 results. V. LFI calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaglia, P; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Christensen, P R; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renzi, A; Rocha, G; Romelli, E; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vassallo, T; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a description of the pipeline used to calibrate the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) timelines into thermodynamic temperatures for the Planck 2015 data release, covering 4 years of uninterrupted operations. As in the 2013 data release, our calibrator is provided by the spin-synchronous modulation of the CMB dipole, exploiting both the orbital and solar components. Our 2015 LFI analysis provides an independent Solar dipole estimate in excellent agreement with that of HFI and within $1\\sigma$ (0.3 % in amplitude) of the WMAP value. This 0.3 % shift in the peak-to-peak dipole temperature from WMAP and a global overhaul of the iterative calibration code increases the overall level of the LFI maps by 0.45 % (30 GHz), 0.64 % (44 GHz), and 0.82 % (70 GHz) in temperature with respect to the 2013 Planck data release, thus reducing the discrepancy with the power spectrum measured by WMAP. We estimate that the LFI calibration uncertainty is at the level of 0.20 % for the 70 GHz map, 0.26 % for the 44 GHz...

  6. Planck-LFI radiometers tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttaia, F; Stringhetti, L; Terenzi, L; Villa, F; Butler, R C; Franceschi, E [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, INAF, via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Mennella, A; Tomasi, M; Bersanelli, M; Cappellini, B; Franceschet, C; Hoyland, R [Universita degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Maris, M; Frailis, M [INAF / OATS, via Tiepolo 11, 34143 Trieste (Italy); Cuevas, L P [Research and Scientific Support Department of ESA, ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); D' Arcangelo, O [IFP-CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20013 Milano (Italy); Davis, R; Lowe, S [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Gregorio, A [University of Trieste, Department of Physics, via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Leonardi, R, E-mail: cuttaia@iasfbo.inaf.i [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    This paper describes the Planck Low Frequency Instrument tuning activities performed through the ground test campaigns, from Unit to Satellite Levels. Tuning is key to achieve the best possible instrument performance and tuning parameters strongly depend on thermal and electrical conditions. For this reason tuning has been repeated several times during ground tests and it has been repeated in flight before starting nominal operations. The paper discusses the tuning philosophy, the activities and the obtained results, highlighting developments and changes occurred during test campaigns. The paper concludes with an overview of tuning performed during the satellite cryogenic test campaign (Summer 2008) and of the plans for the just started in-flight calibration.

  7. Planck 2015 results. III. LFI systematic uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Basak, S; Battaglia, P; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Catalano, A; Christensen, P R; Colombo, L P L; Cruz, M; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Doré, O; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Frailis, M; Franceschet, C; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D L; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Keihäen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; Lindholm, V; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Meinhold, P R; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Noviello, F; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vassallo, T; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zibin, J P; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the current accounting of systematic effect uncertainties for the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) that are relevant to the 2015 release of the Planck cosmological results, showing the robustness and consistency of our data set, especially for polarization analysis. We use two complementary approaches: (i) simulations based on measured data and physical models of the known systematic effects; and (ii) analysis of difference maps containing the same sky signal ("null-maps"). The LFI temperature data are limited by instrumental noise. At large angular scales the systematic effects are below the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature power spectrum by several orders of magnitude. In polarization the systematic uncertainties are dominated by calibration uncertainties and compete with the CMB $E$-modes in the multipole range 10-20. Based on our model of all known systematic effects, we show that these effects introduce a slight bias of around $0.2\\,\\sigma$ on the reionization optical depth derived ...

  8. Planck 2015 results. VI. LFI mapmaking

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Christensen, P R; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; Lindholm, V; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renzi, A; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vassallo, T; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the mapmaking procedure applied to Planck LFI (Low Frequency Instrument) data. The mapmaking step takes as input the calibrated timelines and pointing information. The main products are sky maps of $I,Q$, and $U$ Stokes components. For the first time, we present polarization maps at LFI frequencies. The mapmaking algorithm is based on a destriping technique, enhanced with a noise prior. The Galactic region is masked to reduce errors arising from bandpass mismatch and high signal gradients. We apply horn-uniform radiometer weights to reduce effects of beam shape mismatch. The algorithm is the same as used for the 2013 release, apart from small changes in parameter settings. We validate the procedure through simulations. Special emphasis is put on the control of systematics, which is particularly important for accurate polarization analysis. We also produce low-resolution versions of the maps, and corresponding noise covariance matrices. These serve as input in later analysis steps and para...

  9. Planck 2015 results: VI. LFI mapmaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the mapmaking procedure applied to Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data. The mapmaking step takes as input the calibrated timelines and pointing information. The main products are sky maps of I, Q, and U Stokes components. For the first time, we present polarization maps......-resolution versions of the maps and corresponding noise covariance matrices. These serve as input in later analysis steps and parameter estimation. The noise covariance matrices are validated through noise Monte Carlo simulations. The residual noise in the map products is characterized through analysis of half...

  10. Noise properties of the Planck-LFI receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, P; Leonardi, R [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Aja, B; Artal, E; Fuente, M L de la [Departamento de Ingenieria de Comunicaciones, Universidad de Cantabria, Avenida Los Castros s/n. 39005, Santander (Spain); Battaglia, P; Franceschet, C [Thales Alenia Space Italia S.p.A., IUEL - Scientific Instruments, S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090 Vimodrone Milano (Italy); Bersanelli, M [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartamento di Fisica, via Celoria 16, 20133, Milano (Italy); Blackhurst, E; Davis, R [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Butler, C R; Cuttaia, F; Franceschi, E [INAF/IASF, via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Cuevas, L P [ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, Postbus 299 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); D' Arcangelo, O [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milan (Italy); Frailis, M; Galeotta, S [INAF/OATs, via Tiepolo, 11, 34143 Trieste (Italy); Gaier, T [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Gregorio, A [University of Trieste, Department of Physics, via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Hoyland, R, E-mail: peterm@cfi.ucsb.ed [Instituto de AstrofIsica de Canarias, C/ VIa Lactea S/N, E-38200, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    The Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers have been tested extensively during several dedicated campaigns. The present paper reports the principal noise properties of the LFI radiometers. A brief description of the LFI radiometers is given along with details of the test campaigns relevant to determination of noise properties. Current estimates of flight sensitivities, 1/f parameters, and noise effective bandwidths are presented. The LFI receivers exhibit exceptional 1/f noise, and their white noise performance is sufficient for the science goals of Planck.

  11. Dynamic validation of the Planck/LFI thermal model

    CERN Document Server

    Tomasi, M; Gregorio, A; Colombo, F; Lapolla, M; Terenzi, L; Morgante, G; Bersanelli, M; Butler, R C; Galeotta, S; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Mennella, A; Valenziano, L; Zacchei, A; 10.1088/1748-0221/5/01/T01002

    2010-01-01

    The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) is an array of cryogenically cooled radiometers on board the Planck satellite, designed to measure the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave backgrond (CMB) at 30, 44 and 70 GHz. The thermal requirements of the LFI, and in particular the stringent limits to acceptable thermal fluctuations in the 20 K focal plane, are a critical element to achieve the instrument scientific performance. Thermal tests were carried out as part of the on-ground calibration campaign at various stages of instrument integration. In this paper we describe the results and analysis of the tests on the LFI flight model (FM) performed at Thales Laboratories in Milan (Italy) during 2006, with the purpose of experimentally sampling the thermal transfer functions and consequently validating the numerical thermal model describing the dynamic response of the LFI focal plane. This model has been used extensively to assess the ability of LFI to achieve its scientific goals: its valid...

  12. Dynamic validation of the Planck-LFI thermal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasi, M; Bersanelli, M; Mennella, A [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Cappellini, B [INAF IASF Milano, Via Bassini, 15, 20133, Milano (Italy); Gregorio, A [University of Trieste, Department of Physics, via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Colombo, F; Lapolla, M [Thales Alenia Space Italia S.p.A., IUEL - Scientific Instruments, S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090 Vimodrone (Mi) (Italy); Terenzi, L; Morgante, G; Butler, R C; Mandolesi, N; Valenziano, L [INAF IASF Bologna, via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Galeotta, S; Maris, M; Zacchei, A [LFI-DPC INAF-OATs, via Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) is an array of cryogenically cooled radiometers on board the Planck satellite, designed to measure the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 30, 44 and 70 GHz. The thermal requirements of the LFI, and in particular the stringent limits to acceptable thermal fluctuations in the 20 K focal plane, are a critical element to achieve the instrument scientific performance. Thermal tests were carried out as part of the on-ground calibration campaign at various stages of instrument integration. In this paper we describe the results and analysis of the tests on the LFI flight model (FM) performed at Thales Laboratories in Milan (Italy) during 2006, with the purpose of experimentally sampling the thermal transfer functions and consequently validating the numerical thermal model describing the dynamic response of the LFI focal plane. This model has been used extensively to assess the ability of LFI to achieve its scientific goals: its validation is therefore extremely important in the context of the Planck mission. Our analysis shows that the measured thermal properties of the instrument show a thermal damping level better than predicted, therefore further reducing the expected systematic effect induced in the LFI maps. We then propose an explanation of the increased damping in terms of non-ideal thermal contacts.

  13. Advanced modelling of the Planck-LFI radiometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, P [Thales Alenia Space Italia S.p.A., S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090 Vimodrone (Italy); Franceschet, C; Bersanelli, M; Maino, D; Mennella, A [Universita di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via G. Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Zonca, A [INAF-IASF Milano, Via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Butler, R C; Mandolesi, N [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti, 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); D' Arcangelo, O; Platania, P [IFP-CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Davis, R J [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Galeotta, S [INAF-OATs, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131, Trieste (Italy); Guzzi, P [Numonyx, R and D Technology Center, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy); Hoyland, R [Instituto de AstrofIsica de Canarias, C/ Via Lactea S/N, E-38200, La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain); Hughes, N; Jukkala, P [DA-Design Oy Jokioinen (Finland); Kettle, D [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Laaninen, M [Ylinen Electronics Oy Kauniainen (Finland); Leonardi, R; Meinhold, P, E-mail: paola.battaglia@thalesaleniaspace.co [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) is a radiometer array covering the 30-70 GHz spectral range on-board the ESA Planck satellite, launched on May 14th, 2009 to observe the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with unprecedented precision. In this paper we describe the development and validation of a software model of the LFI pseudo-correlation receivers which enables to reproduce and predict all the main system parameters of interest as measured at each of the 44 LFI detectors. These include system total gain, noise temperature, band-pass response, non-linear response. The LFI Advanced RF Model (LARFM) has been constructed by using commercial software tools and data of each radiometer component as measured at single unit level. The LARFM has been successfully used to reproduce the LFI behavior observed during the LFI ground-test campaign. The model is an essential element in the database of LFI data processing center and will be available for any detailed study of radiometer behaviour during the survey.

  14. Critical Design Decisions of The Planck LFI Level 1 Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, N.; Rohlfs, R.; Türler, M.; Meharga, M.; Binko, P.; Beck, M.; Frailis, M.; Zacchei, A.

    2010-12-01

    The PLANCK satellite with two on-board instruments, a Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) and a High Frequency Instrument (HFI) has been launched on May 14th with Ariane 5. The ISDC Data Centre for Astrophysics in Versoix, Switzerland has developed and maintains the Planck LFI Level 1 software for the Data Processing Centre (DPC) in Trieste, Italy. The main tasks of the Level 1 processing are to retrieve the daily available scientific and housekeeping (HK) data of the LFI instrument, the Sorption Cooler and the 4k Cooler data from Mission Operation Centre (MOC) in Darmstadt; to sort them by time and by type (detector, observing mode, etc...); to extract the spacecraft attitude information from auxiliary files; to flag the data according to several criteria; and to archive the resulting Time Ordered Information (TOI), which will then be used to produce maps of the sky in different spectral bands. The output of the Level 1 software are the TOI files in FITS format, later ingested into the Data Management Component (DMC) database. This software has been used during different phases of the LFI instrument development. We started to reuse some ISDC components for the LFI Qualification Model (QM) and we completely rework the software for the Flight Model (FM). This was motivated by critical design decisions taken jointly with the DPC. The main questions were: a) the choice of the data format: FITS or DMC? b) the design of the pipelines: use of the Planck Process Coordinator (ProC) or a simple Perl script? c) do we adapt the existing QM software or do we restart from scratch? The timeline and available manpower are also important issues to be taken into account. We present here the orientation of our choices and discuss their pertinence based on the experience of the final pre-launch tests and the start of real Planck LFI operations.

  15. Level 1 on-ground telemetry handling in Planck LFI

    CERN Document Server

    Zacchei, A; Maris, M; Morisset, N; Rohlfs, R; Meharga, M; Binko, P; Turler, M; Galeotta, S; Gasparo, F; Franceschi, E; Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F; D'Arcangelo, O; Fogliani, S; Gregorio, A; Leonardi, R; Lowe, S R; Maino, D; Maggio, G; Malaspina, M; Mandolesi, N; Manzato, P; Meinhold, P; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Morgante, G; Pasian, F; Perrotta, F; Sandri, M; Stringhetti, L; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Zonca, A; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12019

    2009-01-01

    The Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) will observe the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) by covering the frequency range 30-70 GHz in three bands. The primary instrument data source are the temperature samples acquired by the 22 radiometers mounted on the Planck focal plane. Such samples represent the scientific data of LFI. In addition, the LFI instrument generates the so called housekeeping data by sampling regularly the on-board sensors and registers. The housekeeping data provides information on the overall health status of the instrument and on the scientific data quality. The scientific and housekeeping data are collected on-board into telemetry packets compliant with the ESA Packet Telemetry standards. They represent the primary input to the first processing level of the LFI Data Processing Centre. In this work we show the software systems which build the LFI Level 1. A real-time assessment system, based on the ESA SCOS 2000 generic mission control system, has the main purpose of monitoring the hou...

  16. Planck 2013 results. III. LFI systematic uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.;

    2013-01-01

    We present the current estimate of instrumental and systematic effect uncertainties for the Planck-Low Frequency Instrument relevant to the firstrelease of the Planck cosmological results.We give an overview of the main effects and of the tools and methods applied to assess residuals in mapsand p...

  17. The Planck/LFI Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Herreros, J M; Rebolo, R; Chulani, H; Rubino-Martin, J A; Hildebrandt, S R; Bersanelli, M; Butler, R C; Miccolis, M; Pena, A; Pereira, M; Torrero, F; Franceschet, C; Lopez, M; Alcala, C; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12008

    2010-01-01

    The Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly (REBA) is the control and data processing on board computer of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the Planck mission (ESA). The REBA was designed and built incorporating state of the art processors, communication interfaces and real time operating system software in order to meet the scientific performance of the LFI. We present a technical summary of the REBA, including a physical, functional, electrical, mechanical and thermal description. Aspects of the design and development, the assembly, the integration and the verification of the equipment are provided. A brief description of the LFI on board software is given including the Low-Level Software and the main functionalities and architecture of the Application Software. The compressor module, which has been developed as an independent product, later integrated in the application, is also described in this paper. Two identical engineering models EM and AVM, the engineering qualification model EQM, the flight model ...

  18. The PLANCK LFI flight model ortho-mode transducers

    CERN Document Server

    D'Arcangelo, O; Figini, L; Pagana, E; Villa, F; Pecora, M; Battaglia, P; Bersanelli, M; Butler, R C; Garavaglia, S; Guzzi, P; Mandolesi, N; Sozzi, C; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12005

    2009-01-01

    The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the ESA Planck CMB mission is an array of 22 ultra sensitive pseudocorrelation radiometers working at 30, 44, and 70 GHz. LFI has been calibrated and delivered for integration with the satellite to the European Space Agency on November 2006. The aim of Planck is to measure the anisotropy and polarization of the Cosmic Background Radiation with a sensitivity and angular resolution never reached before over the full sky. LFI is intrinsically sensitive to polarization thanks to the use of Ortho-Mode Transducers (OMT) located between the feedhorns and the pseudo-correlation radiometers. The OMTs are microwave passive components that divide the incoming radiation into two linear orthogonal components. A set of 11 OMTs (2 at 30 GHz, 3 at 44 GHz, and 6 at 70 GHz) were produced and tested. This work describes the design, development and performance of the eleven Flight Model OMTs of LFI. The final design was reached after several years of development. At first, Elegant Bread Boar...

  19. Planck 2013 results. V. LFI calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.;

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the methods employed to photometrically calibrate the data acquired by the Low Frequency Instrument on Planck. Our calibration is based on the Solar Dipole, caused by motion of the Solar System with respect to the CMB rest frame, which provides a signal of a few mK with the same spectr...

  20. Planck 2013 results. III. LFI systematic uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, L -Y; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Cruz, M; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dick, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Gaier, T C; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Kangaslahti, P; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Lindholm, V; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, D; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    We present the current estimate of instrumental and systematic effect uncertainties for the Planck-Low Frequency Instrument relevant to the first release of the Planck cosmological results. We give an overview of the main effects and of the tools and methods applied to assess residuals in maps and power spectra. We also present an overall budget of known systematic effect uncertainties, which are dominated sidelobe straylight pick-up and imperfect calibration. However, even these two effects are at least two orders of magnitude weaker than the cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations as measured in terms of the angular temperature power spectrum. A residual signal above the noise level is present in the multipole range $\\ell<20$, most notably at 30 GHz, and is likely caused by residual Galactic straylight contamination. Current analysis aims to further reduce the level of spurious signals in the data and to improve the systematic effects modelling, in particular with respect to straylight and calibra...

  1. Planck 2013 results. V. LFI calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cappellini, B; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Gaier, T C; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Kangaslahti, P; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, D; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the methods employed to photometrically calibrate the data acquired by the Low Frequency Instrument on Planck. Our calibration is based on a combination of the Orbital Dipole plus the Solar Dipole, caused respectively by the motion of the Planck spacecraft with respect to the Sun and by motion of the Solar System with respect to the CMB rest frame. The latter provides a signal of a few mK with the same spectrum as the CMB anisotropies and is visible throughout the mission. In this data release we rely on the characterization of the Solar Dipole as measured by WMAP. We also present preliminary results (at 44GHz only) on the study of the Orbital Dipole, which agree with the WMAP value of the Solar System speed within our uncertainties. We compute the calibration constant for each radiometer roughly once per hour, in order to keep track of changes in the detectors' gain. Since non-idealities in the optical response of the beams proved to be important, we implemented a fast convolution algorithm which ...

  2. The Planck-LFI flight model ortho-mode transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Arcangelo, O; Simonetto, A; Figini, L; Garavaglia, S; Sozzi, C [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma - CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Pagana, E; Villa, F; Butler, R C; Mandolesi, N [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, INAF, via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Pecora, M; Battaglia, P; Guzzi, P [Thales Alenia Space Italia, S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090 Vimodrone (Italy); Bersanelli, M, E-mail: ocleto@ifp.cnr.i [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the ESA Planck CMB mission is an array of 22 ultra sensitive pseudocorrelation radiometers working at 30, 44, and 70 GHz. LFI has been calibrated and delivered for integration with the satellite to the European Space Agency on November 2006. The aim of Planck is to measure the anisotropy and polarization of the Cosmic Background Radiation with a sensitivity and angular resolution never reached before over the full sky. LFI is intrinsically sensitive to polarization thanks to the use of Ortho-Mode Transducers (OMT) located between the feedhorns and the pseudo-correlation radiometers. The OMTs are microwave passive components that divide the incoming radiation into two linear orthogonal components. A set of 11 OMTs (2 at 30 GHz, 3 at 44 GHz, and 6 at 70 GHz) were produced and tested. This work describes the design, development and performance of the eleven Flight Model OMTs of LFI. The final design was reached after several years of development. At first, Elegant Bread Board OMTs were produced to investigate the manufacturing technology and design requirements. Then, a set of 3 Qualification Model (QM) OMTs were designed, manufactured and tested in order to freeze the design and the manufacturing technology for the flight units. Finally, the Flight Models were produced and tested. It is shown that all the OMT units have been accepted for flight and the electromagnetic performance is at least marginally compliant with the requirements. Mechanically, the units passed all the thermoelastic qualification tests after a reworking necessary after the QM campaign.

  3. Off-line radiometric analysis of Planck-LFI data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasi, M; Mennella, A; Bersanelli, M [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Galeotta, S; Maris, M [LFI-DPC INAF-OATs, Via Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy); Lowe, S R [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Mendes, L [Planck Science Office, European Space Agency, ESAC, P.O. box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Leonardi, R; Meinhold, P [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Villa, F; Sandri, M; Cuttaia, F; Terenzi, L; Valenziano, L; Butler, R C [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti, 101, 40129, Bologna (Italy); Cappellini, B [INAF-IASF Milano, Via E. Bassini 15, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gregorio, A [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Via Valerio, 2 Trieste I-34127 (Italy); Salmon, M J [Departamento de IngenierIa de Comunicaciones, Universidad de Cantabria, Avenida de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain); Binko, P [ISDC Data Centre for Astrophysics, University of Geneva, ch. d' Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); D' Arcangelo, O, E-mail: tomasi@lambrate.inaf.i [IFP-CNR, Via Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    The Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) is an array of 22 pseudo-correlation radiometers on-board the Planck satellite to measure temperature and polarization anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in three frequency bands (30, 44 and 70 GHz). To calibrate and verify the performances of the LFI, a software suite named LIFE has been developed. Its aims are to provide a common platform to use for analyzing the results of the tests performed on the single components of the instrument (RCAs, Radiometric Chain Assemblies) and on the integrated Radiometric Array Assembly (RAA). Moreover, its analysis tools are designed to be used during the flight as well to produce periodic reports on the status of the instrument. The LIFE suite has been developed using a multi-layered, cross-platform approach. It implements a number of analysis modules written in RSI IDL, each accessing the data through a portable and heavily optimized library of functions written in C and C++. One of the most important features of LIFE is its ability to run the same data analysis codes both using ground test data and real flight data as input. The LIFE software suite has been successfully used during the RCA/RAA tests and the Planck Integrated System Tests. Moreover, the software has also passed the verification for its in-flight use during the System Operations Verification Tests, held in October 2008.

  4. The Planck-LFI Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herreros, J M; Gomez, M F; Rebolo, R; Chulani, H; Rubino-Martin, J A; Hildebrandt, S R [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bersanelli, M; Franceschet, C [Universita di Milano, Dipartamento di Fisica, Via G. Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Butler, R C [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Miccolis, M [Thales Alenia Space Italia S.p.A., IUEL - Scientific Instruments, S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090 Vimodrone (Italy); Pena, A; Pereira, M; Torrero, F; Lopez, M; Alcala, C, E-mail: rrl@iac.e [EADS Astrium CRISA, C/Torres Quevedo, 9, 28760 Tres Cantos (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    The Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly (REBA) is the control and data processing on board computer of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the Planck mission (ESA). The REBA was designed and built incorporating state of the art processors, communication interfaces and real time operating system software in order to meet the scientific performance of the LFI. We present a technical summary of the REBA, including a physical, functional, electrical, mechanical and thermal description. Aspects of the design and development, the assembly, the integration and the verification of the equipment are provided. A brief description of the LFI on board software is given including the Low-Level Software and the main functionalities and architecture of the Application Software. The compressor module, which has been developed as an independent product, later integrated in the application, is also described in this paper. Two identical engineering models EM and AVM, the engineering qualification model EQM, the flight model FM and flight spare have been manufactured and tested. Low-level and Application software have been developed. Verification activities demonstrated that the REBA hardware and software fulfil all the specifications and perform as required for flight operation.

  5. Off-line radiometric analysis of Planck/LFI data

    CERN Document Server

    Tomasi, M; Galeotta, S; Lowe, S R; Mendes, L; Leonardi, R; Villa, F; Cappellini, B; Gregorio, A; Meinhold, P; Sandri, M; Cuttaia, F; Terenzi, L; Maris, M; Valenziano, L; Salmon, M J; Bersanelli, M; Binko, P; Butler, R C; D'Arcangelo, O; Fogliani, S; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Gasparo, F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Malaspina, M; Mandolesi, N; Manzato, P; Meharga, M; Morgante, G; Morisset, N; Pasian, F; Perrotta, F; Rohlfs, R; Turler, M; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12020

    2009-01-01

    The Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) is an array of 22 pseudo-correlation radiometers on-board the Planck satellite to measure temperature and polarization anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in three frequency bands (30, 44 and 70 GHz). To calibrate and verify the performances of the LFI, a software suite named LIFE has been developed. Its aims are to provide a common platform to use for analyzing the results of the tests performed on the single components of the instrument (RCAs, Radiometric Chain Assemblies) and on the integrated Radiometric Array Assembly (RAA). Moreover, its analysis tools are designed to be used during the flight as well to produce periodic reports on the status of the instrument. The LIFE suite has been developed using a multi-layered, cross-platform approach. It implements a number of analysis modules written in RSI IDL, each accessing the data through a portable and heavily optimized library of functions written in C and C++. One of the most important features ...

  6. Level 1 on-ground telemetry handling in Planck-LFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacchei, A.; Frailis, M.; Maris, M.; Morisset, N.; Rohlfs, R.; Meharga, M.; Binko, P.; Türler, M.; Galeotta, S.; Gasparo, F.; Franceschi, E.; Butler, R. C.; Cuttaia, F.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Fogliani, S.; Gregorio, A.; Leonardi, R.; Lowe, S. R.; Maino, D.; Maggio, G.; Malaspina, M.; Mandolesi, N.; Manzato, P.; Meinhold, P.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Morgante, G.; Pasian, F.; Perrotta, F.; Sandri, M.; Stringhetti, L.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Zonca, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) will observe the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) by covering the frequency range 30-70 GHz in three bands. The primary instrument data source are the temperature samples acquired by the 22 radiometers mounted on the Planck focal plane. Such samples represent the scientific data of LFI. In addition, the LFI instrument generates the so called housekeeping data by sampling regularly the on-board sensors and registers. The housekeeping data provides information on the overall health status of the instrument and on the scientific data quality. The scientific and housekeeping data are collected on-board into telemetry packets compliant with the ESA Packet Telemetry standards. They represent the primary input to the first processing level of the LFI Data Processing Centre. In this work we show the software systems which build the LFI Level 1. A real-time assessment system, based on the ESA SCOS 2000 generic mission control system, has the main purpose of monitoring the housekeeping parameters of LFI and detect possible anomalies. A telemetry handler system processes the housekeeping and scientific telemetry of LFI, generating timelines for each acquisition chain and each housekeeping parameter. Such timelines represent the main input to the subsequent processing levels of the LFI DPC. A telemetry quick-look system allows the real-time visualization of the LFI scientific and housekeeping data, by also calculating quick statistical functions and fast Fourier transforms. The LFI Level 1 has been designed to support all the mission phases, from the instrument ground tests and calibration to the flight operations, and developed according to the ESA engineering standards.

  7. Thermal susceptibility of the Planck-LFI receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terenzi, L; Morgante, G; Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F [INAF - IASF Bologna, via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Colin, A [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Av. Los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain); Mennella, A; Tomasi, M; Bersanelli, M [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Battaglia, P; Lapolla, M; Franceschet, C [Thales Alenia Space Italia, Sede di Milano, S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090, Vimodrone (Italy); D' Arcangelo, O [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milan (Italy); Davis, R [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Galeotta, S [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, Trieste 34143 (Italy); Gregorio, A [University of Trieste, Department of Physics, via Valerio 2, Trieste 34127 (Italy); Hughes, N; Jukkala, P [DA-Design Oy, Keskuskatu 29, FI-31600, Jokioinen (Finland); Kettle, D [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Laaninen, M [Ylinen Electronics Oy, Teollisuustie 9A, FIN-02700 Kauniainen (Finland); Salmon, M J, E-mail: terenzi@iasfbo.inaf.i

    2009-12-15

    This paper describes the impact of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument front end physical temperature fluctuations on the output signal. The origin of thermal instabilities in the instrument are discussed, and an analytical model of their propagation and impact on the receivers signal is described. The experimental test setup dedicated to evaluate these effects during the instrument ground calibration is reported together with data analysis methods. Finally, main results obtained are discussed and compared to the requirements.

  8. End to End Travel

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — E2 Solutions is a web based end-to-end travel management tool that includes paperless travel authorization and voucher document submissions, document approval...

  9. The Planck-LFI flight model composite waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    D'Arcangelo, O; Simonetto, A; Villa, F; Pecora, M; Battaglia, P; Bersanelli, M; Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F; Garavaglia, S; Guzzi, P; Mandolesi, N; Mennella, A; Morgante, G; Pagan, L; Valenziano, L; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12007

    2009-01-01

    The Low Frequency Instrument on board the PLANCK satellite is designed to give the most accurate map ever of the CMB anisotropy of the whole sky over a broad frequency band spanning 27 to 77 GHz. It is made of an array of 22 pseudo-correlation radiometers, composed of 11 actively cooled (20 K) Front End Modules (FEMs), and 11 Back End Modules (BEMs) at 300K. The connection between the two parts is made with rectangular Wave Guides. Considerations of different nature (thermal, electromagnetic and mechanical), imposed stringent requirements on the WGs characteristics and drove their design. From the thermal point of view, the WG should guarantee good insulation between the FEM and the BEM sections to avoid overloading the cryocooler. On the other hand it is essential that the signals do not undergo excessive attenuation through the WG. Finally, given the different positions of the FEM modules behind the focal surface and the mechanical constraints given by the surrounding structures, different mechanical design...

  10. The linearity response of the Planck-LFI flight model receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennella, A; Bersanelli, M [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Villa, F; Terenzi, L; Cuttaia, F; Butler, R C [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via P.Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Battaglia, P; Franceschet, C; Lapolla, P M [Thales Alenia Space - Italia, S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090 Vimodrone, Milano (Italy); D' Arcangelo, O [CNR, Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Via Roberto Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Artal, E [Departamento de Ingenieria de Comunicaciones, Universidad de Cantabria, Avenida de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain); Davis, R; Kettle, D [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Frailis, M; Galeotta, S [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Gregorio, A [Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Dipartimenti di fisica Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Hughes, N; Jukkala, P; Kilpiae, V-H [DA-Design Oj, Keskuskatu 29, FI-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Laaninen, M, E-mail: aniello.mennella@fisica.unimi.i [Ylinen Electronics Oy, Teollisuustie 9A, FIN-02700 Kauniainen (Finland)

    2009-12-15

    In this paper we discuss the linearity response of the Planck-LFI receivers, with particular reference to signal compression measured on the 30 and 44 GHz channels. In the article we discuss the various sources of compression and present a model that accurately describes data measured during tests performed with individual radiomeric chains. After discussing test results we present the best parameter set representing the receiver response and discuss the impact of non linearity on in-flight calibration, which is shown to be negligible.

  11. AMI observations of unmatched Planck ERCSC LFI sources at 15.75 GHz

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue includes 26 sources with no obvious matches in other radio catalogues (of primarily extragalactic sources). Here we present observations made with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Small Array (AMI SA) at 15.75 GHz of the eight of the unmatched sources at declination > +10 degrees. Of the eight, four are detected and are associated with known objects. The other four are not detected with the AMI SA, and are thought to be spurious.

  12. Making Maps from Planck LFI 30GHz Data with Asymmetric Beams and Cooler Noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The Planck CTP Working Group; Ashdown, M.A.J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Bartlett, J.G.; Borrill, J.; Cantalupo, C.; de Gasperis, G.; Gorski, K.M.; Hivon, E.; Huffenberger, K.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Hurki-Suonio, H.; Lawrence, C.R.; Natoli, P.; Poutanen, T.; Prezeau, G.; Reinecke, M.; Rocha, G.; Sandri, M.; Stompor, R..; Villa, F.; Wandelt, B.; de Troia, G.

    2008-06-19

    The Planck satellite will observe the full sky at nine frequencies from 30 to 857 GHz. Temperature and polarization frequency maps made from these observations are prime deliverables of the Planck mission. The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of four realistic instrument systematics in the 30 GHz frequency maps: non-axially-symmetric beams, sample integration, sorption cooler noise, and pointing errors. They simulated one year long observations of four 30 GHz detectors. The simulated timestreams contained CMB, foreground component (both galactic and extra-galactic), instrument nolise (correlated and white), and the four instrument systematic effects. They made maps from the timelines and examined the magnitudes of the systematics effects in the maps and their angular power spectra. They also compared the maps of different mapmaking codes to see how they performed. They used five mapmaking codes (two destripers and three optimal codes). None of their mapmaking codes makes an attempt to deconvolve the beam from its output map. Therefore all our maps had similar smoothing due to beams and sample integration. This is a complicated smoothing, because every map pixel has its own effective beam. Temperature to polarization cross-coupling due to beam mismatch causes a detectable bias in the TE spectrum of the CMB map. The effects of cooler noise and pointing errors did not appear to be major concerns for the 30 GHz channel. The only essential difference found so far between mapmaking codes that affects accuracy (in terms of residual RMS) is baseline length. All optimal codes give essentially indistiguishable results. A destriper gives the same result as the optimal codes when the baseline is set short enough (Madam). For longer baselines destripers (Springtide and Madam) require less computing resources but deliver a noisier map.

  13. Making maps from Planck LFI 30 GHz data with asymmetric beams and cooler noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashdown, M. A. J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Bartlett, J. G.; Borrill, J.; Cantalupo, C.; de Gasperis, G.; de Troia, G.; Górski, K. M.; Hivon, E.; Huffenberger, K.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lawrence, C. R.; Natoli, P.; Poutanen, T.; Prézeau, G.; Reinecke, M.; Rocha, G.; Sandri, M.; Stompor, R.; Villa, F.; Wandelt, B.; Planck Ctp Working Group

    2009-01-01

    The Planck satellite will observe the full sky at nine frequencies from 30 to 857 GHz. Temperature and polarization frequency maps made from these observations are prime deliverables of the Planck mission. The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of four realistic instrument systematics in the 30 GHz frequency maps: non-axially-symmetric beams, sample integration, sorption cooler noise, and pointing errors. We simulated one-year long observations of four 30 GHz detectors. The simulated timestreams contained cosmic microwave background (CMB) signal, foreground components (both galactic and extra-galactic), instrument noise (correlated and white), and the four instrument systematic effects. We made maps from the timelines and examined the magnitudes of the systematics effects in the maps and their angular power spectra. We also compared the maps of different mapmaking codes to see how they performed. We used five mapmaking codes (two destripers and three optimal codes). None of our mapmaking codes makes any attempt to deconvolve the beam from its output map. Therefore all our maps had similar smoothing due to beams and sample integration. This is a complicated smoothing, because each map pixel has its own effective beam. Temperature to polarization cross-coupling due to beam mismatch causes a detectable bias in the TE spectrum of the CMB map. The effects of cooler noise and pointing errors did not appear to be major concerns for the 30 GHz channel. The only essential difference found so far between mapmaking codes that affects accuracy (in terms of residual root-mean-square) is baseline length. All optimal codes give essentially indistinguishable results. A destriper gives the same result as the optimal codes when the baseline is set short enough (Madam). For longer baselines destripers (Springtide and Madam) require less computing resources but deliver a noisier map.

  14. Making Maps from Planck LFI 30GHz Data with Asymmetric Beams and Cooler Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Ashdown, M A J; Bartlett, J G; Borrill, J; Cantalupo, C; De Gasperis, G; de Troia, G; Górski, K M; Hivon, E; Huffenberger, Kevin M; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lawrence, C R; Natoli, P; Poutanen, T; Prezeau, G; Reinecke, M; Rocha, G; Sandri, M; Stompor, R; Villa, F; Wandelt, B

    2008-01-01

    The Planck satellite will observe the full sky at nine frequencies from 30 to 857 GHz. The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of four realistic instrument systematics in the 30 GHz frequency maps: non-axially-symmetric beams, sample integration, sorption cooler noise, and pointing errors. We simulated one year long observations of four 30 GHz detectors. The simulated timestreams contained CMB, foreground components (both galactic and extra-galactic), instrument noise (correlated and white), and the four instrument systematic effects. We made maps from the timelines and examined the magnitudes of the systematics effects in the maps and their angular power spectra. We also compared the maps of different mapmaking codes to see how they performed. We used five mapmaking codes (two destripers and three optimal codes). None of our mapmaking codes makes an attempt to deconvolve the beam from its output map. Therefore all our maps had similar smoothing due to beams and sample integration. Temperature to pol...

  15. Internet end-to-end delay dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Changhua; Pei Changxing; Li Jiandong; Chen Nan; Yi Yunhui

    2006-01-01

    End-to-end delay is one of the most important characteristics of Internet end-to-end packet dynamics, which can be applied to quality of services (QoS) management, service level agreement (SLA) management, congestion control algorithm development, etc. Nonstationarity and nonlinearity are found by the analysis of various delay series measured from different links. The fact that different types of links have different degree of Self-Similarity is also obtained. By constructing appropriate network architecture and neural functions, functional networks can be used to model the Internet end-to-end nonlinear delay time series. Furthermore, by using adaptive parameter studying algorithm, the nonstationarity can also be well modeled. The numerical results show that the provided functional network architecture and adaptive algorithm can precisely characterize the Internet end-to-end delay dynamics.

  16. Applying Trustworthy Computing to End-to-End Electronic Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Russell A.

    2010-01-01

    "End-to-End (E2E)" voting systems provide cryptographic proof that the voter's intention is captured, cast, and tallied correctly. While E2E systems guarantee integrity independent of software, most E2E systems rely on software to provide confidentiality, availability, authentication, and access control; thus, end-to-end integrity is not…

  17. Research on End-to-End Encryption of TETRA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-hui; YANG Yi-xian

    2006-01-01

    The Terrestrial Trunked Radio(TETRA) system uses end-to-end encryption in addition to the air interface encryption to provide enhanced security. The TETRA system uses a synchronization technique known as frame stealing to provide synchronization of end-to-end encrypted data. However, the frame stealing process degrades the quality of video. This paper proposes an end-to-end encryption system with the frame stealing technique for voice and frame insertion for video.A block cipher in the output feedback mode is used to implement the end-to-end key stream generator. Moreover. In the Short Data Service (SDS) message encryption, a block cipher in the Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode is used to calculate the cryptographically secure checksum, which is sufficient to certify the integrity.

  18. Standardizing an End-to-end Accounting Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Edward; Kazz, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Currently there are no space system standards available for space agencies to accomplish end-to-end accounting. Such a standard does not exist for spacecraft operations nor for tracing the relationship between the mission planning activities, the command sequences designed to perform those activities, the commands formulated to initiate those activities and the mission data and specifically the mission data products created by those activities. In order for space agencies to cross-support one another for data accountability/data tracing and for inter agency spacecraft to interoperate with each other, an international CCSDS standard for end-to-end data accountability/tracing needs to be developed. We will first describe the end-to-end accounting service model and functionality that supports the service. This model will describe how science plans that are ultimately transformed into commands can be associated with the telemetry products generated as a result of their execution. Moreover, the interaction between end-to-end accounting and service management will be explored. Finally, we will show how the standard end-to-end accounting service can be applied to a real life flight project i.e., the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter project.

  19. End-to-end delay analysis for networked systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie SHEN; Wen-bo HE; Xue LIU; Zhi-bo WANG; Zhi WANG; Jian-guo YAO

    2015-01-01

    End-to-end delay measurement has been an essential element in the deployment of real-time services in networked systems. Traditional methods of delay measurement based on time domain analysis, however, are not efficient as the network scale and the complexity increase. We propose a novel theoretical framework to analyze the end-to-end delay distributions of networked systems from the frequency domain. We use a signal fl ow graph to model the delay distribution of a networked system and prove that the end-to-end delay distribution is indeed the inverse Laplace transform of the transfer function of the signal fl ow graph. Two efficient methods, Cramer’s rule-based method and the Mason gain rule-based method, are adopted to obtain the transfer function. By analyzing the time responses of the transfer function, we obtain the end-to-end delay distribution. Based on our framework, we propose an efficient method using the dominant poles of the transfer function to work out the bottleneck links of the network. Moreover, we use the framework to study the network protocol performance. Theoretical analysis and extensive evaluations show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  20. End-to-End Security for Personal Telehealth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, R.P.; Asim, M.; Petkovic, M.

    2011-01-01

    Personal telehealth is in rapid development with innovative emerging applications like disease management. With personal telehealth people participate in their own care supported by an open distributed system with health services. This poses new end-to-end security and privacy challenges. In this pa

  1. End-to-End Security for Personal Telehealth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, R.P.; Asim, M.; Petkovic, M.

    2011-01-01

    Personal telehealth is in rapid development with innovative emerging applications like disease management. With personal telehealth people participate in their own care supported by an open distributed system with health services. This poses new end-to-end security and privacy challenges. In this

  2. End-To-End Verifiability in Electronic Elections

    OpenAIRE

    Risvik, Chris Csomos

    2016-01-01

    Voting has traditionally been performed by casting paper ballots in public polling places. However, advancements in computer technology in the latest decades have enabled voters to cast their votes electronically. By 2016, eleven different countries have made various trials enabling voters to cast votes on the Internet using personal devices. End-to-end verifiability is regarded by election experts as an important property for retaining democratic principles in Internet elections. Nevertheles...

  3. Measurements and analysis of end-to-end Internet dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paxson, Vern [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Computer Science Division

    1997-04-01

    Accurately characterizing end-to-end Internet dynamics - the performance that a user actually obtains from the lengthy series of network links that comprise a path through the Internet - is exceptionally difficult, due to the network`s immense heterogeneity. At the heart of this work is a `measurement framework` in which a number of sites around the Internet host a specialized measurement service. By coordinating `probes` between pairs of these sites one can measure end-to-end behavior along O(N2) paths for a framework consisting of N sites. Consequently, one obtains a superlinear scaling that allows measuring a rich cross-section of Internet behavior without requiring huge numbers of observation points. 37 sites participated in this study, allowing the author to measure more than 1,000 distinct Internet paths. The first part of this work looks at the behavior of end-to-end routing: the series of routers over which a connection`s packets travel. Based on 40,000 measurements made using this framework, the author analyzes: routing `pathologies` such as loops, outages, and flutter; the stability of routes over time; and the symmetry of routing along the two directions of an end-to-end path. The author finds that pathologies increased significantly over the course of 1995 and that Internet paths are heavily dominated by a single route. The second part of this work studies end-to-end Internet packet dynamics. The author analyzes 20,000 TCP transfers of 100 Kbyte each to investigate the performance of both the TCP endpoints and the Internet paths. The measurements used for this part of the study are much richer than those for the first part, but require a great degree of attention to issues of calibration, which are addressed by applying self-consistency checks to the measurements whenever possible. The author finds that packet filters are capable of a wide range of measurement errors, some of which, if undetected, can significantly taint subsequent analysis.

  4. Measurements and analysis of end-to-end Internet dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paxson, V [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Computer Science Division

    1997-04-01

    Accurately characterizing end-to-end Internet dynamics - the performance that a user actually obtains from the lengthy series of network links that comprise a path through the Internet - is exceptionally difficult, due to the network`s immense heterogeneity. At the heart of this work is a `measurement framework` in which a number of sites around the Internet host a specialized measurement service. By coordinating `probes` between pairs of these sites one can measure end-to-end behavior along O(N{sup 2}) paths for a framework consisting of N sites. Consequently, one obtains a superlinear scaling that allows measuring a rich cross-section of Internet behavior without requiring huge numbers of observation points. 37 sites participated in this study, allowing the author to measure more than 1,000 distinct Internet paths. The first part of this work looks at the behavior of end-to-end routing: the series of routers over which a connection`s packets travel. Based on 40,000 measurements made using this framework, the author analyzes: routing `pathologies` such as loops, outages, and flutter; the stability of routes over time; and the symmetry of routing along the two directions of an end-to-end path. The author finds that pathologies increased significantly over the course of 1995 and that Internet paths are heavily dominated by a single route. The second part of this work studies end-to-end Internet packet dynamics. The author analyzes 20,000 TCP transfers of 100 Kbyte each to investigate the performance of both the TCP endpoints and the Internet paths. The measurements used for this part of the study are much richer than those for the first part, but require a great degree of attention to issues of calibration, which are addressed by applying self-consistency checks to the measurements whenever possible. The author finds that packet filters are capable of a wide range of measurement errors, some of which, if undetected, can significantly taint subsequent analysis.

  5. End-to-end network/application performance troubleshooting methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wenji; Bobyshev, Andrey; Bowden, Mark; Crawford, Matt; Demar, Phil; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Grigoriev, Maxim; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    The computing models for HEP experiments are globally distributed and grid-based. Obstacles to good network performance arise from many causes and can be a major impediment to the success of the computing models for HEP experiments. Factors that affect overall network/application performance exist on the hosts themselves (application software, operating system, hardware), in the local area networks that support the end systems, and within the wide area networks. Since the computer and network systems are globally distributed, it can be very difficult to locate and identify the factors that are hurting application performance. In this paper, we present an end-to-end network/application performance troubleshooting methodology developed and in use at Fermilab. The core of our approach is to narrow down the problem scope with a divide and conquer strategy. The overall complex problem is split into two distinct sub-problems: host diagnosis and tuning, and network path analysis. After satisfactorily evaluating, and if necessary resolving, each sub-problem, we conduct end-to-end performance analysis and diagnosis. The paper will discuss tools we use as part of the methodology. The long term objective of the effort is to enable site administrators and end users to conduct much of the troubleshooting themselves, before (or instead of) calling upon network and operating system 'wizards,' who are always in short supply.

  6. The CarbonSat End-to-End Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramstedt, Klaus; Noel, Stefan; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Reuter, Max; Burrows, John P.; Jurado Lozano, Pedro Jose; Meijer, Yasjka; Loescher, Armin; Acarreta, Juan R.; Sturm, Philipp; Tesmer, Volker; Sanchez Monero, Ana Maria; Atapuerca Rodreiguez de Dios, Francisco Javier; Toledano Sanchez, Daniel; Boesch, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the CarbonSat mission is to improve our knowledge on natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks of CO2 and CH4. CarbonSat was one of the two candidate missions selected for definition studies for becoming Earth Explorer 8 (EE8).The CarbonSat End-to-End Simulator (CSE2ES) simulates the full data flow of the mission with a set of modules embedded in ESA's generic simulation framework OpenSF. A Geometry Module (GM) defines the orbital geometry and related parameters. A Scene Generation Module (SGM) provides simulated radiances and irradiances for the selected scenes. The Level 1 Module (L1M) compromises the instrument simulator and the Level 1b processor, and provide as main output calibrated spectra. The L1M is implemented in two versions, reflecting the instrument concepts from the two competing industrial system studies. The Level 2 Retrieval Module (L2M) performs the retrieval from the input level 1b spectra to the atmospheric parameters (CO2 and CH4).In this paper, we show sensitivity studies with respect to atmospheric parameters, simulations along the orbit and a case study for the detection of a point source emitting carbon dioxide. In summary, the end-to-end simulation with CSE2ES proves the capability of the CarbonSat concept to reach its requirements.

  7. Toward End-to-End Face Recognition Through Alignment Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuanyi; Chen, Jiansheng; Huang, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Plenty of effective methods have been proposed for face recognition during the past decade. Although these methods differ essentially in many aspects, a common practice of them is to specifically align the facial area based on the prior knowledge of human face structure before feature extraction. In most systems, the face alignment module is implemented independently. This has actually caused difficulties in the designing and training of end-to-end face recognition models. In this paper we study the possibility of alignment learning in end-to-end face recognition, in which neither prior knowledge on facial landmarks nor artificially defined geometric transformations are required. Specifically, spatial transformer layers are inserted in front of the feature extraction layers in a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for face recognition. Only human identity clues are used for driving the neural network to automatically learn the most suitable geometric transformation and the most appropriate facial area for the recognition task. To ensure reproducibility, our model is trained purely on the publicly available CASIA-WebFace dataset, and is tested on the Labeled Face in the Wild (LFW) dataset. We have achieved a verification accuracy of 99.08\\% which is comparable to state-of-the-art single model based methods.

  8. Context Aware End-to-End Connectivity Management

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip; Chandra, M Girish; G., Harihara S; Reddy, Harish

    2010-01-01

    In a dynamic heterogeneous environment, such as pervasive and ubiquitous computing, context-aware adaptation is a key concept to meet the varying requirements of different users. Connectivity is an important context source that can be utilized for optimal management of diverse networking resources. Application QoS (Quality of service) is another important issue that should be taken into consideration for design of a context-aware system. This paper presents connectivity from the view point of context awareness, identifies various relevant raw connectivity contexts, and discusses how high-level context information can be abstracted from the raw context information. Further, rich context information is utilized in various policy representation with respect to user profile and preference, application characteristics, device capability, and network QoS conditions. Finally, a context-aware end-to-end evaluation algorithm is presented for adaptive connectivity management in a multi-access wireless network. Unlike t...

  9. Euclid end-to-end straylight performance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar Venancio, Luis M.; Pachot, Charlotte; Carminati, Lionel; Lorenzo Alvarez, Jose; Amiaux, Jérôme; Prieto, Eric; Bonino, Luciana; Salvignol, Jean-Christophe; Short, Alex; Boenke, Tobias; Strada, Paulo; Laureijs, Rene

    2016-07-01

    In the Euclid mission the straylight has been identified at an early stage as the main driver for the final imaging quality of the telescope. The assessment by simulation of the final straylight in the focal plane of both instruments in Euclid's payload have required a complex workflow involving all stakeholders in the mission, from industry to the scientific community. The straylight is defined as a Normalized Detector Irradiance (NDI) which is a convenient definition tool to separate the contributions of the telescope and of the instruments. The end-to-end straylight of the payload is then simply the sum of the NDIs of the telescope and of each instrument. The NDIs for both instruments are presented in this paper for photometry and spectrometry.

  10. END-TO-END INDIA-UK TRANSNATIONAL WIRELESS TESTBED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Budhiraja

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Communication is a fast growing technology area where tremendous amount of research is ongoing. It is also an area where the use of technology in the market has seen wide and far-reaching impact. The India-UK Advanced Technology Centre initiative is a collaborative research project between various institutes and companies across UK and India, which envisages, apart from several research outcomes, putting in place of a support infrastructure for facilitating R&D of Next Generation networks, Systems and Services. As part of this project, an end-to-end trans-national advanced wireless testbed is being developed which will facilitate and support research and implementation of new ideas, concepts and technologies. The testbed will provide a framework which can be used to rapidly prototype and evaluate emerging concepts and technologies, and enables researchers to investigate/demonstrate the feasibility of new ideas in a realistic test environment. The testbed complements analytical and simulation based studies undertaken as part of the initial study when new ideas are proposed. This paper gives the details of the testbed and shows how a 4G technology like LTE has been implemented as one of the realisations of the test bed.

  11. Planck 2015 results: III. LFI systematic uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.;

    2016-01-01

    , we show that these effects introduce a slight bias of around 0.2σ on the reionization optical depth derived from the 70GHz EE spectrum using the 30 and 353GHz channels as foreground templates. At 30GHz the systematic effects are smaller than the Galactic foreground at all scales in temperature...

  12. A Bayes Theory-Based Modeling Algorithm to End-to-end Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Hong-hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, network traffic has exponentially increasing due to all kind of applications, such as mobile Internet, smart cities, smart transportations, Internet of things, and so on. the end-to-end network traffic becomes more important for traffic engineering. Usually end-to-end traffic estimation is highly difficult. This paper proposes a Bayes theory-based method to model the end-to-end network traffic. Firstly, the end-to-end network traffic is described as a independent identically distributed normal process. Then the Bases theory is used to characterize the end-to-end network traffic. By calculating the parameters, the model is determined correctly. Simulation results show that our approach is feasible and effective.

  13. VisualCommander for Rapid End-to-End Mission Design and Simulation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of a highly extensible and user-configurable software application for end-to-end mission simulation and design. We will leverage...

  14. Model outputs - Developing end-to-end models of the Gulf of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the northern Gulf of California, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  15. Simulation study on delay of end-to-end data communication for protective relaying in substations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The end-to-end delay of protective relaying data flow in a substation was studied by dynamic simulation modeling technology.The distribution characteristics of protective relaying data flow and the constitution of the end-to-end delay of messages were analyzed.The simulation model for digital communication between protective relaying equipment and monitoring equipment of interval layer was suggested.The end-to-end delay of protective relaying data flow in different network configurations was analyzed.It is found that the size and interval of the data frame,utilization of the link background and protocols of higher layer are key factors of real-time performance,Detailed analysis results are presented.A proposal for network configuration is suggested to reduce end-to-end delay of protective relaying data flow.

  16. Physical oceanography - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  17. Atlantis model outputs - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  18. Effect of end-to-end invagination pancreaticojejunostomy with circle discontinuous U suture in pancreatic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xuewen; XUAN Wei; JIANG Tao; JI Degang; YANG Yongsheng; ZHANG Dan; XIE Yingjun; MENG Zihui; ZHAO Jisheng

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize the methods of pancreaficojejunostomy in the pancreatic operation and to study the safety and feasibility of a new operative method called end-to-end invagination pancreaticojejunostomy with circle discontinuous U suture to prevent fistula of pancreaticojejunostomy.Eight-three patients with pancreaticoduodenectomy in the 3rd Hospital,Jilin University from 2001 January to 2006 April were reviewed.The incidences of pancreatic fistula with different types of pancreaticojejunostomy were compared.The overall incidence rate of pancreatic fistula was 26.5% (22/83).No pancreatic fistula occurred in end-to-end invagination pancreaticojejunostomy with circle discontinuous U suture.The incidence rate of the fistula following end-to-end invagination pancreaticojejunostomy with circle discontinuous U suture was significantly lower than that of traditional end-to-end pancreaticojejunostomy [40%,(10/25),P<0.01] and end-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy [27.3%,(12/44),P < 0.05],but no significant difference (P>0.05) between traditional end-to-end pancreaticojejunostomy and end-to-side pancreaticojejunostomywas discovered.End-to-end invagination pancreaticojejunostomy with circle discontinuous U suture has a definite effect on avoiding pancreatic fistula following pancreaticojejunostomy and is worth being recommended.But the cases were limited,so this method would still need to be observed and confirmed further in the future.

  19. Characterizing End-to-End Delay Performance of Randomized TCP Using an Analytical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shorfuzzaman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available TCP (Transmission Control Protocol is the main transport protocol used in high speed network. In the OSI Model, TCP exists in the Transport Layer and it serves as a connection-oriented protocol which performs handshaking to create a connection. In addition, TCP provides end-to-end reliability. There are different standard variants of TCP (e.g. TCP Reno, TCP NewReno etc.which implement mechanisms to dynamically control the size of congestion window but they do not have any control on the sending time of successive packets. TCP pacing introduces the concept of controlling the packet sending time at TCP sources to reduce packet loss in a bursty traffic network. Randomized TCP is a new TCP pacing scheme which has shown better performance (considering throughput, fairness over other TCP variants in bursty networks. The end-to-end delay of Randomized TCP is a very important performance measure which has not yet been addressed. In the current high speed networks, it is increasingly important to have mechanisms that keep end-to-end to delay within an acceptable range. In this paper, we present the performance evaluation of end-to-end delay of Randomized TCP. To this end, we have used an analytical and a simulation model to characterize the end-to-end delay performance of Randomized TCP.

  20. Automatic provisioning of end-to-end QoS into the home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy; Skoldström, Pontus; Nelis, Jelle;

    2011-01-01

    Due to a growing number of high bandwidth applications today (such as HDTV), and an increasing amount of network and cloud based applications, service providers need to pay attention to QoS in their networks. We believe there is a need for an end-to-end approach reaching into the home as well....... The Home Gateway (HG) as a key component of the home network is crucial for enabling the end-to-end solutions. UPnP-QoS has been proposed as an inhome solution for resource reservations. In this paper we assess a solution for automatic QoS reservations, on behalf of non-UPnP-QoS aware applications....... Additionally we focus on an integrated end-to-end solution, combining GMPLS-based reservations in e.g., access/metro and UPnP-QoS based reservation in the home network....

  1. End-to-End Information System design at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Recognizing a pressing need of the 1980s to optimize the two-way flow of information between a ground-based user and a remote space-based sensor, an end-to-end approach to the design of information systems has been adopted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The objectives of this effort are to ensure that all flight projects adequately cope with information flow problems at an early stage of system design, and that cost-effective, multi-mission capabilities are developed when capital investments are made in supporting elements. The paper reviews the End-to-End Information System (EEIS) activity at the Laboratory, and notes the ties to the NASA End-to-End Data System program.

  2. Measuring End-To-End Bandwidth with Iperf Using Web100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, Les

    2003-04-30

    End-to-end bandwidth estimation tools like Iperf though fairly accurate are intrusive. In this paper, we describe how with an instrumented TCP stack (Web100), we can estimate the end-to-end bandwidth accurately, while consuming significantly less network bandwidth and time. We modified Iperf to use Web100 to detect the end of slow-start and estimate the end-to-end bandwidth by measuring the amount of data sent for a short period (1 second) after the slow-start, when the TCP throughput is relatively stable. We obtained bandwidth estimates differing by less than 10% when compared to running Iperf for 20 seconds, and savings in bandwidth estimation time of up to 94% and savings in network traffic of up to 92%.

  3. An end-to-end communications architecture for condition-based maintenance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroculick, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores challenges in implementing an end-to-end communications architecture for Condition-Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) data transmission which aligns with the Army's Network Modernization Strategy. The Army's Network Modernization strategy is based on rolling out network capabilities which connect the smallest unit and Soldier level to enterprise systems. CBM+ is a continuous improvement initiative over the life cycle of a weapon system or equipment to improve the reliability and maintenance effectiveness of Department of Defense (DoD) systems. CBM+ depends on the collection, processing and transport of large volumes of data. An important capability that enables CBM+ is an end-to-end network architecture that enables data to be uploaded from the platform at the tactical level to enterprise data analysis tools. To connect end-to-end maintenance processes in the Army's supply chain, a CBM+ network capability can be developed from available network capabilities.

  4. IPTV Resource and Performance Management using End-to-End Available Bandwidth Estimation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Over-The-Top IPTV services have seen a huge increase in popularity in recent years. This fact coupled with the ever increasing resource requirements of IPTV services has created a necessity for e�cient and e�ective management of these IPTV services. This thesis presents contributions and �ndings into the use of end-to-end Available Bandwidth estimation to help govern Over-The-Top IPTV service delivery. An ex- amination is presented of the conditions under which end-to-end Avail...

  5. Coupling of a single quantum emitter to end-to-end aligned silver nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Huck, Alexander; Chen, Yuntian;

    2013-01-01

    observe an enhancement of the NV-centers' decay rate in both cases as a result of the coupling to the plasmons. The devices are nano-assembled with a scanning probe technique. Through simulations, we show that end-to-end aligned silver nanowires can be used as a controllable splitter for emission from...

  6. A Robust Method to Integrate End-to-End Mission Architecture Optimization Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Rafael; Litton, Daniel; Qu, Min; Shidner, Jeremy; Powell, Richard

    2016-01-01

    End-to-end mission simulations include multiple phases of flight. For example, an end-to-end Mars mission simulation may include launch from Earth, interplanetary transit to Mars and entry, descent and landing. Each phase of flight is optimized to meet specified constraints and often depend on and impact subsequent phases. The design and optimization tools and methodologies used to combine different aspects of end-to-end framework and their impact on mission planning are presented. This work focuses on a robust implementation of a Multidisciplinary Design Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) method that offers the flexibility to quickly adapt to changing mission design requirements. Different simulations tailored to the liftoff, ascent, and atmospheric entry phases of a trajectory are integrated and optimized in the MDAO program Isight, which provides the user a graphical interface to link simulation inputs and outputs. This approach provides many advantages to mission planners, as it is easily adapted to different mission scenarios and can improve the understanding of the integrated system performance within a particular mission configuration. A Mars direct entry mission using the Space Launch System (SLS) is presented as a generic end-to-end case study. For the given launch period, the SLS launch performance is traded for improved orbit geometry alignment, resulting in an optimized a net payload that is comparable to that in the SLS Mission Planner's Guide.

  7. End-To-End Esophagojejunostomy Versus Standard End-To-Side Esophagojejunostomy: Which One Is Preferable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kavyani

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:End-to-side esophagojejunostomy has almost always been associated with some degree of dysphagia. To overcome this complication we decided to perform an end-to-end anastomosis and compare it with end-to-side Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy. Methods: In this prospective study, between 1998 and 2005,71 patients with a diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma underwent total gastrectomy. Standard esophagojejunostomy with an end-to-side fashion was performed in 41 patients and compared with our recommended technique of end-to-end esophagojejunostomy in 30 patients. Results: This study showed that esophagojejunostomy with an end-to-end fashion has a low incidence of postoperative dysphagia (33.3%,whereas in those with an endto- side anastomosis the rate of ysphagia is very high (83%.Conclusion:A Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy with an end-to-end anastomosis has a low incidence of postoperative dysphagia and we strongly recommend using this technique.

  8. End-to-End Availability Analysis of IMS-Based Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2013-01-01

    Generation Networks (NGNs). In this paper, an end-to-end availability model is proposed and evaluated using a combination of Reliability Block Diagrams (RBD) and a proposed five-state Markov model. The overall availability for intra- and inter domain communication in IMS is analyzed, and the state...

  9. Location Assisted Vertical Handover Algorithm for QoS Optimization in End-to-End Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Martin S.; Christensen, Steffen R.; Mikkelsen, Lars M.

    2012-01-01

    implementation on Android based tablets. The simulations cover a wide range of scenarios for two mobile users in an urban area with ubiquitous cellular coverage, and shows our algorithm leads to increased throughput, with fewer handovers, when considering the end-to-end connection than to other handover schemes...

  10. Security Considerations around End-to-End Security in the IP-based Internet of Things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brachmann, M.; Garcia-Mochon, O.; Keoh, S.L.; Kumar, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    The IP-based Internet of Things refers to the interconnection of smart objects in a Low-power and Lossy Network (LLN) with the Internetby means of protocols such as 6LoWPAN or CoAP. The provisioning of an end-to-end security connection is the key to ensure basic functionalities such as software upda

  11. End-to-end Configuration of Wireless Realtime Communication over Heterogeneous Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinowsky, B.; Grønbæk, Jesper; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a wireless real-time communication system design using two Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) protocols. Messages are subject to prioritization and queuing. For this interoperation scenario, we show a method for end-to-end configuration of protocols and queue sizes. Such co...

  12. Building dialogue POMDPs from expert dialogues an end-to-end approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chinaei, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) framework applied in dialogue systems. It presents POMDP as a formal framework to represent uncertainty explicitly while supporting automated policy solving. The authors propose and implement an end-to-end learning approach for dialogue POMDP model components. Starting from scratch, they present the state, the transition model, the observation model and then finally the reward model from unannotated and noisy dialogues. These altogether form a significant set of contributions that can potentially inspire substantial further work. This concise manuscript is written in a simple language, full of illustrative examples, figures, and tables. Provides insights on building dialogue systems to be applied in real domain Illustrates learning dialogue POMDP model components from unannotated dialogues in a concise format Introduces an end-to-end approach that makes use of unannotated and noisy dialogue for learning each component of dialogue POM...

  13. End-to-end delay analysis in wireless sensor networks with service vacation

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, a delay-sensitive multi-hop wireless sensor network is considered, employing an M/G/1 with vacations framework. Sensors transmit measurements to a predefined data sink subject to maximum end-to-end delay constraint. In order to prolong the battery lifetime, a sleeping scheme is adopted throughout the network nodes. The objective of our proposed framework is to present an expression for maximum hop-count as well as an approximate expression of the probability of blocking at the sink node upon violating certain end-to-end delay threshold. Using numerical simulations, we validate the proposed analytical model and demonstrate that the blocking probability of the system for various vacation time distributions matches the simulation results.

  14. Providing end-to-end QoS for multimedia applications in 3G wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Katherine; Rangarajan, Samapth; Siddiqui, M. A.; Paul, Sanjoy

    2003-11-01

    As the usage of wireless packet data services increases, wireless carriers today are faced with the challenge of offering multimedia applications with QoS requirements within current 3G data networks. End-to-end QoS requires support at the application, network, link and medium access control (MAC) layers. We discuss existing CDMA2000 network architecture and show its shortcomings that prevent supporting multiple classes of traffic at the Radio Access Network (RAN). We then propose changes in RAN within the standards framework that enable support for multiple traffic classes. In addition, we discuss how Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) can be augmented with QoS signaling for supporting end-to-end QoS. We also review state of the art scheduling algorithms at the base station and provide possible extensions to these algorithms to support different classes of traffic as well as different classes of users.

  15. Chaos Based Joint Compression and Encryption Framework for End-to-End Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Goel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmentation in communication and coding technology has made encryption an integral part of secure multimedia communication systems. Security solution for end-to-end image transmission requires content adaptation at intermediate nodes, which consumes significant resources to decrypt, process, and reencrypt the secured data. To save the computational resources, this paper proposes a network-friendly encryption technique, which can be implemented in transparency to content adaptation techniques. The proposed encryption technique maintains the compression efficiency of underlying entropy coder, and enables the processing of encrypted data. Thorough analysis of the technique, as regards various standard evaluation parameters and attack scenarios, demonstrates its ability to withstand known-plaintext, ciphertext-only, and approximation attacks. This justifies its implementation for secure image transmission for end-to-end communication systems.

  16. End-to-end calculation of the radiation characteristics of VVER-1000 spent fuel assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linge, I. I.; Mitenkova, E. F.; Novikov, N. V.

    2012-12-01

    The results of end-to-end calculation of the radiation characteristics of VVER-1000 spent nuclear fuel are presented. Details of formation of neutron and gamma-radiation sources are analyzed. Distributed sources of different types of radiation are considered. A comparative analysis of calculated radiation characteristics is performed with the use of nuclear data from different ENDF/B and EAF files and ANSI/ANS and ICRP standards.

  17. An End-to-End QoS Control Model for Enhanced Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张尧学; 王晓春; 顾钧

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an end-to-end QoS (Quality of Services) control model for distributed multimedia computing on enhanced Internet, and gives the design and implementation of this model including hosts and routers. The architecture, the mathematical definition about QoS parameters, and the mapping between Integrated Service (IS) and Differentiated Service (DS) are discussed in this paper.The simulation shows that this model can improve the performance of audio streams when it is used in IPhone system.

  18. Financing the End-to-end Supply Chain: A Reference Guide to Supply Chain Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Templar, Simon; Hofmann, Erik; Findlay, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Financing the End to End Supply Chain provides readers with a real insight into the increasingly important area of supply chain finance. It demonstrates the importance of the strategic relationship between the physical supply of goods and services and the associated financial flows. The book provides a clear introduction, demonstrating the importance of the strategic relationship between supply chain and financial communities within an organization. It contains vital information on how supply...

  19. Performance Enhancements of UMTS networks using end-to-end QoS provisioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haibo; Prasad, Devendra; Teyeb, Oumer;

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the end-to-end(E2E) quality of service(QoS) provisioning approaches for UMTS networks together with DiffServ IP network. The effort was put on QoS classes mapping from DiffServ to UMTS, Access Control(AC), buffering and scheduling optimization. The DiffServ Code Point (DSCP...... algorithm provide a fexible and effcient QoS guarantees for multiple UMTS classes....

  20. Towards End-to-End Learning for Dialog State Tracking and Management using Deep Reinforcement Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Tiancheng; Eskenazi, Maxine

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an end-to-end framework for task-oriented dialog systems using a variant of Deep Recurrent Q-Networks (DRQN). The model is able to interface with a relational database and jointly learn policies for both language understanding and dialog strategy. Moreover, we propose a hybrid algorithm that combines the strength of reinforcement learning and supervised learning to achieve faster learning speed. We evaluated the proposed model on a 20 Question Game conversational game simu...

  1. Testing Application (End-to-End Performance of Networks With EFT Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatko Lipovac

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies how end-to-end application peiformance(of Electronic Financial Transaction traffic, in particulardepends on the actual protocol stacks, operating systemsand network transmission rates. With this respect, the respectivesimulation tests of peiformance of TCP and UDP protocolsrunning on various operating systems, ranging from Windows,Sun Solmis, to Linux have been implemented, and thedifferences in peiformance addressed focusing on throughputand response time.

  2. The International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) End-to-End On-Orbit Maintenance Process Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingrebe, Kenneth W., II

    1995-01-01

    As a tool for construction and refinement of the on-orbit maintenance system to sustain the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA), the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) developed an end to-end on-orbit maintenance process flow. This paper discusses and demonstrates that process flow. This tool is being used by MOD to identify areas which require further work in preparation for MOD's role in the conduct of on-orbit maintenance operations.

  3. CHEETAH: circuit-switched high-speed end-to-end transport architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeraraghavan, Malathi; Zheng, Xuan; Lee, Hyuk; Gardner, M.; Feng, Wuchun

    2003-10-01

    Leveraging the dominance of Ethernet in LANs and SONET/SDH in MANs and WANs, we propose a service called CHEETAH (Circuit-switched High-speed End-to-End Transport ArcHitecture). The service concept is to provide end hosts with high-speed, end-to-end circuit connectivity on a call-by-call shared basis, where a "circuit" consists of Ethernet segments at the ends that are mapped into Ethernet-over-SONET long-distance circuits. This paper focuses on the file-transfer application for such circuits. For this application, the CHEETAH service is proposed as an add-on to the primary Internet access service already in place for enterprise hosts. This allows an end host that is sending a file to first attempt setting up an end-to-end Ethernet/EoS circuit, and if rejected, fall back to the TCP/IP path. If the circuit setup is successful, the end host will enjoy a much shorter file-transfer delay than on the TCP/IP path. To determine the conditions under which an end host with access to the CHEETAH service should attempt circuit setup, we analyze mean file-transfer delays as a function of call blocking probability in the circuit-switched network, probability of packet loss in the IP network, round-trip times, link rates, and so on.

  4. Direct muscle neurotization after end-to end and end-to-side neurorrhaphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Igor; Ronchi, Giulia; Muratori, Luisa; Mazzucco, Alessandra; Magaudda, Ludovico; Geuna, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The need for the continuous research of new tools for improving motor function recovery after nerve injury is justified by the still often unsatisfactory clinical outcome in these patients. It has been previously shown that the combined use of two reconstructive techniques, namely end-to-side neurorrhaphy and direct muscle neurotization in the rat hindlimb model, can lead to good results in terms of skeletal muscle reinnervation. Here we show that, in the rat forelimb model, the combined use of direct muscle neurotization with either end-to-end or end-to-side neurorrhaphy to reinnervate the denervated flexor digitorum muscles, leads to muscle atrophy prevention over a long postoperative time lapse (10 months). By contrast, very little motor recovery (in case of end-to-end neurorrhaphy) and almost no motor recovery (in case of end-to-side neurorrhaphy) were observed in the grasping activity controlled by flexor digitorum muscles. It can thus be concluded that, at least in the rat, direct muscle neurotization after both end-to-end and end-to-side neurorrhaphy represents a good strategy for preventing denervation-related muscle atrophy but not for regaining the lost motor function. PMID:25538749

  5. An end-to-end robust approach for scalable video over the Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guijin; ZHANG Qian; ZHU Wenwu; LIN Xinggang

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an end-to-end robust approach for scalable video over the Internet. The traditional method only considers congestion control, error control and is unable to achieve end-to-end high-quality video transmission in the error-prone environment like the Internet since it does not consider the packetization behavior,network conditions and the media characteristics simultaneously. This paper presents an end-to-end approach for scalable video over the Internet, combining network adaptive congestion control and unequal error control. Considering requirements of multimedia transmission, this paper introduces multimedia congestion control to estimate available bandwidth and smooth the media sending rate. Specially in the transport layer we propose unequal interleaving packetization method and unequal error protection scheme,which can alleviate the effect of the packet loss well. Further we develop the rate-distortion theory for the scalable video over the Internet. Thereafter the optimal bit allocation is presented to determine the bits budgets for the source part and error control part. Simulation shows our scheme can achieve good performance for scalable video over the Internet.

  6. Sutureless end-to-end bowel anastomosis in rabbit using Iow-power CO2 laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Rong Li; Yong Long Chi; Run Cong Ke

    2000-01-01

    The use of laser energy to weld biological tissues and produce sutureless anastomosis has its advantages over conventional silk-sutured anastomosis since it was reported in small vessels[1] and fallopian tubes[2], in the late 1970s. Since then, more investigators have welded a larger variety of tissues[3-13] and have expanded its application to welding trials of entertomies of rabbit and rat small intestine[14-17] Sauer et al[18] reported results from Nd: YAG laser in reconstruction of end-to-end welding in rabbit small intestine. Recently, controlled temperature during YAG and argon laser-assisted welding of entertomies of rabbit and rat was implemented to eliminate exponential increases in the rate of denaturation associated with rapidly increasing temperature[19,20]. Yet there was no report of sutureless end-to-end bowel anastomosis using low-power CO2 laser. This is a report of a circumferential end-to-end laser welding bowel anastomosis in rabbit by using 3 different CO2 laser powers to explore the feasibility of CO2 laser welding of a circumferential intestinal tissue and to determine the optimal laser-welding parameter. Then the appropriate CO2 laser power was chosen to weld bowels in rabbit and its long-term healing effect was evaluated.

  7. QoS Modeling for End-to-End Performance Evaluation over Networks with Wireless Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Gómez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS model for assessing the performance of data services over networks with wireless access. The proposed model deals with performance degradation across protocol layers using a bottom-up strategy, starting with the physical layer and moving on up to the application layer. This approach makes it possible to analytically assess performance at different layers, thereby facilitating a possible end-to-end optimization process. As a representative case, a scenario where a set of mobile terminals connected to a streaming server through an IP access node has been studied. UDP, TCP, and the new TCP-Friendly Rate Control (TFRC protocols were analyzed at the transport layer. The radio interface consisted of a variable-rate multiuser and multichannel subsystem, including retransmissions and adaptive modulation and coding. The proposed analytical QoS model was validated on a real-time emulator of an end-to-end network with wireless access and proved to be very useful for the purposes of service performance estimation and optimization.

  8. End-to-end modeling: a new modular and flexible approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoni, M.; Riva, M.; Landoni, M.; Pariani, G.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we present an innovative philosophy to develop the End-to-End model for astronomical observation projects, i.e. the architecture which allows physical modeling of the whole system from the light source to the reduced data. This alternative philosophy foresees the development of the physical model of the different modules, which compose the entire End-to-End system, directly during the project design phase. This approach is strongly characterized by modularity and flexibility; these aspects will be of relevant importance in the next generation astronomical observation projects like E-ELT (European Extremely Large Telescope) because of the high complexity and long-time design and development. With this approach it will be possible to keep the whole system and its different modules efficiently under control during every project phase and to exploit a reliable tool at a system engineering level to evaluate the effects on the final performance both of the main parameters and of different instrument architectures and technologies. This philosophy will be important to allow scientific community to perform in advance simulations and tests on the scientific drivers. This will translate in a continuous feedback to the (system) design process with a resulting improvement in the effectively achievable scientific goals and consistent tool for efficiently planning observation proposals and programs. We present the application case for this End-to-End modeling technique, which is the high resolution spectrograph at the E-ELT (E-ELT HIRES). In particular we present the definition of the system modular architecture, describing the interface parameters of the modules.

  9. Screening California Current fishery management scenarios using the Atlantis end-to-end ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Isaac C.; Horne, Peter J.; Levin, Phillip S.

    2012-09-01

    End-to-end marine ecosystem models link climate and oceanography to the food web and human activities. These models can be used as forecasting tools, to strategically evaluate management options and to support ecosystem-based management. Here we report the results of such forecasts in the California Current, using an Atlantis end-to-end model. We worked collaboratively with fishery managers at NOAA’s regional offices and staff at the National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS) to explore the impact of fishery policies on management objectives at different spatial scales, from single Marine Sanctuaries to the entire Northern California Current. In addition to examining Status Quo management, we explored the consequences of several gear switching and spatial management scenarios. Of the scenarios that involved large scale management changes, no single scenario maximized all performance metrics. Any policy choice would involve trade-offs between stakeholder groups and policy goals. For example, a coast-wide 25% gear shift from trawl to pot or longline appeared to be one possible compromise between an increase in spatial management (which sacrificed revenue) and scenarios such as the one consolidating bottom impacts to deeper areas (which did not perform substantially differently from Status Quo). Judged on a coast-wide scale, most of the scenarios that involved minor or local management changes (e.g. within Monterey Bay NMS only) yielded results similar to Status Quo. When impacts did occur in these cases, they often involved local interactions that were difficult to predict a priori based solely on fishing patterns. However, judged on the local scale, deviation from Status Quo did emerge, particularly for metrics related to stationary species or variables (i.e. habitat and local metrics of landed value or bycatch). We also found that isolated management actions within Monterey Bay NMS would cause local fishers to pay a cost for conservation, in terms of reductions in landed

  10. End-to-End Assessment of a Large Aperture Segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee; Bolcar, Matt; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Olivier; Stark,Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield Exo-Earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an Exo-Earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance.

  11. Using Network Calculus to compute end-to-end delays in SpaceWire networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrandiz, Thomas; Frances, Fabrice; Fraboul, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The SpaceWire network standard is promoted by the ESA and is scheduled to be used as the sole on-board network for future satellites. This network uses a wormhole routing mechanism that can lead to packet blocking in routers and consequently to variable end-to-end delays. As the network will be shared by real-time and non real- time traffic, network designers require a tool to check that temporal constraints are verified for all the critical messages. Network Calculus can be used for evaluati...

  12. END-TO-END DEPTH FROM MOTION WITH STABILIZED MONOCULAR VIDEOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pinard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a depth map inference system from monocular videos based on a novel dataset for navigation that mimics aerial footage from gimbal stabilized monocular camera in rigid scenes. Unlike most navigation datasets, the lack of rotation implies an easier structure from motion problem which can be leveraged for different kinds of tasks such as depth inference and obstacle avoidance. We also propose an architecture for end-to-end depth inference with a fully convolutional network. Results show that although tied to camera inner parameters, the problem is locally solvable and leads to good quality depth prediction.

  13. End to end adaptive congestion control in TCP/IP networks

    CERN Document Server

    Houmkozlis, Christos N

    2012-01-01

    This book provides an adaptive control theory perspective on designing congestion controls for packet-switching networks. Relevant to a wide range of disciplines and industries, including the music industry, computers, image trading, and virtual groups, the text extensively discusses source oriented, or end to end, congestion control algorithms. The book empowers readers with clear understanding of the characteristics of packet-switching networks and their effects on system stability and performance. It provides schemes capable of controlling congestion and fairness and presents real-world app

  14. Deriving comprehensive error breakdown for wide field adaptive optics systems using end-to-end simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, F.; Gendron, E.; Rousset, G.; Gratadour, D.

    2016-07-01

    The future European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) adaptive optics (AO) systems will aim at wide field correction and large sky coverage. Their performance will be improved by using post processing techniques, such as point spread function (PSF) deconvolution. The PSF estimation involves characterization of the different error sources in the AO system. Such error contributors are difficult to estimate: simulation tools are a good way to do that. We have developed in COMPASS (COMputing Platform for Adaptive opticS Systems), an end-to-end simulation tool using GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) acceleration, an estimation tool that provides a comprehensive error budget by the outputs of a single simulation run.

  15. On end-to-end performance of MIMO multiuser in cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a design for the multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) multiuser transmission in the cognitive radio network is developed and its end-to-end performance is investigated under spectrum-sharing constraints. Firstly, the overall average packet error rate is analyzed by considering the channel state information feedback delay and the multiuser scheduling. Then, we provide corresponding numerical results to measure the performance evaluation for several separate scenarios, which presents a convenient tool for the cognitive radio network design with multiple secondary MIMO users. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. WiMAX security and quality of service an end-to-end perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Seok-Yee; Sharif, Hamid

    2010-01-01

    WiMAX is the first standard technology to deliver true broadband mobility at speeds that enable powerful multimedia applications such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), online gaming, mobile TV, and personalized infotainment. WiMAX Security and Quality of Service, focuses on the interdisciplinary subject of advanced Security and Quality of Service (QoS) in WiMAX wireless telecommunication systems including its models, standards, implementations, and applications. Split into 4 parts, Part A of the book is an end-to-end overview of the WiMAX architecture, protocol, and system requirements.

  17. Satellite/Terrestrial Networks: End-to-End Communication Interoperability Quality of Service Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with satellite/terrestrial end-to-end communication interoperability are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Quality of service; 2) ATM performance characteristics; 3) MPEG-2 transport stream mapping to AAL-5; 4) Observation and discussion of compressed video tests over ATM; 5) Digital video over satellites status; 6) Satellite link configurations; 7) MPEG-2 over ATM with binomial errors; 8) MPEG-2 over ATM channel characteristics; 8) MPEG-2 over ATM over emulated satellites; 9) MPEG-2 transport stream with errors; and a 10) Dual decoder test.

  18. Analytical Framework for End-to-End Delay Based on Unidirectional Highway Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslinda Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a sparse vehicular ad hoc network, a vehicle normally employs a carry and forward approach, where it holds the message it wants to transmit until the vehicle meets other vehicles or roadside units. A number of analyses in the literature have been done to investigate the time delay when packets are being carried by vehicles on both unidirectional and bidirectional highways. However, these analyses are focusing on the delay between either two disconnected vehicles or two disconnected vehicle clusters. Furthermore, majority of the analyses only concentrate on the expected value of the end-to-end delay when the carry and forward approach is used. Using regression analysis, we establish the distribution model for the time delay between two disconnected vehicle clusters as an exponential distribution. Consequently, a distribution is newly derived to represent the number of clusters on a highway using a vehicular traffic model. From there, we are able to formulate end-to-end delay model which extends the time delay model for two disconnected vehicle clusters to multiple disconnected clusters on a unidirectional highway. The analytical results obtained from the analytical model are then validated through simulation results.

  19. End-to-End Beam Dynamics Simulations for the ANL-RIA Driver Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ostroumov, P N

    2004-01-01

    The proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) Facility consists of a superconducting (SC) 1.4 GV driver linac capable of producing 400 kW beams of any ion from hydrogen to uranium. The driver is configured as an array of ~350 SC cavities, each with independently controllable rf phase. For the end-to-end beam dynamics design and simulation we use a dedicated code, TRACK. The code integrates ion motion through the three-dimensional fields of all elements of the driver linac beginning from the exit of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to the production targets. TRACK has been parallelized and is able to track large number of particles in randomly seeded accelerators with misalignments and a comprehensive set of errors. The simulation starts with multi-component dc ion beams extracted from the ECR. Beam losses are obtained by tracking up to million particles in hundreds of randomly seeded accelerators. To control beam losses a set of collimators is applied in designated areas. The end-to-end simulat...

  20. Statistical End-to-end Performance Bounds for Networks under Long Memory FBM Cross Traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Amr

    2009-01-01

    Fractional Brownian motion (fBm) emerged as a useful model for self-similar and long-range dependent Internet traffic. Approximate performance measures are known from large deviations theory for single queuing systems with fBm through traffic. In this paper we derive end-to-end performance bounds for a through flow in a network of tandem queues under fBm cross traffic. To this end, we prove a rigorous sample path envelope for fBm that complements previous approximate results. We find that both approaches agree in their outcome that overflow probabilities for fBm traffic have a Weibullian tail. We employ the sample path envelope and the concept of leftover service curves to model the remaining service after scheduling fBm cross traffic at a system. Using composition results for tandem systems from the stochastic network calculus we derive end-to-end statistical performance bounds for individual flows in networks under fBm cross traffic. We discover that these bounds grow in O(n (log n)^(1/(2-2H))) for n system...

  1. The end-to-end testbed of the Optical Metrology System on-board LISA Pathfinder

    CERN Document Server

    Steier, Frank; Marín, Antonio F García; Gerardi, Domenico; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten; 10.1088/0264-9381/26/9/094010

    2012-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a technology demonstration mission for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The main experiment on-board LISA Pathfinder is the so-called LISA Technology Package (LTP) which has the aim to measure the differential acceleration between two free-falling test masses with an accuracy of 3x10^(-14) ms^(-2)/sqrt[Hz] between 1 mHz and 30 mHz. This measurement is performed interferometrically by the Optical Metrology System (OMS) on-board LISA Pathfinder. In this paper we present the development of an experimental end-to-end testbed of the entire OMS. It includes the interferometer and its sub-units, the interferometer back-end which is a phasemeter and the processing of the phasemeter output data. Furthermore, 3-axes piezo actuated mirrors are used instead of the free-falling test masses for the characterisation of the dynamic behaviour of the system and some parts of the Drag-free and Attitude Control System (DFACS) which controls the test masses and the satellite. The end-to-end testbe...

  2. Semantic Service Composition with QoS End - to - End Constraints via AND/OR Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhemal Zenuni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present AND/OR graphs as a unifying framework for semantic service composition that considers users QoS constraints. The main virtues of this representation among others are its ability to express semantic inference and to deal with QoS constraints from different perspectives. In addition it correctly handles multiple inputs/outputs of services, and allows high degree of automation. Once service dependencies and QoS features are formalized as AND/OR graph, we apply a search algorithm to discover composite services that considers user QoS end - to - end preferences. The implementation of a prototype system and the experimental results support our underlying hypothesis that AND/OR graphs are not only elegant and expressive formalism for addressing QoS - aware semantic service composition, but efficient as well.

  3. SPOKES: an End-to-End Simulation Facility for Spectroscopic Cosmological Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Nord, B; Refregier, A; Gamper, La; Gamper, Lu; Hambrecht, B; Chang, C; Forero-Romero, J E; Serrano, S; Cunha, C; Coles, O; Nicola, A; Busha, M; Bauer, A; Saunders, W; Jouvel, S; Kirk, D; Wechsler, R

    2016-01-01

    The nature of dark matter, dark energy and large-scale gravity pose some of the most pressing questions in cosmology today. These fundamental questions require highly precise measurements, and a number of wide-field spectroscopic survey instruments are being designed to meet this requirement. A key component in these experiments is the development of a simulation tool to forecast science performance, define requirement flow-downs, optimize implementation, demonstrate feasibility, and prepare for exploitation. We present SPOKES (SPectrOscopic KEn Simulation), an end-to-end simulation facility for spectroscopic cosmological surveys designed to address this challenge. SPOKES is based on an integrated infrastructure, modular function organization, coherent data handling and fast data access. These key features allow reproducibility of pipeline runs, enable ease of use and provide flexibility to update functions within the pipeline. The cyclic nature of the pipeline offers the possibility to make the science outpu...

  4. End-to-end interoperability and workflows from building architecture design to one or more simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Tian-Jy; Kim, Younghun

    2015-02-10

    An end-to-end interoperability and workflows from building architecture design to one or more simulations, in one aspect, may comprise establishing a BIM enablement platform architecture. A data model defines data entities and entity relationships for enabling the interoperability and workflows. A data definition language may be implemented that defines and creates a table schema of a database associated with the data model. Data management services and/or application programming interfaces may be implemented for interacting with the data model. Web services may also be provided for interacting with the data model via the Web. A user interface may be implemented that communicates with users and uses the BIM enablement platform architecture, the data model, the data definition language, data management services and application programming interfaces to provide functions to the users to perform work related to building information management.

  5. End-to-end simulations of the E-ELT/METIS coronagraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Brunella; Absil, Olivier; Kenworthy, Matthew; Ruane, Garreth; Keller, Christoph U.; Otten, Gilles; Feldt, Markus; Hippler, Stefan; Huby, Elsa; Mawet, Dimitri; Delacroix, Christian; Surdej, Jean; Habraken, Serge; Forsberg, Pontus; Karlsson, Mikael; Vargas Catalan, Ernesto; Brandl, Bernhard R.

    2016-07-01

    The direct detection of low-mass planets in the habitable zone of nearby stars is an important science case for future E-ELT instruments such as the mid-infrared imager and spectrograph METIS, which features vortex phase masks and apodizing phase plates (APP) in its baseline design. In this work, we present end-to-end performance simulations, using Fourier propagation, of several METIS coronagraphic modes, including focal-plane vortex phase masks and pupil-plane apodizing phase plates, for the centrally obscured, segmented E-ELT pupil. The atmosphere and the AO contributions are taken into account. Hybrid coronagraphs combining the advantages of vortex phase masks and APPs are considered to improve the METIS coronagraphic performance.

  6. Genetic algorithm for autonomic joint radio resource management in end-to-end reconfigurable systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xian; MA Tao; LIN Yue-wei; FENG Zhi-yong

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the genetic algorithm (GA) asan autonomic approach for the joint radio resource management(JRRM) amongst heterogeneous radio access technologies(RATs) in the end-to-end reconfigurable systems. The jointsession admission control (JOSAC) and the bandwidth allocationare combined as a specific decision made by the operations ofthe genetic algorithm with certain advisable modifications. Theproposed algorithm is triggered on the following two conditions.When a session is initiated, it is triggered for the session tocamp on the most appropriate RAT and select the most suitablebandwidth for the desired service. When a session terminates, itis also used to adjust the distribution of the ongoing sessionsthrough the handovers. This will increase the adjustmentfrequency of the JRRM controller for the best systemperformance. Simulation results indicate that the proposedautonomic JRRM scheme not only effectively reduces thehandover times, but also achieves well trade-off between thespectrum utility and the blocking probability.

  7. Data analysis Pipeline for EChO end-to-end simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Waldmann, Ingo P

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric spectroscopy of extrasolar planets is an intricate business. Atmospheric signatures typically require a photometric precision of $1 \\times 10^{-4}$ in flux over several hours. Such precision demands high instrument stability as well as an understanding of stellar variability and an optimal data reduction and removal of systematic noise. In the context of the EChO mission concept, we here discuss the data reduction and analysis pipeline developed for the EChO end-to-end simulator EChOSim. We present and discuss the step by step procedures required in order to obtain the final exoplanetary spectrum from the EChOSim`raw data' using a simulated observation of the secondary eclipse of the hot-Neptune 55 Cnc e.

  8. End to end numerical simulations of the MAORY multiconjugate adaptive optics system

    CERN Document Server

    Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Bregoli, Giovanni; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Foppiani, Italo; Cosentino, Giuseppe; Lombini, Matteo; Butler, R C; Ciliegi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    MAORY is the adaptive optics module of the E-ELT that will feed the MICADO imaging camera through a gravity invariant exit port. MAORY has been foreseen to implement MCAO correction through three high order deformable mirrors driven by the reference signals of six Laser Guide Stars (LGSs) feeding as many Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensors. A three Natural Guide Stars (NGSs) system will provide the low order correction. We develop a code for the end-to-end simulation of the MAORY adaptive optics (AO) system in order to obtain high-delity modeling of the system performance. It is based on the IDL language and makes extensively uses of the GPUs. Here we present the architecture of the simulation tool and its achieved and expected performance.

  9. The Kepler End-to-End Data Pipeline: From Photons to Far Away Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Brian; Thompson, Richard; Standley, Shaun

    2012-01-01

    Launched by NASA on 6 March 2009, the Kepler Mission has been observing more than 100,000 targets in a single patch of sky between the constellations Cygnus and Lyra almost continuously for the last two years looking for planetary systems using the transit method. As of October 2011, the Kepler spacecraft has collected and returned to Earth just over 290 GB of data, identifying 1235 planet candidates with 25 of these candidates confirmed as planets via ground observation. Extracting the telltale signature of a planetary system from stellar photometry where valid signal transients can be small as a 40 ppm is a difficult and exacting task. The end-to end processing of determining planetary candidates from noisy, raw photometric measurements is discussed.

  10. End-to-end requirements management for multiprojects in the construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörösch, Michael

    The research described in this PhD thesis focuses on the phenomenon that formalized requirements management, as many studies have shown, has yet to find its way into the construction industry, even though it is effectively used in other fields e.g. software development and the aerospace and defence...... structure is aimed at covering the entire life cycle of a building by considering future events. However, the developed requirements structure is not enough for managing requirements. Therefore an intensive literature study on requirements management in general and in particular requirements management...... industries. The research gives at the same time managers of construction projects a tool with which to manage their requirements end-to-end. In order to investigate how construction companies handle requirements, a case project – a Danish construction syndicate producing sandwich elements made from High...

  11. An Extended Model Driven Framework for End-to-End Consistent Model Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. G. Ramesh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Model Driven Development (MDD results in quick transformation from models to corresponding systems. Forward engineering features of modelling tools can help in generating source code from models. To build a robust system it is important to have consistency checking in the design models and the same between design model and the transformed implementation. Our framework named as Extensible Real Time Software Design Inconsistency Checker (XRTSDIC proposed in our previous papers supports consistency checking in design models. This paper focuses on automatic model transformation. An algorithm and defined transformation rules for model transformation from UML class diagram to ERD and SQL are being proposed. The model transformation bestows many advantages such as reducing cost of development, improving quality, enhancing productivity and leveraging customer satisfaction. Proposed framework has been enhanced to ensure that the transformed implementations conform to their model counterparts besides checking end-to-end consistency.

  12. Force Characteristics of the Rat Sternomastoid Muscle Reinnervated with End-to-End Nerve Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Sobotka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to establish force data for the rat sternomastoid (SM muscle after reinnervation with nerve end-to-end anastomosis (EEA, which could be used as a baseline for evaluating the efficacy of new reinnervation techniques. The SM muscle on one side was paralyzed by transecting its nerve and then EEA was performed at different time points: immediate EEA, 1-month and 3-month delay EEA. At the end of 3-month recovery period, the magnitude of functional recovery of the reinnervated SM muscle was evaluated by measuring muscle force and comparing with the force of the contralateral control muscle. Our results demonstrated that the immediately reinnervated SM produced approximately 60% of the maximal tetanic force of the control. The SM with delayed nerve repair yielded approximately 40% of the maximal force. Suboptimal recovery of muscle force after EEA demonstrates the importance of developing alternative surgical techniques to treat muscle paralysis.

  13. Single and Multi-bunch End-to-end Tracking in the LHeC

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, D; Latina, A; Schulte, D

    2015-01-01

    The LHeC study aims at delivering an electron beam for collision with the LHC proton beam. The current base- line design consists of a multi-pass superconductive energy- recovery linac operating in a continuous wave mode. The high current beam ($\\sim$ 100 mA) in the linacs excites long- range wake-fields between bunches of different turns, which induce instabilities and might cause beam losses. PLACET2, a novel version of the tracking code PLACET, capable to handle recirculation and time dependencies, has been em- ployed to perform the first LHeC end-to-end tracking. The impact of long-range wake-fields, synchrotron radiation, and beam-beam effects has been assessed. The simulation results and recent improvements in the lattice design are presented and discussed in this paper.

  14. End-to-end assessment of a large aperture segmented ultraviolet optical infrared (UVOIR) telescope architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee; Rioux, Norman; Bolcar, Matthew; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Olivier; Stark, Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-07-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10^-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield exo-earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an exo-earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance. These efforts are combined through integrated modeling, coronagraph evaluations, and exo-earth yield calculations to assess the potential performance of the selected architecture. In addition, we discusses the scalability of this architecture to larger apertures and the technological tall poles to enabling these missions.

  15. End-to-End Beam Simulations for the New Muon G-2 Experiment at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korostelev, Maxim [Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Bailey, Ian [Lancaster U.; Herrod, Alexander [Liverpool U.; Morgan, James [Fermilab; Morse, William [RIKEN BNL; Stratakis, Diktys [RIKEN BNL; Tishchenko, Vladimir [RIKEN BNL; Wolski, Andrzej [Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the new muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab is to measure the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon with an unprecedented uncertainty of 140 ppb. A beam of positive muons required for the experiment is created by pion decay. Detailed studies of the beam dynamics and spin polarization of the muons are important to predict systematic uncertainties in the experiment. In this paper, we present the results of beam simulations and spin tracking from the pion production target to the muon storage ring. The end-to-end beam simulations are developed in Bmad and include the processes of particle decay, collimation (with accurate representation of all apertures) and spin tracking.

  16. End-to-end rate-based congestion control with random loss: convergence and stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The convergence and stability analysis for two end-to-end rate-based congestion control algorithms with unavoidable random loss in packets are presented, which can be caused by, for example, errors on wireless links. The convergence rates of these two algorithms are analyzed by linearizing them around their equilibrium points, since they are globally stable and can converge to their unique equilibrium points. Some sufficient conditions for local stability in the presence of round-trip delay are obtained based on the general Nyquist criterion of stability. The stability conditions can be considered to be more general. If random loss in the first congestion control algorithm is not considered, they reduce to the local stability conditions which have been obtained in some literatures. Furthermore, sufficient conditions for local stability of a new congestion control algorithm have also been obtained if random loss is not considered in the second congestion control algorithm.

  17. 'Smart' from a NEEDS perspective. [sensors in NASA End-to-End Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of the characteristics which are considered essential for the NASA information system if it is to satisfy the sensor/user needs of the 1980's. The present data/information (DI) system is a complex arrangement of functions which has evolved to meet the increased demands placed upon it by the changing nature of the space program. Even though today's ground system is handling today's DI flow, it has certain limitations, and in some cases lacks consistency in organization and structure that would allow it to cope with the new requirements. A systematic analysis and overview of the total system is necessary for the planning of an efficient and effective information system for the 1980's. The NASA End-to-End Data System (NEEDS) program is an attempt to significantly increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the system that couples the user of the space data with the sensors.

  18. The Consolidation of the End-to-End Avionics Systems Testbench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnands, Quirien; Torelli, Felice; Blommestijn, Robert; Kranz, Stephan; Koster, Jean-Paul

    2014-08-01

    Over the past years, the Avionics System Test Bench (ATB) has been used to support the demonstration and validation of upcoming space avionics related standards and technologies in a representative environment. Next to this another main use-case of the facility has been to support projects in their needs of assessing particular technology related issues. In doing so, it was necessary to add activity- and project specifics to different configurations of the ATB, leading to a proliferation of facilities and technologies. In some cases however the results and lessons-learned from these efforts and activities were considered valuable to the ATB-concept in general and therefore needed preservation in the ATB mainstream for future reuse. Currently activities are ongoing to consolidate the End-To-End Avionics Systems TestBench (E2E-ATB). In this paper the resulting details of these activities are described as enhancements and improvements per ATB configuration.

  19. Enhancing End-to-End Performance of Information Services Over Ka-Band Global Satellite Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Glover, Daniel R.; Ivancic, William D.; vonDeak, Thomas C.

    1997-01-01

    The Internet has been growing at a rapid rate as the key medium to provide information services such as e-mail, WWW and multimedia etc., however its global reach is limited. Ka-band communication satellite networks are being developed to increase the accessibility of information services via the Internet at global scale. There is need to assess satellite networks in their ability to provide these services and interconnect seamlessly with existing and proposed terrestrial telecommunication networks. In this paper the significant issues and requirements in providing end-to-end high performance for the delivery of information services over satellite networks based on various layers in the OSI reference model are identified. Key experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of digital video and Internet over satellite-like testbeds. The results of the early developments in ATM and TCP protocols over satellite networks are summarized.

  20. End-to-end performance analysis using engineering confidence models and a ground processor prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Klaus-Werner; Sauer, Maximilian; Jäger, Thomas; Herzog, Alexandra; Schmitt, Michael; Huchler, Markus; Wallace, Kotska; Eisinger, Michael; Heliere, Arnaud; Lefebvre, Alain; Maher, Mat; Chang, Mark; Phillips, Tracy; Knight, Steve; de Goeij, Bryan T. G.; van der Knaap, Frits; Van't Hof, Adriaan

    2015-10-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) are co-operating to develop the EarthCARE satellite mission with the fundamental objective of improving the understanding of the processes involving clouds, aerosols and radiation in the Earth's atmosphere. The EarthCARE Multispectral Imager (MSI) is relatively compact for a space borne imager. As a consequence, the immediate point-spread function (PSF) of the instrument will be mainly determined by the diffraction caused by the relatively small optical aperture. In order to still achieve a high contrast image, de-convolution processing is applied to remove the impact of diffraction on the PSF. A Lucy-Richardson algorithm has been chosen for this purpose. This paper will describe the system setup and the necessary data pre-processing and post-processing steps applied in order to compare the end-to-end image quality with the L1b performance required by the science community.

  1. Sieving of H2 and D2 Through End-to-End Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devagnik, Dasgupta; Debra, J. Searles; Lamberto, Rondoni; Stefano, Bernardi

    2014-10-01

    We study the quantum molecular sieving of H2 and D2 through two nanotubes placed end-to-end. An analytic treatment, assuming that the particles have classical motion along the axis of the nanotube and are confined in a potential well in the radial direction, is considered. Using this idealistic model, and under certain conditions, it is found that this device can act as a complete sieve, allowing chemically pure deuterium to be isolated from an isotope mixture. We also consider a more realistic model of two carbon nanotubes and carry out molecular dynamics simulations using a Feynman—Hibbs potential to model the quantum effects on the dynamics of H2 and D2. Sieving is also observed in this case, but is caused by a different process.

  2. Flexible end-to-end system design for synthetic aperture radar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Evan C.; Edwards, Matthew C.; Bradley, Joshua P.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents ARTEMIS, Inc.'s approach to development of end-to-end synthetic aperture radar systems for multiple applications and platforms. The flexible design of the radar and the image processing tools facilitates their inclusion in a variety of application-specific end-to-end systems. Any given application comes with certain requirements that must be met in order to achieve success. A concept of operation is defined which states how the technology is used to meet the requirements of the application. This drives the design decisions. Key to adapting our system to multiple applications is the flexible SlimSAR radar system, which is programmable on-the-fly to meet the imaging requirements of a wide range of altitudes, swath-widths, and platform velocities. The processing software can be used for real-time imagery production or post-flight processing. The ground station is adaptable, and the radar controls can be run by an operator on the ground, on-board the aircraft, or even automated as part of the aircraft autopilot controls. System integration takes the whole operation into account, seeking to flawlessly work with data links and on-board data storage, aircraft and payload control systems, mission planning, and image processing and exploitation. Examples of applications are presented including using a small unmanned aircraft at low altitude with a line of sight data link, a long-endurance UAV maritime surveillance mission with on-board processing, and a manned ground moving target indicator application with the radar using multiple receive channels.

  3. Portable end-to-end ground system for low-cost mission support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Barbara

    1996-11-01

    This paper presents a revolutionary architecture of the end-to-end ground system to reduce overall mission support costs. The present ground system of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is costly to operate, maintain, deploy, reproduce, and document. In the present climate of shrinking NASA budgets, this proposed architecture takes on added importance as it should dramatically reduce all of the above costs. Currently, the ground support functions (i.e., receiver, tracking, ranging, telemetry, command, monitor and control) are distributed among several subsystems that are housed in individual rack-mounted chassis. These subsystems can be integrated into one portable laptop system using established Multi Chip Module (MCM) packaging technology and object-based software libraries. The large scale integration of subsystems into a small portable system connected to the World Wide Web (WWW) will greatly reduce operations, maintenance and reproduction costs. Several of the subsystems can be implemented using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) products further decreasing non-recurring engineering costs. The inherent portability of the system will open up new ways for using the ground system at the "point-of-use" site as opposed to maintaining several large centralized stations. This eliminates the propagation delay of the data to the Principal Investigator (PI), enabling the capture of data in real-time and performing multiple tasks concurrently from any location in the world. Sample applications are to use the portable ground system in remote areas or mobile vessels for real-time correlation of satellite data with earth-bound instruments; thus, allowing near real-time feedback and control of scientific instruments. This end-to-end portable ground system will undoubtedly create opportunities for better scientific observation and data acquisition.

  4. Integrating end-to-end threads of control into object-oriented analysis and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccandlish, Janet E.; Macdonald, James R.; Graves, Sara J.

    1993-01-01

    Current object-oriented analysis and design methodologies fall short in their use of mechanisms for identifying threads of control for the system being developed. The scenarios which typically describe a system are more global than looking at the individual objects and representing their behavior. Unlike conventional methodologies that use data flow and process-dependency diagrams, object-oriented methodologies do not provide a model for representing these global threads end-to-end. Tracing through threads of control is key to ensuring that a system is complete and timing constraints are addressed. The existence of multiple threads of control in a system necessitates a partitioning of the system into processes. This paper describes the application and representation of end-to-end threads of control to the object-oriented analysis and design process using object-oriented constructs. The issue of representation is viewed as a grouping problem, that is, how to group classes/objects at a higher level of abstraction so that the system may be viewed as a whole with both classes/objects and their associated dynamic behavior. Existing object-oriented development methodology techniques are extended by adding design-level constructs termed logical composite classes and process composite classes. Logical composite classes are design-level classes which group classes/objects both logically and by thread of control information. Process composite classes further refine the logical composite class groupings by using process partitioning criteria to produce optimum concurrent execution results. The goal of these design-level constructs is to ultimately provide the basis for a mechanism that can support the creation of process composite classes in an automated way. Using an automated mechanism makes it easier to partition a system into concurrently executing elements that can be run in parallel on multiple processors.

  5. End-to-end test of spatial accuracy in Gamma Knife treatments for trigeminal neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezovich, Ivan A., E-mail: ibrezovich@uabmc.edu; Wu, Xingen; Duan, Jun; Popple, Richard A.; Shen, Sui; Benhabib, Sidi; Huang, Mi; Christian Dobelbower, M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35249 (United States); Fisher III, Winfield S. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35249 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Spatial accuracy is most crucial when small targets like the trigeminal nerve are treated. Although current quality assurance procedures typically verify that individual apparatus, like the MRI scanner, CT scanner, Gamma Knife, etc., are meeting specifications, the cumulative error of all equipment and procedures combined may exceed safe margins. This study uses an end-to-end approach to assess the overall targeting errors that may have occurred in individual patients previously treated for trigeminal neuralgia. Methods: The trigeminal nerve is simulated by a 3 mm long, 3.175 mm (1/8 in.) diameter MRI-contrast filled cavity embedded within a PMMA plastic capsule. The capsule is positioned within the head frame such that the location of the cavity matches the Gamma Knife coordinates of an arbitrarily chosen, previously treated patient. Gafchromic EBT2 film is placed at the center of the cavity in coronal and sagittal orientations. The films are marked with a pinprick to identify the cavity center. Treatments are planned for radiation delivery with 4 mm collimators according to MRI and CT scans using the clinical localizer boxes and acquisition protocols. Shots are planned so that the 50% isodose surface encompasses the cavity. Following irradiation, the films are scanned and analyzed. Targeting errors are defined as the distance between the pinprick, which represents the intended target, and the centroid of the 50% isodose line, which is the center of the radiation field that was actually delivered. Results: Averaged over ten patient simulations, targeting errors along the x, y, and z coordinates (patient’s left-to-right, posterior-to-anterior, and head-to-foot) were, respectively, −0.060 ± 0.363, −0.350 ± 0.253, and 0.348 ± 0.204 mm when MRI was used for treatment planning. Planning according to CT exhibited generally smaller errors, namely, 0.109 ± 0.167, −0.191 ± 0.144, and 0.211 ± 0.094 mm. The largest errors along individual axes in MRI

  6. Internet end-to-end performance monitoring for the High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, W.

    2000-02-22

    Modern High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics (HENP) experiments at Laboratories around the world present a significant challenge to wide area networks. Petabytes (1015) or exabytes (1018) of data will be generated during the lifetime of the experiment. Much of this data will be distributed via the Internet to the experiment's collaborators at Universities and Institutes throughout the world for analysis. In order to assess the feasibility of the computing goals of these and future experiments, the HENP networking community is actively monitoring performance across a large part of the Internet used by its collaborators. Since 1995, the pingER project has been collecting data on ping packet loss and round trip times. In January 2000, there are 28 monitoring sites in 15 countries gathering data on over 2,000 end-to-end pairs. HENP labs such as SLAC, Fermi Lab and CERN are using Advanced Network's Surveyor project and monitoring performance from one-way delay of UDP packets. More recently several HENP sites have become involved with NLANR's active measurement program (AMP). In addition SLAC and CERN are part of the RIPE test-traffic project and SLAC is home for a NIMI machine. The large End-to-end performance monitoring infrastructure allows the HENP networking community to chart long term trends and closely examine short term glitches across a wide range of networks and connections. The different methodologies provide opportunities to compare results based on different protocols and statistical samples. Understanding agreement and discrepancies between results provides particular insight into the nature of the network. This paper will highlight the practical side of monitoring by reviewing the special needs of High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics experiments and provide an overview of the experience of measuring performance across a large number of interconnected networks throughout the world with various methodologies. In particular, results

  7. Fistulotomy with end-to-end primary sphincteroplasty for anal fistula: results from a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, Carlo; Litta, Francesco; Parello, Angelo; Zaccone, Giuseppe; Donisi, Lorenza; De Simone, Veronica

    2013-02-01

    Fistulotomy plus primary sphincteroplasty for complex anal fistulas is regarded with scepticism, mainly because of the risk of postoperative incontinence. The aim of this study was to evaluate safety and effectiveness of this technique in medium-term follow up and to identify potential predictive factors of success and postoperative continence impairment. This was a prospective observational study conducted at a tertiary care university hospital in Italy. A total of 72 patients with complex anal fistula of cryptoglandular origin underwent fistulotomy and end-to-end primary sphincteroplasty; patients were followed up at 1 week, 1 and 3 months, 1 year, and were invited to participate in a recent follow-up session. Success regarding healing of the fistula was assessed with 3-dimensional endoanal ultrasound and clinical evaluation. Continence status was evaluated using the Cleveland Clinic fecal incontinence score and by patient report of post-defecation soiling. Of the 72 patients, 12 (16.7%) had recurrent fistulas and 29 patients (40.3%) had undergone seton drainage before definitive surgery. At a mean follow-up of 29.4 (SD, 23.7; range, 6-91 months, the success rate of treatment was 95.8% (69 patients). Fistula recurrence was observed in 3 patients at a mean of 17.3 (SD, 10.3; range, 6-26) months of follow-up. Cleveland Clinic fecal incontinence score did not change significantly (p = 0.16). Eight patients (11.6% of those with no baseline incontinence) reported de novo postdefecation soiling. None of the investigated factors was a significant predictor of success. Patients with recurrent fistula after previous fistula surgery had a 5-fold increased probability of having impaired continence (relative risk = 5.00, 95% CI, 1.45-17.27, p = 0.02). The study was limited by potential single-institution bias, lack of anorectal manometry, and lack of quality of life assessment. Fistulotomy with end-to-end primary sphincteroplasty can be considered to be an effective

  8. An end-to-end microfluidic platform for engineering life supporting microbes in space exploration missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HJ Science & Technology proposes a programmable, low-cost, and compact microfluidic platform capable of running automated end-to-end processes and optimization...

  9. Availability and End-to-end Reliability in Low Duty Cycle MultihopWireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo D. Hämäläinen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A wireless sensor network (WSN is an ad-hoc technology that may even consist of thousands of nodes, which necessitates autonomic, self-organizing and multihop operations. A typical WSN node is battery powered, which makes the network lifetime the primary concern. The highest energy efficiency is achieved with low duty cycle operation, however, this alone is not enough. WSNs are deployed for different uses, each requiring acceptable Quality of Service (QoS. Due to the unique characteristics of WSNs, such as dynamic wireless multihop routing and resource constraints, the legacy QoS metrics are not feasible as such. We give a new definition to measure and implement QoS in low duty cycle WSNs, namely availability and reliability. Then, we analyze the effect of duty cycling for reaching the availability and reliability. The results are obtained by simulations with ZigBee and proprietary TUTWSN protocols. Based on the results, we also propose a data forwarding algorithm suitable for resource constrained WSNs that guarantees end-to-end reliability while adding a small overhead that is relative to the packet error rate (PER. The forwarding algorithm guarantees reliability up to 30% PER.

  10. SIMsim: An End-to-End Simulation of The Space Interferometer Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, D L; Meier, David L.; Folkner, William M.

    2003-01-01

    We present the basic elements and first results of an end-to-end simulation package whose purpose is to test the validity of the Space Interferometer Mission design. The fundamental simulation time step is one millisecond, with substructure at 1/8 ms, and the total duration of the simulation is five years. The end product of a given "wide-angle" astrometry run is an estimated grid star catalog over the entire sky with an accuracy of about 4 micro-arcseconds. SIMsim is divided into five separate modules that communicate via data pipes. The first generates the 'truth' data on the spacecraft structure and laser metrology. The second module generates uncorrupted fringes for the three SIM interferometers, based on the current spacecraft orientation, target stars' positions, etc. The third module reads out the CCD white light fringe data at specified times, corrupting that and the metrology data with appropriate errors. The data stream out of this module represents the basic data stream on the simulated spacecraft....

  11. End-to-end simulation of bunch merging for a muon collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Yu [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Stratakis, Diktys [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hanson, Gail G. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Palmer, Robert B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    Muon accelerator beams are commonly produced indirectly through pion decay by interaction of a charged particle beam with a target. Efficient muon capture requires the muons to be first phase-rotated by rf cavities into a train of 21 bunches with much reduced energy spread. Since luminosity is proportional to the square of the number of muons per bunch, it is crucial for a Muon Collider to use relatively few bunches with many muons per bunch. In this paper we will describe a bunch merging scheme that should achieve this goal. We present for the first time a complete end-to-end simulation of a 6D bunch merger for a Muon Collider. The 21 bunches arising from the phase-rotator, after some initial cooling, are merged in longitudinal phase space into seven bunches, which then go through seven paths with different lengths and reach the final collecting "funnel" at the same time. The final single bunch has a transverse and a longitudinal emittance that matches well with the subsequent 6D rectilinear cooling scheme.

  12. The optical performance of the PILOT instrument from ground end-to-end tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, R.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Longval, Y.; Ristorcelli, I.; Ade, P.; Alina, D.; André, Y.; Aumont, J.; Bautista, L.; de Bernardis, P.; Boulade, O.; Bousqet, F.; Bouzit, M.; Buttice, V.; Caillat, A.; Chaigneau, M.; Charra, M.; Crane, B.; Douchin, F.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubois, J. P.; Engel, C.; Griffin, M.; Foenard, G.; Grabarnik, S.; Hargrave, P.; Hughes, A.; Laureijs, R.; Leriche, B.; Maestre, S.; Maffei, B.; Marty, C.; Marty, W.; Masi, S.; Montel, J.; Montier, L.; Mot, B.; Narbonne, J.; Pajot, F.; Pérot, E.; Pimentao, J.; Pisano, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Rodriguez, L.; Roudil, G.; Salatino, M.; Savini, G.; Simonella, O.; Saccoccio, M.; Tauber, J.; Tucker, C.

    2017-06-01

    The Polarized Instrument for Long-wavelength Observation of the Tenuous interstellar medium ( PILOT) is a balloon-borne astronomy experiment designed to study the linear polarization of thermal dust emission in two photometric bands centred at wavelengths 240 μm (1.2 THz) and 550 μm (545 GHz), with an angular resolution of a few arcminutes. Several end-to-end tests of the instrument were performed on the ground between 2012 and 2014, in order to prepare for the first scientific flight of the experiment that took place in September 2015 from Timmins, Ontario, Canada. This paper presents the results of those tests, focussing on an evaluation of the instrument's optical performance. We quantify image quality across the extent of the focal plane, and describe the tests that we conducted to determine the focal plane geometry, the optimal focus position, and sources of internal straylight. We present estimates of the detector response, obtained using an internal calibration source, and estimates of the background intensity and background polarization.

  13. Characterisation of residual ionospheric errors in bending angles using GNSS RO end-to-end simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. L.; Kirchengast, G.; Zhang, K. F.; Norman, R.; Li, Y.; Zhang, S. C.; Carter, B.; Fritzer, J.; Schwaerz, M.; Choy, S. L.; Wu, S. Q.; Tan, Z. X.

    2013-09-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) is an innovative meteorological remote sensing technique for measuring atmospheric parameters such as refractivity, temperature, water vapour and pressure for the improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) and global climate monitoring (GCM). GNSS RO has many unique characteristics including global coverage, long-term stability of observations, as well as high accuracy and high vertical resolution of the derived atmospheric profiles. One of the main error sources in GNSS RO observations that significantly affect the accuracy of the derived atmospheric parameters in the stratosphere is the ionospheric error. In order to mitigate the effect of this error, the linear ionospheric correction approach for dual-frequency GNSS RO observations is commonly used. However, the residual ionospheric errors (RIEs) can be still significant, especially when large ionospheric disturbances occur and prevail such as during the periods of active space weather. In this study, the RIEs were investigated under different local time, propagation direction and solar activity conditions and their effects on RO bending angles are characterised using end-to-end simulations. A three-step simulation study was designed to investigate the characteristics of the RIEs through comparing the bending angles with and without the effects of the RIEs. This research forms an important step forward in improving the accuracy of the atmospheric profiles derived from the GNSS RO technique.

  14. End-To-End performance test of the LINC-NIRVANA Wavefront-Sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwein, Juergen; Bertram, Thomas; Conrad, Al; Briegel, Florian; Kittmann, Frank; Zhang, Xiangyu; Mohr, Lars

    2011-09-01

    LINC-NIRVANA is an imaging Fizeau interferometer, for use in near infrared wavelengths, being built for the Large Binocular Telescope. Multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) increases the sky coverage and the field of view over which diffraction limited images can be obtained. For its MCAO implementation, Linc-Nirvana utilizes four total wavefront sensors; each of the two beams is corrected by both a ground-layer wavefront sensor (GWS) and a high-layer wavefront sensor (HWS). The GWS controls the adaptive secondary deformable mirror (DM), which is based on an DSP slope computing unit. Whereas the HWS controls an internal DM via computations provided by an off-the-shelf multi-core Linux system. Using wavefront sensor data collected from a prior lab experiment, we have shown via simulation that the Linux based system is sufficient to operate at 1kHz, with jitter well below the needs of the final system. Based on that setup we tested the end-to-end performance and latency through all parts of the system which includes the camera, the wavefront controller, and the deformable mirror. We will present our loop control structure and the results of those performance tests.

  15. An end-to-end architecture for distributing weather alerts to wireless handsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karen L.; Nguyen, Hung

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes the current National Weather Service's (NWS) system for providing weather alerts in the U.S. and will review how the existing end-to-end architecture is being leveraged to provide non-weather alerts, also known as "all-hazard alerts", to the general public. The paper then describes how a legacy system that transmits weather and all-hazard alerts can be extended via commercial wireless networks and protocols to reach 154 million Americans who carry cell phones. This approach uses commercial SATCOM and existing wireless carriers and services such as Short Messaging Service (SMS) for text and emerging Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) protocol, which would allow for photos, maps, audio and video alerts to be sent to end users. This wireless broadcast alert delivery architecture is designed to be open and to embrace the National Weather Service's mandate to become an "" warning system for the general public. Examples of other public and private sector applications that require timely and intelligent push mechanisms using this alert dissemination approach are also given.

  16. End-to-end Information Flow Security Model for Software-Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ju. Chaly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Software-defined networks (SDN are a novel paradigm of networking which became an enabler technology for many modern applications such as network virtualization, policy-based access control and many others. Software can provide flexibility and fast-paced innovations in the networking; however, it has a complex nature. In this connection there is an increasing necessity of means for assuring its correctness and security. Abstract models for SDN can tackle these challenges. This paper addresses to confidentiality and some integrity properties of SDNs. These are critical properties for multi-tenant SDN environments, since the network management software must ensure that no confidential data of one tenant are leaked to other tenants in spite of using the same physical infrastructure. We define a notion of end-to-end security in context of software-defined networks and propose a semantic model where the reasoning is possible about confidentiality, and we can check that confidential information flows do not interfere with non-confidential ones. We show that the model can be extended in order to reason about networks with secure and insecure links which can arise, for example, in wireless environments.The article is published in the authors’ wording.

  17. Telemetry Ranging: Laboratory Validation Tests and End-to-End Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.; Adams, N.; Sanchez, E.; Millard, W.

    2016-08-01

    This article reports on a set of laboratory tests of telemetry ranging conducted at Development Test Facility 21 (DTF-21) in Monrovia, California. An uplink pseudorandom noise (PN) ranging signal was generated by DTF-21, acquired by the Frontier Radio designed and built at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, and downlink telemetry frames from the radio were recorded by an open-loop receiver. In four of the tests, the data indicate that telemetry ranging can resolve the two-way time delay to a standard deviation of 2.1-3.4 ns, corresponding to about 30 to 51 cm in (one-way) range accuracy, when 30 s averaging of timing estimates is used. Other tests performed worse because of unsatisfactory receiver sampling rate, quantizer resolution, dc bias, improper configuration, or other reasons. The article also presents an analysis of the expected end-to-end performance of the telemetry ranging system. In one case considered, the theoretically-predicted performance matches the test results, within 10 percent, which provides a reasonable validation that the expected performance was achieved by the test. The analysis also shows that in one typical ranging scenario, one-way range accuracy of 1 m can be achieved with telemetry ranging when the data rate is above 2 kbps.

  18. End to End Delay Improvement in Heterogeneous Multicast Network using Genetic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chandrasekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Multicast is a concept of group communication which refers to transmitting the same data or messages from a source to multiple destinations in the network. This one-to-many group communication is a generalization of the concepts of one-to-one unicast and one-to-all broadcast. To deliver data from the sender to all receivers efficiently, routing plays an important role in multicast communication. In QoS multicast, every receiver must receive the data within their own specified QoS constraints. This becomes challenging especially if the network is a heterogeneous network made up of wired and wireless devices. Approach: This study investigates the performance of Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-SM protocol in a heterogeneous network running an video conferencing application and proposes an enhanced routing protocol using Genetic Optimizing techniques to improve QOS parameters in the wireless part. Results and Conclusion: Extensive simulations were carried out using the proposed technique and existing PIM-SM. The proposed optimization technique not only improves the throughput of the network but also decreased the end to end delay."

  19. Changes in the end-to-end distance distribution in an oligonucleotide following hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Lawrence J.; Parkhurst, Kay M.

    1994-08-01

    A 16-mer deoxy oligonucleotide was labeled at the 5' end with x- rhodamine and at the 3' end with fluorescein. The fluorescence lifetime of the donor, fluorescein, under conditions for resonance energy transfer, was studied using the SLM 4850 multiharmonic frequency phase fluorometer in order to obtain information on the end-to-end distance distribution P(R) in the oligomer. When this doubly labeled oligonucleotide was hybridized to its 16-mer complement, the fluorescein fluorescence decay could be very well described by a P(R) that was a symmetric shifted Gaussian with center at 68.4 angstrom and (sigma) equals6.4 angstrom. Simulations suggested that part of the width might be attributable to a distribution in (kappa) 2. In the single- stranded labeled oligomer, there was enhanced energy transfer from the fluorescein to the rhodamine and the best fitting symmetrical shifted Gaussian representation of P(R) was centered at 53.8 angstrom with (kappa) equals6.9 angstrom. There was significant lack of fit with this model, however. A model independent procedure was developed for extracting P(R) as a sum of weighted Hermite polynomials. This procedure gave a P(R) with a large negative region at R<20 angstrom, suggesting that rotational averaging for (kappa) 2 was not quite complete prior to significant decay of the donor excited state.

  20. An end-to-end assessment of range uncertainty in proton therapy using animal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanshui; Kang, Yixiu; Zeidan, Omar; Schreuder, Niek

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of range uncertainty is critical in proton therapy. However, there is a lack of data and consensus on how to evaluate the appropriate amount of uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to quantify the range uncertainty in various treatment conditions in proton therapy, using transmission measurements through various animal tissues. Animal tissues, including a pig head, beef steak, and lamb leg, were used in this study. For each tissue, an end-to-end test closely imitating patient treatments was performed. This included CT scan simulation, treatment planning, image-guided alignment, and beam delivery. Radio-chromic films were placed at various depths in the distal dose falloff region to measure depth dose. Comparisons between measured and calculated doses were used to evaluate range differences. The dose difference at the distal falloff between measurement and calculation depends on tissue type and treatment conditions. The estimated range difference was up to 5, 6 and 4 mm for the pig head, beef steak, and lamb leg irradiation, respectively. Our study shows that the TPS was able to calculate proton range within about 1.5% plus 1.5 mm. Accurate assessment of range uncertainty in treatment planning would allow better optimization of proton beam treatment, thus fully achieving proton beams’ superior dose advantage over conventional photon-based radiation therapy.

  1. End-to-End Beam Simulations for the MSU RIA Driver Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, X; Gorelov, D; Grimm, T L; Marti, F; York, R C; Zhao, Q

    2004-01-01

    The Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac proposed by Michigan State University (MSU) will use a 10th sub-harmonic based, superconducting, cw linac to accelerate light and heavy ions to final energies of ≤400 MeV/u with beam powers of 100 to 400 kW. The driver linac uses superconducting quarter-wave, half-wave, and six-cell elliptical cavities with frequencies ranging from 80.5 MHz to 805 MHz for acceleration, and superconducting solenoids and room temperature quadrupoles for transverse focusing. For the heavier ions, two stages of charge-stripping and multiple-charge-state acceleration will be used to meet the beam power requirements and to minimize the requisite accelerating voltage. End-to-end, three-dimensional (3D), beam dynamics simulations from the ECR to the radioactive beam production targets have been performed. These studies include a 3D analysis of multi-charge-state beam acceleration, evaluation of transverse misalignment and rf errors on the machine performance, modeling of the c...

  2. Telecommunications end-to-end systems monitoring on TOPEX/Poseidon: Tools and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calanche, Bruno J.

    1994-01-01

    The TOPEX/Poseidon Project Satellite Performance Analysis Team's (SPAT) roles and responsibilities have grown to include functions that are typically performed by other teams on JPL Flight Projects. In particular, SPAT Telecommunication's role has expanded beyond the nominal function of monitoring, assessing, characterizing, and trending the spacecraft (S/C) RF/Telecom subsystem to one of End-to-End Information Systems (EEIS) monitoring. This has been accomplished by taking advantage of the spacecraft and ground data system structures and protocols. By processing both the received spacecraft telemetry minor frame ground generated CRC flags and NASCOM block poly error flags, bit error rates (BER) for each link segment can be determined. This provides the capability to characterize the separate link segments, determine science data recovery, and perform fault/anomaly detection and isolation. By monitoring and managing the links, TOPEX has successfully recovered approximately 99.9 percent of the science data with an integrity (BER) of better than 1 x 10(exp 8). This paper presents the algorithms used to process the above flags and the techniques used for EEIS monitoring.

  3. End-to-End Image Simulator for Optical Imaging Systems: Equations and Simulation Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Coppo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical description of a simplified end-to-end software tool for simulation of data produced by optical instruments, starting from either synthetic or airborne hyperspectral data, is described and some simulation examples of hyperspectral and panchromatic images for existing and future design instruments are also reported. High spatial/spectral resolution images with low intrinsic noise and the sensor/mission specifications are used as inputs for the simulations. The examples reported in this paper show the capabilities of the tool for simulating target detection scenarios, data quality assessment with respect to classification performance and class discrimination, impact of optical design on image quality, and 3D modelling of optical performances. The simulator is conceived as a tool (during phase 0/A for the specification and early development of new Earth observation optical instruments, whose compliance to user’s requirements is achieved through a process of cost/performance trade-off. The Selex Galileo simulator, as compared with other existing image simulators for phase C/D projects of space-borne instruments, implements all modules necessary for a complete panchromatic and hyper spectral image simulation, and it allows excellent flexibility and expandability for new integrated functions because of the adopted IDL-ENVI software environment.

  4. End-To-End Simulation of Launch Vehicle Trajectories Including Stage Separation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Cindy W.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Pamadi, Bandu N.

    2012-01-01

    The development of methodologies, techniques, and tools for analysis and simulation of stage separation dynamics is critically needed for successful design and operation of multistage reusable launch vehicles. As a part of this activity, the Constraint Force Equation (CFE) methodology was developed and implemented in the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2). The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of POST2/CFE to simulate a complete end-to-end mission. The vehicle configuration selected was the Two-Stage-To-Orbit (TSTO) Langley Glide Back Booster (LGBB) bimese configuration, an in-house concept consisting of a reusable booster and an orbiter having identical outer mold lines. The proximity and isolated aerodynamic databases used for the simulation were assembled using wind-tunnel test data for this vehicle. POST2/CFE simulation results are presented for the entire mission, from lift-off, through stage separation, orbiter ascent to orbit, and booster glide back to the launch site. Additionally, POST2/CFE stage separation simulation results are compared with results from industry standard commercial software used for solving dynamics problems involving multiple bodies connected by joints.

  5. Addressing the Bandwidth issue in End-to-End Header Compression over IPv6 Tunneling Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Chauhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One day IPv6 is going to be the default protocol used over the internet. But till then we are going to have the networks which IPv4, IPv6 or both networks. There are a number of migration technologies which support this transition like dual stack, tunneling & header translation. In this paper we are improving the efficiency of IPv6 tunneling mechanism, by compressing the IPv6 header of the tunneled packet as IPv6 header is of largest length of 40 bytes. Here the tunnel is a multi hop wireless tunnel and results are analyzed on the basis of varying bandwidth of wireless network. Here different network performance parameters like throughput, End-to-End delay, Jitter, and Packet delivery ratio are taken into account and the results are compared with uncompressed network. We have used Qualnet 5.1 Simulator and the simulation results shows that using header compression over multi hop IPv6 tunnel results in better network performance and bandwidth savings than uncompressed network.

  6. Semantic Complex Event Processing over End-to-End Data Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qunzhi [University of Southern California; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2012-04-01

    Emerging Complex Event Processing (CEP) applications in cyber physical systems like SmartPower Grids present novel challenges for end-to-end analysis over events, flowing from heterogeneous information sources to persistent knowledge repositories. CEP for these applications must support two distinctive features - easy specification patterns over diverse information streams, and integrated pattern detection over realtime and historical events. Existing work on CEP has been limited to relational query patterns, and engines that match events arriving after the query has been registered. We propose SCEPter, a semantic complex event processing framework which uniformly processes queries over continuous and archived events. SCEPteris built around an existing CEP engine with innovative support for semantic event pattern specification and allows their seamless detection over past, present and future events. Specifically, we describe a unified semantic query model that can operate over data flowing through event streams to event repositories. Compile-time and runtime semantic patterns are distinguished and addressed separately for efficiency. Query rewriting is examined and analyzed in the context of temporal boundaries that exist between event streams and their repository to avoid duplicate or missing results. The design and prototype implementation of SCEPterare analyzed using latency and throughput metrics for scenarios from the Smart Grid domain.

  7. A Workflow-based Intelligent Network Data Movement Advisor with End-to-end Performance Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Michelle M. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Wu, Chase Q. [Univ. of Memphis, TN (United States)

    2013-11-07

    Next-generation eScience applications often generate large amounts of simulation, experimental, or observational data that must be shared and managed by collaborative organizations. Advanced networking technologies and services have been rapidly developed and deployed to facilitate such massive data transfer. However, these technologies and services have not been fully utilized mainly because their use typically requires significant domain knowledge and in many cases application users are even not aware of their existence. By leveraging the functionalities of an existing Network-Aware Data Movement Advisor (NADMA) utility, we propose a new Workflow-based Intelligent Network Data Movement Advisor (WINDMA) with end-to-end performance optimization for this DOE funded project. This WINDMA system integrates three major components: resource discovery, data movement, and status monitoring, and supports the sharing of common data movement workflows through account and database management. This system provides a web interface and interacts with existing data/space management and discovery services such as Storage Resource Management, transport methods such as GridFTP and GlobusOnline, and network resource provisioning brokers such as ION and OSCARS. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed transport-support workflow system in several use cases based on its implementation and deployment in DOE wide-area networks.

  8. End-to-End Optimization of High-Throughput DNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Eliza; Baccelli, Francois; De Veciana, Gustavo; Vikalo, Haris

    2016-10-01

    At the core of Illumina's high-throughput DNA sequencing platforms lies a biophysical surface process that results in a random geometry of clusters of homogeneous short DNA fragments typically hundreds of base pairs long-bridge amplification. The statistical properties of this random process and the lengths of the fragments are critical as they affect the information that can be subsequently extracted, that is, density of successfully inferred DNA fragment reads. The ensembles of overlapping DNA fragment reads are then used to computationally reconstruct the much longer target genome sequence. The success of the reconstruction in turn depends on having a sufficiently large ensemble of DNA fragments that are sufficiently long. In this article using stochastic geometry, we model and optimize the end-to-end flow cell synthesis and target genome sequencing process, linking and partially controlling the statistics of the physical processes to the success of the final computational step. Based on a rough calibration of our model, we provide, for the first time, a mathematical framework capturing the salient features of the sequencing platform that serves as a basis for optimizing cost, performance, and/or sensitivity analysis to various parameters.

  9. Vascular Coupling System for End-to-End Anastomosis: An In Vivo Pilot Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huizhong; Gale, Bruce; Shea, Jill; Sant, Himanshu; Terry, Christi M; Agarwal, Jay

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the latest in vivo findings of a novel vascular coupling system. Vascular anastomosis is a common procedure in reconstructive surgeries and traditional hand suturing is very time consuming. The vascular coupling system described herein was designed to be used on arteries for a rapid and error-free anastomosis. The system consists of an engaging ring made from high density polyethylene using computer numerical control machining and a back ring made from polymethylmethacrylate using laser cutting. The vascular coupling system and its corresponding installation tools were tested in a pilot animal study to evaluate their efficacy in completing arterial anastomosis. A segment of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) tubing was interposed into a transected carotid artery by anastomosis using two couplers in a pig. Two end-to-end anastomoses were accomplished. Ultrasound images were obtained to evaluate the blood flow at the anastomotic site immediately after the surgery. MRI was also performed 2 weeks after the surgery to evaluate vessel and ePTFE graft patency. This anastomotic system demonstrated high efficacy and easy usability, which should facilitate vascular anastomosis procedures in trauma and reconstructive surgeries.

  10. Status report of the end-to-end ASKAP software system: towards early science operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Juan Carlos; Chapman, Jessica; Marquarding, Malte; Whiting, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    300 MHz bandwidth for Array Release 1; followed by the deployment of the real-time data processing components. In addition to the Central Processor, the first production release of the CSIRO ASKAP Science Data Archive (CASDA) has also been deployed in one of the Pawsey Supercomputing Centre facilities and it is integrated to the end-to-end ASKAP data flow system. This paper describes the current status of the "end-to-end" data flow software system from preparing observations to data acquisition, processing and archiving; and the challenges of integrating an HPC facility as a key part of the instrument. It also shares some lessons learned since the start of integration activities and the challenges ahead in preparation for the start of the Early Science program.

  11. End-to-end self-assembly of RADA 16-I nanofibrils in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, Paolo; Owczarz, Marta; Wu, Hua; Butté, Alessandro; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2012-04-04

    RADARADARADARADA (RADA 16-I) is a synthetic amphiphilic peptide designed to self-assemble in a controlled way into fibrils and higher ordered structures depending on pH. In this work, we use various techniques to investigate the state of the peptide dispersed in water under dilute conditions at different pH and in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid or hydrochloric acid. We have identified stable RADA 16-I fibrils at pH 2.0-4.5, which have a length of ∼200-400 nm and diameter of 10 nm. The fibrils have the characteristic antiparallel β-sheet structure of amyloid fibrils, as measured by circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. During incubation at pH 2.0-4.5, the fibrils elongate very slowly via an end-to-end fibril-fibril aggregation mechanism, without changing their diameter, and the kinetics of such aggregation depends on pH and anion type. At pH 2.0, we also observed a substantial amount of monomers in the system, which do not participate in the fibril elongation and degrade to fragments. The fibril-fibril elongation kinetics has been simulated using the Smoluchowski kinetic model, population balance equations, and the simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is also found that the aggregation process is not limited by diffusion but rather is an activated process with energy barrier in the order of 20 kcal/mol.

  12. SPoRT - An End-to-End R2O Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral observational data applications from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. SPoRT currently partners with several universities and other government agencies for access to real-time data and products, and works collaboratively with them and operational end users at 13 WFOs to develop and test the new products and capabilities in a "test-bed" mode. The test-bed simulates key aspects of the operational environment without putting constraints on the forecaster workload. Products and capabilities which show utility in the test-bed environment are then transitioned experimentally into the operational environment for further evaluation and assessment. SPoRT focuses on a suite of data and products from MODIS, AMSR-E, and AIRS on the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites, and total lightning measurements from ground-based networks. Some of the observations are assimilated into or used with various versions of the WRF model to provide supplemental forecast guidance to operational end users. SPoRT is enhancing partnerships with NOAA / NESDIS for new product development and data access to exploit the remote sensing capabilities of instruments on the NPOESS satellites to address short term weather forecasting problems. The VIIRS and CrIS instruments on the NPP and follow-on NPOESS satellites provide similar observing capabilities to the MODIS and AIRS instruments on Terra and Aqua. SPoRT will be transitioning existing and new capabilities into the AWIIPS II environment to continue the continuity of its activities.

  13. SME2EM: Smart mobile end-to-end monitoring architecture for life-long diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Menshawy, Mohamed El; Benharref, Abdelghani

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring life-long diseases requires continuous measurements and recording of physical vital signs. Most of these diseases are manifested through unexpected and non-uniform occurrences and behaviors. It is impractical to keep patients in hospitals, health-care institutions, or even at home for long periods of time. Monitoring solutions based on smartphones combined with mobile sensors and wireless communication technologies are a potential candidate to support complete mobility-freedom, not only for patients, but also for physicians. However, existing monitoring architectures based on smartphones and modern communication technologies are not suitable to address some challenging issues, such as intensive and big data, resource constraints, data integration, and context awareness in an integrated framework. This manuscript provides a novel mobile-based end-to-end architecture for live monitoring and visualization of life-long diseases. The proposed architecture provides smartness features to cope with continuous monitoring, data explosion, dynamic adaptation, unlimited mobility, and constrained devices resources. The integration of the architecture׳s components provides information about diseases׳ recurrences as soon as they occur to expedite taking necessary actions, and thus prevent severe consequences. Our architecture system is formally model-checked to automatically verify its correctness against designers׳ desirable properties at design time. Its components are fully implemented as Web services with respect to the SOA architecture to be easy to deploy and integrate, and supported by Cloud infrastructure and services to allow high scalability, availability of processes and data being stored and exchanged. The architecture׳s applicability is evaluated through concrete experimental scenarios on monitoring and visualizing states of epileptic diseases. The obtained theoretical and experimental results are very promising and efficiently satisfy the proposed

  14. A NASA Climate Model Data Services (CDS) End-to-End System to Support Reanalysis Intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, L.; Potter, G. L.; McInerney, M.; Nadeau, D.; Shen, Y.; Duffy, D.; Schnase, J. L.; Maxwell, T. P.; Huffer, E.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Climate Model Data Service (CDS) and the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) are collaborating to provide an end-to-end system for the comparative study of the major Reanalysis projects, currently, ECMWF ERA-Interim, NASA/GMAO MERRA, NOAA/NCEP CFSR, NOAA/ESRL 20CR, and JMA JRA25. Components of the system include the full spectrum of Climate Model Data Services; Data, Compute Services, Data Services, Analytic Services and Knowledge Services. The Data includes standard Reanalysis model output, and will be expanded to include gridded observations, and gridded Innovations (O-A and O-F). The NCCS High Performance Science Cloud provides the compute environment (storage, servers, and network). Data Services are provided through an Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) data node complete with Live Access Server (LAS), Web Map Service (WMS) and Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT) for visualization, as well as a collaborative interface through the Earth System CoG. Analytic Services include UV-CDAT for analysis and MERRA/AS, accessed via the CDS API, for computation services, both part of the CDS Climate Analytics as a Service (CAaaS). Knowledge Services include access to an Ontology browser, ODISEES, for metadata search and data retrieval. The result is a system that provides the ability for both reanalysis scientists and those scientists in need of reanalysis output to identify the data of interest, compare, compute, visualize, and research without the need for transferring large volumes of data, performing time consuming format conversions, and writing code for frequently run computations and visualizations.

  15. The relationship between suture number and the healing process of end-to-end arterial anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston B Yoshida

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the grate experience accumulated in vascular repairing, the ideal number of sutures for vascular anastomosis remains controversial. It is generally thought that the more stitches applied in a vascular anastomosis, the lesser resistant the anastomosis will be. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis in 20 rabbits, in which both carotid arteries were cross sectioned and repaired by end-to-end anastomosis with 8 interrupted sutures in one side (G1 and 16 in the other side (G2. After 3 and 15 days, the animals were randomly allocated for tensile strength, hydroxyproline determination (7 animals and for histologic analysis of the anastomosis (3 animals. Conventional staining procedures (hematoxylin-eosin and Masson methods and the picrosirius red polarization (PSP technique for collagen type determination were used. From 3 to 15 days, the tensile strength increased in both groups, from 265.0±-44.4g to 391.2±-49.0g in G1 and from 310.0±-71.5g to 348.7±-84.0g in G2 (p<0.005, with no statistical difference between the groups in each period of study. The hydroxyproline content, expressed as hydroxyproline/protein ratio, varied from 0.04±-0.01 to 0.05±-0.02 in G1 and from 0.05±-0.01 to 0.05±-0.02 in G2, with no significant difference between periods and groups. The histology showed similar inflammatory and reparative aspects in both groups. In both groups and periods the PSP technique demonstrated predominantly type I collagen in relation to type III collagen in the anastomosis. We concluded that even doubling the number of stitches, the healing process and strength did not change in the arterial anastomosis.

  16. Weaving marine food webs from end to end under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Coleen L.; St John, Michael A.; Denman, Kenneth L.; Karl, David M.; Köster, Friedrich W.; Sundby, Svein; Wilson, Rory P.

    2011-02-01

    Marine food web dynamics are determined by interactions within and between species and between species and their environment. Global change directly affects abiotic conditions and living organisms, impinging on all trophic levels in food webs. Different groups of marine researchers traditionally study different aspects of these changes. However, over medium to long time scales perturbations affecting food webs need to be considered across the full range from nutrients to top predators. Studies of end-to-end marine food webs not only span organism sizes and trophic levels, but should also help align multidisciplinary research to common goals and perspectives. Topics are described that bridge disciplinary gaps and are needed to develop new understanding of the reciprocal impacts of global change on marine food webs and ocean biogeochemistry. These include (1) the effects of nutrients on biomass and production, (2) the effects of varying element ratios on food web structure and food quality, (3) bulk flows of energy and material in food webs and their efficiencies of transfer, (4) the ecological effects of species richness and the roles of microbial organisms, (5) the role of feeding behaviour in food web dynamics and trophic controls, (6) the spatial dynamics of communities and links between different food webs, (7) the combined effects of body size and behaviour in determining dynamics of food webs, and (8) the extent to which the ability of marine organisms (and communities) to adapt will influence food web dynamics. An overriding issue that influences all topics concerns the time and space scales of ecosystem variability. Threads link different nodes of information among various topics, emphasizing the importance of tackling food web studies with a variety of modelling approaches and through a combination of field and experimental studies with a strong comparative approach.

  17. End-to-End Models for Effects of System Noise on LIMS Analysis of Igneous Rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bender, Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, R. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carmosino, Marco L [MT. HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Speicher, Elly A [MT. HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Dyar, M. D. [MT. HOLYOKE COLLEGE

    2010-12-23

    The ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory will be the first extraterrestial deployment of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (UBS) for remote geochemical analysis. LIBS instruments are also being proposed for future NASA missions. In quantitative LIBS applications using multivariate analysis techniques, it is essential to understand the effects of key instrument parameters and their variability on the elemental predictions. Baseline experiments were run on a laboratory instrument in conditions reproducing ChemCam performance on Mars. These experiments employed Nd:YAG laser producing 17 mJ/pulse on target and an with a 200 {micro}m FWHM spot size on the surface of a sample. The emission is collected by a telescope, imaged on a fiber optic and then interfaced to a demultiplexer capable of >40% transmission into each spectrometer. We report here on an integrated end-to-end system performance model that simulates the effects of output signal degradation that might result from the input signal chain and the impact on multivariate model predictions. There are two approaches to modifying signal to noise (SNR): degrade the signal and/or increase the noise. Ishibashi used a much smaller data set to show that the addition of noise had significant impact while degradation of spectral resolution had much less impact on accuracy and precision. Here, we specifically focus on aspects of remote LIBS instrument performance as they relate to various types of signal degradation. To assess the sensitivity of LIBS analysis to signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spectral resolution, the signal in each spectrum from a suite of 50 laboratory spectra of igneous rocks was variably degraded by increasing the peak widths (simulating misalignment) and decreasing the spectral amplitude (simulating decreases in SNR).

  18. A Mechanistic End-to-End Concussion Model That Translates Head Kinematics to Neurologic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J. Ng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Past concussion studies have focused on understanding the injury processes occurring on discrete length scales (e.g., tissue-level stresses and strains, cell-level stresses and strains, or injury-induced cellular pathology. A comprehensive approach that connects all length scales and relates measurable macroscopic parameters to neurological outcomes is the first step toward rationally unraveling the complexity of this multi-scale system, for better guidance of future research. This paper describes the development of the first quantitative end-to-end (E2E multi-scale model that links gross head motion to neurological injury by integrating fundamental elements of tissue and cellular mechanical response with axonal dysfunction. The model quantifies axonal stretch (i.e., tension injury in the corpus callosum, with axonal functionality parameterized in terms of axonal signaling. An internal injury correlate is obtained by calculating a neurological injury measure (the average reduction in the axonal signal amplitude over the corpus callosum. By using a neurologically based quantity rather than externally measured head kinematics, the E2E model is able to unify concussion data across a range of exposure conditions and species with greater sensitivity and specificity than correlates based on external measures. In addition, this model quantitatively links injury of the corpus callosum to observed specific neurobehavioral outcomes that reflect clinical measures of mild traumatic brain injury. This comprehensive modeling framework provides a basis for the systematic improvement and expansion of this mechanistic-based understanding, including widening the range of neurological injury estimation, improving concussion risk correlates, guiding the design of protective equipment, and setting safety standards.

  19. In vivo laser assisted end-to-end anastomosis with ICG-infused chitosan patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Matteini, Paolo; Esposito, Giuseppe; Scerrati, Alba; Albanese, Alessio; Puca, Alfredo; Maira, Giulio; Rossi, Giacomo; Pini, Roberto

    2011-07-01

    Laser assisted vascular repair is a new optimized technique based on the use of ICG-infused chitosan patch to close a vessel wound, with or even without few supporting single stitches. We present an in vivo experimental study on an innovative end-to-end laser assisted vascular anastomotic (LAVA) technique, performed with the application of ICGinfused chitosan patches. The photostability and the mechanical properties of ICG-infused chitosan films were preliminary measured. The in vivo study was performed in 10 New Zealand rabbits. After anesthesia, a 3-cm segment of the right common carotid artery was exposed, thus clamped proximally and distally. The artery was then interrupted by means of a full thickness cut. Three single microsutures were used to approximate the two vessel edges. The ICG-infused chitosan patch was rolled all over the anastomotic site and welded by the use of a diode laser emitting at 810 nm and equipped with a 300 μm diameter optical fiber. Welding was obtained by delivering single laser spots to induce local patch/tissue adhesion. The result was an immediate closure of the anastomosis, with no bleeding at clamps release. Thus animals underwent different follow-up periods, in order to evaluate the welded vessels over time. At follow-up examinations, all the anastomoses were patent and no bleeding signs were documented. Samples of welded vessels underwent histological examinations. Results showed that this technique offer several advantages over conventional suturing methods: simplification of the surgical procedure, shortening of the operative time, better re-endothelization and optimal vascular healing process.

  20. LFI Radiometric Chain Assembly (RCA) data handling "Rachel"

    CERN Document Server

    Malaspina, M; Battaglia, P; Binko, P; Butler, R C; D'Arcangelo, O; Fogliani, S; Frailis, M; Franceschet, C; Galeotta, S; Gasparo, F; Gregorio, A; Lapolla, M; Leonardi, R; Maggio, G; Mandolesi, N; Manzato, P; Maris, M; Meharga, M; Meinhold, P; Morisset, N; Pasian, F; Perrotta, F; Rohlfs, R; Sandri, M; Tomasi, M; Turler, M; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12017

    2009-01-01

    This paper is part of the Prelaunch status LFI papers published on JINST (http://www.iop.org/EJ/journal/-page=extra.proc5/1748-0221). Planck's Low Frequency Instrument is an array of 22 pseudo-correlation radiometers at 30, 44, and 70 GHz. Before integrating the overall array assembly, a first set of tests has been performed for each radiometer chain assembly (RCA), consisting of two radiometers. In this paper, we describe Rachel, a software application which has been purposely developed and used during the RCA test campaign to carry out both near-realtime on-line data analysis and data storage (in FITS format) of the raw output from the radiometric chains.

  1. LFI 30 and 44 GHz receivers Back-End Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artal, E; Aja, B; Fuente, M L de la; Pascual, J P; Mediavilla, A [Dpt. Ingenieria de Comunicaciones, Universidad de Cantabria, Plaza de la Ciencia, 39005 Santander (Spain); Martinez-Gonzalez, E [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Pradell, L; Paco, P de [Departament de Teoria del Senyal i Comunicacions, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Bara, M; Blanco, E; GarcIa, E [Mier Comunicaciones S.A. La Garriga, Barcelona (Spain); Davis, R; Kettle, D; Roddis, N; Wilkinson, A [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Bersanelli, M; Mennella, A; Tomasi, M [Universita degli studi di Milano, Department of Physics Via Celoria 16, Milano (Italy); Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F, E-mail: artale@unican.e [INAF/IASF - Bologna Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    The 30 and 44 GHz Back End Modules (BEM) for the Planck Low Frequency Instrument are broadband receivers (20% relative bandwidth) working at room temperature. The signals coming from the Front End Module are amplified, band pass filtered and finally converted to DC by a detector diode. Each receiver has two identical branches following the differential scheme of the Planck radiometers. The BEM design is based on MMIC Low Noise Amplifiers using GaAs P-HEMT devices, microstrip filters and Schottky diode detectors. Their manufacturing development has included elegant breadboard prototypes and finally qualification and flight model units. Electrical, mechanical and environmental tests were carried out for the characterization and verification of the manufactured BEMs. A description of the 30 and 44 GHz Back End Modules of Planck-LFI radiometers is given, with details of the tests done to determine their electrical and environmental performances. The electrical performances of the 30 and 44 GHz Back End Modules: frequency response, effective bandwidth, equivalent noise temperature, 1/f noise and linearity are presented.

  2. The determination of the link with the smallest end-to-end network latency in ethernet architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ethernet fundamental and its data transmission model are introduced in brief and end-to-end network latency was analyzed in this paper. On the premise of not considering transmission quality and transmission cost, latency was the function of the rest of network resource parameter (NRP). The relation between the number of nodes and that of end-to-end links was presented. In ethernet architecture, the algorithm to determine the link with the smallest latency is a polynomial issue when the number of network nodes is limited, so it can be solved by way of polynomial equations. Latency measuring is the key issue to determine the link with the smallest network latency. 3-node brigade (regiment) level network centric warfare (NCW) demonstration platform was studied and the latency between the detectors and weapon control stations was taken as an example. The algorithm of end-to-end network latency and link information in NCW was presented. The algorithm program based on Server/Client architecture was developed. The data transmission optimal link is one whose end-to-end latency is the smallest. This paper solves the key issue to determine the link whose end-to-end latency is the smallest in ethernet architecture. The study can be widely applied to determine the optimal link which is in the complex network environment of multiple service provision points.

  3. SU-E-T-150: End to End Tests On the First Clinical EDGETM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheib, S; Schmelzer, P [Varian Medical Systems, Baden - Daettwil (Switzerland); Vieira, S; Greco, C [Champalimaud Foundation, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify the sub millimeter overall accuracy of EDGETM, the dedicated linac based SRS/SABR treatment platform from Varian, using a novel End-to-End (E2E) test phantom. Methods: The new E2E test phantom developed by Varian consists of a cube with an outer dimension of 15x15x15 cm3. The phantom is equipped with an exchangable inner cube (7×7×7 cm3) to hold radiochromic films or a tungsten ball (diameter = 5 mm) for Winston-Lutz tests. 16 ceramic balls (diameter = 5 mm) are embedded in the outer cube. Three embedded Calypso transponders allow for Calypso based monitoring. The outer surface of the phantom is tracked using the Optical Surface Monitoring System (OSMS). The phantom is positioned using kV, MV and CBCT images. A simCT of the phantom was acquired and SRS/SABR plans were treated using the new phantom on the first clinical installed EDGETM. As a first step a series of EPID based Winston-Lutz tests have been performed. As a second step the calculated dose distribution applied to the phantom was verified with radiochromic films in orthogonal planes. The measured dose distribution is compared with the calculated (Eclipse) one based on the known isocenter on both dose distributions. The geometrical shift needed to match both dose distributions is the overall accuracy and is determined using dose profiles, isodose lines or gamma pass rates (3%, 1 mm). Results: Winston-Lutz tests using the central tungsten BB demonstrated a targeting accuracy of 0.44±0.18mm for jaw (2cm × 2cm) defined 0.39±0.19mm for MLC (2cm × 2cm) defined and 0.37±0.15mm for cone (12.5 mm) defined fields. A treated patient plan (spinal metastases lesion with integrated boost) showed a dosimetric dose localization accuracy of 0.6mm. Conclusion: Geometric and dosimetric E2E tests on EDGETM, show sub-millimeter E2E targeting and dose localisation accuracy.

  4. Astra: Interdisciplinary study on enhancement of the end-to-end accuracy for spacecraft tracking techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iess, Luciano; Di Benedetto, Mauro; James, Nick; Mercolino, Mattia; Simone, Lorenzo; Tortora, Paolo

    2014-02-01

    Navigation of deep-space probes is accomplished through a variety of different radio observables, namely Doppler, ranging and Delta-Differential One-Way Ranging (Delta-DOR). The particular mix of observations used for navigation mainly depends on the available on-board radio system, the mission phase and orbit determination requirements. The accuracy of current ESA and NASA tracking systems is at level of 0.1 mm/s at 60 s integration time for Doppler, 1-5 m for ranging and 6-15 nrad for Delta-DOR measurements in a wide range of operational conditions. The ASTRA study, funded under ESA's General Studies Programme (GSP), addresses the ways to improve the end-to-end accuracy of Doppler, ranging and Delta-DOR systems by roughly a factor of 10. The target accuracies were set to 0.01 mm/s at 60 s integration time for Doppler, 20 cm for ranging and 1 nrad for Delta-DOR. The companies and universities that took part in the study were the University of Rome Sapienza, ALMASpace, BAE Systems and Thales Alenia Space Italy. The analysis of an extensive data set of radio-metric observables and dedicated tests of the ground station allowed consolidating the error budget for each measurement technique. The radio-metric data set comprises X/X, X/Ka and Ka/Ka range and Doppler observables from the Cassini and Rosetta missions. It includes also measurements from the Advanced Media Calibration System (AMCS) developed by JPL for the radio science experiments of the Cassini mission. The error budget for the three radio-metric observables was consolidated by comparing the statistical properties of the data set with the expected error models. The analysis confirmed the contribution from some error sources, but revealed also some discrepancies and ultimately led to improved error models. The error budget reassessment provides adequate information for building guidelines and strategies to effectively improve the navigation accuracies of future deep space missions. We report both on updated

  5. An End-to-End System to Enable Quick, Easy and Inexpensive Deployment of Hydrometeorological Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celicourt, P.; Piasecki, M.

    2014-12-01

    The high cost of hydro-meteorological data acquisition, communication and publication systems along with limited qualified human resources is considered as the main reason why hydro-meteorological data collection remains a challenge especially in developing countries. Despite significant advances in sensor network technologies which gave birth to open hardware and software, low-cost (less than $50) and low-power (in the order of a few miliWatts) sensor platforms in the last two decades, sensors and sensor network deployment remains a labor-intensive, time consuming, cumbersome, and thus expensive task. These factors give rise for the need to develop a affordable, simple to deploy, scalable and self-organizing end-to-end (from sensor to publication) system suitable for deployment in such countries. The design of the envisioned system will consist of a few Sensed-And-Programmed Arduino-based sensor nodes with low-cost sensors measuring parameters relevant to hydrological processes and a Raspberry Pi micro-computer hosting the in-the-field back-end data management. This latter comprises the Python/Django model of the CUAHSI Observations Data Model (ODM) namely DjangODM backed by a PostgreSQL Database Server. We are also developing a Python-based data processing script which will be paired with the data autoloading capability of Django to populate the DjangODM database with the incoming data. To publish the data, the WOFpy (WaterOneFlow Web Services in Python) developed by the Texas Water Development Board for 'Water Data for Texas' which can produce WaterML web services from a variety of back-end database installations such as SQLite, MySQL, and PostgreSQL will be used. A step further would be the development of an appealing online visualization tool using Python statistics and analytics tools (Scipy, Numpy, Pandas) showing the spatial distribution of variables across an entire watershed as a time variant layer on top of a basemap.

  6. Urban Biomining Meets Printable Electronics: End-To-End at Destination Biological Recycling and Reprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J. (Principal Investigator); Koehne, Jessica; Gandhiraman, Ram; Navarrete, Jesica; Spangle, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Space missions rely utterly on metallic components, from the spacecraft to electronics. Yet, metals add mass, and electronics have the additional problem of a limited lifespan. Thus, current mission architectures must compensate for replacement. In space, spent electronics are discarded; on earth, there is some recycling but current processes are toxic and environmentally hazardous. Imagine instead an end-to-end recycling of spent electronics at low mass, low cost, room temperature, and in a non-toxic manner. Here, we propose a solution that will not only enhance mission success by decreasing upmass and providing a fresh supply of electronics, but in addition has immediate applications to a serious environmental issue on the Earth. Spent electronics will be used as feedstock to make fresh electronic components, a process we will accomplish with so-called 'urban biomining' using synthetically enhanced microbes to bind metals with elemental specificity. To create new electronics, the microbes will be used as 'bioink' to print a new IC chip, using plasma jet electronics printing. The plasma jet electronics printing technology will have the potential to use martian atmospheric gas to print and to tailor the electronic and chemical properties of the materials. Our preliminary results have suggested that this process also serves as a purification step to enhance the proportion of metals in the 'bioink'. The presence of electric field and plasma can ensure printing in microgravity environment while also providing material morphology and electronic structure tunabiity and thus optimization. Here we propose to increase the TRL level of the concept by engineering microbes to dissolve the siliceous matrix in the IC, extract copper from a mixture of metals, and use the microbes as feedstock to print interconnects using mars gas simulant. To assess the ability of this concept to influence mission architecture, we will do an analysis of the infrastructure required to execute

  7. Achieving End-to-End QoS in the Next Generation Internet: Integrated Services over Differentiated Service Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Haowei; Atiquzzaman, Mohammed; Ivancic, William

    2001-01-01

    Currently there are two approaches to provide Quality of Service (QoS) in the next generation Internet: An early one is the Integrated Services (IntServ) with the goal of allowing end-to-end QoS to be provided to applications; the other one is the Differentiated Services (DiffServ) architecture providing QoS in the backbone. In this context, a DiffServ network may be viewed as a network element in the total end-to-end path. The objective of this paper is to investigate the possibility of providing end-to-end QoS when IntServ runs over DiffServ backbone in the next generation Internet. Our results show that the QoS requirements of IntServ applications can be successfully achieved when IntServ traffic is mapped to the DiffServ domain in next generation Internet.

  8. On the importance of risk knowledge for an end-to-end tsunami early warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Joachim; Strunz, Günter; Riedlinger, Torsten; Mück, Matthias; Wegscheider, Stephanie; Zosseder, Kai; Steinmetz, Tilmann; Gebert, Niklas; Anwar, Herryal

    2010-05-01

    context has been worked out. The generated results contribute significantly in the fields of (1) warning decision and warning levels, (2) warning dissemination and warning message content, (3) early warning chain planning, (4) increasing response capabilities and protective systems, (5) emergency relief and (6) enhancing communities' awareness and preparedness towards tsunami threats. Additionally examples will be given on the potentials of an operational use of risk information in early warning systems as first experiences exist for the tsunami early warning center in Jakarta, Indonesia. Beside this the importance of linking national level early warning information with tsunami risk information available at the local level (e.g. linking warning message information on expected intensity with respective tsunami hazard zone maps at community level for effective evacuation) will be demonstrated through experiences gained in three pilot areas in Indonesia. The presentation seeks to provide new insights on benefits using risk information in early warning and will provide further evidence that practical use of risk information is an important and indispensable component of end-to-end early warning.

  9. Ocean Acidification Scientific Data Stewardship: An approach for end-to-end data management and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzayus, K. M.; Garcia, H. E.; Jiang, L.; Michael, P.

    2012-12-01

    As the designated Federal permanent oceanographic data center in the United States, NOAA's National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) has been providing scientific stewardship for national and international marine environmental and ecosystem data for over 50 years. NODC is supporting NOAA's Ocean Acidification Program and the science community by providing end-to-end scientific data management of ocean acidification (OA) data, dedicated online data discovery, and user-friendly access to a diverse range of historical and modern OA and other chemical, physical, and biological oceanographic data. This effort is being catalyzed by the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program, but the intended reach is for the broader scientific ocean acidification community. The first three years of the project will be focused on infrastructure building. A complete ocean acidification data content standard is being developed to ensure that a full spectrum of ocean acidification data and metadata can be stored and utilized for optimal data discovery and access in usable data formats. We plan to develop a data access interface capable of allowing users to constrain their search based on real-time and delayed mode measured variables, scientific data quality, their observation types, the temporal coverage, methods, instruments, standards, collecting institutions, and the spatial coverage. In addition, NODC seeks to utilize the existing suite of international standards (including ISO 19115-2 and CF-compliant netCDF) to help our data producers use those standards for their data, and help our data consumers make use of the well-standardized metadata-rich data sets. These tools will be available through our NODC Ocean Acidification Scientific Data Stewardship (OADS) web page at http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/oceanacidification. NODC also has a goal to provide each archived dataset with a unique ID, to ensure a means of providing credit to the data provider. Working with partner institutions, such as the

  10. SensorKit: An End-to-End Solution for Environmental Sensor Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F.; Graham, E.; Deschon, A.; Lam, Y.; Goldman, J.; Wroclawski, J.; Kaiser, W.; Benzel, T.

    2008-12-01

    Modern day sensor network technology has shown great promise to transform environmental data collection. However, despite the promise, these systems have remained the purview of the engineers and computer scientists who design them rather than a useful tool for the environmental scientists who need them. SensorKit is conceived of as a way to make wireless sensor networks accessible to The People: it is an advanced, powerful tool for sensor data collection that does not require advanced technological know-how. We are aiming to make wireless sensor networks for environmental science as simple as setting up a standard home computer network by providing simple, tested configurations of commercially-available hardware, free and easy-to-use software, and step-by-step tutorials. We designed and built SensorKit using a simplicity-through-sophistication approach, supplying users a powerful sensor to database end-to-end system with a simple and intuitive user interface. Our objective in building SensorKit was to make the prospect of using environmental sensor networks as simple as possible. We built SensorKit from off the shelf hardware components, using the Compact RIO platform from National Instruments for data acquisition due to its modular architecture and flexibility to support a large number of sensor types. In SensorKit, we support various types of analog, digital and networked sensors. Our modular software architecture allows us to abstract sensor details and provide users a common way to acquire data and to command different types of sensors. SensorKit is built on top of the Sensor Processing and Acquisition Network (SPAN), a modular framework for acquiring data in the field, moving it reliably to the scientist institution, and storing it in an easily-accessible database. SPAN allows real-time access to the data in the field by providing various options for long haul communication, such as cellular and satellite links. Our system also features reliable data storage

  11. Unidata's Vision for Providing Comprehensive and End-to-end Data Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, M. K.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents Unidata's vision for providing comprehensive, well-integrated, and end-to-end data services for the geosciences. These include an array of functions for collecting, finding, and accessing data; data management tools for generating, cataloging, and exchanging metadata; and submitting or publishing, sharing, analyzing, visualizing, and integrating data. When this vision is realized, users no matter where they are or how they are connected to the Internetwill be able to find and access a plethora of geosciences data and use Unidata-provided tools and services both productively and creatively in their research and education. What that vision means for the Unidata community is elucidated by drawing a simple analogy. Most of users are familiar with Amazon and eBay e-commerce sites and content sharing sites like YouTube and Flickr. On the eBay marketplace, people can sell practically anything at any time and buyers can share their experience of purchasing a product or the reputation of a seller. Likewise, at Amazon, thousands of merchants sell their goods and millions of customers not only buy those goods, but provide a review or opinion of the products they buy and share their experiences as purchasers. Similarly, YouTube and Flickr are sites tailored to video- and photo-sharing, respectively, where users can upload their own content and share it with millions of other users, including family and friends. What all these sites, together with social-networking applications like MySpace and Facebook, have enabled is a sense of a virtual community in which users can search and browse products or content, comment and rate those products from anywhere, at any time, and via any Internet- enabled device like an iPhone, laptop, or a desktop computer. In essence, these enterprises have fundamentally altered people's buying modes and behavior toward purchases. Unidata believes that similar approaches, appropriately tailored to meet the needs of the scientific

  12. Integration proposal through standard-based design of an end-to-end platform for p-Health environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martíínez, I; Trigo, J D; Martínez-Espronceda, M; Escayola, J; Muñoz, P; Serrano, L; García, J

    2009-01-01

    Interoperability among medical devices and compute engines in the personal environment of the patient, and with healthcare information systems in the remote monitoring and management process is a key need that requires developments supported on standard-based design. Even though there have been some international initiatives to combine different standards, the vision of an entire end-to-end standard-based system is the next challenge. This paper presents the implementation guidelines of a ubiquitous platform for Personal Health (p-Health). It is standard-based using the two main medical norms in this context: ISO/IEEE11073 in the patient environment for medical device interoperability, and EN13606 to allow the interoperable communication of the Electronic Healthcare Record of the patient. Furthermore, the proposal of a new protocol for End-to-End Standard Harmonization (E2ESHP) is presented in order to make possible the end-to-end standard integration. The platform has been designed to comply with the last ISO/IEEE11073 and EN13606 available versions, and tested in a laboratory environment as a proof-of-concept to illustrate its feasibility as an end-to-end standard-based solution.

  13. SLA calculus for end-to-end QOS of TCP-based applications in a multi-domain environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, R.E.; Berg, J.L. van den; Yang, R.; Mei, R.D. van der

    2006-01-01

    Next-generation communication services will be offered over distributed information and communication infrastructures consisting of a multitude of administrative domains, owned by different parties. This raises the problem for service providers to provide satisfactory levels of end-to-end Quality of

  14. A vision for end-to-end data services to foster international partnerships through data sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, M.; Yoksas, T.

    2009-04-01

    Increasingly, the conduct of science requires scientific partnerships and sharing of knowledge, information, and other assets. This is particularly true in our field where the highly-coupled Earth system and its many linkages have heightened the importance of collaborations across geographic, disciplinary, and organizational boundaries. The climate system, for example, is far too complex a puzzle to be unraveled by individual investigators or nations. As articulated in the NSF Strategic Plan: FY 2006-2011, "…discovery increasingly requires expertise of individuals from different disciplines, with diverse perspectives, and often from different nations, working together to accommodate the extraordinary complexity of today's science and engineering challenges." The Nobel Prize winning IPCC assessments are a prime example of such an effort. Earth science education is also uniquely suited to drawing connections between the dynamic Earth system and societal issues. Events like the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and Hurricane Katrina provide ample evidence of this relevance, as they underscore the importance of timely and interdisciplinary integration and synthesis of data. Our success in addressing such complex problems and advancing geosciences depends on the availability of a state-of-the-art and robust cyberinfrastructure, transparent and timely access to high-quality data from diverse sources, and requisite tools to integrate and use the data effectively, toward creating new knowledge. To that end, Unidata's vision calls for providing comprehensive, well-integrated, and end-to-end data services for the geosciences. These include an array of functions for collecting, finding, and accessing data; data management tools for generating, cataloging, and exchanging metadata; and submitting or publishing, sharing, analyzing, visualizing, and integrating data. When this vision is realized, users — no matter where they are, how they are connected to the Internet, or what

  15. Minimizing End-to-End Interference in I/O Stacks Spanning Shared Multi-Level Buffer Caches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christina M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents an end-to-end interference minimizing uniquely designed high performance I/O stack that spans multi-level shared buffer cache hierarchies accessing shared I/O servers to deliver a seamless high performance I/O stack. In this thesis, I show that I can build a superior I/O stack which minimizes the inter-application interference…

  16. Minimizing End-to-End Interference in I/O Stacks Spanning Shared Multi-Level Buffer Caches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christina M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents an end-to-end interference minimizing uniquely designed high performance I/O stack that spans multi-level shared buffer cache hierarchies accessing shared I/O servers to deliver a seamless high performance I/O stack. In this thesis, I show that I can build a superior I/O stack which minimizes the inter-application interference…

  17. Self-assembled nanogaps via seed-mediated growth of end-to-end linked gold nanorods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Titoo; Westerlund, Axel Rune Fredrik; Johnson, Erik

    2009-01-01

    on the nanoscale. We here present a new way to end-to-end link AuNRs with a single or few linker molecules. Whereas methods reported in the literature so far rely on modification of the AuNRs after the synthesis, we here dimerize gold nanoparticle seeds with a water-soluble dithiol-functionalized polyethylene....... In essence, our methods hence demonstrate the fabrication of a nanostructure with a molecule connected to two nanoelectrodes by bottom-up chemical assembly....

  18. Sleep/wake scheduling scheme for minimizing end-to-end delay in multi-hop wireless sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madani Sajjad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a sleep/wake schedule protocol for minimizing end-to-end delay for event driven multi-hop wireless sensor networks. In contrast to generic sleep/wake scheduling schemes, our proposed algorithm performs scheduling that is dependent on traffic loads. Nodes adapt their sleep/wake schedule based on traffic loads in response to three important factors, (a the distance of the node from the sink node, (b the importance of the node's location from connectivity's perspective, and (c if the node is in the proximity where an event occurs. Using these heuristics, the proposed scheme reduces end-to-end delay and maximizes the throughput by minimizing the congestion at nodes having heavy traffic load. Simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol, by comparing its performance with S-MAC and Anycast protocols. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol has significantly reduced the end-to-end delay, as well as has improved the other QoS parameters, like average energy per packet, average delay, packet loss ratio, throughput, and coverage lifetime.

  19. Understanding Effect of Constraint Release Environment on End-to-End Vector Relaxation of Linear Polymer Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Shivokhin, Maksim E.

    2017-05-30

    We propose and verify methods based on the slip-spring (SSp) model [ Macromolecules 2005, 38, 14 ] for predicting the effect of any monodisperse, binary, or ternary environment of topological constraints on the relaxation of the end-to-end vector of a linear probe chain. For this purpose we first validate the ability of the model to consistently predict both the viscoelastic and dielectric response of monodisperse and binary mixtures of type A polymers, based on published experimental data. We also report the synthesis of new binary and ternary polybutadiene systems, the measurement of their linear viscoelastic response, and the prediction of these data by the SSp model. We next clarify the relaxation mechanisms of probe chains in these constraint release (CR) environments by analyzing a set of "toy" SSp models with simplified constraint release rates, by examining fluctuations of the end-to-end vector. In our analysis, the longest relaxation time of the probe chain is determined by a competition between the longest relaxation times of the effective CR motions of the fat and thin tubes and the motion of the chain itself in the thin tube. This picture is tested by the analysis of four model systems designed to separate and estimate every single contribution involved in the relaxation of the probe\\'s end-to-end vector in polydisperse systems. We follow the CR picture of Viovy et al. [ Macromolecules 1991, 24, 3587 ] and refine the effective chain friction in the thin and fat tubes based on Read et al. [ J. Rheol. 2012, 56, 823 ]. The derived analytical equations form a basis for generalizing the proposed methodology to polydisperse mixtures of linear and branched polymers. The consistency between the SSp model and tube model predictions is a strong indicator of the compatibility between these two distinct mesoscopic frameworks.

  20. End-to-End Printed-Circuit Board Assembly Design Using Altium Designer and Solid Works Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Goncharenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this white paper is to investigate the methods to accelerate the end-to-end simultaneous development of electronic PC assemblies in MCAD/ECAD systems. With raising the produced electronic equipment rates and quantities, there is a need to speed up the yield of new products. The article offers an alternate approach to the end-to-end simultaneous development in Altium Designer / Solid Works CAD/CAE systems, which enables a radically shortened time to design new devices and databases of components.The first part of the paper analyses the methods and models to solve the tasks of the endto-end simultaneous development of PC assemblies using the Circuit Works module for Solid Works. It examines the problems of traditional data exchange methods between Altium Designer and Solid Works arising from the limitations of the IDF 2.0 format used, as well as from the problems of 3D-models of components and because it is necessary to support two different databases.The second part gives guidelines and an example of the end-to-end simultaneous PC assembly development using the Altium Modeler module for Solid Works aimed at Altium Designer and presents a brief review of algorithms. The proposed method neither requires an additional database, nor uses an intermediate format such as IDF. The module translates the PCB model directly to Solid Works to generate the assembly model. The Altium Modeler is also capable to update its created assembly in Solid Works, which is very useful in case of modification of components and PCB itself. This approach is better tailored to the end-to-end development in terms of acceleration, enhancing facility of simultaneous work in different MCAD/ECAD systems, and eliminating errors arising from the need to support two CAD databases of the same functionality.In the conclusion the paper gives suggestions for using the modules for simultaneous development of electronic PC assemblies in Altium Designer and Solid Works.

  1. Effect of swirling flow on platelet concentration distribution in small-caliber artificial grafts and end-to-end anastomoses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zhan; Yu-Bo Fan; Xiao-Yan Deng

    2011-01-01

    Platelet concentration near the blood vessel wall is one of the major factors in the adhesion of platelets to the wall.In our previous studies,it was found that swirling flows could suppress platelet adhesion in small-caliber artificial grafts and end-to-end anastomoses.In order to better understand the beneficial effect of the swirling flow,we numerically analyzed the near-wall concentration distribution of platelets in a straight tube and a sudden tubular expansion tube under both swirling flow and normal flow conditions.The numerical models were created based on our previous experimental studies.The simulation results revealed that when compared with the normal flow,the swirling flow could significantly reduce the near-wall concentration of platelets in both the straight tube and the expansion tube.The present numerical study therefore indicates that the reduction in platelet adhesion under swirling flow conditions in small-caliber arterial grafts,or in end-to-end anastomoses as observed in our previous experimental study,was possibly through a mechanism of platelet transport,in which the swirling flow reduced the near-wall concentration of platelets.

  2. End-to-End Joint Antenna Selection Strategy and Distributed Compress and Forward Strategy for Relay Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Vaze

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multihop relay channels use multiple relay stages, each with multiple relay nodes, to facilitate communication between a source and destination. Previously, distributed space-time codes were proposed to maximize the achievable diversity-multiplexing tradeoff; however, they fail to achieve all the points of the optimal diversity-multiplexing tradeoff. In the presence of a low-rate feedback link from the destination to each relay stage and the source, this paper proposes an end-to-end antenna selection (EEAS strategy as an alternative to distributed space-time codes. The EEAS strategy uses a subset of antennas of each relay stage for transmission of the source signal to the destination with amplifying and forwarding at each relay stage. The subsets are chosen such that they maximize the end-to-end mutual information at the destination. The EEAS strategy achieves the corner points of the optimal diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (corresponding to maximum diversity gain and maximum multiplexing gain and achieves better diversity gain at intermediate values of multiplexing gain, versus the best-known distributed space-time coding strategies. A distributed compress and forward (CF strategy is also proposed to achieve all points of the optimal diversity-multiplexing tradeoff for a two-hop relay channel with multiple relay nodes.

  3. End-to-end self-assembly of gold nanorods in isopropanol solution: experimental and theoretical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordel, M.; Piela, K.; Kołkowski, R.; Koźlecki, T.; Buckle, M.; Samoć, M.

    2015-12-01

    We describe here a modification of properties of colloidal gold nanorods (NRs) resulting from the chemical treatment used to carry out their transfer into isopropanol (IPA) solution. The NRs acquire a tendency to attach one to another by their ends (end-to-end assembly). We focus on the investigation of the change in position and shape of the longitudinal surface plasmon (l-SPR) band after self-assembly. The experimental results are supported by a theoretical calculation, which rationalizes the dramatic change in optical properties when the NRs are positioned end-to-end at short distances. The detailed spectroscopic characterization performed at the consecutive stages of transfer of the NRs from water into IPA solution revealed the features of the interaction between the polymers used as ligands and their contribution to the final stage, when the NRs were dispersed in IPA solution. The efficient method of aligning the NRs detailed here may facilitate applications of the self-assembled NRs as building blocks for optical materials and biological sensing.

  4. End-to-end self-assembly of gold nanorods in isopropanol solution: experimental and theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordel, M., E-mail: marta.gordel@pwr.edu.pl [Wrocław University of Technology, Advanced Materials Engineering and Modelling Group, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Piela, K., E-mail: katarzyna.piela@pwr.edu.pl [Wrocław University of Technology, Department of Physical and Quantum Chemistry (Poland); Kołkowski, R. [Wrocław University of Technology, Advanced Materials Engineering and Modelling Group, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Koźlecki, T. [Wrocław University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Buckle, M. [CNRS, École Normale Supérieure de Cachan, Laboratoire de Biologie et Pharmacologie Appliquée (France); Samoć, M. [Wrocław University of Technology, Advanced Materials Engineering and Modelling Group, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland)

    2015-12-15

    We describe here a modification of properties of colloidal gold nanorods (NRs) resulting from the chemical treatment used to carry out their transfer into isopropanol (IPA) solution. The NRs acquire a tendency to attach one to another by their ends (end-to-end assembly). We focus on the investigation of the change in position and shape of the longitudinal surface plasmon (l-SPR) band after self-assembly. The experimental results are supported by a theoretical calculation, which rationalizes the dramatic change in optical properties when the NRs are positioned end-to-end at short distances. The detailed spectroscopic characterization performed at the consecutive stages of transfer of the NRs from water into IPA solution revealed the features of the interaction between the polymers used as ligands and their contribution to the final stage, when the NRs were dispersed in IPA solution. The efficient method of aligning the NRs detailed here may facilitate applications of the self-assembled NRs as building blocks for optical materials and biological sensing.Graphical Abstract.

  5. Weighted-DESYNC and Its Application to End-to-End Throughput Fairness in Wireless Multihop Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ui-Seong Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The end-to-end throughput of a routing path in wireless multihop network is restricted by a bottleneck node that has the smallest bandwidth among the nodes on the routing path. In this study, we propose a method for resolving the bottleneck-node problem in multihop networks, which is based on multihop DESYNC (MH-DESYNC algorithm that is a bioinspired resource allocation method developed for use in multihop environments and enables fair resource allocation among nearby (up to two hops neighbors. Based on MH-DESYNC, we newly propose weighted-DESYNC (W-DESYNC as a tool artificially to control the amount of resource allocated to the specific user and thus to achieve throughput fairness over a routing path. Proposed W-DESYNC employs the weight factor of a link to determine the amount of bandwidth allocated to a node. By letting the weight factor be the link quality of a routing path and making it the same across a routing path via Cucker-Smale flocking model, we can obtain throughput fairness over a routing path. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves throughput fairness over a routing path and can increase total end-to-end throughput in wireless multihop networks.

  6. Planck early results. V. The Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    León-Tavares, J.; Falvella, M.C.; Stompor, R.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the processing of data from the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) used in production of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC). In particular, we discuss the steps involved in reducing the data from telemetry packets to cleaned, calibrated, time-ordered data (TOD) and ...

  7. Planck early results. V. The Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    León-Tavares, J.; Falvella, M.C.; Stompor, R.;

    2011-01-01

    We describe the processing of data from the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) used in production of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC). In particular, we discuss the steps involved in reducing the data from telemetry packets to cleaned, calibrated, time-ordered data (TOD) and ...

  8. Planck 2015 results: II. Low Frequency Instrument data processings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.;

    2016-01-01

    We present an updated description of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing pipeline, associated with the 2015 data release. We point out the places where our results and methods have remained unchanged since the 2013 paper and we highlight the changes made for the 2015 release...

  9. Adjusting Sink Location to Reduce End-to-End Delay in Low-Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Yuan Lin; Kuo-Feng Ssu; Hau-Yu Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract⎯Low-duty-cycle mechanisms can reduce the energy consumptionsignificantly in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Sensors stay dormant most of the time to save their energy and wake up based on their needs. However, such a technique, while prolonging the network lifetime, sets excessive challenges for reducing the end-to-end (E2E) delay within the network. In this paper, the centralized cluster-based location finding (CCLF) algorithm is proposed to reduce the high latency in low-duty-cycle WSNs by finding a suitable position for the sink. The algorithm is mainly composed of three steps: a) the cluster construction, b) the fast look-up table (FLU-table) construction, and c) the sink location decision. The simulation results show that the performance of the CCLF algorithm is significantly similar to that of the optimal algorithm. Moreover, the CCLF algorithm requires less operation time compared with the optimal algorithm.

  10. A New Fault Detection Method Using End-to-End Data and Sequential Testing for Computer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadeq Garshasbi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fault localization, a central part of network fault management, is a process of deducing the exact source of a failure from a set of observed failure indications. in the network, end systems and hosts communicate through routers and links connecting them. When a link or a router faces with a fault, the information sent through these components will be damaged. Hence, faulty components in a network need to be detected and repaired to sustain the health of the network. In this paper we introduce an end to end method that detect and repair the faulty components in the network. The proposed method is a heuristic algorithm that uses the embedded information retrieved from disseminated data over the network to detect and repair faulty components. Simulation results show that our heuristic scheme only requires testing a very small set of network components to detect and repair all faults in the network.

  11. Cross-Layer Design for End-to-End Throughput Maximization and Fairness in MIMO Multihop Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain-Shing Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available MIMO links can significantly improve network throughput by supporting multiple concurrent data streams between a pair of nodes and suppressing wireless interference. In this paper, we study joint rate control, routing, and scheduling in MIMO-based multihop wireless networks, which are traditionally known as transport layer, network layer, and MAC layer issues, respectively. Our aim is to find a rate allocation along with a flow allocation and a transmission schedule for a set of end-to-end communication sessions so as to maximize the network throughput and also to achieve the proportional or weighted fairness among these sessions. To this end, we develop Transmission Mode Generating Algorithms (TMGAs, and Linear Programming- (LP- and Convex Programming- (CP- based optimization schemes for the MIMO networks. The performances of the proposed schemes are verified by simulation experiments, and the results show that the different schemes have different performance benefits when achieving a tradeoff between throughput and fairness.

  12. End-to-end Structural Restriction of α-Synuclein and Its Influence on Amyloid Fibril Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Chul Suk; Park, Jae Hyung; Choe, Young Jun; Paik, Seung R. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Relationship between molecular freedom of amyloidogenic protein and its self-assembly into amyloid fibrils has been evaluated with α-synuclein, an intrinsically unfolded protein related to Parkinson's disease, by restricting its structural plasticity through an end-to-end disulfide bond formation between two newly introduced cysteine residues on the N- and C-termini. Although the resulting circular form of α-synuclein exhibited an impaired fibrillation propensity, the restriction did not completely block the protein's interactive core since co-incubation with wild-type α-synuclein dramatically facilitated the fibrillation by producing distinctive forms of amyloid fibrils. The suppressed fibrillation propensity was instantly restored as the structural restriction was unleashed with β-mercaptoethanol. Conformational flexibility of the accreting amyloidogenic protein to pre-existing seeds has been demonstrated to be critical for fibrillar extension process by exerting structural adjustment to a complementary structure for the assembly.

  13. The ZEPLIN-III dark matter detector: performance study using an end-to-end simulation tool

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, H M; Alner, G J; Bewick, A; Bungau, C; Camanzi, B; Carson, M J; Chagani, H; Chepel, V Yu; Cunha, J P; Davidge, D; Davies, J C; Daw, E; Dawson, J; Durkin, T; Edwards, B; Gamble, T; Ghag, C; Hollingworth, R; Howard, A S; Jones, W G; Joshi, M; Kirkpatrick, J; Kovalenko, A; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lawson, T; Lebedenko, V N; Lewin, J D; Lightfoot, P; Lindote, A; Liubarsky, I; Lopes, M I; Lüscher, R; Majewski, P; Mavrokoridis, K; McMillan, J; Morgan, B; Muna, D; Murphy, A S; Neves, F; Nicklin, G; Paling, S; Preece, R; Quenby, J J; Robinson, M; Silva, C; Smith, N J T; Smith, P F; Solovov, V N; Spooner, N J C; Stekhanov, V; Sumner, T J; Thorne, C; Tovey, Daniel R; Tziaferi, E; Walker, R J

    2006-01-01

    We present results from a GEANT4-based Monte Carlo tool for end-to-end simulations of the ZEPLIN-III dark matter experiment. ZEPLIN-III is a two-phase detector which measures both the scintillation light and the ionisation charge generated in liquid xenon by interacting particles and radiation. The software models the instrument response to radioactive backgrounds and calibration sources, including the generation, ray-tracing and detection of the primary and secondary scintillations in liquid and gaseous xenon, and subsequent processing by data acquisition electronics. A flexible user interface allows easy modification of detector parameters at run time. Realistic datasets can be produced to help with data analysis, an example of which is the position reconstruction algorithm developed from simulated data. We present a range of simulation results confirming the original design sensitivity of a few times $10^{-8}$ pb to the WIMP-nucleon cross-section.

  14. HITSZ_CDR: an end-to-end chemical and disease relation extraction system for BioCreative V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haodi; Tang, Buzhou; Chen, Qingcai; Chen, Kai; Wang, Xiaolong; Wang, Baohua; Wang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    In this article, an end-to-end system was proposed for the challenge task of disease named entity recognition (DNER) and chemical-induced disease (CID) relation extraction in BioCreative V, where DNER includes disease mention recognition (DMR) and normalization (DN). Evaluation on the challenge corpus showed that our system achieved the highest F1-scores 86.93% on DMR, 84.11% on DN, 43.04% on CID relation extraction, respectively. The F1-score on DMR is higher than our previous one reported by the challenge organizers (86.76%), the highest F1-score of the challenge. Database URL: http://database.oxfordjournals.org/content/2016/baw077 PMID:27270713

  15. SU-E-T-282: Dose Measurements with An End-To-End Audit Phantom for Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R; Artschan, R [Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Thwaites, D [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Lehmann, J [Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Report on dose measurements as part of an end-to-end test for stereotactic radiotherapy, using a new audit tool, which allows audits to be performed efficiently either by an onsite team or as a postal audit. Methods: Film measurements have been performed with a new Stereotactic Cube Phantom. The phantom has been designed to perform Winston Lutz type position verification measurements and dose measurements in one setup. It comprises a plastic cube with a high density ball in its centre (used for MV imaging with film or EPID) and low density markers in the periphery (used for Cone Beam Computed Tomography, CBCT imaging). It also features strategically placed gold markers near the posterior and right surfaces, which can be used to calculate phantom rotations on MV images. Slit-like openings allow insertion of film or other detectors.The phantom was scanned and small field treatment plans were created. The fields do not traverse any inhomogeneities of the phantom on their paths to the measurement location. The phantom was setup at the delivery system using CBCT imaging. The calculated treatment fields were delivered, each with a piece of radiochromic film (EBT3) placed in the anterior film holder of the phantom. MU had been selected in planning to achieve similar exposures on all films. Calibration films were exposed in solid water for dose levels around the expected doses. Films were scanned and analysed following established procedures. Results: Setup of the cube showed excellent suitability for CBCT 3D alignment. MV imaging with EPID allowed for clear identification of all markers. Film based dose measurements showed good agreement for MLC created fields down to 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm. Conclusion: An end-to-end audit phantom for stereotactic radiotherapy has been developed and tested.

  16. Evaluation of Techniques to Detect Significant Network Performance Problems using End-to-End Active Network Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, R.Les; Logg, Connie; Chhaparia, Mahesh; /SLAC; Grigoriev, Maxim; /Fermilab; Haro, Felipe; /Chile U., Catolica; Nazir, Fawad; /NUST, Rawalpindi; Sandford, Mark

    2006-01-25

    End-to-End fault and performance problems detection in wide area production networks is becoming increasingly hard as the complexity of the paths, the diversity of the performance, and dependency on the network increase. Several monitoring infrastructures are built to monitor different network metrics and collect monitoring information from thousands of hosts around the globe. Typically there are hundreds to thousands of time-series plots of network metrics which need to be looked at to identify network performance problems or anomalous variations in the traffic. Furthermore, most commercial products rely on a comparison with user configured static thresholds and often require access to SNMP-MIB information, to which a typical end-user does not usually have access. In our paper we propose new techniques to detect network performance problems proactively in close to realtime and we do not rely on static thresholds and SNMP-MIB information. We describe and compare the use of several different algorithms that we have implemented to detect persistent network problems using anomalous variations analysis in real end-to-end Internet performance measurements. We also provide methods and/or guidance for how to set the user settable parameters. The measurements are based on active probes running on 40 production network paths with bottlenecks varying from 0.5Mbits/s to 1000Mbit/s. For well behaved data (no missed measurements and no very large outliers) with small seasonal changes most algorithms identify similar events. We compare the algorithms' robustness with respect to false positives and missed events especially when there are large seasonal effects in the data. Our proposed techniques cover a wide variety of network paths and traffic patterns. We also discuss the applicability of the algorithms in terms of their intuitiveness, their speed of execution as implemented, and areas of applicability. Our encouraging results compare and evaluate the accuracy of our

  17. End-to-end performance of cooperative relaying in spectrum-sharing systems with quality of service requirements

    KAUST Repository

    Asghari, Vahid Reza

    2011-07-01

    We propose adopting a cooperative relaying technique in spectrum-sharing cognitive radio (CR) systems to more effectively and efficiently utilize available transmission resources, such as power, rate, and bandwidth, while adhering to the quality of service (QoS) requirements of the licensed (primary) users of the shared spectrum band. In particular, we first consider that the cognitive (secondary) user\\'s communication is assisted by an intermediate relay that implements the decode-and-forward (DF) technique onto the secondary user\\'s relayed signal to help with communication between the corresponding source and the destination nodes. In this context, we obtain first-order statistics pertaining to the first- and second-hop transmission channels, and then, we investigate the end-to-end performance of the proposed spectrum-sharing cooperative relaying system under resource constraints defined to assure that the primary QoS is unaffected. Specifically, we investigate the overall average bit error rate (BER), ergodic capacity, and outage probability of the secondary\\'s communication subject to appropriate constraints on the interference power at the primary receivers. We then consider a general scenario where a cluster of relays is available between the secondary source and destination nodes. In this case, making use of the partial relay selection method, we generalize our results for the single-relay scheme and obtain the end-to-end performance of the cooperative spectrum-sharing system with a cluster of L available relays. Finally, we examine our theoretical results through simulations and comparisons, illustrating the overall performance of the proposed spectrum-sharing cooperative system and quantify its advantages for different operating scenarios and conditions. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. End-to-end models for marine ecosystems: Are we on the precipice of a significant advance or just putting lipstick on a pig?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Rose

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid rise in the development of end-to-end models for marine ecosystems over the past decade. Some reasons for this rise include need for predicting effects of climate change on biota and dissatisfaction with existing models. While the benefits of a well-implemented end-to-end model are straightforward, there are many challenges. In the short term, my view is that the major role of end-to-end models is to push the modelling community forward, and to identify critical data so that these data can be collected now and thus be available for the next generation of end-to-end models. I think we should emulate physicists and build theoretically-oriented models first, and then collect the data. In the long-term, end-to-end models will increase their skill, data collection will catch up, and end-to-end models will move towards site-specific applications with forecasting and management capabilities. One pathway into the future is individual efforts, over-promise, and repackaging of poorly performing component submodels (“lipstick on a pig”. The other pathway is a community-based collaborative effort, with appropriate caution and thoughtfulness, so that the needed improvements are achieved (“significant advance”. The promise of end-to-end modelling is great. We should act now to avoid missing a great opportunity.

  19. End-to-End Information System design at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. [data transmission between user and space-based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of a pressing need of the 1980s to optimize the two-way flow of information between a ground-based user and a remote-space-based sensor, an end-to-end approach to the design of information systems has been adopted at the JPL. This paper reviews End-to-End Information System (EEIS) activity at the JPL, with attention given to the scope of the EEIS transfer function, and functional and physical elements of the EEIS. The relationship between the EEIS and the NASA End-to-End Data System program is discussed.

  20. Planck 2015 results. II. Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Ballardini, M; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Basak, S; Battaglia, P; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Castex, G; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Christensen, P R; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschet, C; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; Lindholm, V; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oppermann, N; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renzi, A; Rocha, G; Romelli, E; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vassallo, T; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    We present an updated description of the Planck Low Frequency (LFI) data processing pipeline, associated with the 2015 data release. We point out the places in which our results and methods have remained unchanged since the 2013 paper and we highlight the changes made for the 2015 release, describing the products (especially timelines) and the ways in which they were obtained. We demonstrate that the pipeline is self-consistent (principally based on simulations) and report all null tests. We refer to other related papers where more detailed descriptions on the LFI data processing pipeline may be found if needed.

  1. Cryogenic environment and performance for testing the Planck radiometers

    CERN Document Server

    Terenzi, L; Laaninen, M; Battaglia, P; Cavaliere, F; De Rosa, A; Hughes, N; Jukkala, P; Kilpiä, V -H; Morgante, G; Tomasi, M; Varis, J; Bersanelli, M; Butler, R C; Ferrari, F; Franceschet, C; Leutenegger, P; Mandolesi, N; Mennella, A; Silvestri, R; Stringhetti, L; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Villa, F; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12015

    2010-01-01

    This paper is part of the Prelaunch status LFI papers published on JINST: http://www.iop.org/EJ/journal/-page=extra.proc5/jinst The Planck LFI Radiometer Chain Assemblies (RCAs) have been calibrated in two dedicated cryogenic facilities. In this paper the facilities and the related instrumentation are described. The main satellite thermal interfaces for the single chains have to be reproduced and stability requirements have to be satisfied. Setup design, problems occurred and improving solutions implemented are discussed. Performance of the cryogenic setup are reported.

  2. A novel end-to-end classifier using domain transferred deep convolutional neural networks for biomedical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shuchao; Yu, Zhezhou; Orgun, Mehmet A

    2017-03-01

    Highly accurate classification of biomedical images is an essential task in the clinical diagnosis of numerous medical diseases identified from those images. Traditional image classification methods combined with hand-crafted image feature descriptors and various classifiers are not able to effectively improve the accuracy rate and meet the high requirements of classification of biomedical images. The same also holds true for artificial neural network models directly trained with limited biomedical images used as training data or directly used as a black box to extract the deep features based on another distant dataset. In this study, we propose a highly reliable and accurate end-to-end classifier for all kinds of biomedical images via deep learning and transfer learning. We first apply domain transferred deep convolutional neural network for building a deep model; and then develop an overall deep learning architecture based on the raw pixels of original biomedical images using supervised training. In our model, we do not need the manual design of the feature space, seek an effective feature vector classifier or segment specific detection object and image patches, which are the main technological difficulties in the adoption of traditional image classification methods. Moreover, we do not need to be concerned with whether there are large training sets of annotated biomedical images, affordable parallel computing resources featuring GPUs or long times to wait for training a perfect deep model, which are the main problems to train deep neural networks for biomedical image classification as observed in recent works. With the utilization of a simple data augmentation method and fast convergence speed, our algorithm can achieve the best accuracy rate and outstanding classification ability for biomedical images. We have evaluated our classifier on several well-known public biomedical datasets and compared it with several state-of-the-art approaches. We propose a robust

  3. Profiling wind and greenhouse gases by infrared-laser occultation: results from end-to-end simulations in windy air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Plach

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new mission concept of microwave and infrared-laser occultation between low-Earth-orbit satellites (LMIO is designed to provide accurate and long-term stable profiles of atmospheric thermodynamic variables, greenhouse gases (GHGs, and line-of-sight (l.o.s. wind speed with focus on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS. While the unique quality of GHG retrievals enabled by LMIO over the UTLS has been recently demonstrated based on end-to-end simulations, the promise of l.o.s. wind retrieval, and of joint GHG and wind retrieval, has not yet been analyzed in any realistic simulation setting. Here we use a newly developed l.o.s. wind retrieval algorithm, which we embedded in an end-to-end simulation framework that also includes the retrieval of thermodynamic variables and GHGs, and analyze the performance of both stand-alone wind retrieval and joint wind and GHG retrieval. The wind algorithm utilizes LMIO laser signals placed on the inflection points at the wings of the highly symmetric C18OO absorption line near 4767 cm−1 and exploits transmission differences from a wind-induced Doppler shift. Based on realistic example cases for a diversity of atmospheric conditions, ranging from tropical to high-latitude winter, we find that the retrieved l.o.s. wind profiles are of high quality over the lower stratosphere under all conditions, i.e., unbiased and accurate to within about 2 m s−1 over about 15 to 35 km. The wind accuracy degrades into the upper troposphere due to the decreasing signal-to-noise ratio of the wind-induced differential transmission signals. The GHG retrieval in windy air is not vulnerable to wind speed uncertainties up to about 10 m s−1 but is found to benefit in the case of higher speeds from the integrated wind retrieval that enables correction of wind-induced Doppler shift of GHG signals. Overall both the l.o.s. wind and GHG retrieval results are strongly encouraging towards further development and

  4. Gulf of California species and catch spatial distributions and historical time series - Developing end-to-end models of the Gulf of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the northern Gulf of California, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  5. West Coast fish, mammal, bird life history and abunance parameters - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  6. West Coast fish, mammal, and bird species diets - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  7. An anthropomorphic multimodality (CT/MRI) head phantom prototype for end-to-end tests in ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallas, Raya R.; Huenemohr, Nora; Runz, Armin; Niebuhr, Nina I.; Greilich, Steffen [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Div. of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology; National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany). Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO); Jaekel, Oliver [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Div. of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology; National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany). Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO); Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    With the increasing complexity of external beam therapy ''end-to-end'' tests are intended to cover every step from therapy planning through to follow-up in order to fulfill the higher demands on quality assurance. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important part of the treatment process, established phantoms such as the Alderson head cannot fully be used for those tests and novel phantoms have to be developed. Here, we present a feasibility study of a customizable multimodality head phantom. It is initially intended for ion radiotherapy but may also be used in photon therapy. As basis for the anthropomorphic head shape we have used a set of patient computed tomography (CT) images. The phantom recipient consisting of epoxy resin was produced by using a 3D printer. It includes a nasal air cavity, a cranial bone surrogate (based on dipotassium phosphate), a brain surrogate (based on agarose gel), and a surrogate for cerebrospinal fluid (based on distilled water). Furthermore, a volume filled with normoxic dosimetric gel mimicked a tumor. The entire workflow of a proton therapy could be successfully applied to the phantom. CT measurements revealed CT numbers agreeing with reference values for all surrogates in the range from 2 HU to 978 HU (120 kV). MRI showed the desired contrasts between the different phantom materials especially in T2-weighted images (except for the bone surrogate). T2-weighted readout of the polymerization gel dosimeter allowed approximate range verification.

  8. Minimizing Barriers in Learning for On-Call Radiology Residents-End-to-End Web-Based Resident Feedback System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hailey H; Clark, Jennifer; Jay, Ann K; Filice, Ross W

    2017-08-24

    Feedback is an essential part of medical training, where trainees are provided with information regarding their performance and further directions for improvement. In diagnostic radiology, feedback entails a detailed review of the differences between the residents' preliminary interpretation and the attendings' final interpretation of imaging studies. While the on-call experience of independently interpreting complex cases is important to resident education, the more traditional synchronous "read-out" or joint review is impossible due to multiple constraints. Without an efficient method to compare reports, grade discrepancies, convey salient teaching points, and view images, valuable lessons in image interpretation and report construction are lost. We developed a streamlined web-based system, including report comparison and image viewing, to minimize barriers in asynchronous communication between attending radiologists and on-call residents. Our system provides real-time, end-to-end delivery of case-specific and user-specific feedback in a streamlined, easy-to-view format. We assessed quality improvement subjectively through surveys and objectively through participation metrics. Our web-based feedback system improved user satisfaction for both attending and resident radiologists, and increased attending participation, particularly with regards to cases where substantive discrepancies were identified.

  9. WARP (workflow for automated and rapid production): a framework for end-to-end automated digital print workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Parag

    2006-02-01

    Publishing industry is experiencing a major paradigm shift with the advent of digital publishing technologies. A large number of components in the publishing and print production workflow are transformed in this shift. However, the process as a whole requires a great deal of human intervention for decision making and for resolving exceptions during job execution. Furthermore, a majority of the best-of-breed applications for publishing and print production are intrinsically designed and developed to be driven by humans. Thus, the human-intensive nature of the current prepress process accounts for a very significant amount of the overhead costs in fulfillment of jobs on press. It is a challenge to automate the functionality of applications built with the model of human driven exectution. Another challenge is to orchestrate various components in the publishing and print production pipeline such that they work in a seamless manner to enable the system to perform automatic detection of potential failures and take corrective actions in a proactive manner. Thus, there is a great need for a coherent and unifying workflow architecture that streamlines the process and automates it as a whole in order to create an end-to-end digital automated print production workflow that does not involve any human intervention. This paper describes an architecture and building blocks that lay the foundation for a plurality of automated print production workflows.

  10. Acute traumatic subclavian artery thrombosis and its successful repair via resection and end-to-end anastomosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saulat H Fatimi; Amna Anees; Marium Muzaffar; Hashim M Hanif

    2010-01-01

    Subclavian artery thrombosis is a rare complication of clavicle fractures. We reported a 20-year-old man who was admitted to the emergency room after a road traffic accident. He was a pedestrian who was initially hit by a bus and after he fell down on the road, he was run over by a car. On evaluation, he was found to have multiple facial and rib fractures, distal right humerus and right clavicle fracture. Significantly, right radial pulse was absent. After further evaluation including Doppler studies and an angiography which revealed complete obstruction of right subclavian artery just distal to its 1st portion, the patient was urgently taken to the operation room. A midclavicular fracture was adjacent to the injured vessel. We established proximal and distal control, removed damaged part. After mobilizing the subclavian artery, an end-to-end anastomosis was made. Then open reduction and internal fixation of right distal humerus was performed. The rest of the postoperative course was unremarkable. To prevent complications of subclavian artery thrombosis, different treatment modalities can be used, including anticoagulation therapy,angioplasty, stenting and bypass procedures.

  11. An anthropomorphic multimodality (CT/MRI) phantom prototype for end-to-end tests in radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Gallas, Raya R; Runz, Armin; Niebuhr, Nina I; Jäkel, Oliver; Greilich, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing complexity of external beam therapy, so-called "end-to-end" tests are intended to cover all steps from therapy planning to follow-up to fulfill the high demands on quality assurance. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gains growing importance in the treatment process and established phantoms (such as the Alderson head) cannot be used for those tests, novel multimodality phantoms have to be developed. Here, we present a feasibility study for such a customizable multimodality head phantom. We used a set of patient CT images as the basis for the anthropomorphic head shape. The recipient - consisting of an epoxy resin - was produced using rapid prototyping (3D printing). The phantom recipient includes a nasal air cavity, two soft tissues volumes and cranial bone. Additionally a spherical tumor volume was positioned in the center. The volumes were filled with dipotassium phosphate-based cranial bone surrogate, agarose gel, and distilled water. The tumor volume was filled with normoxic dosimetr...

  12. A real-time 3D end-to-end augmented reality system (and its representation transformations)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytgat, Donny; Aerts, Maarten; De Busser, Jeroen; Lievens, Sammy; Rondao Alface, Patrice; Macq, Jean-Francois

    2016-09-01

    The new generation of HMDs coming to the market is expected to enable many new applications that allow free viewpoint experiences with captured video objects. Current applications usually rely on 3D content that is manually created or captured in an offline manner. In contrast, this paper focuses on augmented reality applications that use live captured 3D objects while maintaining free viewpoint interaction. We present a system that allows live dynamic 3D objects (e.g. a person who is talking) to be captured in real-time. Real-time performance is achieved by traversing a number of representation formats and exploiting their specific benefits. For instance, depth images are maintained for fast neighborhood retrieval and occlusion determination, while implicit surfaces are used to facilitate multi-source aggregation for both geometry and texture. The result is a 3D reconstruction system that outputs multi-textured triangle meshes at real-time rates. An end-to-end system is presented that captures and reconstructs live 3D data and allows for this data to be used on a networked (AR) device. For allocating the different functional blocks onto the available physical devices, a number of alternatives are proposed considering the available computational power and bandwidth for each of the components. As we will show, the representation format can play an important role in this functional allocation and allows for a flexible system that can support a highly heterogeneous infrastructure.

  13. Towards a cross-platform software framework to support end-to-end hydrometeorological sensor network deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celicourt, P.; Sam, R.; Piasecki, M.

    2016-12-01

    Global phenomena such as climate change and large scale environmental degradation require the collection of accurate environmental data at detailed spatial and temporal scales from which knowledge and actionable insights can be derived using data science methods. Despite significant advances in sensor network technologies, sensors and sensor network deployment remains a labor-intensive, time consuming, cumbersome and expensive task. These factors demonstrate why environmental data collection remains a challenge especially in developing countries where technical infrastructure, expertise and pecuniary resources are scarce. In addition, they also demonstrate the reason why dense and long-term environmental data collection has been historically quite difficult. Moreover, hydrometeorological data collection efforts usually overlook the (critically important) inclusion of a standards-based system for storing, managing, organizing, indexing, documenting and sharing sensor data. We are developing a cross-platform software framework using the Python programming language that will allow us to develop a low cost end-to-end (from sensor to publication) system for hydrometeorological conditions monitoring. The software framework contains provision for sensor, sensor platforms, calibration and network protocols description, sensor programming, data storage, data publication and visualization and more importantly data retrieval in a desired unit system. It is being tested on the Raspberry Pi microcomputer as end node and a laptop PC as the base station in a wireless setting.

  14. Secondary link adaptation in cognitive radio networks: End-to-end performance with cross-layer design

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Hao

    2012-04-01

    Under spectrum-sharing constraints, we consider the secondary link exploiting cross-layer combining of adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) at the physical layer with truncated automatic repeat request (T-ARQ) at the data link layer in cognitive radio networks. Both, basic AMC and aggressive AMC, are adopted to optimize the overall average spectral efficiency, subject to the interference constraints imposed by the primary user of the shared spectrum band and a target packet loss rate. We achieve the optimal boundary points in closed form to choose the AMC transmission modes by taking into account the channel state information from the secondary transmitter to both the primary receiver and the secondary receiver. Moreover, numerical results substantiate that, without any cost in the transmitter/receiver design nor the end-to-end delay, the scheme with aggressive AMC outperforms that with conventional AMC. The main reason is that, with aggressive AMC, different transmission modes utilized in the initial packet transmission and the following retransmissions match the time-varying channel conditions better than the basic pattern. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. End-to-end simulations of the Visible Tunable Filter for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Wolfgang; Ellwarth, Monika; Baumgartner, Jörg; Bell, Alexander; Fischer, Andreas; Halbgewachs, Clemens; Heidecke, Frank; Kentischer, Thomas; von der Lühe, Oskar; Scheiffelen, Thomas; Sigwarth, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Visible Tunable Filter (VTF) is a narrowband tunable filter system for imaging spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry based. The instrument will be one of the first-light instruments of the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope that is currently under construction on Maui (Hawaii). The VTF is being developed by the Kiepenheuer Institut fuer Sonnenphysik in Freiburg as a German contribution to the DKIST. We perform end-to-end simulations of spectropolarimetric observations with the VTF to verify the science requirements of the instrument. The instrument is simulated with two Etalons, and with a single Etalon. The clear aperture of the Etalons is 250 mm, corresponding to a field of view with a diameter of 60 arcsec in the sky (42,000 km on the Sun). To model the large-scale figure errors we employ low-order Zernike polynomials (power and spherical aberration) with amplitudes of 2.5 nm RMS. We use an ideal polarization modulator with equal modulation coefficients of 3-1/2 for the polarization modulation We synthesiz...

  16. Scaffold-integrated microchips for end-to-end in vitro tumor cell attachment and xenograft formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungwoo; Kohl, Nathaniel; Shanbhang, Sachin; Parekkadan, Biju

    2015-12-01

    Microfluidic technologies have substantially advanced cancer research by enabling the isolation of rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. The characterization of isolated CTCs has been limited due to the difficulty in recovering and growing isolated cells with high fidelity. Here, we present a strategy that uses a 3D scaffold, integrated into a microfludic device, as a transferable substrate that can be readily isolated after device operation for serial use in vivo as a transplanted tissue bed. Hydrogel scaffolds were incorporated into a PDMS fluidic chamber prior to bonding and were rehydrated in the chamber after fluid contact. The hydrogel matrix completely filled the fluid chamber, significantly increasing the surface area to volume ratio, and could be directly visualized under a microscope. Computational modeling defined different flow and pressure regimes that guided the conditions used to operate the chip. As a proof of concept using a model cell line, we confirmed human prostate tumor cell attachment in the microfluidic scaffold chip, retrieval of the scaffold en masse, and serial implantation of the scaffold to a mouse model with preserved xenograft development. With further improvement in capture efficiency, this approach can offer an end-to-end platform for the continuous study of isolated cancer cells from a biological fluid to a xenograft in mice.

  17. DynaChanAl: Dynamic Channel Allocation with Minimal End-to-end Delay for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, JeongGil

    2010-01-01

    With recent advances in wireless communication, networking, and low power sensor technology, wireless sensor network (WSN) systems have begun to take significant roles in various applications ranging from environmental sensing to mobile healthcare sensing. While some WSN applications only require a lim- ited amount of bandwidth, new emerging applications operate with a notice- ably large amount of data transfers. One way to deal with such applications is to maximize the available capacity by utilizing the use of multiple wireless channels. This work proposes DynaChannAl, a distributed dynamic wireless channel algorithm with the goal of effectively distributing nodes on multiple wireless channels in WSN systems. Specifically, DynaChannAl targets applica- tions where mobile nodes connect to a pre-existing wireless backbone and takes the expected end-to-end queuing delay as its core metric. We use the link qual- ity indicator (LQI) values provided by IEEE 802.15.4 radios white-list potential links with good link...

  18. Effects of collagen membranes enriched with in vitro-differentiated N1E-115 cells on rat sciatic nerve regeneration after end-to-end repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornaro Michele

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Peripheral nerves possess the capacity of self-regeneration after traumatic injury but the extent of regeneration is often poor and may benefit from exogenous factors that enhance growth. The use of cellular systems is a rational approach for delivering neurotrophic factors at the nerve lesion site, and in the present study we investigated the effects of enwrapping the site of end-to-end rat sciatic nerve repair with an equine type III collagen membrane enriched or not with N1E-115 pre-differentiated neural cells. After neurotmesis, the sciatic nerve was repaired by end-to-end suture (End-to-End group, end-to-end suture enwrapped with an equine collagen type III membrane (End-to-EndMemb group; and end-to-end suture enwrapped with an equine collagen type III membrane previously covered with neural cells pre-differentiated in vitro from N1E-115 cells (End-to-EndMembCell group. Along the postoperative, motor and sensory functional recovery was evaluated using extensor postural thrust (EPT, withdrawal reflex latency (WRL and ankle kinematics. After 20 weeks animals were sacrificed and the repaired sciatic nerves were processed for histological and stereological analysis. Results showed that enwrapment of the rapair site with a collagen membrane, with or without neural cell enrichment, did not lead to any significant improvement in most of functional and stereological predictors of nerve regeneration that we have assessed, with the exception of EPT which recovered significantly better after neural cell enriched membrane employment. It can thus be concluded that this particular type of nerve tissue engineering approach has very limited effects on nerve regeneration after sciatic end-to-end nerve reconstruction in the rat.

  19. End-to-End Simulation for a Forest-Dedicated Full-Waveform Lidar Onboard a Satellite Initialized from Airborne Ultraviolet Lidar Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxia Shang; Patrick Chazette

    2015-01-01

    In order to study forests at the global scale, a detailed link budget for a lidar system onboard satellite is presented. It is based on an original approach coupling airborne lidar observations and an end-to-end simulator. The simulator is initialized by airborne lidar measurements performed over temperate and tropical forests on the French territory, representing a wide range of forests ecosystems. Considering two complementary wavelengths of 355 and 1064 nm, the end-to-end simulator compute...

  20. Planck 2015 results. II. Low Frequency Instrument data processings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaglia, P.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Christensen, P. R.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Morisset, N.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renzi, A.; Rocha, G.; Romelli, E.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vassallo, T.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    We present an updated description of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing pipeline, associated with the 2015 data release. We point out the places where our results and methods have remained unchanged since the 2013 paper and we highlight the changes made for the 2015 release, describing the products (especially timelines) and the ways in which they were obtained. We demonstrate that the pipeline is self-consistent (principally based on simulations) and report all null tests. For the first time, we present LFI maps in Stokes Q and U polarization. We refer to other related papers where more detailed descriptions of the LFI data processing pipeline may be found if needed.

  1. Surgical repair of acute Achilles tendon rupture with an end-to-end tendon suture and tendon flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradino, B; Di Lorenzo, S; Calamia, C; Moschella, F

    2015-08-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures are becoming more common. Complications after open or minimally invasive surgery are: recurrent rupture (2-8%), wound breakdown, deep infections, granuloma, and fistulas. The authors expose their experience with a personal technique. In 8 patients with acute rupture of Achilles tendon the surgery was performed at least 25 days after trauma. Clinical exam and MR demonstrated in all case a total lesion of tendon. After a posterolateral skin incision the tendon stumps were debrided and suture in end-to-end fashion. A tendon flap was harvested from the proximal part of the tendon, in order to protect and reinforce the suture itself. A plaster cast was applied for 3 weeks and the patients started the rehabilitation protocol. After 4 months all patients returned to pre-injury daily activities. The mean follow up was 13 months (ranged between 6 and 24 months). No major complications occurred. The posterolateral skin incision, not above the tendon, preserves the vascularity of the soft tissues, allows identifying and not accidentally injuring the sural nerve, and prevents the cutaneous scar is overlapped the tendon. In this way is favoured physiological tendon sliding. The preparation of the flap tendon does not weaken the overall strength of the tendon and protects the tendon suture. The tension on sutured stumps is less than being spread over a larger area. In our sample of 8 patients the absence of short-and long-term complications and the rapid functional recovery after surgery suggest that the technique used is safe and effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. End-to-end simulations and planning of a small space telescopes: Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara; Folta, David; Gong, Qian; Howard, Joseph; Hull, Tony; Purves, Lloyd

    2016-08-01

    Large astronomical missions are usually general-purpose telescopes with a suite of instruments optimized for different wavelength regions, spectral resolutions, etc. Their end-to-end (E2E) simulations are typically photons-in to flux-out calculations made to verify that each instrument meets its performance specifications. In contrast, smaller space missions are usually single-purpose telescopes, and their E2E simulations start with the scientific question to be answered and end with an assessment of the effectiveness of the mission in answering the scientific question. Thus, E2E simulations for small missions consist a longer string of calculations than for large missions, as they include not only the telescope and instrumentation, but also the spacecraft, orbit, and external factors such as coordination with other telescopes. Here, we illustrate the strategy and organization of small-mission E2E simulations using the Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer (GESE) as a case study. GESE is an Explorer/Probe-class space mission concept with the primary aim of understanding galaxy evolution. Operation of a small survey telescope in space like GESE is usually simpler than operations of large telescopes driven by the varied scientific programs of the observers or by transient events. Nevertheless, both types of telescopes share two common challenges: maximizing the integration time on target, while minimizing operation costs including communication costs and staffing on the ground. We show in the case of GESE how these challenges can be met through a custom orbit and a system design emphasizing simplification and leveraging information from ground-based telescopes.

  3. WE-G-BRD-08: End-To-End Targeting Accuracy of the Gamma Knife for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezovich, I; Wu, X; Duan, J; Benhabib, S; Huang, M; Shen, S; Cardan, R; Popple, R [University Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Current QA procedures verify accuracy of individual equipment parameters, but may not include CT and MRI localizers. This study uses an end-to-end approach to measure the overall targeting errors in individual patients previously treated for trigeminal neuralgia. Methods: The trigeminal nerve is simulated by a 3 mm long, 3.175 mm (1/8 inch) diameter MRI contrast-filled cavity embedded within a PMMA plastic capsule. The capsule is positioned within the head frame such that the cavity position matches the Gamma Knife coordinates of 10 previously treated patients. Gafchromic EBT2 film is placed at the center of the cavity in coronal and sagittal orientations. The films are marked with a pin prick to identify the cavity center. Treatments are planned for delivery with 4 mm collimators using MRI and CT scans acquired with the clinical localizer boxes and acquisition protocols. Coordinates of shots are chosen so that the cavity is centered within the 50% isodose volume. Following irradiation, the films are scanned and analyzed. Targeting errors are defined as the distance between the pin prick and the centroid of the 50% isodose line. Results: Averaged over 10 patient simulations, targeting errors along the x, y and z coordinates (patient left-to-right, posterior-anterior, head-to-foot) were, respectively, −0.060 +/− 0.363, −0.350 +/− 0.253, and 0.364 +/− 0.191 mm when MRI was used for treatment planning. Planning according to CT exhibited generally smaller errors, namely 0.109 +/− 0.167, −0.191 +/− 0.144, and 0.211 +/− 0.94 mm. The largest errors in MRI and CT planned treatments were, respectively, y = −0.761 and x = 0.428 mm. Conclusion: Unless patient motion or stronger MRI image distortion in actual treatments caused additional errors, all patients received the prescribed dose, i.e., the targeted section of the trig±eminal nerve was contained within the 50% isodose surface in all cases.

  4. SBSS Demonstrator: A design for efficient demonstration of Space-based Space Surveillance end-to-end capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzmann, Jens; Flohrer, Tim; Schildknecht, Thomas; Wagner, Axel; Silha, Jiri; Willemsen, Philip; Teston, Frederic

    This paper presents the capabilities of a Space-Based Space Surveillance (SBSS) demonstration mission for Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) based on a micro-satellite platform. The results have been produced in the frame of ESA’s "Assessment Study for Space Based Space Surveillance Demonstration Mission" performed by the Airbus Defence and Space consortium. Space Surveillance and Tracking is part of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and covers the detection, tracking and cataloguing of space debris and satellites. Derived SST services comprise a catalogue of these man-made objects, collision warning, detection and characterisation of in-orbit fragmentations, sub-catalogue debris characterisation, etc. The assessment of SBSS in a SST system architecture has shown that both an operational SBSS and also already a well-designed space-based demonstrator can provide substantial performance in terms of surveillance and tracking of beyond-LEO objects. Especially the early deployment of a demonstrator, possible by using standard equipment, could boost initial operating capability and create a self-maintained object catalogue. Furthermore, unique statistical information about small-size LEO debris (mm size) can be collected in-situ. Unlike classical technology demonstration missions, the primary goal is the demonstration and optimisation of the functional elements in a complex end-to-end chain (mission planning, observation strategies, data acquisition, processing and fusion, etc.) until the final products can be offered to the users. Also past and current missions by the US (SBV, SBSS) and Canada (Sapphire, NEOSSat) underline the advantages of space-based space surveillance. The presented SBSS system concept takes the ESA SST System Requirements (derived within the ESA SSA Preparatory Program) into account and aims at fulfilling SST core requirements in a stand-alone manner. Additionally, requirments for detection and characterisation of small-sized LEO debris are

  5. The End-To-End Safety Verification Process Implemented to Ensure Safe Operations of the Columbus Research Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, J.; Kreimer, J.

    2010-09-01

    The European Space Laboratory COLUMBUS was launched in February 2008 with NASA Space Shuttle Atlantis. Since successful docking and activation this manned laboratory forms part of the International Space Station(ISS). Depending on the objectives of the Mission Increments the on-orbit configuration of the COLUMBUS Module varies with each increment. This paper describes the end-to-end verification which has been implemented to ensure safe operations under the condition of a changing on-orbit configuration. That verification process has to cover not only the configuration changes as foreseen by the Mission Increment planning but also those configuration changes on short notice which become necessary due to near real-time requests initiated by crew or Flight Control, and changes - most challenging since unpredictable - due to on-orbit anomalies. Subject of the safety verification is on one hand the on orbit configuration itself including the hardware and software products, on the other hand the related Ground facilities needed for commanding of and communication to the on-orbit System. But also the operational products, e.g. the procedures prepared for crew and ground control in accordance to increment planning, are subject of the overall safety verification. In order to analyse the on-orbit configuration for potential hazards and to verify the implementation of the related Safety required hazard controls, a hierarchical approach is applied. The key element of the analytical safety integration of the whole COLUMBUS Payload Complement including hardware owned by International Partners is the Integrated Experiment Hazard Assessment(IEHA). The IEHA especially identifies those hazardous scenarios which could potentially arise through physical and operational interaction of experiments. A major challenge is the implementation of a Safety process which owns quite some rigidity in order to provide reliable verification of on-board Safety and which likewise provides enough

  6. First Demonstration of Real-Time End-to-End 40 Gb/s PAM-4 System using 10-G Transmitter for Next Generation Access Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Jinlong; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut

    We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next generation access applications using 10G class transmitters only. Up to 25-dB upstream link budget for 20 km SMF is achieved.......We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next generation access applications using 10G class transmitters only. Up to 25-dB upstream link budget for 20 km SMF is achieved....

  7. Evolving a Fully Integrated Lean Six Sigma Continuous Process Improvement Systems Approach for Enterprise End-to-End Value Stream Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    To Ensure Proper Strategic “Balance,” Map Business Ys to Balanced Scorecard Business Ys = LSS/TOC Major North Stars & Areas of Strategic Emphasis... Balanced Scorecard • Reinforce AIRSpeed Commitment: Tools, Methodologies & Strategies • Apply HICVS End-to-End across NAE inc. linkage to DoN and

  8. First examples of two ferromagnetic end-to-end cyanate bridged 1D linear coordination polymers of nickel(II) containing an unsymmetrical diamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Somnath; Bhar, Kishalay; Chattopadhyay, Soumi; Hazra, Arpan; Maji, Tapas Kumar; Ribas, Joan; Ghosh, Barindra Kumar

    2012-10-14

    Two new end-to-end (EE) cyanate bridged 1D coordination polymers of Ni(II) are isolated which contain linear (180°) Ni-N-C and Ni-O-C angles in Ni-NCO-Ni bridges and show ferromagnetic (F) coupling in agreement with the reported theoretical model for linear EE bridges.

  9. Analysis of outcome of end-to-end and end-to-side internal iliac artery anastomosis in renal transplantation: Our initial experience with a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Sanki, Prakash Kumar; Roy, Sayak

    2017-01-01

    In renal transplantation, there is end-to-side anastomosis of renal artery to external iliac artery and end-to-end anastomosis of renal artery to internal iliac artery. The end-to-end internal iliac artery anastomosis can be associated with complications due to compromised distal vascular supply to limbs and penile erectile tissue. A method of end-to-side anastomosis can overcome them. Till date, there is no case series or trial that has studied the effect of end-to-side anastomosis. This study is aimed at comparing the outcome of end-to-side and end-to-end anastomosis, so as to evaluate the efficacy of end-to-side technique. A total of 40 renal transplant recipients were taken, with internal iliac artery anastomosis, and were divided into two groups, 20 patients with end-to-end and 20 patients with end-to-side anastomosis. The cold ischemia time, arterial anastomosis time, post-operative bleeding and urine leak, claudication, saddle anesthesia and erectile dysfunction, and follow-up recipient creatinine and eGFR and Doppler to look for graft renal artery patency (at 6 months post-transplant) were compared between the two groups. The intraoperative cold ischemia time was slightly more in the group with end-to-end anastomosis, but it was statistically significant (P = 0.22). The arterial anastomosis time was comparable in both the groups (P = 0.65). In the end-to-end group, 15%, 20% and 15% patients had post-operative saddle anaesthesia, claudication and mild-to-moderate erectile dysfunction, which were absent in the end-to-side group. On follow-up, the mean recipient serum creatinine and eGFR were comparable in the two groups. Also, the graft renal artery patency on Doppler was comparable. The end-to-side technique can be definitely applied for renal transplantation, with some advantages over end-to-end technique, and without compromising efficacy.

  10. Planck early results. III. First assessment of the Low Frequency Instrument in-flight performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    León-Tavares, J.; Falvella, M.C.; Hughes, N.;

    2011-01-01

    The scientific performance of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) after one year of in-orbit operation is presented. We describe the main optical parameters and discuss photometric calibration, white noise sensitivity, and noise properties. A preliminary evaluation of the impact of the main...

  11. Planck 2013 results. II. The Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the data processing pipeline of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing centre (DPC) to create and characterize full-sky maps based on the first 15.5 months of operations at 30, 44, and 70 GHz. In particular, we discuss the various steps involved in reducing the data...... using Jupiter transits, which are also used for the geometrical calibration of the focal plane....

  12. Testing the principle of equivalence with Planck surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Popa, L A; Mandolesi, N

    2002-01-01

    We consider the effect of the violation of the equivalence principle (VEP) by the massive neutrino component on the Cosmic Microwave Background angular power specrum. We show that in the presence of adiabatic and isocurvature primordial density perturbations the Planck surveyor can place limits on the maximal VEP by the massive neutrino component at the level of 10^ -5, valid in the general relativity, for the case in which the gravity is the single source of VEP. This work has been performed within the framework of the {\\sc Planck}/LFI activities.

  13. End-to-End System Test and Optical Performance Evaluation for the Solar and Heliosphere Observatory (SOHO) Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosso, Paolo A.; Gardner, Larry D.; Jhabvala, Marzy; Nicolosi, P.

    1997-01-01

    The UVCS is one of the instruments carried by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), a joint NASA/ESA Spacecraft launched in November 1995. It is designed to perform ultraviolet spectroscopy and visible light polarimetry of the extended solar corona. The primary scientific objectives of the UVCS investigation are to study the physical processes occurring in the extended solar corona, such as: the mechanism of acceleration of the solar wind, the mechanism of coronal plasma heating, the identification of solar wind sources, and the investigation of the plasma properties of the solar wind. The UVCS End-to-End test activities included a comprehensive set of system level functional and optical tests. Although performed under severe schedule constraints, the End-to-End System Test was very successful and served to fully validate the UVCS optical design. All test results showed that the primary scientific objectives of the UVCS Mission were achievable.

  14. Including 10-Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Network under End-to-End Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching Provisioned Quality of Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy; Gavler, Anders; Wessing, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    End-to-end quality of service provisioning is still a challenging task despite many years of research and development in this area. Considering a generalized multi-protocol label switching based core/metro network and resource reservation protocol capable home gateways, it is the access part...... of the network where quality of service signaling is bridged. This article proposes strategies for generalized multi-protocol label switching control over next emerging passive optical network standard, i.e., the 10-gigabit-capable passive optical network. Node management and resource allocation approaches...... are discussed, and possible issues are raised. The analysis shows that consideration of a 10-gigabit-capable passive optical network as a generalized multi-protocol label switching controlled domain is valid and may advance end-to-end quality of service provisioning for passive optical network based customers....

  15. Software system requirements for the Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) End-To-End System using the Computer Aided Prototyping System (CAPS) multi-file approach

    OpenAIRE

    Angrisani, David Stuart; Whitbeck, George Steven.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DOD) is seeking software system requirements for the Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) End to End System, which comprises both ATACMS and all sensors, links, and command centers which enable integration across system and service boundaries. The complexity, multiple interfaces, and joint nature of planned ATACMS operations demands accurate specification of software system requirements. DOD also desires automated tools capable of developing rapid prototypes to ass...

  16. Direct muscle neurotization after end-to end and end-to-side neurorrhaphy: An experimental study in the rat forelimb model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Igor; Ronchi, Giulia; Muratori, Luisa; Mazzucco, Alessandra; Magaudda, Ludovico; Geuna, Stefano

    2012-10-15

    The need for the continuous research of new tools for improving motor function recovery after nerve injury is justified by the still often unsatisfactory clinical outcome in these patients. It has been previously shown that the combined use of two reconstructive techniques, namely end-to-side neurorrhaphy and direct muscle neurotization in the rat hindlimb model, can lead to good results in terms of skeletal muscle reinnervation. Here we show that, in the rat forelimb model, the combined use of direct muscle neurotization with either end-to-end or end-to-side neurorrhaphy to reinnervate the denervated flexor digitorum muscles, leads to muscle atrophy prevention over a long postoperative time lapse (10 months). By contrast, very little motor recovery (in case of end-to-end neurorrhaphy) and almost no motor recovery (in case of end-to-side neurorrhaphy) were observed in the grasping activity controlled by flexor digitorum muscles. It can thus be concluded that, at least in the rat, direct muscle neurotization after both end-to-end and end-to-side neurorrhaphy represents a good strategy for preventing denervation-related muscle atrophy but not for regaining the lost motor function.

  17. Direct muscle neurotization after end-to-end and end-to-side neurorrhaphy An experimental study in the rat forelimb model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Igor Papalia; Giulia Ronchi; Luisa Muratori; Alessandra Mazzucco; Ludovico Magaudda; Stefano Geuna

    2012-01-01

    The need for the continuous research of new tools for improving motor function recovery after nerve injury is justified by the still often unsatisfactory clinical outcome in these patients.It has been previously shown that the combined use of two reconstructive techniques,namely end-to-side neurorrhaphy and direct muscle neurotization in the rat hindlimb model,can lead to good results in terms of skeletal muscle reinnervation.Here we show that,in the rat forelimb model,the combined use of direct muscle neurotization with either end-to-end or end-to-side neurorrhaphy to reinnervate the denervated flexor digitorum muscles,leads to muscle atrophy prevention over a long postoperative time lapse (10 months).By contrast,very little motor recovery (in case of end-to-end neurorrhaphy) and almost no motor recovery (in case of end-to-side neurorrhaphy) were observed in the grasping activity controlled by flexor digitorum muscles.It can thus be concluded that,at least in the rat,direct muscle neurotization after both end-to-end and end-to-side neurorrhaphy represents a good strategy for preventing denervation-related muscle atrophy but not for regaining the lost motor function.

  18. Differentiated CW Policy and Strict Priority Policy for Location-Independent End-to-End Delay in Multi-Hop Wireless Mesh Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yun Han; Kim, Kyung Jae; Park, Jin Soo; Choi, Bong Dae

    We investigate delay analysis of multi-hop wireless mesh network (WMN) where nodes have multi-channel and multiple transceivers to increase the network capacity. The functionality of the multi-channel and multiple transceivers allows the whole WMN to be decomposed into disjoint zones in such a way that i) nodes in a zone are within one-hop distance, and relay node and end nodes with different CWmins contend to access the channel based on IEEE 802.11e EDCA, ii) different channels are assigned to neighbor zones to prevent the hidden node problem, iii) relay nodes can transmit and receive the packets simultaneously by multi-channel and multiple transceivers. With this decomposition of the network, we focus on the delay at a single zone and then the end-to-end delay can be obtained as the sum of zone-delays. In order to have the location-independent end-to-end delay to the gateway regardless of source nodes' locations, we propose two packet management schemes, called the differentiated CW policy and the strict priority policy, at each relay node where relay packets with longer hop count are buffered in higher priority queues according to their experienced hop count. For the differentiated CW policy, a relay node adopts the functionality of IEEE 802.11e EDCA where a higher priority queue has a shorter minimum contention window. We model a typical zone as a one-hop IEEE 802.11e EDCA network under non-saturation condition where priority queues have different packet arrival rates and different minimum contention window sizes. First, we find the PGF (probability generating function) of the HoL-delay of packets at priority queues in a zone. Second, by modeling each queue as M/G/1 queue with the HoL-delay as a service time, we obtain the packet delay (the sum of the queueing delay and the HoL-delay) of each priority queue in a zone. Third, the average end-to-end delay of packet generated at end node in each zone is obtained by summing up the packet delays at each zone. For

  19. Planck 2015 results. XIII. Cosmological parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Chluba, J.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Farhang, M.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Gerbino, M.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Giusarma, E.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marchini, A.; Martin, P.G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; d'Orfeuil, B.Rouille; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Said, N.; Salvatelli, V.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Spinelli, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the CMB. These data are consistent with the six-parameter inflationary LCDM cosmology. From the Planck temperature and lensing data, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H0= (67.8 +/- 0.9) km/s/Mpc, a matter density parameter Omega_m = 0.308 +/- 0.012 and a scalar spectral index with n_s = 0.968 +/- 0.006. (We quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% limits on other parameters.) Combined with Planck temperature and lensing data, Planck LFI polarization measurements lead to a reionization optical depth of tau = 0.066 +/- 0.016. Combining Planck with other astrophysical data we find N_ eff = 3.15 +/- 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom and the sum of neutrino masses is constrained to < 0.23 eV. Spatial curvature is found to be |Omega_K| < 0.005. For LCDM we find a limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r <0.11 consistent with the B-mode constraints fr...

  20. Planck satellite to be presented to media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Planck will make the most accurate maps yet of the microwave background radiation that fills space. It will be sensitive to temperature variations of a few millionths of a degree and will map the full sky in nine wavelengths. The immediate outcome of the Big Bang and the initial conditions for the evolution in the universe’s structure are the primary target of this important mission. From the results, a great deal more will be learnt not only about the nature and amount of dark matter, the ‘missing mass’ of the universe, but also about the nature of dark energy and the expansion of the universe itself. To address such challenging objectives, Planck will need to operate at very low, stable temperatures. Once in space, its detectors will have to be cooled to temperature levels close to absolute zero (-273.15ºC), ranging from -253ºC to only a few tenths of a degree above absolute zero. The Planck spacecraft thus has to be a marvel of cryotechnology. After integration, Planck will start a series of tests that will continue into early-2008. It will be launched by end-July 2008 in a dual-launch configuration with Herschel, ESA’s mission to study the formation of galaxies, stars and planetary systems in the infrared. Interested media are invited to fill in the reply form below. Note to editors The Planck spacecraft was built by AAS Cannes, the prime contractor, leading a consortium of industrial partners with the AAS industry branch in Turin, Italy, responsible for the satellite’s service module. ESA and the Danish National Space Centre (Copenhagen, Denmark) are responsible for the hardware provision of Planck’s telescope mirrors, manufactured by EADS Astrium (Friedrichshafen, Germany). AAS Cannes is also responsible for the payload module, the platform that hosts the telescope and the two onboard instruments, HFI and LFI. The instruments themselves are being supplied by a consortium of scientists and institutes led by the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale

  1. An end-to-end system in support of a broad scope of GOES-R sensor and data processing study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hung-Lung

    2005-08-01

    The mission of NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite System (GOES) R series satellites, in the 2012 time frame, is to provide continuous, near real-time meteorological, oceanographic, solar, and space environment data that supports NOAA's strategic mission goals. It presents an exciting opportunity to explore new instruments, satellite designs, and system architectures utilizing new communication and instrument technologies in order to meet the ever-increasing demands made of Earth observation systems by national agencies and end users alike. The GOES-R sensor suite includes a 16 spectral band Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), an approximately 1500 high spectral resolution band Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES), plus other sensors designed to detect lightning and to explore the ocean, solar and space environment. The Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) as part of the Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the long time partner of NOAA, has developed the first operational end-to-end processing system for GOES. Based on this heritage, and with recent support from the NASA/NOAA Geosynchrous Imaging FTS (GIFTS) project, the Navy's Multiple University Research Initiative (MURI), and NOAA's GOES-R Risk Reduction program, SSEC has built a near-complete end-to-end system that is capable of simulating sensor measurements from top of atmosphere radiances, raw sensor data (level 0) through calibrated and navigated sensor physical measurements (level 1) to the processed products (level 2). In this paper, the SSEC Hyperspectral Imaging and Sounding Simulator and Processor (HISSP) will be presented in detail. HISSP is capable of demonstrating most of the processing functions such as data compression/decompression, sensor calibration, data processing, algorithm development, and product generation. In summary, HISSP is an end-to-end system designed to support both government and

  2. X-ray follow up of end-to-end nerve repair site: A new technique, Nerve Repair Site Marking (NRSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Yuceturk

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: To get the best results following end-to-end nerve repair, nerve continuity must continued, though there is always the risk of rupture at the repair site. As ultrasonography and MRI can be utilized to examine the repair site, they are not helpful in brachial plexus repairs, are expensive and can be time-consuming when employed with peripheral nerves. NRSM is an easy, objective, and cheap follow-up technique after nerve repair and provides a chance for early re-repair. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(3.000: 118-123

  3. Interoperable End-to-End Remote Patient Monitoring Platform based on IEEE 11073 PHD and ZigBee Health Care Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Malcolm; de Folter, Joost; Verma, Vivek; Gokalp, Hulya

    2017-08-07

    This paper describes the implementation of an end-to-end remote monitoring platform based on the IEEE 11073 standards for Personal Health Devices (PHD). It provides an overview of the concepts and approaches and describes how the standard has been optimized for small devices with limited resources of processor, memory and power and that use short range wireless technology. It explains aspects of IEEE 11073, including the Domain Information Model, state model and nomenclature, and how these support its plug-and-play architecture. It shows how these aspects underpin a much larger eco-system of interoperable devices and systems that include IHE PCD-01, HL7 and BlueTooth LE medical devices, and the relationship to the Continua Guidelines, advocating the adoption of data standards and nomenclature to support semantic interoperability between health and ambient assisted living (AAL) in future platforms. The paper further describes the adaptions that have been made in order to implement the standard on the ZigBee Health Care Profile and the experiences of implementing an end-to-end platform that has been deployed to frail elderly patients with chronic disease(s) and patients with diabetes.

  4. The Planck On-Flight Forecaster (POFF)

    CERN Document Server

    Massardi, M

    2009-01-01

    The Planck On-Fligh Forecaster (POFF) is a tool to predict when a position in the sky will be within a selected angular distance from any receiver direction of the Planck satellite according to its pre-programmed observational strategy. This tool has been developed in the framework of the Planck LFI Core Team activities, but it is now used by the whole collaboration. In this paper we will describe the tool and its applications to plan observations with other instruments of point sources which are expected to enhance the possibilities of scientific exploitation of the Planck satellite data, once they will be publicly available. Collecting simultaneous multi-frequency data, like those that can be planned with the POFF, will help, on one hand, to investigate variability of point sources and, on the other, to reconstruct point source spectral energy distributions on wide frequency ranges minimizing the effects due to source variability. POFF is a combination of IDL routines which combine the publicly available in...

  5. Planck pre-launch status: Design and description of the Low Frequency Instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Bersanelli, M; Butler, R C; Mennella, A; Villa, F; Aja, B; Artal, E; Artina, E; Baccigalupi, C; Balasini, M; Baldan, G; Banday, A; Bastia, P; Battaglia, P; Bernardino, T; Blackhurst, E; Boschini, L; Burigana, C; Cafagna, G; Cappellini, B; Cavaliere, F; Colombo, F; Crone, G; Cuttaia, F; D'Arcangelo, O; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; De Angelis, L; De Gasperis, G C; De La Fuente, L; De Rosa, A; De Zotti, G; Falvella, M C; Ferrari, F; Ferretti, R; Figini, L; Fogliani, S; Franceschet, C; Franceschi, E; Gaier, T; Garavaglia, S; Gomez, F; Gorski, K; Gregorio, A; Guzzi, P; Herreros, J M; Hildebrandt, S R; Hoyland, R; Hughes, N; Janssen, M; Jukkala, P; Kettle, D; Kilpia, V H; Laaninen, M; Lapolla, P M; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Leutenegger, P; Levin, S; Lilje, P B; Lowe, S R; Lubin, D Lawson P M; Maino, D; Malaspina, M; Maris, M; Marti-Canales, J; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Mediavilla, A; Meinhold, P; Miccolis, M; Morgante, G; Natoli, P; Nesti, R; Pagan, L; Paine, C; Partridge, B; Pascual, J P; Pasian, F; Pearson, D; Pecora, M; Perrotta, F; Platania, P; Pospieszalski, M; Poutanen, T; Prina, M; Rebolo, R; Roddis, N; Rubino-Martin, J A; Salmon, n M J; Sandri, M; Seiffert, M; Silvestri, R; Simonetto, A; Sjoman, P; Smoot, G F; Sozzi, C; Stringhetti, L; Taddei, E; Tauber, J; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Varis, J; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wilkinson, A; Winder, F; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI), designed and developed as part of the Planck space mission, the ESA program dedicated to precision imaging of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Planck-LFI will observe the full sky in intensity and polarisation in three frequency bands centred at 30, 44 and 70 GHz, while higher frequencies (100-850 GHz) will be covered by the HFI instrument. The LFI is an array of microwave radiometers based on state-of-the-art Indium Phosphide cryogenic HEMT amplifiers implemented in a differential system using blackbody loads as reference signals. The front-end is cooled to 20K for optimal sensitivity and the reference loads are cooled to 4K to minimise low frequency noise. We provide an overview of the LFI, discuss the leading scientific requirements and describe the design solutions adopted for the various hardware subsystems. The main drivers of the radiometric, optical and thermal design are discussed, including the stringent requirements on sensitivity, ...

  6. End-to-End Study of the Transfer of Energy from Magnetosheath Ion Precipitation to the Ionospheric Cusp and Resulting Ion Outflow to the Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Victoria; Chandler, Michael; Singh, Nagendra; Avanov, Levon

    2003-01-01

    We will show results from an end-to-end study of the energy transfer from injected magnetosheath plasmas to the near-Earth magnetospheric and ionospheric plasmas and the resulting ion outflow to the magnetosphere. This study includes modeling of the evolution of the magnetosheath precipitation in the cusp using a kinetic code with a realistic magnetic field configuration. These evolved, highly non-Maxwellian distributions are used as input to a 2D PIC code to analyze the resulting wave generation. The wave analysis is used in the kinetic code as input to the cold ionospheric ions to study the transfer of energy to these ions and their outflow to the magnetosphere. Observations from the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) and other instruments on the Polar Spacecraft will be compared to the modeling.

  7. Demonstration of a fully-coupled end-to-end model for small pelagic fish using sardine and anchovy in the California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kenneth A.; Fiechter, Jerome; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Hedstrom, Kate; Bernal, Miguel; Creekmore, Sean; Haynie, Alan; Ito, Shin-ichi; Lluch-Cota, Salvador; Megrey, Bernard A.; Edwards, Chris A.; Checkley, Dave; Koslow, Tony; McClatchie, Sam; Werner, Francisco; MacCall, Alec; Agostini, Vera

    2015-11-01

    We describe and document an end-to-end model of anchovy and sardine population dynamics in the California Current as a proof of principle that such coupled models can be developed and implemented. The end-to-end model is 3-dimensional, time-varying, and multispecies, and consists of four coupled submodels: hydrodynamics, Eulerian nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton (NPZ), an individual-based full life cycle anchovy and sardine submodel, and an agent-based fishing fleet submodel. A predator roughly mimicking albacore was included as individuals that consumed anchovy and sardine. All submodels were coded within the ROMS open-source community model, and used the same resolution spatial grid and were all solved simultaneously to allow for possible feedbacks among the submodels. We used a super-individual approach and solved the coupled models on a distributed memory parallel computer, both of which created challenging but resolvable bookkeeping challenges. The anchovy and sardine growth, mortality, reproduction, and movement, and the fishing fleet submodel, were each calibrated using simplified grids before being inserted into the full end-to-end model. An historical simulation of 1959-2008 was performed, and the latter 45 years analyzed. Sea surface height (SSH) and sea surface temperature (SST) for the historical simulation showed strong horizontal gradients and multi-year scale temporal oscillations related to various climate indices (PDO, NPGO), and both showed responses to ENSO variability. Simulated total phytoplankton was lower during strong El Nino events and higher for the strong 1999 La Nina event. The three zooplankton groups generally corresponded to the spatial and temporal variation in simulated total phytoplankton. Simulated biomasses of anchovy and sardine were within the historical range of observed biomasses but predicted biomasses showed much less inter-annual variation. Anomalies of annual biomasses of anchovy and sardine showed a switch in the mid

  8. The Swarm End-to-End mission simulator study: A demonstration of separating the various contributions to Earth's magnetic field using synthetic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Haagmans, R.; Sabaka, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    Swarm, a satellite constellation to measure Earth's magnetic field with unpreceded accuracy, has been selected by ESA for launch in 2009. The mission will provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution, in order to gain new insights into the Earth system...... by improving our understanding of the Earth's interior and climate. An End-to-End mission performance simulation was carried out during Phase A of the mission, with the aim of analyzing the key system requirements, particularly with respect to the number of Swarm satellites and their orbits related...... to the science objectives of Swarm. In order to be able to use realistic parameters of the Earth's environment, the mission simulation starts at January 1, 1997 and lasts until re-entry of the lower satellites five years later. Synthetic magnetic field values were generated for all relevant contributions...

  9. Current transformer verification system for in situ, live line end-to-end calibration of medium and high voltage current transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, C.; Irwin, L.; Marr, D. [Schneider Electric Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    IEC Instrument Transformer Standard 60044-1 was created in response to recent industrial and regulatory trends for improved metering performance. The accuracy of high voltage (HV) metering depends on the quality of the instrument transformer signals feeding the energy meters. The complete current transformer (CT) system, including the end-to-end interconnection and metering burden, must be routinely verified in order to claim ongoing compliance. However, utilities rarely perform routine verification and calibration of medium voltage (MV) and HV current instrument transformers because of the complexities associated with CT primary circuit removal and subsequent primary injection. In some cases, routine verification and calibration is not performed due to the belief that conventional CT performance is a constant that never changes. However, conventional CT accuracies may change over time due to transformer insulation breakdown, electric field effects, core magnetization, and burden wiring effects. In addition, CT secondary circuits may be shared with multiple metering and protection devices that present a complex burden to the CT. Changes in burden impedance can also have an effect on CT accuracy. This paper presented the Current Transformer Verification System (CTVS), which provides a unique and novel means to precisely characterize and verify the actual end-to-end performance of MV and HV current transformers while still energized. The CTVS system takes into account any voltage or specific installed site burden dependency that may be present. It provides the utility with the ability to verify CTs in-situ without system interruption through live-line deployment and to readily check the accuracy of metering systems to ensure compliance with industry requirements. 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  10. End-to-End Simulation for a Forest-Dedicated Full-Waveform Lidar Onboard a Satellite Initialized from Airborne Ultraviolet Lidar Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Shang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study forests at the global scale, a detailed link budget for a lidar system onboard satellite is presented. It is based on an original approach coupling airborne lidar observations and an end-to-end simulator. The simulator is initialized by airborne lidar measurements performed over temperate and tropical forests on the French territory, representing a wide range of forests ecosystems. Considering two complementary wavelengths of 355 and 1064 nm, the end-to-end simulator computes the performance of spaceborne lidar systems for different orbits. The analysis is based on forest structural (tree top height, quadratic mean canopy height and optical (forest optical thickness parameters. Although an ultraviolet lidar appears to be a good candidate for airborne measurements, our results show that the limited energy is not favorable for spaceborne missions with such a wavelength. A near infrared wavelength at 1064 nm is preferable, requiring ~100 mJ laser emitted energy, which is in agreement with current and future spaceborne missions involving a lidar. We find that the signal-to-noise ratio at the ground level to extract both the structural and optical parameters of forests must be larger than 10. Hence, considering the presence of clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere and assuming a stationary forest, a good detection probability of 99% can be reached when 4 or 5 satellite revisits are considered for a lidar system onboard the ISS or ICESat, respectively. This concerns ~90% of forest covers observed from the lidar, which have an optical thickness less than 3.

  11. Planck focal plane instruments: advanced modelization and combined analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonca, Andrea; Mennella, Aniello

    2012-08-01

    This thesis is the result of my work as research fellow at IASF-MI, Milan section of the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, part of INAF, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica. This work started in January 2006 in the context of the PhD school program in Astrophysics held at the Physics Department of Universita' degli Studi di Milano under the supervision of Aniello Mennella. The main topic of my work is the software modelling of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers. The LFI is one of the two instruments on-board the European Space Agency Planck Mission for high precision measurements of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). I was also selected to participate at the International Doctorate in Antiparticles Physics, IDAPP. IDAPP is funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR) and coordinated by Giovanni Fiorentini (Universita' di Ferrara) with the objective of supporting the growing collaboration between the Astrophysics and Particles Physics communities. It is an international program in collaboration with the Paris PhD school, involving Paris VI, VII and XI Universities, leading to a double French-Italian doctoral degree title. My work was performed with the co-tutoring of Jean-Michel Lamarre, Instrument Scientist of the High Frequency Instrument (HFI), the bolometric instrument on-board Planck. Thanks to this collaboration I had the opportunity to work with the HFI team for four months at the Paris Observatory, so that the focus of my activity was broadened and included the study of cross-correlation between HFI and LFI data. Planck is the first CMB mission to have on-board the same satellite very different detection technologies, which is a key element for controlling systematic effects and improve measurements quality.

  12. Planck Early Results: The thermal performance of Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Baker, M; Balbi, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit, A; Bernard, J P; Bersanelli, M; Bhandari, P; Bhatia, R; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borders, J; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bowman, B; Bradshaw, T; Breelle, E; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cabella, P; Camus, P; Cantalupo, C M; Cappellini, B; Cardoso, J F; Catalano, A; Cayon, L; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chambelland, J P; Charra, J; Charra, M; Chiang, L Y; Chiang, C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Collaudin, B; Colombi, S; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Crook, M; Cuttaia, F; Damasio, C; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Gasperis, G; de Rosa, A; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J M; Desert, F -X; Doerl, U; Dolag, K; Donzelli, S; Dore, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enslin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Foley, S; Forni, O; Fosalba, P; Fourmond, J J; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Gavila, E; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Heraud, Y; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Gorski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Guyot, G; Harrison, D; Helou, G; Henrot-Versille, S; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Hoyland, R J; Huffenberger, K M; Israelsson, U; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knox, L; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J M; Lami, P; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lilje, P B; Lopez-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macias-Perez, J F; Maciaszek, T; MacTavish, C J; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mann, R; Maris, M; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Melot, F; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Miville-Deschenes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Mora, J; Morgante, G; Morisset, N; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, A; Naselsky, P; Nash, A; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Pajot, F; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, D; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Plaszczynski, S; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Poutanen, T; Prezeau, G; Prina, M; Prunet, S; Puget, J L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rubiino-Martin, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Schaefer, B M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, P; Smoot, G F; Starck, J -L; Stassi, P; Stivoli, F; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Torre, J -P; Tristram, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Vibert, L; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, C; White, S D M; Wilkinson, A; Wilson, P; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zhang, B; Zonca, A

    2011-01-01

    The performance of the Planck instruments in space is enabled by their low operating temperatures, 20K for LFI and 0.1K for HFI, achieved through a combination of passive radiative cooling and three active mechanical coolers. Active coolers were chosen to minimize straylight on the detectors and to maximize lifetime. The scientific requirement for very broad frequency led to two detector technologies with widely different temperature and cooling needs. This made use of a helium cryostat, as used by previous cryogenic space missions (IRAS, COBE, ISO, SPITZER, AKARI), infeasible. Radiative cooling is provided by three V-groove radiators and a large telescope baffle. The active coolers are a hydrogen sorption cooler (<20K), a 4He Joule-Thomson cooler (4.7K), and a 3He-4He dilution cooler (1.4K and 0.1K). The flight system was at ambient temperature at launch and cooled in space to operating conditions. The bolometer plate of the High Frequency Instrument reached 93mK on 3 July 2009, 50 days after launch. The ...

  13. Planck early results: First assessment of the Low Frequency Instrument in-flight performance

    CERN Document Server

    Mennella, A; Butler, R C; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Davis, R J; Dick, J; Frailis, M; Galeotta, S; Gregorio, A; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leahy, J P; Lowe, S; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Mart\\'\\inez-González, E; Meinhold, P R; Morgante, G; Pearson, D; Perrotta, F; Polenta, G; Poutanen, T; Sandri, M; Seiffert, M D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Valiviita, J; Villa, F; Watson, R; Wilkinson, A; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A; Aja, B; Artal, E; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Battaglia, P; Bennett, K; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Burigana, C; Cabella, P; Cappellini, B; Chen, X; Colombo, L; Cruz, M; Danese, L; D'Arcangelo, O; Davies, R D; de Gasperis, G; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Donzelli, S; Efstathiou, G; En\\sslin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falvella, M C; Finelli, F; Foley, S; Franceschet, C; Franceschi, E; Gaier, T C; Génova-Santos, R T; George, D; Gómez, F; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Herranz, D; Herreros, J M; Hoyland, R J; Hughes, N; Jewell, J; Jukkala, P; Juvela, M; Kangaslahti, P; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kilpia, V -H; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Laaninen, M; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Leonardi, R; León-Tavares, J; Leutenegger, P; Lilje, P B; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Malaspina, M; Marinucci, D; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Miccolis, M; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Moss, A; Natoli, P; Nesti, R; N\\orgaard-Nielsen, H U; Pagano, L; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Pettorino, V; Pietrobon, D; Pospieszalski, M; Prézeau, G; Prina, M; Procopio, P; Puget, J -L; Quercellini, C; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Ricciardi, S; Robbers, G; Rocha, G; Roddis, N; Rubi\; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Silvestri, R; Simonetto, A; Sjoman, P; Smoot, G F; Sozzi, C; Stringhetti, L; Tauber, J A; Tofani, G; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Watson, C; White, S; Winder, F

    2011-01-01

    The scientific performance of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) after one year of in-orbit operation is presented. We describe the main optical parameters and discuss photometric calibration, white noise sensitivity, and noise properties. A preliminary evaluation of the impact of the main systematic effects is presented. For each of the performance parameters, we outline the methods used to obtain them from the flight data and provide a comparison with pre-launch ground assessments, which are essentially confirmed in flight.

  14. Imaging and dosimetric errors in 4D PET/CT-guided radiotherapy from patient-specific respiratory patterns: a dynamic motion phantom end-to-end study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, S. R.; Nyflot, M. J.; Herrmann, C.; Groh, C. M.; Meyer, J.; Wollenweber, S. D.; Stearns, C. W.; Kinahan, P. E.; Sandison, G. A.

    2015-05-01

    Effective positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET/CT) guidance in radiotherapy of lung cancer requires estimation and mitigation of errors due to respiratory motion. An end-to-end workflow was developed to measure patient-specific motion-induced uncertainties in imaging, treatment planning, and radiation delivery with respiratory motion phantoms and dosimeters. A custom torso phantom with inserts mimicking normal lung tissue and lung lesion was filled with [18F]FDG. The lung lesion insert was driven by six different patient-specific respiratory patterns or kept stationary. PET/CT images were acquired under motionless ground truth, tidal breathing motion-averaged (3D), and respiratory phase-correlated (4D) conditions. Target volumes were estimated by standardized uptake value (SUV) thresholds that accurately defined the ground-truth lesion volume. Non-uniform dose-painting plans using volumetrically modulated arc therapy were optimized for fixed normal lung and spinal cord objectives and variable PET-based target objectives. Resulting plans were delivered to a cylindrical diode array at rest, in motion on a platform driven by the same respiratory patterns (3D), or motion-compensated by a robotic couch with an infrared camera tracking system (4D). Errors were estimated relative to the static ground truth condition for mean target-to-background (T/Bmean) ratios, target volumes, planned equivalent uniform target doses, and 2%-2 mm gamma delivery passing rates. Relative to motionless ground truth conditions, PET/CT imaging errors were on the order of 10-20%, treatment planning errors were 5-10%, and treatment delivery errors were 5-30% without motion compensation. Errors from residual motion following compensation methods were reduced to 5-10% in PET/CT imaging, <5% in treatment planning, and <2% in treatment delivery. We have demonstrated that estimation of respiratory motion uncertainty and its propagation from PET/CT imaging to RT planning, and RT

  15. Profiling wind and greenhouse gases by infrared-laser occultation: algorithm and results from end-to-end simulations in windy air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Plach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The new mission concept of microwave and infrared-laser occultation between low-Earth-orbit satellites (LMIO is designed to provide accurate and long-term stable profiles of atmospheric thermodynamic variables, greenhouse gases (GHGs, and line-of-sight (l.o.s. wind speed with focus on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS. While the unique quality of GHG retrievals enabled by LMIO over the UTLS has been recently demonstrated based on end-to-end simulations, the promise of l.o.s. wind retrieval, and of joint GHG and wind retrieval, has not yet been analyzed in any realistic simulation setting so far. Here we describe a newly developed l.o.s. wind retrieval algorithm, which we embedded in an end-to-end simulation framework that also includes the retrieval of thermodynamic variables and GHGs, and analyze the performance of both standalone wind retrieval and joint wind and GHG retrieval. The wind algorithm utilizes LMIO laser signals placed on the inflection points at the wings of the highly symmetric C18OO absorption line near 4767 cm−1 and exploits transmission differences from wind-induced Doppler shift. Based on realistic example cases for a diversity of atmospheric conditions, ranging from tropical to high-latitude winter, we find that the retrieved l.o.s wind profiles are of high quality over the lower stratosphere under all conditions, i.e., unbiased and accurate to within about 2 m s−1 over about 15 to 35 km. The wind accuracy degrades into the upper troposphere due to decreasing signal-to-noise ratio of the wind-induced differential transmission signals. The GHG retrieval in windy air is not vulnerable to wind speed uncertainties up to about 10 m s−1 but is found to benefit in case of higher speeds from the integrated wind retrieval that enables correction of wind-induced Doppler shift of GHG signals. Overall both the l.o.s. wind and GHG retrieval results are strongly encouraging towards further development and

  16. Comparison Between End-to-end Anastomosis and Buccal Mucosa Graft in Short Segment Bulbar Urethral Stricture: a Meta-analysis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prahara Yuri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to compare long term follow-up between end-to-end urethroplasty and bucal mucosal graft for the management of patients with short bulbar urethral stricture. Methods:we conducted a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Literature research was performed on the MEDLINE, Science Direct, and EMBASE database including studies from 1980 through 2014. The inclusion criteria were patients with short bulbar urethral strictrure (sized ≤3 cm undergoing end-to-end anastomosis (EE and buccal mucosa graft (BMG with the complication of voiding symptoms and sexual dysfunction ≥12 months. Pooled risk ratio (RRs and 95% confidence interval (CIs were calculated using Mantzel-Haenzel method, while the heterogeneity were determined through I2 value. Data analysis were done using Stata software version 10.0 (StataCorp. Results:We analyze 10 studies in this meta-analysis. Sexual dysfunction following EE and BMG were found in 24.6% (45/183 patients and 9.1% (11/122 patients, respectively (overall RR 2.54; 95% CI: 1,44-4,47; p=0.001. Voiding symptoms following EE and BMG were found in 14% (8/57 patients and 12.5% (7/56 patients, respectively (overall RR 0.77; 95% CI: 0.3–2.0; p=0.591. Furthermore, stricture recurrent following EE and BMG were 8.4% (8/107 and 30% (14/46, respectively (overall RR 0.38; 95% CI: 0.17–0.84; p=0.016. The effectiveness of EE and BMG were found to be equal as both demonstrated few complications. BMG were found to be superior than EE terms of minimal sexual dysfunction complication. On the contrary, EE were found to be superior than BMG in terms of stricture recurence following short bulbar urethral stricture surgery. Conclusion:BMG can be considered as the primary treatment rather than EE for managing short urethral stricture cases.

  17. The PLATO End-to-End CCD Simulator -- Modelling space-based ultra-high precision CCD photometry for the assessment study of the PLATO Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Zima, W; De Ridder, J; Salmon, S; Catala, C; Kjeldsen, H; Aerts, C

    2010-01-01

    The PLATO satellite mission project is a next generation ESA Cosmic Vision satellite project dedicated to the detection of exo-planets and to asteroseismology of their host-stars using ultra-high precision photometry. The main goal of the PLATO mission is to provide a full statistical analysis of exo-planetary systems around stars that are bright and close enough for detailed follow-up studies. Many aspects concerning the design trade-off of a space-based instrument and its performance can best be tackled through realistic simulations of the expected observations. The complex interplay of various noise sources in the course of the observations made such simulations an indispensable part of the assessment study of the PLATO Payload Consortium. We created an end-to-end CCD simulation software-tool, dubbed PLATOSim, which simulates photometric time-series of CCD images by including realistic models of the CCD and its electronics, the telescope optics, the stellar field, the pointing uncertainty of the satellite ...

  18. Partial QoS-Aware Opportunistic Relay Selection Over Two-Hop Channels: End-to-End Performance Under Spectrum-Sharing Requirements

    KAUST Repository

    Yuli Yang,

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a partial quality-of-service (QoS)-oriented relay selection scheme with a decode-and-forward (DF) relaying protocol, to reduce the feedback amount required for relay selection. In the proposed scheme, the activated relay is the one with the maximum signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR) in the second hop among those whose packet loss rates (PLRs) in the first hop achieve a predetermined QoS level. For the purpose of evaluating the performance of the proposed scheme, we exploit it with transmission constraints imposed on the transmit power budget and interference to other users. By analyzing the statistics of received SNRs in the first and second hops, we obtain the end-to-end PLR of this scheme in closed form under the considered scenario. Moreover, to compare the proposed scheme with popular relay selection schemes, we also derive the closed-form PLR expressions for partial relay selection (PRS) and opportunistic relay selection (ORS) criteria in the same scenario under study. Illustrative numerical results demonstrate the accuracy of our derivations and substantiate that the proposed relay selection scheme is a promising alternative with respect to the tradeoff between performance and complexity.

  19. Distributed Large Data-Object Environments: End-to-End Performance Analysis of High Speed Distributed Storage Systems in Wide Area ATM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William; Tierney, Brian; Lee, Jason; Hoo, Gary; Thompson, Mary

    1996-01-01

    We have developed and deployed a distributed-parallel storage system (DPSS) in several high speed asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) wide area networks (WAN) testbeds to support several different types of data-intensive applications. Architecturally, the DPSS is a network striped disk array, but is fairly unique in that its implementation allows applications complete freedom to determine optimal data layout, replication and/or coding redundancy strategy, security policy, and dynamic reconfiguration. In conjunction with the DPSS, we have developed a 'top-to-bottom, end-to-end' performance monitoring and analysis methodology that has allowed us to characterize all aspects of the DPSS operating in high speed ATM networks. In particular, we have run a variety of performance monitoring experiments involving the DPSS in the MAGIC testbed, which is a large scale, high speed, ATM network and we describe our experience using the monitoring methodology to identify and correct problems that limit the performance of high speed distributed applications. Finally, the DPSS is part of an overall architecture for using high speed, WAN's for enabling the routine, location independent use of large data-objects. Since this is part of the motivation for a distributed storage system, we describe this architecture.

  20. Determination of anions using monolithic capillary column ion chromatography with end-to-end differential contactless conductometric detectors under resonance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenli; Li, Dongdong; Liu, Xueyong; Subhani, Qamar; Zhu, Yan; Kang, Qi; Shen, Dazhong

    2012-06-21

    An end-to-end differential measurement approach with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) was applied to anion-exchange monolithic capillary column ion chromatography. The column was prepared by thermally initiated radical polymerization of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) in a fused-silica capillary of 320 μm i.d. and modified by quaternary ammonium latex surface coating. Two C(4)Ds were placed near both ends of the capillary column and the output difference between them was measured. With 15 mM potassium hydrogen phthalate used as the eluent, good separation of a mixture of inorganic anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-)) was achieved. The detection limits of conventional C(4)D are 1.6, 0.28, 0.53, and 0.47 mg L(-1) for F(-), Cl(-), NO(2)(-), and NO(3)(-), respectively. To further enhance the sensitivity, the capacitive impedance from C(4)D was neutralized by an inductive impedance from a piezoelectric resonator. An increase in sensitivity by a factor of 7-8 was achieved in the resonating C(4)D in comparison with the conventional C(4)D. The detection limits of the resonating C(4)D are 0.23, 0.041, 0.065, and 0.059 mg L(-1) for F(-), Cl(-), NO(2)(-), and NO(3)(-), respectively. The response of the resonating C(4)D was analyzed based on an equivalent circuit model.

  1. An end-to-end examination of geometric accuracy of IGRT using a new digital accelerator equipped with onboard imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Kielar, Kayla N; Mok, Ed; Hsu, Annie; Dieterich, Sonja; Xing, Lei

    2012-02-01

    The Varian's new digital linear accelerator (LINAC), TrueBeam STx, is equipped with a high dose rate flattening filter free (FFF) mode (6 MV and 10 MV), a high definition multileaf collimator (2.5 mm leaf width), as well as onboard imaging capabilities. A series of end-to-end phantom tests were performed, TrueBeam-based image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), to determine the geometric accuracy of the image-guided setup and dose delivery process for all beam modalities delivered using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and RapidArc. In these tests, an anthropomorphic phantom with a Ball Cube II insert and the analysis software (FilmQA (3cognition)) were used to evaluate the accuracy of TrueBeam image-guided setup and dose delivery. Laser cut EBT2 films with 0.15 mm accuracy were embedded into the phantom. The phantom with the film inserted was first scanned with a GE Discovery-ST CT scanner, and the images were then imported to the planning system. Plans with steep dose fall off surrounding hypothetical targets of different sizes were created using RapidArc and IMRT with FFF and WFF (with flattening filter) beams. Four RapidArc plans (6 MV and 10 MV FFF) and five IMRT plans (6 MV and 10 MV FFF; 6 MV, 10 MV and 15 MV WFF) were studied. The RapidArc plans with 6 MV FFF were planned with target diameters of 1 cm (0.52 cc), 2 cm (4.2 cc) and 3 cm (14.1 cc), and all other plans with a target diameter of 3 cm. Both onboard planar and volumetric imaging procedures were used for phantom setup and target localization. The IMRT and RapidArc plans were then delivered, and the film measurements were compared with the original treatment plans using a gamma criteria of 3%/1 mm and 3%/2 mm. The shifts required in order to align the film measured dose with the calculated dose distributions was attributed to be the targeting error. Targeting accuracy of image-guided treatment using TrueBeam was found to be within 1 mm. For irradiation of the 3 cm target, the gammas (3%, 1

  2. Design of a satellite end-to-end mission performance simulator for imaging spectrometers and its application to the ESA's FLEX/Sentinel-3 tandem mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicent, Jorge; Sabater, Neus; Tenjo, Carolina; Acarreta, Juan R.; Manzano, María.; Rivera, Juan P.; Jurado, Pedro; Franco, Raffaella; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, Jose

    2015-09-01

    The performance analysis of a satellite mission requires specific tools that can simulate the behavior of the platform; its payload; and the acquisition of scientific data from synthetic scenes. These software tools, called End-to-End Mission Performance Simulators (E2ES), are promoted by the European Space Agency (ESA) with the goal of consolidating the instrument and mission requirements as well as optimizing the implemented data processing algorithms. Nevertheless, most developed E2ES are designed for a specific satellite mission and can hardly be adapted to other satellite missions. In the frame of ESA's FLEX mission activities, an E2ES is being developed based on a generic architecture for passive optical missions. FLEX E2ES implements a state-of-the-art synthetic scene generator that is coupled with dedicated algorithms that model the platform and instrument characteristics. This work will describe the flexibility of the FLEX E2ES to simulate complex synthetic scenes with a variety of land cover classes, topography and cloud cover that are observed separately by each instrument (FLORIS, OLCI and SLSTR). The implemented algorithms allows modelling the sensor behavior, i.e. the spectral/spatial resampling of the input scene; the geometry of acquisition; the sensor noises and non-uniformity effects (e.g. stray-light, spectral smile and radiometric noise); and the full retrieval scheme up to Level-2 products. It is expected that the design methodology implemented in FLEX E2ES can be used as baseline for other imaging spectrometer missions and will be further expanded towards a generic E2ES software tool.

  3. Automated segmentation of 3D anatomical structures on CT images by using a deep convolutional network based on end-to-end learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangrong; Takayama, Ryosuke; Wang, Song; Zhou, Xinxin; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    We have proposed an end-to-end learning approach that trained a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) for automatic CT image segmentation, which accomplished a voxel-wised multiple classification to directly map each voxel on 3D CT images to an anatomical label automatically. The novelties of our proposed method were (1) transforming the anatomical structures segmentation on 3D CT images into a majority voting of the results of 2D semantic image segmentation on a number of 2D-slices from different image orientations, and (2) using "convolution" and "deconvolution" networks to achieve the conventional "coarse recognition" and "fine extraction" functions which were integrated into a compact all-in-one deep CNN for CT image segmentation. The advantage comparing to previous works was its capability to accomplish real-time image segmentations on 2D slices of arbitrary CT-scan-range (e.g. body, chest, abdomen) and produced correspondingly-sized output. In this paper, we propose an improvement of our proposed approach by adding an organ localization module to limit CT image range for training and testing deep CNNs. A database consisting of 240 3D CT scans and a human annotated ground truth was used for training (228 cases) and testing (the remaining 12 cases). We applied the improved method to segment pancreas and left kidney regions, respectively. The preliminary results showed that the accuracies of the segmentation results were improved significantly (pancreas was 34% and kidney was 8% increased in Jaccard index from our previous results). The effectiveness and usefulness of proposed improvement for CT image segmentations were confirmed.

  4. Assessing the value of seasonal climate forecast information through an end-to-end forecasting framework: Application to U.S. 2012 drought in central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee-Jood, Majid; Cai, Ximing; Chen, Ligang; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Kumar, Praveen

    2014-08-01

    This study proposes an end-to-end forecasting framework to incorporate operational seasonal climate forecasts to help farmers improve their decisions prior to the crop growth season, which are vulnerable to unanticipated drought conditions. The framework couples a crop growth model with a decision-making model for rainfed agriculture and translates probabilistic seasonal forecasts into more user-related information that can be used to support farmers' decisions on crop type and some market choices (e.g., contracts with ethanol refinery). The regional Climate-Weather Research and Forecasting model (CWRF) driven by two operational general circulation models (GCMs) is used to provide the seasonal forecasts of weather parameters. To better assess the developed framework, CWRF is also driven by observational reanalysis data, which theoretically can be considered as the best seasonal forecast. The proposed framework is applied to the Salt Creek watershed in Illinois that experienced an extreme drought event during 2012 crop growth season. The results show that the forecasts cannot capture the 2012 drought condition in Salt Creek and therefore the suggested decisions can make farmers worse off if the suggestions are adopted. Alternatively, the optimal decisions based on reanalysis-based CWRF forecasts, which can capture the 2012 drought conditions, make farmers better off by suggesting "no-contract" with ethanol refineries. This study suggests that the conventional metric used for ex ante value assessment is not capable of providing meaningful information in the case of extreme drought. Also, it is observed that institutional interventions (e.g., crop insurance) highly influences farmers' decisions and, thereby, the assessment of forecast value.

  5. OpenCyto: an open source infrastructure for scalable, robust, reproducible, and automated, end-to-end flow cytometry data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finak, Greg; Frelinger, Jacob; Jiang, Wenxin; Newell, Evan W; Ramey, John; Davis, Mark M; Kalams, Spyros A; De Rosa, Stephen C; Gottardo, Raphael

    2014-08-01

    Flow cytometry is used increasingly in clinical research for cancer, immunology and vaccines. Technological advances in cytometry instrumentation are increasing the size and dimensionality of data sets, posing a challenge for traditional data management and analysis. Automated analysis methods, despite a general consensus of their importance to the future of the field, have been slow to gain widespread adoption. Here we present OpenCyto, a new BioConductor infrastructure and data analysis framework designed to lower the barrier of entry to automated flow data analysis algorithms by addressing key areas that we believe have held back wider adoption of automated approaches. OpenCyto supports end-to-end data analysis that is robust and reproducible while generating results that are easy to interpret. We have improved the existing, widely used core BioConductor flow cytometry infrastructure by allowing analysis to scale in a memory efficient manner to the large flow data sets that arise in clinical trials, and integrating domain-specific knowledge as part of the pipeline through the hierarchical relationships among cell populations. Pipelines are defined through a text-based csv file, limiting the need to write data-specific code, and are data agnostic to simplify repetitive analysis for core facilities. We demonstrate how to analyze two large cytometry data sets: an intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) data set from a published HIV vaccine trial focused on detecting rare, antigen-specific T-cell populations, where we identify a new subset of CD8 T-cells with a vaccine-regimen specific response that could not be identified through manual analysis, and a CyTOF T-cell phenotyping data set where a large staining panel and many cell populations are a challenge for traditional analysis. The substantial improvements to the core BioConductor flow cytometry packages give OpenCyto the potential for wide adoption. It can rapidly leverage new developments in computational

  6. Stereological and biochemical analysis of the urethral edges in patients submitted to end-to-end anastomosis for bulbar urethral stricture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao P. M. de Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the morphologic alterations in the proximal and distal urethral edges from patients submitted to end-to-end bulbar urethroplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 12 patients submitted to anastomotic urethroplasty to treat bulbar strictures less than 2.0 cm in length. After excision of the fibrotic segment to a 28Fr urethral caliber, we obtained biopsies from the spongious tissue of the free edges (proximal: PROX and distal: DIST. Controls included normal bulbar urethras obtained from autopsies of 10 age matched individuals. The samples were histologically processed for smooth muscle cells (SMC, elastic system fibers and collagen. Stereological analysis was performed to determine the volumetric density (Vv of each element. Also, a biochemical analysis was performed to quantify the total collagen content. RESULTS: Vv of SMC was reduced in PROX (31.48 ± 7.01 p < 0.05 and similar in DIST when compared to controls (55.65 ± 9.60% with no statistical difference. Elastic fibers were increased in PROX (25.70 ± 3.21%; p < 0.05 and were similar to controls in DIST (15.87 ± 4.26%. Total collagen concentration in PROX (46.39 �� 8.20 μg/mg, and DIST (47.96 ± 9.42 μg/mg did not differ from controls (48.85 ± 6.91 μg/mg. Type III collagen was similarly present in all samples. CONCLUSIONS: After excision of the stenotic segment to a caliber of 28Fr, the exposed and macroscopically normal urethral edges may present altered amounts of elastic fibers and SMC, but are free from fibrotic tissue. When excising the peri-stenotic tissue, the surgeon should be more careful in the proximal end, which is the most altered.

  7. Enzymatic reaction modulated gold nanorod end-to-end self-assembly for ultrahigh sensitively colorimetric sensing of cholinesterase and organophosphate pesticides in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Linlin; Xia, Yunsheng

    2015-08-18

    We present herein the first reported self-assembly modulation of gold nanorods (AuNRs) by enzymatic reaction, which is further employed for colorimetric assays of cholinesterase (ChE) and organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in human blood. ChE catalyzes its substrate (acetylthiocholine) and produces thiocholine and acetate acid. The resulting thiols then react with the tips of the AuNRs by S-Au conjunction and prevent subsequent cysteine-induced AuNR end-to-end (EE) self-assembly. Correspondingly, the AuNR surface plasmon resonance is regulated, which results in a distinctly ratiometric signal output. Under optimal conditions, the linear range is 0.042 to 8.4 μU/mL, and the detection limit is as low as 0.018 μU/mL. As ChE is incubated with OPs, the enzymatic activity is inhibited. So, the cysteine-induced assembly is observed again. On the basis of this principle, OPs can be well determined ranging from 0.12 to 40 pM with a 0.039 pM detection limit. To our knowledge, the present quasi pU/mL level sensitivity for ChE and the quasi femtomolar level sensitivity for OPs are at least 500 and 7000 times lower than those of previous colorimetric methods, respectively. The ultrahigh sensitivity results from (1) the rational choice of anisotropic AuNRs as building blocks and reporters and (2) the specific structure of the enzymatic thiocholine. Because of ultrahigh sensitivity, serum samples are allowed to be extremely diluted in the assay. Accordingly, various nonspecific interactions, even from glutathione/cysteine, are well avoided. So, both ChE and OPs in human blood can be directly assayed without any prepurification, indicating the simplicity and practical promise of the proposed method.

  8. The Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum: An Integrated, End-to-end Forecast and Warning System for Mountainous Islands in the Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, J.; Updike, R. G.; Verdin, J. P.; Larsen, M. C.; Negri, A. J.; McGinley, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    In the 10 days of 21-30 September 1998, Hurricane Georges left a trail of destruction in the Caribbean region and U.S. Gulf Coast. Subsequently, in the same year, Hurricane Mitch caused widespread destruction and loss of life in four Central American nations, and in December,1999 a tropical disturbance impacted the north coast of Venezuela causing hundreds of deaths and several million dollars of property loss. More recently, an off-season disturbance in the Central Caribbean dumped nearly 250 mm rainfall over Hispaniola during the 24-hr period on May 23, 2004. Resultant flash floods and debris flows in the Dominican Republic and Haiti killed at least 1400 people. In each instance, the tropical system served as the catalyst for major flooding and landslides at landfall. Our goal is to develop and transfer an end-to-end warning system for a prototype region in the Central Caribbean, specifically the islands of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, which experience frequent tropical cyclones and other disturbances. The envisioned system would include satellite and surface-based observations to track and nowcast dangerous levels of precipitation, atmospheric and hydrological models to predict short-term runoff and streamflow changes, geological models to warn when and where landslides and debris flows are imminent, and the capability to communicate forecast guidance products via satellite to vital government offices in Puerto Rico, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. In this paper, we shall present a preliminary proof-of-concept study for the May 21-24, 2004 floods and debris-flows over Hispaniola to show that the envisaged flow of data, models and graphical products can produce the desired warning outputs. The multidisciplinary research and technology transfer effort will require blending the talents of hydrometeorologists, geologists, remote sensing and GIS experts, and social scientists to ensure timely delivery of tailored graphical products to both weather offices and local

  9. Combined fishing and climate forcing in the southern Benguela upwelling ecosystem: an end-to-end modelling approach reveals dampened effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Travers-Trolet

    Full Text Available The effects of climate and fishing on marine ecosystems have usually been studied separately, but their interactions make ecosystem dynamics difficult to understand and predict. Of particular interest to management, the potential synergism or antagonism between fishing pressure and climate forcing is analysed in this paper, using an end-to-end ecosystem model of the southern Benguela ecosystem, built from coupling hydrodynamic, biogeochemical and multispecies fish models (ROMS-N2P2Z2D2-OSMOSE. Scenarios of different intensities of upwelling-favourable wind stress combined with scenarios of fishing top-predator fish were tested. Analyses of isolated drivers show that the bottom-up effect of the climate forcing propagates up the food chain whereas the top-down effect of fishing cascades down to zooplankton in unfavourable environmental conditions but dampens before it reaches phytoplankton. When considering both climate and fishing drivers together, it appears that top-down control dominates the link between top-predator fish and forage fish, whereas interactions between the lower trophic levels are dominated by bottom-up control. The forage fish functional group appears to be a central component of this ecosystem, being the meeting point of two opposite trophic controls. The set of combined scenarios shows that fishing pressure and upwelling-favourable wind stress have mostly dampened effects on fish populations, compared to predictions from the separate effects of the stressors. Dampened effects result in biomass accumulation at the top predator fish level but a depletion of biomass at the forage fish level. This should draw our attention to the evolution of this functional group, which appears as both structurally important in the trophic functioning of the ecosystem, and very sensitive to climate and fishing pressures. In particular, diagnoses considering fishing pressure only might be more optimistic than those that consider combined effects

  10. Combined fishing and climate forcing in the southern Benguela upwelling ecosystem: an end-to-end modelling approach reveals dampened effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers-Trolet, Morgane; Shin, Yunne-Jai; Shannon, Lynne J; Moloney, Coleen L; Field, John G

    2014-01-01

    The effects of climate and fishing on marine ecosystems have usually been studied separately, but their interactions make ecosystem dynamics difficult to understand and predict. Of particular interest to management, the potential synergism or antagonism between fishing pressure and climate forcing is analysed in this paper, using an end-to-end ecosystem model of the southern Benguela ecosystem, built from coupling hydrodynamic, biogeochemical and multispecies fish models (ROMS-N2P2Z2D2-OSMOSE). Scenarios of different intensities of upwelling-favourable wind stress combined with scenarios of fishing top-predator fish were tested. Analyses of isolated drivers show that the bottom-up effect of the climate forcing propagates up the food chain whereas the top-down effect of fishing cascades down to zooplankton in unfavourable environmental conditions but dampens before it reaches phytoplankton. When considering both climate and fishing drivers together, it appears that top-down control dominates the link between top-predator fish and forage fish, whereas interactions between the lower trophic levels are dominated by bottom-up control. The forage fish functional group appears to be a central component of this ecosystem, being the meeting point of two opposite trophic controls. The set of combined scenarios shows that fishing pressure and upwelling-favourable wind stress have mostly dampened effects on fish populations, compared to predictions from the separate effects of the stressors. Dampened effects result in biomass accumulation at the top predator fish level but a depletion of biomass at the forage fish level. This should draw our attention to the evolution of this functional group, which appears as both structurally important in the trophic functioning of the ecosystem, and very sensitive to climate and fishing pressures. In particular, diagnoses considering fishing pressure only might be more optimistic than those that consider combined effects of fishing and

  11. SU-E-J-25: End-To-End (E2E) Testing On TomoHDA System Using a Real Pig Head for Intracranial Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, N; Leick, M; Bonetti, M; Negretti, L [Clinica Luganese, Radiotherapy Center, Lugano (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the MVCT imaging uncertainty on the TomoHDA system for intracranial radiosurgery treatments. To determine the end-to-end (E2E) overall accuracy of the TomoHDA system for intracranial radiosurgery. Methods: A pig head was obtained from the butcher, cut coronally through the brain, and preserved in formaldehyde. The base of the head was fixed to a positioning plate allowing precise movement, i.e. translation and rotation, in all 6 axes. A repeatability test was performed on the pig head to determine uncertainty in the image bone registration algorithm. Furthermore, the test studied images with MVCT slice thicknesses of 1 and 3 mm in unison with differing scan lengths. A sensitivity test was performed to determine the registration algorithm’s ability to find the absolute position of known translations/rotations of the pig head. The algorithm’s ability to determine absolute position was compared against that of manual operators, i.e. a radiation therapist and radiation oncologist. Finally, E2E tests for intracranial radiosurgery were performed by measuring the delivered dose distributions within the pig head using Gafchromic films. Results: The repeatability test uncertainty was lowest for the MVCTs of 1-mm slice thickness, which measured less than 0.10 mm and 0.12 deg for all axes. For the sensitivity tests, the bone registration algorithm performed better than human eyes and a maximum difference of 0.3 mm and 0.4 deg was observed for the axes. E2E test results in absolute position difference measured 0.03 ± 0.21 mm in x-axis and 0.28 ± 0.18 mm in y-axis. A maximum difference of 0.32 and 0.66 mm was observed in x and y, respectively. The average peak dose difference between measured and calculated dose was 2.7 cGy or 0.4%. Conclusion: Our tests using a pig head phantom estimate the TomoHDA system to have a submillimeter overall accuracy for intracranial radiosurgery.

  12. Greenhouse gas profiling by infrared-laser and microwave occultation: retrieval algorithm and demonstration results from end-to-end simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proschek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Measuring greenhouse gas (GHG profiles with global coverage and high accuracy and vertical resolution in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS is key for improved monitoring of GHG concentrations in the free atmosphere. In this respect a new satellite mission concept adding an infrared-laser part to the already well studied microwave occultation technique exploits the joint propagation of infrared-laser and microwave signals between Low Earth Orbit (LEO satellites. This synergetic combination, referred to as LEO-LEO microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO method, enables to retrieve thermodynamic profiles (pressure, temperature, humidity and accurate altitude levels from the microwave signals and GHG profiles from the simultaneously measured infrared-laser signals. However, due to the novelty of the LMIO method, a retrieval algorithm for GHG profiling did not yet exist. Here we introduce such an algorithm for retrieving GHGs from LEO-LEO infrared-laser occultation (LIO data, applied as a second step after retrieving thermodynamic profiles from LEO-LEO microwave occultation (LMO data as recently introduced in detail by Schweitzer et al. (2011b. We thoroughly describe the LIO retrieval algorithm and unveil the synergy with the LMO-retrieved pressure, temperature, and altitude information. We furthermore demonstrate the effective independence of the GHG retrieval results from background (a priori information in discussing demonstration results from LMIO end-to-end simulations for a representative set of GHG profiles, including carbon dioxide (CO2, water vapor (H2O, methane (CH4, and ozone (O3. The GHGs except for ozone are well retrieved throughout the UTLS, while ozone is well retrieved from 10 km to 15 km upwards, since the ozone layer resides in the lower stratosphere. The GHG retrieval errors are generally smaller than 1% to 3% r.m.s., at a vertical resolution of about 1 km. The

  13. Greenhouse gas profiling by infrared-laser and microwave occultation: retrieval algorithm and demonstration results from end-to-end simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proschek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring greenhouse gas (GHG profiles with global coverage and high accuracy and vertical resolution in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS is key for improved monitoring of GHG concentrations in the free atmosphere. In this respect a new satellite mission concept adding an infrared-laser part to the already well studied microwave occultation technique exploits the joint propagation of infrared-laser and microwave signals between Low Earth Orbit (LEO satellites. This synergetic combination, referred to as LEO-LEO microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO method, enables to retrieve thermodynamic profiles (pressure, temperature, humidity and accurate altitude levels from the microwave signals and GHG profiles from the simultaneously measured infrared-laser signals. However, due to the novelty of the LMIO method, a retrieval algorithm for GHG profiling is not yet available. Here we introduce such an algorithm for retrieving GHGs from LEO-LEO infrared-laser occultation (LIO data, applied as a second step after retrieving thermodynamic profiles from LEO-LEO microwave occultation (LMO data. We thoroughly describe the LIO retrieval algorithm and unveil the synergy with the LMO-retrieved pressure, temperature, and altitude information. We furthermore demonstrate the effective independence of the GHG retrieval results from background (a priori information in discussing demonstration results from LMIO end-to-end simulations for a representative set of GHG profiles, including carbon dioxide (CO2, water vapor (H2O, methane (CH4, and ozone (O3. The GHGs except for ozone are well retrieved throughout the UTLS, while ozone is well retrieved from about 10 km to 15 km upwards, since the ozone layer resides in the lower stratosphere. The GHG retrieval errors are generally smaller than 1% to 3% r.m.s., at a vertical resolution of about 1 km. The retrieved profiles also appear unbiased, which points

  14. End-to-end available bandwidth measurement methodology%一种端到端的有效带宽测量方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石祥滨; 谭俏男; 杜玲

    2011-01-01

    有效带宽测量在服务器选择、覆盖网络路由选择和网络流量工程等方面有广泛的应用.通过分析发送频率与单向延时之间的关系,提出了一种基于多项式拟合的有效带宽测量方法PFAB(Polynomial Fitting for Available Bandwidth).PFAB通过发送探测速率逐渐下降的探测包,并检测OWD的变化,推断探测速率和有效带宽之间的关系.当探测速率大于有效带宽时,OWD持续增长;在探测速率等于有效带宽时,OWD达到最大值,之后开始下降.NS-2仿真实验结果表明该方法能有效减少探测包数量,缩短探测时间,并且对网络造成的干扰小;在探测包瞬时频率变化较大时,可以快速到极值点,减少测量误差.%The available bandwidth measurement is important for many Internet applications, such as server selection, overlay network routing, and traffic engineering. This paper analyzes the relationship of the probing rate and the one-way delays. Then based on this,a methodology which call PFAB(polynomial fitting for available bandwidth) in the basic idea from polynomial fitting is presented to measure end-to-end available bandwidth.In PFAB, the change of the one-way delay happen according to one-way delay trends to infer the relationship between the probing rate and the available bandwidth. If one-way delay is increasing,the probing rate is larger than the present available bandwidth;if one-way delay is not increasing,the probing rate is equals the present available bandwidth; otherwise,one-way delay is decreasing. This methodology can reduce the number of probe bytes,the time of probing and network interference through NS-2 simulations. It also can find out extreme point with lowing measurement errors when probing rate has a big change.

  15. OpenCyto: an open source infrastructure for scalable, robust, reproducible, and automated, end-to-end flow cytometry data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Finak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is used increasingly in clinical research for cancer, immunology and vaccines. Technological advances in cytometry instrumentation are increasing the size and dimensionality of data sets, posing a challenge for traditional data management and analysis. Automated analysis methods, despite a general consensus of their importance to the future of the field, have been slow to gain widespread adoption. Here we present OpenCyto, a new BioConductor infrastructure and data analysis framework designed to lower the barrier of entry to automated flow data analysis algorithms by addressing key areas that we believe have held back wider adoption of automated approaches. OpenCyto supports end-to-end data analysis that is robust and reproducible while generating results that are easy to interpret. We have improved the existing, widely used core BioConductor flow cytometry infrastructure by allowing analysis to scale in a memory efficient manner to the large flow data sets that arise in clinical trials, and integrating domain-specific knowledge as part of the pipeline through the hierarchical relationships among cell populations. Pipelines are defined through a text-based csv file, limiting the need to write data-specific code, and are data agnostic to simplify repetitive analysis for core facilities. We demonstrate how to analyze two large cytometry data sets: an intracellular cytokine staining (ICS data set from a published HIV vaccine trial focused on detecting rare, antigen-specific T-cell populations, where we identify a new subset of CD8 T-cells with a vaccine-regimen specific response that could not be identified through manual analysis, and a CyTOF T-cell phenotyping data set where a large staining panel and many cell populations are a challenge for traditional analysis. The substantial improvements to the core BioConductor flow cytometry packages give OpenCyto the potential for wide adoption. It can rapidly leverage new developments in

  16. Cryogenic characterization of the Planck sorption cooler system flight model

    CERN Document Server

    Morgante, G; Melot, F; Stassi, P; Terenzi, L; Wilson, P; Hernandez, B; Wade, L; Gregorio, A; Bersanelli, M; Butler, C; Mandolesi, N; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12016

    2009-01-01

    This paper is part of the Prelaunch status LFI papers published on JINST: http://www.iop.org/EJ/journal/-page=extra.proc5/1748-0221 Two continuous closed-cycle hydrogen Joule-Thomson (J-T) sorption coolers have been fabricated and assembled by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the European Space Agency (ESA) Planck mission. Each refrigerator has been designed to provide a total of ~ 1W of cooling power at two instrument interfaces: they directly cool the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) around 20K while providing a pre-cooling stage for a 4 K J-T mechanical refrigerator for the High Frequency Instrument (HFI). After sub-system level validation at JPL, the cryocoolers have been delivered to ESA in 2005. In this paper we present the results of the cryogenic qualification and test campaigns of the Nominal Unit on the flight model spacecraft performed at the CSL (Centre Spatial de Liege) facilities in 2008. Test results in terms of input power, cooling power, temperature, and temperature fluctuations o...

  17. Planck 2013 results. II. Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falvella, M. C.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Morisset, N.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Robbers, G.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    We describe the data processing pipeline of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing centre (DPC) to create and characterize full-sky maps based on the first 15.5 months of operations at 30, 44, and 70 GHz. In particular, we discuss the various steps involved in reducing the data, from telemetry packets through to the production of cleaned, calibrated timelines and calibrated frequency maps. Data are continuously calibrated using the modulation induced on the mean temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation by the proper motion of the spacecraft. Sky signals other than the dipole are removed by an iterative procedure based on simultaneous fitting of calibration parameters and sky maps. Noise properties are estimated from time-ordered data after the sky signal has been removed, using a generalized least squares map-making algorithm. A destriping code (Madam) is employed to combine radiometric data and pointing information into sky maps, minimizing the variance of correlated noise. Noise covariance matrices, required to compute statistical uncertainties on LFI and Planck products, are also produced. Main beams are estimated down to the ≈- 20 dB level using Jupiter transits, which are also used for the geometrical calibration of the focal plane.

  18. Planck early results. V. The Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacchei, A.; Maino, D.; Baccigalupi, C.; Bersanelli, M.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cuttaia, F.; de Zotti, G.; Dick, J.; Frailis, M.; Galeotta, S.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Knoche, J.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; López-Caniego, M.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Matthai, F.; Meinhold, P. R.; Mennella, A.; Morgante, G.; Morisset, N.; Natoli, P.; Pasian, F.; Perrotta, F.; Polenta, G.; Poutanen, T.; Reinecke, M.; Ricciardi, S.; Rohlfs, R.; Sandri, M.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Valiviita, J.; Villa, F.; Zonca, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Bedini, L.; Bennett, K.; Binko, P.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bremer, M.; Cabella, P.; Cappellini, B.; Chen, X.; Colombo, L.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Troia, G.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Donzelli, S.; Dörl, U.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falvella, M. C.; Finelli, F.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Gasparo, F.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giardino, G.; Gómez, F.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hell, R.; Herranz, D.; Hovest, W.; Huynh, M.; Jewell, J.; Juvela, M.; Kisner, T. S.; Knox, L.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lilje, P. B.; Lubin, P. M.; Maggio, G.; Marinucci, D.; Martínez-González, E.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Meharga, M. T.; Melchiorri, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Moss, A.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Pagano, L.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pearson, D.; Pettorino, V.; Pietrobon, D.; Prézeau, G.; Procopio, P.; Puget, J.-L.; Quercellini, C.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Robbers, G.; Rocha, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Salerno, E.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Silk, J. I.; Smoot, G. F.; Sternberg, J.; Stivoli, F.; Stompor, R.; Tofani, G.; Toffolatti, L.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Vielva, P.; Vittorio, N.; Vuerli, C.; Wade, L. A.; Watson, R.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.

    2011-12-01

    We describe the processing of data from the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) used in production of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC). In particular, we discuss the steps involved in reducing the data from telemetry packets to cleaned, calibrated, time-ordered data (TOD) and frequency maps. Data are continuously calibrated using the modulation of the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation induced by the motion of the spacecraft. Noise properties are estimated from TOD from which the sky signal has been removed using a generalized least square map-making algorithm. Measured 1/f noise knee-frequencies range from ~100 mHz at 30 GHz to a few tens of mHz at 70GHz. A destriping code (Madam) is employed to combine radiometric data and pointing information into sky maps, minimizing the variance of correlated noise. Noise covariance matrices required to compute statistical uncertainties on LFI and Planck products are also produced. Main beams are estimated down to the ≈-10dB level using Jupiter transits, which are also used for geometrical calibration of the focal plane. Corresponding author: A. Zacchei, e-mail: zacchei@oats.inaf.it

  19. Planck stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    A star that collapses gravitationally can reach a further stage of its life, where quantum-gravitational pressure counteracts weight. The duration of this stage is very short in the star proper time, yielding a bounce, but extremely long seen from the outside, because of the huge gravitational time dilation. Since the onset of quantum-gravitational effects is governed by energy density --not by size-- the star can be much larger than planckian in this phase. The object emerging at the end of the Hawking evaporation of a black hole can can then be larger than planckian by a factor $(m/m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P})^n$, where $m$ is the mass fallen into the hole, $m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P}$ is the Planck mass, and $n$ is positive. The existence of these objects alleviates the black-hole information paradox. More interestingly, these objects could have astrophysical and cosmological interest: they produce a detectable signal, of quantum gravitational origin, around the $10^{-14} cm$ wavelength.

  20. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASAs Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David

    2015-01-01

    The engineering development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new Space Launch System (SLS) requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The nominal and off-nominal characteristics of SLS's elements and subsystems must be understood and matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large and complex systems engineering challenge, which is being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems involved in the handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance with response management. Using traditional model-based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the vehicle are crafted and vetted in Integrated Development Teams (IDTs) composed of multiple development disciplines such as Systems Engineering (SE), Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and the major subsystems and vehicle elements such as Main Propulsion Systems (MPS), boosters, avionics, Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC), Thrust Vector Control (TVC), and liquid engines. These model-based algorithms and their development lifecycle from inception through FSW certification are an important focus of SLS's development effort to further ensure reliable detection and response to off-nominal vehicle states during all phases of vehicle operation from pre-launch through end of flight. To test and validate these M&FM algorithms a dedicated test-bed was developed for full Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing (VMET). For addressing fault management (FM

  1. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David

    2015-01-01

    The development of the Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The characteristics of these systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large complex systems engineering challenge being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance. Using traditional model based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms are crafted and vetted in specialized Integrated Development Teams composed of multiple development disciplines. NASA also has formed an M&FM team for addressing fault management early in the development lifecycle. This team has developed a dedicated Vehicle Management End-to-End Testbed (VMET) that integrates specific M&FM algorithms, specialized nominal and off-nominal test cases, and vendor-supplied physics-based launch vehicle subsystem models. The flexibility of VMET enables thorough testing of the M&FM algorithms by providing configurable suites of both nominal and off-nominal test cases to validate the algorithms utilizing actual subsystem models. The intent is to validate the algorithms and substantiate them with performance baselines for each of the vehicle subsystems in an independent platform exterior to flight software test processes. In any software development process there is inherent risk in the interpretation and implementation of concepts into software through requirements and test processes. Risk reduction is addressed by working with other organizations such as S

  2. Planck 2015 results. IV. Low Frequency Instrument beams and window functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Christensen, P R; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; Lindholm, V; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renzi, A; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vassallo, T; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the in-flight beams, the beam window functions, and the associated uncertainties for the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI). The structure of the paper is similar to that presented in the 2013 Planck release; the main differences concern the beam normalization and the delivery of the window functions to be used for polarization analysis. The in-flight assessment of the LFI main beams relies on measurements performed during observations of Jupiter. By stacking data from seven Jupiter transits, the main beam profiles are measured down to -25 dB at 30 and 44 GHz, and down to -30 dB at 70 GHz. The agreement between the simulated beams and the measured beams is confirmed to be better than 1% at each LFI frequency band (within the 20 dB contour from the peak, the rms values are: 0.1% at 30 and 70 GHz; 0.2% at 44 GHz). Simulated polarized beams are used for the computation of the effective beam window functions. The error budget for the window functions is estimated fro...

  3. Planck 2013 results. IV. Low Frequency Instrument beams and window functions

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, L -Y; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Gaier, T C; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Kangaslahti, P; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Lindholm, V; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the in-flight beams, the beam window functions and the associated uncertainties for the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI). Knowledge of the beam profiles is necessary for determining the transfer function to go from the observed to the actual sky anisotropy power spectrum. The main beam distortions affect the beam window function, complicating the reconstruction of the anisotropy power spectrum at high multipoles, whereas the sidelobes affect the low and intermediate multipoles. The in-flight assessment of the LFI main beams relies on the measurements performed during Jupiter observations. By stacking the data from multiple Jupiter transits, the main beam profiles are measured down to -20 dB at 30 and 44 GHz, and down to -25 dB at 70 GHz. The main beam solid angles are determined to better than 0.2% at each LFI frequency band. The Planck pre-launch optical model is conveniently tuned to characterize the main beams independently of any noise effects. This approac...

  4. Planck 2015 results. IV. Low Frequency Instrument beams and window functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Christensen, P. R.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renzi, A.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vassallo, T.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the in-flight beams, the beam window functions, and the associated uncertainties for the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI). The structure of the paper is similar to that presented in the 2013 Planck release; the main differences concern the beam normalization and the delivery of the window functions to be used for polarization analysis. The in-flight assessment of the LFI main beams relies on measurements performed during observations of Jupiter. By stacking data from seven Jupiter transits, the main beam profiles are measured down to -25 dB at 30 and 44 GHz, and down to -30 dB at 70 GHz. It has been confirmed that the agreement between the simulated beams and the measured beams is better than 1% at each LFI frequency band (within the 20 dB contour from the peak, the rms values are 0.1% at 30 and 70 GHz; 0.2% at 44 GHz). Simulated polarized beams are used for the computation of the effective beam window functions. The error budget for the window functions is estimated from both main beam and sidelobe contributions, and accounts for the radiometer band shapes. The total uncertainties in the effective beam window functions are 0.7% and 1% at 30 and 44 GHz, respectively (at ℓ ≈ 600); and 0.5% at 70 GHz (at ℓ ≈ 1000).

  5. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David; Johnson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    integrates specific M&FM algorithms, specialized nominal and off-nominal test cases, and vendor-supplied physics-based launch vehicle subsystem models. Additionally, the team has developed processes for implementing and validating these algorithms for concept validation and risk reduction for the SLS program. The flexibility of the Vehicle Management End-to-end Testbed (VMET) enables thorough testing of the M&FM algorithms by providing configurable suites of both nominal and off-nominal test cases to validate the developed algorithms utilizing actual subsystem models such as MPS. The intent of VMET is to validate the M&FM algorithms and substantiate them with performance baselines for each of the target vehicle subsystems in an independent platform exterior to the flight software development infrastructure and its related testing entities. In any software development process there is inherent risk in the interpretation and implementation of concepts into software through requirements and test cases into flight software compounded with potential human errors throughout the development lifecycle. Risk reduction is addressed by the M&FM analysis group working with other organizations such as S&MA, Structures and Environments, GNC, Orion, the Crew Office, Flight Operations, and Ground Operations by assessing performance of the M&FM algorithms in terms of their ability to reduce Loss of Mission and Loss of Crew probabilities. In addition, through state machine and diagnostic modeling, analysis efforts investigate a broader suite of failure effects and associated detection and responses that can be tested in VMET to ensure that failures can be detected, and confirm that responses do not create additional risks or cause undesired states through interactive dynamic effects with other algorithms and systems. VMET further contributes to risk reduction by prototyping and exercising the M&FM algorithms early in their implementation and without any inherent hindrances such as meeting FSW

  6. Planck intermediate results: XLVI. Reduction of large-scale systematic effects in HFI polarization maps and estimation of the reionization optical depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the identification, modelling, and removal of previously unexplained systematic effects in the polarization data of the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) on large angular scales, including new mapmaking and calibration procedures, new and more complete end-to-end simulat...

  7. Planck 2013 results. II. Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cappellini, B; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Cruz, M; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falvella, M C; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Gaier, T C; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Kangaslahti, P; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Lindholm, V; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Salerno, E; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; White, S D M; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    We describe the data processing pipeline of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing centre (DPC) to create and characterize full-sky maps based on the first 15.5 months of operations at 30, 44 and 70 GHz. In particular, we discuss the various steps involved in reducing the data, starting from telemetry packets through to the production of cleaned, calibrated timelines and calibrated frequency maps. Data are continuously calibrated using the modulation induced on the mean temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation by the proper motion of the spacecraft. Sky signals other than the dipole are removed by an iterative procedure based on simultaneous fitting of calibration parameters and sky maps. Noise properties are estimated from time-ordered data after the sky signal has been removed, using a generalized least square map-making algorithm. A destriping code (Madam) is employed to combine radiometric data and pointing information into sky maps, minimizing the variance of correlated...

  8. A Planck Vacuum Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Both the big-bang and the quasi-steady-state cosmologies originate in some type of Planck state. This paper presents a new cosmological theory based on the Planck- vacuum negative-energy state, a state consisting of a degenerate collection of negative- energy Planck particles. A heuristic look at the Einstein field equation provides a con- vincing argument that such a vacuum state could provide a theoretical explanation for the visible universe.

  9. Cloning and functional identification of the AcLFY gene in Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cuicui; Ye, Yangyang; Song, Ce; Chen, Dian; Jiang, Baiwen; Wang, Yong

    2016-05-13

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the important vegetable crops in the world, usually with a two-year life cycle. The bulbs form in the first year after sowing, then bolting and flowering are induced by low temperature in the following year. Previous studies have shown that LEAFY gene is an inflorescence tissue specific gene, and that it is also the ultimate collection channel of all flowering pathway. In this study, using homologous gene cloning and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), we isolated an inflorescence meristem specific LEAFY cDNA, AcLFY (JX275962), from onion. AcLFY contains a 1119 bp open reading frame, which encodes a putative protein of 372 amino acids, with ∼70% homology to the daffodils LEAFY and >50% homology to LEAFY proteins from other higher plants. Fluorescence quantitative results showed that AcLFY gene has the highest expression level in inflorescence meristem during early bolting, and is still expressed in leaves after the formation of flower organs. Overexpression of AcLFY gene in Arabidopsis thaliana induced early bolting and flowering, whereas knockdown of the endogenous LEAFY gene by RNAi caused a significant delay in bolting. In addition, transgenic plants also exhibited significant morphological changes in rosette leaves, branches, and plant height.

  10. Cognitive Network End to End Situational Evaluation Algorithm Based on BP-DBN%基于BP-DBN的认知网络端到端态势评估算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋云洁; 王莉

    2014-01-01

    文中提出了一种基于BP-深度信念网络( BP-DBN)的端到端态势评估算法,实现网络端到端态势等级判定。基于提出的分布式态势评估架构,使用BP-DBN分别构建认知域网元评估值、局部态势评估值和端到端态势评估值三者间的映射关系,最后实现端到端态势等级定性评估。实验结果表明,基于少量标记训练样本,BP-DBN测试错误率低,能够保证评估准确性,同时提出的评估算法能够有效评估端到端网络态势等级。%Cognitive network end to end situational evaluation algorithm based on BP-DBN is proposed to judge the situational level. Based on distributed situational evaluation architecture,BP-DBN is used to construct mapping relations among network element evalua-tion value in cognitive domain,local situational evaluation value and global situational evaluation value. End to end situational evaluation can be qualitatively evaluated. Simulation results show that test error rate of BP-DBN is low based on less labeled samples,which can en-sure accuracy of evaluation,and the algorithm proposed can estimate end to end situational level effectively.

  11. SU-F-P-39: End-To-End Validation of a 6 MV High Dose Rate Photon Beam, Configured for Eclipse AAA Algorithm Using Golden Beam Data, for SBRT Treatments Using RapidArc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreyra, M; Salinas Aranda, F; Dodat, D; Sansogne, R; Arbiser, S [Vidt Centro Medico, Ciudad Autonoma De Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aire (Argentina)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To use end-to-end testing to validate a 6 MV high dose rate photon beam, configured for Eclipse AAA algorithm using Golden Beam Data (GBD), for SBRT treatments using RapidArc. Methods: Beam data was configured for Varian Eclipse AAA algorithm using the GBD provided by the vendor. Transverse and diagonals dose profiles, PDDs and output factors down to a field size of 2×2 cm2 were measured on a Varian Trilogy Linac and compared with GBD library using 2% 2mm 1D gamma analysis. The MLC transmission factor and dosimetric leaf gap were determined to characterize the MLC in Eclipse. Mechanical and dosimetric tests were performed combining different gantry rotation speeds, dose rates and leaf speeds to evaluate the delivery system performance according to VMAT accuracy requirements. An end-to-end test was implemented planning several SBRT RapidArc treatments on a CIRS 002LFC IMRT Thorax Phantom. The CT scanner calibration curve was acquired and loaded in Eclipse. PTW 31013 ionization chamber was used with Keithley 35617EBS electrometer for absolute point dose measurements in water and lung equivalent inserts. TPS calculated planar dose distributions were compared to those measured using EPID and MapCheck, as an independent verification method. Results were evaluated with gamma criteria of 2% dose difference and 2mm DTA for 95% of points. Results: GBD set vs. measured data passed 2% 2mm 1D gamma analysis even for small fields. Machine performance tests show results are independent of machine delivery configuration, as expected. Absolute point dosimetry comparison resulted within 4% for the worst case scenario in lung. Over 97% of the points evaluated in dose distributions passed gamma index analysis. Conclusion: Eclipse AAA algorithm configuration of the 6 MV high dose rate photon beam using GBD proved efficient. End-to-end test dose calculation results indicate it can be used clinically for SBRT using RapidArc.

  12. Demonstration of the First Real-Time End-to-End 40-Gb/s PAM-4 for Next-Generation Access Applications using 10-Gb/s Transmitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next-generation access applications using 10-Gb/s class transmitters only. Based on the measurement of a real-time 40-Gb/s PAM system, low-cost upstream and downstream link power budgets are estimated. Up......, we show that colorless 40 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over 20 km SMF in the C-band is achievable...

  13. End-to-end energy efficient communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, Lars

    Awareness of energy consumption in communication networks such as the Internet is currently gaining momentum as it is commonly acknowledged that increased network capacity (currently driven by video applications) requires significant more electrical power. This paper stresses the importance...

  14. CASTOR end-to-end monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Rekatsinas, T; Pokorski, W; Ponce, S; Rabaçal, B; Waldron, D; Wojcieszuk, J

    2010-01-01

    With the start of Large Hadron Collider approaching, storage and management of raw event data, as well as reconstruction and analysis data, is of crucial importance for the researchers. The CERN Advanced STORage system (CASTOR) is a hierarchical system developed at CERN, used to store physics production files and user files. CASTOR, as one of the essential software tools used by the LHC experiments, has to provide reliable services for storing and managing data. Monitoring of this complicated system is mandatory in order to assure its stable operation and improve its future performance. This paper presents the new monitoring system of CASTOR which provides operation and user request specific metrics. This system is build around a dedicated, optimized database schema. The schema is populated by PL/SQL procedures, which process a stream of incoming raw metadata from different CASTOR components, initially collected by the Distributed Logging Facility (DLF). A web interface has been developed for the visualizatio...

  15. Planck Early Results: I. The Planck mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2011-01-01

    The European Space Agency’s Planck satellite was launched on 14 May 2009, and has been surveying the sky stably and continuously since 13 August 2009. Its performance is well in line with expectations, and it will continue to gather scientific data until the end of its cryogenic lifetime. We give...

  16. End to end Distance and its Probability Distribution of Polymer Chains near a Flat Barrier%平面壁限制的高分子链末端距及其概率分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建花; 蒋文华; 韩世钧

    2001-01-01

    The problem of polymer chains near an impenetrable plane is investigated by means of the probability method. It is shown that the 2kth moment of the reduced normal component of the end-to-end distance A2k only depends on the reduced distance to the plane of the first segment AZ0, here, A=l- 1· , n is the chain length, l is the bond length and fixed to be unity, which can be expressed as A2k=f(AZ0). When AZ0≈ 0, A2k is the maximum(A2k=k!), then it decreases rapidly and soon reaches the minimum with the increase of AZ0, afterwards A2k goes up gradually and reaches the limit value [(2k- 1)× (2k- 3)× … × 1]/2k when AZ0 is large enough. Suggesting that the polymer chain can be significantly elongated for small Z0 and contracted for an intermediate range of Z0 due to the barrier. The distribution of the end-to-end distance also depends on the distance Z0 to the plane of the first segment.

  17. Syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of three one-dimensional end-to-end azide/cyanate-bridged copper(II) compounds exhibiting ferromagnetic interaction: new type of solid state isomerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, Sujit; Sarkar, Sohini; Aliaga-Alcalde, Núria; Mohanta, Sasankasekhar

    2011-06-20

    The work in this paper presents the syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of three end-to-end (EE) azide/cyanate-bridged copper(II) compounds [Cu(II)L(1)(μ(1,3)-NCO)](n)·2nH(2)O (1), [Cu(II)L(1)(μ(1,3)-N(3))](n)·2nH(2)O (2), and [Cu(II)L(2)(μ(1,3)-N(3))](n) (3), where the ligands used to achieve these species, HL(1) and HL(2), are the tridentate Schiff base ligands obtained from [1 + 1] condensations of salicylaldehyde with 4-(2-aminoethyl)-morpholine and 3-methoxy salicylaldehyde with 1-(2-aminoethyl)-piperidine, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 crystallize in the monoclinic P2(1)/c space group, while compound 3 crystallizes in the orthorhombic Pbca space group. The metal center in 1-3 is in all cases pentacoordinated. Three coordination positions of the metal center in 1, 2, or 3 are satisfied by the phenoxo oxygen atom, imine nitrogen atom, and morpholine (for 1 and 2) or piperidine (for 3) nitrogen atom of one deprotonated ligand, [L(1)](-) or [L(2)](-). The remaining two coordination positions are satisfied by two nitrogen atoms of two end-to-end bridging azide ligands for 2 and 3 and one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom of two end-to-end bridging cyanate ligands for 1. The coordination geometry of the metal ion is distorted square pyramidal in which one EE azide/cyanate occupies the apical position. Variable-temperature (2-300 K) magnetic susceptibilities of 1-3 have been measured under magnetic fields of 0.05 (from 2 to 30 K) and 1.0 T (from 30 to 300 K). The simulation reveals a ferromagnetic interaction in all three compounds with J values of +0.19 ± 0.01, +0.79 ± 0.01, and +1.25 ± 0.007 cm(-1) for 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Compound 1 is the sole example of a ferromagnetically coupled EE cyanate-bridged 1-D copper(II) system. In addition, a rare example of supramolecular isomerism and a nice example of magnetic isomerism have been observed and most interestingly a new type of solid state isomerism has emerged as a result of the comparison

  18. Planck-Kerr Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, C H

    2003-01-01

    A quantum gravitational instability is identified at Planck scales between non-spinning extreme Schwarzschild black holes and spinning extreme Kerr black holes, which produces a turbulent Planck particle gas. Planck inertial vortex forces balance gravitational forces as the Planck turbulence cascades to larger scales and the universe expands and cools. Turbulent mixing of temperature fluctuations and viscous dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy provide irreversibilities necessary to sustain the process to the strong force freeze out temperature where inflation begins. Turbulent temperature fluctuations are fossilized when they are stretched by inflation beyond the horizon scale of causal connection. As the horizon of the expanding universe grows, the fluctuations seed patterns of nucleosynthesis, and these seed the formation of structure in the plasma epoch. Fossil big bang turbulence is supported by extended self similarity coefficients computed for cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies tha...

  19. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Detect and Avoid System: End-to-End Verification and Validation Simulation Study of Minimum Operations Performance Standards for Integrating Unmanned Aircraft into the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatas, Rania W.; Jack, Devin P.; Tsakpinis, Dimitrios; Sturdy, James L.; Vincent, Michael J.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Myer, Robert R.; DeHaven, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    As Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) make their way to mainstream aviation operations within the National Airspace System (NAS), research efforts are underway to develop a safe and effective environment for their integration into the NAS. Detect and Avoid (DAA) systems are required to account for the lack of "eyes in the sky" due to having no human on-board the aircraft. The technique, results, and lessons learned from a detailed End-to-End Verification and Validation (E2-V2) simulation study of a DAA system representative of RTCA SC-228's proposed Phase I DAA Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS), based on specific test vectors and encounter cases, will be presented in this paper.

  20. End to End Service Quality Model Study and Application Based on IPTV Business%基于IPTV业务的端到端业务质量模型研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉

    2011-01-01

    In the current burgeoning tide of development of IPTV services,the main challenges is the quality of service management issues,especially the end to end quality of service problems,the main difficulty is that when high-definition video images,sound and in%在当前日渐蓬勃发展的IPTV业务大潮中,遇到的主要挑战是业务质量管理问题,尤其是端到端的业务质量问题,主要难点在于当视频的高清晰画面、声音和即时频道转换等信息在IP网络上传送时业务质量变得很难控制和保证。

  1. Research on end-to-end network link delay inference based on link reconstruction-destruction%基于链路重构-解构的端到端网络链路时延推测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永生; 高波; 邹粤; 张基宏; 张乃通

    2014-01-01

    基于网络时延推测的2个假设、时延推测模型和路径时延数据采集方法,提出了一种基于链路重构-解构的端到端网络链路时延推测方法,应用伪似然估计将原整体问题分解为若干独立子问题分别求解,利用链路重构-解构确定可求解的推测单元,控制平均采样精度和减少推测单元链路数,从而显著降低计算复杂度。通过基于模型的计算和基于NS2的仿真实验研究,验证了推测方法的准确性和有效性。%Based on two assumptions, inference model and end-to-end delay data acquisition, an approach to end-to-end network internal link delay inference based on link reconstruction-deconstruction (LRD) was proposed. Pseudo likelihood estimation (PLE) was adopted and the inference problem was divided into independent sub-problems. Inference units with definite solution are determined by LRD. By means of controlling average sampling precision and decreasing infe-rence unit links, the computation complexity of link delay inference was significantly lowered. Experimental study was performed based on model computation and NS2 simulation platform. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the approach is accurate and effective.

  2. Molecular Cloning and Expression of VpLFY Gene from Vanilla(Vanilla planifolia Andrews)%香草兰V pLFY 基因的克隆与表达分析①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾文亮; 王辉; 庄辉发; 王华; 朱自慧; 宋应辉

    2016-01-01

    花分生组织特征基因LEAFY 在植物花芽分化与成花诱导途径中起着重要的调控作用。通过RACE方法从香草兰中克隆VpLFY 基因的全长cDNA序列。结果显示,该基因包含一个1493 bp的开放阅读框,编码491个氨基酸残基。经蛋白质序列同源比对分析结果发现, VpLFY属于FLO-LFY家族。组织特异性研究结果表明,VpLFY 基因在香草兰组织中属于组成型表达。荧光定量分析结果表明, VpLFY 基因分别在香草兰纯花芽和混合花芽的不同发育阶段中有着较强的表达。%Floral meristem identity gene LEA FY is a master regulator of flower bud differentiation and floral induction. In this study, we report the molecular characteristics of LFY gene cloned from Vanilla(Vanilla planifolia Andrews) using a RACE-PCR based strategy. VpLFY contained an open reading frame of 1 493 bp which encoded a polypeptide of 491 amino acids. Protein alignment showed that V pLFY contained typical domains which belonged to FLO-LFY protein family. Tissue-specific studies showed that the expression of VpLFY was constitutive expressed in various tissues of Vanilla. Fluorescent quantitative PCR analysises indicated that the expression of V pLFY were increased in reproductive bud and mixed bud at different stages of Vanilla flower bud differentiation. These results suggest that VpLFY may play an important role in the regulation of Vanilla flower bud differentiation and floral induction.

  3. Cryogenic characterization of the Planck sorption cooler system flight model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgante, G; Terenzi, L; Butler, C; Mandolesi, N [INAF - IASF Bologna, via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Pearson, D; Wilson, P; Hernandez, B; Wade, L [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena California 91109 (United States); Melot, F; Stassi, P [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie 53 Avenue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Gregorio, A [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, via Valerio 2 - I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bersanelli, M, E-mail: morgante@iasfbo.inaf.i [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, - I20133 Milano (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    Two continuous closed-cycle hydrogen Joule-Thomson (J-T) sorption coolers have been fabricated and assembled by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the European Space Agency (ESA) Planck mission. Each refrigerator has been designed to provide a total of {approx} 1W of cooling power at two instrument interfaces: they directly cool the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) around 20K while providing a pre-cooling stage for a 4 K J-T mechanical refrigerator for the High Frequency Instrument (HFI). After sub-system level validation at JPL, the cryocoolers have been delivered to ESA in 2005. In this paper we present the results of the cryogenic qualification and test campaigns of the Nominal Unit on the flight model spacecraft performed at the CSL (Centre Spatial de Liege) facilities in 2008. Test results in terms of input power, cooling power, temperature, and temperature fluctuations over the flight allowable ranges for these interfaces are reported and analyzed with respect to mission requirements.

  4. The Planck mission

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchet, François R

    2014-01-01

    These lecture from the 100th Les Houches summer school on "Post-planck cosmology" of July 2013 discuss some aspects of the Planck mission, whose prime objective was a very accurate measurement of the temperature anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). We announced our findings a few months ago, on March 21$^{st}$, 2013. I describe some of the relevant steps we took to obtain these results, sketching the measurement process, how we processed the data to obtain full sky maps at 9 different frequencies, and how we extracted the CMB temperature anisotropies map and angular power spectrum. I conclude by describing some of the main cosmological implications of the statistical characteristics of the CMB we found. Of course, this is a very much shortened and somewhat biased view of the \\Planck\\ 2013 results, written with the hope that it may lead some of the students to consult the original papers.

  5. SU-F-P-37: Implementation of An End-To-End QA Test of the Radiation Therapy Imaging, Planning and Delivery Process to Identify and Correct Possible Sources of Deviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas Aranda, F; Suarez, V; Arbiser, S; Sansogne, R [Vidt Centro Medico, Ciudad Autonoma De Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aire (Argentina)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To implement an end-to-end QA test of the radiation therapy imaging, planning and delivery process, aimed to assess the dosimetric agreement accuracy between planned and delivered treatment, in order to identify and correct possible sources of deviation. To establish an internal standard for machine commissioning acceptance. Methods: A test involving all steps of the radiation therapy: imaging, planning and delivery process was designed. The test includes analysis of point dose and planar dose distributions agreement between TPS calculated and measured dose. An ad hoc 16 cm diameter PMMA phantom was constructed with one central and four peripheral bores that can accommodate calibrated electron density inserts. Using Varian Eclipse 10.0 and Elekta XiO 4.50 planning systems, IMRT, RapidArc and 3DCRT with hard and dynamic wedges plans were planned on the phantom and tested. An Exradin A1SL chamber is used with a Keithley 35617EBS electrometer for point dose measurements in the phantom. 2D dose distributions were acquired using MapCheck and Varian aS1000 EPID.Gamma analysis was performed for evaluation of 2D dose distribution agreement using MapCheck software and Varian Portal Dosimetry Application.Varian high energy Clinacs Trilogy, 2100C/CD, 2000CR and low energy 6X/EX where tested.TPS-CT# vs. electron density table were checked for CT-scanners used. Results: Calculated point doses were accurate to 0.127% SD: 0.93%, 0.507% SD: 0.82%, 0.246% SD: 1.39% and 0.012% SD: 0.01% for LoX-3DCRT, HiX-3DCRT, IMRT and RapidArc plans respectively. Planar doses pass gamma 3% 3mm in all cases and 2% 2mm for VMAT plans. Conclusion: Implementation of a simple and reliable quality assurance tool was accomplished. The end-to-end proved efficient, showing excellent agreement between planned and delivered dose evidencing strong consistency of the whole process from imaging through planning to delivery. This test can be used as a first step in beam model acceptance for clinical

  6. 云计算数据中心网络的端到端流量计算%END-TO-END TRAFFIC CALCULATION FOR CLOUD COMPUTING DATA CENTRE NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩冰; 宋正江; 鲁阳; 陈建成

    2016-01-01

    云计算数据中心网络的流量特征是研究和设计云计算网络的基础,现有的流量测量研究方法通常要求交换机支持额外功能模块或具备可编程能力,而目前大多数云计算数据中心网络的交换机并不满足此要求。提出一种基于网络层析技术的端到端流量推理算法,仅使用交换机普遍支持的 SNMP(简单的网络管理协议)数据,就能快速准确地计算出端到端的流量信息。并通过仿真实验与已有的网络层析算法进行比较,结果表明新算法更适用于大规模的云计算数据中心网络,可以在较短的时间内得到更准确的计算结果,从而为云计算网络的设计和研究提供了重要的参考依据。%Traffic characteristic of cloud computing data centre networks is the basis of research and design of cloud computing networks. Current study methods of traffic measurement techniques usually ask the switches supporting additional functional modules or being program-mable,however not many of the cloud computing data centre networks can afford such switches.In this paper,we proposed an end-to-end traffic inference algorithm which is based on network tomography.It can rapidly calculate the end-to-end traffic information with high accuracy by only utilising SNMP (simple network management protocol)data ubiquitously supported by switches.Through simulation experiment the algorithm was compared with existing network tomography algorithm,and result showed that the new algorithm was more applicable to large-scale cloud computing data centre networks,and could gain more accurate computing results in short period,so as to provide important refer-ence basis for the design and research of cloud computing networks.

  7. PSM: Planck Sky Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashdown, Mark; Aumont, Jonathan; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Banday, Anthony; Basak, Soumen; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Betoule, Marc; Bouchet, François; Castex, Guillaume; Clements, Dave; Da Silva, Antonio; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Delabrouille, Jacques; Dickinson, Clive; Dodu, Fabrice; Dolag, Klaus; Elsner, Franz; Fauvet, Lauranne; Faÿ, Gilles; Giardino, Giovanna; Gonzalez-Nuevo, Joaquin; le Jeune, Maude; Leach, Samuel; Lesgourgues, Julien; Liguori, Michele; Macias, Juan; Massardi, Marcella; Matarrese, Sabino; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Melin, Jean-Baptiste; Miville-Deschênes, Marc-Antoine; Montier, Ludovic; Mottet, Sylvain; Paladini, Roberta; Partridge, Bruce; Piffaretti, Rocco; Prézeau, Gary; Prunet, Simon; Ricciardi, Sara; Roman, Matthieu; Schaefer, Bjorn; Toffolatti, Luigi

    2012-08-01

    The Planck Sky Model (PSM) is a global representation of the multi-component sky at frequencies ranging from a few GHz to a few THz. It summarizes in a synthetic way as much of our present knowledge as possible of the GHz sky. PSM is a complete and versatile set of programs and data that can be used for the simulation or the prediction of sky emission in the frequency range of typical CMB experiments, and in particular of the Planck sky mission. It was originally developed as part of the activities of Planck component separation Working Group (or "Working Group 2" - WG2), and of the ADAMIS team at APC. PSM gives users the opportunity to investigate the model in some depth: look at its parameters, visualize its predictions for all individual components in various formats, simulate sky emission compatible with a given parameter set, and observe the modeled sky with a synthetic instrument. In particular, it makes possible the simulation of sky emission maps as could be plausibly observed by Planck or other CMB experiments that can be used as inputs for the development and testing of data processing and analysis techniques.

  8. Identification and characterization of the flower meristem identity gene MhyLFY in mycoheterotrophic plant Monotropa hypopitys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchennikova, A V; Shulga, O A; Beletsky, A V; Filyushin, M A; Kochieva, E Z; Ravin, N V; Skryabin, K G

    2017-05-01

    The gene encoding the transcription factor LEAFY was identified in the genome of the mycoheterotrophic plant, pinesap Monotropa hypopitys. In the transcriptomes of roots, bracts, and flowers of flowering pinesaps, the MhyLFY gene expression was absent. These data suggest the conservativeness of the LFY-dependent mechanism of flower meristem identity and flower formation in heterotrophic species with some differences associated to the specificity of development and the structure of such plants. The pinesap flowering under the control of the transcription factor MhyLFY may be initiated either in an embryonic inflorescence during spring dormancy release of adventitious root buds or in an inflorescence of a growing reproductive stem after photoperiodic induction.

  9. An improved algorithm of reconfiguration processes with end-to-end QoS constraints%一种重构带端到端服务质量约束进程的改进算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玮玮

    2011-01-01

    This Paper presents an improved algorithm to resolve the violating of end-to-end quality of service (QoS) constraints,which occurs when SOA processes running with some services' wrong.By searching for a reconfiguration region that has replaceable services,the study replaces only faulty services and some of their neighboring services.And the replacements can be implemented with one-to-one,one-to-many,or many-to-one functions mappings,as replacing only services in reconfiguration regions rather than the whole service process,lowers the reconfiguration overheads and the adventures of service disruptions.Finally implements a simulation experiment in the Llama ESB middleware,performance study shows that the algorithm may efficiently repair SOA processes.%阐述一种改进算法以解决由不同服务动态组成的SOA进程运行时,一些服务出错引发进程违背端到端服务质量约束的问题.通过查找具有可替换服务的重构域,替换出错服务及其相关服务.替换可由一对一,一对多或多对一的函数映射来实现,由于只替换重构域中的服务而不是整个服务进程,降低了重构经费和服务进程崩溃的风险.最后在Llama的ESB企业服务总线中进行实验模拟,结果表明该算法能有效地修复SOA进程.

  10. End to end simulation of the large span cable control system in FAST%FAST大跨度索牵引运动控制系统全过程仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙京海; 朱文白; 李辉

    2012-01-01

    分析了500m口径球面射电望远镜(FAST)使用柔性索牵引加之二次位姿精调机构的支撑方案在实现接收机的大范围精确运动时对结构和控制系统设计带来的巨大挑战,在现有概念方案的基础上,建立了馈源支撑系统在原型尺度上的完整机构和环境扰动模型,提出了相应的控制策略,并设计了控制器模型来实现精确定位与指向功能.利用全过程数值仿真分析方法,研究了系统的动力学响应以及各种扰动参数对控制效果的影响.仿真结果显示,现有的馈源支撑设计具备良好的控制性能,验证了方案的可行性,并为进一步的优化设计提供了参考依据.%To achieve the required pointing accuracy of the five-hundred-meter aperture spherical radio telescope (FAST) by positioning and orienting the receiver properly, a fine adjusting system was employed, and a model for FAST cabin suspension was created. The end to end simulation was carried out to evaluate the control performance. As a result, the control system showed the satisfied performance in compensating the position and orientation errors. The simulation work approved the feasibility of this engineering concept, and also presented an efficient approach for optimization of the future design work.

  11. Planck pre-launch status: calibration of the Low Frequency Instrument flight model radiometers

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, F; Sandri, M; Meinhold, P; Poutanen, T; Battaglia, P; Franceschet, C; Hughes, N; Laaninen, M; Lapolla, P; Bersanelli, M; Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F; D'Arcangelo, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Gregorio, A; Leonardi, R; Lowe, S R; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Morgante, G; Stringhetti, L; Tomasi, M; Valenziano, L; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A; Aja, B; Artal, E; Balasini, M; Bernardino, T; Blackhurst, E; Boschini, L; Cappellini, B; Cavaliere, F; Colin, A; Colombo, F; Davis, R J; De La Fuente, L; Edgeley, J; Gaier, T; Galtress, A; Hoyland, R; Jukkala, P; Kettle, D; Kilpia, V-H; Lawrence, C R; Lawson, D; Leahy, J P; Leutenegger, P; Levin, S; Maino, D; Malaspina, M; Mediavilla, A; Miccolis, M; Pagan, L; Pascual, J P; Pasian, F; Pecora, M; Pospieszalski, M; Roddis, N; Salmon, M J; Seiffert, M; Silvestri, R; Simonetto, A; Sjoman, P; Sozzi, C; Tuovinen, J; Varis, J; Wilkinson, A; Winder, F

    2010-01-01

    The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) on-board the ESA Planck satellite carries eleven radiometer subsystems, called Radiometer Chain Assemblies (RCAs), each composed of a pair of pseudo-correlation receivers. We describe the on-ground calibration campaign performed to qualify the flight model RCAs and to measure their pre-launch performances. Each RCA was calibrated in a dedicated flight-like cryogenic environment with the radiometer front-end cooled to 20K and the back-end at 300K, and with an external input load cooled to 4K. A matched load simulating a blackbody at different temperatures was placed in front of the sky horn to derive basic radiometer properties such as noise temperature, gain, and noise performance, e.g. 1/f noise. The spectral response of each detector was measured as was their susceptibility to thermal variation. All eleven LFI RCAs were calibrated. Instrumental parameters measured in these tests, such as noise temperature, bandwidth, radiometer isolation, and linearity, provide essential i...

  12. Research of end to end data flow control strategy for mobile internet%移动互联网端到端流量管控策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张高毅

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed new technology and architecture of wireless network, aimed at the environment of 2G/3G/LTE/WLAN multiple networks, the QoS control method of data flow in the condition of different user type, service type, time quantum, and cumulant of the lfow is researched, to improve the business experience and user satisfaction. Based on the PCC character and ANDSF multiple connection management mechanism, by using the end to end lfue control technology, the usage ratio of the internet bandwidth is increased. We copied the principle of Dujiangyan water conservancy engineering, applying network flow control, equilibrium the network flow and reduce the flow peak, the fusion strategy control scheme of mobile internet cooperation is proposed, the cyber source is reasonable allocated, the investment of network is rationally and effectively controlled. The requirement for mobile internet business development is created, full technical reserves is made to cope with the digital lfood.%本文通过对无线网络新技术和新架构的分析,针对2G/3G/LTE/WLAN多网络环境下,研究如何对不同的用户类型、业务类型、时间段、累积量进行QoS控制,以提升业务体验和用户满意度。基于PCC承载架构和ANDSF多连接管理机制,通过端到端的流量管控技术提升互联网带宽的使用率。借鉴都江堰水利工程原理,通过实施网络流量控制、均匀网络流量、降低并有效控制流量峰值,提出了移动互联网网络协同的融合策略控制方案,实现了合理配置网络资源、合理有效控制网络投资,为移动互联网业务发展创造条件,为移动互联网时代应对数字洪水做好充分的技术储备。

  13. 基于PLE的有确定解的端到端网络链路时延推测方法%Resarch on Approach to End-to-end Network Link Delav Inference Based on PLE with Definite Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永生; 邹粤; 张基宏

    2011-01-01

    Network delay is one of the important network performance parameters. End-to-end network delay inference could deal with the difficulties caused by other network measurements based on internal routers or router cooperation. Under the condition of two assumptions;network topology structure is gotten and stable;link performance is temporally and spatially independent;network delay inference model was presented;a new approach to network internal link delay inference based on Pseudo Likelihood Estimation(PLE) with definite solution was proposed in this paper. Based on PLE solved with Expectation Maximum(EM) algorithm; inference units with definite solution were determined via back-toback packet sending way. This approach could solve the problem of indefinite solution and lower the computation complexity. Experimental study was performed based on model computatioa The experimental results show that the approach is accurate and effective.%网络时延是重要的网络性能指标,端到端网络时延推测能够克服传统的基于路由器或者路由器协作的网络测量技术的弊端.在网络拓扑已知且稳定和链路性能时空独立性的假设前提下,给出了网络链路时延推测模型,提出了一种基于伪似然估计(PLE)的有确定解的端到端网络链路时延推测方法.在应用期望最大化算法的伪似然估计的基础上,控制背靠背发包方式,确定可以求解的探测单元,解决了不满足有确定解拓扑下的求解问题,且有效降低了计算复杂度.最后利用基于模型的计算验证了该方法的准确性和有效性.

  14. Quantum Theory without Planck's Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Ralston, John P

    2012-01-01

    Planck's constant was introduced as a fundamental scale in the early history of quantum mechanics. We find a modern approach where Planck's constant is absent: it is unobservable except as a constant of human convention. Despite long reference to experiment, review shows that Planck's constant cannot be obtained from the data of Ryberg, Davisson and Germer, Compton, or that used by Planck himself. In the new approach Planck's constant is tied to macroscopic conventions of Newtonian origin, which are dispensable. The precision of other fundamental constants is substantially improved by eliminating Planck's constant. The electron mass is determined about 67 times more precisely, and the unit of electric charge determined 139 times more precisely. Improvement in the experimental value of the fine structure constant allows new types of experiment to be compared towards finding "new physics." The long-standing goal of eliminating reliance on the artifact known as the International Prototype Kilogram can be accompl...

  15. Localizability and the planck mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ne`eman, Y. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel). Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences]|[Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Center for Particle Physics

    1993-06-01

    The author combines the assumption of environmental decoherence, as the mechanism generating the classical (i.e. no quantum interferences) nature of spacetime, with the limit on its other classical feature, point-like continuity, namely Planck length. As a result, quantum extended objects with masses larger than Planck mass have to derive their quantum behavior from long-range correlations; objects with masses smaller than Planck mass cannot display classical behavior.

  16. Planck Early Results: The Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Zacchei, A; Baccigalupi, C; Bersanelli, M; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F; de Zotti, G; Dick, J; Frailis, M; Galeotta, S; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Knoche, J; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leahy, J P; López-Caniego, M; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Matthai, F; Meinhold, P R; Mennella, A; Morgante, G; Morisset, N; Natoli, P; Pasian, F; Perrotta, F; Polenta, G; Poutanen, T; Reinecke, M; Ricciardi, S; Rohlfs, R; Sandri, M; Suur-Uski, A -S; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Valiviita, J; Villa, F; Zonca, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Bedini, L; Bennett, K; Binko, P; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bremer, M; Cabella, P; Cappellini, B; Chen, X; Colombo, L; Cruz, M; Curto, A; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Gasperis, G; de Rosa, A; de Troia, G; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Donzelli, S; Dörl, U; Efstathiou, G; En\\sslin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falvella, M C; Finelli, F; Franceschi, E; Gaier, T C; Gasparo, F; Génova-Santos, R T; Giardino, G; Gómez, F; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hell, R; Herranz, D; Hovest, W; Jewell, J; Juvela, M; Kisner, T S; Knox, L; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Leonardi, R; León-Tavares, J; Lilje, P B; Lubin, P M; Maggio, G; Marinucci, D; Martínez-González, E; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Meharga, M T; Melchiorri, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Moss, A; N\\orgaard-Nielsen, H U; Pagano, L; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pearson, D; Pettorino, V; Pietrobon, D; Prézeau, G; Procopio, P; Puget, J -L; Quercellini, C; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Robbers, G; Rocha, G; Rubi\; Salerno, E; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Silk, J I; Smoot, G F; Sternberg, J; Stivoli, F; Stompor, R; Tofani, G; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Vielva, P; Vittorio, N; Vuerli, C; Wade, L A; Watson, R; White, S D M; Wilkinson, A

    2011-01-01

    We describe the data processing pipeline employed by the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) Data Processing Centre (DPC) to create and characterize the frequency maps used by the ERCSC (Early Release Compact Source Catalogue) first product of Planck to become public. In particular, we discuss the various steps involved in reducing the data, starting from telemetry (TM)packets through to the production of cleaned calibrated timelines and calibrated frequency maps. Data are continuously calibrated using the modulation induced on the mean temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation by the proper motion of the spacecraft. The sky signals other than the dipole are removed by an iterative procedure based on simultaneous fitting of calibration parameters and sky maps. Noise properties are estimated from time-ordered data where the sky signal is removed using a Generalized Least Square map-making algorithm. The measured 1/f noise knee-frequencies range from \\sim 100 mHz at 30 GHz to a few tens of mHz at 70 G...

  17. The Planck Telescope reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    The mechanical division of EADS-Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen is currently engaged with the development, manufacturing and testing of the advanced dimensionally stable composite reflectors for the ESA satellite borne telescope Planck. The objective of the ESA mission Planck is to analyse the first light that filled the universe, the cosmic microwave background radiation. Under contract of the Danish Space Research Institute and ESA EADS-Astrium GmbH is developing the all CFRP primary and secondary reflectors for the 1.5-metre telescope which is the main instrument of the Planck satellite. The operational frequency ranges from to 25 GHz to 1000 GHz. The demanding high contour accuracy and surface roughness requirements are met. The design provides the extreme dimensional stability required by the cryogenic operational environment at around 40 K. The elliptical off-axis reflectors display a classical lightweight sandwich design with CFRP core and facesheets. Isostatic mounts provide the interfaces to the telescope structure. Protected VDA provides the reflecting surface. The manufacturing is performed at the Friedrichshafen premises of EADS-Space Transportation GmbH, the former Dornier composite workshops. Advanced manufacturing technologies like true angle lay-up by CNC fibre placement and filament winding are utilized. The protected coating is applied at the CAHA facilities at the Calar Alto Observatory, Spain. The exhaustive environmental testing is performed at the facilities of IABG, Munich (mechanical testing) and for the cryo-optical tests at CSL Liege. The project is in advanced state with both Qualification Models being under environmental testing. The flight models will be delivered in 2004. The paper gives an overview over the requirements and the main structural features how these requirements are met. Special production aspects and available test results are reported.

  18. Planck intermediate results: XLVII. Planck constraints on reionization history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate constraints on cosmic reionization extracted from the Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. We combine the Planck CMB anisotropy data in temperature with the low-multipole polarization data to fit ΛCDM models with various parameterizations of the reionization history. We o...

  19. Planck 2013 results. XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.;

    2013-01-01

    The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS) is the catalogue of sources detected in the Planck nominal mission data. It consists of nine single-frequency catalogues of compact sources containing reliable sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. The PCCS covers th...

  20. TOWARD END-TO-END MODELING FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING: SIMULATION OF UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND EARTHQUAKES USING HYDRODYNAMIC AND ANELASTIC SIMULATIONS, HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL EARTH MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Vorobiev, O; Petersson, A; Sjogreen, B

    2009-07-06

    This paper describes new research being performed to improve understanding of seismic waves generated by underground nuclear explosions (UNE) by using full waveform simulation, high-performance computing and three-dimensional (3D) earth models. The goal of this effort is to develop an end-to-end modeling capability to cover the range of wave propagation required for nuclear explosion monitoring (NEM) from the buried nuclear device to the seismic sensor. The goal of this work is to improve understanding of the physical basis and prediction capabilities of seismic observables for NEM including source and path-propagation effects. We are pursuing research along three main thrusts. Firstly, we are modeling the non-linear hydrodynamic response of geologic materials to underground explosions in order to better understand how source emplacement conditions impact the seismic waves that emerge from the source region and are ultimately observed hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Empirical evidence shows that the amplitudes and frequency content of seismic waves at all distances are strongly impacted by the physical properties of the source region (e.g. density, strength, porosity). To model the near-source shock-wave motions of an UNE, we use GEODYN, an Eulerian Godunov (finite volume) code incorporating thermodynamically consistent non-linear constitutive relations, including cavity formation, yielding, porous compaction, tensile failure, bulking and damage. In order to propagate motions to seismic distances we are developing a one-way coupling method to pass motions to WPP (a Cartesian anelastic finite difference code). Preliminary investigations of UNE's in canonical materials (granite, tuff and alluvium) confirm that emplacement conditions have a strong effect on seismic amplitudes and the generation of shear waves. Specifically, we find that motions from an explosion in high-strength, low-porosity granite have high compressional wave amplitudes and weak

  1. Growth Index after Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the possible deviation from the standard $\\Lambda$CDM model and the Einstein's gravity theory in the dynamical perspectives, the growth index $\\gamma_L$ was proposed. Recently, thanks to the measurement of the cosmic growth rate via the redshift-space distortion, one can understand the evolution of density contrast through $f\\sigma_8(z)$, where $f(z)=d\\ln \\delta/d \\ln a$ is the growth rate of matter and $\\sigma_8(z)$ is the rms amplitude of the density contrast $\\delta$ at the comoving $8h^{-1}$ Mpc scale. In this paper, we use the red-shift space distortion data points to investigate the growth index on the bases of the Einstein's gravity theory and a modified gravity theory under the assumption $f=\\Omega_m(a)^{\\gamma_L}$. To fix the background evolution, the cosmic observational data points from the type Ia supernovae SNLS3, cosmic microwave background radiation from {\\it Planck} and baryon acoustic oscillation are used. Via the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, the $\\gamma_L$ values were obta...

  2. CMB anomalies after Planck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Dominik J.; Copi, Craig J.; Huterer, Dragan; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2016-09-01

    Several unexpected features have been observed in the microwave sky at large angular scales, both by WMAP and by Planck. Among those features is a lack of both variance and correlation on the largest angular scales, alignment of the lowest multipole moments with one another and with the motion and geometry of the solar system, a hemispherical power asymmetry or dipolar power modulation, a preference for odd parity modes and an unexpectedly large cold spot in the Southern hemisphere. The individual p-values of the significance of these features are in the per mille to per cent level, when compared to the expectations of the best-fit inflationary ΛCDM model. Some pairs of those features are demonstrably uncorrelated, increasing their combined statistical significance and indicating a significant detection of CMB features at angular scales larger than a few degrees on top of the standard model. Despite numerous detailed investigations, we still lack a clear understanding of these large-scale features, which seem to imply a violation of statistical isotropy and scale invariance of inflationary perturbations. In this contribution we present a critical analysis of our current understanding and discuss several ideas of how to make further progress.

  3. CMB Anomalies after Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Dominik J; Huterer, Dragan; Starkman, Glenn D

    2015-01-01

    Several unexpected features have been observed in the microwave sky at large angular scales, both by WMAP an by Planck. Among those features is a lack of both variance and correlation on the largest angular scales, alignment of the lowest multipole moments with one another and with the motion and geometry of the Solar System, a hemispherical power asymmetry or dipolar power modulation, a preference for odd parity modes and an unexpectedly large cold spot in the Southern hemisphere. The individual p-values of the significance of these features are in the per mille to per cent level, when compared to the expectations of the best-fit inflationary $\\Lambda$CDM model. Some pairs of those features are demonstrably uncorrelated, increasing their combined statistical significance and indicating a significant detection of CMB features at angular scales larger than a few degrees on top of the standard model. Despite numerous detailed investigations, we still lack a clear understanding of these large-scale features, whi...

  4. Data Processing and Compression of Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies on Board the PLANCK Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Gaztañaga, E; Barriga, J; Elizalde, E

    2001-01-01

    We present a simple way of coding and compressing the data on board the Planck instruments (HFI and LFI) to address the problem of the on board data reduction. This is a critical issue in the Planck mission. The total information that can be downloaded to Earth is severely limited by the telemetry allocation. This limitation could reduce the amount of diagnostics sent on the stability of the radiometers and, as a consequence, curb the final sensitivity of the CMB anisotropy maps. Our proposal to address this problem consists in taking differences of consecutive circles at a given sky pointing. To a good approximation, these differences are independent of the external signal, and are dominated by thermal (white) instrumental noise. Using simulations and analytical predictions we show that high compression rates, $c_r \\simeq 10$, can be obtained with minor or zero loss of CMB sensitivity. Possible effects of digital distortion are also analized. The proposed scheme allows for flexibility to optimize the relatio...

  5. Signatures of metal-free star formation in Planck 2015 Polarization Data

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, Vinicius; Heinrich, Chen He; Hu, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Standard analyses of the reionization history of the universe from Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization measurements consider only the overall optical depth to electron scattering ($\\tau$), and further assume a step-like reionization history. However, the polarization data contain information beyond the overall optical depth, and the assumption of a step-like function may miss high redshift contributions to the optical depth and lead to biased $\\tau$ constraints. Accounting for its full reionization information content, we reconsider the interpretation of Planck 2015 Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) polarization data using simple, yet physically-motivated reionization models. We show that these measurements still, in fact, allow a non-negligible contribution from metal-free (Pop-III) stars forming in mini-halos of mass $M \\sim 10^5-10^6 M_\\odot$ at $z \\gtrsim 15$, provided this mode of star formation is fairly inefficient. Our best fit model includes an early, self-regulated phase of Pop-III st...

  6. Point Source Detection using the Spherical Mexican Hat Wavelet on simulated all-sky Planck maps

    CERN Document Server

    Vielva, P; Gallegos, J E; Toffolatti, L; Sanz, J L

    2003-01-01

    We present an estimation of the point source (PS) catalogue that could be extracted from the forthcoming ESA Planck mission data. We have applied the Spherical Mexican Hat Wavelet in simulated all-sky maps that include CMB, Galactic emission, thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and PS emission, as well as instrumental white noise. We have developed an algorithm focused on a fast optimal scale determination, that is crucial to achieve a PS catologue with a large number of detections and a low flux limit. An important effort has been also done to reduce the CPU time processor for spherical harmonic trans formation, in order to perform the PS detection in a reasonable time. The presented algorithm is able to provide a PS catalogue above fluxes: 1.39 Jy (857 GHz), 0.84 Jy (545 GHz), 0.30 Jy (353 GHz), 0.16 Jy (217 GHz), 0.17 Jy (143 GHz), 0.19 Jy (100 GHz HFI), 0.22 Jy (100 GHz LFI), 0.28 Jy (70 GHz), 0.33 Jy (44 GHz) and 0.37 Jy (30 GHz). We detect around 36700 PS at the highest frequency Planck channel and 2200 a...

  7. Planck 2016 intermediate results. XLVII. Planck constraints on reionization history

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, R; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Ballardini, M; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Basak, S; Battye, R; Benabed, K; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Carron, J; Chiang, H C; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Di Valentino, E; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fantaye, Y; Finelli, F; Forastieri, F; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frolov, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Gerbino, M; Ghosh, T; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hivon, E; Huang, Z; Ili_, S; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knox, L; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Langer, M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Levrier, F; Lewis, A; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; López-Caniego, M; Ma, Y -Z; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Matarrese, S; Mauri, N; McEwen, J D; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Molinari, D; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Moss, A; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Patanchon, G; Patrizii, L; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Plaszczynski, S; Polastri, L; Polenta, G; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Racine, B; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renzi, A; Rocha, G; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Ruiz-Granados, B; Salvati, L; Sandri, M; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Sirri, G; Sunyaev, R; Suur-Uski, A -S; Tauber, J A; Tenti, M; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Trombetti, T; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, F; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; White, M; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2016-01-01

    We investigate constraints on cosmic reionization extracted from the Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. We combine the Planck CMB anisotropy data in temperature with the low-multipole polarization data to fit {\\Lambda}CDM models with various parameterizations of the reionization history. We obtain a Thomson optical depth {\\tau}=0.058 +/- 0.012 for the commonly adopted instantaneous reionization model. This confirms, with only data from CMB anisotropies, the low value suggested by combining Planck 2015 results with other data sets and also reduces the uncertainties. We reconstruct the history of the ionization fraction using either a symmetric or an asymmetric model for the transition between the neutral and ionized phases. To determine better constraints on the duration of the reionization process, we also make use of measurements of the amplitude of the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich (kSZ) effect using additional information from the high resolution Atacama Cosmology Telescope and South Pole Telescope...

  8. Planck 2013 results. XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schammel, M.P.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Walter, B.; Wandelt, B.D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS) is the catalogue of sources detected in the first 15 months of Planck operations, the "nominal" mission. It consists of nine single-frequency catalogues of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. The PCCS covers the frequency range 30--857\\,GHz with higher sensitivity (it is 90% complete at 180 mJy in the best channel) and better angular resolution (from ~33' to ~5') than previous all-sky surveys in this frequency band. By construction its reliability is >80% and more than 65% of the sources have been detected at least in two contiguous Planck channels. In this paper we present the construction and validation of the PCCS, its contents and its statistical characterization.

  9. Primordial features and Planck polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Smoot, George F; Starobinsky, Alexei A

    2016-01-01

    With the Planck 2015 Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization data, we examine possibility of having features in the primordial power spectrum (PPS). We revisit the Wiggly Whipped Inflation (WWI) framework and demonstrate how generation of some particular primordial features can improve the fit to Planck data. WWI potential allows the scalar field to transit from a steeper potential to a nearly flat potential through a discontinuity either in potential or in its derivatives. Using Planck 2015 data, we constrain the primordial features in the context of Wiggly Whipped Inflation and present the features that are supported both by temperature and polarization. WWI model provides upto $\\sim12-14$ improvement in $\\chi^2$ fit to the data with respect to the best fit power law model considering combined temperature and polarization data from Planck and B-mode polarization data from BICEP and Planck dust map. We use 2-4 extra parameters in the WWI model compared to the featureless strict slow ro...

  10. Now Broadcasting in Planck Definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Craig [Fermilab

    2013-07-08

    If reality has finite information content, space has finite fidelity. The quantum wave function that encodes spatial relationships may be limited to information that can be transmitted in a "Planck broadcast", with a bandwidth given by the inverse of the Planck time, about $2\\times 10^{43}$ bits per second. Such a quantum system can resemble classical space-time on large scales, but locality emerges only gradually and imperfectly. Massive bodies are never perfectly at rest, but very slightly and slowly fluctuate in transverse position, with a spectrum of variation given by the Planck time. This distinctive new kind of noise associated with quantum geometry would not have been noticed up to now, but may be detectable in a new kind of experiment.

  11. Radio observations of Planck clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, Ruta

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a number of new galaxy clusters have been detected by the ESA-Planck satellite, the South Pole Telescope and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Several of the newly detected clusters are massive, merging systems with disturbed morphology in the X-ray surface brightness. Diffuse radio sources in clusters, called giant radio halos and relics, are direct probes of cosmic rays and magnetic fields in the intra-cluster medium. These radio sources are found to occur mainly in massive merging clusters. Thus, the new SZ-discovered clusters are good candidates to search for new radio halos and relics. We have initiated radio observations of the clusters detected by Planck with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. These observations have already led to the detection of a radio halo in PLCKG171.9-40.7, the first giant halo discovered in one of the new Planck clusters.

  12. 100 years of Planck's quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Duck, Ian M

    2000-01-01

    This invaluable book takes the reader from Planck's discovery of the quantum in 1900 to the most recent interpretations and applications of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics.The introduction of the quantum idea leads off the prehistory of quantum mechanics, featuring Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Compton, and de Broglie's immortal contributions. Their original discovery papers are featured with explanatory notes and developments in Part 1.The invention of matrix mechanics and quantum mechanics by Heisenberg, Born, Jordan, Dirac, and Schrödinger is presented next, in Part 2.Following that, in Part 3,

  13. Astrophysical components from Planck maps

    CERN Document Server

    Burigana, Carlo; Paoletti, Daniela; Mandolesi, Nazzareno; Natoli, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The Planck Collaboration has recently released maps of the microwave sky in both temperature and polarization. Diffuse astrophysical components (including Galactic emissions, cosmic far infrared (IR) background, y-maps of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect) and catalogs of many thousands of Galactic and extragalactic radio and far-IR sources, and galaxy clusters detected through the SZ effect are the main astrophysical products of the mission. A concise overview of these results and of astrophysical studies based on Planck data is presented.

  14. String inflation after Planck 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, C.P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton ON (Canada); Cicoli, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Quevedo, F., E-mail: cburgess@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: mcicoli@ictp.it, E-mail: F.Quevedo@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Abdus Salam ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy)

    2013-11-01

    We briefly summarize the impact of the recent Planck measurements for string inflationary models, and outline what might be expected to be learned in the near future from the expected improvement in sensitivity to the primordial tensor-to-scalar ratio. We comment on whether these models provide sufficient added value to compensate for their complexity, and ask how they fare in the face of the new constraints on non-gaussianity and dark radiation. We argue that as a group the predictions made before Planck agree well with what has been seen, and draw conclusions from this about what is likely to mean as sensitivity to primordial gravitational waves improves.

  15. Plateau Inflation and Planck Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    A new family of inflationary models is introduced and analysed. The behaviour of the parameters characterising the models suggest preferred values, which generate the most interesting testable predictions. Results are further improved if late reheating and/or a subsequent period of thermal inflation is taken into account. Specific model realisations consider a sub-Planckian inflaton variation or a potential without fine-tuning of mass scales, based on the Planck and GUT scales. A toy model realisation in the context of global and local supersymmetry is examined and results fitting the Planck observations are determined.

  16. Planck Scale to Hubble Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Sidharth, B G

    1998-01-01

    Within the context of the usual semi classical investigation of Planck scale Schwarzchild Black Holes, as in Quantum Gravity, and later attempts at a full Quantum Mechanical description in terms of a Kerr-Newman metric including the spinorial behaviour, we attempt to present a formulation that extends from the Planck scale to the Hubble scale. In the process the so called large number coincidences as also the hitherto inexplicable relations between the pion mass and the Hubble Constant, pointed out by Weinberg, turn out to be natural consequences in a consistent description.

  17. Planck early results. XVI. The Planck view of nearby galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Theall-sky coverage of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) provides an unsurpassed survey of galaxies at submillimetre (submm) wavelengths, representing a major improvement in the numbers of galaxies detected, as well as the range of far-IR/submm wavelengths over which they ...

  18. Planck pre-launch status: The Planck mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauber, J. A.; Mandoles, N.; Puget, J.-L.

    2010-01-01

    The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, launched on 14 May 2009, is the third-generation space experiment in the field of cosmic microwave background (CMB) research. It will image the anisotropies of the CMB over the whole sky, with unprecedented sensitivity ( ~ 2 × 10-6) and angular...

  19. Planck Early Results: The thermal performance of Planck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2011-01-01

    . The bolometer plate of the High Frequency Instrument reached 93mK on 3 July 2009, 50 days after launch. The solar panel always faces the Sun, shadowing the rest of Planck, and operates at a mean temperature of 384 K. At the other end of the spacecraft, the telescope bae operates at 42.3K and the telescope...

  20. Cloning and analysis of LFY-like gene from Citrus%柑橘LEAFY同源基因片段的克隆及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑芳; 陈力耕; 陈大明; 徐昌杰

    2001-01-01

    在提取大三岛脐橙(Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck)基因组DNA的基础上,利用Uneven PCR的方法克隆了脐橙中的LEAFY(LFY)同源基因片段。经对该基因片段的核苷酸序列分析表明,它和烟草中的LFY同源基因NFY基因在结构上高度保守,同源性高达90%以上。%The homologous DNA fragment of LFY was cloned from citrus genomic DNA that had been isolated from Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck)using Uneven PCR. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence indicated that homology was up to 90% between it and NFY, another LFY-like gene, which implied that they were highly conserved on their structure.

  1. Possible involvement of locus-specific methylation on expression regulation of leafy homologous gene (CiLFY during precocious trifoliate orange phase change process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Zhi Zhang

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays an essential role in regulating plant development. Here, we described an early flowering trifoliate orange (precocious trifoliate orange, Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf was treated with 5-azacytidine and displayed a number of phenotypic and developmental abnormalities. These observations suggested that DNA methylation might play an important role in regulating many developmental pathways including early flowering trait, and then the expression level of five key or integrated citrus flowering genes were analyzed. Our results showed that flowering locus T (CiFT relative expression level was increased with the increasing concentrations of 5-AzaC. However, leafy (CiLFY, APETELA1 (CiAP1, terminal flower1 (CiTFL1, and flowering locus C (CiFLC showed highest relative expression levels at 250 µΜ treatment, while decreased sharply at higher concentrations. In order to further confirm DNA methylation affects the expression of these genes, their full-length sequences were isolated by genome-walker method, and then was analyzed by using bioinformatics tools. However, only one locus-specific methylation site was observed in CiLFY sequence. Therefore, DNA methylation level of the CiLFY was investigated both at juvenile and adult stages of precocious trifoliate orange by bisulfate sequencing PCR; it has been shown that the level of DNA methylation was altered during phase change. In addition, spatial and temporal expression patterns of CiLFY promoter and a series of 5' deletions were investigated by driving the expression of a β-glucuronidase reporter gene in Arabidopsis. Exogenous GA3 treatment on transgenic Arabidopsis revealed that GA3 might be involved in the developmental regulation of CiLFY during flowering process of precocious trifoliate orange. These results provided insights into the molecular regulation of CiLFY gene expression, which would be helpful for studying citrus flowering.

  2. Primordial features and Planck polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Smoot, George F.; Starobinsky, Alexei A.

    2016-09-01

    With the Planck 2015 Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization data, we search for possible features in the primordial power spectrum (PPS). We revisit the Wiggly Whipped Inflation (WWI) framework and demonstrate how generation of some particular primordial features can improve the fit to Planck data. WWI potential allows the scalar field to transit from a steeper potential to a nearly flat potential through a discontinuity either in potential or in its derivatives. WWI offers the inflaton potential parametrizations that generate a wide variety of features in the primordial power spectra incorporating most of the localized and non-local inflationary features that are obtained upon reconstruction from temperature and polarization angular power spectrum. At the same time, in a single framework it allows us to have a background parameter estimation with a nearly free-form primordial spectrum. Using Planck 2015 data, we constrain the primordial features in the context of Wiggly Whipped Inflation and present the features that are supported both by temperature and polarization. WWI model provides more than 13 improvement in χ2 fit to the data with respect to the best fit power law model considering combined temperature and polarization data from Planck and B-mode polarization data from BICEP and Planck dust map. We use 2-4 extra parameters in the WWI model compared to the featureless strict slow roll inflaton potential. We find that the differences between the temperature and polarization data in constraining background cosmological parameters such as baryon density, cold dark matter density are reduced to a good extent if we use primordial power spectra from WWI. We also discuss the extent of bispectra obtained from the best potentials in arbitrary triangular configurations using the BI-spectra and Non-Gaussianity Operator (BINGO).

  3. Planck 2013 results. XXXI. Consistency of the Planck data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.

    2014-01-01

    by deviation of the ratio from unity) between 70 and 100 GHz power spectra averaged over 70 ≤∫≥ 390 at the 0.8% level, and agreement between 143 and 100 GHz power spectra of 0.4% over the same ` range. These values are within and consistent with the overall uncertainties in calibration given in the Planck 2013...... foreground emission. In this paper, we analyse the level of consistency achieved in the 2013 Planck data. We concentrate on comparisons between the 70, 100, and 143 GHz channel maps and power spectra, particularly over the angular scales of the first and second acoustic peaks, on maps masked for diuse....../100 ratio. Correcting for this, the 70, 100, and 143 GHz power spectra agree to 0.4% over the first two acoustic peaks. The likelihood analysis that produced the 2013 cosmological parameters incorporated uncertainties larger than this. We show explicitly that correction of the missing near sidelobe power...

  4. CMDS System Integration and IAMD End-to-End Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Cruise Missile Defense Systems (CMDS) Project Office is establishing a secure System Integration Laboratory at the AMRDEC. This lab will contain tactical Signal...

  5. End to End Inter-domain Quality of Service Provisioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy

    This thesis addresses selected topics of Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning in heterogeneous data networks that construct the communication environment of today's Internet. In the vast range of protocols available in different domains of network infrastructures, a few chosen ones are discussed......, the general UPnPQoS performance was assessed analytically and confirmed by simulations results. The results validate the usability of UPnP-QoS, but some open issues in the specication were identified. As a result of addressing mentioned shortcomings of UPnP-QoS, a few pre-emption algorithms for home gateway...... were designed and compared. Similarly as for general UPnP-QoS assessment, analysis and intensive simulations were used for verification of proposed pre-emption techniques. The other proposed extension for UPnP-QoS was an integration of trac auto-classication within UPnP-QoS Architecture. Simulation...

  6. Study on End-to-End Web Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ke-li; DAI Li-zhong

    2004-01-01

    While there are lots of papers discussing one or more aspects of web performance, there are few papers talking of web performance as a whole. This paper most thoroughly discusses aspects that influence web performance and current known web techniques. In addition, we discussed the general methods of web performance measurement and explained the discrepancies between our results and those of others. Finally, we analyzed the bottlenecks of web and come up with possible solutions.

  7. End-to-end experiment management in HPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kroiss, Ryan R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Torrez, Alfred [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wingate, Meghan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Experiment management in any domain is challenging. There is a perpetual feedback loop cycling through planning, execution, measurement, and analysis. The lifetime of a particular experiment can be limited to a single cycle although many require myriad more cycles before definite results can be obtained. Within each cycle, a large number of subexperiments may be executed in order to measure the effects of one or more independent variables. Experiment management in high performance computing (HPC) follows this general pattern but also has three unique characteristics. One, computational science applications running on large supercomputers must deal with frequent platform failures which can interrupt, perturb, or terminate running experiments. Two, these applications typically integrate in parallel using MPI as their communication medium. Three, there is typically a scheduling system (e.g. Condor, Moab, SGE, etc.) acting as a gate-keeper for the HPC resources. In this paper, we introduce LANL Experiment Management (LEM), an experimental management framework simplifying all four phases of experiment management. LEM simplifies experiment planning by allowing the user to describe their experimental goals without having to fully construct the individual parameters for each task. To simplify execution, LEM dispatches the subexperiments itself thereby freeing the user from remembering the often arcane methods for interacting with the various scheduling systems. LEM provides transducers for experiments that automatically measure and record important information about each subexperiment; these transducers can easily be extended to collect additional measurements specific to each experiment. Finally, experiment analysis is simplified by providing a general database visualization framework that allows users to quickly and easily interact with their measured data.

  8. A PDTB-Styled End-to-End Discourse Parser

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Ziheng; Kan, Min-Yen

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a full discourse parser in the Penn Discourse Treebank (PDTB) style. Our trained parser first identifies all discourse and non-discourse relations, locates and labels their arguments, and then classifies their relation types. When appropriate, the attribution spans to these relations are also determined. We present a comprehensive evaluation from both component-wise and error-cascading perspectives.

  9. VT Linear Referencing System - End-to-End 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — LRS2014 is a Linear Referencing System layer that includes interstate, U.S., state (VT), and other transportation routes logged by the Vermont Agency of...

  10. End to End Beam Dynamics of the ESS Linac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Heine Dølrath

    2012-01-01

    The European Spallation Source, ESS, uses a linear accelerator to deliver a high intensity proton beam to the target station. The nominal beam power on target will be 5 MW at an energy of 2.5 GeV. We briefly describe the individual accelerating structures and transport lines through which we have...

  11. On end-to-end safety for mobile COTS devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kucera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, ubiquitous mobile devices have not only arrived but entered the safety critical domain. There, systems are about to be controlled where human health or even human life is put at risk. For example, in automation systems first ideas surface to control parts of the system via a COTS smartphone. Another example is the idea to control the autonomous parking function of a car via a COTS smartphone too. As beneficial and convenient these ideas are on the first thought, on the second thought, dangers of these approaches become obvious. Especially in case of failures the system’s safety has to be maintained. The open question is how to achieve this mandatory requirement with COTS components, e.g. smartphones that are not developed following the development process necessary for safetycritical systems. This paper presents a concept to reliably detect human interaction while activating safety critical functions via COTS mobile devices. Thus a means is provided to detect erroneous activation requests for the safetycritical function.

  12. Planck 2013 results. XXXI. Consistency of the Planck data

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A.J; Barreiro, R.B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Levy, A; Bernard, J.P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bond, J.R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F.R; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J.F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H.C; Christensen, P.R; Clements, D.L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L.P.L; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B.P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R.D; Davis, R.J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Desert, F.X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J.M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Dore, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Ensslin, T.A; Eriksen, H.K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F.K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versille, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S.R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M; Jaffe, T.R; Jaffe, A.H; Jones, W.C; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lahteenmaki, A; Lamarre, J.M; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C.R; Leonardi, R; Leon-Tavares, J; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P.B; Linden-Vornle, M; Lopez-Caniego, M; Lubin, P.M; Macias-Perez, J.F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Martin, P.G; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P.R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschenes, M.A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C.A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, D; Pearson, T.J; Perdereau, O; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Pratt, G.W; Prunet, S; Puget, J.L; Rachen, J.P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G.; Roudier, G; Rubino-Martin, J.A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Scott, D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A.S; Sygnet, J.F; Tauber, J.A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L.A; Wandelt, B.D; Wehus, I K; White, S D M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    The Planck design and scanning strategy provide many levels of redundancy that can be exploited to provide tests of internal consistency. One of the most important is the comparison of the 70 GHz (amplifier) and 100 GHz (bolometer) channels. Based on different instrument technologies, with feeds located differently in the focal plane, analysed independently by different teams using different software, and near the minimum of diffuse foreground emission, these channels are in effect two different experiments. The 143 GHz channel has the lowest noise level on Planck, and is near the minimum of unresolved foreground emission. In this paper, we analyse the level of consistency achieved in the 2013 Planck data. We concentrate on comparisons between the 70, 100, and 143 GHz channel maps and power spectra, particularly over the angular scales of the first and second acoustic peaks, on maps masked for diffuse Galactic emission and for strong unresolved sources. Difference maps covering angular scales from 8°...

  13. Inflationary paradigm after Planck 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Guth, Alan H; Nomura, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    Models of cosmic inflation posit an early phase of accelerated expansion of the universe, driven by the dynamics of one or more scalar fields in curved spacetime. Though detailed assumptions about fields and couplings vary across models, inflation makes specific, quantitative predictions for several observable quantities, such as the flatness parameter ($\\Omega_k = 1 - \\Omega$) and the spectral tilt of primordial curvature perturbations ($n_s - 1 = d \\ln {\\cal P}_{\\cal R} / d \\ln k$), among others---predictions that match the latest observations from the {\\it Planck} satellite to very good precision. In the light of data from {\\it Planck} as well as recent theoretical developments in the study of eternal inflation and the multiverse, we address recent criticisms of inflation by Ijjas, Steinhardt, and Loeb. We argue that their conclusions rest on several problematic assumptions, and we conclude that cosmic inflation is on a stronger footing than ever before.

  14. Inflationary paradigm after Planck 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guth, Alan H., E-mail: guth@ctp.mit.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kaiser, David I., E-mail: dikaiser@mit.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Nomura, Yasunori, E-mail: ynomura@berkeley.edu [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, and Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-06-02

    Models of cosmic inflation posit an early phase of accelerated expansion of the universe, driven by the dynamics of one or more scalar fields in curved spacetime. Though detailed assumptions about fields and couplings vary across models, inflation makes specific, quantitative predictions for several observable quantities, such as the flatness parameter (Ω{sub k}=1−Ω) and the spectral tilt of primordial curvature perturbations (n{sub s}−1=dlnP{sub R}/dlnk), among others—predictions that match the latest observations from the Planck satellite to very good precision. In the light of data from Planck as well as recent theoretical developments in the study of eternal inflation and the multiverse, we address recent criticisms of inflation by Ijjas, Steinhardt, and Loeb. We argue that their conclusions rest on several problematic assumptions, and we conclude that cosmic inflation is on a stronger footing than ever before.

  15. Inflationary paradigm after Planck 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Alan H.; Kaiser, David I.; Nomura, Yasunori

    2014-06-01

    Models of cosmic inflation posit an early phase of accelerated expansion of the universe, driven by the dynamics of one or more scalar fields in curved spacetime. Though detailed assumptions about fields and couplings vary across models, inflation makes specific, quantitative predictions for several observable quantities, such as the flatness parameter (Ωk = 1 - Ω) and the spectral tilt of primordial curvature perturbations (ns - 1 = dln ⁡PR / dln ⁡ k), among others-predictions that match the latest observations from the Planck satellite to very good precision. In the light of data from Planck as well as recent theoretical developments in the study of eternal inflation and the multiverse, we address recent criticisms of inflation by Ijjas, Steinhardt, and Loeb. We argue that their conclusions rest on several problematic assumptions, and we conclude that cosmic inflation is on a stronger footing than ever before.

  16. Max Planck et les quanta

    CERN Document Server

    Boudenot, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    « Les atomes, dit Jean Perrin en 1913, ne sont pas ces éléments éternels et insécables dont l'irréductible simplicité donnait au possible une borne, et, dans leur inimaginable petitesse, nous commençons à pressentir un fourmillement prodigieux de mondes nouveaux ». C'est bien dans un monde totalement nouveau, le monde quantique, que nous a fait pénétrer la découverte des quanta par Max Planck. Son article de 1900 est le déclencheur de l'une des plus grandes révolutions scientifiques de tous les temps. Les trente années qui suivent sont les plus riches de la physique ; Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Sommerfeld, de Broglie, Schrödinger, Heisenberg, Dirac, Born, Pauli… reconstruisent la physique sur de nouvelles bases sur fond de conflit des générations. Le monde est par ailleurs secoué par la guerre, Max Planck est tourmenté et vit des épreuves personnelles dramatiques. C'est l'homme, aussi bien que l'oeuvre, que les auteurs ont tenté de dépeindre dans cet ouvrage. Ils ont également souhait�...

  17. Primordial power spectrum from Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Souradeep, Tarun

    2014-01-01

    Using modified Richardson-Lucy algorithm we reconstruct the primordial power spectrum (PPS) from Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropy data. In our analysis we use different combinations of angular power spectra from Planck to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum and locate possible features. Performing an extensive error analysis we found the dip near $\\ell\\sim750-850$ represents the most prominent feature in the data. Feature near $\\ell\\sim1800-2000$ is detectable with high confidence only in 217 GHz spectrum and is apparently consequence of a small systematic as described in the revised Planck 2013 papers. Fixing the background cosmological parameters and the foreground nuisance parameters to their best fit baseline values, we report that the best fit power law primordial power spectrum is consistent with the reconstructed form of the PPS at 2$\\sigma$ C.L. of the estimated errors (apart from the local features mentioned above). As a consistency test, we found the...

  18. Mutation in Torenia fournieri Lind. UFO homolog confers loss of TfLFY interaction and results in a petal to sepal transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Katsutomo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Aida, Ryutaro; Shikata, Masahito; Abe, Tomoko; Ohtsubo, Norihiro

    2012-09-01

    We identified a Torenia fournieri Lind. mutant (no. 252) that exhibited a sepaloid phenotype in which the second whorls were changed to sepal-like organs. This mutant had no stamens, and the floral organs consisted of sepals and carpels. Although the expression of a torenia class B MADS-box gene, GLOBOSA (TfGLO), was abolished in the 252 mutant, no mutation of TfGLO was found. Among torenia homologs such as APETALA1 (AP1), LEAFY (LFY), and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), which regulate expression of class B genes in Arabidopsis, only accumulation of the TfUFO transcript was diminished in the 252 mutant. Furthermore, a missense mutation was found in the coding region of the mutant TfUFO. Intact TfUFO complemented the mutant phenotype whereas mutated TfUFO did not; in addition, the transgenic phenotype of TfUFO-knockdown torenias coincided with the mutant phenotype. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that the mutated TfUFO lost its ability to interact with TfLFY protein. In situ hybridization analysis indicated that the transcripts of TfUFO and TfLFY were partially accumulated in the same region. These results clearly demonstrate that the defect in TfUFO caused the sepaloid phenotype in the 252 mutant due to the loss of interaction with TfLFY. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. German science. Max Planck charts new path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, R

    2000-06-09

    Germany's premier basic research organization, the Max Planck Society, released a long-awaited blueprint for change during its annual meeting this week, recommending that the society's nearly 3000 scientists embrace more interdisciplinary and international projects in a range of new research priorities. The report, called Max Planck 2000-Plus, is the product of an 18-month-long internal review. Its recommendations were formulated by some two dozen Max Planck researchers and administrators, who sought input from every institute.

  20. Planck Charges, Planck Currents and The Hermitic Shangri-La for Magnetic Monopole

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Yanbin; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of Planck charges are summarized and extended in a consistent and unified manner to include Planck currents. These Planck parameters form a set of indicators serving as the boundary markers signaling the buffer zone separating the quantum gravity physics beyond Planck energy scale from the ordinary physics below the Planck scale. Combining the concepts of Planck charges with the Dirac electric-magnetic charge quantization relation, a lower bound is discovered and attributed to the value of magnetic monopole as half of the Planck magnetic monopole. The value of the running electric fine structure constant is required to be confined to a restricted interval to keep physics involving magnetic monopoles below the Planck scale. It provides a prediction about the hermitic Shangri-La, a remote place the magnetic monopoles are inhabiting near the boundary but still within the scope of ordinary physics. It opens a window of hope to the theoretical and/or experimental probe for magnetic monopoles realizing...

  1. Data compression on board the PLANCK Satellite Low Frequency Instrument optimal compression rate

    CERN Document Server

    Gaztañaga, E; Romeo, A; Fosalba, P; Elizalde, E

    1998-01-01

    Data on board the future PLANCK Low Frequency Instrument (LFI), to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, consist of $N$ differential temperature measurements, expanding a range of values we shall call $R$. Preliminary studies and telemetry allocation indicate the need of compressing these data by a ratio of $c_r \\simgt 10$. Here we present a study of entropy for (correlated multi-Gaussian discrete) noise, showing how the optimal compression $c_{r,opt}$, for a linearly discretized data set with $N_{bits}=\\log_2{N_{max}}$ bits is given by: $c_r \\simeq {N_{bits}/\\log_2(\\sqrt{2\\pi e} ~\\sigma_e/\\Delta)}$, where $\\sigma_e\\equiv (det C)^{1/2N}$ is some effective noise rms given by the covariance matrix $C$ and to be as small as the instrumental white noise RMS: $\\Delta \\simeq \\sigma_T averaging). Within the currently proposed $N_{bits}=16$ representation, a linear analogue to digital converter (ADC) will allow the digital storage of a large dynamic range of differential temperature $R= N_{max} ...

  2. Point source detection and extraction from simulated Planck TOD using optimal adaptive filters

    CERN Document Server

    Herranz, D; Sanz, J L; Martínez-González, E

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet-related techniques have proven useful in the processing and analysis of one and two dimensional data sets (spectra in the former case, images in the latter). In this work we apply adaptive filters, introduced in a previous work (Sanz et al. 2001), to optimize the detection and extraction of point sources from a one-dimensional array of time-ordered data such as the one that will be produced by the future 30 GHz LFI28 channel of the ESA Planck mission. At a $4\\sigma$ detection level 224 sources over a flux of 0.88 Jy are detected with a mean relative error (in absolute value) of 21% and a systematic bias of -7.7%. The position of the sources in the sky is determined with errors inferior to the size of the pixel. The catalogue of detected sources is complete at fluxes $\\geq$ 4.3 Jy. The number of spurious detections is less than a 10% of the true detections. We compared the results with the ones obtained by filtering with a Gaussian filter and a Mexican Hat Wavelet of width equal to the scale of the sou...

  3. Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations

    CERN Document Server

    Bogachev, Vladimir I; Röckner, Michael; Shaposhnikov, Stanislav V

    2015-01-01

    This book gives an exposition of the principal concepts and results related to second order elliptic and parabolic equations for measures, the main examples of which are Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations for stationary and transition probabilities of diffusion processes. Existence and uniqueness of solutions are studied along with existence and Sobolev regularity of their densities and upper and lower bounds for the latter. The target readership includes mathematicians and physicists whose research is related to diffusion processes as well as elliptic and parabolic equations.

  4. Carnation-22光子照射疗法在尿道端端吻合术患者术后护理中的应用%Application of Carnation-22 photon therapeutic in postoperative nursing of patients with end-to-end anastomosis of urethra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌; 阮琦; 张丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the nursing effect of Carnation-22 photon therapeutic apparatus in patients with end-to-end anastomosis of urethra. Methods From October 2014 to October 2015, 200 patients with urethral stricture were randomly selected and divided into two groups after end-to-end anastomosis of urethra according to the admission order. 100 patients in the control group were given conventional nursing after operation. 100 patients in the observation group were given Carnation-22 photon therapeutic apparatus based on the routine nursing. The swelling and exudation of perineum incision, results of middle urine culture, patient comfort and satisfaction degree of patients were compared in two groups.Results Healing rate in the observation group (90.0%) was higher than that in the control group (76.0%);the positive rate of middle urine culture in the observation group (11.0%) was lower than that in the control group (23.0%);the ratio of patients with pain sense in the observation group (38.0%) was lower than that in the control group (78.0%); the percentage of patient degree >90 in the observation group (95.0%) was higher than that in the control group (78.0%)(P90分(95.0%)的百分率高于对照组(78.0%),差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论尿道端端吻合术后患者应用光子治疗仪照射后,能促进伤口愈合,减少感染率,缩短住院时间,且无明显不良反应,患者依从性好。

  5. Dyons near the Planck scale

    CERN Document Server

    Laperashvili, L V; Laperashvili, Larisa

    2006-01-01

    In the present talk we suggest a new model of preons-dyons making composite quark-leptons and bosons, described by the supersymmetric string-inspired flipped E_6\\times \\tilde E_6 gauge group of symmetry. This investigation predicts the possible extension of the Standard Model to the Family replicated gauge group model of type G^{N_{fam}}, where N_{fam} is the number of families. Here E_6 and \\tilde E_6 are non-dual and dual sectors of theory with hyper-electric g and hyper-magnetic \\tilde g charges, respectively. Our model is based on the recent theory of composite non-Abelian flux tubes in SQCD. Considering the breakdown of E_6 (and \\tilde E_6) at the Planck scale into the SU(6)\\times U(1) gauge group, we have shown that the six types of composite N = 1 supersymmetric non-Abelian flux tubes are created by the condensation of spreons-dyons near the Planck scale and have fluxes quantized according to the Z_6 center group of SU(6): \\Phi_n = n\\Phi_0 (n = \\pm 1,\\pm 2,\\pm 3). These fluxes give three types of k-str...

  6. Cosmology with the Planck Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Sketched out in 1992, selected by ESA in 1996, and launched in 2009, the Planck satellite was shut off in 2013, after a measuring mission that exceeded all expectations. The Planck collaboration delivered a first set of cosmological data and results in March 21st 2013, and the full set in February 2015. Part of the data delivery is a "definitive" map of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), its angular power spectrum together with their full statistical characterisation. The 2015 delivery also includes pioneering polarisation data. The temperature anisotropy map displays minuscule variations as a function of the observing direction, of rms ~100microK, of the fossil radiation around its mean temperature of 2.725K. Other maps reveal the CMB polarisation. The anisotropies are the imprint of the primordial fluctuations which initiated the growth of the large scale structures of the Universe, as transformed by their evolution, in particular during the first 370 000 years, as well as finer e...

  7. Planck 2015 results. XI. CMB power spectra, likelihoods, and robustness of parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Gerbino, M.; Giard, M.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Lilley, M.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Mottet, S.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rouillé d'Orfeuil, B.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Serra, P.; Spencer, L. D.; Spinelli, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the Planck 2015 likelihoods, statistical descriptions of the 2-point correlationfunctions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization fluctuations that account for relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. They are based on the same hybrid approach used for the previous release, i.e., a pixel-based likelihood at low multipoles (ℓpower spectra at higher multipoles. The main improvements are the use of more and better processed data and of Planck polarization information, along with more detailed models of foregrounds and instrumental uncertainties. The increased redundancy brought by more than doubling the amount of data analysed enables further consistency checks and enhanced immunity to systematic effects. It also improves the constraining power of Planck, in particular with regard to small-scale foreground properties. Progress in the modelling of foreground emission enables the retention of a larger fraction of the sky to determine the properties of the CMB, which also contributes to the enhanced precision of the spectra. Improvements in data processing and instrumental modelling further reduce uncertainties. Extensive tests establish the robustness and accuracy of the likelihood results, from temperature alone, from polarization alone, and from their combination. For temperature, we also perform a full likelihood analysis of realistic end-to-end simulations of the instrumental response to the sky, which were fed into the actual data processing pipeline; this does not reveal biases from residual low-level instrumental systematics. Even with the increase in precision and robustness, the ΛCDM cosmological model continues to offer a very good fit to the Planck data. The slope of the primordial scalar fluctuations, ns, is confirmed smaller than unity at more than 5σ from Planck alone. We further validate the robustness of the likelihood results against specific extensions to the baseline

  8. Go-ahead for ESA's new millennium space observatories Planck and FIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Planck and FIRST will be launched together in the year 2007. Planck is a cosmology mission, designed to test the models describing the origin and evolution of the early Universe. It will do so by studying the Cosmic Background Radiation, a light emitted shortly after the Big Bang that fills the whole Universe and can be detected today, like an "echo" of that primeval explosion. Astronomers consider it a "fossil" radiation, since it holds a lot of information about both the past and the future of the Universe. "Planck will determine fundamental characteristics of the Universe, such as its geometry, its density, and the rate at which it expands. It will also provide important clues as to the kind of matter that fills the Universe", explains Planck Project Scientist Jan Tauber, at ESA's European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in The Netherlands. More precisely, the task of Planck will be to measure the temperature of the "echo" of the Big Bang over the whole sky. Though at the time of its emission the Cosmic Background Radiation was very hot, some 3000 degrees, it has since expanded and cooled together with the entire cosmos to a much lower temperature, namely about minus 270 degrees centigrade (3 degrees Kelvin). Planck will look for differences in this temperature as slight as a few microkelvin, thin variations like clots that are, in fact, the "seeds" of the huge condensations of matter in today's Universe. "It will be like watching the birth of the galaxies, the galaxy clusters, all the large-scale structures that we observe today", Tauber says. The two instruments on board Planck, now approved by ESA, are the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) and the High Frequency Instrument (HFI).They will cover a very broad range of frequencies (between 30 and 857 Gigahertz). The HFI will be designed and built by a Consortium of about 20 institutes led by Jean-Loup Puget of the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay (France). The LFI will be designed and built

  9. Evaluation of severe stenosis of end-to-end and end-to-side anastomosis of transplant renal artery with color Doppler sonography%彩色多普勒超声对端-端与端-侧吻合移植肾动脉重度狭窄的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建初; Robert J Min; Amelia Ng; David Trost; Michael Goldstein; Sandip Kupur; John Wang; David Serur; 姜玉新; 高敬; 张丽娜; 戴睛; 孟华; 蔡胜; 吕珂; 孝梦甦; 张一休

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨两种吻合方式(端-端吻合与端-侧吻合)移植肾动脉重度狭窄(内径减少≥80%)的彩色多普勒超声诊断指标的差异.方法 回顾性分析彩色多普勒超声检查发现后并经数字减影血管造影(DSA)证实的38例移植肾动脉重度狭窄患者(端-端吻合和端-侧吻合各19例).超声测量髂动脉、移植肾动脉主干和吻合口峰值流速(PSV),肾内叶间动脉或段动脉PSV和加速时间(AT),计算狭窄处与狭窄近端PSV比值(简称PSV前比).结果 血管造影显示所有患者的动脉内径减少≥80%,狭窄部位位于髂动脉4例,吻合口20例和移植肾动脉14例.狭窄处PSV、髂动脉PSV及PSV前比在两种吻合方式之间差异均有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 两种吻合方式移植肾动脉重度狭窄患者的肾动脉血流动力学差异很可能是导致它们之间狭窄处PSV和PSV前比差异的主要原因.为了提高移植肾动脉重度狭窄的诊断准确性,应依据吻合方式来建立PSV前比的诊断阈值,而同-AT诊断阈值很可能适合两种吻合方式患者.%Objective To investigate differences in Doppler parameters between severe transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS,arterial lumen reduction ≥80%) with end-to-end anastomosis and that with end-to-side anastomosis. Methods Color Doppler sonography(CDS) and digital subtraction angiography(DSA) images were reviewed retrospectively in 38 patients with severe TRAS (19 cases with end-to-end anastomosis and 19 cases with end-to-side anastomosis). All 38 cases with severe TRAS were initially diagnosed with CDS and confirmed by DSA afterwards. Doppler parameters,including the peak systolic velocity(PSV) in the renal, lilac, anastomosis site and segmental or interlobar artery, pre-PSV ratio (the ratio of the PSV at the stenotic site to that in the iliae artery), acceleration time(AT) in the intrarenal arteries, were measured or calculated. Results DSA demonstrated all patients with severe arterial

  10. 基于序列号和可靠应答机制DSR安全路由的实现%Exploring an Effective Design of Secure Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Protocol Using Request Sequence Number and End-to-End Acknowledgement Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建平; 史浩山

    2011-01-01

    Aim. The introduction of the full paper analyzes a type of black-hole attack on a route request (RREQ) packet. To avoid such attack, it proposes the exploration of a secure DSR protocol design, which is explained in sections 1 and 2. Section 1 explains that the sequence number of the RREQ packet is monotonically increasing.The core of section 2 consists of: ( 1 ) we perform the secure DSR routing protocol design with the sequence number increment principle and the end-to-end acknowledgement principle so that the route can effectively resist the blackhole attack; (2) to establish the credible routing information list, we design the procedural steps for processing the nodes in the RREQ packet and the end-to-end acknowledgement packet, which are illustrated by the block diagram shown in Fig. 2. To validate the effectiveness for resisting the black-hole attack, section 3 simulates the DSR protocol design obtained with our method; the simulation results, given in Figs. 6 and 7, and their analysis show preliminarily that: ( 1 ) the secure DSR protocol design obtained with our method can effectively resist the black-hole attack on the RREQ packet, guarantee secure routing information without expending much resource; (2) compared with the conventional DSR protocol design, our DSR protocol design has higher packet delivery ratio and smaller average delay.%文章分析了动态源路由(DSR)协议面临的路由请求(route request,RREQ)报文的黑洞攻击,针对该攻击,设计一种利用可靠的端到端应答机制和根据RREQ报文序列号连续递增原则来建立路由信息表.该设计在不消耗过多资源的基础上保证路由信息.通过仿真验证该设计能够很好地抵御RREQ报文的黑洞攻击,且与经典的DSR路由协议相比,分组投递率维持在较高水平上,且平均时延很小,具有更好的性能.

  11. Planck scale operators, inflation and fine tuning

    CERN Document Server

    Marunovic, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet completion of the standard model plus gravity at and beyond the Planck scale is a daunting problem to which no generally accepted solution exists. Principal obstacles include (a) lack of data at the Planck scale (b) nonrenormalizability of gravity and (c) unitarity problem. Here we make a simple observation that, if one treats all Planck scale operators of equal canonical dimension democratically, one can tame some of the undesirable features of these models. With a reasonable amount of fine tuning one can satisfy slow roll conditions required in viable inflationary models. That remains true even when the number of such operators becomes very large.

  12. A better presentation of Planck's radiation law

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Introductory physics and astronomy courses commonly use Wien's displacement law to explain the colors of blackbodies, including the Sun and other stars, in terms of their temperatures. We argue here that focusing on the peak of the blackbody spectrum is misleading for three reasons. First, the Planck curve is too broad for an individual spectral color to stand out. Second, the location of the peak of the Planck curve depends on the choice of the independent variable in the plot. And third, Wi...

  13. HEALPix in Planck and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hivon, Eric; Reinecke, Martin; Gorski, Krzysztof M.

    2015-08-01

    The Hierarchical Equal Area iso-Latitude Pixelation of the Sphere (HEALPix, http://healpix.sf.net) is both a mathematical pixelation of the sphere and a suite of software tools implementing it in many different languages (C, C++, Fortran, IDL/GDL, Java, Python). It has been used in the simulation, observation and analysis of WMAP, Planck and many other CMB and astronomical missions and has become a standard tool used in many different astronomical fields, such as large galaxy surveys (eg, SDSS), 3D structure of the Galaxy (eg, GAIA), high energy cosmic rays (eg, Pierre Auger Observatory), ..., and is fully supported by many Virtual Observatory visualization tools (eg, Aladin).Third party developments have implemented new functionalities like wavelet analysis, Minkowski functionals, structures identification, and propose wrappings or translations of HEALPix functionalities in other languages (eg, Matlab/Octave, Yorick).This talk will review what is currently possible with HEALPix, in terms of simulations, Spherical Harmonics transforms, data processing, visualization, statistical analyses, search of local extrema, pixel queries, I/O, and the projected developments including database storage and queries, multi-resolution dataset (MOC),

  14. Planck 2013 results. XXXII. The updated Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.;

    2015-01-01

    We update the all-sky Planck catalogue of 1227 clusters and cluster candidates (PSZ1) published in March 2013, derived from detections of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect using the first 15.5 months of Planck satellite observations. As an addendum, we deliver an updated version of the PSZ1...

  15. Planck 2015 results: XXVI. The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arguëso, F.;

    2016-01-01

    The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources is a list of discrete objects detected in single-frequency maps from the full duration of the Planck mission and supersedes previous versions. It consists of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. Compact sour...

  16. Planck intermediate results. XXVI. Optical identification and redshifts of Planck clusters with the RTT150 telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.;

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with the Russian-Turkish 1.5m telescope (RTT150), as a part of the optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck collaboration. During this time period approximately 20% of all dark...

  17. Design, development and verification of the 30 and 44 GHz front-end modules for the Planck Low Frequency Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R J; Wilkinson, A; Davies, R D; Winder, W F; Roddis, N; Blackhurst, E J; Lawson, D; Lowe, S R; Baines, C; Butlin, M; Galtress, A; Shepherd, D [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Aja, B; Artal, E [Departamento de IngenierIa de Comunicaciones, Universidad de Cantabria, Avenida de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain); Bersanelli, M [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F [INAF IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti, 101, 40129, Bologna (Italy); Castelli, C [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Swindon, Wiltshire, SN2 1SZ (United Kingdom); D' Arcangelo, O [IFP-CNR, Via Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Gaier, T, E-mail: Richard.Davis@manchester.ac.u [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California (United States)

    2009-12-15

    We give a description of the design, construction and testing of the 30 and 44 GHz Front End Modules (FEMs) for the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the Planck mission to be launched in 2009. The scientific requirements of the mission determine the performance parameters to be met by the FEMs, including their linear polarization characteristics. The FEM design is that of a differential pseudo-correlation radiometer in which the signal from the sky is compared with a 4-K blackbody load. The Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) at the heart of the FEM is based on indium phosphide High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). The radiometer incorporates a novel phase-switch design which gives excellent amplitude and phase match across the band. The noise temperature requirements are met within the measurement errors at the two frequencies. For the most sensitive LNAs, the noise temperature at the band centre is 3 and 5 times the quantum limit at 30 and 44 GHz respectively. For some of the FEMs, the noise temperature is still falling as the ambient temperature is reduced to 20 K. Stability tests of the FEMs, including a measurement of the 1/f knee frequency, also meet mission requirements. The 30 and 44 GHz FEMs have met or bettered the mission requirements in all critical aspects. The most sensitive LNAs have reached new limits of noise temperature for HEMTs at their band centres. The FEMs have well-defined linear polarization characteristics.

  18. Adapted binary LFI medical image segmentation model%改进二值LFI医学图像分割模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建伟; 李小田

    2012-01-01

    It's difficult to extract the target boundary using the region-based active contour models,for the interference of the image background when dealing with the medical target segmentation. An improved model of adapted LFI is proposed to solve this problem. The model constructs local fitting images to approach the initial image,and introduces the attractive factor to restrain curve evolution equation and well resume the curve gradualist,thus targets the image segmentation. The binary level set is employed to the whole segmentation process,which can avoid the numerical instability by the traditional level set. The application results show that the proposed method can segment the required target effectively and rapidly from medical images.%基于区域活动轮廓模型在处理医学特定分割目标时,受到图像背景影响较大,难以提取目标边界轮廓.针对这一问题,提出一种改进LFI模型.该模型构造出局部适当图像来逼近原图像,且引入吸附因子约束曲线演化方向,恢复曲线演化渐进性,使得分割具有针对性.采用二值水平集方法实现整个分割过程,避免了传统水平集数值不稳定性.实验结果表明该方法可以快速有效地分割特定医学图像目标.

  19. Planck driven by vision, broken by war

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Brandon R

    2015-01-01

    Planck's Law, an equation used by physicists to determine the radiation leaking from any object in the universe, was described by Albert Einstein as "the basis of all twentieth-century physics." Max Planck is credited with being the father of quantum theory, and his work laid the foundation for our modern understanding of matter and energetic processes. But Planck's story is not well known, especially in the United States. A German physicist working during the first half of the twentieth century, his library, personal journals, notebooks, and letters were all destroyed with his home in World War II. What remains, other than his contributions to science, are handwritten letters in German shorthand, and tributes from other scientists of the time, including his close friend Albert Einstein. In Planck: Driven by Vision, Broken by War, Brandon R. Brown interweaves the voices and writings of Planck, his family, and his contemporaries-with many passages appearing in English for the first time-to create a portrait of...

  20. Planck 2013 results. XVI. Cosmological parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Haissinski, J.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T.J.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results based on Planck measurements of the CMB temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. The Planck spectra at high multipoles are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter LCDM cosmology. In this model Planck data determine the cosmological parameters to high precision. We find a low value of the Hubble constant, H0=67.3+/-1.2 km/s/Mpc and a high value of the matter density parameter, Omega_m=0.315+/-0.017 (+/-1 sigma errors) in excellent agreement with constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent-level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We present results from an analysis of extensions to the standard cosmology, using astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data. None of these models are favoured significantly over standard LCDM. The deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity is insensitive to the additi...

  1. Planck 2015. XX. Constraints on inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Handley, W.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Ma, Y.Z.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shiraishi, M.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J.P.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-20

    We present the implications for cosmic inflation of the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in both temperature and polarization based on the full Planck survey. The Planck full mission temperature data and a first release of polarization data on large angular scales measure the spectral index of curvature perturbations to be $n_\\mathrm{s} = 0.968 \\pm 0.006$ and tightly constrain its scale dependence to $d n_s/d \\ln k =-0.003 \\pm 0.007$ when combined with the Planck lensing likelihood. When the high-$\\ell$ polarization data is included, the results are consistent and uncertainties are reduced. The upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is $r_{0.002} < 0.11$ (95% CL), consistent with the B-mode polarization constraint $r< 0.12$ (95% CL) obtained from a joint BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck analysis. These results imply that $V(\\phi) \\propto \\phi^2$ and natural inflation are now disfavoured compared to models predicting a smaller tensor-to-scalar ratio, such as $R^2$ ...

  2. Halo and subhalo demographics with Planck cosmological parameters: Bolshoi-Planck and MultiDark-Planck simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Behroozi, Peter; Primack, Joel; Klypin, Anatoly; Lee, Christoph; Hellinger, Doug

    2016-10-01

    We report and provide fitting functions for the abundance of dark matter haloes and subhaloes as a function of mass, circular velocity, and redshift from the new Bolshoi-Planck and MultiDark-Planck ΛCDM cosmological simulations, based on the Planck parameters. We also report halo mass accretion rates and concentrations. We show that the higher cosmological matter density of the Planck parameters compared with the WMAP parameters leads to higher abundance of massive haloes at high redshifts. We find that the median halo spin parameter {λ _B}= J(√{2}M_virR_virV_vir)^{-1} is nearly independent of redshift, leading to predicted evolution of galaxy sizes that is consistent with observations, while the significant decrease with redshift in median {λ _P}= J|E|^{-1/2}G^{-1}M^{-5/2} predicts more decrease in galaxy sizes than is observed. Using the Tully-Fisher and Faber-Jackson relations between galaxy velocity and mass, we show that a simple model of how galaxy velocity is related to halo maximum circular velocity leads to increasing overprediction of cosmic stellar mass density as redshift increases beyond z ˜ 1, implying that such velocity-mass relations must change at z ≳ 1. By making a realistic model of how observed galaxy velocities are related to halo circular velocity, we show that recent optical and radio observations of the abundance of galaxies are in good agreement with our ΛCDM simulations. Our halo demographics are based on updated versions of the ROCKSTAR and CONSISTENT TREES codes, and this paper includes appendices explaining all of their outputs. This paper is an introduction to a series of related papers presenting other analyses of the Bolshoi-Planck and MultiDark-Planck simulations.

  3. Planck 2016 intermediate results. XLVI. Reduction of large-scale systematic effects in HFI polarization maps and estimation of the reionization optical depth

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Ballardini, M; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Basak, S; Battye, R; Benabed, K; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Carron, J; Challinor, A; Chiang, H C; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Di Valentino, E; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fantaye, Y; Finelli, F; Forastieri, F; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frolov, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Gerbino, M; Ghosh, T; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hivon, E; Huang, Z; Ilic, S; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knox, L; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Langer, M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leahy, J P; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; López-Caniego, M; Ma, Y -Z; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Matarrese, S; Mauri, N; McEwen, J D; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Molinari, D; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Moss, A; Mottet, S; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Patanchon, G; Patrizii, L; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Plaszczynski, S; Polastri, L; Polenta, G; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Racine, B; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renzi, A; Rocha, G; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Ruiz-Granados, B; Salvati, L; Sandri, M; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Sirri, G; Sunyaev, R; Suur-Uski, A -S; Tauber, J A; Tenti, M; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Trombetti, T; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, F; Vibert, L; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; White, M; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the identification, modelling, and removal of previously unexplained systematic effects in the polarization data of the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) on large angular scales, including new mapmaking and calibration procedures, new and more complete end-to-end simulations, and a set of robust internal consistency checks on the resulting maps. These maps, at 100, 143, 217, and 353 GHz, are early versions of those that will be released in final form later in 2016. The improvements allow us to determine the cosmic reionization optical depth $\\tau$ using, for the first time, the low-multipole $EE$ data from HFI, reducing significantly the central value and uncertainty, and hence the upper limit. Two different likelihood procedures are used to constrain $\\tau$ from two estimators of the CMB $E$- and $B$-mode angular power spectra at 100 and 143 GHz, after debiasing the spectra from a small remaining systematic contamination. These all give fully consistent results. A further consistenc...

  4. Planck 2013 results. XII. Diffuse component separation

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Cruz, M; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huey, G; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leach, S; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Marcos-Caballero, A; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mikkelsen, K; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Salerno, E; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savini, G; Schiavon, F; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Varis, J; Viel, M; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Wilkinson, A; Xia, J -Q; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    Planck has produced detailed all-sky observations over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz. These observations allow robust reconstruction of the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations over nearly the full sky, as well as new constraints on Galactic foregrounds. This paper describes the component separation framework adopted by Planck. We test four foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived using qualitatively different component separation algorithms. The quality of our reconstructions is evaluated through detailed simulations and internal comparisons, and shown through various tests to be internally consistent and robust for CMB power spectrum and cosmological parameter estimation up to l = 2000. The parameter constraints on LambdaCDM cosmologies derived from these maps are consistent with those presented in the cross-spectrum based Planck likelihood analysis. We choose two of the CMB maps for specific scientific goals. We also present maps and frequency spectra of the Galact...

  5. Ideal Quantum Gases with Planck Scale Limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    A thermodynamic system of non-interacting quantum particles changes its statistical distribution formulas if there is a universal limitation for the size of energetic quantum leaps (magnitude of quantum leaps smaller than Planck energy). By means of a restriction of the a priori equiprobability postulate one can reach a thermodynamic foundation of these corrected distribution formulas. The number of microstates is determined by means of a suitable counting method and combined with thermodynamics via the Boltzmann principle. The result is that, for particle energies that come close to the Planck energy, the thermodynamic difference between fermion and boson distribution vanishes. Both distributions then approximate a Boltzmann distribution. The wave and particle character of the quantum particles, too, can be influenced by choosing the size of the temperature and particle energy parameters relative to the Planck energy, as you can see from the associated fluctuation formulas. In the case of non-relativistic de...

  6. Planck 2013 results. IX. HFI spectral response

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; North, C; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rusholme, B; Santos, D; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) spectral response was determined through a series of ground based tests conducted with the HFI focal plane in a cryogenic environment prior to launch. The main goal of the spectral transmission tests was to measure the relative spectral response (including out-of-band signal rejection) of all HFI detectors. This was determined by measuring the output of a continuously scanned Fourier transform spectrometer coupled with all HFI detectors. As there is no on-board spectrometer within HFI, the ground-based spectral response experiments provide the definitive data set for the relative spectral calibration of the HFI. The spectral response of the HFI is used in Planck data analysis and component separation, this includes extraction of CO emission observed within Planck bands, dust emission, Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources, and intensity to polarization leakage. The HFI spectral response data have also been used to provide unit conversion and colour correction analysis tools. Ver...

  7. Cosmological constraints on neutrinos with Planck data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, M. [Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire, Bat.200, 91400 Orsay (France)

    2015-07-15

    Neutrinos take part in the dance of the evolving Universe influencing its history from leptogenesis, to Big Bang nucleosynthesis, until late time structure formation. This makes cosmology, and in particular one of its primary observables the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), an unusual but valuable tool for testing Neutrino Physics. The best measurement to date of full-sky CMB anisotropies comes from the Planck satellite launched in 2009 by the European Space Agency (ESA) and successful follower of COBE and WMAP. Testing Planck data against precise theoretical predictions allow us to shed light on various interesting open questions such as the value of the absolute scale of neutrino masses or their energy density. We revise here the results concerning neutrinos obtained by the Planck Collaboration in the 2013 data release.

  8. Planck Scale Gravity Test with Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibyan, V.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum or torsion gravity models predict unusual properties of space-time at very short distances. In particular, near the Planck length, around 10-35m, empty space may behave as a crystal, singly or doubly refractive. However, this hypothesis remains uncheckable for any direct measurement since the smallest distance accessible in experiment is about 10-19m at the LHC. Here I propose a laboratory test to measure the space refractivity and birefringence induced by gravity. A sensitivity from 10-31m down to the Planck length could be reached at existent GeV and future TeV energy lepton accelerators using laser Compton scattering. There are already experimental hints for gravity signature at distances approaching the Planck length by 5-7 orders of magnitude, derived from SLC and HERA data.

  9. Testing Planck-Scale Gravity with Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibyan, Vahagn

    2012-10-01

    Quantum or torsion gravity models predict unusual properties of space-time at very short distances. In particular, near the Planck length, around 10-35m, empty space may behave as a crystal, singly or doubly refractive. However, this hypothesis remains uncheckable for any direct measurement, since the smallest distance accessible in experiment is about 10-19m at the LHC. Here I propose a laboratory test to measure the space refractivity and birefringence induced by gravity. A sensitivity from 10-31m down to the Planck length could be reached at existent GeV and future TeV energy lepton accelerators using laser Compton scattering. There are already experimental hints for gravity signature at distances approaching the Planck length by 5-7 orders of magnitude, derived from SLC and HERA data.

  10. Comparação entre dois fios de sutura não absorvíveis na anastomose traqueal término-terminal em cães Comparison of two nonabsorbable suture materials in the end-to-end tracheal anastomosis in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Canevese Rahal

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Doze cães sem raça definida, com idade variando entre 1 e 6 anos e peso de 6 a 20kg, foram submetidos a ressecção traqueal e anastomose término-terminal, na qual foram testados os fios poliéster trançado não capilar e náilon monofilamento. Seis animais, cada três com um mesmo tipo de fio de sutura, sofreram a excisão equivalente a três anéis traqueais. Com 15 dias foi executada uma nova intervenção onde se ressecou o equivalente a mais seis anéis, perfazendo um total de nove. Ao final de outros 15 dias foram sacrificados. Os outros seis animais, cada três com um mesmo tipo de fio, foram submetidos à excisão equivalente a três anéis traqueais e mantidos por 43 dias. As traquéias foram avaliadas por exames clínicos, radiográficos, macroscópicos e histopatológicos. O fio de náilon monofilamento apresentou menos reação tecidual do que o poliéster trançado não capilar, promoveu uma anastomose segura e com menor chance de formação de granuloma.Twelve mongrel dogs, with age between 1 and 6 years old and weight between 12 and 40 pounds, were submitted to tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis in which were tested braided polyester no capillary and monofilament nylon materiais. Six animais, every threeones with a same type of suture material, suffered the excision equivalent to three tracheal rings. A new intervention was performed with fifteen days, in which the equivalent of more six tracheal rings were removed, completing the total of nine. At the end of more fifteen days they were sacrificed. The other six animals, every three with a same type of suture material, were submitted to the excision equivalent to three tracheal rings and maintained for 43 days. The tracheal anastomosis were evaluated to clinic, radiographic, macroscopic and histopathologic studies. The monofilament nylon material exhibited less reaction than polyester and promoted a secure anastomosis with less risk of granuloma formation.

  11. The CMB Derivatives of Planck's Beam Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Rathaus, Ben

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the anisotropy in cosmic microwave background Planck maps due to the coupling between its beam asymmetry and uneven scanning strategy. Introducing a pixel space estimator based on the temperature gradients, we find a highly significant (~20 \\sigma) preference for these to point along ecliptic latitudes. We examine the scale dependence, morphology and foreground sensitivity of this anisotropy, as well as the capability of detailed Planck simulations to reproduce the effect, which is crucial for its removal, as we demonstrate in a search for the weak lensing signature of cosmic defects.

  12. Blind Search for Variability in Planck Data

    CERN Document Server

    Rachen, Jörg P; Reinecke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The sky is full of variable and transient sources on all time scales, from milliseconds to decades. Planck's regular scanning strategy makes it an ideal instrument to search for variable sky signals in the millimetre and submillimetre regime, on time scales from hours to several years. A precondition is that instrumental noise and systematic effects, caused in particular by non-symmetric beam shapes, are properly removed. We present a method to perform a full sky blind search for variable and transient objects at all Planck frequencies.

  13. Massive Gauge Fields and the Planck Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, G D

    2004-01-01

    The present work is devoted to massive gauge fields in special relativity with two fundamental constants-the velocity of light, and the Planck length, so called doubly special relativity (DSR). The two invariant scales are accounted for by properly modified boost parameters. Within above framework we construct the vector potential as the (1/2,0)x(0,1/2) direct product, build the associated field strength tensor together with the Dirac spinors and use them to calculate various observables as functions of the Planck length.

  14. Halo and Subhalo Demographics with Planck Cosmological Parameters: Bolshoi-Planck and MultiDark-Planck Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Puebla, Aldo; Primack, Joel; Klypin, Anatoly; Lee, Christoph; Hellinger, Doug

    2016-01-01

    We report and provide fitting functions for the abundance of dark matter halos and subhalos as a function of mass, circular velocity, and redshift from the new Bolshoi-Planck and MultiDark-Planck $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological simulations, based on the Planck cosmological parameters. We also report the halo mass accretion rates, which may be connected with galaxy star formation rates. We show that the higher cosmological matter density of the Planck parameters compared with the WMAP parameters leads to higher abundance of massive halos at high redshifts. We find that the median halo spin parameter $\\lambda_{\\rm B} = J(2M_{\\rm vir}R_{\\rm vir}V_{\\rm vir})^{-1}$ is nearly independent of redshift, leading to predicted evolution of galaxy sizes that is consistent with observations, while the significant decrease with redshift in median $\\lambda_{\\rm P} = J|E|^{-1/2}G^{-1}M^{-5/2}$ predicts more decrease in galaxy sizes than is observed. Using the Tully-Fisher and Faber-Jackson relations between galaxy velocity and mass...

  15. Planck 2015 results: XIII. Cosmological parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    of the theory; for example, combining Planck observations with other astrophysical data we find Neff = 3.15 ± 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, consistent with the value Neff = 3.046 of the Standard Model of particle physics. The sum of neutrino masses is constrained to â'mν

  16. Planck 2013 results. XIV. Zodiacal emission

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colley, J.-M.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Mottet, S.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; O'Sullivan, C.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polegre, A. M.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Smoot, G. F.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Planck satellite provides a set of all-sky maps at nine frequencies from 30 GHz to 857 GHz. Planets, minor bodies, and diffuse interplanetary dust emission (IPD) are all observed. The IPD can be separated from Galactic and other emissions because Planck views a given point on the celestial sphere multiple times, through different columns of IPD. We use the Planck data to investigate the behaviour of zodiacal emission over the whole sky at sub-millimetre and millimetre wavelengths. We fit the Planck data to find the emissivities of the various components of the COBE zodiacal model -- a diffuse cloud, three asteroidal dust bands, a circumsolar ring, and an Earth-trailing feature. The emissivity of the diffuse cloud decreases with increasing wavelength, as expected from earlier analyses. The emissivities of the dust bands, however, decrease less rapidly, indicating that the properties of the grains in the bands are different from those in the diffuse cloud. We fit the small amount of Galactic emission seen t...

  17. Axion hot dark matter bounds after Planck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archidiacono, Maria; Hannestad, Steen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Mirizzi, Alessandro [II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Raffelt, Georg [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Wong, Yvonne Y.Y., E-mail: archi@phys.au.dk, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@desy.de, E-mail: raffelt@mpp.mpg.de, E-mail: yvonne.y.wong@unsw.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2013-10-01

    We use cosmological observations in the post-Planck era to derive limits on thermally produced cosmological axions. In the early universe such axions contribute to the radiation density and later to the hot dark matter fraction. We find an upper limit m{sub a} < 0.67 eV at 95% C.L. after marginalising over the unknown neutrino masses, using CMB temperature and polarisation data from Planck and WMAP respectively, the halo matter power spectrum extracted from SDSS-DR7, and the local Hubble expansion rate H{sub 0} released by the Carnegie Hubble Program based on a recalibration of the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project sample. Leaving out the local H{sub 0} measurement relaxes the limit somewhat to 0.86 eV, while Planck+WMAP alone constrain the axion mass to 1.01 eV, the first time an upper limit on m{sub a} has been obtained from CMB data alone. Our axion limit is therefore not very sensitive to the tension between the Planck-inferred H{sub 0} and the locally measured value. This is in contrast with the upper limit on the neutrino mass sum, which we find here to range from Σ m{sub ν} < 0.27 eV at 95% C.L. combining all of the aforementioned observations, to 0.84 eV from CMB data alone.

  18. Planck 2013 results. IX. HFI spectral response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.;

    2013-01-01

    The Planck HFI spectral response was determined through a series of ground based tests conducted with the HFI focal plane in a cryogenic environment prior to launch. The main goal of the spectral transmission tests is to measure the relative spectral response (including the level of out-of-band s...

  19. Planck 2013 results. XXII. Constraints on inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the implications of the Planck data for cosmic inflation. The Planck nominal mission temperature anisotropy measurements, combined with the WMAP large-angle polarization, constrain the scalar spectral index to $n_s = 0.9603 \\pm 0.0073$, ruling out exact scale invariance at over 5 $\\sigma$. Planck establishes an upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r 2 do not provide a good fit to the data. Planck does not find statistically significant running of the scalar spectral index, obtaining $d n_s/d ln k = -0.0134 \\pm 0.0090$. Several analyses dropping the slow-roll approximation are carried out, including detailed model comparison and inflationary potential reconstruction. We also investigate whether the primordial power spectrum contains any features. We find that models with a parameterized oscillatory feature improve the fit $\\chi^2$ by ~ 10; however, Bayesian evidence does not prefer these models. We constrain several single-field inflation models with generalized Lagrangians by combining pow...

  20. CAS, Max Planck Society to Enhance Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ According to a briefing issued by the CAS Bureau of In ternational Cooperation on May 8, 2004, CAS and the Max Planck Society (MPS) in Germany are considering to establish a multidisciplinary institute in Shanghai to conduct research into computational biology. The move is applauded as a fresh step in promoting Sino-German S&T cooperation.

  1. The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources

    CERN Document Server

    López-Caniego, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS) is the catalogue of sources detected in the first 15 months of Planck operations, the nominal mission. It consists of nine single-frequency catalogues of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. The PCCS covers the frequency range 30 -- 857 GHz with higher sensitivity and better angular resolution than previous all-sky surveys in the microwave band. It is 90 percent complete at 180 mJy in the best channel, and the resolution ranges from 32.88 to 4.33 arc minutes. By construction its reliability is greater than 80 percent, and more than 65 percent of the sources have been detected at least in two contiguous Planck channels. Many of the Planck PCCS sources can be associated with stars with dust shells, stellar cores, radio galaxies, blazars, infrared luminous galaxies and Galactic interstellar medium features. Here we summarize the construction and validation of the PCCS, its contents and its statistical characterization.

  2. Kähler potentials for Planck inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Diederik; Scalisi, Marco; Zavala Carrasco, Ivonne

    2013-01-01

    We assess which Kahler potentials in supergravity lead to viable single-field inflationary models that are consistent with Planck. We highlight the role of symmetries, such as shift, Heisenberg and supersymmetry, in these constructions. Also the connections to string theory are pointed out. Finally,

  3. Planck 2015 results: XV. Gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.;

    2016-01-01

    We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40σ), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator, we detect lensing at a significance of 5σ. We...

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Planck high-z source candidates catalog (PHZ) (Planck+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Catalano, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; De Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macias-Perez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Welikala, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-11-01

    We present in this work the Planck List of Highredshift Source Candidates (the "PHZ"), which includes 2151 sources distributed over 26% of the sky, with redshifts likely to be greater than 2. (2 data files).

  5. Planck 2015 results. XIII. Cosmological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Chluba, J.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Farhang, M.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Gerbino, M.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Giusarma, E.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marchini, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martinelli, M.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rouillé d'Orfeuil, B.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Said, N.; Salvatelli, V.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Spinelli, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents cosmological results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Our results are in very good agreement with the 2013 analysis of the Planck nominal-mission temperature data, but with increased precision. The temperature and polarization power spectra are consistent with the standard spatially-flat 6-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations (denoted "base ΛCDM" in this paper). From the Planck temperature data combined with Planck lensing, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H0 = (67.8 ± 0.9) km s-1Mpc-1, a matter density parameter Ωm = 0.308 ± 0.012, and a tilted scalar spectral index with ns = 0.968 ± 0.006, consistent with the 2013 analysis. Note that in this abstract we quote 68% confidence limits on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters. We present the first results of polarization measurements with the Low Frequency Instrument at large angular scales. Combined with the Planck temperature and lensing data, these measurements give a reionization optical depth of τ = 0.066 ± 0.016, corresponding to a reionization redshift of z_re=8.8+1.7-1.4. These results are consistent with those from WMAP polarization measurements cleaned for dust emission using 353-GHz polarization maps from the High Frequency Instrument. We find no evidence for any departure from base ΛCDM in the neutrino sector of the theory; for example, combining Planck observations with other astrophysical data we find Neff = 3.15 ± 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, consistent with the value Neff = 3.046 of the Standard Model of particle physics. The sum of neutrino masses is constrained to ∑ mν data. Adding the BKP B-mode data to our analysis leads to a tighter constraint of r0.002 data leads to strong constraints on deviations from a purely adiabatic spectrum of

  6. Planck 2015 results. XV. Gravitational lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40σ), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator, we detect lensing at a significance of 5σ. We cross-check the accuracy of our measurement using the wide frequency coverage and complementarity of the temperature and polarization measurements. Public products based on this measurement include an estimate of the lensing potential over approximately 70% of the sky, an estimate of the lensing potential power spectrum in bandpowers for the multipole range 40 ≤ L ≤ 400, and an associated likelihood for cosmological parameter constraints. We find good agreement between our measurement of the lensing potential power spectrum and that found in the ΛCDM model that best fits the Planck temperature and polarization power spectra. Using the lensing likelihood alone we obtain a percent-level measurement of the parameter combination σ8Ω0.25m = 0.591 ± 0.021. We combine our determination of the lensing potential with the E-mode polarization, also measured by Planck, to generate an estimate of the lensing B-mode. We show that this lensing B-mode estimate is correlated with the B-modes observed directly by Planck at the expected level and with a statistical significance of 10σ, confirming Planck's sensitivity to this known sky signal. We also correlate our lensing potential estimate with the large-scale temperature anisotropies, detecting a cross-correlation at the 3σ level, as expected because of dark energy in the concordance ΛCDM model.

  7. Planck 2015 results. XV. Gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Lewis, A; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; White, M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40 sigma), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator we detect lensing at a significance of 5 sigma. We cross-check the accuracy of our measurement using the wide frequency coverage and complementarity of the temperature and polarization measurements. Public products based on this measurement include an estimate of the lensing potential over approximately 70% of the sky, an estimate of the lensing potential power spectrum in bandpowers for the multipole range 40Planck temperature and polarization power spectra. Using the lensing likelihood alone we obtain a percent-level measurement of ...

  8. Complete reionization constraints from Planck 2015 polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Chen He; Miranda, Vinicius; Hu, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    We conduct an analysis of the Planck 2015 data that is complete in reionization observables from the large angle polarization E -mode spectrum in the redshift range 6 data, this single analysis can be used to infer constraints on any model for reionization in the same range; we develop an effective likelihood approach for applying these constraints to models. By allowing for an arbitrary ionization history, this technique tests the robustness of inferences on the total optical depth from the usual steplike transition assumption, which is important for the interpretation of many other cosmological parameters such as the dark energy and neutrino mass. The Planck 2015 data not only allow a high redshift z >15 component to the optical depth but prefer it at the 2 σ level. This preference is associated with excess power in the multipole range 10 ≲ℓ≲20 and may indicate high redshift ionization sources or unaccounted for systematics and foregrounds in the 2015 data.

  9. Probing the Planck Scale with Proton Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnik, Roni; Larson, Daniel T.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Thormeier, Marc

    2004-04-28

    We advocate the idea that proton decay may probe physics at the Planck scale instead of the GUT scale. This is possible because supersymmetric theories have dimension-5 operators that can induce proton decay at dangerous rates, even with R-parity conservation. These operators are expected to be suppressed by the same physics that explains the fermion masses and mixings. We present a thorough analysis of nucleon partial lifetimes in models with a string-inspired anomalous U(1)_X family symmetry which is responsible for the fermionic mass spectrum as well as forbidding R-parity violating interactions. Protons and neutrons can decay via R-parity conserving non-renormalizable superpotential terms that are suppressed by the Planck scale and powers of the Cabibbo angle. Many of the models naturally lead to nucleon decay near present limits without any reference to grand unification.

  10. Planck 2015 results. XX. Constraints on inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hamann, J.; Handley, W.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Münchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Shiraishi, M.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J. P.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    We present the implications for cosmic inflation of the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in both temperature and polarization based on the full Planck survey, which includes more than twice the integration time of the nominal survey used for the 2013 release papers. The Planck full mission temperature data and a first release of polarization data on large angular scales measure the spectral index of curvature perturbations to be ns = 0.968 ± 0.006 and tightly constrain its scale dependence to dns/ dlnk = -0.003 ± 0.007 when combined with the Planck lensing likelihood. When the Planck high-ℓ polarization data are included, the results are consistent and uncertainties are further reduced. The upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r0.002inflation are now disfavoured compared to models predicting a smaller tensor-to-scalar ratio, such as R2 inflation. We search for several physically motivated deviations from a simple power-law spectrum of curvature perturbations, including those motivated by a reconstruction of the inflaton potential not relying on the slow-roll approximation. We find that such models are not preferred, either according to a Bayesian model comparison or according to a frequentist simulation-based analysis. Three independent methods reconstructing the primordial power spectrum consistently recover a featureless and smooth PR(k) over the range of scales 0.008 Mpc-1 ≲ k ≲ 0.1 Mpc-1. At large scales, each method finds deviations from a power law, connected to a deficit at multipoles ℓ ≈ 20-40 in the temperature power spectrum, but at an uncompelling statistical significance owing to the large cosmic variance present at these multipoles. By combining power spectrum and non-Gaussianity bounds, we constrain models with generalized Lagrangians, including Galileon models and axion monodromy models. The Planck data are consistent with adiabatic primordial perturbations, and the estimated values for the

  11. Planck 2013 results. XII. Diffuse component separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2014-01-01

    presented in the cross-spectrum based Planck likelihood analysis. We choose two of the CMB maps for specific scientific goals. We also present maps and frequency spectra of the Galactic low-frequency, CO, and thermal dust emission. The component maps are found to provide a faithful representation of the sky...... foregrounds, including thermal dust and line emission from molecular carbon monoxide (CO). This paper describes the component separation framework adopted by Planck for many cosmological analyses, including CMB power spectrum determination and likelihood construction on large angular scales, studies...... of primordial non-Gaussianity and statistical isotropy, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, gravitational lensing, and searches for topological defects. We test four foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived using qualitatively different component separation algorithms. The quality of our reconstructions is evaluated...

  12. Planck 2013 results. XII. Component separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    analysis. We choose two of the CMB maps for specific scientific goals. We also present maps and frequency spectra of the Galactic low-frequency, CO, and thermal dust emission. The component maps are found to provide a faithful representation of the sky, as evaluated by simulations. For the low...... foregrounds. This paper describes the component separation framework adopted by Planck. We test four foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived using qualitatively different component separation algorithms. The quality of our reconstructions is evaluated through detailed simulations and internal comparisons......, and shown through various tests to be internally consistent and robust for CMB power spectrum and cosmological parameter estimation up to l = 2000. The parameter constraints on LambdaCDM cosmologies derived from these maps are consistent with those presented in the cross-spectrum based Planck likelihood...

  13. Newtons Principia Mathematica Philosophia und Plancks Elementarkonstanten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompe, R.; Treder, H.-J.

    Die Newtonschen Prinzipien, zusammen mit den Planckschen Elementarkonstanten, erweisen sich als gesichertes Fundament der Physik und der exakten Wissenschaften aller Richtungen.Der Begriffsfundus der Physik ist ausreichend für alle physikalischen aber auch weiterreichenden Probleme anderer Naturwissenschaften und Technik. Es zeigt sich, daß die klassische Physik von vornherein so angelegt wurde, daß sie über die Physik der makroskopischen Körper weit hinaus-greifen kann.Translated AbstractNewton's Principia Mathematica Philosophia and Planck's Elementary ConstantsTogether with Planck's elementary constants Newton's principles prove a guaranteed basis of physics and exact sciences of all directions.The conceptions in physics are competent at all physical problems as well as technology too. Classical physics was founded in such a way to reach far beyond the physics of macroscopic bodies.

  14. The Planck Vacuum and the Schwarzschild Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Planck vacuum (PV is assumed to be the source of the visible universe. So under conditions of sufficient stress, there must exist a pathway through which energy from the PV can travel into this universe. Conversely, the passage of energy from the visible universe to the PV must also exist under the same stressful conditions. The following examines two versions of the Schwarzschild metric equation for compatability with this open-pathway idea.

  15. Complete Reionization Constraints from Planck 2015 Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Chen He; Hu, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    We conduct an analysis of the Planck 2015 data that is complete in reionization observables from the large angle polarization $E$-mode spectrum in the redshift range $6 15$ component to the optical depth but prefer it at the $2\\sigma$ level. This preference is associated with excess power in the multipole range $10 \\lesssim \\ell \\lesssim 20$ and may indicate high redshift ionization sources or unaccounted for systematics and foregrounds in the 2015 data.

  16. Stabilising the Planck mass shortly after inflation

    CERN Document Server

    van de Bruck, Carsten; Robinson, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    We consider a model of the early universe which consists of two scalar fields: the inflaton, and a second field which drives the stabilisation of the Planck mass (or gravitational constant). We show that the non-minimal coupling of this second field to the Ricci scalar sources a non-adiabatic pressure perturbation. By performing a fully numerical calculation we find, in turn, that this boosts the amplitude of the primordial power spectrum after inflation.

  17. Inflation after Planck: and the winners are

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    We review the constraints that the recently released Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Planck data put on inflation and we argue that single field slow-roll inflationary scenarios (with minimal kinetic term) are favored. Then, within this class of models, by means of Bayesian inference, we show how one can rank the scenarios according to their performances, leading to the identification of ``the best models of inflation''.

  18. Invariants of Fokker-Planck equations

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Sumiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A weak invariant of a stochastic system is defined in such a way that its expectation value with respect to the distribution function as a solution of the associated Fokker-Planck equation is constant in time. A general formula is given for time evolution of fluctuations of the invariants. An application to the problem of share price in finance is illustrated. It is shown how this theory makes it possible to reduce the growth rate of the fluctuations.

  19. Astrochemical Properties of Planck Cold Clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatematsu, Ken’ichi; Liu, Tie; Ohashi, Satoshi; Sanhueza, Patricio; Nguyễn Lu’o’ng, Quang; Hirota, Tomoya; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Hirano, Naomi; Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Thompson, Mark A.; Fuller, Gary; Wu, Yuefang; Li, Di; Di Francesco, James; Kim, Kee-Tae; Wang, Ke; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Juvela, Mika; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Cunningham, Maria; Saito, Masao; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Tóth, L. Viktor; He, Jinhua; Sakai, Takeshi; Kim, Jungha; JCMT Large Program “SCOPE” collaboration; TRAO Key Science Program “TOP” collaboration

    2017-02-01

    We observed 13 Planck cold clumps with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope/SCUBA-2 and with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope. The N2H+ distribution obtained with the Nobeyama telescope is quite similar to SCUBA-2 dust distribution. The 82 GHz HC3N, 82 GHz CCS, and 94 GHz CCS emission are often distributed differently with respect to the N2H+ emission. The CCS emission, which is known to be abundant in starless molecular cloud cores, is often very clumpy in the observed targets. We made deep single-pointing observations in DNC, HN13C, N2D+, and cyclic-C3H2 toward nine clumps. The detection rate of N2D+ is 50%. Furthermore, we observed the NH3 emission toward 15 Planck cold clumps to estimate the kinetic temperature, and confirmed that most targets are cold (≲20 K). In two of the starless clumps we observed, the CCS emission is distributed as it surrounds the N2H+ core (chemically evolved gas), which resembles the case of L1544, a prestellar core showing collapse. In addition, we detected both DNC and N2D+. These two clumps are most likely on the verge of star formation. We introduce the chemical evolution factor (CEF) for starless cores to describe the chemical evolutionary stage, and analyze the observed Planck cold clumps.

  20. SPECTRAL IMAGING OF GALAXY CLUSTERS WITH PLANCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata,” via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Rasia, E., E-mail: herve.bourdin@roma2.infn.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico of Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34121 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-12-20

    The Sunyaev–Zeldovich (SZ) effect is a promising tool for detecting the presence of hot gas out to the galaxy cluster peripheries. We developed a spectral imaging algorithm dedicated to the SZ observations of nearby galaxy clusters with Planck, with the aim of revealing gas density anisotropies related to the filamentary accretion of materials, or pressure discontinuities induced by the propagation of shock fronts. To optimize an unavoidable trade-off between angular resolution and precision of the SZ flux measurements, the algorithm performs a multi-scale analysis of the SZ maps as well as of other extended components, such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and the Galactic thermal dust. The demixing of the SZ signal is tackled through kernel-weighted likelihood maximizations. The CMB anisotropies are further analyzed through a wavelet analysis, while the Galactic foregrounds and SZ maps are analyzed via a curvelet analysis that best preserves their anisotropic details. The algorithm performance has been tested against mock observations of galaxy clusters obtained by simulating the Planck High Frequency Instrument and by pointing at a few characteristic positions in the sky. These tests suggest that Planck should easily allow us to detect filaments in the cluster peripheries and detect large-scale shocks in colliding galaxy clusters that feature favorable geometry.

  1. Planck intermediate results. XXVI. Optical identification and redshifts of Planck clusters with the RTT150 telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Barrena, R; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bikmaev, I; Böhringer, H; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Burenin, R; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Carvalho, P; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Chon, G; Christensen, P R; Churazov, E; Clements, D L; Colombo, L P L; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Dahle, H; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Flores-Cacho, I; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Fromenteau, S; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Gilfanov, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Hempel, A; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Khamitov, I; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Mac\\'\\ias-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Mart\\'\\inez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschenes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Roman, M; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Mart\\'\\in, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vibert, L; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with the Russian-Turkish 1.5-m telescope (RTT150), as a part of the optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck collaboration. During this time period approximately 20% of all dark and grey clear time available at the telescope was devoted to observations of Planck objects. Some observations of distant clusters were also done at the 6-m Bolshoy Telescope Azimutal'ny (BTA) of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In total, deep, direct images of more than one hundred fields were obtained in multiple filters. We identified 47 previously unknown galaxy clusters, 41 of which are included in the Planck catalogue of SZ sources. The redshifts of 65 Planck clusters were measured spectroscopically and 14 more were measured photometrically. We discuss the details of cluster optical identifications and redshift measurements. We also present new spectroscopic redhifts f...

  2. Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    spectrum. The Planck values for some of these parameters and others derived from them are significantly different from those previously determined. Several large scale anomalies in the CMB temperature distribution detected earlier by WMAP are confirmed with higher confidence. Planck sets new limits...... on the number and mass of neutrinos, and has measured gravitational lensing of CMB anisotropies at 25 sigma. Planck finds no evidence for non-Gaussian statistics of the CMB anisotropies. There is some tension between Planck and WMAP results; this is evident in the power spectrum and results for some...... the robust detection of the E-mode polarization signal around CMB hot- and cold-spots....

  3. Planck 2013 results. XII. Diffuse component separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dobler, G.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huey, G.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schiavon, F.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Wilkinson, A.; Xia, J.-Q.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    Planck has produced detailed all-sky observations over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz. These observations allow robust reconstruction of the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations over nearly the full sky, as well as new constraints on Galactic foregrounds, including thermal dust and line emission from molecular carbon monoxide (CO). This paper describes the component separation framework adopted by Planck for many cosmological analyses, including CMB power spectrum determination and likelihood construction on large angular scales, studies of primordial non-Gaussianity and statistical isotropy, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, gravitational lensing, and searches for topological defects. We test four foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived using qualitatively different component separation algorithms. The quality of our reconstructions is evaluated through detailed simulations and internal comparisons, and shown through various tests to be internally consistent and robust for CMB power spectrum and cosmological parameter estimation up to ℓ = 2000. The parameter constraints on ΛCDM cosmologies derived from these maps are consistent with those presented in the cross-spectrum based Planck likelihood analysis. We choose two of the CMB maps for specific scientific goals. We also present maps and frequency spectra of the Galactic low-frequency, CO, and thermal dust emission. The component maps are found to provide a faithful representation of the sky, as evaluated by simulations, with the largest bias seen in the CO component at 3%. For the low-frequency component, the spectral index varies widely over the sky, ranging from about β = -4 to - 2. Considering both morphology and prior knowledge of the low frequencycomponents, the index map allows us to associate a steep spectral index (β -2.3 with strong free-free emission, and intermediate values with synchrotron emission.

  4. Planck 2015 results. XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Pelkonen, V -M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC), an all-sky catalogue of Galactic cold clump candidates detected by Planck. This catalogue is the full version of the Early Cold Core (ECC) catalogue, which was made available in 2011 with the Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and contained 915 high S/N sources. It is based on the Planck 48 months mission data that are currently being released to the astronomical community. The PGCC catalogue is an observational catalogue consisting exclusively of Galactic cold sources. The three highest Planck bands (857, 545, 353 GHz) have been combined with IRAS data at 3 THz to perform a multi-frequency detection of sources colder than their local environment. After rejection of possible extragalactic contaminants, the PGCC catalogue contains 13188 Galactic sources spread across the whole sky, i.e., from the Galactic plane to high latitudes, following the spatial distribution of the main molecular cloud complexes. The median temperature of PGCC so...

  5. Planck 2013 results. XXIX. The Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources: Addendum

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Aussel, H; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Barrena, R; Bartelmann, M; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bikmaev, I; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Böhringer, H; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burenin, R; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cardoso, J -F; Carvalho, P; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, H C; Chiang, L -Y; Chon, G; Christensen, P R; Churazov, E; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Da Silva, A; Dahle, H; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Démoclès, J; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Feroz, F; Ferragamo, A; Finelli, F; Flores-Cacho, I; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Fromenteau, S; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Gilfanov, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Grainge, K J B; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; N,; Groeneboom, E; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Hempel, A; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Hurley-Walker, N; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Khamitov, I; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; León-Tavares, J; Lesgourgues, J; Li, C; Liddle, A; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; MacTavish, C J; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Mei, S; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mikkelsen, K; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nastasi, A; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Nesvadba, N P H; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Olamaie, M; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrott, Y C; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rumsey, C; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Saunders, R D E; Savini, G; Schammel, M P; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Shimwell, T W; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Streblyanska, A; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tramonte, D; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vibert, L; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; White, M; White, S D M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    We update the all-sky Planck catalogue of 1227 clusters and cluster candidates (PSZ1) published in March 2013, derived from Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect detections using the first 15.5 months of Planck satellite observations. Addendum. We deliver an updated version of the PSZ1 catalogue, reporting the further confirmation of 86 Planck-discovered clusters. In total, the PSZ1 now contains 947 confirmed clusters, of which 214 were confirmed as newly discovered clusters through follow-up observations undertaken by the Planck Collaboration. The updated PSZ1 contains redshifts for 913 systems, of which 736 (~80.6%) are spectroscopic, and associated mass estimates derived from the Y_z mass proxy. We also provide a new SZ quality flag, derived from a novel artificial neural network classification of the SZ signal, for the remaining 280 candidates. Based on this assessment, the purity of the updated PSZ1 catalogue is estimated to be 94%. In this release, we provide the full updated catalogue and an additional readme ...

  6. Planck Intermediate Results. IX. Detection of the Galactic haze with Planck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.;

    2013-01-01

    , and extends to |b| ~35 deg in Galactic latitude and |l| ~15 deg in longitude. By combining the Planck data with observations from the WMAP we are able to determine the spectrum of this emission to high accuracy, unhindered by the large systematic biases present in previous analyses. The derived spectrum...

  7. Planck intermediate results: IV. the XMM-Newton validation programme for new Planck galaxy clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.;

    2013-01-01

    -Faint Source Catalogue does not guarantee that the SZ candidate is a bona fide cluster. Nevertheless, most Planck clusters appear in RASS maps, with a significance greater than 2σ being a good indication that the candidate is a real cluster. Candidate validation from association with SDSS galaxy overdensity...

  8. Planck 2013 results. XXIX. Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Aussel, H.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Barrena, R.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bohringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P.R.; Churazov, E.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Democles, J.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Feroz, F.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fromenteau, S.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Genova-Santos, R.T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Grainge, K.J.B.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; N, E.Groeneboom; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Hempel, A.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Li, C.; Liddle, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; MacTavish, C.J.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nesvadba, N.P.H.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Olamaie, M.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrott, Y.C.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rumsey, C.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Saunders, R.D.E.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shimwell, T.W.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the all-sky Planck catalogue of clusters and cluster candidates derived from Sunyaev--Zeldovich (SZ) effect detections using the first 15.5 months of Planck satellite observations. The catalogue contains 1227 entries, making it over six times the size of the Planck Early SZ (ESZ) sample and the largest SZ-selected catalogue to date. It contains 861 confirmed clusters, of which 178 have been confirmed as clusters, mostly through follow-up observations, and a further 683 are previously-known clusters. The remaining 366 have the status of cluster candidates, and we divide them into three classes according to the quality of evidence that they are likely to be true clusters. The Planck SZ catalogue is the deepest all-sky cluster catalogue, with redshifts up to about one, and spans the broadest cluster mass range from (0.1 to 1.6) 10^{15}Msun. Confirmation of cluster candidates through comparison with existing surveys or cluster catalogues is extensively described, as is the statistical characterization...

  9. Planck 2015 results: XXVII. The second Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.;

    2016-01-01

    We present the all-sky Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources detected from the 29 month full-mission data. The catalogue (PSZ2) is the largest SZ-selected sample of galaxy clusters yet produced and the deepest systematic all-sky surveyof galaxy clusters. It contains 1653 detections, ...

  10. Inflationary paradigm in trouble after Planck2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Loeb, Abraham

    2013-06-01

    Recent results from the Planck satellite combined with earlier observations from WMAP, ACT, SPT and other experiments eliminate a wide spectrum of more complex inflationary models and favor models with a single scalar field, as reported by the Planck Collaboration. More important, though, is that all the simplest inflaton models are disfavored statistically relative to those with plateau-like potentials. We discuss how a restriction to plateau-like models has three independent serious drawbacks: it exacerbates both the initial conditions problem and the multiverse-unpredictability problem and it creates a new difficulty that we call the inflationary "unlikeliness problem." Finally, we comment on problems reconciling inflation with a standard model Higgs, as suggested by recent LHC results. In sum, we find that recent experimental data disfavors all the best-motivated inflationary scenarios and introduces new, serious difficulties that cut to the core of the inflationary paradigm. Forthcoming searches for B-modes, non-Gaussianity and new particles should be decisive.

  11. The Planck Scale from Top Condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Yang; Ponton, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    We propose a scenario in which the Planck scale is dynamically linked to the electroweak scale induced by top condensation. The standard model field content, without the Higgs, is promoted to a 5D warped background. The only additional ingredient is a 5D fermion with the quantum numbers of the right-handed top. Localization of the zero-modes leads, at low energies, to a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model that also stabilizes the radion field dynamically thus explaining the hierarchy between the Planck scale and v_EW = 174 GeV. The top mass arises dynamically from the electroweak breaking condensate. The other standard model fermion masses arise naturally from higher-dimension operators, and the fermion mass hierarchies and flavor structure can be explained from the localization of the zero-modes in the extra dimension. The model is easily consistent with the electroweak precision data, since the Kaluza-Klein scale is predicted to be about two orders of magnitude above the electroweak scale. This little hierarchy is a d...

  12. Inflationary paradigm in trouble after Planck2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ijjas, Anna, E-mail: aijjas@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); University Observatory Munich, 81679 Munich (Germany); Steinhardt, Paul J., E-mail: steinh@princeton.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-06-25

    Recent results from the Planck satellite combined with earlier observations from WMAP, ACT, SPT and other experiments eliminate a wide spectrum of more complex inflationary models and favor models with a single scalar field, as reported by the Planck Collaboration. More important, though, is that all the simplest inflaton models are disfavored statistically relative to those with plateau-like potentials. We discuss how a restriction to plateau-like models has three independent serious drawbacks: it exacerbates both the initial conditions problem and the multiverse-unpredictability problem and it creates a new difficulty that we call the inflationary “unlikeliness problem.” Finally, we comment on problems reconciling inflation with a standard model Higgs, as suggested by recent LHC results. In sum, we find that recent experimental data disfavors all the best-motivated inflationary scenarios and introduces new, serious difficulties that cut to the core of the inflationary paradigm. Forthcoming searches for B-modes, non-Gaussianity and new particles should be decisive.

  13. Planck 2013 results. XIII. Galactic CO emission

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Alves, M.I.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigaluppi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R. -R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L. -Y; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J. -M.; Dempsey, J.T.; Desert, F. -X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enblin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fukui, Y.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Handa, T.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hily-Blant, P.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M. -A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moore, T.J.T.; Morgante, G.; Morino, J.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Nakajima, T.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Okuda, T.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Preezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J. -L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Thomas, H.S.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torii, K.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yoda, H. Yamamoto T.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    Rotational transition lines of CO play a major role in molecular radio astronomy and in particular in the study of star formation and the Galactic structure. Although a wealth of data exists in the Galactic plane and some well-known molecular clouds, there is no available CO high sensitivity all-sky survey to date. Such all-sky surveys can be constructed using the \\Planck\\ HFI data because the three lowest CO rotational transition lines at 115, 230 and 345 GHz significantly contribute to the signal of the 100, 217 and 353 GHz HFI channels respectively. Two different component separation methods are used to extract the CO maps from Planck HFI data. The maps obtained are then compared to one another and to existing external CO surveys. From these quality checks the best CO maps in terms of signal to noise and/or residual foreground contamination are selected. Three sets of velocity-integrated CO emission maps are produced: Type 1 maps of the CO (1-0), (2-1), and (3-2) rotational transitions with low foreground ...

  14. Planck 2015 results. XVIII. Background geometry & topology

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; De Rosa, A.; De Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Feeney, S.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McEwen, J.D.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Tent, F. Van; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full-sky CMB maps from the 2015 Planck release allow us to detect departures from global isotropy on the largest scales. We present the first searches using CMB polarization for correlations induced by a non-trivial topology with a fundamental domain intersecting, or nearly intersecting, the last scattering surface (at comoving distance $\\chi_{rec}$). We specialize to flat spaces with toroidal and slab topologies, finding that explicit searches for the latter are sensitive to other topologies with antipodal symmetry. These searches yield no detection of a compact topology at a scale below the diameter of the last scattering surface. The limits on the radius $R_i$ of the largest sphere inscribed in the topological domain (at log-likelihood-ratio $\\Delta\\ln{L}>-5$ relative to a simply-connected flat Planck best-fit model) are $R_i>0.97\\chi_{rec}$ for the cubic torus and $R_i>0.56\\chi_{rec}$ for the slab. The limit for the cubic torus from the matched-circles search is numerically equivalent, $R_i>0.97\\chi_{rec}...

  15. Planck pre-launch status: The optical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauber, J. A.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Ade, P. A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Planck is a scientific satellite that represents the next milestone in space-based research related to the cosmic microwave background, and in many other astrophysical fields. Planck was launched on 14 May of 2009 and is now operational. The uncertainty in the optical response of its detectors...

  16. Planck early results. XIV. ERCSC validation and extreme radio sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavonen, N.; León-Tavares, J.; Savolainen, P.

    2011-01-01

    Planck's all-sky surveys at 30-857 GHz provide an unprecedented opportunity to follow the radio spectra of a large sample of extragalactic sources to frequencies 2-20 times higher than allowed by past, large-area, ground-based surveys. We combine the results of the Planck Early Release Compact So...

  17. Planck intermediate results XXXI. Microwave survey of Galactic supernova remnants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.;

    2016-01-01

    The all-sky Planck survey in 9 frequency bands was used to search for emission from all 274 known Galactic supernova remnants. Of these, 16 were detected in at least two Planck frequencies. The radio-through-microwave spectral energy distributions were compiled to determine the mechanism for micr...

  18. Composite Inflation in the light of 2015 Planck data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channuie, Phongpichit

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we examine cosmological constraints on models of composite inflation based on the slow-roll approximation by using the recent Planck measurement. We compare the spectral index of curvature perturbation (and its running) and the tensor-to-scalar ratio predicted by such models with Planck 2015 data. We find that the predictions of technicolor inflation are nicely consistent with the Planck analysis. Moreover, the predictions from the second model, glueball inflation, are in good agreement with the Planck data at 2σC.L. However, the final two models, super glueball inflation and orientifold inflation, favor only the rather large value of the tensor-to-scalar ratio of which the predictions are in tension with the Planck analysis.

  19. Planck intermediate results XXXVI. Optical identification and redshifts of Planck SZ sources with telescopes at the Canary Islands observatories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.;

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with telescopes at the Canary Islands observatories as part of the general optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck Collaboration. In total, 78 SZ sources are discussed. Deep-i...

  20. Planck 2013 results. IV. Low Frequency Instrument beams and window functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.;

    2014-01-01

    on the measurements performed during Jupiter observations. By stacking the data from Jupiter transits, the main beam profiles are measured down to -20 dB at 30 and 44 GHz, and down to -25 dB at 70 GHz. The main beam solid angles are determined to better than 0.2% at each LFI frequency band. To ensure...... can be reached by the Jupiter measurements themselves. The agreement between the simulated beams and the scanning beams is better than 1% at each LFI frequency band. The simulated beams are used for the computation of the window functions for the effective beams. The error budget in the window...

  1. Planck 2013 results. IV. Low Frequency Instrument beams and window functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.;

    2013-01-01

    on the measurements performed during Jupiter observations. By stacking the data from Jupiter transits, the main beam profiles are measured down to -20 dB at 30 and 44 GHz, and down to -25 dB at 70 GHz. The main beam solid angles are determined to better than 0.2% at each LFI frequency band. To ensure...... can be reached by the Jupiter measurements themselves. The agreement between the simulated beams and the scanning beams is better than 1% at each LFI frequency band. The simulated beams are used for the computation of the window functions for the effective beams. The error budget in the window...

  2. Planck intermediate results XXV. The Andromeda galaxy as seen by Planck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Andromeda galaxy (M 31) is one of a few galaxies that has sufficient angular size on the sky to be resolved by the Planck satellite. Planck has detected M 31 in all of its frequency bands, and has mapped out the dust emission with the High Frequency Instrument, clearly resolving multiple spiral...... 22 K in the nucleus to 14 K outside of the 10 kpc ring. Finally, we measure the integrated spectrum of the whole galaxy, which we find to be well-fitted with a global dust temperature of (18.2 +/- 1.0) K with a spectral index of 1.62 +/- 0.11 (assuming a single modified blackbody), and a significant...

  3. Inflationary paradigm in trouble after Planck2013

    CERN Document Server

    Ijjas, Anna; Loeb, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    The recent Planck satellite combined with earlier results eliminate a wide spectrum of more complex inflationary models and favor models with a single scalar field, as reported in the analysis of the collaboration. More important, though, is that all the simplest inflaton models are disfavored by the data while the surviving models -- namely, those with plateau-like potentials -- are problematic. We discuss how the restriction to plateau-like models leads to three independent problems: it exacerbates both the initial conditions problem and the multiverse-unpredictability problem and it creates a new difficulty which we call the inflationary "unlikeliness problem." Finally, we comment on problems reconciling inflation with a standard model Higgs, as suggested by recent LHC results. In sum, we find that recent experimental data disfavors all the best-motivated inflationary scenarios and introduces new, serious difficulties that cut to the core of the inflationary paradigm. Forthcoming searches for B-modes, non-...

  4. Generalized Stochastic Fokker-Planck Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Henri Chavanis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider a system of Brownian particles with long-range interactions. We go beyond the mean field approximation and take fluctuations into account. We introduce a new class of stochastic Fokker-Planck equations associated with a generalized thermodynamical formalism. Generalized thermodynamics arises in the case of complex systems experiencing small-scale constraints. In the limit of short-range interactions, we obtain a generalized class of stochastic Cahn-Hilliard equations. Our formalism has application for several systems of physical interest including self-gravitating Brownian particles, colloid particles at a fluid interface, superconductors of type II, nucleation, the chemotaxis of bacterial populations, and two-dimensional turbulence. We also introduce a new type of generalized entropy taking into account anomalous diffusion and exclusion or inclusion constraints.

  5. Spectral imaging of galaxy clusters with Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Bourdin, H; Rasia, E

    2016-01-01

    The Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect is a promising tool for detecting the presence of hot gas out to the galaxy cluster peripheries. We developed a spectral imaging algorithm dedicated to the SZ observations of nearby galaxy clusters with Planck, with the aim of revealing gas density anisotropies related to the filamentary accretion of materials, or pressure discontinuities induced by the propagation of shock fronts. To optimize an unavoidable trade-off between angular resolution and precision of the SZ flux measurements, the algorithm performs a multiscale analysis of the SZ maps as well as of other extended components, such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and the Galactic thermal dust. The demixing of the SZ signal is tackled through kernel weighted likelihood maximizations. The CMB anisotropies are further analyzed through a wavelet analysis, while the Galactic foregrounds and SZ maps are analyzed via a curvelet analysis that best preserves their anisotropic details. The algorithm perfo...

  6. Proton Decay and the Planck Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Larson, D T

    2005-01-01

    Even without grand unification, proton decay can be a powerful probe of physics at the highest energy scales. Supersymmetric theories with conserved R-parity contain Planck-suppressed dimension 5 operators that give important contributions to nucleon decay. These operators are likely controlled by flavor physics, which means current and near future proton decay experiments might yield clues about the fermion mass spectrum. I present a thorough analysis of nucleon partial lifetimes in supersymmetric one-flavon Froggatt-Nielsen models with a single U(1)_X family symmetry which is responsible for the fermionic mass spectrum as well as forbidding R-parity violating interactions. Many of the models naturally lead to nucleon decay near present limits without any reference to grand unification.

  7. Void Profile from Planck Lensing Potential Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantavat, Teeraparb; Sawangwit, Utane; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2017-02-01

    We use the lensing potential map from Planck CMB lensing reconstruction analysis and the “Public Cosmic Void Catalog” to measure the stacked void lensing potential. We have made an attempt to fit the HSW void profile parameters from the stacked lensing potential. In this profile, four parameters are needed to describe the shape of voids with different characteristic radii R V . However, we have found that after reducing the background noise by subtracting the average background, there is a residue lensing power left in the data. The inclusion of the environment shifting parameter, {γ }V, is necessary to get a better fit to the data with the residue lensing power. We divide the voids into two redshift bins: cmass1 (0.45Digital Sky Survey voids reside in an underdense region.

  8. Analyzing Planck-Like Data with Wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, J. L.; Barreiro, R. B.; Cayón, L.; Martinez-González, E.; Ruiz, G. A.; Diaz, F. J.; Argüeso, F.; Toffolatti, L.

    Basics on the continuous and discrete wavelet transform with two scales are outlined. We study maps representing anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) and the relation to the standard approach, based on the Cl's, is establised through the introduction of a wavelet spectrum. We apply this technique to small angular scale CMB map simulations of size 12.8 x 12.8 degrees and filtered with a 4'.5 Gaussian beam. This resolution resembles the experimental one expected for future high resolution experiments (e.g. the Planck mission). We consider temperature fluctuations derived from standard, open and flat-Lambda CDM models. We also introduce Gaussian noise (uniform and non-uniform) at different S/N levels and results are given regarding denoising.

  9. Planck 2015 results. XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Galactic cold clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    We present the Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC), an all-sky catalogue of Galactic cold clump candidates detected by Planck. This catalogue is the full version of the Early Cold Core (ECC) catalogue, which was made available in 2011 with the Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and which contained 915 high signal-to-noise sources. It is based on the Planck 48-month mission data that are currently being released to the astronomical community. The PGCC catalogue is an observational catalogue consisting exclusively of Galactic cold sources. The three highest Planck bands (857, 454, and 353 GHz) have been combined with IRAS data at 3 THz to perform a multi-frequency detection of sources colder than their local environment. After rejection of possible extragalactic contaminants, the PGCC catalogue contains 13188 Galactic sources spread across the whole sky, i.e., from the Galactic plane to high latitudes, following the spatial distribution of the main molecular cloud complexes. The median temperature of PGCC sources lies between 13 and 14.5 K, depending on the quality of the flux density measurements, with a temperature ranging from 5.8 to 20 K after removing the sources with the top 1% highest temperature estimates. Using seven independent methods, reliable distance estimates have been obtained for 5574 sources, which allows us to derive their physical properties such as their mass, physical size, mean density, and luminosity.The PGCC sources are located mainly in the solar neighbourhood, but also up to a distance of 10.5 kpc in the direction of the Galactic centre, and range from low-mass cores to large molecular clouds. Because of this diversity and because the PGCC catalogue contains sources in very different environments, the catalogue is useful for investigating the evolution from molecular clouds to cores. Finally, it also includes 54 additional sources located in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds.

  10. Planck intermediate results. XXV. The Andromeda Galaxy as seen by Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Battye, R; Benabed, K; Bendo, G; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-HéEraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Israel, F P; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Mac\\'\\ias-PéErez, J F; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Mart\\'\\inez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Pearson, T J; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Mart\\'\\in, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    The Andromeda Galaxy (M31) is one of a few galaxies that has sufficient angular size on the sky to be resolved by the Planck satellite. Planck has detected M31 in all of its frequency bands, and has mapped out the dust emission with the High Frequency Instrument, clearly resolving multiple spiral arms and sub-features. We examine the morphology of this long-wavelength dust emission as seen by Planck, including a study of its outermost spiral arms, and investigate the dust heating mechanism across M31. We find that dust dominating the longer wavelength emission ($\\gtrsim 0.3$ mm) is heated by the diffuse stellar population (as traced by 3.6 $\\mu$m emission), with the dust dominating the shorter wavelength emission heated by a mix of the old stellar population and star-forming regions (as traced by 24 $\\mu$m emission). We also fit spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for individual 5' pixels and quantify the dust properties across the galaxy, taking into account these different heating mechanisms, finding that ...

  11. Planck Intermediate Results. I. Further validation of new Planck clusters with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Balbi, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Bernard, J -P; Böhringer, H; Bonaldi, A; Borrill, J; Bourdin, H; Brown, M L; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cabella, P; Cardoso, J -F; Carvalho, P; Catalano, A; Cayón, L; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, L -Y; Chon, G; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colafrancesco, S; Colombi, S; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Cuttaia, F; Da Silva, A; Dahle, H; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Gasperis, G; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Démoclés, J; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Flores-Cacho, I; Forni, O; Fosalba, P; Frailis, M; Fromenteau, S; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; González-Nuevo, J; González-Riestra, R; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D; Hempel, A; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hornstrup, A; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jasche, J; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Leonardi, R; Liddle, A; Lilje, P B; López-Caniego, M; Luzzi, G; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mann, R; Marleau, F; Marshall, D J; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Osborne, S; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Savini, G; Schaefer, B M; Scott, D; Smoot, G F; Starck, J -L; Stivoli, F; Sutton, D; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Valenziano, L; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wandelt, B D; Weller, J; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A

    2011-01-01

    We present further results from the ongoing XMM-Newton validation follow-up of Planck cluster candidates, detailing X-ray observations of eleven candidates detected at a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.5Planck's capability to detect clusters up to high z . The X-ray properties of the new clusters appear to be similar to previous new detections by Planck at lower z and higher SZ flux: the majority are X-ray underluminous for their mass and have a disturbed morphology. We detect a first indication for Malmquist bias in the Y_SZ-Y_X ...

  12. Planck intermediate results. XXXIX. The Planck list of high-redshift source candidates

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The Planck mission, thanks to its large frequency range and all-sky coverage, has a unique potential for systematically detecting the brightest, and rarest, submillimetre sources on the sky, including distant objects in the high-redshift Universe traced by their dust emission. A novel method, based on a component-separation procedure using a combination of Planck and IRAS data, has been applied to select the most luminous cold submm sources with spectral energy distributions peaking between 353 and 857GHz at 5' resolution. A total of 2151 Planck high-z source candidates (the PHZ) have been detected in the cleanest 26% of the sky, with flux density at 545GHz above 500mJy. Embedded in the cosmic infrared background close to the confusion limit, these high-z candidates exhibit colder colours than their surroundings, consistent with redshifts z>2, assuming a dust temperature of 35K and a spectral index of 1.5. First follow-up observations obtained from optical to submm have confirmed that this list consists of tw...

  13. Planck's High Temperature Catastrophe in Observational Astronomy:- (NASA proves Planck wrong)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Clarence A.

    2009-03-01

    Planck's black body radiation law ( IP=c1 λ^51e^c2λT -1) predicts that a hotter body (higher T) should always emit more intensely than a colder body (lower T) throughout the entire EMR spectrum. However, space age infrared astronomy contradicts this prediction! It is now known that as observation moves from the visible to the near-, mid- and far infrared; increasingly cold celestial objects come into view while hotter ones fade and disappear (http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmicclassroom/irtutori al/irregions.html). Were Planck's law valid, the hottest stars would never disappear; and colder objects would not be detected. This can only be described as a high temperature catastrophe (BAPS, April Meeting 2008, H12.3, St Louis, MO) for Planck's law! On the other hand, Gall's black body radiation law ( IG=σT^6b^2λe^-λTb) (http://sites.google.com/site/purefieldphysics) predicts that as wavelength increases, there is a crossover point above which a colder object will emit more intensely than a hotter one. Hence colder objects will appear and hotter ones will eventually disappear from view. The crossover point for black bodies at 6000K and 100K is 12.066 microns. These calculations with Gall's law are in overall agreement with observational infrared astronomy.

  14. Planck 2015 results. XXVI. The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Argueso, F.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Beichman, C.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bohringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Sanghera, H.S.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tornikoski, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Walter, B.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources is a catalogue of sources detected in single-frequency maps from the full duration of the Planck mission and supersedes previous versions of the Planck compact source catalogues. It consists of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. Compact sources detected in the lower frequency channels are assigned to the PCCS2, while at higher frequencies they are assigned to one of two sub-catalogues, the PCCS2 or PCCS2E, depending on their location on the sky. The first of these catalogues covers most of the sky and allows the user to produce subsamples at higher reliabilities than the target 80% integral reliability of the catalogue. The PCCS2E contains sources detected in sky regions where the diffuse emission makes it difficult to quantify the reliability of the detections. Both the PCCS2 and PCCS2E include polarization measurements, in the form of polarized flux densities, or upper limits, and orientation angles for all seven pol...

  15. Evolution of the Plant Reproduction Master Regulators LFY and the MADS Transcription Factors: The Role of Protein Structure in the Evolutionary Development of the Flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Catarina S; Puranik, Sriharsha; Round, Adam; Brennich, Martha; Jourdain, Agnès; Parcy, François; Hugouvieux, Veronique; Zubieta, Chloe

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary leap from non-flowering (gymnosperms) to flowering (angiosperms) plants and the origin and vast diversification of the floral form has been one of the focuses of plant evolutionary developmental biology. The evolving diversity and increasing complexity of organisms is often due to relatively small changes in genes that direct development. These "developmental control genes" and the transcription factors (TFs) they encode, are at the origin of most morphological changes. TFs such as LEAFY (LFY) and the MADS-domain TFs act as central regulators in key developmental processes of plant reproduction including the floral transition in angiosperms and the specification of the male and female organs in both gymnosperms and angiosperms. In addition to advances in genome wide profiling and forward and reverse genetic screening, structural techniques are becoming important tools in unraveling TF function by providing atomic and molecular level information that was lacking in purely genetic approaches. Here, we summarize previous structural work and present additional biophysical and biochemical studies of the key master regulators of plant reproduction - LEAFY and the MADS-domain TFs SEPALLATA3 and AGAMOUS. We discuss the impact of structural biology on our understanding of the complex evolutionary process leading to the development of the bisexual flower.

  16. Planck intermediate results. XXXIX. The Planck list of high-redshift source candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Catalano, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Welikala, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Planck mission, thanks to its large frequency range and all-sky coverage, has a unique potential for systematically detecting the brightest, and rarest, submillimetre sources on the sky, including distant objects in the high-redshift Universe traced by their dust emission. A novel method, based on a component-separation procedure using a combination of Planck and IRAS data, has been validated and characterized on numerous simulations, and applied to select the most luminous cold submillimetre sources with spectral energy distributions peaking between 353 and 857 GHz at 5' resolution. A total of 2151 Planck high-z source candidates (the PHZ) have been detected in the cleanest 26% of the sky, with flux density at 545 GHz above 500 mJy. Embedded in the cosmic infrared background close to the confusion limit, these high-z candidates exhibit colder colours than their surroundings, consistent with redshifts z > 2, assuming a dust temperature of Txgal = 35 K and a spectral index of βxgal = 1.5. Exhibiting extremely high luminosities, larger than 1014L⊙, the PHZ objects may be made of multiple galaxies or clumps at high redshift, as suggested by a first statistical analysis based on a comparison with number count models. Furthermore, first follow-up observations obtained from optical to submillimetre wavelengths, which can be found in companion papers, have confirmed that this list consists of two distinct populations. A small fraction (around 3%) of the sources have been identified as strongly gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at redshift 2 to 4, while the vast majority of the PHZ sources appear as overdensities of dusty star-forming galaxies, having colours consistent with being at z > 2, and may be considered as proto-cluster candidates. The PHZ provides an original sample, which is complementary to the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich Catalogue (PSZ2); by extending the population of virialized massive galaxy clusters detected below z population of sources at

  17. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: cross correlation with Planck maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, Thibaut; Calabrese, Erminia; Dunkley, Joanna; Næss, Sigurd [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Addison, Graeme E.; Hincks, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hasselfield, Matthew; Hlozek, Renée [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Das, Sudeep [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Devlin, Mark J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, U.S.A (United States); Dünner, Rolando; Infante, Leopoldo [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Gralla, Megan; Marriage, Tobias A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Huffenberger, Kevin [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Keen Physics Building, 77 Chieftan Way, Tallahassee, Florida (United States); Kosowsky, Arthur [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15260 (United States); Moodley, Kavilan [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4041 (South Africa); Niemack, Michael D., E-mail: Thibaut.Louis@astro.ox.ac.uk [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); and others

    2014-07-01

    We present the temperature power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background obtained by cross-correlating maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 and 218 GHz with maps from the Planck satellite at 143 and 217 GHz, in two overlapping regions covering 592 square degrees. We find excellent agreement between the two datasets at both frequencies, quantified using the variance of the residuals between the ACT power spectra and the ACT × Planck cross-spectra. We use these cross-correlations to measure the calibration of the ACT data at 148 and 218 GHz relative to Planck, to 0.7% and 2% precision respectively. We find no evidence for anisotropy in the calibration parameter. We compare the Planck 353 GHz power spectrum with the measured amplitudes of dust and cosmic infrared background (CIB) of ACT data at 148 and 218 GHz. We also compare planet and point source measurements from the two experiments.

  18. Planck intermediate results. XLII. Large-scale Galactic magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, R; Alves, M I R; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Doré, O; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Ferrière, K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D L; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hobson, M; Hornstrup, A; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Masi, S; Melchiorri, A; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Oppermann, N; Orlando, E; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Perotto, L; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Strong, A W; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2016-01-01

    Recent models for the large-scale Galactic magnetic fields in the literature were largely constrained by synchrotron emission and Faraday rotation measures. We select three different but representative models and compare their predicted polarized synchrotron and dust emission with that measured by the Planck satellite. We first update these models to match the Planck synchrotron products using a common model for the cosmic-ray leptons. We discuss the impact on this analysis of the ongoing problems of component separation in the Planck microwave bands and of the uncertain cosmic-ray spectrum. In particular, the inferred degree of ordering in the magnetic fields is sensitive to these systematic uncertainties. We then compare the resulting simulated emission to the observed dust emission and find that the dust predictions do not match the morphology in the Planck data, particularly the vertical profile in latitude. We show how the dust data can then be used to further improve these magnetic field models, particu...

  19. Black hole remnants due to Planck-length deformed QFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkes, Alain R. P.; Maziashvili, Michael; Silagadze, Zurab K.

    2016-10-01

    It was argued in a number of papers that the gravitational potential calculated by using the modified QFT that follows from the Planck-length deformed uncertainty relation implies the existence of black hole (BH) remnants of the order of the Planck mass. Usually, this sort of QFTs are endowed with two specific features, the modified dispersion relation, which is universal, and the concept of minimum length, which, however, is not universal. While the emergence of the minimum length most readily leads to the idea of the BH remnants, here, we examine the behavior of the potential that follows from the Planck-length deformed QFT in the absence of the minimum length and show that it might also lead to the formation of the Planck mass BHs in some particular cases. The calculations are made for higher-dimensional case as well. Such BH remnants might be considered as a possible candidates for the dark-matter.

  20. PRISM: Recovery of the primordial spectrum from Planck data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lanusse, François; Paykari, P; Starck, J.-L; Sureau, F; Bobin, J; Rassat, A

    2014-01-01

    .... It provides an indirect probe of inflation or other structure-formation mechanisms. In this Letter, we recover the primordial power spectrum from the Planck PR1 dataset, using our recently published algorithm PRISM. Methods...

  1. Planck intermediate results XXXI. Microwave survey of Galactic supernova remnants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.

    2016-01-01

    The all-sky Planck survey in 9 frequency bands was used to search for emission from all 274 known Galactic supernova remnants. Of these, 16 were detected in at least two Planck frequencies. The radio-through-microwave spectral energy distributions were compiled to determine the mechanism for micr......The all-sky Planck survey in 9 frequency bands was used to search for emission from all 274 known Galactic supernova remnants. Of these, 16 were detected in at least two Planck frequencies. The radio-through-microwave spectral energy distributions were compiled to determine the mechanism...... for microwave emission. In only one case, IC 443, is there high-frequency emission clearly from dust associated with the supernova remnant. In all cases, the low-frequency emission is from synchrotron radiation. As predicted for a population of relativistic particles with energy distribution that extends...

  2. Fokker-Planck formalism in magnetic resonance simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuprov, Ilya

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Fokker-Planck formalism for non-biological magnetic resonance simulations, describes its existing applications and proposes some novel ones. The most attractive feature of Fokker-Planck theory compared to the commonly used Liouville - von Neumann equation is that, for all relevant types of spatial dynamics (spinning, diffusion, stationary flow, etc.), the corresponding Fokker-Planck Hamiltonian is time-independent. Many difficult NMR, EPR and MRI simulation problems (multiple rotation NMR, ultrafast NMR, gradient-based zero-quantum filters, diffusion and flow NMR, off-resonance soft microwave pulses in EPR, spin-spin coupling effects in MRI, etc.) are simplified significantly in Fokker-Planck space. The paper also summarises the author's experiences with writing and using the corresponding modules of the Spinach library - the methods described below have enabled a large variety of simulations previously considered too complicated for routine practical use.

  3. Planck 2013 results. XXIII. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ade, P.A.R; Rachen, J.P; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    The two fundamental assumptions of the standard cosmological model - that the initial fluctuations are statistically isotropic and Gaussian - are rigorously tested using maps of the CMB anisotropy from the \\Planck\\ satellite...

  4. Planck 2015 results: XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we...... consider the CMB anisotropy maps derived from the multi-frequency Planck data by several component-separation methods. For the temperature anisotropies, we find excellent agreement between results based on these sky maps over both a very large fraction of the sky and a broad range of angular scales......, finding the morphology of stacked peaks to be consistent with the expectations of statistically isotropic simulations. Where they overlap, these results are consistent with the Planck 2013 analysis based on the nominal mission data and provide our most thorough view of the statistics of the CMB...

  5. Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bowyer, J.W.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carr, R.; Casale, M.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Foley, S.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Freschi, M.; Fromenteau, S.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Gallegos, J.; Gandolfo, B.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Haissinski, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lowe, S.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McDonald, A.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miniscalco, R.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Smoot, G.F.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Taylor, D.; Terenzi, L.; Texier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Tuttlebee, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Watson, C.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    The ESA's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early universe, was launched on May 2009 and has been surveying the microwave and submillimetre sky since August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration publicly released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.5 months of Planck operations, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper describes the mission and its performance, and gives an overview of the processing and analysis of the data, the characteristics of the data, the main scientific results, and the science data products and papers in the release. Scientific results include robust support for the standard, six parameter LCDM model of cosmology and improved measurements for the parameters that define this model, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum. The Planck values for some of these parameters and others derived from them are significantly different fr...

  6. Planck 2015 results: IV. Low Frequency Instru