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Sample records for planar terahertz quasioptics

  1. Terahertz performance of quasioptical front-ends with a hotelectron bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, A; Richter, H; Guenther, B; Huebers, H-W; Karamarkovic, J

    2006-01-01

    We present terahertz performance of quasioptical front-ends consisting of a hotelectron bolometer imbedded in a planar feed antenna and integrated with an immersion lens. The impedance and radiation pattern of the log-spiral and double-slot planar feeds are evaluated using the method of moments; the collimating action of the lens is modelled using the physical optics. The total efficiency of the front-ends is computed taking into account frequency dependent impedance of the bolometer. Measured performance of the front-ends qualifies the simulation technique as a reliable tool for the design of terahertz receivers

  2. Study of image reconstruction for terahertz indirect holography with quasi-optics receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Li, Chao; Fang, Guangyou

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, an indirect holographic image reconstruction algorithm was studied for terahertz imaging with a quasi-optics receiver. Based on the combination of the reciprocity principle and modified quasi-optics theory, analytical expressions of the received spatial power distribution and its spectrum are obtained for the interference pattern of target wave and reference wave. These results clearly give the quantitative relationship between imaging quality and the parameters of a Gaussian beam, which provides a good criterion for terahertz quasi-optics transceivers design in terahertz off-axis holographic imagers. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed analysis method, some imaging results with a 0.3 THz prototype system are shown based on electromagnetic simulation.

  3. Asymmetric planar terahertz metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ramjan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Al - Naib, Ibraheem A. I. [PHILIPPS UNIV; Koch, Martin [PHILIPPS UNIV; Zhang, Weili [OKLAHOMA STATE UNIV

    2010-01-01

    Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, we report an experimental observation of three distinct resonances in split ring resonators (SRRs) for both vertical and horizontal electric field polarizations at normal incidence. Breaking the symmetry in SRRs by gradually displacing the capacitive gap from the centre towards the comer of the ring allows for an 85% modulation of the fundamental inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance. Increasing asymmetry leads to the evolution of an otherwise inaccessible high quality factor electric quadrupole resonance that can be exploited for bio-sensing applications in the terahertz region.

  4. Quasi-optical antenna-mixer-array design for terahertz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong; Potter, Kent A.; Rutledge, David B.

    1992-01-01

    A new quasi-optical antenna-mixer-array design for terahertz frequencies is presented. In the design, antenna and mixer are combined into an entity, based on the technology in which millimeter-wave horn antenna arrays have been fabricated in silicon wafers. It consists of a set of forward- and backward-looking horns made with a set of silicon wafers. The front side is used to receive incoming signal, and the back side is used to feed local oscillator signal. Intermediate frequency is led out from the side of the array. Signal received by the horn array is picked up by antenna probes suspended on thin silicon-oxynitride membranes inside the horns. Mixer diodes will be located on the membranes inside the horns. Modeling of such an antenna-mixer-array design is done on a scaled model at microwave frequencies. The impedance matching, RF and LO isolation, and patterns of the array have been tested and analyzed.

  5. Dielectric Covered Planar Antennas at Submillimeter Wavelengths for Terahertz Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Skalare, Anders; Lee, Choonsup; Llombart, Nuria; Siegel, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    Most optical systems require antennas with directive patterns. This means that the physical area of the antenna will be large in terms of the wavelength. When non-cooled systems are used, the losses of microstrip or coplanar waveguide lines impede the use of standard patch or slot antennas for a large number of elements in a phased array format. Traditionally, this problem has been solved by using silicon lenses. However, if an array of such highly directive antennas is to be used for imaging applications, the fabrication of many closely spaced lenses becomes a problem. Moreover, planar antennas are usually fed by microstrip or coplanar waveguides while the mixer or the detector elements (usually Schottky diodes) are coupled in a waveguide environment. The coupling between the antenna and the detector/ mixer can be a fabrication challenge in an imaging array at submillimeter wavelengths. Antennas excited by a waveguide (TE10) mode makes use of dielectric superlayers to increase the directivity. These antennas create a kind of Fabry- Perot cavity between the ground plane and the first layer of dielectric. In reality, the antenna operates as a leaky wave mode where a leaky wave pole propagates along the cavity while it radiates. Thanks to this pole, the directivity of a small antenna is considerably enhanced. The antenna consists of a waveguide feed, which can be coupled to a mixer or detector such as a Schottky diode via a standard probe design. The waveguide is loaded with a double-slot iris to perform an impedance match and to suppress undesired modes that can propagate on the cavity. On top of the slot there is an air cavity and on top, a small portion of a hemispherical lens. The fractional bandwidth of such antennas is around 10 percent, which is good enough for heterodyne imaging applications.The new geometry makes use of a silicon lens instead of dielectric quarter wavelength substrates. This design presents several advantages when used in the submillimeter

  6. Optically active Babinet planar metamaterial film for terahertz polarization manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu; Kremers, C.

    2013-01-01

    A planar Babinet-inverted dimer metamaterial possessing strong optical activity is proposed and characterized. An original fabrication method to produce large area (up to several cm2) freely suspended flexible metallic membranes is implemented to fabricate the metamaterial. Its optical properties...

  7. Planar integrated metasurfaces for highly-collimated terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guozhen; Dupont, Emmanuel; Fathololoumi, Saeed; Wasilewski, Zbigniew R.; Ban, Dayan; Liang, Hou Kun; Zhang, Ying; Yu, Siu Fung; Li, Lianhe H.; Davies, Alexander Giles; Linfield, Edmund H.; Liu, Hui Chun; Wang, Qi Jie

    2014-01-01

    We report planar integration of tapered terahertz (THz) frequency quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) with metasurface waveguides that are designed to be spoof surface plasmon (SSP) out-couplers by introducing periodically arranged SSP scatterers. The resulting surface-emitting THz beam profile is highly collimated with a divergence as narrow as ~4° × 10°, which indicates a good waveguiding property of the metasurface waveguide. In addition, the low background THz power implies a high coupling efficiency for the THz radiation from the laser cavity to the metasurface structure. Furthermore, since all the structures are in-plane, this scheme provides a promising platform where well-established surface plasmon/metasurface techniques can be employed to engineer the emitted beam of THz QCLs controllably and flexibly. More importantly, an integrated active THz photonic circuit for sensing and communication applications could be constructed by incorporating other optoelectronic devices such as Schottky diode THz mixers, and graphene modulators and photodetectors. PMID:25403796

  8. Dispersion characteristics of planar grating with arbitrary grooves for terahertz Smith-Purcell radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Miaomiao; Li, Ke; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method of getting the dispersion relations in planar grating with arbitrary grooves for terahertz Smith-Purcell radiation is investigated analytically. The continuous profile of the groove is approximately replaced by a series of rectangular steps. By making use of field matches method and the continuity of transverse admittance, the universal dispersion equation for grating with arbitrarily shaped grooves is derived. By solving the dispersion equation in presence of electron beam, the growth rate is obtained directly and the dependence on beam parameters is analyzed. Comparisons of the dispersion characteristics among some special groove shapes have been made by numerical calculation. The results show that the rectangular-step approximation method provides a novel approach to obtain the universal dispersion relation for grating with arbitrary grooves for Smith-Purcell radiation

  9. A metamaterial terahertz modulator based on complementary planar double-split-ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang-hui; Kuang, Deng-feng; Chang, Sheng-jiang; Lin, Lie

    2013-07-01

    A metamaterial based on complementary planar double-split-ring resonator (DSRR) structure is presented and demonstrated, which can optically tune the transmission of the terahertz (THz) wave. Unlike the traditional DSRR metamaterials, the DSRR discussed in this paper consists of two split rings connected by two bridges. Numerical simulations with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method reveal that the transmission spectra of the original and the complementary metamaterials are both in good agreement with Babinet's principle. Then by increasing the carrier density of the intrinsic GaAs substrate, the magnetic response of the complementary special DSRR metamaterial can be weakened or even turned off. This metamaterial structure is promised to be a narrow-band THz modulator with response time of several nanoseconds.

  10. Planar InP-based Schottky barrier diodes for terahertz applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jingtao; Yang Chengyue; Ge Ji; Jin Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Based on characteristics such as low barrier and high electron mobility of lattice matched In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As layer, InP-based Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) exhibit the superiorities in achieving a lower turn-on voltage and series resistance in comparison with GaAs ones. Planar InP-based SBDs have been developed in this paper. Measurements show that a low forward turn-on voltage of less than 0.2 V and a cutoff frequency of up to 3.4 THz have been achieved. The key factors of the diode such as series resistance and the zero-biased junction capacitance are measured to be 3.32 Ω; and 9.1 fF, respectively. They are highly consistent with the calculated values. The performances of the InP-based SBDs in this work, such as low noise and low loss, are promising for applications in the terahertz mixer, multiplier and detector circuits. (semiconductor devices)

  11. Quasioptical Josephson oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wengler, M.J.; Pance, A.; Liu, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the authors' work with large 2-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions for submillimeter power generation. The basic design of the Quasioptical Josephson Oscillator (QJO) is presented. The reasons for each design decision are discussed. Superconducting devices have not yet been fabricated, but scale models and computer simulations have been done. A method for characterizing array rf coupling structures is described, and initial results with this method are presented. Microwave scale models of the radiation structure are built and a series of measurements are made with a network analyzer

  12. Fabrication and characterization of terahertz anisotropic anti-rod dimer planar metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu; Novitsky, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    In this work we describe the fabrication and characterization of free-standing membranes with thick anti-rod dimers metamaterials for terahertz waves. Two different designs with parallel and V-shape anti-rods were analysed. Even though both structures consists of simple elements, namely anti......-rod dimers, they reveal interesting birefringent and dichroic transmission properties....

  13. Terahertz bandwidth photonic Hilbert transformers based on synthesized planar Bragg grating fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Chaotan; Gates, J C; Holmes, C; Mennea, P L; Zervas, M N; Smith, P G R

    2013-09-01

    Terahertz bandwidth photonic Hilbert transformers are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The integrated device is fabricated via a direct UV grating writing technique in a silica-on-silicon platform. The photonic Hilbert transformer operates at bandwidths of up to 2 THz (~16 nm) in the telecom band, a 10-fold greater bandwidth than any previously reported experimental approaches. Achieving this performance requires detailed knowledge of the system transfer function of the direct UV grating writing technique; this allows improved linearity and yields terahertz bandwidth Bragg gratings with improved spectral quality. By incorporating a flat-top reflector and Hilbert grating with a waveguide coupler, an ultrawideband all-optical single-sideband filter is demonstrated.

  14. Terahertz plasmonic Bessel beamformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnai, Yasuaki; Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Jahn, David; Koch, Martin; Withayachumnankul, Withawat

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate terahertz Bessel beamforming based on the concept of plasmonics. The proposed planar structure is made of concentric metallic grooves with a subwavelength spacing that couple to a point source to create tightly confined surface waves or spoof surface plasmon polaritons. Concentric scatterers periodically incorporated at a wavelength scale allow for launching the surface waves into free space to define a Bessel beam. The Bessel beam defined at 0.29 THz has been characterized through terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. This approach is capable of generating Bessel beams with planar structures as opposed to bulky axicon lenses and can be readily integrated with solid-state terahertz sources

  15. Electric-field tuning of a planar terahertz metamaterial based on strained SrTiO.sub.3./sub. layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Christelle; Skoromets, Volodymyr; Kadlec, Filip; Němec, Hynek; Chen, H.T.; Jurka, Vlastimil; Hruška, Karel; Kužel, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 5 (2018), s. 1-5, č. článku 054001. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-25639S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : tunable metamaterial * metasurfaces * strontium titanate * epitaxial thin films * terahertz waves Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics , supercond.) Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016

  16. A Broadband Metasurface-Based Terahertz Flat-Lens Array

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiu; Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Yuehong; Tian, Zhen; Gu, Jianqiang; Yue, Weisheng; Zhang, Shuang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili; Zhang, Weili

    2015-01-01

    A metasurface-based terahertz flat-lens array is proposed, comprising C-shaped split-ring resonators exhibiting locally engineerable phase discontinuities. Possessing a high numerical aperture, the planar lens array is flexible, robust, and shows excellent focusing characteristics in a broadband terahertz frequency. It could be an important step towards the development of planar terahertz focusing devices for practical applications.

  17. A Broadband Metasurface-Based Terahertz Flat-Lens Array

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiu

    2015-02-12

    A metasurface-based terahertz flat-lens array is proposed, comprising C-shaped split-ring resonators exhibiting locally engineerable phase discontinuities. Possessing a high numerical aperture, the planar lens array is flexible, robust, and shows excellent focusing characteristics in a broadband terahertz frequency. It could be an important step towards the development of planar terahertz focusing devices for practical applications.

  18. Ellipsoidal diffraction grating as output coupler for quasi-optical gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogge, J.P.; Cao, H.; Tran, T.M.; Tran, M.Q.; Paris, P.J.; Kasparek, W.

    1991-01-01

    The use of a diffraction grating arranged in the -1 Littrow mount as an output coupler for a quasi-optical Fabry-Perot resonator at microwave frequencies (100 GHz) was suggested in 1990. A planar grating with curvilinear grooves (in order to match the Littrow condition everywhere on the surface for a given Gaussian beam) gives a power coupling efficiency of 85% which is limited by the depolarization but gave approximately the same global efficiency because of distortion. We report low power tests on an improvement of the second scheme, based on curved grooves on an ellipsoidal surface, which gives a global efficiency of 94%. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs

  19. MM wave quasioptical SIS mixers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Qing; Mears, C.A.; Richards, P.L.; Lloyd, F.L.

    1988-08-01

    We have tested the performance of planar SIS mixers with log-periodic antennas at near millimeter and submillimeter wave frequencies from 90 to 360 GHz. The large ωR/sub N/C product (/approximately/10 at 90 GHz) of our Nb/NbO/sub x//Pb-In-Au junctions requires an integrated inductive tuning element to resonate the junction capacitance at the operating frequencies. We have used two types of integrated tuning element, which were designed with the aid of measurements using a Fourier transform spectrometer. Preliminary results indicate that the tuning elements can give very good mixer performance up to at least 200 GHz. An inductive wire in parallel with a 5-junction array gives a minimum mixer noise temperature of 115K (DSB) at 90 GHz with a FWHM bandwidth of 8 GHz. An open-ended microstrip stub in parallel with a single junction, gives minimum mixer noise temperatures of 150 and 200K (DSB) near 90 and 180 GHz with FWHM bandwidths of 4 and 3 GHz, respectively. The relatively high mixer noise temperatures compared to those of waveguide SIS mixers in a similar frequency range are attributed mainly to the losses in our optical system, which is being improved. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  20. Terahertz metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hou-tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoineete J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present our recent developments in terahertz (THz) metamaterials and devices. Planar THz metamaterials and their complementary structures fabricated on suitable substrates have shown electric resonant response, which causes the band-pass or band-stop property in THz transmission and reflection. The operational frequency can be further tuned up to 20% upon photoexcitation of an integrated semiconductor region in the splitring resonators as the metamaterial elements. On the other hand, the use of semiconductors as metamaterial substrates enables dynamical control of metamaterial resonances through photoexcitation, and reducing the substrate carrier lifetime further enables an ultrafast switching recovery. The metamaterial resonances can also be actively controlled by application of a voltage bias when they are fabricated on semiconductor substrates with appropriate doping concentration and thickness. Using this electrically driven approach, THz modulation depth up to 80% and modulation speed of 2 MHz at room temperature have been demonstrated, which suggests practical THz applications.

  1. Quasi-optical techniques for ECRH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andenaerde, K.; Beyer, J.; Vernon, R.

    1985-01-01

    The status of research at Wisconsin on quasi-optical launchers for ECRH is presented. Wengenroth's mode transducing antenna has been investigated theoretically. Agreement with experiment using TE 01 excitation is excellent, and the theory has been expanded to include TE 02 and TE 03 excitation as well. A system incorporating such and similar mode transducing antennas with a Cassegrain system will combine the output of various gyrotrons. A device to test this and similar concepts is being built and has been preliminarily tested for mode purity

  2. Operation of a quasioptical electron cyclotron maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, E.C.; Pyle, R.V.

    1984-12-01

    The electron cyclotron maser or gyrotron concept has been developed to produce sources producing 200 kW at 28 GHz continuously, and higher power outputs and frequencies in pulsed mode. These sources have been useful in electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in magnetically confined fusion devices. However, higher frequencies and higher power levels will be required in reactor-grade fusion plasmas, with likely requirements of 1.0 MW or more per source at 140 GHz. Conventional gyrotrons follow a trend of decreasing power for increasing frequency. In order to circumvent this problem, the quasioptical electron cyclotron maser was proposed. In this device, the closed resonator of the conventional gyrotron is replaced with an open, Fabry-Perot type resonator. The cavity modes are then the TEM-type modes of an optical laser. The advantage of this configuration is that the cavity size is not a function of frequency, since the length can be any half-integer number of wavelengths. Furthermore, the beam traverses across the cavity transverse to the direction of radiation output, and thus the rf window design is less complicated than in conventional tubes. The rf output, if obtained by diffraction coupling around one of the mirrors, could be in a TEM mode, which would allow for quasioptical transmission of the microwaves into the plasma in fusion devices. 4 references, 1 figure

  3. Quasi-optical gyrotron: present status and future prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, M.Q.

    1989-01-01

    A review of the main experiments on quasi-optical gyrotron is presented. Methods to improve the efficiency (pencil beam electron gun and depressed collector) will be discussed. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab., 10 refs

  4. Advanced Quasioptical Launcher System. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This program developed an analytical design tool for designing antenna and mirror systems to convert whispering gallery RF modes to Gaussian or HE11 modes. Whispering gallery modes are generated by gyrotrons used for electron cyclotron heating of fusion plasmas in tokamaks. These modes cannot be easily transmitted and must be converted to free space or waveguide modes compatible with transmission line systems.This program improved the capability of SURF3D/LOT, which was initially developed in a previous SBIR program. This suite of codes revolutionized quasi-optical launcher design, and this code, or equivalent codes, are now used worldwide. This program added functionality to SURF3D/LOT to allow creating of more compact launcher and mirror systems and provide direct coupling to corrugated waveguide within the vacuum envelope of the gyrotron. Analysis was also extended to include full-wave analysis of mirror transmission line systems. The code includes a graphical user interface and is available for advanced design of launcher systems.

  5. Research and design of quasi-optical mode converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianwei; Zhao Qing

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a quasi-optical mode converter which can convert the output mode of gyrotrons and other high-power microwave oscillators into quasi-Gaussian beam, aiming to achieve transverse output of quasi-Gaussian beam TEM 00 mode. First, we analyze mode propagation in the waveguide and the working mechanism of the Vlasov launcher. Then the radiation fields are calculated using vector diffraction theory. At last a quasi-optical mode converter is designed to convert the 94 GHz, TE 62 mode millimeter wave into quasi-Gaussian beam with programming method. The results prove that quasi-Gaussian mode can be obtained at the output window with a simple Vlasov launcher and two mirrors, and the power transmission efficiency of the quasi-optical mode converter reaches to 87.5%. (authors)

  6. Quasi-optical grill mounted in hyperguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preinhaelter, J.

    1995-04-01

    A proposal is given of a new launcher of lower hybrid waves for the current drive in future big thermonuclear facilities operating in the 10 GHz frequency range. The principle has been combined of the quasi-optical grill with the concepts of the hyperguide and the multiinjection grill. As an example, a six rod structure model was optimized mounted in a oversized waveguide and irradiated by the oblique plane wave emerging in the form of a higher mode from an auxiliary oversized waveguide. The rods of the optimum structure have the elongated form of the cross-section with the resonant length in the direction of wave propagation equal to a multiple of the half-wavelength of the fundamental mode of the hyperguide. This row of rods forms a multiinjection grill with zero phase shift between waveguides. The second row of rods supporting the constructive superposition of the incident and doubly reflected waves enhances the efficiency of the structure. The optimum structure has a power spectrum with narrow peaks (the main N || =-2.15 and the parasitic N || =3.15), low power reflection (R tot =15%), high coupled power directivity (δ CP =70%), reasonable N || -weighted directivity (|δ CD w |=35%) and the peaking factor on the electric field equal to 3. Based on the optimization it is possible to design parameters of a big structure with tens of rods. The number of the construction elements of the structure can be reduced 20 times compared with the standard multijunction array. (author) 14 figs., 22 refs

  7. Active terahertz metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hou-tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an overview of research in our group in terahertz (THz) metamaterials and their applications. We have developed a series of planar metamaterials operating at THz frequencies, all of which exhibit a strong resonant response. By incorporating natural materials, e.g. semiconductors, as the substrates or as critical regions of metamaterial elements, we are able to effectively control the metamaterial resonance by the application of external stimuli, e.g., photoexcitation and electrical bias. Such actively controllable metamaterials provide novel functionalities for solid-state device applications with unprecedented performance, such as THz spectroscopy, imaging, and many others.

  8. Terahertz oscillations in an In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As submicron planar Gunn diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Ata, E-mail: ata.khalid@glasgow.ac.uk; Thoms, S.; Macintyre, D.; Li, C.; Steer, M. J.; Papageorgiou, V.; Thayne, I. G.; Cumming, D. R. S. [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8LT (United Kingdom); Dunn, G. M.; Macpherson, R. F.; Stephen, A. [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 SFX (United Kingdom); Kuball, M.; Montes Bajo, M. [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Oxley, C. H.; Glover, J. [Electronic Engineering Department, Faculty of Technology, De Montfort University, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-21

    The length of the transit region of a Gunn diode determines the natural frequency at which it operates in fundamental mode—the shorter the device, the higher the frequency of operation. The long-held view on Gunn diode design is that for a functioning device the minimum length of the transit region is about 1.5 μm, limiting the devices to fundamental mode operation at frequencies of roughly 60 GHz. Study of these devices by more advanced Monte Carlo techniques that simulate the ballistic transport and electron-phonon interactions that govern device behaviour, offers a new lower bound of 0.5 μm, which is already being approached by the experimental evidence that has shown planar and vertical devices exhibiting Gunn operation at 600 nm and 700 nm, respectively. The paper presents results of the first ever THz submicron planar Gunn diode fabricated in In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As on an InP substrate, operating at a fundamental frequency above 300 GHz. Experimentally measured rf power of 28 μW was obtained from a 600 nm long × 120 μm wide device. At this new length, operation in fundamental mode at much higher frequencies becomes possible—the Monte Carlo model used predicts power output at frequencies over 300 GHz.

  9. High efficiency optoelectronic terahertz sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampin, Jean-François; Peytavit, Emilien; Akalin, Tahsin; Ducournau, G.; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael

    2010-08-01

    We have developed a new generation of optoelectronic large bandwidth terahertz sources based on TEM horn antennas monolithically integrated with several types of photodetectors: low-temperature grown GaAs (LTG-GaAs) planar photoconductors, vertically integrated LTG-GaAs photoconductors on silicon substrate and uni-travelling-carrier photodiodes. Results of pulsed (time-domain) and photomixing (CW, frequency domain) experiments are presented.

  10. Quasi-optical mode converter for a coaxial cavity gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, J.

    2007-03-01

    This work concentrates on the synthesis of the quasioptical mode converter for the 170 GHz, TE 34,19 -mode, 2MW, CW coaxial-cavity gyrotron at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK). The improvement of the general method for the design of so-call dimpled-wall launcher to provide a good Gaussian mode content is described. This method is verified through the design of a launcher operating in the TE 22,6 mode at 118 GHz. A phase rule is proposed as a quality criterion for monitoring the optimization and the choices of parameters of the quasi-optical mode converter. High-order harmonics introduced to the launcher wall deformations are proposed for this gyrotron. The launcher is numerically optimized, the fields on the cut edges are suppressed. The fields in the launcher are well approximated by the waveguide modes, the radiated fields are calculated using the scalar diffraction integral. The procedure for the numerical optimization of the mirror system is improved, the tolerance conditions of the phase correcting mirrors are investigated. A conversion efficiency of 95.8% to the circular fundamental Gaussian distribution with 20mm beam waist and power transmission of 90% are achieved in the window plane using the optimized quasi-optical mode converter. The methods to ameliorate the initial conditions of the phase correcting mirrors are explored. (orig.)

  11. EDITORIAL: Terahertz nanotechnology Terahertz nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Reno, John L.

    2013-05-01

    A useful synergy is being established between terahertz research and nanotechnology. High power sources [1-3] and detectors [4] in what was once considered the terahertz 'frequency gap' [5] in the electromagnetic spectrum have stimulated research with huge potential benefits in a range of industries including food, medicine and security, as well as fundamental physics and astrophysics. This special section, with guest editors Masayoshi Tonouchi and John Reno, gives a glimpse of the new horizons nanotechnology is broaching in terahertz research. While the wavelengths relevant to the terahertz domain range from hundreds of micrometres to millimetres, structures at the nanoscale reveal interesting low energy dynamics in this region. As a result terahertz spectroscopy techniques are becoming increasingly important in nanomaterial characterization, as demonstrated in this special section by colleagues at the University of Oxford in the UK and the Australian National University. They use terahertz spectroscopy to identify the best nanostructure parameters for specific applications [6]. The low energy dynamics in nanostructures also makes them valuable tools for terahertz detection [7]. In addition the much sought after terahertz detection over broadband frequency ranges has been demonstrated, providing versatility that has been greatly in demand, particularly in spectroscopy applications [8, 9]. Also in this special section, researchers in Germany and China tackle some of the coupling issues in terahertz time domain spectroscopy with an emitter specifically well suited for systems operated with an amplified fibre [3]. 'In medical imaging, the advantage of THz radiation is safety, because its energy is much lower than the ionization energy of biological molecules, in contrast to hazardous x-ray radiation,' explains Joo-Hiuk Son from the University of Seoul in Korea in his review [10]. As he also points out, the rotational and vibrational energies of water molecules are

  12. Experimental Realization of an Epsilon-Near-Zero Graded-Index Metalens at Terahertz Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Peña, Victor; Engheta, Nader; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Gentselev, Alexandr; Beruete, Miguel

    2017-09-01

    The terahertz band has been historically hindered by the lack of efficient generators and detectors, but a series of recent breakthroughs have helped to effectively close the "terahertz gap." A rapid development of terahertz technology has been possible thanks to the translation of revolutionary concepts from other regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Among them, metamaterials stand out for their unprecedented ability to control wave propagation and manipulate electromagnetic response of matter. They have become a workhorse in the development of terahertz devices such as lenses, polarizers, etc., with fascinating features. In particular, epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials have attracted much attention in the past several years due to their unusual properties such as squeezing, tunneling, and supercoupling where a wave traveling inside an electrically small channel filled with an ENZ medium can be tunneled through it, reducing reflections and coupling most of its energy. Here, we design and experimentally demonstrate an ENZ graded-index (GRIN) metamaterial lens operating at terahertz with a power enhancement of 16.2 dB, using an array of narrow hollow rectangular waveguides working near their cutoff frequencies. This is a demonstration of an ENZ GRIN device at terahertz and can open the path towards other realizations of similar devices enabling full quasioptical processing of terahertz signals.

  13. Optimizing the coupling of output of a quasi-optical gyrotron owing to a diffraction grating with ellipsoidal support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogge, J.P.

    1993-12-01

    The output scheme of a quasi-optical gyrotron has been optimized in order to produce a gaussian output microwave beam suitable for transmission over long distances. The technique which has been applied consists of substituting one of the mirrors of the Fabry-Perot resonator in which the particle-wave interaction takes place by a diffraction grating placed in the -1 order Littrow mount and designed such that only orders -1 and 0 can propagate. In such a configuration, the diffraction angle of the order -1 coincides exactly with the incidence direction, thus providing a feedback in the cavity, whereas the order 0 constitutes the output of the resonator. A theoretical study of the power content in each diffracted order of a planar grating of infinite extent with equally spaced linear grooves as a function of the grating parameters has been performed. It has been shown that parameter domains can be found, which provide appropriate efficiencies in both orders for an application on a quasi-optical gyrotron. The Littrow condition was then adapted in order to match the spherical wavefronts of a gaussian beam incident on a possibly non-planar surface. The grooves become thus curvilinear and are no longer equally spaced. Measurements made on a cold test stand have confirmed the validity of the Littrow condition extension and allowed to determine its limits. It has also been shown that this type of cavity provides a mode having an optimal gaussian content and giving a minimal cavity transmission. The angular dispersion of the grating leads to a higher cavity transmission and to a slightly lower gaussian content for the adjacent resonator modes. The fundamental eigenmode electric field profile has been measured inside the cavity and is similar to that of an equivalent resonator made with two spherical mirrors. (author) figs., tabs., 141 refs

  14. Quasi-optical gyrotron development at the CRPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, M.Q.

    1990-09-01

    The operation of the 100GHz quasi-optical (Q.O.) gyrotron of the Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas in Lausanne is described. Power up to 90kW and efficiency up to 12% have been achieved. Other features of the Q.O. gyrotron include single longitudinal mode operation, frequency tunability. Second harmonic emission (200GHz) has been observed with a resonator designed for operation at the fundamental. The issues pertinent to the Q.O. gyrotron concept are also discussed. (author) 26 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Terahertz detectors using hot-electrons in superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, A. [DLR, Inst. of Planetary Research, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Recently the terahertz gap has been recognized as a prospective spectral range for radioastronomy as well as for material and security studies. Implementation of terahertz technology in these fields requires further improvement of instruments and their major subcomponents. Physical phenomena associated with the local and homogeneous non-equilibrium electron sates in thin superconducting films offer numerous possibilities for the development of terahertz and infrared detectors. Depending on the nature of the resistive state and the operation regime, a variety of detector can be realized. They are e.g. direct bolometric or kinetic inductance detectors, heterodyne mixers or photon counters. Operation principles and physical limitations of these devices will be discussed. Two examples of the detector development made in cooperation between the German Aerospace Center, the University of Karlsruhe and PTB, Berlin will be presented. The energy resolving single-photon detector with an almost fundamentally limited energy resolution of 0.6 eV at 6.5 K for photons with wavelengths from 400 nm to 2500 nm and the heterodyne mixer quasioptically coupled to radiation in the frequency range from 0.8 THz to 5 THz and providing a noise temperature of less then ten times the quantum limit. The mixers will be implemented in the terahertz radar for security screening (TERASEC) and in the heterodyne receiver of the stratospheric observatory SOFIA. (orig.)

  16. Detection of Terahertz Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for detecting terahertz radiation, a camera device, and a method for detecting terahertz radiation.......The present invention relates to a system for detecting terahertz radiation, a camera device, and a method for detecting terahertz radiation....

  17. Plasma wave instability and amplification of terahertz radiation in field-effect-transistor arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V V; Tsymbalov, G M; Shur, M S

    2008-01-01

    We show that the strong amplification of terahertz radiation takes place in an array of field-effect transistors at small DC drain currents due to hydrodynamic plasmon instability of the collective plasmon mode. Planar designs compatible with standard integrated circuit fabrication processes and strong coupling of terahertz radiation to plasmon modes in FET arrays make such arrays very attractive for potential applications in solid-state terahertz amplifiers and emitters

  18. Graphene-based devices in terahertz science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuji, T; Boubanga Tombet, S A; Satou, A; Fukidome, H; Suemitsu, M; Ryzhii, V; Sano, E; Popov, V; Ryzhii, M

    2012-01-01

    Graphene is a one-atom-thick planar sheet of a honeycomb carbon crystal. Its gapless and linear energy spectra of electrons and holes lead to nontrivial features such as giant carrier mobility and broadband flat optical response. In this paper, recent advances in graphene-based devices in terahertz science and technology are reviewed. First, the fundamental basis of the optoelectronic properties of graphene is introduced. Second, synthesis and crystallographic characterization of graphene material are described, particularly focused on the authors' original heteroepitaxial graphene-on-silicon technology. Third, nonequilibrium carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in optically or electrically pumped graphene are described to introduce a possibility of negative-dynamic conductivity in a wide terahertz range. Fourth, recent theoretical advances towards the creation of current-injection graphene terahertz lasers are described. Fifth, the unique terahertz dynamics of the two-dimensional plasmons in graphene are described. Finally, the advantages of graphene devices for terahertz applications are summarized. (topical review)

  19. Terahertz ptychography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valzania, Lorenzo; Feurer, Thomas; Zolliker, Peter; Hack, Erwin

    2018-02-01

    We realized a phase retrieval technique using terahertz (THz) radiation as an alternative to THz digital holography, named THz ptychography. Ptychography has been used in x-ray imaging as a groundbreaking improvement of conventional coherent diffraction imaging. Here we show that ptychography can be performed at THz frequencies too. We reconstructed an amplitude and a phase object with both simulated and real data. Lateral resolution accounts to <2λ, while depth variations as low as λ/30 can be assessed.

  20. Experimental measurements on a 100 GHz frequency tunable quasioptical gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, S.; Tran, M.Q.; Hogge, J.P.; Tran, T.M.; Bondeson, A.; Muggli, P.; Perrenoud, A.; Joedicke, B.; Mathews, H.G.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments on a 100 GHz quasioptical (QO) gyrotron operating at the fundamental (ω=Ω ce ) are described. Powers larger than 90 kW at an efficiency of about 12% were achieved. Depending on the electron beam parameters, the frequency spectrum of the output can be either single moded or multimoded. One of the main advantages of the QO gyrotron over the conventional gyrotron is its continuous frequency tunability. Various techniques to tune the output frequency have been tested, such as changing the mirror separation, the beam voltage, or the main magnetic field. Within the limitations of the present setup, 5% tunability was achieved. The QO gyrotron designed for operation at the fundamental frequency exhibits simultaneous emission at 100 GHz (fundamental) and 200 GHz (second harmonic). For a beam current of 4 A, 20% of the total rf power is emitted at the second harmonic

  1. MFTF-B quasi-optical ECRH transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugo, J.J.; Shearer, J.W.; Ziolkowski, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    The microwave transmission system for ERCH on MFTF-B will utilize quasi-optical transmission techniques. The system consists of ten gyrotron oscillators: two gyrotrons at 28 GHz, two at 35 GHz, and six at 56 GHz. The 28 and 35 GHz gyrotrons both heat the electrons in the end plug (potential peak) while the 56 GHz sources heat the minimum-B anchor region (potential minimum). Microwaves are launched into a pair of cylindrical mirrors that form a pseudo-cavity which directs the microwaves through the plasma numerous times before they are lost out of the cavity. The cavity allows the microwave beam to reach the resonance zone over a wide range of plasma densities and temperatures. The fundamental electron cyclotron resonance moves to higher axial positions as a result of beta-depression of the magnetic field, doppler shifting of the resonance, and relativistic mass corrections for the electrons. With this system the microwave beam will reach the resonance surface at the correct angle of incidence for any density or temperature without active aiming of the antennas. The cavity also allows the beam to make multiple passes through the plasma to increase the heating efficiency at low temperatures and densities when the single pass absorption is low. In addition, neutral beams and diagnostics have an unobstructed view of the plasma

  2. Resonant Quasi-Optical Systems with Multi-Row Periodic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksandr, Rybalko; Rybalko, Yu A.; Buriak, I. A.

    2017-01-01

    Selective properties of resonant quasi-optical systems with periodical multi-row structures in millimeter wavelength range are described. The possibility of selection fluctuations in the volume of open resonator using double-row periodic elements was shown in the experiment at 70-80 GHz. Advantages...... and possibility of control the energy characteristics of such structures are also described. The obtained experimental data is used to confirm the results of computational analysis previously described in the literature. Implementation of resonant quasi-optical systems with multi-row periodic structures...

  3. Quasi-optical internal mode converters for 110 GHz gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, B.M.; Lorbeck, J.A.; Vernon, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Many early gyrotrons had a microwave output in the same mode that was produced in the microwave cavity, e.g. the TE 02 mode. These modes were often converted outside of the tube to a more desirable mode for plasma heating using a system of perturbed-wall waveguide mode converters. The current generation of gyrotrons commonly have cavity modes with a high azimuthal index, such as the rotating TE 22,6 mode. Mode conversion by means of waveguide mode converters is not usually practical for such cases. However, an output of a Gaussian beam or other desirable field pattern can be obtained by using a Vlasov-type launcher feeding a series of two or more reflectors. This system may be placed outside or inside of the gyrotron but there are advantages to placing it within the tube, e.g. allowing for a larger collector and smaller reflectors. When such a converter system is placed inside the gyrotron, it is usually preferable to use a modification to the simple Vlasov launcher such as the Denisov-type launcher, which incorporates a series of perturbations within it. The authors have designed both internal and external versions of such quasi-optical converters. They discuss an internal converter which was designed for use inside of a Varian 110 GHz gyrotron producing the TE 22,6 cavity mode. This design consists of four reflectors which are fed by a Denisov-type launcher. Design techniques for the reflector system are discussed and experimental results are presented

  4. Integrated heterodyne terahertz transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, Michael C [Albuquerque, NM; Lee, Mark [Albuquerque, NM; Nordquist, Christopher D [Albuquerque, NM; Cich, Michael J [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-09-25

    A heterodyne terahertz transceiver comprises a quantum cascade laser that is integrated on-chip with a Schottky diode mixer. A terahertz signal can be received by an antenna connected to the mixer, an end facet or sidewall of the laser, or through a separate active section that can amplify the incident signal. The quantum cascade laser couples terahertz local oscillator power to the Schottky diode to mix with the received terahertz signal to provide an intermediate frequency output signal. The fully integrated transceiver optimizes power efficiency, sensitivity, compactness, and reliability. The transceiver can be used in compact, fieldable systems covering a wide variety of deployable applications not possible with existing technology.

  5. Integrated heterodyne terahertz transceiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mark [Albuquerque, NM; Wanke, Michael C [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-06-23

    A heterodyne terahertz transceiver comprises a quantum cascade laser that is integrated on-chip with a Schottky diode mixer. An antenna connected to the Schottky diode receives a terahertz signal. The quantum cascade laser couples terahertz local oscillator power to the Schottky diode to mix with the received terahertz signal to provide an intermediate frequency output signal. The fully integrated transceiver optimizes power efficiency, sensitivity, compactness, and reliability. The transceiver can be used in compact, fieldable systems covering a wide variety of deployable applications not possible with existing technology.

  6. Graphene hyperlens for terahertz radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Chigrin, D.; Novitsky, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    We propose the structured graphene terahertz hyperlens that allows overcoming natural diffraction limit and resolving subwavelength features. The proposed hyperlens can have applications in terahertz spectroscopy and imaging.......We propose the structured graphene terahertz hyperlens that allows overcoming natural diffraction limit and resolving subwavelength features. The proposed hyperlens can have applications in terahertz spectroscopy and imaging....

  7. ECRH power deposition from a quasi-optical point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balakin, A. A.; Balakina, M. A.; Westerhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-optical description of the propagation and damping of the slowly varying wave amplitude across an arbitrary electron cyclotron wave beam is presented. This model goes well beyond those implemented in existing beam tracing codes, which typically require the spatial inhomogeneity across the

  8. Folded Fabry-Perot quasi-optical ring resonator diplexer Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, H. M.; Chiou, A. E. T.

    1983-01-01

    Performance of folded Fabry-Perot quasi-optical ring resonator diplexers with different geometries of reflecting surfaces is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Design of optimum surface geometry for minimum diffraction, together with the figure of merit indicating improvement in performance, are given.

  9. Low power excitation of gyrotron-type modes in cylindrical waveguide using quasi-optical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, N.L.; Whaley, D.R.; Tran, M.Q.; Denisov, D.R.

    1995-03-01

    Experimental results of low power excitation of a 118 GHz TE 22,6 rotating mode are presented. A rectangular mode is converted to a TE 22,6 circular waveguide using quasi-optical techniques. A good conversion efficiency is measured and the experimentally observed field intensity profiles show the percentage of unwanted modes to be small. (author) 10 figs., 10 refs

  10. Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Zeitler, Axel; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    "This book presents the current state of knowledge in the field of terahertz spectroscopy, providing a comprehensive source of information for beginners and experienced researchers alike whose interests lie in this area. The book aims to explain the fundamental physics that underpins terahertz  technology and to describe its key applications. Highlights of scientific research in the field of terahertz science are also outlined in some chapters, providing an overview as well as giving an insight into future directions for research.  Over the past decade terahertz spectroscopy has developed into one of the most rapidly growing areas of its kind, gaining an important impact across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Due to substantial advances in femtosecond laser technology, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has established itself as the dominant spectroscopic technique for experimental scientists interested in measurements at this frequency range. In solids and liquids THz radiation is in reso...

  11. Reversed Cherenkov emission of terahertz waves from an ultrashort laser pulse in a sandwich structure with nonlinear core and left-handed cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakunov, M I; Mikhaylovskiy, R V; Bodrov, S B; Luk'yanchuk, B S

    2010-01-18

    We propose a scheme for an experimental verification of the reversed Cherenkov effect in left-handed media. The scheme uses optical-to-terahertz conversion in a planar sandwichlike structure that consists of a nonlinear core cladded with a material that exhibits left-handedness at terahertz frequencies. The focused into a line femtosecond laser pulse propagates in the core and emits Cherenkov wedge of terahertz waves in the cladding. We developed a theory that describes terahertz generation in such a structure and calculated spatial distribution of the generated terahertz field, its energy spectrum, and optical-to-terahertz conversion efficiency. The proposed structure can be a useful tool for characterization of the electromagnetic properties of metamaterials in the terahertz frequency range.

  12. Quasi-Optical Network Analyzers and High-Reliability RF MEMS Switched Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grichener, Alexander

    The thesis first presents a 2-port quasi-optical scalar network analyzer consisting of a transmitter and receiver both built in planar technology. The network analyzer is based on a Schottky-diode mixer integrated inside a planar antenna and fed differentially by a CPW transmission line. The antenna is placed on an extended hemispherical high-resistivity silicon substrate lens. The LO signal is swept from 3-5 GHz and high-order harmonic mixing in both up- and down- conversion mode is used to realize the 15-50 GHz RF bandwidth. The network analyzer resulted in a dynamic range of greater than 40 dB and was successfully used to measure a frequency selective surface with a second-order bandpass response. Furthermore, the system was built with circuits and components for easy scaling to millimeter-wave frequencies which is the primary motivation for this work. The application areas for a millimeter and submillimeter-wave network analyzer include material characterization and art diagnostics. The second project presents several RF MEMS switched capacitors designed for high-reliability operation and suitable for tunable filters and reconfigurable networks. The first switched-capacitor resulted in a digital capacitance ratio of 5 and an analog capacitance ratio of 5-9. The analog tuning of the down-state capacitance is enhanced by a positive vertical stress gradient in the the beam, making it ideal for applications that require precision tuning. A thick electroplated beam resulted in Q greater than 100 at C to X-band frequencies, and power handling of 0.6-1.1 W. The design also minimized charging in the dielectric, resulting in excellent reliability performance even under hot-switched and high power (1 W) conditions. The second switched-capacitor was designed without any dielectric to minimize charging. The device was hot-switched at 1 W of RF power for greater than 11 billion cycles with virtually no change in the C-V curve. The final project presents a 7-channel

  13. Enhancement of oscillation characteristics of a gyrotron by a built-in quasi-optical mode converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kenichi; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Komuro, Mitsuo

    1994-01-01

    Oscillation characteristics are analyzed experimentally and numerically by using two gyrotrons with a power level of 500 kW, a conventional tube and a tube with a built-in quasi-optical mode converter. Both tubes have a 120 GHz, TE 12,2 cavity of the same geometry and a single disk alumina window. The quasi-optical mode converter consists of an α-cut launcher and five mirrors. In the conventional tube, reflection of the competing mode at the output window prevents the main mode from oscillating stably in the operation region predicted by the design. Mode selectivity of the quasi-optical mode converter removes the influence of the reflection on the oscillation. Consequently, the experimental results in the tube with the quasi-optical mode converter are in good agreement with the design values. (author)

  14. Quasioptical devices based on extraordinary transmission at THz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beruete, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    In this work I will present our latest advances in components developed from extraordinary transmission concepts operating at terahertz (THz) frequencies. First, a structure exhibiting two different extraordinary transmission resonances depending on the polarization of the incident wave will be shown. The peaks of transmission appear at approximately 2 and 2.5 THz for vertical and horizontal polarization, respectively, with a transmittance above 60% in both cases. Later on, a meandering line structure able to tune the extraordinary transmission resonance will be discussed. The operation frequency in this case is between 9 and 17 THz. A self-complementary polarizer will be then presented, with a high polarization purity. The fundamentals of this device based on the Babinet's principle will be discussed in depth. Finally, all these structures will be combined together to produce a dual-band Quarter Wave Plate able to convert a linear polarization at the input in a circular polarization at the output at two different bands, 1 and 2.2. THz. Some final words regarding the potential of extraordinary transmission for sensing applications will close the contribution.

  15. Imaging with terahertz radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, W L; Deibel, Jason; Mittleman, Daniel M [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, MS-366, Rice University, 6100 Main St., Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Within the last several years, the field of terahertz science and technology has changed dramatically. Many new advances in the technology for generation, manipulation, and detection of terahertz radiation have revolutionized the field. Much of this interest has been inspired by the promise of valuable new applications for terahertz imaging and sensing. Among a long list of proposed uses, one finds compelling needs such as security screening and quality control, as well as whimsical notions such as counting the almonds in a bar of chocolate. This list has grown in parallel with the development of new technologies and new paradigms for imaging and sensing. Many of these proposed applications exploit the unique capabilities of terahertz radiation to penetrate common packaging materials and provide spectroscopic information about the materials within. Several of the techniques used for terahertz imaging have been borrowed from other, more well established fields such as x-ray computed tomography and synthetic aperture radar. Others have been developed exclusively for the terahertz field, and have no analogies in other portions of the spectrum. This review provides a comprehensive description of the various techniques which have been employed for terahertz image formation, as well as discussing numerous examples which illustrate the many exciting potential uses for these emerging technologies.

  16. Imaging with terahertz radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, W L; Deibel, Jason; Mittleman, Daniel M

    2007-01-01

    Within the last several years, the field of terahertz science and technology has changed dramatically. Many new advances in the technology for generation, manipulation, and detection of terahertz radiation have revolutionized the field. Much of this interest has been inspired by the promise of valuable new applications for terahertz imaging and sensing. Among a long list of proposed uses, one finds compelling needs such as security screening and quality control, as well as whimsical notions such as counting the almonds in a bar of chocolate. This list has grown in parallel with the development of new technologies and new paradigms for imaging and sensing. Many of these proposed applications exploit the unique capabilities of terahertz radiation to penetrate common packaging materials and provide spectroscopic information about the materials within. Several of the techniques used for terahertz imaging have been borrowed from other, more well established fields such as x-ray computed tomography and synthetic aperture radar. Others have been developed exclusively for the terahertz field, and have no analogies in other portions of the spectrum. This review provides a comprehensive description of the various techniques which have been employed for terahertz image formation, as well as discussing numerous examples which illustrate the many exciting potential uses for these emerging technologies

  17. Graphene geometric diodes for terahertz rectennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zixu; Joshi, Saumil; Grover, Sachit; Moddel, Garret

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a new thin-film graphene diode called a geometric diode that relies on geometric asymmetry to provide rectification at 28 THz. The geometric diode is coupled to an optical antenna to form a rectenna that rectifies incoming radiation. This is the first reported graphene-based antenna-coupled diode working at 28 THz, and potentially at optical frequencies. The planar structure of the geometric diode provides a low RC time constant, on the order of 10 −15 s, required for operation at optical frequencies, and a low impedance for efficient power transfer from the antenna. Fabricated geometric diodes show asymmetric current–voltage characteristics consistent with Monte Carlo simulations for the devices. Rectennas employing the geometric diode coupled to metal and graphene antennas rectify 10.6 µm radiation, corresponding to an operating frequency of 28 THz. The graphene bowtie antenna is the first demonstrated functional antenna made using graphene. Its response indicates that graphene is a suitable terahertz resonator material. Applications for this terahertz diode include terahertz-wave and optical detection, ultra-high-speed electronics and optical power conversion. (paper)

  18. Planar Submillimeter-Wave Mixer Technology with Integrated Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Gautam; Mehdi, Imran; Gill, John J.; Lee, Choonsup; lombart, Muria L.; Thomas, Betrand

    2010-01-01

    High-performance mixers at terahertz frequencies require good matching between the coupling circuits such as antennas and local oscillators and the diode embedding impedance. With the availability of amplifiers at submillimeter wavelengths and the need to have multi-pixel imagers and cameras, planar mixer architecture is required to have an integrated system. An integrated mixer with planar antenna provides a compact and optimized design at terahertz frequencies. Moreover, it leads to a planar architecture that enables efficient interconnect with submillimeter-wave amplifiers. In this architecture, a planar slot antenna is designed on a thin gallium arsenide (GaAs) membrane in such a way that the beam on either side of the membrane is symmetric and has good beam profile with high coupling efficiency. A coplanar waveguide (CPW) coupled Schottky diode mixer is designed and integrated with the antenna. In this architecture, the local oscillator (LO) is coupled through one side of the antenna and the RF from the other side, without requiring any beam sp litters or diplexers. The intermediate frequency (IF) comes out on a 50-ohm CPW line at the edge of the mixer chip, which can be wire-bonded to external circuits. This unique terahertz mixer has an integrated single planar antenna for coupling both the radio frequency (RF) input and LO injection without any diplexer or beamsplitters. The design utilizes novel planar slot antenna architecture on a 3- mthick GaAs membrane. This work is required to enable future multi-pixel terahertz receivers for astrophysics missions, and lightweight and compact receivers for planetary missions to the outer planets in our solar system. Also, this technology can be used in tera hertz radar imaging applications as well as for testing of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs).

  19. Nanoscale Terahertz Emission Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Kim, Hyewon; Colvin, Vicki L.

    By utilizing plasmonic coupling to an AFM probe, we demonstrate Laser Terahertz Emission Nanoscopy (LTEN) with sub-20 nm resolution. We demonstrate the resolution by imaging a single gold nanorod on an InAs substrate....

  20. Operation of a quasi-optical gyrotron with a gaussian output coupler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogge, J.P.; Tran, T.M.; Paris, P.J.; Tran, M.Q. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1996-03-01

    The operation of a 92 GHz quasi-optical gyrotron (QOG) having a resonator formed by a spherical mirror and a diffraction grating placed in -1 order Littrow mount is presented. A power of 150 kW with a gaussian output pattern was measured. The gaussian content in the output was 98% with less than 1% of depolarization. By optimizing the magnetic field at fixed frequency, a maximum efficiency of 15% was reached. (author) 12 figs., 2 tabs., 22 refs.

  1. Far-ir heterodyne radiometric measurements with quasioptical Schottky diode mixers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, H.R.; Tannenwald, P.E.; Clifton, B.J.; Parker, C.D.; Fitzgerald, W.D.; Erickson, N.R.

    1978-01-01

    We have made heterodyne radiometric measurements with GaAs Schottky diode mixers, mounted in a corner-reflector configuration, over the spectral range 170 μm to 1 mm. At 400 μm, system noise temperatures of 9700 K DSB (NEP=1.4 x 10 - 19 W/Hz) and mixer noise temperatures of 5900 K have been achieved. This same quasioptical mixer has also been used to generate 10 - 7 W of tunable radiation suitable for spectroscopic applications

  2. Quasioptische Terahertz-Bauelemente

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Stefan Frederik (M. Sc.)

    2016-01-01

    Die Dissertation „Quasioptische Terahertz-Bauelemente“ beschäftigt sich mit der Frage, in wieweit sich das 3D-Druck-Verfahren Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) für die Herstellung von quasioptischen Komponenten für Terahertz-Strahlung eignet. Neben der grundlegenden Validierung des Verfahrens werden verschiedenste 3D-gedruckte Bauelemente vorgestellt. Der Fokus liegt hierbei auf innovativen und neuartigen Quasioptiken, wie Alvarez-Optiken, Axicons, variablen Beugungsgittern und Diffractive Opti...

  3. Enantiomeric switching of chiral metamaterial for terahertz polarization modulation employing vertically deformable MEMS spirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Tetsuo; Isozaki, Akihiro; Kanda, Natsuki; Nemoto, Natsuki; Konishi, Kuniaki; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2015-10-01

    Active modulation of the polarization states of terahertz light is indispensable for polarization-sensitive spectroscopy, having important applications such as non-contact Hall measurements, vibrational circular dichroism measurements and anisotropy imaging. In the terahertz region, the lack of a polarization modulator similar to a photoelastic modulator in the visible range hampers expansion of such spectroscopy. A terahertz chiral metamaterial has a huge optical activity unavailable in nature; nevertheless, its modulation is still challenging. Here we demonstrate a handedness-switchable chiral metamaterial for polarization modulation employing vertically deformable Micro Electro Mechanical Systems. Vertical deformation of a planar spiral by a pneumatic force creates a three-dimensional spiral. Enantiomeric switching is realized by selecting the deformation direction, where the polarity of the optical activity is altered while maintaining the spectral shape. A polarization rotation as high as 28° is experimentally observed, thus providing a practical and compact polarization modulator for the terahertz range.

  4. Terahertz radiation mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, Michael C [Albuquerque, NM; Allen, S James [Santa Barbara, CA; Lee, Mark [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-05-20

    A terahertz radiation mixer comprises a heterodyned field-effect transistor (FET) having a high electron mobility heterostructure that provides a gatable two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region of the FET. The mixer can operate in either a broadband pinch-off mode or a narrowband resonant plasmon mode by changing a grating gate bias of the FET. The mixer can beat an RF signal frequency against a local oscillator frequency to generate an intermediate frequency difference signal in the microwave region. The mixer can have a low local oscillator power requirement and a large intermediate frequency bandwidth. The terahertz radiation mixer is particularly useful for terahertz applications requiring high resolution.

  5. Light-controlled microwave whispering-gallery-mode quasi-optical resonators at 50W LED array illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Yurchenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present experimental observations of light-controlled resonance effects in microwave whispering-gallery-mode quasi-optical dielectric-semiconductor disk resonators in the frequency band of 5 GHz to 20 GHz arising due to illumination from a light emitting diode (LED of 50W power range. We obtain huge enhancement of photo-sensitivity (growing with the resonator Q-factor that makes light-microwave interaction observable with an ordinary light (no laser at conventional brightness (like an office lighting in quasi-optical microwave structures at rather long (centimeter-scale wavelength. We also demonstrate non-conventional photo-response of Fano resonances when the light suppresses one group of resonances and enhances another group. The effects could be used for the optical control and quasi-optical switching of microwave propagation through either one or another frequency channel.

  6. Third harmonic generation by Bloch-oscillating electrons in a quasioptical array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.W.; Wanke, M.C.; Allen, S.J.; Wilkins, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    We compute the third harmonic field generated by Bloch-oscillating electrons in a quasioptical array of superlattices under THz irradiation. The third harmonic power transmitted oscillates with the internal electric field, with nodes associated with Bessel functions in eEd/ℎω. The nonlinear response of the array causes the output power to be a multivalued function of the incident laser power. The output can be optimized by adjusting the frequency of the incident pulse to match one of the Fabry-Pacute erot resonances in the substrate. Within the transmission-line model of the array, the maximum conversion efficiency is 0.1%. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  7. DC space-charge induced frequency up-shift in a quasi-optical gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, S.; Tran, M.Q.; Tran, T.M.

    1990-10-01

    Recent experiments on a 100GHz quasi-optical gyrotron have shown that for a large resonator set-up the observed frequency up-shift between the starting current and a current of 10A corresponds to a shift of 4-5 longitudinal modes. In this Letter it is shown that the interpretation of this frequency up-shift should involve the current dependent electron beam voltage depression in the beam tunnel and the interaction region for both the single-mode and multi-mode time evolution codes. (author) 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Design of a 17.14 GHz quasi-optical pulse compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petelin, M. I.; Kuzikov, S. V.; Danilov, Yu. Yu.; Granatstein, V. L.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    1999-01-01

    A quasi-optical version of the ring cavity pulse compressor is considered. This concept is based on the coupling of the input wave to a whispering gallery mode of a barrel-like cavity due to helical corrugations of the cavity wall. Low-power tests of the prototype were carried out at 11.4 GHz and demonstrated reasonable agree-ment between experimental data and theoretical predictions. The design of a similar pulse compressor at 17.14 GHz compatible with the 17.14 GHz, 100 MW gyroklystron currently under development at the University of Maryland is presented

  9. Test of the quasi-optical grill for lower hybrid current drive on the CASTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klima, R.; Pavlo, P.; Preinhaelter, J.; Stoeckel, J.; Zacek, F.; Jakubka, K.; Kletecka, P.; Kryska, L.

    1994-03-01

    Feasibility studies of a new diffraction structure for launching lower hybrid waves into a tokamak plasma - of the microwave quasi-optical grill - are reported. The main parameters of the grill designed for the CASTOR tokamak are summarized, and results of preliminary radiation pattern measurements of a non-optimized model antenna are presented. The influence of a relatively great curvature of the plasma surface in the CASTOR tokamak is discussed and the ray tracing of the launched lower-hybrid wave in the actual CASTOR plasma is shown. Finally, the results of probe measurements of the CASTOR plasma core are given. (J.U.) 17 figs., 9 refs

  10. Experimental measurements of competition between fundamental and second harmonic emission in a quasi-optical gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, S.; Pedrozzi, M.; Tran, M.Q.; Hogge, J.P.; Tran, T.M.; Muggli, P.; Joedicke, B.; Mathews, H.G.

    1990-04-01

    A quasi-optical gyrotron (QOG) designed for operation at the fundamental (Ω ce ≅100 GHz) exhibits simultaneous emission at Ω ce and 2Ω ce (second harmonic). For a beam current of 4 A, 20% of the total RF power is emitted at the second harmonic. The experimental measurements show that the excitation of the second harmonic is only possible when the fundamental is present. The frequency of the second harmonic is locked by the frequency of the fundamental. Experimental evidence shows that when the second harmonic is not excited, total efficiency is enhanced. (author) 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Assessment on the capability of quasi-optical grill to launch lower hybrid waves in iter plasma. UE contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, F.; Preinhaelter, J.

    1998-12-01

    The quasi-optical grill has been considered as a convenient system to launch Lower Hybrid Waves in a reactor-like plasma. In recent years, efforts to study the capability and the efficiency of this launcher have been done in Europe with the intent to test it in a large experimental device. Even if this test is still missing, a wide analysis of different schemes of such a launcher is now available in the literature. This report is devoted to critically review this theoretical analysis and consequently to assess the convenience of using quasi-optical grill in future Tokamaks [it

  12. Terahertz Radome Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Friederich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Radomes protecting sensitive radar, navigational, and communications equipment of, e.g., aircraft, are strongly exposed to the environment and have to withstand harsh weather conditions and potential impacts. Besides their significance to the structural integrity of the radomes, it is often crucial to optimize the composite structures for best possible radio performance. Hence, there exists a significant interest in non-destructive testing techniques, which can be used for defect inspection of radomes in field use as well as for quality inspection during the manufacturing process. Contactless millimeter-wave and terahertz imaging techniques provide millimeter resolution and have the potential to address both application scenarios. We report on our development of a three-dimensional (3D terahertz imaging system for radome inspection during industrial manufacturing processes. The system was designed for operation within a machining center for radome manufacturing. It simultaneously gathers terahertz depth information in adjacent frequency ranges, from 70 to 110 GHz and from 110 to 170 GHz by combining two frequency modulated continuous-wave terahertz sensing units into a single measurement device. Results from spiraliform image acquisition of a radome test sample demonstrate the successful integration of the measurement system.

  13. Bridging the terahertz gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Giles; Linfield, Edmund

    2004-01-01

    Over the last century or so, physicists and engineers have progressively explored and conquered the electromagnetic spectrum. Starting with visible light, we have encroached outwards, developing techniques for generating and detecting radiation at both higher and lower frequencies. And as each successive region of the spectrum has been colonized, we have developed technology to exploit the radiation found there. X-rays, for example, are routinely used to image hidden objects. Near-infrared radiation is used in fibre-optic communications and in compact-disc players, while microwaves are used to transmit signals from your mobile phone. But there is one part of the electromagnetic spectrum that has steadfastly resisted our advances. This is the terahertz region, which ranges from frequencies of about 300 GHz to 10 THz (10 x 10 sup 1 sup 2 Hz). This corresponds to wavelengths of between about 1 and 0.03 mm, and lies between the microwave and infrared regions of the spectrum. However, the difficulties involved in making suitably compact terahertz sources and detectors has meant that this region of the spectrum has only begun to be explored thoroughly over the last decade. A particularly intriguing feature of terahertz radiation is that the semiconductor devices that generate radiation at frequencies above and below this range operate in completely different ways. At lower frequencies, microwaves and millimetre- waves can be generated by 'electronic' devices such as those found in mobile phones. At higher frequencies, near-infrared and visible light are generated by 'optical' devices such as semiconductor laser diodes, in which electrons emit light when they jump across the semiconductor band gap. Unfortunately, neither electronic nor optical devices can conveniently be made to work in the terahertz region because the terahertz frequency range sits between the electronic and optical regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Developing a terahertz source is therefore a

  14. Progress of Terahertz Devices Based on Graphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai-Xia Fu; Yan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Graphene is a one-atom-thick planar sheet of sp2-hybridized orbital bonded honeycomb carbon crystal. Its gapless and linear energy spectra of electrons and holes lead to the unique carrier transport and optical properties, such as giant carrier mobility and broadband flat optical response. As a novel material, graphene has been regarded to be extremely suitable and competent for the development of terahertz (THz) optical devices. In this paper, the fundamental electronic and optic properties of graphene are described. Based on the energy band structure and light transmittance properties of graphene, many novel graphene based THz devices have been proposed, including modulator, generator, detector, and imaging device. This progress has been reviewed. Future research directions of the graphene devices for THz applications are also proposed.

  15. Planar Superconducting Millimeter-Wave/Terahertz Channelizing Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Negar; U-yen, Kongpop; Brown, Ari; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Wollack, Edward; Moseley, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    This innovation is a compact, superconducting, channelizing bandpass filter on a single-crystal (0.45 m thick) silicon substrate, which operates from 300 to 600 GHz. This device consists of four channels with center frequencies of 310, 380, 460, and 550 GHz, with approximately 50-GHz bandwidth per channel. The filter concept is inspired by the mammalian cochlea, which is a channelizing filter that covers three decades of bandwidth and 3,000 channels in a very small physical space. By using a simplified physical cochlear model, and its electrical analog of a channelizing filter covering multiple octaves bandwidth, a large number of output channels with high inter-channel isolation and high-order upper stopband response can be designed. A channelizing filter is a critical component used in spectrometer instruments that measure the intensity of light at various frequencies. This embodiment was designed for MicroSpec in order to increase the resolution of the instrument (with four channels, the resolution will be increased by a factor of four). MicroSpec is a revolutionary wafer-scale spectrometer that is intended for the SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics) Mission. In addition to being a vital component of MicroSpec, the channelizing filter itself is a low-resolution spectrometer when integrated with only an antenna at its input, and a detector at each channel s output. During the design process for this filter, the available characteristic impedances, possible lumped element ranges, and fabrication tolerances were identified for design on a very thin silicon substrate. Iterations between full-wave and lumped-element circuit simulations were performed. Each channel s circuit was designed based on the availability of characteristic impedances and lumped element ranges. This design was based on a tabular type bandpass filter with no spurious harmonic response. Extensive electromagnetic modeling for each channel was performed. Four channels, with 50-GHz bandwidth, were designed, each using multiple transmission line media such as microstrip, coplanar waveguide, and quasi-lumped components on 0.45- m thick silicon. In the design process, modeling issues had to be overcome. Due to the extremely high frequencies, very thin Si substrate, and the superconducting metal layers, most commercially available software fails in various ways. These issues were mitigated by using alternative software that was capable of handling them at the expense of greater simulation time. The design of on-chip components for the filter characterization, such as a broadband antenna, Wilkinson power dividers, attenuators, detectors, and transitions has been completed.

  16. Studies of self-consistent field structure in a quasi-optical gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonsen, T.M. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    The presence of an electron beam in a quasi-optical gyrotron cavity alters the structure of the fields from that of the empty cavity. A computer code has been written which calculates this alteration for either an electron beam or a thin dielectric tube placed in the cavity. Experiments measuring the quality factor of such a cavity performed for the case of a dielectric tube and the results agree with the predictions of the code. Simulations of the case of an electron beam indicate that self-consistent effects can be made small in that almost all the power leaves the cavity in a symmetric gaussian-like mode provided the resonator parameters are chosen carefully. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs

  17. Numerical optimization of quasi-optical mode converter for frequency step-tunable gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumm, O.

    2002-08-01

    This work concentrates on the design of a quasi-optical mode converter for a frequency step-tunable gyrotron. Special attention is paid to the optimization of the conversion and forming of the exited wave of different frequencies inside the resonator. The investigations were part of the HGF-strategy-fonds-project ''Optimization of Tokamak Operation with controlled ECRH-Deposition''. In the resonator of the gyrotron modes can be exited at frequencies between 105 and 140 GHz. With the designed converter the desired field distribution at the output window for all frequencies will be approximately obtained. The newly gained knowledge and invented synthesis methods are applied to this practical example and verified. In this work, the waveguide antenna and the mirror system of the quasi-optical mode converter are presented separately from each other. At the beginning the synthesis of the aperture antenna for a frequency step-tunable design of the Vlasov-type as well as the Denisov-type is considered. As a conclusion of the investigation, the important parameters for the design of all antennas are summarized and the frequency behavior is compared. In the second part of this work new broadband design methods for the synthesis of the mirror surface are presented. These mirrors make an optimal wave forming for all frequencies equally possible. Therefore new quality criteria are introduced for the broadband evaluation of the mirror. Afterwards the surface is varied until the criteria reach an optimum. For the numerical optimization, in this work the gradient method and the extended Katsenelenbaum-Semenov algorithm are invented and applied. The efficient realization of the described algorithms on a computer is the significant point. The theoretical background of the presented methods for the synthesis of a mirror system is based on the general solution of the Helmholtz equation. Due to this, these methods can be utilized in other fields outside the microwave applications in

  18. Fingerprint extraction from interference destruction terahertz spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Shen, Jingling

    2010-10-11

    In this paper, periodic peaks in a terahertz absorption spectrum are confirmed to be induced from interference effects. Theoretically, we explained the periodic peaks and calculated the locations of them. Accordingly, a technique was suggested, with which the interference peaks in a terahertz spectrum can be eliminated and therefore a real terahertz absorption spectrum can be obtained. Experimentally, a sample, Methamphetamine, was investigated and its terahertz fingerprint was successfully extracted from its interference destruction spectrum. This technique is useful in getting samples' terahertz fingerprint spectra, and furthermore provides a fast nondestructive testing method using a large size terahertz beam to identify materials.

  19. Terahertz magnonics: Feasibility of using terahertz magnons for information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Khalil

    2018-06-01

    An immediate need of information technology is designing fast, small and low-loss devices. One of the ways to design such devices is using the bosonic quasiparticles, such as magnons, for information transfer/processing. This is the main idea behind the field of magnonics. When a magnon propagates through a magnetic medium, no electrical charge transport is involved and therefore no energy losses, creating Joule heating, occur. This is the most important advantage of using magnons for information transfer. Moreover the mutual conversion between magnons and the other carriers e.g. electrons, photons and plasmons shall open new opportunities to realize tunable multifunctional devices. Magnons cover a very wide range of frequency, from sub-gigahertz up to a few hundreds of terahertz. The magnon frequency has an important impact on the performance of magnon-based devices (the larger the excitation frequency, the faster the magnons). This means that the use of high-frequency (terahertz) magnons would provide a great opportunity for the design of ultrafast devices. However, up to now the focus in magnonics has been on the low-frequency gigahertz magnons. Here we discuss the feasibility of using terahertz magnons for application in magnonic devices. We shall bring the concept of terahertz magnonics into discussion. We discuss how the recently discovered phenomena in the field of terahertz magnons may inspire ideas for designing new magnonic devices. We further introduce methods to tune the fundamental properties of terahertz magnons, e.g. their eigenfrequency and lifetime.

  20. Application of quasi-optical approach to construct RF power supply for TeV linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldin, E.L.; Sarantsev, V.P.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Ulyanov, Yu.N.; Yurkov, M.V.

    1995-01-01

    An idea to use a quasi-optical approach for constructing an RF power supply for TeV linear e + e - colliders is developed. The RF source of the proposed scheme is composed of a large number of low-power RF amplifiers commutated by quasi-optical elements. The RF power of this source is transmitted to the accelerating structure of the collider by means of quasi-optical waveguides and mirrors. Such an approach enables one not only to decrease the required peak RF power by several orders of magnitude with respect to the traditional approach based on standard klystron technique, but also to achieve the required level of reliability, as it is based on well-developed technology of serial microwave devices. To illustrate the proposed scheme, a conceptual project of 2x500 GeV X-band collider is considered. Accelerating structure of the collider is of the standard travelling wave type and the RF source is assumed to be composed of 0.7 MW klystrons. All equipment of such a collider is placed in a tunnel of 12x6 m 2 cross section. It is shown that such a collider may be constructed at the present level of accelerator technique. ((orig.))

  1. Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Longqing; Singh, Ranjan, E-mail: ranjans@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Tan, Siyu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 87074 (United States); Key Lab of All Optical Network and Advanced Telecommunication Network of EMC, Institute of Lightwave Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Yahiaoui, Riad [XLIM, Limoges University, CNRS, UMR 7252, 7 rue Jules Vallès, F-19100 Brive (France); Yan, Fengping [Key Lab of All Optical Network and Advanced Telecommunication Network of EMC, Institute of Lightwave Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhang, Weili [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 87074 (United States)

    2015-01-19

    Planar metasurfaces and plasmonic resonators have shown great promise for sensing applications across the electromagnetic domain ranging from the microwaves to the optical frequencies. However, these sensors suffer from lower figure of merit and sensitivity due to the radiative and the non-radiative loss channels in the plasmonic metamaterial systems. We demonstrate a metamaterial absorber based ultrasensitive sensing scheme at the terahertz frequencies with significantly enhanced sensitivity and an order of magnitude higher figure of merit compared to planar metasurfaces. Magnetic and electric resonant field enhancement in the impedance matched absorber cavity enables stronger interaction with the dielectric analyte. This finding opens up opportunities for perfect metamaterial absorbers to be applied as efficient sensors in the finger print region of the electromagnetic spectrum with several organic, explosive, and bio-molecules that have unique spectral signature at the terahertz frequencies.

  2. Plasma Wave Electronic Terahertz Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shur, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Plasma waves are oscillations of electron density in time and space. In deep submicron field effect transistors plasma wave frequencies lie in the terahertz range and can be tuned by applied gate bias...

  3. Terahertz composite imaging method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Xiaoli; REN Jiaojiao; ZHANG Dandan; CAO Guohua; LI Lijuan; ZHANG Xinming

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve the imaging quality of terahertz(THz) spectroscopy, Terahertz Composite Imaging Method(TCIM) is proposed. The traditional methods of improving THz spectroscopy image quality are mainly from the aspects of de-noising and image enhancement. TCIM breaks through this limitation. A set of images, reconstructed in a single data collection, can be utilized to construct two kinds of composite images. One algorithm, called Function Superposition Imaging Algorithm(FSIA), is to construct a new gray image utilizing multiple gray images through a certain function. The features of the Region Of Interest (ROI) are more obvious after operating, and it has capability of merging ROIs in multiple images. The other, called Multi-characteristics Pseudo-color Imaging Algorithm(McPcIA), is to construct a pseudo-color image by combining multiple reconstructed gray images in a single data collection. The features of ROI are enhanced by color differences. Two algorithms can not only improve the contrast of ROIs, but also increase the amount of information resulting in analysis convenience. The experimental results show that TCIM is a simple and effective tool for THz spectroscopy image analysis.

  4. Resonant metallic nanostructures for enhanced terahertz spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Toma, A.

    2015-11-12

    We present our recent studies on terahertz resonant dipole nanoantennas. Exploiting the localization and enhancement capabilities of these devices, we introduce an effective method to perform terahertz spectroscopy on an extremely small number of nano-objects.

  5. Resonant metallic nanostructures for enhanced terahertz spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Toma, A.; Tuccio, S.; Prato, M.; De Donato, F.; Perucchi, A.; Di Pietro, P.; Marras, S.; Liberale, Carlo; Zaccaria, R. Proietti; De Angelis, F.; Manna, L.; Lupi, S.; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Razzari, L.

    2015-01-01

    We present our recent studies on terahertz resonant dipole nanoantennas. Exploiting the localization and enhancement capabilities of these devices, we introduce an effective method to perform terahertz spectroscopy on an extremely small number

  6. Multilayer Graphene for Waveguide Terahertz Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khromova, I.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We study terahertz to infrared electromagnetic properties of multilayer graphene/dielectric artificial medium and present a novel concept of terahertz modulation at midinfrared wavelengths. This approach allows the realization of high-speed electrically controllable terahertz modulators based...... on hollow waveguide sections filled with multilayer graphene....

  7. Initial operation of a high-power quasi-optical gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliflet, A.W.; Hargreaves, T.A.; Manheimer, W.M.; Fischer, R.P.; Barsanti, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Results from the initial operating of a high-power quasi-optical gyrotron based on the 90-kV 50-A Varian VUW-8144 electron gun are reported. The output power and efficiency have been measured for a resonator mirror separation of 19.4 cm with a magnetic field of 4.95 T, corresponding to resonator output coupling of 1.9%, and for a resonator mirror separation of 21.4 cm with a magnetic field of 4.7 T, corresponding to a resonator output coupling of 3.1%. Operation was multimoded with 3--6 modes excited in the range of 125--130 GHz for the 4.95-T magnetic field. A peak efficiency of 15% at an output power of 161 kW was obtained for a gun voltage of 93 kV and a current of 12 A. A peak-output power of 364 kW at an efficiency of 10% was obtained at a voltage of 95.6 kV and 37.5 A

  8. Advanced Design of the First Quasi-optical Transmission Line for ECRH at TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.; Likin, K.; Martin, R.

    1999-01-01

    TJ-II plasma start-up and heating are made by electron cyclotron resonance waves at the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency. The microwave power of the gyrotrons is transmitted by two quasi-optical transmission lines. The first line launches the microwave power under fixed injection geometry, i. e. there is no a possibility to change the launching angle the wave polarization. Due to the long distance between the last focusing mirror and the center TJ-II vessel the beam is quite wide at plasma border. The second line has a moveable mirror installed inside the TJ-II vessel. To get high absorption efficiency and a narrow energy deposition profile the internal mirror focuses the wave beam at plasma center. The beam width is about 2 cm. To get more flexibility in experiments on heating and current drive the first transmission line needs to be upgraded. The designs is presented in this report. It includes and internal mirror to focus the beam and to change the injection angle. A polarizer consisting in two corrugated mirrors will be incorporated to get any wave polarization. Two mirrors with an array of coupling holes and calorimetric measurements of the energy absorbed in the barrier window will permit the estimation of the microwave power launched the TJ-II. (Author) 13 refs

  9. Terahertz optoelectronics in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuji, Taiichi

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has attracted considerable attention due to its extraordinary carrier transport, optoelectronic, and plasmonic properties originated from its gapless and linear energy spectra enabling various functionalities with extremely high quantum efficiencies that could never be obtained in any existing materials. This paper reviews recent advances in graphene optoelectronics particularly focused on the physics and device functionalities in the terahertz (THz) electromagnetic spectral range. Optical response of graphene is characterized by its optical conductivity and nonequilibrium carrier energy relaxation dynamics, enabling amplification of THz radiation when it is optically or electrically pumped. Current-injection THz lasing has been realized very recently. Graphene plasmon polaritons can greatly enhance the THz light and graphene matter interaction, enabling giant enhancement in detector responsivity as well as amplifier/laser gain. Graphene-based van der Waals heterostructures could give more interesting and energy-efficient functionalities. (author)

  10. Scanning Terahertz Heterodyne Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter; Dengler, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging systems are now at an early stage of development. In a basic scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging system, (see Figure 1) two far-infrared lasers generate beams denoted the local-oscillator (LO) and signal that differ in frequency by an amount, denoted the intermediate frequency (IF), chosen to suit the application. The LO beam is sent directly to a mixer as one of two inputs. The signal beam is focused to a spot on or in the specimen. After transmission through or reflection from the specimen, the beams are focused to a spot on a terahertz mixer, which extracts the IF outputs. The specimen is mounted on a translation stage, by means of which the focal spot is scanned across the specimen to build up an image.

  11. Graphene based terahertz phase modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakenov, N.; Ergoktas, M. S.; Balci, O.; Kocabas, C.

    2018-07-01

    Electrical control of amplitude and phase of terahertz radiation (THz) is the key technological challenge for high resolution and noninvasive THz imaging. The lack of active materials and devices hinders the realization of these imaging systems. Here, we demonstrate an efficient terahertz phase and amplitude modulation using electrically tunable graphene devices. Our device structure consists of electrolyte-gated graphene placed at quarter wavelength distance from a reflecting metallic surface. In this geometry, graphene operates as a tunable impedance surface which yields electrically controlled reflection phase. Terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy reveals the voltage controlled phase modulation of π and the reflection modulation of 50 dB. To show the promises of our approach, we demonstrate a multipixel phase modulator array which operates as a gradient impedance surface.

  12. Terahertz radar cross section measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-12-06

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar on full-size objects. The measurements are performed in a terahertz time-domain system with freely propagating terahertz pulses generated by tilted pulse front excitation of lithium niobate crystals and measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The application of a time domain system provides ranging information and also allows for identification of scattering points such as weaponry attached to the aircraft. The shapes of the models and positions of reflecting parts are retrieved by the filtered back projection algorithm.

  13. Terahertz Science, Technology, and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam

    2013-01-01

    The term "terahertz" has been ubiquitous in the arena of technology over the past couple of years. New applications are emerging every day which are exploiting the promises of terahertz - its small wavelength; capability of penetrating dust, clouds, and fog; and possibility of having large instantaneous bandwidth for high-speed communication channels. Until very recently, space-based instruments for astrophysics, planetary science, and Earth science missions have been the primary motivator for the development of terahertz sensors, sources, and systems. However, in recent years the emerging areas such as imaging from space platforms, surveillance of person-borne hidden weapons or contraband from a safe stand-off distance and reconnaissance, medical imaging and DNA sequencing, and in the world high speed communications have been the driving force for this area of research.

  14. A quasi-optical electron cyclotron maser for fusion reactor heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    High power microwave and millimeter sources, such as the quasi-optical electron cyclotron maser (QOECM) are important in fusion research as well as in high-energy physics and in other applications. The interaction between the electromagnetic modes of a Fabry-Perot resonator and an electron beam gyrating through a magnetic field has been studied for both the cases of beams parallel and perpendicular to the resonator. The parallel case was theoretically first studied by Kurin for forward and backward wave interaction, and experimentally by Komlev and Kurin. Kreischer and Temkin reviewed the general case of the linear small signal interaction parallel and perpendicular to the resonator. Sprangle, et al discussed the perpendicular case in a self-consistent linear and nonlinear theoretical study using the Gaussian transverse profile of an open resonator with a single longitudinal mode. Experimental verification of the devices operation was first mentioned in work at the Naval Research Laboratory. Theoretical studies using a time-dependent analysis of a large number of longitudinal modes with similar transverse mode profiles have demonstrated that single longitudinal-mode operation can be achieved at equilibrium and that performance can be enhanced by prebunching the electron beam and tapering the magnetic field. The use of output coupling apertures in the mirrors has been studied theoretically in relation to the structure of the modes for both confocal and nonconfocal resonators by Permnoud; use of an open resonator with stepped mirrors has been studied in order to choose a particular longitudinal mode. Studies at the Naval Research Laboratory mirror used configurations that diffraction couple the energy from around the mirror edges, so that the transverse profile inside the resonator can be selective to the fundamental mode

  15. Nanoscale Laser Terahertz Emission Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Pernille; Kim, Hyewon; Colvin, Vicki L.

    2017-01-01

    Laser terahertz emission microscopy (LTEM) has become a powerful tool for studying ultrafast dynamics and local fields in many different types of materials. This technique, which relies on acceleration of charge carriers in a material upon femtosecond excitation, can provide insight into the phys......Laser terahertz emission microscopy (LTEM) has become a powerful tool for studying ultrafast dynamics and local fields in many different types of materials. This technique, which relies on acceleration of charge carriers in a material upon femtosecond excitation, can provide insight...

  16. Resonance transparency with low-loss in toroidal planar metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Tianyu; Lei, Tao; Hu, Sen; Chen, Jiao; Huang, Xiaojun; Yang, Helin

    2018-03-01

    A compact planar construction composed of asymmetric split ring resonators was designed with a low-loss, high Q-factor resonance transparency at microwave frequency. The singularity property of the proposed metamaterial owing to the enhanced toroidal dipole T is demonstrated via numerical and experimental methods. The transmission peak can reach up to 0.91 and the loss is perfectly repressed, which can be testified by radiated power, H-field distributions, and the imaginary parts of effective permittivity and permeability. The designed planar metamaterial may have numerous potential applications at microwave, terahertz, and optical frequency, e.g., for ultrasensitive sensing, slow-light devices, lasing spacers, even invisible information transfer.

  17. Squeezing terahertz light into nanovolumes: Nanoantenna enhanced terahertz spectroscopy (NETS) of semiconductor quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Toma, Andrea; Tuccio, Salvatore; Prato, Mirko; De Donato, Francesco; Perucchi, Andrea; Di Pietro, Paola; Marras, Sergio; Liberale, Carlo; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; De Angelis, Francesco De; Manna, Liberato; Lupi, Stefano; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Razzari, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz spectroscopy has vast potentialities in sensing a broad range of elementary excitations (e.g., collective vibrations of molecules, phonons, excitons, etc.). However, the large wavelength associated with terahertz radiation (about 300 μm

  18. High Reliability Oscillators for Terahertz Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Terahertz sources based on lower frequency oscillators and amplifiers plus a chain of frequency multipliers are the workhorse technology for NASA's terahertz...

  19. Spatial Terahertz Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhenwei; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Akalin, Tahsin; Zhang, Yan

    2013-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) technology is a developing and promising candidate for biological imaging, security inspection and communications, due to the low photon energy, the high transparency and the broad band properties of the THz radiation. However, a major encountered bottleneck is lack of efficient devices to manipulate the THz wave, especially to modulate the THz wave front. A wave front modulator should allow the optical or electrical control of the spatial transmission (or reflection) of an input THz wave and hence the ability to encode the information in a wave front. Here we propose a spatial THz modulator (STM) to dynamically control the THz wave front with photo-generated carriers. A computer generated THz hologram is projected onto a silicon wafer by a conventional spatial light modulator (SLM). The corresponding photo-generated carrier spatial distribution will be induced, which forms an amplitude hologram to modulate the wave front of the input THz beam. Some special intensity patterns and vortex beams are generated by using this method. This all-optical controllable STM is structure free, high resolution and broadband. It is expected to be widely used in future THz imaging and communication systems.

  20. Optically pumped terahertz sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Kai; SHI Wei; XU DeGang; LIU PengXiang; WANG YuYe; MEI JiaLin; YAN Chao; FU ShiJie; YAO JianQuan

    2017-01-01

    High-power terahertz (THz) generation in the frequency range of0.1-10 THz has been a fast-developing research area ever since the beginning of the THz boom two decades ago,enabling new technological breakthroughs in spectroscopy,communication,imaging,etc.By using optical (laser) pumping methods with near-or mid-infrared (IR) lasers,flexible and practical THz sources covering the whole THz range can be realized to overcome the shortage of electronic THz sources and now they are playing important roles in THz science and technology.This paper overviews various optically pumped THz sources,including femtosecond laser based ultrafast broadband THz generation,monochromatic widely tunable THz generation,single-mode on-chip THz source from photomixing,and the traditional powerful THz gas lasers.Full descriptions from basic principles to the latest progress are presented and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed as well.It is expected that this review gives a comprehensive reference to researchers in this area and additionally helps newcomers to quickly gain understanding of optically pumped THz sources.

  1. Voltage adjusting characteristics in terahertz transmission through Fabry-Pérot-based metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metallic electric split-ring resonators (SRRs with featured size in micrometer scale, which are connected by thin metal wires, are patterned to form a periodically distributed planar array. The arrayed metallic SRRs are fabricated on an n-doped gallium arsenide (n-GaAs layer grown directly over a semi-insulating gallium arsenide (SI-GaAs wafer. The patterned metal microstructures and n-GaAs layer construct a Schottky diode, which can support an external voltage applied to modify the device properties. The developed architectures present typical functional metamaterial characters, and thus is proposed to reveal voltage adjusting characteristics in the transmission of terahertz waves at normal incidence. We also demonstrate the terahertz transmission characteristics of the voltage controlled Fabry-Pérot-based metamaterial device, which is composed of arrayed metallic SRRs. To date, many metamaterials developed in earlier works have been used to regulate the transmission amplitude or phase at specific frequencies in terahertz wavelength range, which are mainly dominated by the inductance-capacitance (LC resonance mechanism. However, in our work, the external voltage controlled metamaterial device is developed, and the extraordinary transmission regulation characteristics based on both the Fabry-Pérot (FP resonance and relatively weak surface plasmon polariton (SPP resonance in 0.025-1.5 THz range, are presented. Our research therefore shows a potential application of the dual-mode-resonance-based metamaterial for improving terahertz transmission regulation.

  2. Stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, J.W.; Baselmans, J.J.A.; Baryshev, A.; Schieder, R.; Hajenius, M.; Gao, J.R.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Voronov, B.; Gol'tsman, G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers based on small volume NbN phonon cooled hot electron bolometers (HEBs). The stability of these receivers can be broken down in two parts: the intrinsic stability of the HEB mixer and the stability of the local oscillator (LO)

  3. Terahertz radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar...

  4. Terahertz antenna technology for space applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Balamati; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book explores the terahertz antenna technology towards implementation of compact, consistent and cheap terahertz sources, as well as the high sensitivity terahertz detectors. The terahertz EM band provides a transition between the electronic and the photonic regions thus adopting important characteristics from these regimes. These characteristics, along with the progress in semiconductor technology, have enabled researchers to exploit hitherto unexplored domains including satellite communication, bio-medical imaging, and security systems. The advances in new materials and nanostructures such as graphene will be helpful in miniaturization of antenna technology while simultaneously maintaining the desired output levels. Terahertz antenna characterization of bandwidth, impedance, polarization, etc. has not yet been methodically structured and it continues to be a major research challenge. This book addresses these issues besides including the advances of terahertz technology in space applications worldwide,...

  5. Toward practical terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigada, David J.

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is a promising technology for the identification of explosive and pharmaceutical substances in adverse conditions. It interacts strongly with intermolecular vibrational and rotational modes. Terahertz also passes through many common dielectric covering materials, allowing for the identification of substances in envelopes, wrapped in opaque plastic, or otherwise hidden. However, there are several challenges preventing the adoption of terahertz spectroscopy outside the laboratory. This dissertation examines the problems preventing widespread adoption of terahertz technology and attempts to resolve them. In order to use terahertz spectroscopy to identify substances, a spectrum measured of the target sample must be compared to the spectra of various known standard samples. This dissertation examines various methods that can be employed throughout the entire process of acquiring and transforming terahertz waveforms to improve the accuracy of these comparisons. The concepts developed in this dissertation directly apply to terahertz spectroscopy, but also carry implications for other spectroscopy methods, from Raman to mass spectrometry. For example, these techniques could help to lower the rate of false positives at airport security checkpoints. This dissertation also examines the implementation of several of these methods as a way to realize a fully self-contained, handheld, battery-operated terahertz spectrometer. This device also employs techniques to allow minimally-trained operators use terahertz to detect different substances of interest. It functions as a proof-of-concept of the true benefits of the improvements that have been developed in this dissertation.

  6. The development of terahertz superconducting hot-electron bolometric mixers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, Alexei; Richter, Heiko; Smirnov, Konstantin; Voronov, Boris; Gol'tsman, Gregory; Huebers, Heinz-Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    We present recent advances in the development of NbN hot-electron bolometric (HEB) mixers for flying terahertz heterodyne receivers. Three important issues have been addressed: the quality of the source NbN films, the effect of the bolometer size on the spectral properties of different planar feed antennas, and the local oscillator (LO) power required for optimal operation of the mixer. Studies of the NbN films with an atomic force microscope indicated a surface structure that may affect the performance of the smallest mixers. Measured spectral gain and noise temperature suggest that at frequencies above 2.5 THz the spiral feed provides better overall performance than the double-slot feed. Direct measurements of the optimal LO power support earlier estimates made in the framework of the uniform mixer model

  7. Absorption-reduced waveguide structure for efficient terahertz generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pálfalvi, L., E-mail: palfalvi@fizika.ttk.pte.hu [Institute of Physics, University of Pécs, Ifjúság ú. 6, 7624 Pécs (Hungary); Fülöp, J. A. [MTA-PTE High-Field Terahertz Research Group, Ifjúság ú. 6, 7624 Pécs (Hungary); Szentágothai Research Centre, University of Pécs, Ifjúság ú. 20, 7624 Pécs (Hungary); Hebling, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Pécs, Ifjúság ú. 6, 7624 Pécs (Hungary); MTA-PTE High-Field Terahertz Research Group, Ifjúság ú. 6, 7624 Pécs (Hungary); Szentágothai Research Centre, University of Pécs, Ifjúság ú. 20, 7624 Pécs (Hungary)

    2015-12-07

    An absorption-reduced planar waveguide structure is proposed for increasing the efficiency of terahertz (THz) pulse generation by optical rectification of femtosecond laser pulses with tilted-pulse-front in highly nonlinear materials with large absorption coefficient. The structure functions as waveguide both for the optical pump and the generated THz radiation. Most of the THz power propagates inside the cladding with low THz absorption, thereby reducing losses and leading to the enhancement of the THz generation efficiency by up to more than one order of magnitude, as compared with a bulk medium. Such a source can be suitable for highly efficient THz pulse generation pumped by low-energy (nJ-μJ) pulses at high (MHz) repetition rates delivered by compact fiber lasers.

  8. Electromagnetically induced transparency control in terahertz metasurfaces based on bright-bright mode coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiaoui, R.; Burrow, J. A.; Mekonen, S. M.; Sarangan, A.; Mathews, J.; Agha, I.; Searles, T. A.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate a classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a highly flexible planar terahertz metamaterial (MM) comprised of three-gap split-ring resonators. The keys to achieve EIT in this system are the frequency detuning and hybridization processes between two bright modes coexisting in the same unit cell as opposed to bright-dark modes. We present experimental verification of two bright modes coupling for a terahertz EIT-MM in the context of numerical results and theoretical analysis based on a coupled Lorentz oscillator model. In addition, a hybrid variation of the EIT-MM is proposed and implemented numerically to dynamically tune the EIT window by incorporating photosensitive silicon pads in the split gap region of the resonators. As a result, this hybrid MM enables the active optical control of a transition from the on state (EIT mode) to the off state (dipole mode).

  9. Dynamically Babinet-invertible metasurface: a capacitive-inductive reconfigurable filter for terahertz waves using vanadium-dioxide metal-insulator transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urade, Yoshiro; Nakata, Yosuke; Okimura, Kunio; Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Miyamaru, Fumiaki; Takeda, Mitsuo W.; Kitano, Masao

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a reconfigurable planar metamaterial that can be switched between capacitive and inductive responses using local changes in the electrical conductivity of its constituent material. The proposed device is based on Babinet's principle and exploits the singular electromagnetic responses of metallic checkerboard structures, which are dependent on the local electrical conductivity. Utilizing the heating-induced metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide ($\\mathrm{VO}_2$), the proposed metamaterial is designed to compensate for the effect of the substrate and is experimentally characterized in the terahertz regime. This reconfigurable metamaterial can be utilized as a switchable filter and as a switchable phase shifter for terahertz waves.

  10. Strain Imaging Using Terahertz Waves and Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    predictions. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Birefringence, Terahertz Waves, Metamaterials 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 16 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...opaque objects by using the principles of strain-induced birefringence. 4 III. CONCEPT To overcome the inability of visual light to penetrate ...opaque objects, terahertz radiation was investigated. Longer wavelength EM waves, such as radio waves, have excellent penetration ability but low image

  11. Ultrabroadband terahertz conductivity of Si nanocrystal films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, D. G.; Meldrum, A.; Jepsen, P. Uhd

    2012-01-01

    The terahertz conductivity of silicon nanoparticles embedded in glass with varying density is studied with ultra-broadband terahertz spectroscopy on picosecond time scales following fs optical excitation. The transition from relatively isolated charge carriers to densities which allow inter...... the applicability of this simple model to the conductivity of nanoparticle ensembles over the entire THz spectral window....

  12. Quasi-optical converters for high-power gyrotrons: a brief review of physical models, numerical methods and computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabchevski, S; Zhelyazkov, I; Benova, E; Atanassov, V; Dankov, P; Thumm, M; Arnold, A; Jin, J; Rzesnicki, T

    2006-01-01

    Quasi-optical (QO) mode converters are used to transform electromagnetic waves of complex structure and polarization generated in gyrotron cavities into a linearly polarized, Gaussian-like beam suitable for transmission. The efficiency of this conversion as well as the maintenance of low level of diffraction losses are crucial for the implementation of powerful gyrotrons as radiation sources for electron-cyclotron-resonance heating of fusion plasmas. The use of adequate physical models, efficient numerical schemes and up-to-date computer codes may provide the high accuracy necessary for the design and analysis of these devices. In this review, we briefly sketch the most commonly used QO converters, the mathematical base they have been treated on and the basic features of the numerical schemes used. Further on, we discuss the applicability of several commercially available and free software packages, their advantages and drawbacks, for solving QO related problems

  13. 110GHz-500kW long-pulse gyrotron with built-in quasi-optical mode converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Keishi; Kariya, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Ken-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a 110 GHz-500 kW long-pulse gyrotron. The gyrotron incorporates a quasi-optical mode converter which transforms the oscillation mode, TE 22,2 , into a Gaussian radiation beam. The adoption of a built-in mode converter enabled us to design the electron beam collector so as to be capable of tolerating a 2 MW heat load. Attention was also paid to designing the gyrotron cavity and output window so as to permit long-pulse operations. In an experiment, we observed a maximum output power of 550 kW and achieved 1.3 s operation at a power level of 410 kW. (author)

  14. Design, Analysis, and Characterization of Metamaterial Quasi-Optical Components for Millimeter-Wave Automotive Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vinh Ngoc

    Since their introduction by Mercedes Benz in the late 1990s, W-band radars operating at 76-77 GHz have found their way into more and more passenger cars. These automotive radars are typically used in adaptive cruise control, pre-collision sensing, and other driver assistance systems. While these systems are usually only about the size of two stacked cigarette packs, system size, and weight remains a concern for many automotive manufacturers. In this dissertation, I discuss how artificially structured metamaterials can be used to improve lens-based automotive radar systems. Metamaterials allow the fabrication of smaller and lighter systems, while still meeting the frequency, high gain, and cost requirements of this application. In particular, I focus on the development of planar artificial dielectric lenses suitable for use in place of the injection-molded lenses now used in many automotive radar systems. I begin by using analytic and numerical ray-tracing to compare the performance of planar metamaterial GRIN lenses to equivalent aspheric refractive lenses. I do this to determine whether metamaterials are best employed in GRIN or refractive automotive radar lenses. Through this study I find that planar GRIN lenses with the large refractive index ranges enabled by metamaterials have approximately optically equivalent performance to equivalent refractive lenses for fields of view approaching +/-20°. I also find that the uniaxial nature of most planar metamaterials does not negatively impact planar GRIN lens performance. I then turn my attention to implementing these planar GRIN lenses at W-band automotive radar frequencies. I begin by designing uniform sheets of W-band electrically-coupled LC resonator-based metamaterials. These metamaterial samples were fabricated by the Jokerst research group on glass and liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrates and tested at Toyota Research Institute- North America (TRI-NA). When characterized at W-band frequencies, these

  15. Quasi-optic millimeter-wave device application of liquid crystal material by using porous PMMA matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nose, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Kon, A.; Ito, R.; Honma, M.

    2018-02-01

    Recently, millimeter-waves (MMWs) have become indispensable for application in next-generation high-speed wireless communication i.e., 5G, in addition to conventional applications such as in automobile collision avoidance radars and airport security inspection systems. Some manageable devices to control MMW propagation will be necessary with the development of this new technology field. We believe that liquid crystal (LC) devices are one of the major candidates for such applications because it is known that LC materials are excellent electro-optic materials. However, as the wavelength of MMWs is extremely longer than the optics region, extremely thick LC layers are necessary if we choose the quasioptic approach to attain LC MMW control devices. Therefore, we adopt a PDLC structure to attain the extremely thick LC layers by using porous (polymethyl methacrylate) PMMA materials, which can be easily obtained using a solvent consisting of a mixture of ethanol/water and a little heating. In this work, we focus on Fresnel lens, which is an important quasi-optic device for MMW application, to introduce a tunable property by using LC materials. Here, we adopt the thin film deposition method to obtain a porous PMMA matrix with the aim of obtaining final composite structure based on the Fresnel substrate. First, the fundamental material properties of porous PMMA are investigated to control the microscopic porous structure. Then, the LC-MMW Fresnel lens substrate is prepared using a 3D printer, and the fundamental MMW focusing properties of the prototype composite Fresnel structure are investigated.

  16. [Terahertz Spectroscopic Identification with Deep Belief Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuai; Shen, Tao; Wang, Rui-qi; Lai, Hua; Yu, Zheng-tao

    2015-12-01

    Feature extraction and classification are the key issues of terahertz spectroscopy identification. Because many materials have no apparent absorption peaks in the terahertz band, it is difficult to extract theirs terahertz spectroscopy feature and identify. To this end, a novel of identify terahertz spectroscopy approach with Deep Belief Network (DBN) was studied in this paper, which combines the advantages of DBN and K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) classifier. Firstly, cubic spline interpolation and S-G filter were used to normalize the eight kinds of substances (ATP, Acetylcholine Bromide, Bifenthrin, Buprofezin, Carbazole, Bleomycin, Buckminster and Cylotriphosphazene) terahertz transmission spectra in the range of 0.9-6 THz. Secondly, the DBN model was built by two restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) and then trained layer by layer using unsupervised approach. Instead of using handmade features, the DBN was employed to learn suitable features automatically with raw input data. Finally, a KNN classifier was applied to identify the terahertz spectrum. Experimental results show that using the feature learned by DBN can identify the terahertz spectrum of different substances with the recognition rate of over 90%, which demonstrates that the proposed method can automatically extract the effective features of terahertz spectrum. Furthermore, this KNN classifier was compared with others (BP neural network, SOM neural network and RBF neural network). Comparisons showed that the recognition rate of KNN classifier is better than the other three classifiers. Using the approach that automatic extract terahertz spectrum features by DBN can greatly reduce the workload of feature extraction. This proposed method shows a promising future in the application of identifying the mass terahertz spectroscopy.

  17. Terahertz near-field imaging using subwavelength plasmonic apertures and a quantum cascade laser source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baragwanath, Adam J; Freeman, Joshua R; Gallant, Andrew J; Zeitler, J Axel; Beere, Harvey E; Ritchie, David A; Chamberlain, J Martyn

    2011-07-01

    The first demonstration, to our knowledge, of near-field imaging using subwavelength plasmonic apertures with a terahertz quantum cascade laser source is presented. "Bull's-eye" apertures, featuring subwavelength circular apertures flanked by periodic annular corrugations were created using a novel fabrication method. A fivefold increase in intensity was observed for plasmonic apertures over plain apertures of the same diameter. Detailed studies of the transmitted beam profiles were undertaken for apertures with both planarized and corrugated exit facets, with the former producing spatially uniform intensity profiles and subwavelength spatial resolution. Finally, a proof-of-concept imaging experiment is presented, where an inhomogeneous pharmaceutical drug coating is investigated.

  18. Beyond level planarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelini, P.; Da Lozzo, G.; Di Battista, G.; Frati, F.; Patrignani, M.; Rutter, I.; Hu, Y.; Nöllenburg, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we settle the computational complexity of two open problems related to the extension of the notion of level planarity to surfaces different from the plane. Namely, we show that the problems of testing the existence of a level embedding of a level graph on the surface of the rolling

  19. HP Ge planar detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gornov, M.G.; Gurov, Yu.B.; Soldatov, A.M.; Osipenko, B.P.; Yurkowski, J.; Podkopaev, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    Parameters of planar detectors manufactured of HP Ge are presented. The possibilities to use multilayer spectrometers on the base of such semiconductor detectors for nuclear physics experiments are discussed. It is shown that the obtained detectors including high square ones have spectrometrical characteristics close to limiting possible values. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  20. High energy multi-cycle terahertz generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahr, Frederike Beate

    2017-10-01

    Development of compact electron accelerators and free-electron lasers requires novel acceleration schemes at shorter driving wavelengths. The Axsis project seeks to develop terahertz based electron acceleration as well as the high energy terahertz sources required. This thesis explores the methods and optical material required for the generation of highenergy multi-cycle terahertz pulses. Two experimental concepts to generate high energy terahertz radiation are presented. In addition the theoretical background and the optical properties of pertinent optical materials in the terahertz range are discussed. Investigations of the materials are performed with a terahertz time domain spectrometer and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The nonlinear optical crystal lithium niobate as well as other crystals suitable for the terahertz generation and in addition polymers and other radiation attenuators are characterized in the range from 0.2 to 1 THz. The theory describing the generation of narrowband terahertz radiation is evaluated. The experimental setups to generate terahertz radiation and to characterize its properties are described. The specific crystals - periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) - used in the experiments to generate the multi-cycle terahertz radiation are examined to determine e.g. the poling period. The first experimental concept splits the ultra fast, broadband pump pulses into a pulse train in order to pump the PPLN at a higher fluence while increasing the damage limit. The measurements confirm that a pulse train of ultra short, broadband pump pulses increases not only the terahertz energy but also the energy conversion efficiency. The second experimental concept utilizes chirped and delayed infrared laser pulses. This pulse format makes it possible to pump the crystal with high energy pulses resulting in high energy terahertz radiation. The concept is optimized to reach energies up to 127 μJ exceeding the existing results of narrowband

  1. High energy multi-cycle terahertz generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahr, Frederike Beate

    2017-10-15

    Development of compact electron accelerators and free-electron lasers requires novel acceleration schemes at shorter driving wavelengths. The Axsis project seeks to develop terahertz based electron acceleration as well as the high energy terahertz sources required. This thesis explores the methods and optical material required for the generation of highenergy multi-cycle terahertz pulses. Two experimental concepts to generate high energy terahertz radiation are presented. In addition the theoretical background and the optical properties of pertinent optical materials in the terahertz range are discussed. Investigations of the materials are performed with a terahertz time domain spectrometer and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The nonlinear optical crystal lithium niobate as well as other crystals suitable for the terahertz generation and in addition polymers and other radiation attenuators are characterized in the range from 0.2 to 1 THz. The theory describing the generation of narrowband terahertz radiation is evaluated. The experimental setups to generate terahertz radiation and to characterize its properties are described. The specific crystals - periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) - used in the experiments to generate the multi-cycle terahertz radiation are examined to determine e.g. the poling period. The first experimental concept splits the ultra fast, broadband pump pulses into a pulse train in order to pump the PPLN at a higher fluence while increasing the damage limit. The measurements confirm that a pulse train of ultra short, broadband pump pulses increases not only the terahertz energy but also the energy conversion efficiency. The second experimental concept utilizes chirped and delayed infrared laser pulses. This pulse format makes it possible to pump the crystal with high energy pulses resulting in high energy terahertz radiation. The concept is optimized to reach energies up to 127 μJ exceeding the existing results of narrowband

  2. Terahertz pulse generation from metal nanoparticle ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kosaku; Takano, Keisuke; Tadokoro, Yuzuru; Phan, Thanh Nhat Khoa; Nakajima, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    Terahertz pulse generation from metallic nanostructures irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses is of interest because the conversion efficiency from laser pulses to terahertz waves is increased by the local field enhancement resulting from the plasmon oscillation. In this talk we present our recent study on terahertz generation from metal nanoparticle ink. We baked a silver nanoparticle ink spin-coated onto a glass coverslip in various temperatures. On the surface of the baked ink, bumpy nanostructures are spontaneously formed, and the average size of bumps depends on the baking temperature. These structures are expected to lead to local field enhancement and then large nonlinear polarizations on the surface. The baked ink was irradiated by the output of regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser at an incidence angle of 45°. Waveforms of generated terahertz pulses are detected by electro-optical sampling. The generation efficiency was high when the average diameter of bumps was around 100 nm, which is realized when the ink is baked in 205 to 235°C in our setup. One of our next research targets is terahertz wave generation from micro-patterned metallic nanoparticle ink. It is an advantage of the metal nanoparticle ink that by using inkjet printers one can fabricate various patterns with micrometer scales, in which terahertz waves have a resonance. Combination of microstructures made by a printer and nanostructure spontaneously formed in the baking process will provide us terahertz emitters with unique frequency characteristics.

  3. Terahertz Technology: A Boon to Tablet Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, M. P.; Sonawane, Y. H.; Joshi, O. U.

    2009-01-01

    The terahertz gap has a frequency ranges from ∼0.3 THz to ∼10 THz in the electromagnetic spectrum which is in between microwave and infrared. The terahertz radiations are invisible to naked eye. In comparison with x-ray they are intrinsically safe, non-destructive and non-invasive. Terahertz spectroscopy enables 3D imaging of structures and materials, and the measurement of the unique spectral fingerprints of chemical and physical forms. Terahertz radiations are produced by a dendrimer based high power terahertz source and spectroscopy technologies. It resolves many of the questions left unanswered by complementary techniques, such as optical imaging, Raman and infrared spectra. In the pharmaceutical industries it enables nondestructive, internal, chemical analysis of tablets, capsules, and other dosage forms. Tablet coatings are a major factor in drug bioavailability. Therefore tablet coatings integrity and uniformity are of crucial importance to quality. Terahertz imaging gives an unparalleled certainty about the integrity of tablet coatings and the matrix performance of tablet cores. This article demonstrates the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the analysis of tablet coating thickness by illustrating the technique on tablets. PMID:20490288

  4. High speed, High resolution terahertz spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngchan; Yee, Dae Su; Yi, Miwoo; Ahn, Jaewook

    2008-01-01

    A variety of sources and methods have been developed for terahertz spectroscopy during almost two decades. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS)has attracted particular attention as a basic measurement method in the fields of THz science and technology. Recently, asynchronous optical sampling (AOS)THz TDS has been demonstrated, featuring rapid data acquisition and a high spectral resolution. Also, terahertz frequency comb spectroscopy (TFCS)possesses attractive features for high precision terahertz spectroscopy. In this presentation, we report on these two types of terahertz spectrometer. Our high speed, high resolution terahertz spectrometer is demonstrated using two mode locked femtosecond lasers with slightly different repetition frequencies without a mechanical delay stage. The repetition frequencies of the two femtosecond lasers are stabilized by use of two phase locked loops sharing the same reference oscillator. The time resolution of our terahertz spectrometer is measured using the cross correlation method to be 270 fs. AOS THz TDS is presented in Fig. 1, which shows a time domain waveform rapidly acquired on a 10ns time window. The inset shows a zoom into the signal with 100ps time window. The spectrum obtained by the fast Fourier Transformation (FFT)of the time domain waveform has a frequency resolution of 100MHz. The dependence of the signal to noise ratio (SNR)on the measurement time is also investigated

  5. Tutorial: Terahertz beamforming, from concepts to realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headland, Daniel; Monnai, Yasuaki; Abbott, Derek; Fumeaux, Christophe; Withayachumnankul, Withawat

    2018-05-01

    The terahertz range possesses significant untapped potential for applications including high-volume wireless communications, noninvasive medical imaging, sensing, and safe security screening. However, due to the unique characteristics and constraints of terahertz waves, the vast majority of these applications are entirely dependent upon the availability of beam control techniques. Thus, the development of advanced terahertz-range beam control techniques yields a range of useful and unparalleled applications. This article provides an overview and tutorial on terahertz beam control. The underlying principles of wavefront engineering include array antenna theory and diffraction optics, which are drawn from the neighboring microwave and optical regimes, respectively. As both principles are applicable across the electromagnetic spectrum, they are reconciled in this overview. This provides a useful foundation for investigations into beam control in the terahertz range, which lies between microwaves and infrared light. Thereafter, noteworthy experimental demonstrations of beam control in the terahertz range are discussed, and these include geometric optics, phased array devices, leaky-wave antennas, reflectarrays, and transmitarrays. These techniques are compared and contrasted for their suitability in applications of terahertz waves.

  6. How to draw a planarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bläsius, T.; Radermacher, M.; Rutter, I.; Steffen, B.; Baier, C.; van den Brand, M.; Eder, J.; Hinchey, M.; Margaria, T.

    2017-01-01

    We study the problem of computing straight-line drawings of non-planar graphs with few crossings. We assume that a crossing-minimization algorithm is applied first, yielding a planarization, i.e., a planar graph with a dummy vertex for each crossing, that fixes the topology of the resulting drawing.

  7. 20040217 NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Quasi-Optical Control of Intense Microwave Transmission Nizhny Novgorod, Russia 17 - 20 Feb 2004 2004 novgorod20040217 20040220

    CERN Document Server

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2005-01-01

    This volume assembles the texts of presentations given at the NATO-sponsored Advanced Research Workshop on Quasi-Optical Transmission of High-Power Microwaves, held in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia in February 2004. The presentations bridge a wide range of technical areas, but share common tools of analysis and design. Applications of quasi-optics extend to the use of high-power microwaves—including millimeter-waves— for radar and communications (especially deep space millimeter-wave systems, space debris detection radar, and radar for the detection of small targets moving over heavy clutter); particle accelerators (especially for a future high-acceleration-gradient electron-positron collider); plasma research (especially for controlled nuclear fusion and waste decontamination); and material processing (in particular, ceramic sintering with millimeter-waves, and the coating of metal surfaces with protective dielectric films.). Scientists and engineers working in any of these areas should benefit significantly f...

  8. EDITORIAL: Photonic terahertz technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisauskas, Alvydas; Löffler, Torsten; Roskos, Hartmut G.

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, when reading newspapers and journals or watching TV, one has been able to find feature presentations dealing with the prospects of terahertz (THz) technology and its potential impact on market applications. THz technology aims to fill the THz gap in the electro-magnetic spectrum in order to make the THz frequency regime, which spans the two orders of magnitude from 100 GHz to 10 THz, accessible for applications. From the lower-frequency side, electronics keeps pushing upwards, while photonic approaches gradually improve our technological options at higher frequencies. The popular interest reflects the considerable advances in research in the THz field, and it is mainly advances in the photonic branch, with the highlight being the development of the THz quantum cascade laser, which in recent years have caught the imagination of the public, and of potential users and investors. This special issue of Semiconductor Science and Technology provides an overview of key scientific developments which currently represent the cutting edge of THz photonic technology. In order to be clear about the implications, we should define exactly what we mean by 'THz photonic technology', or synonymously 'THz photonics'. It is characterized by the way in which THz radiation (or a guided THz wave) is generated, namely by the use of lasers. This may be done in one of two fundamentally different schemes: (i) by laser action in the terahertz frequency range itself (THz lasers), or (ii) by down-conversion processes (photomixing) involving the radiation of lasers which operate in the visible, near-infrared or infrared spectral ranges, either in pulsed or continuous-wave mode. The field of THz photonics has grown so considerably that it is out of the question to cover all its aspects in a single special issue of a journal. We have elected, instead, to focus our attention on two types of development with a potentially strong impact on the THz field: first, on significant advances

  9. Handbook of terahertz technologies devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Ho-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz waves, which lie in the frequency range of 0.1-10 THz, have long been investigated in a few limited fields, such as astronomy, because of a lack of devices for their generation and detection. Several technical breakthroughs made over the last couple of decades now allow us to radiate and detect terahertz waves more easily, which has triggered the search for new uses of terahertz waves in many fields, such as bioscience, security, and information and communications technology. The book covers some of the technical breakthroughs in terms of device technologies. It discusses not only th

  10. Stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers

    OpenAIRE

    Kooi, J. W.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Baryshev, A.; Schieder, R.; Hajenius, M.; Gao, J. R.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Voronov, B.; Gol'tsman, G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers based on small volume NbN phonon cooled hot electron bolometers (HEBs). The stability of these receivers can be broken down in two parts: the intrinsic stability of the HEB mixer and the stability of the local oscillator (LO) signal injection scheme. Measurements show that the HEB mixer stability is limited by gain fluctuations with a 1/f spectral distribution. In a 60 MHz noise bandwidth this results in an Allan varian...

  11. Aspheric lenses for terahertz imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yat Hei; Leonhardt, Rainer

    2008-09-29

    We present novel designs for aspheric lenses used in terahertz (THz) imaging. As different surfaces result in different beam shaping properties and in different losses from reflection and absorption, the resultant imaging resolution (i.e. the focal spot size) depends critically on the design approach. We evaluate the different lens designs using Kirchhoff's scalar diffraction theory, and test the predictions experimentally. We also show that our lenses can achieve sub-wavelength resolution. While our lens designs are tested with THz radiation, the design considerations are applicable also to other regions of the electro-magnetic spectrum.

  12. Graphene hyperlens for terahertz radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a graphene hyperlens for the terahertz (THz) range. We employ and numerically examine a structured graphene-dielectric multilayered stack that is an analog of a metallic wire medium. As an example of the graphene hyperlens in action, we demonstrate an imaging of two point sources...... separated by a distance λ0/5. An advantage of such a hyperlens as compared to a metallic one is the tunability of its properties by changing the chemical potential of graphene. We also propose a method to retrieve the hyperbolic dispersion, check the effective medium approximation, and retrieve...

  13. Planar metasurface retroreflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi, Amir; Arbabi, Ehsan; Horie, Yu; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Faraon, Andrei

    2017-07-01

    Metasurfaces are two-dimensional arrangements of subwavelength scatterers that control the propagation of optical waves. Here, we show that cascaded metasurfaces, each performing a predefined mathematical transformation, provide a new optical design framework that enables new functionalities not yet demonstrated with single metasurfaces. Specifically, we demonstrate that retroreflection can be achieved with two vertically stacked planar metasurfaces, the first performing a spatial Fourier transform and its inverse, and the second imparting a spatially varying momentum to the Fourier transform of the incident light. Using this concept, we fabricate and test a planar monolithic near-infrared retroreflector composed of two layers of silicon nanoposts, which reflects light along its incident direction with a normal incidence efficiency of 78% and a large half-power field of view of 60°. The metasurface retroreflector demonstrates the potential of cascaded metasurfaces for implementing novel high-performance components, and enables low-power and low-weight passive optical transmitters.

  14. Routed planar networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Aldous

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling a road network as a planar graph seems very natural. However, in studying continuum limits of such networks it is useful to take {\\em routes} rather than {\\em edges} as primitives. This article is intended to introduce the relevant (discrete setting notion of {\\em routed network} to graph theorists. We give a naive classification of all 71 topologically different such networks on 4 leaves, and pose a variety of challenging research questions.

  15. Terahertz wave generation in coupled quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yu-Rong; Guo Shi-Fang; Duan Su-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Based on coupled quantum dots, we present an interesting optical effect in a four-level loop coupled system. Both the two upper levels and the two lower levels are designed to be almost degenerate, which induces a considerable dipole moment. The terahertz wave is obtained from the low-frequency component of the photon emission spectrum. The frequency of the terahertz wave can be controlled by tuning the energy levels via designing the nanostructure appropriately or tuning the driving laser field. A terahertz wave with adjustable frequency and considerable intensity (100 times higher than that of the Rayleigh line) can be obtained. It provides an effective scheme for a terahertz source. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. Investigating murals with terahertz reflective tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Minjie; Sun, Wenfeng; Wang, Xinke; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Qunxi; Ye, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) imaging technology has been proposed to be used in the non-invasive detection of murals. THz-TDS images provide structural data of the sample that cannot be obtained with other complementary techniques. In this paper, two types of defects hidden in the plaster used to simulate the cases of defects in the murals, have been investigated by the terahertz reflected time domain spectroscopy imaging system. These preset defects include a leaf slice and a slit built in the plaster. With the terahertz reflective tomography, information about defects has been determined involving the thickness from the surface of sample to the built-in defect, the profile and distribution of the defect. With this THz tomography, different defects with the changes of optical thickness and their relative refractive index have been identified. The application of reflective pulsed terahertz imaging has been extended to the defect detection of the murals.

  17. Excitonic terahertz photoconductivity in intrinsic semiconductor nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jie-Yun

    2018-06-01

    Excitonic terahertz photoconductivity in intrinsic semiconductor nanowires is studied. Based on the excitonic theory, the numerical method to calculate the photoconductivity spectrum in the nanowires is developed, which can simulate optical pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy measurements on real nanowires and thereby calculate the typical photoconductivity spectrum. With the help of the energetic structure deduced from the calculated linear absorption spectrum, the numerically observed shift of the resonant peak in the photoconductivity spectrum is found to result from the dominant exciton transition between excited or continuum states to the ground state, and the quantitative analysis is in good agreement with the quantum plasmon model. Besides, the dependence of the photoconductivity on the polarization of the terahertz field is also discussed. The numerical method and supporting theoretical analysis provide a new tool for experimentalists to understand the terahertz photoconductivity in intrinsic semiconductor nanowires at low temperatures or for nanowires subjected to below bandgap photoexcitation, where excitonic effects dominate.

  18. Response of asymmetric carbon nanotube network devices to sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayduchenko, I.; Kardakova, A.; Voronov, B.; Finkel, M.; Fedorov, G.; Jiménez, D.; Morozov, S.; Presniakov, M.; Goltsman, G.

    2015-01-01

    Demand for efficient terahertz radiation detectors resulted in intensive study of the asymmetric carbon nanostructures as a possible solution for that problem. It was maintained that photothermoelectric effect under certain conditions results in strong response of such devices to terahertz radiation even at room temperature. In this work, we investigate different mechanisms underlying the response of asymmetric carbon nanotube (CNT) based devices to sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation. Our structures are formed with CNT networks instead of individual CNTs so that effects probed are more generic and not caused by peculiarities of an individual nanoscale object. We conclude that the DC voltage response observed in our structures is not only thermal in origin. So called diode-type response caused by asymmetry of the device IV characteristic turns out to be dominant at room temperature. Quantitative analysis provides further routes for the optimization of the device configuration, which may result in appearance of novel terahertz radiation detectors

  19. Planar Dirac diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo, Stefano de; Rotelli, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of the planar diffusion of a Dirac particle by step and barrier potentials, when the incoming wave impinges at an arbitrary angle with the potential. Except for right-angle incidence this process is characterized by the appearance of spin flip terms. For the step potential, spin flip occurs for both transmitted and reflected waves. However, we find no spin flip in the transmitted barrier result. This is surprising because the barrier result may be derived directly from a two-step calculation. We demonstrate that the spin flip cancellation indeed occurs for each ''particle'' (wave packet) contribution. (orig.)

  20. Simplifying massive planar subdivisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Truelsen, Jakob; Yang, Jungwoo

    2014-01-01

    We present the first I/O- and practically-efficient algorithm for simplifying a planar subdivision, such that no point is moved more than a given distance εxy and such that neighbor relations between faces (homotopy) are preserved. Under some practically realistic assumptions, our algorithm uses ....... For example, for the contour map simplification problem it is significantly faster than the previous algorithm, while obtaining approximately the same simplification factor. Read More: http://epubs.siam.org/doi/abs/10.1137/1.9781611973198.3...

  1. EBT-S 28-GHz, 200-kW, CW, mixed-mode, quasi-optical plasma heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.; Kimrey, H.D.; Bigelow, T.S.; Bates, D.D.; Eason, H.O.

    1984-07-01

    The ELMO Bumpy Torus-Scale (EBT-S) 28-GHz, 200-kW, cw, plasma heating system consists of a gyrotron oscillator, an oversized waveguide two-bend transmission system, and a quasi-optical mixed-mode microwave distribution manifold that feeds microwave power to the 24 plasma loads of the EBT-S fusion experiment. Balancing power to the 24 loads of the EBT-S fusion experiment. Balancing power to the 24 loads was achieved by adjusting the areas at 24 coupling irises. System performance is easily measured using system calorimetry. The distribution manifold mixed-mode power transmission, reflection, and loss coefficients are 89%, 6%, and 5%, respectively. The overall system efficiency (plasma power/gyrotron power) is 80%, but with some modifications to the distribution manifold we believe the ultimate efficiency can approach 90%. The system reliability is outstanding with a world's record 1 x 10 5 kW h of 28-GHz energy delivered to the EBT-S device with well over 1 x 10 3 operating hours

  2. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølfting; Jacob, Rico

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage of the d......In this paper we determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage...... of the data structure is O(n). The data structure supports extreme point queries in a given direction, tangent queries through a given point, and queries for the neighboring points on the convex hull in O(log n) time. The extreme point queries can be used to decide whether or not a given line intersects...... the convex hull, and the tangent queries to determine whether a given point is inside the convex hull. We give a lower bound on the amortized asymptotic time complexity that matches the performance of this data structure....

  3. Spectroelectrochemical sensing: planar waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Susan E.; Shi Yining; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R

    2003-09-30

    The spectroelectrochemical sensor combines in a single device electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and selective partitioning into a film, giving improved selectivity for applications that involve complex samples. Sensing is based on the change in optical signal that accompanies electrochemical modulation of analyte that has partitioned into the film. Two classes of optical quality chemically-selective films based on two different host materials, namely, sol-gel processed silica and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) have been developed. Films are typically 400-700 nm thick. Three types of sensor platforms are discussed: a multiple internal reflection (MIR) optic consisting of a bilayer of an indium tin oxide (ITO) optically transparent electrode deposited on a 1-mm thick glass substrate, a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide (5-9 {mu}m thick) was over-coated with a thin film of ITO, and a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide channel was formed and a pair of electrodes deposited along side the channel. These sensors were evaluated with ferrocyanide and a selective film of PDMDAAC-SiO{sub 2}, where PDMDAAC=poly(dimethyl diallylammonium chloride)

  4. Spectroelectrochemical sensing: planar waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Susan E.; Shi Yining; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R.

    2003-01-01

    The spectroelectrochemical sensor combines in a single device electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and selective partitioning into a film, giving improved selectivity for applications that involve complex samples. Sensing is based on the change in optical signal that accompanies electrochemical modulation of analyte that has partitioned into the film. Two classes of optical quality chemically-selective films based on two different host materials, namely, sol-gel processed silica and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) have been developed. Films are typically 400-700 nm thick. Three types of sensor platforms are discussed: a multiple internal reflection (MIR) optic consisting of a bilayer of an indium tin oxide (ITO) optically transparent electrode deposited on a 1-mm thick glass substrate, a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide (5-9 μm thick) was over-coated with a thin film of ITO, and a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide channel was formed and a pair of electrodes deposited along side the channel. These sensors were evaluated with ferrocyanide and a selective film of PDMDAAC-SiO 2 , where PDMDAAC=poly(dimethyl diallylammonium chloride)

  5. Design of special planar linkages

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jing-Shan; Ma, Ning; Chu, Fulei

    2013-01-01

    Planar linkages play a very important role in mechanical engineering. As the simplest closed chain mechanisms, planar four-bar linkages are widely used in mechanical engineering, civil engineering and aerospace engineering.Design of Special Planar Linkages proposes a uniform design theory for planar four-bar linkages. The merit of the method proposed in this book is that it allows engineers to directly obtain accurate results when there are such solutions for the specified n precise positions; otherwise, the best approximate solutions will be found. This book discusses the kinematics and reach

  6. Overview of terahertz radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallerano, G.P.; Biedron, S.G.

    2004-01-01

    Although terahertz (THz) radiation was first observed about hundred years ago, the corresponding portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has been for long time considered a rather poorly explored region at the boundary between the microwaves and the infrared. This situation has changed during the past ten years with the rapid development of coherent THz sources, such as solid state oscillators, quantum cascade lasers, optically pumped solid state devices and novel free electron devices, which have in turn stimulated a wide variety of applications from material science to telecommunications, from biology to biomedicine. For a comprehensive review of THz technology the reader is addressed to a recent paper by P. Siegel. In this paper we focus on the development and perspectives of THz radiation sources.

  7. Terahertz Sensing, Imaging and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, C.; Hoshing, H.; Sasaki, Y.; Maki, K.; Hayashi, A. [RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Sendai (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Diagnosis using terahertz (THz) wave holds a great potential for various applications in various fields because of its transmittance to many soft materials with the good spatial resolution. In addition, the presence of specific spectral absorption features of crystalline materials is also important for many applications. Such features are different from material to material to material and is applicable for identifying materials inside packages that are opaque to visible light. One of the most impressive examples of such applications is the detection of illicit drugs inside envelopes. In this talk, we will present our recent topics of THz sensing, imaging and applications including this example. We will also present the cancer diagnosis, an application of the photonic crystal to high sensitivity detection, and gas spectroscopy if we have enough time. We also would like to briefly review the recent topics related to THz applications.

  8. Terahertz Sensing, Imaging and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, C.; Hoshing, H.; Sasaki, Y.; Maki, K.; Hayashi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosis using terahertz (THz) wave holds a great potential for various applications in various fields because of its transmittance to many soft materials with the good spatial resolution. In addition, the presence of specific spectral absorption features of crystalline materials is also important for many applications. Such features are different from material to material to material and is applicable for identifying materials inside packages that are opaque to visible light. One of the most impressive examples of such applications is the detection of illicit drugs inside envelopes. In this talk, we will present our recent topics of THz sensing, imaging and applications including this example. We will also present the cancer diagnosis, an application of the photonic crystal to high sensitivity detection, and gas spectroscopy if we have enough time. We also would like to briefly review the recent topics related to THz applications

  9. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  10. Planar elliptic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineev, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The planar elliptic extension of the Laplacian growth is, after a proper parametrization, given in a form of a solution to the equation for areapreserving diffeomorphisms. The infinite set of conservation laws associated with such elliptic growth is interpreted in terms of potential theory, and the relations between two major forms of the elliptic growth are analyzed. The constants of integration for closed form solutions are identified as the singularities of the Schwarz function, which are located both inside and outside the moving contour. Well-posedness of the recovery of the elliptic operator governing the process from the continuum of interfaces parametrized by time is addressed and two examples of exact solutions of elliptic growth are presented.

  11. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Riko

    We determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage of the data structure...... is O(n). The data structure supports extreme point queries in a given direction, tangent queries through a given point, and queries for the neighboring points on the convex hull in O(log n) time. The extreme point queries can be used to decide whether or not a given line intersects the convex hull......, and the tangent queries to determine whether a given point is inside the convex hull. The space usage of the data structure is O(n). We give a lower bound on the amortized asymptotic time complexity that matches the performance of this data structure....

  12. Improved Dynamic Planar Point Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Arge, Lars; Georgiadis, Loukas

    2006-01-01

    We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time.......We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time....

  13. Contracting a planar graph efficiently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob; Italiano, Giuseppe F.; Karczmarz, Adam

    2017-01-01

    the data structure, we can achieve optimal running times for decremental bridge detection, 2-edge connectivity, maximal 3-edge connected components, and the problem of finding a unique perfect matching for a static planar graph. Furthermore, we improve the running times of algorithms for several planar...

  14. Resonant Excitation of Terahertz Surface Plasmons in Subwavelength Metal Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of experimental studies of resonant excitation of terahertz surface plasmons in two-dimensional arrays of subwavelength metal holes. Resonant transmission efficiency higher than unity was recently achieved when normalized to the area occupied by the holes. The effects of hole shape, hole dimensions, dielectric function of metals, polarization dependence, and array film thickness on resonant terahertz transmission in metal arrays were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. In particular, extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated in arrays of subwavelength holes made even from Pb, a generally poor metal, and having thickness of only one-third of skin depth. Terahertz surface plasmons have potential applications in terahertz imaging, biosensing, interconnects, and development of integrated plasmonic components for terahertz generation and detection.

  15. An electrically driven terahertz metamaterial diffractive modulator with more than 20 dB of dynamic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl, N.; Reichel, K.; Mendis, R.; Mittleman, D. M.; Chen, H.-T.; Taylor, A. J.; Brener, I.; Benz, A.; Reno, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    We design and experimentally demonstrate a switchable diffraction grating for terahertz modulation based on planar active metamaterials, where a Schottky gate structure is implemented to tune the metamaterial resonances in real-time via the application of an external voltage bias. The diffraction grating is formed by grouping the active split-ring resonators into an array of independent columns with alternate columns biased. We observe off-axis diffraction over a wide frequency band in contrast to the narrow-band resonances, which permits operation of the device as a relatively high-speed, wide-bandwidth, high-contrast modulator, with more than 20 dB of dynamic range

  16. Crucial problems in the design of a terahertz tripler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Jin; Zhang Dehai; Jiang Changhong; Zhao Xin; Yan Dashuai; Huang Jian

    2015-01-01

    A frequency-multiplied source at the terahertz band using discrete planar Schottky diodes, which is a critical element in heterodyne instruments, has been studied by some domestic research institutions in recent years. Besides the design method, there are still many crucial problems that must be taken into consideration in the design. This article mainly discuss three aspects based on the measured data of a 225 GHz tripler that we designed. Firstly, the accuracy of the diode model concerns the reliability of the simulation results. According to the Spice parameters and the measured results, the physical size and the DC parameter of the Schottky diode can be corrected until there is a good consistency between the simulated and measured results. Secondly, the heat accumulation happens to the Schottky junction when the high input power is added. A steady-state thermal simulation is done and the results show that the hottest temperature is about 140 °C with 250 mW input power, which is safe to the diode. Lastly, some non-ideal factors are brought during the assembly process such as the uncertainty in the conductive adhesive shape and location deviation of the circuit. Furthermore, the effect on the performance of the frequency multiplier is calculated in this work. (paper)

  17. Crucial problems in the design of a terahertz tripler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Meng; Dehai, Zhang; Changhong, Jiang; Xin, Zhao; Jian, Huang; Dashuai, Yan

    2015-08-01

    A frequency-multiplied source at the terahertz band using discrete planar Schottky diodes, which is a critical element in heterodyne instruments, has been studied by some domestic research institutions in recent years. Besides the design method, there are still many crucial problems that must be taken into consideration in the design. This article mainly discuss three aspects based on the measured data of a 225 GHz tripler that we designed. Firstly, the accuracy of the diode model concerns the reliability of the simulation results. According to the Spice parameters and the measured results, the physical size and the DC parameter of the Schottky diode can be corrected until there is a good consistency between the simulated and measured results. Secondly, the heat accumulation happens to the Schottky junction when the high input power is added. A steady-state thermal simulation is done and the results show that the hottest temperature is about 140 °C with 250 mW input power, which is safe to the diode. Lastly, some non-ideal factors are brought during the assembly process such as the uncertainty in the conductive adhesive shape and location deviation of the circuit. Furthermore, the effect on the performance of the frequency multiplier is calculated in this work.

  18. Terahertz transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due

    The electronic transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers at femtosecond (10-15 s) to picosecond (10-12 s) time scales are investigated using terahertz (1012 Hz) time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The technique uses sub-picosecond pulses of electromagnetic radiation to gauge the electrodynamic...... response of thin conducting films at up to multi-terahertz frequencies. In this thesis THz-TDS is applied towards two main goals; (1) investigation of the fundamental carrier transport dynamics in graphene at femtosecond to picosecond timescales and (2) application of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy...... to rapid and non-contact electrical characterization of large-area graphene, relevant for industrial integration. We show that THz-TDS is an accurate and reliable probe of graphene sheet conductance, and that the technique provides insight into fundamental aspects of the nanoscopic nature of conduction...

  19. PBG based terahertz antenna for aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Balamati; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on high-gain antennas in the terahertz spectrum and their optimization. The terahertz spectrum is an unallocated EM spectrum, which is being explored for a number of applications, especially to meet increasing demands of high data rates for wireless space communications. Space communication systems using the terahertz spectrum can resolve the problems of limited bandwidth of present wireless communications without radio-frequency interference. This book describes design of such high-gain antennas and their performance enhancement using photonic band gap (PBG) substrates. Further, optimization of antenna models using evolutionary algorithm based computational engine has been included. The optimized high-performance compact antenna may be used for various wireless applications, such as inter-orbital communications and on-vehicle satellite communications.

  20. Convergence of Terahertz Sciences in Biomedical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Yong; Han, Haewook; Han, Joon; Ahn, Jaewook; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Park, Woong-Yang; Jeong, Young

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological breakthrough in the field of Terahertz radiation has triggered new applications in biology and biomedicine. Particularly, biological applications are based on the specific spectroscopic fingerprints of biological matter in this spectral region. Historically with the discovery of new electromagnetic wave spectrum, we have always discovered new medical diagnostic imaging systems. The use of terahertz wave was not realized due to the absence of useful terahertz sources. Now after successful generation of THz waves, it is reported that a great potential for THz wave exists for its resonance with bio-molecules. There are many challenging issues such as development of THz passive and active instrumentations, understanding of THz-Bio interaction for THz spectroscopy, THz-Bio nonlinear phenomena and safety guideline, and THz imaging systems. Eventually the deeper understanding of THz-Bio interaction and novel THz systems enable us to develop powerful THz biomedical imaging systems which can contr...

  1. Terahertz-frequency dielectric response of liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Møller, Uffe; Cooke, David

    The dielectric response of liquids spans many decades in frequency. The dielectric response of a polar liquid is typically determined by relaxational dynamics of the dipolar moments of the liquid. In contrast, the dielectric response of a nonpolar liquid is determined by much weaker collision......-induced dipole moments. In the polar liquid water the fastest relaxational dynamics is found at terahertz frequencies, just below the first intermolecular vibrational and librational modes. In this presentation we will discuss optical terahertz spectroscopic techniques for measurement of the full dielectric...... function of liquids at terahertz frequencies. We will review the current understanding of the high-frequency dielectric spectrum of water, and discuss the relation between the dielectric spectrum and the thermodynamic properties of certain aqueous solutions....

  2. Reconfigurable metamaterials for terahertz wave manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammed R.; Cakmakyapan, Semih; Jarrahi, Mona

    2017-09-01

    Reconfigurable metamaterials have emerged as promising platforms for manipulating the spectral and spatial properties of terahertz waves without being limited by the characteristics of naturally existing materials. Here, we present a comprehensive overview of various types of reconfigurable metamaterials that are utilized to manipulate the intensity, phase, polarization, and propagation direction of terahertz waves. We discuss various reconfiguration mechanisms based on optical, electrical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli while using semiconductors, superconductors, phase-change materials, graphene, and electromechanical structures. The advantages and disadvantages of different reconfigurable metamaterial designs in terms of modulation efficiency, modulation bandwidth, modulation speed, and system complexity are discussed in detail.

  3. High-resolution broadband terahertz spectroscopy via electronic heterodyne detection of photonically generated terahertz frequency comb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelyev, D G; Skryl, A S; Bakunov, M I

    2014-10-01

    We report an alternative approach to the terahertz frequency-comb spectroscopy (TFCS) based on nonlinear mixing of a photonically generated terahertz pulse train with a continuous wave signal from an electronic synthesizer. A superlattice is used as a nonlinear mixer. Unlike the standard TFCS technique, this approach does not require a complex double-laser system but retains the advantages of TFCS-high spectral resolution and wide bandwidth.

  4. Contact planarization of ensemble nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, A. C. E.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2011-06-01

    The viability of four organic polymers (S1808, SC200, SU8 and Cyclotene) as filling materials to achieve planarization of ensemble nanowire arrays is reported. Analysis of the porosity, surface roughness and thermal stability of each filling material was performed. Sonication was used as an effective method to remove the tops of the nanowires (NWs) to achieve complete planarization. Ensemble nanowire devices were fully fabricated and I-V measurements confirmed that Cyclotene effectively planarizes the NWs while still serving the role as an insulating layer between the top and bottom contacts. These processes and analysis can be easily implemented into future characterization and fabrication of ensemble NWs for optoelectronic device applications.

  5. The design and manufacture of a notch structure for a planar InP Gunn diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yang; Jia Rui; Wu De-Qi; Jin Zhi; Liu Xin-Yu

    2013-01-01

    A planar InP-based Gunn diode with a notch doping structure is designed and fabricated for integration into millimeter-wave and terahertz integrated circuits. We design two kinds of InP-based Gunn diodes. One has a fixed diameter of cathode area, but has variable spacing between anode and cathode; the other has fixed spacing, but a varying diameter. The threshold voltage and saturated current exhibit their strong dependences on the spacing (10 μm–20 μm) and diameter (40 μm–60 μm) of the InP Gunn diode. The threshold voltage is approximately 4.5 V and the saturated current is in a range of 293 mA–397 mA. In this work, the diameter of the diode and the space between anode and cathode are optimized. The devices are fabricated using a wet etching technique and show excellent performances. The results strongly suggest that low-cost and reliable InP planar Gunn diodes can be used as single chip terahertz sources. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  6. Tunable plasmonic toroidal terahertz metamodulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerislioglu, Burak; Ahmadivand, Arash; Pala, Nezih

    2018-04-01

    Optical modulators are essential and strategic parts of micro- and nanophotonic circuits to encode electro-optical signals in the optical domain. Here, by using arrays of multipixel toroidal plasmonic terahertz (THz) metamolecules, we developed a functional plasmonic metamodulator with high efficiency and tunability. Technically, the dynamic toroidal dipole induces nonradiating charge-current arrangements leading to have an exquisite role in defining the inherent spectral features of various materials. By categorizing in a different family of multipoles far from the traditional electromagnetic multipoles, the toroidal dipole corresponds to poloidal currents flowing on the surface of a closed-loop torus. Utilizing the sensitivity of the optically driven toroidal momentum to the incident THz beam power and by employing both numerical tools and experimental analysis, we systematically studied the spectral response of the proposed THz plasmonic metadevice. In this Rapid Communication, we uncover a correlation between the existence and the excitation of the toroidal response and the incident beam power. This mechanism is employed to develop THz toroidal metamodulators with a strong potential to be employed for practical advanced and next-generation communication, filtering, and routing applications.

  7. Carbon nanotube fiber terahertz polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubair, Ahmed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Young, Colin C. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Heimbeck, Martin S. [Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Everitt, Henry O. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Pasquali, Matteo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Kono, Junichiro, E-mail: kono@rice.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2016-04-04

    Conventional, commercially available terahertz (THz) polarizers are made of uniformly and precisely spaced metallic wires. They are fragile and expensive, with performance characteristics highly reliant on wire diameters and spacings. Here, we report a simple and highly error-tolerant method for fabricating a freestanding THz polarizer with nearly ideal performance, reliant on the intrinsically one-dimensional character of conduction electrons in well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The polarizer was constructed on a mechanical frame over which we manually wound acid-doped CNT fibers with ultrahigh electrical conductivity. We demonstrated that the polarizer has an extinction ratio of ∼−30 dB with a low insertion loss (<0.5 dB) throughout a frequency range of 0.2–1.1 THz. In addition, we used a THz ellipsometer to measure the Müller matrix of the CNT-fiber polarizer and found comparable attenuation to a commercial metallic wire-grid polarizer. Furthermore, based on the classical theory of light transmission through an array of metallic wires, we demonstrated the most striking difference between the CNT-fiber and metallic wire-grid polarizers: the latter fails to work in the zero-spacing limit, where it acts as a simple mirror, while the former continues to work as an excellent polarizer even in that limit due to the one-dimensional conductivity of individual CNTs.

  8. Planar graphs theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Nishizeki, T

    1988-01-01

    Collected in this volume are most of the important theorems and algorithms currently known for planar graphs, together with constructive proofs for the theorems. Many of the algorithms are written in Pidgin PASCAL, and are the best-known ones; the complexities are linear or 0(nlogn). The first two chapters provide the foundations of graph theoretic notions and algorithmic techniques. The remaining chapters discuss the topics of planarity testing, embedding, drawing, vertex- or edge-coloring, maximum independence set, subgraph listing, planar separator theorem, Hamiltonian cycles, and single- or multicommodity flows. Suitable for a course on algorithms, graph theory, or planar graphs, the volume will also be useful for computer scientists and graph theorists at the research level. An extensive reference section is included.

  9. Flat panel planar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1994-11-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic Display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic class sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  10. Design of interferometer system for Keda Torus eXperiment using terahertz solid-state diode sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Jinlin; Wang, Haibo; Li, Hong; Lan, Tao; Liu, Adi; Liu, Wandong; Yu, Changxuan; Ding, Weixing

    2014-01-01

    A solid-state source based terahertz (THz) interferometer diagnostic system has been designed and characterized for the Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX). The THz interferometer utilizes the planar diodes based frequency multiplier (X48) to provide the probing beam at fixed frequency 0.650 THz, and local oscillator is provided by an independent solid-state diode source with tunable frequency (0.650 THz +/− 10 MHz). Both solid-state sources have approximately 1 mW power. The planar-diode mixers optimized for high sensitivity, ∼750 mV/mW, are used in the heterodyne detection system, which permits multichannel interferometer on KTX with a low phase noise. A sensitivity of e l> min = 4.5 × 10 16 m −2 and a temporal resolution of 0.2 μs have been achieved during the initial bench test

  11. Terahertz plasmonics with semiconductor surfaces and antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez Rivas, J.; Berrier, A.

    2009-01-01

    Semiconductors have a Drude-like behavior at terahertz (THz) frequencies similar to metals at optical frequencies. Narrow band gap semiconductors have a dielectric constant with a negative real component and a relatively small imaginary component. This permittivity is characteristic of noble metals

  12. Terahertz radiation in alkali vapor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xuan; Zhang, X.-C.

    2014-01-01

    By taking advantage of low ionization potentials of alkali atoms, we demonstrate terahertz wave generation from cesium and rubidium vapor plasmas with an amplitude nearly one order of magnitude larger than that from nitrogen gas at low pressure (0.02–0.5 Torr). The observed phenomena are explained by the numerical modeling based upon electron tunneling ionization

  13. Investigation of Terra Cotta artefacts with terahertz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaune, Julien; Jackson, J. Bianca; Fukunaga, Kaori; White, Jeffrey; D'Alessandro, Laura; Whyte, Alison; Menu, Michel; Mourou, Gerard

    2011-10-01

    Terahertz Time Domain Imaging has been used in the last few years for the investigation of cultural heritage. In this article, the authors demonstrate the possibility to apply it for the investigation of clay artifacts. Tomographic images were obtained of a model in reflection, and an Egyptian vessel in transmission.

  14. Terahertz spoof surface-plasmon-polariton subwavelength waveguide

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ying; Xu, Yuehong; Tian, Chunxiu; Xu, Quan; Zhang, Xueqian; Li, Yanfeng; Zhang, Xixiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2017-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with the features of subwavelength confinement and strong enhancements have sparked enormous interest. However, in the terahertz regime, due to the perfect conductivities of most metals, it is hard to realize the strong confinement of SPPs, even though the propagation loss could be sufficiently low. One main approach to circumvent this problem is to exploit spoof SPPs, which are expected to exhibit useful subwavelength confinement and relative low propagation loss at terahertz frequencies. Here we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of terahertz spoof SPP waveguides based on corrugated metal surfaces. The various waveguide components, including a straight waveguide, an S-bend waveguide, a Y-splitter, and a directional coupler, were experimentally demonstrated using scanning near-field terahertz microscopy. The proposed waveguide indeed enables propagation, bending, splitting, and coupling of terahertz SPPs and thus paves a new way for the development of flexible and compact plasmonic circuits operating at terahertz frequencies. (C) 2017 Chinese Laser Press

  15. Terahertz spoof surface-plasmon-polariton subwavelength waveguide

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ying

    2017-12-11

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with the features of subwavelength confinement and strong enhancements have sparked enormous interest. However, in the terahertz regime, due to the perfect conductivities of most metals, it is hard to realize the strong confinement of SPPs, even though the propagation loss could be sufficiently low. One main approach to circumvent this problem is to exploit spoof SPPs, which are expected to exhibit useful subwavelength confinement and relative low propagation loss at terahertz frequencies. Here we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of terahertz spoof SPP waveguides based on corrugated metal surfaces. The various waveguide components, including a straight waveguide, an S-bend waveguide, a Y-splitter, and a directional coupler, were experimentally demonstrated using scanning near-field terahertz microscopy. The proposed waveguide indeed enables propagation, bending, splitting, and coupling of terahertz SPPs and thus paves a new way for the development of flexible and compact plasmonic circuits operating at terahertz frequencies. (C) 2017 Chinese Laser Press

  16. Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Xiaoxia; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications: Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction presents the necessary algorithms needed to assist screening, diagnosis, and treatment, and these algorithms will play a critical role in the accurate detection of abnormalities present in biomedical imaging. Terahertz biomedical imaging has become an area of interest due to its ability to simultaneously acquire both image and spectral information. Terahertz imaging systems are being commercialized with an increasing number of trials performed in a biomedical setting. Terahertz tomographic imaging and detection technology contributes to the ability to identify opaque objects with clear boundaries,and would be useful to both in vivo and ex vivo environments. This book also: Introduces terahertz radiation techniques and provides a number of topical examples of signal and image processing, as well as machine learning Presents the most recent developments in an emerging field, terahertz radiation Utilizes new methods...

  17. Semiconductor terahertz technology devices and systems at room temperature operation

    CERN Document Server

    Carpintero, G; Hartnagel, H; Preu, S; Raisanen, A

    2015-01-01

    Key advances in Semiconductor Terahertz (THz) Technology now promises important new applications enabling scientists and engineers to overcome the challenges of accessing the so-called "terahertz gap".  This pioneering reference explains the fundamental methods and surveys innovative techniques in the generation, detection and processing of THz waves with solid-state devices, as well as illustrating their potential applications in security and telecommunications, among other fields. With contributions from leading experts, Semiconductor Terahertz Technology: Devices and Systems at Room Tempe

  18. Millimeter-Wave/Terahertz Circuits and Systems for Wireless Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Thyagarajan, Siva Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitous use of electronic devices has led to an explosive increase in the amount of data transfer across the globe. Several applications such as media sharing, cloud computing, Internet of things (IoT), big-data applications demand high performance interconnects to achieve high data rate communication. The mm-wave/terahertz band offers several gigahertz of spectrum for high data rate communication applications. This thesis explores millimeter-wave/terahertz circuits and terahertz syste...

  19. Sub-terahertz spectroscopy reveals that proteins influence the properties of water at greater distances than previously detected

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sushko, Oleksandr; Dubrovka, Rostyslav; Donnan, Robert S., E-mail: r.donnan@qmul.ac.uk [School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-07

    The initial purpose of the study is to systematically investigate the solvation properties of different proteins in water solution by terahertz (THz) radiation absorption. Transmission measurements of protein water solutions have been performed using a vector network analyser-driven quasi-optical bench covering the WR-3 waveguide band (0.220–0.325 THz). The following proteins, ranging from low to high molecular weight, were chosen for this study: lysozyme, myoglobin, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Absorption properties of solutions were studied at different concentrations of proteins ranging from 2 to 100 mg/ml. The concentration-dependent absorption of protein molecules was determined by treating the solution as a two-component model first; then, based on protein absorptivity, the extent of the hydration shell is estimated. Protein molecules are shown to possess a concentration-dependent absorptivity in water solutions. Absorption curves of all three proteins sharply peak towards a dilution-limit that is attributed to the enhanced flexibility of protein and amino acid side chains. An alternative approach to the determination of hydration shell thickness is thereby suggested, based on protein absorptivity. The proposed approach is independent of the absorption of the hydration shell. The derived estimate of hydration shell thickness for each protein supports previous findings that protein-water interaction dynamics extends beyond 2-3 water solvation-layers as predicted by molecular dynamics simulations and other techniques such as NMR, X-ray scattering, and neutron scattering. According to our estimations, the radius of the dynamic hydration shell is 16, 19, and 25 Å, respectively, for lysozyme, myoglobin, and BSA proteins and correlates with the dipole moment of the protein. It is also seen that THz radiation can serve as an initial estimate of the protein hydrophobicity.

  20. Sub-terahertz spectroscopy reveals that proteins influence the properties of water at greater distances than previously detected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushko, Oleksandr; Dubrovka, Rostyslav; Donnan, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The initial purpose of the study is to systematically investigate the solvation properties of different proteins in water solution by terahertz (THz) radiation absorption. Transmission measurements of protein water solutions have been performed using a vector network analyser-driven quasi-optical bench covering the WR-3 waveguide band (0.220–0.325 THz). The following proteins, ranging from low to high molecular weight, were chosen for this study: lysozyme, myoglobin, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Absorption properties of solutions were studied at different concentrations of proteins ranging from 2 to 100 mg/ml. The concentration-dependent absorption of protein molecules was determined by treating the solution as a two-component model first; then, based on protein absorptivity, the extent of the hydration shell is estimated. Protein molecules are shown to possess a concentration-dependent absorptivity in water solutions. Absorption curves of all three proteins sharply peak towards a dilution-limit that is attributed to the enhanced flexibility of protein and amino acid side chains. An alternative approach to the determination of hydration shell thickness is thereby suggested, based on protein absorptivity. The proposed approach is independent of the absorption of the hydration shell. The derived estimate of hydration shell thickness for each protein supports previous findings that protein-water interaction dynamics extends beyond 2-3 water solvation-layers as predicted by molecular dynamics simulations and other techniques such as NMR, X-ray scattering, and neutron scattering. According to our estimations, the radius of the dynamic hydration shell is 16, 19, and 25 Å, respectively, for lysozyme, myoglobin, and BSA proteins and correlates with the dipole moment of the protein. It is also seen that THz radiation can serve as an initial estimate of the protein hydrophobicity

  1. Terahertz surface plasmon polariton waveguiding with periodic metallic cylinders

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ying

    2017-06-15

    We demonstrated a structure with periodic cylinders arranged bilaterally and a thin dielectric layer covered inside that supports bound modes of surface plasmon polaritons at terahertz frequencies. This structure can confine the surface plasmon polaritons in the lateral direction, and at the same time reduce the field expansion into space. We examined and explored the characteristics of several different structures using scanning near-field terahertz microscopy. The proposed designs pave a novel way to terahertz waveguiding and may have important applications in the development of flexible, wideband and compact photonic circuits operating at terahertz frequencies.

  2. Terahertz surface plasmon polariton waveguiding with periodic metallic cylinders

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Shaoxian; Xu, Quan; Tian, Chunxiu; Gu, Jianqiang; Li, Yanfeng; Tian, Zhen; Ouyang, Chunmei; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrated a structure with periodic cylinders arranged bilaterally and a thin dielectric layer covered inside that supports bound modes of surface plasmon polaritons at terahertz frequencies. This structure can confine the surface plasmon polaritons in the lateral direction, and at the same time reduce the field expansion into space. We examined and explored the characteristics of several different structures using scanning near-field terahertz microscopy. The proposed designs pave a novel way to terahertz waveguiding and may have important applications in the development of flexible, wideband and compact photonic circuits operating at terahertz frequencies.

  3. A Design of a Terahertz Microstrip Bandstop Filter with Defected Ground Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A planar microstrip terahertz (THz bandstop filter has been proposed with defected ground structure with high insertion loss (S21 in a stopband of −25.8 dB at 1.436 THz. The parameters of the circuit model have been extracted from the EM simulation results. A dielectric substrate of Benzocyclobutene (BCB is used to realize a compact bandstop filter using modified hexagonal dumbbell-shape defected ground structure (DB-DGS. In this paper, a defected ground structure topology is used in a λ/4, 50 Ω microstrip line at THz frequency range for compactness. No article has been reported on the microstrip line at terahertz frequency regime using DGS topology. The proposed filter can be used for sensing and detection in biomedical instruments in DNA testing. All the simulations/cosimulations are carried out using a full-wave EM simulator CST V.9 Microwave Studio, HFSS V.10, and Agilent Design Suite (ADS.

  4. Ultralow surface recombination velocity in InP nanowires probed by terahertz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Hannah J; Wong-Leung, Jennifer; Yong, Chaw-Keong; Docherty, Callum J; Paiman, Suriati; Gao, Qiang; Tan, H Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Lloyd-Hughes, James; Herz, Laura M; Johnston, Michael B

    2012-10-10

    Using transient terahertz photoconductivity measurements, we have made noncontact, room temperature measurements of the ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in InP nanowires. InP nanowires exhibited a very long photoconductivity lifetime of over 1 ns, and carrier lifetimes were remarkably insensitive to surface states despite the large nanowire surface area-to-volume ratio. An exceptionally low surface recombination velocity (170 cm/s) was recorded at room temperature. These results suggest that InP nanowires are prime candidates for optoelectronic devices, particularly photovoltaic devices, without the need for surface passivation. We found that the carrier mobility is not limited by nanowire diameter but is strongly limited by the presence of planar crystallographic defects such as stacking faults in these predominantly wurtzite nanowires. These findings show the great potential of very narrow InP nanowires for electronic devices but indicate that improvements in the crystallographic uniformity of InP nanowires will be critical for future nanowire device engineering.

  5. Squeezing terahertz light into nanovolumes: Nanoantenna enhanced terahertz spectroscopy (NETS) of semiconductor quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Toma, Andrea

    2015-01-14

    Terahertz spectroscopy has vast potentialities in sensing a broad range of elementary excitations (e.g., collective vibrations of molecules, phonons, excitons, etc.). However, the large wavelength associated with terahertz radiation (about 300 μm at 1 THz) severely hinders its interaction with nano-objects, such as nanoparticles, nanorods, nanotubes, and large molecules of biological relevance, practically limiting terahertz studies to macroscopic ensembles of these compounds, in the form of thick pellets of crystallized molecules or highly concentrated solutions of nanomaterials. Here we show that chains of terahertz dipole nanoantennas spaced by nanogaps of 20 nm allow retrieving the spectroscopic signature of a monolayer of cadmium selenide quantum dots, a significant portion of the signal arising from the dots located within the antenna nanocavities. A Fano-like interference between the fundamental antenna mode and the phonon resonance of the quantum dots is observed, accompanied by an absorption enhancement factor greater than one million. NETS can find immediate applications in terahertz spectroscopic studies of nanocrystals and molecules at extremely low concentrations. Furthermore, it shows a practicable route toward the characterization of individual nano-objects at these frequencies.

  6. Miniature field deployable terahertz source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Mark G.

    2006-05-01

    Developments in terahertz sources include compacted electron beam systems, optical mixing techniques, and multiplication of microwave frequencies. Although significant advances in THz science have been achieved, efforts continue to obtain source technologies that are more mobile and suitable for field deployment. Strategies in source development have approached generation from either end of the THz spectrum, from up-conversion of high-frequency microwave to down-conversion of optical frequencies. In this paper, we present the design of a THz source which employs an up-conversion method in an assembly that integrates power supply, electronics, and radiative component into a man-portable unit for situations in which a lab system is not feasible. This unit will ultimately evolve into a ruggedized package suitable for use in extreme conditions, e.g. temporary security check points or emergency response teams, in conditions where THz diagnostics are needed with minimal planning or logistical support. In order to meet design goals of reduced size and complexity, the inner workings of the unit ideally would be condensed into a monolithic active element, with ancillary systems, e.g. user interface and power, coupled to the element. To attain these goals, the fundamental component of our design is a THz source and lens array that may be fabricated with either printed circuit board or wafer substrate. To reduce the volume occupied by the source array, the design employs a metamaterial composed of a periodic lattice of resonant elements. Each resonant element is an LC oscillator, or tank circuit, with inductance, capacitance, and center frequency determined by dimensioning and material parameters. The source array and supporting electronics are designed so that the radiative elements are driven in-phase to yield THz radiation with a high degree of partial coherence. Simulation indicates that the spectral width of operation may be controlled by detuning of critical dimensions

  7. Terahertz Dynamics in Carbon Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Junichiro

    2012-02-01

    This NSF Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE) project supports a unique interdisciplinary and international partnership investigating terahertz (THz) dynamics in nanostructures. The 0.1 to 10 THz frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum is where electrical transport and optical transitions merge, offering exciting opportunities to study a variety of novel physical phenomena in condensed matter. By combining THz technology and nanotechnology, we can advance our understanding of THz physics while improving and developing THz devices. Specifically, this PIRE research explores THz dynamics of electrons in carbon nanomaterials, namely, nanotubes and graphene --- low-dimensional, sp^2-bonded carbon systems with unique finite-frequency properties. Japan and the U.S. are global leaders in both THz research and carbon research, and stimulating cooperation is critical to further advance THz science and to commercialize products developed in the lab. However, obstacles exist for international collaboration --- primarily linguistic and cultural barriers --- and this PIRE project aims to address these barriers through the integration of our research and education programs. Our strong educational portfolio endeavours to cultivate interest in nanotechnology amongst young U.S. undergraduate students and encourage them to pursue graduate study and academic research in the physical sciences, especially those from underrepresented groups. Our award-winning International Research Experience for Undergraduates Program, NanoJapan, provides structured research internships in Japanese university laboratories with Japanese mentors --- recognized as a model international education program for science and engineering students. The project builds the skill sets of nanoscience researchers and students by cultivating international and inter-cultural awareness, research expertise, and specific academic interests in nanotechnology. U.S. project partners include Rice

  8. Ultrafast Terahertz Conductivity of Photoexcited Nanocrystalline Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, David; MacDonald, A. Nicole; Hryciw, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    The ultrafast transient ac conductivity of nanocrystalline silicon films is investigated using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. While epitaxial silicon on sapphire exhibits a free carrier Drude response, silicon nanocrystals embedded in glass show a response that is best described by a class...... in the silicon nanocrystal films is dominated by trapping at the Si/SiO2 interface states, occurring on a 1–100 ps time scale depending on particle size and hydrogen passivation......The ultrafast transient ac conductivity of nanocrystalline silicon films is investigated using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. While epitaxial silicon on sapphire exhibits a free carrier Drude response, silicon nanocrystals embedded in glass show a response that is best described...

  9. Terahertz broadband polarization converter based on metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghua; Zhao, Guozhong

    2018-01-01

    Based on the metamaterial composed of symmetrical split resonant ring, a broadband reflective terahertz polarization converter is proposed. The numerical simulation shows that it can rotate the polarization direction of linear polarized wave 90° in the range of 0.7-1.8THz and the polarization conversion ratio is over 90%. The reflection coefficient of the two electric field components in the diagonal direction is the same and the phase difference is 180° ,which leads to the cross-polarization rotation.In order to further study the physical mechanism of high polarization conversion, we analyze the surface current distribution of the resonant ring. The polarization converter has potential applications in terahertz wave plate and metamaterial antenna design.

  10. Colossal Terahertz Magnetoresistance at Room Temperature in Epitaxial La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 Nanocomposites and Single-Phase Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Hughes, J; Mosley, C D W; Jones, S P P; Lees, M R; Chen, A; Jia, Q X; Choi, E-M; MacManus-Driscoll, J L

    2017-04-12

    Colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) is demonstrated at terahertz (THz) frequencies by using terahertz time-domain magnetospectroscopy to examine vertically aligned nanocomposites (VANs) and planar thin films of La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 . At the Curie temperature (room temperature), the THz conductivity of the VAN was dramatically enhanced by over 2 orders of magnitude under the application of a magnetic field with a non-Drude THz conductivity that increased with frequency. The direct current (dc) CMR of the VAN is controlled by extrinsic magnetotransport mechanisms such as spin-polarized tunneling between nanograins. In contrast, we find that THz CMR is dominated by intrinsic, intragrain transport: the mean free path was smaller than the nanocolumn size, and the planar thin-film exhibited similar THz CMR to the VAN. Surprisingly, the observed colossal THz magnetoresistance suggests that the magnetoresistance can be large for alternating current motion on nanometer length scales, even when the magnetoresistance is negligible on the macroscopic length scales probed by dc transport. This suggests that colossal magnetoresistance at THz frequencies may find use in nanoelectronics and in THz optical components controlled by magnetic fields. The VAN can be scaled in thickness while retaining a high structural quality and offers a larger THz CMR at room temperature than the planar film.

  11. Guided Terahertz Waves for Characterizing Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Spectroscopy of Nanometer Water Layers,” Optics Letters 29, 1617–1619 (2004). 4 J. S. Melinger, N. Laman , S. Sree Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, “Line...2006). 5 N. Laman , S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J.S. Melinger, “7 GHz Resolution Waveguide THz Spectroscopy of Explosives Related Solids...Showing New Features,” Optics Express 16, 4094–4105 (2008). 6 J.S. Melinger, N. Laman , and D. Grischkowsky, “The Underlying Terahertz Vibrational

  12. Challenging Aspects of Terahertz Terabit Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Galili, Michael; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    The increasing demand on fast wireless communications, e.g. huge data file transferring and mobile broadband access, has driven wireless communication systems into a path towards Terabit era. Terahertz (THz) technology is promising due to its unique features, such as unlimited bandwidth available......, in terms of THz generation and link power budget. The THz atmospheric absorption is another critical issue to limit wireless communication range....

  13. Design of Integrated Circuits Approaching Terahertz Frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Lei; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, monolithic microwave integrated circuits(MMICs) are presented for millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave or terahertz(THz) applications. Millimeter-wave power generation from solid state devices is not only crucial for the emerging high data rate wireless communications but also important for driving THz signal sources. To meet the requirement of high output power, amplifiers based on InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) devices from the III-V Lab in Marcoussic,...

  14. Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of Chinese herbal medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Xiaoli; Li Jiusheng, E-mail: forever-li@126.com [Centre for THz Research, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2011-02-01

    The absorption spectra of panax notoginseng and glycyrrhiza in the frequency range of 0.2{approx}1.6THz has been measured with terahertz time-domin spectroscopy at room temperature. Simultaneously, the corresponding theoretical spectra were given by using density functional theory methods. It was found that the absorption peaks of the two molecules obtained by theoretical were in good agreement with the experimental results.

  15. Ultrabroadband terahertz spectroscopy of a liquid crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieweg, N.; Fischer, B. M.; Reuter, M.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid crystals (LCs) are becoming increasingly important for applications in the terahertz frequency range. A detailed understanding of the spectroscopic parameters of these materials over a broad frequency range is crucial in order to design customized LC mixtures for improved performance. We p...... show that the spectra are dominated by multiple strong spectral features mainly at frequencies above 4 THz, originating from intramolecular vibrational modes of the weakly LC molecules....

  16. Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of Chinese herbal medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-li, Zhao; Jiu-sheng, Li

    2011-02-01

    The absorption spectra of panax notoginseng and glycyrrhiza in the frequency range of 0.2~1.6THz has been measured with terahertz time-domin spectroscopy at room temperature. Simultaneously, the corresponding theoretical spectra were given by using density functional theory methods. It was found that the absorption peaks of the two molecules obtained by theoretical were in good agreement with the experimental results.

  17. Nanometer size field effect transistors for terahertz detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knap, W; Rumyantsev, S; Coquillat, D; Dyakonova, N; Teppe, F; Vitiello, M S; Tredicucci, A; Blin, S; Shur, M; Nagatsuma, T

    2013-01-01

    Nanometer size field effect transistors can operate as efficient resonant or broadband terahertz detectors, mixers, phase shifters and frequency multipliers at frequencies far beyond their fundamental cut-off frequency. This work is an overview of some recent results concerning the application of nanometer scale field effect transistors for the detection of terahertz radiation. (paper)

  18. Resonant Dipole Nanoantenna Arrays for Enhanced Terahertz Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Toma, A.

    2015-08-04

    Our recent studies on dipole nanoantenna arrays resonating in the terahertz frequency range (0.1 – 10 THz) will be presented. The main near- and far-field properties of these nanostructures will be shown and their application in enhanced terahertz spectroscopy of tiny quantities of nanomaterials will be discussed.

  19. Convergence of Photonics and Electronics for Terahertz Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar, Adrian Ruiz; Rommel, Simon; Anufriyev, E.

    2016-01-01

    Terahertz wireless communications are expected to offer the required high capacity and low latency performance necessary for short-range wireless access and control applications. We present an overview of some the activities in this area in the newly started H2020 ITN project CELTA: Convergence o...... of Electronics and Photonics Technologies Enabling Terahertz Applications....

  20. Characterization of European Lacquers by Terahertz (THz) Reflectometric Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Christensen, Mads C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study a European lacquerware replica has been investigated by terahertz (THz) reflectometric imaging. The inspected lacquerware is a wooden panel covered by multiple complex layers of lacquers and plaster. Utilizing pulsed Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) in reflection mode, we obs...

  1. Electro-optic measurement of terahertz pulse energy distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, J.H.; Gallacher, J.G.; Brussaard, G.J.H.; Lemos, N.; Issac, R.; Huang, Z.X.; Dias, J.M.; Jaroszynski, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    An accurate and direct measurement of the energy distribution of a low repetition rate terahertz electromagnetic pulse is challenging because of the lack of sensitive detectors in this spectral range. In this paper, we show how the total energy and energy density distribution of a terahertz

  2. TeraHertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, A.J.L.; Planken, P.C.M.; Meloni, S.; Dik, J.

    2009-01-01

    We show terahertz reflection images of hidden paint layers in a painting on canvas and compare the results with X-ray Radiography and Infrared Reflectography. Our terahertz measurements show strong reflections from both the canvas/paint interface and from the raw umber/lead white interface,

  3. The planar cubic Cayley graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakopoulos, Agelos

    2018-01-01

    The author obtains a complete description of the planar cubic Cayley graphs, providing an explicit presentation and embedding for each of them. This turns out to be a rich class, comprising several infinite families. He obtains counterexamples to conjectures of Mohar, Bonnington and Watkins. The author's analysis makes the involved graphs accessible to computation, corroborating a conjecture of Droms.

  4. Development of a Planar Undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deyhim, Alex; Johnson, Eric; Kulesza, Joe; Lyndaker, Aaron; Waterman, Dave; Eisert, Dave; Green, Michael A.; Rogers, Greg; Blomqvist, K. Ingvar

    2007-01-01

    The design of a planar pure permanent magnet undulator is presented. The design requirements and mechanical difficulties for holding, positioning, and driving the magnetic arrays are explored. The structural, thermal, and electrical considerations that influenced the design are then analyzed. And finally detailed magnetic measurements are presented

  5. Casimir stress inside planar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griniasty, Itay; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2017-09-01

    The Casimir force between macroscopic bodies is well understood, but not the Casimir force inside bodies. Guided by a physically intuitive picture, we develop the macroscopic theory of the renormalized Casimir stress inside planar materials (where the electromagnetic properties vary in one direction). Our theory may be applied in predicting how inhomogeneous fluids respond to Casimir forces.

  6. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....

  7. Poling of Planar Silica Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Jensen, Jesper Bo

    1999-01-01

    UV-written planar silica waveguides are poled using two different poling techniques, thermal poling and UV-poling. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.067 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. The induced electro-optic effect shows a linear dependence...

  8. Millimeter wave and terahertz wave transmission characteristics in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Ping; Qin Long; Chen Weijun; Zhao Qing; Shi Anhua; Huang Jie

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on the shock tube to explore the transmission characteristics of millimeter wave and terahertz wave in high density plasmas, in order to meet the communication requirement of hypersonic vehicles during blackout. The transmission attenuation curves of millimeter wave and terahertz wave in different electron density and collision frequency were obtained. The experiment was also simulated by auxiliary differential equation finite-difference time-domain (ADE-FDTD) methods. The experimental and numerical results show that the transmission attenuation of terahertz wave in the plasma is smaller than that of millimeter wave under the same conditions. The transmission attenuation of terahertz wave in the plasma is enhanced with the increase of electron density. The terahertz wave is a promising alternative to the electromagnetic wave propagation in high density plasmas. (authors)

  9. Active graphene-silicon hybrid diode for terahertz waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan; Tian, Zhen; Zhang, Xueqian; Singh, Ranjan; Du, Liangliang; Gu, Jianqiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2015-05-11

    Controlling the propagation properties of the terahertz waves in graphene holds great promise in enabling novel technologies for the convergence of electronics and photonics. A diode is a fundamental electronic device that allows the passage of current in just one direction based on the polarity of the applied voltage. With simultaneous optical and electrical excitations, we experimentally demonstrate an active diode for the terahertz waves consisting of a graphene-silicon hybrid film. The diode transmits terahertz waves when biased with a positive voltage while attenuates the wave under a low negative voltage, which can be seen as an analogue of an electronic semiconductor diode. Here, we obtain a large transmission modulation of 83% in the graphene-silicon hybrid film, which exhibits tremendous potential for applications in designing broadband terahertz modulators and switchable terahertz plasmonic and metamaterial devices.

  10. High mobility ZnO nanowires for terahertz detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Huiqiang; Peng, Rufang; Chu, Shijin; Chu, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    An oxide nanowire material was utilized for terahertz detection purpose. High quality ZnO nanowires were synthesized and field-effect transistors were fabricated. Electrical transport measurements demonstrated the nanowire with good transfer characteristics and fairly high electron mobility. It is shown that ZnO nanowires can be used as building blocks for the realization of terahertz detectors based on a one-dimensional plasmon detection configuration. Clear terahertz wave (∼0.3 THz) induced photovoltages were obtained at room temperature with varying incidence intensities. Further analysis showed that the terahertz photoresponse is closely related to the high electron mobility of the ZnO nanowire sample, which suggests that oxide nanoelectronics may find useful terahertz applications.

  11. A terahertz-vibration to terahertz-radiation converter based on gold nanoobjects: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldosanov, Kamil; Postnikov, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    The need for practical and adaptable terahertz sources is apparent in the areas of application such as early cancer diagnostics, nondestructive inspection of pharmaceutical tablets, visualization of concealed objects. We outline the operation principle and suggest the design of a simple appliance for generating terahertz radiation by a system of nanoobjects - gold nanobars (GNBs) or nanorings (GNRs) - irradiated by microwaves. Our estimations confirm a feasibility of the idea that GNBs and GNRs irradiated by microwaves could become terahertz emitters with photon energies within the full width at half maximum of the longitudinal acoustic phononic DOS of gold (ca. 16-19 meV, i.e., 3.9-4.6 THz). A scheme of the terahertz radiation source is suggested based on the domestic microwave oven irradiating a substrate with multiple deposited GNBs or GNRs. The size of a nanoobject for optimal conversion is estimated to be approx. 3 nm (thickness) by approx. 100 nm (length of GNB, or along the GNR). This detailed prediction is open to experimental verification. An impact is expected onto further studies of interplay between atomic vibrations and electromagnetic waves in nanoobjects.

  12. A terahertz-vibration to terahertz-radiation converter based on gold nanoobjects: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Moldosanov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The need for practical and adaptable terahertz sources is apparent in the areas of application such as early cancer diagnostics, nondestructive inspection of pharmaceutical tablets, visualization of concealed objects. We outline the operation principle and suggest the design of a simple appliance for generating terahertz radiation by a system of nanoobjects – gold nanobars (GNBs or nanorings (GNRs – irradiated by microwaves.Results: Our estimations confirm a feasibility of the idea that GNBs and GNRs irradiated by microwaves could become terahertz emitters with photon energies within the full width at half maximum of the longitudinal acoustic phononic DOS of gold (ca. 16–19 meV, i.e., 3.9–4.6 THz. A scheme of the terahertz radiation source is suggested based on the domestic microwave oven irradiating a substrate with multiple deposited GNBs or GNRs.Conclusion: The size of a nanoobject for optimal conversion is estimated to be approx. 3 nm (thickness by approx. 100 nm (length of GNB, or along the GNR. This detailed prediction is open to experimental verification. An impact is expected onto further studies of interplay between atomic vibrations and electromagnetic waves in nanoobjects.

  13. Research on terahertz properties of rat brain tissue sections during dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Gangqiang; Liang, Jianfeng; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhao, Xianghui; Chang, Chao

    2018-01-01

    Biological tissue sections are always kept in a system purged with dry nitrogen for the measurement of terahertz spectrum. However, the injected nitrogen will cause dehydration of tissue sections, which will affect the accuracy of spectrum measurement. In this paper, terahertz time-domain spectrometer is used to measure the terahertz spectra of rat brain tissue sections during dehydration. The changes of terahertz properties, including terahertz transmittance, refractive index and extinction coefficient during dehydration are also analyzed. The amplitudes of terahertz time-domain spectra increase gradually during the dehydration process. Besides, the terahertz properties show obvious changes during the dehydration process. All the results indicate that the injected dry nitrogen has a significant effect on the terahertz spectra and properties of tissue sections. This study contributes to further research and application of terahertz technology in biomedical field.

  14. Manufacturing of planar ceramic interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, B.L.; Coffey, G.W.; Meinhardt, K.D.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The fabrication of ceramic interconnects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and separator plates for electrochemical separation devices has been a perennial challenge facing developers. Electrochemical vapor deposition (EVD), plasma spraying, pressing, tape casting and tape calendering are processes that are typically utilized to fabricate separator plates or interconnects for the various SOFC designs and electrochemical separation devices. For sake of brevity and the selection of a planar fuel cell or gas separation device design, pressing will be the only fabrication technique discussed here. This paper reports on the effect of the characteristics of two doped lanthanum manganite powders used in the initial studies as a planar porous separator for a fuel cell cathode and as a dense interconnect for an oxygen generator.

  15. Terahertz spectroscopy of two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Houtong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Jiaguang [OSU; Lu, Xinchao [OSU; Zhang, Weili [OSU

    2009-01-01

    The fascinating properties of plasmonic structures have had significant impact on the development of next generation ultracompact photonic and optoelectronic components. We study two-dimensional plasmonic structures functioning at terahertz frequencies. Resonant terahertz response due to surface plasmons and dipole localized surface plasmons were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) using both transmission and reflection configurations. Extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated through the subwavelength metallic hole arrays made from good conducting metals as well as poor metals. Metallic arrays m!lde from Pb, generally a poor metal, and having optically thin thicknesses less than one-third of a skin depth also contributed in enhanced THz transmission. A direct transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal minimum was observed in a photo-doped semiconductor array. Electrical controls of the surface plasmon resonances by hybridization of the Schottkey diode between the metallic grating and the semiconductor substrate are investigated as a function of the applied reverse bias. In addition, we have demonstrated photo-induced creation and annihilation of surface plasmons with appropriate semiconductors at room temperature. According to the Fano model, the transmission properties are characterized by two essential contributions: resonant excitation of surface plasmons and nonresonant direct transmission. Such plasmonic structures may find fascinating applications in terahertz imaging, biomedical sensing, subwavelength terahertz spectroscopy, tunable filters, and integrated terahertz devices.

  16. Planar-Processed Polymer Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Sun, Huabin; Shin, Eul-Yong; Lin, Yen-Fu; Li, Wenwu; Noh, Yong-Young

    2016-10-01

    Planar-processed polymer transistors are proposed where the effective charge injection and the split unipolar charge transport are all on the top surface of the polymer film, showing ideal device characteristics with unparalleled performance. This technique provides a great solution to the problem of fabrication limitations, the ambiguous operating principle, and the performance improvements in practical applications of conjugated-polymer transistors. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. High-Q Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8 high-Tc superconducting quasi-optical millimeter-wave bandpass filters working at 77 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D.; Fetterman, H.R.

    1994-01-01

    Tl 2 CaBa 2 Cu 2 O 8 high-temperature superconducting thin films with T c 's of over 100 K on LaAlO 3 substrates were used to fabricate quasi-optical millimeter-wave bandpass filters. Q-factors of over 400 were achieved, at liquid nitrogen temperatures from these filters at W-band frequencies (75--110 GHz)

  18. Coupled Optical Tamm States in a Planar Dielectric Mirror Structure Containing a Thin Metal Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hai-Chun; Yang Guang; Lu Pei-Xiang; Wang Kai; Long Hua

    2012-01-01

    The coupling between two optical Tamm states (OTSs) with the same eigenenergy is numerically investigated in a planar dielectric mirror structure containing a thin metal film. The reflectivity map in this structure at normal incidence is obtained by applying the transfer matrix method. Two splitting branches appear in the photonic bandgap region when both adjacent dielectric layers of metal film are properly set. The splitting energy of two branches strongly depends on the thickness of the metal film. According to the electric field distribution in this structure, it is found that the high-energy branch corresponds to the antisymmetric coupling between two OTSs, while the low-energy branch is associated with the symmetric coupling between two OTSs. Moreover, the optical difference frequency of two branches is located in a broad terahertz region. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  19. Guided mode resonance in planar metamaterials consisting of two ring resonators with different sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhen; Che Hang; Liu Jianjun; Jing Xufeng; Li Xiangjun; Hong Zhi

    2017-01-01

    We proposed and experimentally investigated a two-ring-resonator composed planar hybrid metamaterial (MM), in which the spectra of guided mode resonance (GMR) and Fano resonance or EIT-like response induced by coherent interaction between MM resonance and GMR can be easily controlled by the size of the two rings in the terahertz regime. Furthermore, a four-ring-resonator composed MM for polarization-insensitive GMRs was demonstrated, where GMRs of both TE and TM modes are physically attributed to the diffraction coupling by two ±45° tilting gratings. Such kind of device has great potential in ultra-sensitive label-free sensors, filters, or slow light based devices. (paper)

  20. Tunable plasmons in regular planar arrays of graphene nanoribbons with armchair and zigzag-shaped edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Vacacela Gomez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental evidence for and the theoretical confirmation of tunable edge plasmons and surface plasmons in graphene nanoribbons have opened up new opportunities to scrutinize the main geometric and conformation factors, which can be used to modulate these collective modes in the infrared-to-terahertz frequency band. Here, we show how the extrinsic plasmon structure of regular planar arrays of graphene nanoribbons, with perfectly symmetric edges, is influenced by the width, chirality and unit-cell length of each ribbon, as well as the in-plane vacuum distance between two contiguous ribbons. Our predictions, based on time-dependent density functional theory, in the random phase approximation, are expected to be of immediate help for measurements of plasmonic features in nanoscale architectures of nanoribbon devices.

  1. Sensing of phase transition in medium with terahertz pulsed spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaytsev, Kirill I; Fokina, Irina N; Fedorov, Aleksey K; Yurchenko, Stanislav O

    2014-01-01

    Phase state identification and phase transition registration in condensed matter are significant applications of terahertz spectroscopy. A set of fundamental and applied problems are associated with the phase state problem. Our report is devoted to the experimental analysis of the spectral characteristics of water and water solution during the phase transition from the solid state to the liquid state via the method of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy. In this work transformation of the sample spectral characteristics during the phase transition were observed and discussed. Possible application of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy as an effective instrument for phase transition sensing was considered

  2. Terahertz spectral unmixing based method for identifying gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuqi; Huang, Pingjie; Li, Xian; Ge, Weiting; Hou, Dibo; Zhang, Guangxin

    2018-02-01

    At present, many researchers are exploring biological tissue inspection using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) techniques. In this study, based on a modified hard modeling factor analysis method, terahertz spectral unmixing was applied to investigate the relationships between the absorption spectra in THz-TDS and certain biomarkers of gastric cancer in order to systematically identify gastric cancer. A probability distribution and box plot were used to extract the distinctive peaks that indicate carcinogenesis, and the corresponding weight distributions were used to discriminate the tissue types. The results of this work indicate that terahertz techniques have the potential to detect different levels of cancer, including benign tumors and polyps.

  3. Terahertz wave manipulation based on multi-bit coding artificial electromagnetic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiu-Sheng; Zhao, Ze-Jiang; Yao, Jian-Quan

    2018-05-01

    A polarization insensitive multi-bit coding artificial electromagnetic surface is proposed for terahertz wave manipulation. The coding artificial electromagnetic surfaces composed of four-arrow-shaped particles with certain coding sequences can generate multi-bit coding in the terahertz frequencies and manipulate the reflected terahertz waves to the numerous directions by using of different coding distributions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our coding artificial electromagnetic surfaces have strong abilities to reduce the radar cross section with polarization insensitive for TE and TM incident terahertz waves as well as linear-polarized and circular-polarized terahertz waves. This work offers an effectively strategy to realize more powerful manipulation of terahertz wave.

  4. Terahertz identification and quantification of penicillamine enantiomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Te; Zhao Hongwei; Chen Min; Xiao Tiqiao; Han Pengyu

    2013-01-01

    Identification and characterization of L-, D- and DL- penicillamine were demonstrated by Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). To understand the physical origins of the low frequency resonant modes, the density functional theory (DFT) was adopted for theoretical calculation. It was found that the collective THz frequency motions were decided by the intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bond interactions. Moreover, the quantification of penicillamine enantiomers mixture was demonstrated by a THz spectra fitting method with a relative error of less than 3.5%. This technique can be a valuable tool for the discrimination and quantification of chiral drugs in pharmaceutical industry. (authors)

  5. Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    states, due to conduction band onparabolicity and scattering into satellite valleys in strong THz fields. Saturable absorber parameters, such as linear and nonsaturable transmission, and saturation fluence, are extracted by fits to a classic saturable absorber model. Further, we observe THz pulse......We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in the terahertz THz frequency range at room temperature using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. The saturation mechanism is based on a decrease in electron conductivity of semiconductors at high electron momentum...

  6. Terahertz Mapping of Microstructure and Thickness Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Donald J.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Winfree, William P.

    2010-01-01

    A noncontact method has been devised for mapping or imaging spatial variations in the thickness and microstructure of a layer of a dielectric material. The method involves (1) placement of the dielectric material on a metal substrate, (2) through-the-thickness pulse-echo measurements by use of electromagnetic waves in the terahertz frequency range with a raster scan in a plane parallel to the substrate surface that do not require coupling of any kind, and (3) appropriate processing of the digitized measurement data.

  7. Equivalent circuit analysis of terahertz metamaterial filters

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian

    2011-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model for the analysis and design of terahertz (THz) metamaterial filters is presented. The proposed model, derived based on LMC equivalent circuits, takes into account the detailed geometrical parameters and the presence of a dielectric substrate with the existing analytic expressions for self-inductance, mutual inductance, and capacitance. The model is in good agreement with the experimental measurements and full-wave simulations. Exploiting the circuit model has made it possible to predict accurately the resonance frequency of the proposed structures and thus, quick and accurate process of designing THz device from artificial metamaterials is offered. ©2011 Chinese Optics Letters.

  8. Optically Modulated Multiband Terahertz Perfect Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seren, Huseyin R.; Keiser, George R.; Cao, Lingyue

    2014-01-01

    response of resonant metamaterials continues to be a challengingendeavor. Resonant perfect absorbers have flourished as one of the mostpromising metamaterial devices with applications ranging from power har-vesting to terahertz imaging. Here, an optically modulated resonant perfectabsorber is presented....... Utilizing photo-excited free carriers in silicon padsplaced in the capacitive gaps of split ring resonators, a dynamically modu-lated perfect absorber is designed and fabricated to operate in reflection.Large modulation depth (38% and 91%) in two absorption bands (with 97%and 92% peak absorption...

  9. Pulsed excitation terahertz tomography - multiparametric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopato, Przemyslaw

    2018-04-01

    This article deals with pulsed excitation terahertz computed tomography (THz CT). Opposite to x-ray CT, where just a single value (pixel) is obtained, in case of pulsed THz CT the time signal is acquired for each position. Recorded waveform can be parametrized - many features carrying various information about examined structure can be calculated. Based on this, multiparametric reconstruction algorithm was proposed: inverse Radon transform based reconstruction is applied for each parameter and then fusion of results is utilized. Performance of the proposed imaging scheme was experimentally verified using dielectric phantoms.

  10. Design of Integrated Circuits Approaching Terahertz Frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Lei

    In this thesis, monolithic microwave integrated circuits(MMICs) are presented for millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave or terahertz(THz) applications. Millimeter-wave power generation from solid state devices is not only crucial for the emerging high data rate wireless communications but also...... heterodyne receivers with requirements of room temperature operation, low system complexity, and high sensitivity, monolithic integrated Schottky diode technology is chosen for the implementation of submillimeterwave components. The corresponding subharmonic mixer and multiplier for a THz radiometer system...

  11. Graphene and Graphene Metamaterials for Terahertz Absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Booth, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Graphene, due to the possibility to tune its conductivity, is the promising material for a range of the terahertz (THz) applications, such as tunable reflectors, absorbers, modulators, filters and polarization converters. Subwavelength structuring of graphene in order to form metamaterials allows...... for even more control over the THz waves. In this poster presentation I will show an elegant way to describe the graphene metamaterials and the design of graphene based absorbers. I will also present our recent experimental results on the graphene absorbers characterization....

  12. Terahertz spectroscopy applied to food model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe

    Water plays a crucial role in the quality of food. Apart from the natural water content of a food product, the state of that water is very important. Water can be found integrated into the biological material or it can be added during production of the product. Currently it is difficult...... to differentiate between these types of water in subsequent quality controls. This thesis describes terahertz time-domain spectroscopy applied on aqueous food model systems, with particular focus on ethanol-water mixtures and confined water pools in inverse micelles....

  13. Development of terahertz laser diagnostics for electron density measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, K; Akiyama, T; Tanaka, K; Nakayama, K; Okajima, S

    2008-10-01

    A two color laser interferometer using terahertz laser sources is under development for high performance operation on the large helical device and for future burning plasma experiments such as ITER. Through investigation of terahertz laser sources, we have achieved high power simultaneous oscillations at 57.2 and 47.6 microm of a CH(3)OD laser pumped by a cw 9R(8) CO(2) laser line. The laser wavelength around 50 microm is the optimum value for future fusion devices from the consideration of the beam refraction effect and signal-to-noise ratio for an expected phase shift due to plasma. In this article, recent progress of the terahertz laser diagnostics, especially in mechanical vibration compensation by using a two color laser operation and terahertz laser beam transmission through a dielectric waveguide, will be presented.

  14. High Power Room Temperature Terahertz Local Oscillator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build a high-power, room temperature compact continuous wave terahertz local oscillator for driving heterodyne receivers in the 1-5 THz frequency...

  15. Drug detection by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Ruixin; Zhu Yiming; Zhao Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    Due to unique spectral region, functional imaging ability, excellent penetration and safety characteristics of terahertz radiation, the terahertz technology rapidly becomes a vital method to detect and analyze drugs. In this paper, firstly, we identify the functional groups of anti-diabetic drugs by density functional theory (DFT), HIPHOP models and experimental results from terahertz time-domain spectroscopy measurements. Secondly, we identify four kinds of herbs of radix curcumae by using the support vector machine (SVM) analysis. Besides, we analyze the absorption of anhydrous and hydrous glucose, and determine the state of water in the crystalized D-glucose·H 2 O through the results of differential scanning calorimetry measurement. Finally, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy method in drug detection and analyzing. (authors)

  16. Metal Mesh Filters for Terahertz Receivers, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical objective of this SBIR program is to develop and demonstrate metal mesh filters for use in NASA's low noise receivers for terahertz astronomy and...

  17. Fabrication of photonic amorphous diamonds for terahertz-wave applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, Yuichiro; Abe, Hiroyuki; Kamimura, Yasushi; Edagawa, Keiichi, E-mail: edagawa@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2016-05-09

    A recently proposed photonic bandgap material, named “photonic amorphous diamond” (PAD), was fabricated in a terahertz regime, and its terahertz-wave propagation properties were investigated. The PAD structure was fabricated from acrylic resin mixed with alumina powder, using laser lithographic, micro-additive manufacturing technique. After fabrication, the resulting structure was dewaxed and sintered. The formation of a photonic bandgap at around 0.45 THz was demonstrated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Reflecting the disordered nature of the random network structure, diffusive terahertz-wave propagation was observed in the passbands; the scattering mean-free path decreased as the frequency approached the band edge. The mean-free paths evaluated at the band edges were close to the Ioffe-Regel threshold value for wave localization.

  18. Terahertz Computed Tomography of NASA Thermal Protection System Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, D. J.; Reyes-Rodriguez, S.; Zimdars, D. A.; Rauser, R. W.; Ussery, W. W.

    2011-01-01

    A terahertz axial computed tomography system has been developed that uses time domain measurements in order to form cross-sectional image slices and three-dimensional volume renderings of terahertz-transparent materials. The system can inspect samples as large as 0.0283 cubic meters (1 cubic foot) with no safety concerns as for x-ray computed tomography. In this study, the system is evaluated for its ability to detect and characterize flat bottom holes, drilled holes, and embedded voids in foam materials utilized as thermal protection on the external fuel tanks for the Space Shuttle. X-ray micro-computed tomography was also performed on the samples to compare against the terahertz computed tomography results and better define embedded voids. Limits of detectability based on depth and size for the samples used in this study are loosely defined. Image sharpness and morphology characterization ability for terahertz computed tomography are qualitatively described.

  19. Compact terahertz spectrometer based on disordered rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Jiang, Bing; Ge, Jia-cheng; Zhu, Yong-yuan; Li, Xing-ao; Huang, Wei

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a compact spectrometer based on disordered rough surfaces for operation in the terahertz band is presented. The proposed spectrometer consists of three components, which are used for dispersion, modulation and detection respectively. The disordered rough surfaces, which are acted as the dispersion component, are modulated by the modulation component. Different scattering intensities are captured by the detection component with different extent of modulation. With a calibration measurement process, one can reconstruct the spectra of the probe terahertz beam by solving a system of simultaneous linear equations. A Tikhonov regularization approach has been implemented to improve the accuracy of the spectral reconstruction. The reported broadband, compact, high-resolution terahertz spectrometer is well suited for portable terahertz spectroscopy applications.

  20. Nano-Antenna For Terahertz (THz) Medical Imaging Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As a result of technological breakthroughs, research and applications in the Terahertz (THz) radiation system are experiencing explosive growth. The non-ionizing and...

  1. Planar channeling in superlattices: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, J.A.; Picraux, S.T.; Allen, W.R.; Chu, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    The well-known continuum model theory for planar channeled energetic particles in perfect crystals is extended to layered crystalline structures and applied to superlattices. In a strained-layer structure, the planar channels with normals which are not perpendicular to the growth direction change their direction at each interface, and this dramatically influences the channeling behavior. The governing equation of motion for a planar channeled ion in a strained-layer superlattice with equal layer thicknesses is a one degree of freedom nonlinear oscillator which is periodically forced with a sequence of δ functions. These δ functions, which are of equal spacing and amplitude with alternating sign, represent the tilts at each of the interfaces. Thus upon matching an effective channeled particle wavelength, corresponding to a natural period of the nonlinear oscillator, to the period of the strained-layer superlattice, corresponding to the periodic forcing, strong resonance effects are expected. The condition of one effective wavelength per period corresponds to a rapid dechanneling at a well-defined depth (catastrophic dechanneling), whereas two wavelengths per period corresponds to no enhanced dechanneling after the first one or two layers (resonance channeling). A phase plane analysis is used to characterize the channeled particle motion. Detailed calculations using the Moliere continuum potential are compared with our previously described modified harmonic model, and new results are presented for the phase plane evolution, as well as the dechanneling as a function of depth, incident angle, energy, and layer thickness. General scaling laws are developed and nearly universal curves are obtained for the dechanneling versus depth under catastrophic dechanneling

  2. Terahertz Generation & Vortex Motion Control in Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, Franco

    2005-03-01

    A grand challenge is to controllably generate electromagnetic waves in layered superconducting compounds because of its Terahertz frequency range. We propose [1] four experimentally realizable devices for generating continuous and pulsed THz radiation in a controllable frequency range. We also describe [2-4] several novel devices for controlling the motion of vortices in superconductors, including a reversible rectifier made of a magnetic-superconducting hybrid structure [4]. Finally, we summarize a study [5] of the friction force felt by moving vortices. 1) S. Savel'ev, V. Yampol'skii, A. Rakhmanov, F. Nori, Tunable Terahertz radiation from Josephson vortices, preprint 2) S. Savel'ev and F. Nori, Experimentally realizable devices for controlling the motion of magnetic flux quanta, Nature Mat. 1, 179 (2002) 3) S. Savel'ev, F. Marchesoni, F. Nori, Manipulating small particles, PRL 92, 160602 (2004); B. Zhu, F. Marchesoni, F. Nori, Controlling the motion of magnetic flux quanta, PRL 92, 180602 (2004) 4) J.E. Villegas, et al., Reversible Rectifier that Controls the Motion of Magnetic Flux Quanta, Science 302, 1188 (2003) 5) A. Maeda, et al., Nano-scale friction: kinetic friction of magnetic flux quanta and charge density waves, preprint

  3. Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolino, L; Taschin, A; Bartolini, P; Bartalini, S; Cancio, P; Tredicucci, A; Beere, H E; Ritchie, D A; Torre, R; Vitiello, M S; De Natale, P

    2012-01-01

    Optical frequency comb synthesizers have represented a revolutionary approach to frequency metrology, providing a grid of frequency references for any laser emitting within their spectral coverage. Extending the metrological features of optical frequency comb synthesizers to the terahertz domain would be a major breakthrough, due to the widespread range of accessible strategic applications and the availability of stable, high-power and widely tunable sources such as quantum cascade lasers. Here we demonstrate phase-locking of a 2.5 THz quantum cascade laser to a free-space comb, generated in a LiNbO(3) waveguide and covering the 0.1-6 THz frequency range. We show that even a small fraction (quantum cascade laser is sufficient to generate a beat note suitable for phase-locking to the comb, paving the way to novel metrological-grade terahertz applications, including high-resolution spectroscopy, manipulation of cold molecules, astronomy and telecommunications.

  4. Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Zhou, Yu; Ren, Xiao-Ping; Peng, Ru-Wen; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Xu, Di-Hu; Xiong, Xiang; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    2015-02-18

    A freely tunable polarization rotator for broadband terahertz waves is demonstrated using a three-rotating-layer metallic grating structure, which can conveniently rotate the polarization of a linearly polarized terahertz wave to any desired direction with nearly perfect conversion efficiency. This low-cost, high-efficiency, and freely tunable device has potential applications as material analysis, wireless communication, and THz imaging. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Invisible Security Printing on Photoresist Polymer Readable by Terahertz Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hee Jun Shin; Min-Cheol Lim; Kisang Park; Sae-Hyung Kim; Sung-Wook Choi; Gyeongsik Ok

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally modulate the refractive index and the absorption coefficient of an SU-8 dry film in the terahertz region by UV light (362 nm) exposure with time dependency. Consequently, the refractive index of SU-8 film is increased by approximately 6% after UV light exposure. Moreover, the absorption coefficient also changes significantly. Using the reflective terahertz imaging technique, in addition, we can read security information printed by UV treatment on an SU-8 film that is transpa...

  6. Photonic techniques for sub-Terahertz wireless data transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2015-01-01

    Wireless data communication links with capacities beyond 100 Gbit/s will require operating at sub-Terahertz frequencies using a large bandpass bandwidth facing new engineering challenges. We review several implementation aspects by using photonic technologies. © 2015 OSA.......Wireless data communication links with capacities beyond 100 Gbit/s will require operating at sub-Terahertz frequencies using a large bandpass bandwidth facing new engineering challenges. We review several implementation aspects by using photonic technologies. © 2015 OSA....

  7. Graphene-based magnetless converter of terahertz wave polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Veronica S.; Polischuk, Olga V.; Popov, Vyacheslav V.

    2016-04-01

    The polarization conversion of terahertz radiation by the periodic array of graphene nanoribbons located at the surface of a high-refractive-index dielectric substrate (terahertz prism) is studied theoretically. Giant polarization conversion at the plasmon resonance frequencies takes place without applying external DC magnetic field. It is shown that the total polarization conversion can be reached at the total internal reflection of THz wave from the periodic array of graphene nanoribbons even at room temperature.

  8. Skirting terahertz waves in a photo-excited nanoslit structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalaby, Mostafa, E-mail: mostafa.shalaby@psi.ch, E-mail: thomas.feurer@iap.unibe.ch [INRS-EMT, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); SwissFEL, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen 5232 (Switzerland); Fabiańska, Justyna; Feurer, Thomas, E-mail: mostafa.shalaby@psi.ch, E-mail: thomas.feurer@iap.unibe.ch [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Peccianti, Marco [INRS-EMT, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Pevensey Building II, 3A8, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Ozturk, Yavuz; Vidal, Francois; Morandotti, Roberto [INRS-EMT, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Sigg, Hans [LMN, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen 5232 (Switzerland)

    2014-04-28

    Terahertz fields can be dramatically enhanced as they propagate through nanometer-sized slits. The enhancement is mediated by a significant accumulation of the induced surface charges on the surrounding metal. This enhancement is shown here to be dynamically modulated while the nanoslits are gradually shunted using a copropagating optical beam. The terahertz fields are found to skirt the nanoscale photo-excited region underneath the slits, scattering to the far field and rigorously mapping the near field.

  9. Non-planar ABJ theory and parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputa, Pawel; Kristjansen, Charlotte; Zoubos, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    While the ABJ Chern-Simons-matter theory and its string theory dual manifestly lack parity invariance, no sign of parity violation has so far been observed on the weak coupling spin chain side. In particular, the planar two-loop dilatation generator of ABJ theory is parity invariant. In this Letter we derive the non-planar part of the two-loop dilatation generator of ABJ theory in its SU(2)xSU(2) sub-sector. Applying the dilatation generator to short operators, we explicitly demonstrate that, for operators carrying excitations on both spin chains, the non-planar part breaks parity invariance. For operators with only one type of excitation, however, parity remains conserved at the non-planar level. We furthermore observe that, as for ABJM theory, the degeneracy between planar parity pairs is lifted when non-planar corrections are taken into account.

  10. Modeling the planar configuration of extraordinary magnetoresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ahmar, S; Pozniak, A A

    2015-01-01

    Recently the planar version of the extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR) magnetic field sensor has been constructed and verified in practice. Planar configuration of the EMR device gives many technological advantages, it is simpler than the classic and allows one to build the sensor using electric materials of the new type (such as graphene or topological insulators) much easier. In this work the planar configuration of the EMR sensor is investigated by performing computational simulations using the finite element method (FEM). The computational comparison of the planar and classic configurations of EMR is presented using three-dimensional models. Various variants of the geometry of EMR sensor components are pondered and compared in the planar and classic version. Size of the metal overlap is considered for sensor optimization as well as various semiconductor-metal contact resistance dependences of the EMR signal. Based on computational simulations, a method for optimal placement of electric terminals in a planar EMR device is proposed. (paper)

  11. Non-planar ABJ Theory and Parity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputa, Pawel; Kristjansen, Charlotte; Zoubos, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    we derive the non-planar part of the two-loop dilatation generator of ABJ theory in its SU(2)xSU(2) sub-sector. Applying the dilatation generator to short operators, we explicitly demonstrate that, for operators carrying excitations on both spin chains, the non-planar part breaks parity invariance......While the ABJ Chern-Simons-matter theory and its string theory dual manifestly lack parity invariance, no sign of parity violation has so far been observed on the weak coupling spin chain side. In particular, the planar two-loop dilatation generator of ABJ theory is parity invariant. In this letter....... For operators with only one type of excitation, however, parity remains conserved at the non-planar level. We furthermore observe that, as for ABJM theory, the degeneracy between planar parity pairs is lifted when non-planar corrections are taken into account....

  12. Nanoantenna enhanced terahertz spectroscopy of a monolayer of cadmium selenide quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Razzari, Luca; Toma, Andrea; Tuccio, Salvatore; Prato, Mirko; De Donato, Francesco; Perucchi, Andrea; Di Pietro, Paola; Marras, Sergio; Liberale, Carlo; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; De Angelis, Francesco De; Manna, Liberato; Lupi, Stefano; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting the localization and enhancement capabilities of terahertz resonant dipole nanoantennas coupled through nanogaps, we present an effective method to perform terahertz spectroscopy on an extremely small number of nano-objects.

  13. Invited Review Terahertz Transmission, Scattering, Reflection, and Absorption—the Interaction of THz Radiation with Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R. A.

    2017-07-01

    Terahertz radiation has been proposed as a useful tool in the study of soils and related materials from such diverse perspectives as detection of non-metallic landmines to improving soil fertility by agricultural charcoals produced by pyrolysis of organic material. The main barrier to such applications is that soils are rather opaque at terahertz frequencies. In this article, the main findings to date on the interaction of terahertz radiation with soils are reviewed, organized around the four phenomena of terahertz: transmission, scattering, reflection, and absorption. Terahertz transmission through soils is generally low and decreases with frequency. Terahertz scattering is evident in many THz-soil interactions, as the wavelength of the radiation is of the order of the particle size. Terahertz reflection is important to communications as these develop from the GHz into the THz band. Terahertz absorption on diluted soil samples has been demonstrated to be effective in identifying soil constituents, such as aromatic compounds, and soil contaminants, such as pesticides.

  14. Compact four-channel terahertz demultiplexer based on directional coupling photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiu-Sheng, Li; Han, Liu; Le, Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Electromagnetic polarization conveys valuable information for signal processing. Manipulation of terahertz wavelength demultiplexer exhibits tremendous potential in developing application of terahertz science and technology. We propose an approach to separate efficiently four frequencies terahertz waves based on three cascaded directional coupling two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides. Both plane wave expansion method and finite-difference time-domain method are used to calculate and analyze the characteristics of the proposed device. The simulation results show that the designed terahertz wavelength demultiplexer can split four different wavelengths of terahertz wave into different propagation directions with high transmittance and low crosstalk. The present device is very compact and the total size is 6.8×10.6 mm2. This enables the terahertz wavelength demultiplexer to be used in terahertz wave system and terahertz wave integrated circuit fields.

  15. Terahertz pulsed imaging for the monitoring of dental caries: a comparison with x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Kamburoglu, Kıvanc; Altan, Hakan

    2017-07-01

    Dental caries in sliced samples are investigated using terahertz pulsed imaging. Frequency domain terahertz response of these structures consistent with X-ray imaging results show the potential of this technique in the detection of early caries.

  16. Terahertz luminescence of GaAs based on heterostructures with quantum wells at optical excitation of donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekin, N.A.; Zhukavin, R.Kh.; Kovalevskij, K.A.; Pavlov, S.G.; Shastin, V.N.; Zvonkov, B.N.; Uskova, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    Terahertz spontaneous emission (∼ 3-3.5 THz) based on 2D-continuum-shallow donor (Si) states transitions has been investigated from both GaAs/InGaAs:Si and GaAs/InGaAsP:Si selectively doped heterostructures under CO 2 laser excitation at the liquid helium temperature. It is shown that the population inversion and the amplification with the coefficient up to 100-300 cm -1 per active layer can be realized for the planar doping level N D ≅ 10 11 cm -2 in multilayer structures with 50 periods of quantum wells under the pump flux density 10 23 quant/cm 2 s [ru

  17. Broadband measurements of electron cyclotron emission in TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] using a quasi-optical light collection system and a polarizing Michelson interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, F.J.; Boyd, D.A.; Cutler, R.C.; Diesso, M.; McCarthy, M.P.; Montague, J.; Rocco, R.

    1988-04-01

    For the past three years, a Fourier transform spectrometer diagnostic system, employing a fast-scanning polarizing Michelson interferometer, has been operating on the TFTR tokamak at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. It is used to measure the electron cyclotron emission spectrum over the range 2.5 to 18 cm/sup /minus/1/ (75-540 GHz) with a resolution of 0.123 cm/sup /minus/1/(3.7 GHz), at a rate of 72 spectra per second. The quasi-optical system for collecting the light and transporting it through the interferometer to the detector has been designed using the concepts of both Gaussian and geometrical optics in order to produce a system that is efficient over the entire spectral range. The commerical Michelson interferometer was custom-made for this project and is at the state of the art for this type of specialized instrument. Various pre-installation and post-installation tests of the optical system and the interferometer were performed and are reported here. An error propagation analysis of the absolute calibration process is given. Examples of electron cyclotron emission spectra measured in two polarization directions are given, and electron temperature profiles derived from each of them are compared. 34 refs., 17 figs

  18. Wide-band operation of quasi-optical distributed superconductor/insulator/superconductor mixers with epitaxial NbN/AlN/NbN junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohjiro, S; Shitov, S V; Wang, Z; Uzawa, Y; Miki, S; Kawakami, A; Shoji, A

    2004-01-01

    For the optimum design of integrated receivers operating above the gap frequency of Nb, we have designed, fabricated and tested NbN-based quasi-optical superconductor/insulator/superconductor (SIS) mixers. The mixer chip incorporates a resonant half-wavelength epitaxial NbN/AlN/NbN junction, a twin-slot antenna and their coupling circuits. We adopted two kinds of coupling circuit between the antenna and the SIS junction: one is an in-phase feed with a length of 95 μm and the other is an anti-phase feed of 30 μm length. It was found that the anti-phase mixer reveals a 3 dB bandwidth of 43% of the centre frequency; the uncorrected double-sideband receiver noise temperature T RX = 691 K at 0.91 THz and T RX = 844 K at 0.80 THz, while 17% and T RX = 1250 K at 0.79 THz for the in-phase version. Possible reasons for this difference are discussed, which could be transmission loss and its robustness with respect to the variation of junction parameters. These experimental results suggest the NbN-based distributed mixer with the anti-phase feed is a better candidate for wide-band integrated receivers operating above 0.7 THz

  19. Active Metamaterials for Terahertz Communication and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Saroj

    In recent years there has been significant interest in terahertz (THz) systems mostly due to their unique applications in communication and imaging. One of the primary reason for this resurgence is the use of metamaterials to design THz devices due to lack of natural materials that can respond to this electromagnetic spectrum, the so-called ''THz gap''. Even after years of intense research, THz systems are complex and expensive, unsuitable for mainstream applications. This work focuses on bridging this gap by building all solid-state THz devices for imaging and communication applications in a commercial integrated circuit (IC) technology. One such canonical device is a THz wave modulator that can be used in THz wireless communication devices and as spatial light modulator (SLM) for THz imaging systems. The key contribution of this thesis is a metamaterial based THz wave modulator fabricated in a commercial gallium arsenide (GaAs) process resonant at 0.46 THz using a novel approach of embedding pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (pHEMTs) in metamaterial and demonstrate modulation values over 30%, and THz modulation at frequencies up to 10 MHz. Using the THz wave modulator, we fabricated and experimentally demonstrated an all solid-state metamaterial based THz spatial light modulator (SLM) as a 2x2 pixel array operating around 0.46 THz, by raster scanning an occluded metal object in polystyrene using a single-pixel imaging setup. This was an important step towards building an low-voltage (1V), low power, on-chip integrable THz imaging device. Using the characterization result from the THz SLM, we computationally demonstrated a multi-level amplitude shift keying (ASK) terahertz wireless communication system using spatial light modulation instead of traditional voltage mode modulation, achieving higher spectral efficiency for high speed communication. We show two orders of magnitude improvement in symbol error rate (SER) for a degradation of 20 dB in

  20. Performance of a Planar Leaky-Wave Slit Antenna for Different Values of Substrate Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamat Hussain

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of a planar, low-profile, and wide-gain-bandwidth leaky-wave slit antenna in different thickness values of high-permittivity gallium arsenide substrates at terahertz frequencies. The proposed antenna designs consisted of a periodic array of 5 × 5 metallic square patches and a planar feeding structure. The patch array was printed on the top side of the substrate, and the feeding structure, which is an open-ended leaky-wave slot line, was etched on the bottom side of the substrate. The antenna performed as a Fabry-Perot cavity antenna at high thickness levels (H = 160 μm and H = 80 μm, thus exhibiting high gain but a narrow gain bandwidth. At low thickness levels (H = 40 μm and H = 20 μm, it performed as a metasurface antenna and showed wide-gain-bandwidth characteristics with a low gain value. Aside from the advantage of achieving useful characteristics for different antennas by just changing the substrate thickness, the proposed antenna design exhibited a low profile, easy integration into circuit boards, and excellent low-cost mass production suitability.

  1. Geodesic distance in planar graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouttier, J.; Di Francesco, P.; Guitter, E.

    2003-01-01

    We derive the exact generating function for planar maps (genus zero fatgraphs) with vertices of arbitrary even valence and with two marked points at a fixed geodesic distance. This is done in a purely combinatorial way based on a bijection with decorated trees, leading to a recursion relation on the geodesic distance. The latter is solved exactly in terms of discrete soliton-like expressions, suggesting an underlying integrable structure. We extract from this solution the fractal dimensions at the various (multi)-critical points, as well as the precise scaling forms of the continuum two-point functions and the probability distributions for the geodesic distance in (multi)-critical random surfaces. The two-point functions are shown to obey differential equations involving the residues of the KdV hierarchy

  2. Terahertz imaging applied to cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, M.-A.; Formanek, F.; Yasuda, A.; Sekine, M.; Ando, N.; Eishii, Y.

    2010-08-01

    We report on terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy imaging of 10 µm thick histological sections. The sections are prepared according to standard pathological procedures and deposited on a quartz window for measurements in reflection geometry. Simultaneous acquisition of visible images enables registration of THz images and thus the use of digital pathology tools to investigate the links between the underlying cellular structure and specific THz information. An analytic model taking into account the polarization of the THz beam, its incidence angle, the beam shift between the reference and sample pulses as well as multiple reflections within the sample is employed to determine the frequency-dependent complex refractive index. Spectral images are produced through segmentation of the extracted refractive index data using clustering methods. Comparisons of visible and THz images demonstrate spectral differences not only between tumor and healthy tissues but also within tumors. Further visualization using principal component analysis suggests different mechanisms as to the origin of image contrast.

  3. Terahertz imaging applied to cancer diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, M-A; Formanek, F; Yasuda, A [Life Science Laboratory, Advanced Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510 (Japan); Sekine, M; Ando, N; Eishii, Y, E-mail: florian.formanek@jp.sony.co [Department of Human Pathology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510 (Japan)

    2010-08-21

    We report on terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy imaging of 10 {mu}m thick histological sections. The sections are prepared according to standard pathological procedures and deposited on a quartz window for measurements in reflection geometry. Simultaneous acquisition of visible images enables registration of THz images and thus the use of digital pathology tools to investigate the links between the underlying cellular structure and specific THz information. An analytic model taking into account the polarization of the THz beam, its incidence angle, the beam shift between the reference and sample pulses as well as multiple reflections within the sample is employed to determine the frequency-dependent complex refractive index. Spectral images are produced through segmentation of the extracted refractive index data using clustering methods. Comparisons of visible and THz images demonstrate spectral differences not only between tumor and healthy tissues but also within tumors. Further visualization using principal component analysis suggests different mechanisms as to the origin of image contrast.

  4. A flexible and wearable terahertz scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, D.; Oda, S.; Kawano, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Imaging technologies based on terahertz (THz) waves have great potential for use in powerful non-invasive inspection methods. However, most real objects have various three-dimensional curvatures and existing THz technologies often encounter difficulties in imaging such configurations, which limits the useful range of THz imaging applications. Here, we report the development of a flexible and wearable THz scanner based on carbon nanotubes. We achieved room-temperature THz detection over a broad frequency band ranging from 0.14 to 39 THz and developed a portable THz scanner. Using this scanner, we performed THz imaging of samples concealed behind opaque objects, breakages and metal impurities of a bent film and multi-view scans of a syringe. We demonstrated a passive biometric THz scan of a human hand. Our results are expected to have considerable implications for non-destructive and non-contact inspections, such as medical examinations for the continuous monitoring of health conditions.

  5. Simulation of photoconductive antennas for terahertz radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Criollo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of terahertz (THz emission based on PC antennas imposes a challenge to couple the semiconductor carrier phenomena, optical transport and the THz energy transport. In this paper a Multi-physics simulation for coupling these phenomena using COMSOL Multi-physics 4.3b is introduced. The main parameters of THz photoconductive (PC antenna as THz emitter have been reviewed and discussed. The results indicate the role of each parameter in the resulting photocurrent waveform and THz frequency: The radiated THz photocurrent waveform is determined by the photoconductive gap (the separation between the metallic electrodes, the incident laser illumination and the DC excitation voltage; while the THz frequency depends on the dipole length. The optimization of these parameters could enhance the emission. The simulations extend the advance of compact and cost-effective THz emitters.

  6. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhihua

    2013-04-25

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena and an enhanced nonlinear effect. However, the transparency mode is normally localized in a narrow frequency band, which thus restricts many of its applications. Here we present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning in the terahertz regime. By integrating four U-shape resonators around a central bar resonator, a broad transparency window across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz is obtained, with a central resonance frequency located at 1.01 THz. Such PIT metamaterials are promising candidates for designing slow light devices, highly sensitive sensors, and nonlinear elements operating over a broad frequency range. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Strong terahertz field generation, detection, and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Yong [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-05-22

    This report describes the generation and detection of high-power, broadband terahertz (THz) radiation with using femtosecond terawatt (TW) laser systems. In particular, this focuses on two-color laser mixing in gases as a scalable THz source, addressing both microscopic and macroscopic effects governing its output THz yield and radiation profile. This also includes the characterization of extremely broad THz spectra extending from microwaves to infrared frequencies. Experimentally, my group has generated high-energy (tens of microjoule), intense (>8 MV/cm), and broadband (0.01~60 THz) THz radiation in two-color laser mixing in air. Such an intense THz field can be utilized to study THz-driven extremely nonlinear phenomena in a university laboratory.

  8. Strong terahertz field generation, detection, and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Yong [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-05-15

    This report describes the generation and detection of high-power, broadband terahertz (THz) radiation with using femtosecond terawatt (TW) laser systems. In particular, this focuses on two-color laser mixing in gases as a scalable THz source, addressing both microscopic and macroscopic effects governing its output THz yield and radiation profile. This also includes the characterization of extremely broad THz spectra extending from microwaves to infrared frequencies. Experimentally, my group has generated high-energy (tens of microjoule), intense (>8 MV/cm), and broadband (0.01~60 THz) THz radiation in two-color laser mixing in air. Such an intense THz field can be utilized to study THz-driven extremely nonlinear phenomena in a university laboratory.

  9. Metamaterial-Enhanced Nonlinear Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate large nonlinear terahertz responses in the gaps of metamaterial split ring resonators in several materials and use nonlinear THz transmission and THz-pump/THz-probe spectroscopy to study the nonlinear responses and dynamics. We use the field enhancement in the SRR gaps to initiate high-field phenomena at lower incident fields. In vanadium dioxide, we drive the insulator-to-metal phase transition with high-field THz radiation. The film conductivity increases by over two orders of magnitude and the phase transition occurs on a several picosecond timescale. In gallium arsenide, we observe high-field transport phenomena, including mobility saturation and impact ionization. The carrier density increases by up to ten orders of magnitude at high fields. At the highest fields, we demonstrate THz-induced damage in both vanadium dioxide and gallium arsenide.

  10. Radar cross section measurements using terahertz waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification...... in order to measure realistic radar cross sections. RCS polar and azimuthal angle plots of F-16 and F-35 are presented....... in a lithium niobate crystal with application of the tilted wave front method, resulting in high electric field THz pulses with a broad band spectrum from 100 GHz up to 4 THz. The corresponding wave lengths are two orders of magnitude smaller than normal radars and we therefore use scale models of size 5-10 cm...

  11. Terahertz lens made out of natural stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Daehoon; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Jongseok; Hong, Sei Sun; Kim, Young Kie; Ahn, Jaewook

    2013-12-20

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy probes the optical properties of naturally occurring solid aggregates of minerals, or stones, in the THz frequency range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient measurement reveals that most natural stones, including mudstone, sandstone, granite, tuff, gneiss, diorite, slate, marble, and dolomite, are fairly transparent for THz frequency waves. Dolomite in particular exhibits a nearly uniform refractive index of 2.7 over the broad frequency range from 0.1 to 1 THz. The high index of refraction allows flexibility in lens designing with a shorter accessible focal length or a thinner lens with a given focal length. Good agreement between the experiment and calculation for the THz beam profile confirms that dolomite has high homogeneity as a lens material, suggesting the possibility of using natural stones for THz optical elements.

  12. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhihua; Yang Xu; Gu Jianqiang; Jiang Jun; Tian Zhen; Han Jiaguang; Zhang Weili; Yue Weisheng; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena and an enhanced nonlinear effect. However, the transparency mode is normally localized in a narrow frequency band, which thus restricts many of its applications. Here we present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning in the terahertz regime. By integrating four U-shape resonators around a central bar resonator, a broad transparency window across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz is obtained, with a central resonance frequency located at 1.01 THz. Such PIT metamaterials are promising candidates for designing slow light devices, highly sensitive sensors, and nonlinear elements operating over a broad frequency range. (paper)

  13. Terahertz applications in cultural heritage: case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannacci, D.; Martos-Levif, D.; Walker, G. C.; Menu, M.; Detalle, V.

    2013-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and imaging is a non-destructive, non-contact, non-invasive technology emerging as a tool for the analysis of cultural heritage. THz Time Domain Spectroscopy (TDS) techniques have the ability to retrieve information from different layers within a stratified sample, that enable the identification of hidden sub-layers in the case of paints and mural paintings. In this paper, we present the THz TDS2 system developed in the European Commission's 7th Framework Program project CHARISMA [grant agreement no. 228330]. Bespoke single processing algorithms; including a deconvolution algorithm can be deployed to increase the resolution and the global performance of the system. The potential and impact of this work is demonstrated through two case studies of mural paintings, where the capability to reveal the stratigraphy of the artworks is demonstrated.

  14. Terahertz adaptive optics with a deformable mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard, Mathilde; Sauvage, Jean-François; Perrin, Mathias; Abraham, Emmanuel

    2018-04-01

    We report on the wavefront correction of a terahertz (THz) beam using adaptive optics, which requires both a wavefront sensor that is able to sense the optical aberrations, as well as a wavefront corrector. The wavefront sensor relies on a direct 2D electro-optic imaging system composed of a ZnTe crystal and a CMOS camera. By measuring the phase variation of the THz electric field in the crystal, we were able to minimize the geometrical aberrations of the beam, thanks to the action of a deformable mirror. This phase control will open the route to THz adaptive optics in order to optimize the THz beam quality for both practical and fundamental applications.

  15. Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, A.D.; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Skieller, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can...... Hall effect bridge sensors....

  16. Attractive planar panelization using dynamic relaxation principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauss, Florian; Teuffel, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In the presented paper a new method is proposed to approximate a given NURBS surface with a PQ (Planar Quad) mesh. The desired mesh layout will be generated in then attracted to the target surface. The process iteratively pulls the mesh vertices towards the target surface and then planarizes the

  17. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armoni, Adi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino

    2008-01-01

    The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric...

  18. Planar Algebra of the Subgroup-Subfactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The crucial step in this identification is an exhibition of a model for the basic construction tower, and thereafter of the standard invariant of R ⋊ H ⊂ R ⋊ G in terms of operator matrices. We also obtain an identification between the planar algebra of the fixed algebra subfactor R G ⊂ R H and the -invariant planar subalgebra ...

  19. Piecewise planar Möbius bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens

    2005-01-01

    t is shown that a closed polygon with an odd number of vertices is the median of exactly one piecewise planar cylinder and one piecewise planar Möbius band, intersecting each other orthogonally. A closed polygon with an even number of vertices is in the generic case neither the median...

  20. An effective way to reduce water absorption to terahertz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaxiong; Su, Bo; He, Jingsuo; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Hongfei; Zhang, Shengbo; Zhang, Cunlin

    2018-01-01

    Since many vibrations and rotational levels of biomolecules fall within the THz band, THz spectroscopy can be used to identify biological samples. In addition, most biomolecules need to maintain their biological activity in a liquid environment, but water as polar substance has strong absorption to the THz wave. Thus, it is difficult to detect the sample information in aqueous solution using THz wave. In order to prevent the information of biological samples were masked in the solution, many research methods were used to explore how to reduce the water absorption of terahertz. In this paper, we have developed a real-time chemical methodology through transmission Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system. The material of Zeonor 1020r is used as substrate and cover plate, and PDMS as channel interlayer. The transmission of the empty microfluidic chip is more than 80% in the range of 0.2-2.6 THz by THz-TDS system. Then, experiments were carried out using chips, which were filled with different volumes of 1, 2- propanediol, and it has been proved that the microfluidic chip could reduce the water absorption of terahertz. Finally, in order to further explore the reduction of terahertz to water absorption, we inject different concentrations of electrolyte to the chip. The results show that with the addition of different electrolytes, terahertz transmission line has evident changes. It can be taken into account that the electrolyte has different effects about the hydrogen bonds in the aqueous solution. Some of them can promote water molecules clusters, while others destroy them. Based on the basis of microfluidic chip, the discovery of this phenomenon can provide a way that reduces water absorption of terahertz. This work has laid a solid foundation for the subsequent study in reducing water absorption of terahertz.

  1. The Planar Sandwich and Other 1D Planar Heat Flow Test Problems in ExactPack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Jr., Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-24

    This report documents the implementation of several related 1D heat flow problems in the verification package ExactPack [1]. In particular, the planar sandwich class defined in Ref. [2], as well as the classes PlanarSandwichHot, PlanarSandwichHalf, and other generalizations of the planar sandwich problem, are defined and documented here. A rather general treatment of 1D heat flow is presented, whose main results have been implemented in the class Rod1D. All planar sandwich classes are derived from the parent class Rod1D.

  2. Variability in DMSA reporting following urinary tract infection in children: pinhole, planar, and pinhole with planar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossleigh, M.A.; Christian, C.L.; Craig, J.C.; Howman-Giles, R.B.; Grunewald, S.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the provision of DMSA images obtained by pinhole collimation reduces inter-observer variability of reporting compared with planar DMSA images alone. Methods: One hundred consecutive DMSA images were independently interpreted three times (pinhole alone, planar alone, pinhole and planar) by four participating nuclear medicine specialists from different departments and in random order. The presence or absence of renal parenchymal abnormality was classified using the modified four level grading system of Goldraich with mean values for the 6 comparisons reported. Results: The proportion of DMSA images interpreted as abnormal was 31% for planar, 34% for pinhole and 33% for planar with pinhole. Agreement was 89% for planar alone, 89% for pinhole alone and 90% for planar with pinhole, with kappa values 0.74, 0.75 and 0.80 respectively for the normal-abnormal scan classification of individual children. These results did not vary appreciably whether interpretation of patients, kidneys or kidney zones was compared. Reasons for disagreement in reporting included different interpretations of 'abnormalities' as normal anatomical variations (splenic impression, fetal lobulation, duplex collecting systems, column of Bertin) or true parenchymal abnormalities, different adjustments in thresholds for reporting abnormality when images were technically suboptimal, different weighting given to pinhole and planar images when both were provided, and error. Conclusion: Four experienced nuclear medicine physicians showed substantial agreement in the interpretation of planar alone, pinhole alone and planar with pinhole DMSA images, but the provision of both sets of images, planar and pinhole, did not reduce variability. (authors)

  3. A simple system for 160GHz optical terahertz wave generation and data modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yihan; He, Jingsuo; Sun, Xueming; Shi, Zexia; Wang, Ruike; Cui, Hailin; Su, Bo; Zhang, Cunlin

    2018-01-01

    A simple system based on two cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulators, which can generate 160GHz optical terahertz waves from 40GHz microwave sources, is simulated and tested in this paper. Fiber grating filter is used in the system to filter out optical carrier. By properly adjusting the modulator DC bias voltages and the signal voltages and phases, 4-tupling optical terahertz wave can be generated with fiber grating. This notch fiber grating filter is greatly suitable for terahertz over fiber (TOF) communication system. This scheme greatly reduces the cost of long-distance terahertz communication. Furthermore, 10Gbps digital signal is modulated in the 160GHz optical terahertz wave.

  4. Antennas for Terahertz Applications: Focal Plane Arrays and On-chip Non-contact Measurement Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichopoulos, Georgios C.

    The terahertz (THz) band provides unique sensing opportunities that enable several important applications such as biomedical imaging, remote non-destructive inspection of packaged goods, and security screening. THz waves can penetrate most materials and can provide unique spectral information in the 0.1--10 THz band with high resolution. In contrast, other imaging modalities, like infrared (IR), suffer from low penetration depths and are thus not attractive for non-destructive evaluation. However, state-of-the-art THz imaging systems typically employ mechanical raster scans using a single detector to acquire two-dimensional images. Such devices tend to be bulky and complicated due to the mechanical parts, and are thus rather expensive to develop and operate. Thus, large-format (e.g. 100x100 pixels) and all-electronics based THz imaging systems are badly needed to alleviate the space, weight and power (SWAP) factors and enable cost effective utilization of THz waves for sensing and high-data-rate communications. In contrast, photonic sensors are very compact because light can couple directly to the photodiode without residing to radiation coupling topologies. However, in the THz band, due to the longer wavelengths and much lower photon energies, highly efficient antennas with optimized input impedance have to be integrated with THz sensors. Here, we implement novel antenna engineering techniques that are optimized to take advantage of recent technological advances in solid-state THz sensing devices. For example, large-format focal plane arrays (FPAs) have been the Achilles' heel of THz imaging systems. Typically, optical components (lenses, mirrors) are employed in order to improve the optical performance of FPAs, however, antenna sensors suffer from degraded performance when they are far from the optical axis, thus minimizing the number of useful FPA elements. By modifying the radiation pattern of FPA antennas we manage to alleviate the off-axis aberration

  5. Terahertz Absorption by Cellulose: Application to Ancient Paper Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccianti, M.; Fastampa, R.; Mosca Conte, A.; Pulci, O.; Violante, C.; Łojewska, J.; Clerici, M.; Morandotti, R.; Missori, M.

    2017-06-01

    Artifacts made of cellulose, such as ancient documents, pose a significant experimental challenge in the terahertz transmission spectra interpretation due to their small optical thickness. In this paper, we describe a method to recover the complex refractive index of cellulose fibers from the terahertz transmission data obtained on single freely standing paper sheets in the (0.2-3.5)-THz range. By using our technique, we eliminate Fabry-Perot effects and recover the absorption coefficient of the cellulose fibers. The obtained terahertz absorption spectra are explained in terms of absorption peaks of the cellulose crystalline phase superimposed to a background contribution due to a disordered hydrogen-bond network. The comparison between the experimental spectra with terahertz vibrational properties simulated by density-functional-theory calculations confirms this interpretation. In addition, evident changes in the terahertz absorption spectra are produced by natural and artificial aging on paper samples, whose final stage is characterized by a spectral profile with only two peaks at about 2.1 and 3.1 THz. These results can be used to provide a quantitative assessment of the state of preservation of cellulose artifacts.

  6. Spatial-temporal dynamics of broadband terahertz Bessel beam propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, V A; Kulya, M S; Bespalov, V G

    2016-01-01

    The unique properties of narrowband and broadband terahertz Bessel beams have led to a number of their applications in different fields, for example, for the depth of focusing and resolution enhancement in terahertz imaging. However, broadband terahertz Bessel beams can probably be also used for the diffraction minimization in the short-range broadband terahertz communications. For this purpose, the study of spatial-temporal dynamics of the broadband terahertz Bessel beams is needed. Here we present a simulation-based study of the propagating in non-dispersive medium broadband Bessel beams generated by a conical axicon lens. The algorithm based on scalar diffraction theory was used to obtain the spatial amplitude and phase distributions of the Bessel beam in the frequency range from 0.1 to 3 THz at the distances 10-200 mm from the axicon. Bessel beam field is studied for the different spectral components of the initial pulse. The simulation results show that for the given parameters of the axicon lens one can obtain the Gauss-Bessel beam generation in the spectral range from 0.1 to 3 THz. The length of non-diffraction propagation for a different spectral components was measured, and it was shown that for all spectral components of the initial pulse this length is about 130 mm. (paper)

  7. Terahertz Imaging of Three-Dimensional Dehydrated Breast Cancer Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Tyler; Wu, Yuhao; Gauch, John; Campbell, Lucas K.; El-Shenawee, Magda

    2017-06-01

    This work presents the application of terahertz imaging to three-dimensional formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human breast cancer tumors. The results demonstrate the capability of terahertz for in-depth scanning to produce cross section images without the need to slice the tumor. Samples of tumors excised from women diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma and lobular carcinoma are investigated using a pulsed terahertz time domain imaging system. A time of flight estimation is used to obtain vertical and horizontal cross section images of tumor tissues embedded in paraffin block. Strong agreement is shown comparing the terahertz images obtained by electronically scanning the tumor in-depth in comparison with histopathology images. The detection of cancer tissue inside the block is found to be accurate to depths over 1 mm. Image processing techniques are applied to provide improved contrast and automation of the obtained terahertz images. In particular, unsharp masking and edge detection methods are found to be most effective for three-dimensional block imaging.

  8. Frequency-division multiplexer and demultiplexer for terahertz wireless links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianjun; Karl, Nicholas J; Bretin, Sara; Ducournau, Guillaume; Mittleman, Daniel M

    2017-09-28

    The development of components for terahertz wireless communications networks has become an active and growing research field. However, in most cases these components have been studied using a continuous or broadband-pulsed terahertz source, not using a modulated data stream. This limitation may mask important aspects of the performance of the device in a realistic system configuration. We report the characterization of one such device, a frequency multiplexer, using modulated data at rates up to 10 gigabits per second. We also demonstrate simultaneous error-free transmission of two signals at different carrier frequencies, with an aggregate data rate of 50 gigabits per second. We observe that the far-field spatial variation of the bit error rate is different from that of the emitted power, due to a small nonuniformity in the angular detection sensitivity. This is likely to be a common feature of any terahertz communication system in which signals propagate as diffracting beams not omnidirectional broadcasts.There is growing interest in the development of components to facilitate wireless communications in the terahertz but the characterization of these systems involve an unmodulated input. Here the authors demonstrate multiplexing and demultiplexing of data streams in the terahertz range using a real data link.

  9. Continuous-wave terahertz light from optical parametric oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowade, Rosita

    2010-12-15

    Continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) are working horses for spectroscopy in the near and mid infrared. However, in the terahertz frequency range (0.1 to 10 THz), the pump threshold is more than 100 W due to the high absorption in nonlinear crystals and thus exceeds the power of standard cw single-frequency pump sources. In this thesis the first cw OPO capable of generating terahertz radiation is demonstrated. To overcome the high threshold, the signal wave of a primary infrared process is resonantly enhanced to serve as the pump wave for a cascaded parametric process with one wave being at the terahertz frequency level. A terahertz output power of more than two microwatts is measured and tuning is achieved from 1.3 to 1.7 THz. This terahertz source emits a narrow-band, diffraction-limited beam which remains mode-hop free over more than one hour. Such a device inhibits high potential for applications in areas like astronomy, telecommunications or high-resolution spectroscopy. (orig.)

  10. Continuous-wave terahertz light from optical parametric oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowade, Rosita

    2010-12-01

    Continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) are working horses for spectroscopy in the near and mid infrared. However, in the terahertz frequency range (0.1 to 10 THz), the pump threshold is more than 100 W due to the high absorption in nonlinear crystals and thus exceeds the power of standard cw single-frequency pump sources. In this thesis the first cw OPO capable of generating terahertz radiation is demonstrated. To overcome the high threshold, the signal wave of a primary infrared process is resonantly enhanced to serve as the pump wave for a cascaded parametric process with one wave being at the terahertz frequency level. A terahertz output power of more than two microwatts is measured and tuning is achieved from 1.3 to 1.7 THz. This terahertz source emits a narrow-band, diffraction-limited beam which remains mode-hop free over more than one hour. Such a device inhibits high potential for applications in areas like astronomy, telecommunications or high-resolution spectroscopy. (orig.)

  11. Propagation of errors from a null balance terahertz reflectometer to a sample's relative water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjiloucas, S; Walker, G C; Bowen, J W; Zafiropoulos, A

    2009-01-01

    The THz water content index of a sample is defined and advantages in using such metric in estimating a sample's relative water content are discussed. The errors from reflectance measurements performed at two different THz frequencies using a quasi-optical null-balance reflectometer are propagated to the errors in estimating the sample water content index.

  12. The theory of the quasi-optical grill: A lower hybrid wave launcher in the 4 - 10 GHz range for high field tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preinhaelter, J.; Vahala, L.; Vahala, G.

    1996-01-01

    Lower hybrid (LH) waves have been utilized for plasma heating and current drive in tokamaks. LH current drive has good efficiency in low to moderate plasma temperatures and is an excellent tool for attaining the reversed shear regions of much interest in advanced steady state tokamak scenarios. For high field tokamaks, the waveguides of the standard multifunction grills would become very narrow and the walls separating the waveguides would need to be very thin. As a result, the cooling of such structures becomes very difficult. Moreover, there are concerns that the classical grill launcher could not withstand the conditions at the reactor first wall. The Quasi-Optical Grill (QOG) was first proposed by Petelin ampersand Suvorov to overcome some of these difficulties. QOG attempts to couple the RF power to the plasma slow wave by means of the diffraction of the incident wave on an array of rods. However, these original calculations are based on certain idealized assumptions and lead to poor coupling to the plasma. Preinhaelter has suggested a new QOG in which the rods are placed in one oversized waveguide (open-quotes hyperguideclose quotes) and irradiated obliquely by the wave emerging as a higher order mode from an auxiliary oversized waveguide. The confining walls are now an intrinsic part of the structure and thus one avoids the need for mirrors and the introduction of open-quote point-like close-quote structures. This new QOG is compact - with several orders of magnitude less construction elements than the classical LH launcher - and the problem of wave diffraction can be readily solved using the full wave method. Here we consider the optimization of a large scale QOG at a given frequency. The irradiation of either a single row or double set of rows of rods are considered as well as their optimal separation. One can achieve transmissivity and directivity comparable to those of the multifunction grill. Design of a QOG for TORE-SUPRA will also be discussed

  13. A quasi-optical and corrugated waveguide microwave transmission system for simultaneous dynamic nuclear polarization NMR on two separate 14.1 T spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubroca, Thierry; Smith, Adam N.; Pike, Kevin J.; Froud, Stuart; Wylde, Richard; Trociewitz, Bianca; McKay, Johannes; Mentink-Vigier, Frederic; van Tol, Johan; Wi, Sungsool; Brey, William; Long, Joanna R.; Frydman, Lucio; Hill, Stephen

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an intrinsically insensitive technique, with Boltzmann distributions of nuclear spin states on the order of parts per million in conventional magnetic fields. To overcome this limitation, dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be used to gain up to three orders of magnitude in signal enhancement, which can decrease experimental time by up to six orders of magnitude. In DNP experiments, nuclear spin polarization is enhanced by transferring the relatively larger electron polarization to NMR active nuclei via microwave irradiation. Here, we describe the design and performance of a quasi-optical system enabling the use of a single 395 GHz gyrotron microwave source to simultaneously perform DNP experiments on two different 14.1 T (1H 600 MHz) NMR spectrometers: one configured for magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR; the other configured for solution state NMR experiments. In particular, we describe how the high power microwave beam is split, transmitted, and manipulated between the two spectrometers. A 13C enhancement of 128 is achieved via the cross effect for alanine, using the nitroxide biradical AMUPol, under MAS-DNP conditions at 110 K, while a 31P enhancement of 160 is achieved via the Overhauser effect for triphenylphosphine using the monoradical BDPA under solution NMR conditions at room temperature. The latter result is the first demonstration of Overhauser DNP in the solution state at a field of 14.1 T (1H 600 MHz). Moreover these results have been produced with large sample volumes (∼100 μL, i.e. 3 mm diameter NMR tubes).

  14. A quasi-optical and corrugated waveguide microwave transmission system for simultaneous dynamic nuclear polarization NMR on two separate 14.1 T spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubroca, Thierry; Smith, Adam N; Pike, Kevin J; Froud, Stuart; Wylde, Richard; Trociewitz, Bianca; McKay, Johannes; Mentink-Vigier, Frederic; van Tol, Johan; Wi, Sungsool; Brey, William; Long, Joanna R; Frydman, Lucio; Hill, Stephen

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an intrinsically insensitive technique, with Boltzmann distributions of nuclear spin states on the order of parts per million in conventional magnetic fields. To overcome this limitation, dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be used to gain up to three orders of magnitude in signal enhancement, which can decrease experimental time by up to six orders of magnitude. In DNP experiments, nuclear spin polarization is enhanced by transferring the relatively larger electron polarization to NMR active nuclei via microwave irradiation. Here, we describe the design and performance of a quasi-optical system enabling the use of a single 395 GHz gyrotron microwave source to simultaneously perform DNP experiments on two different 14.1 T ( 1 H 600 MHz) NMR spectrometers: one configured for magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR; the other configured for solution state NMR experiments. In particular, we describe how the high power microwave beam is split, transmitted, and manipulated between the two spectrometers. A 13 C enhancement of 128 is achieved via the cross effect for alanine, using the nitroxide biradical AMUPol, under MAS-DNP conditions at 110 K, while a 31 P enhancement of 160 is achieved via the Overhauser effect for triphenylphosphine using the monoradical BDPA under solution NMR conditions at room temperature. The latter result is the first demonstration of Overhauser DNP in the solution state at a field of 14.1 T ( 1 H 600 MHz). Moreover these results have been produced with large sample volumes (∼100 µL, i.e. 3 mm diameter NMR tubes). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Planar impact experiments for EOS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furnish, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    The community concerned with the numerical modeling of groundshock produced by underground nuclear tests must have access to materials data to benchmark models of rock behavior. Historically the primary source of these data has been planar impact experiments. These experiments have involved gun, explosive and electrical launchers. Other methods of introducing planar shocks include shock driving by in-contact explosives or laser bursts. This paper briefly describes gun launcher-based planar impact methods used to characterize geological materials at Sandia National Laboratories

  16. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-22

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  17. Dynamic Planar Range Maxima Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Tsakalidis, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    We consider the dynamic two-dimensional maxima query problem. Let P be a set of n points in the plane. A point is maximal if it is not dominated by any other point in P. We describe two data structures that support the reporting of the t maximal points that dominate a given query point, and allow...... for insertions and deletions of points in P. In the pointer machine model we present a linear space data structure with O(logn + t) worst case query time and O(logn) worst case update time. This is the first dynamic data structure for the planar maxima dominance query problem that achieves these bounds...... are integers in the range U = {0, …,2 w  − 1 }. We present a linear space data structure that supports 3-sided range maxima queries in O(logn/loglogn+t) worst case time and updates in O(logn/loglogn) worst case time. These are the first sublogarithmic worst case bounds for all operations in the RAM model....

  18. InGaAs/InP heteroepitaxial Schottky barrier diodes for terahertz applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhapkar, Udayan V.; Li, Yongjun; Mattauch, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the feasibility of planar, sub-harmonically pumped, anti-parallel InGaAs/InP heteroepitaxial Schottky diodes for terahertz applications. We present calculations of the (I-V) characteristics of such diodes using a numerical model that considers tunneling. We also present noise and conversion loss predictions of diode mixers operated at 500 GHz, and obtained from a multi-port mixer analysis, using the I-V characteristics predicted by our model. Our calculations indicate that InGaAs/InP heteroepitaxial Schottky barrier diodes are expected to have an I-V characteristic with an ideality factor comparable to that of GaAs Schottky diodes. However, the reverse saturation current of InGaAs/InP diodes is expected to be much greater than that of GaAs diodes. These predictions are confirmed by experiment. The mixer analyses predict that sub-harmonically pumped anti-parallel InGaAs/InP diode mixers are expected to offer a 2 dB greater conversion loss and a somewhat higher single sideband noise temperature than their GaAs counterparts. More importantly, the InGaAs/InP devices are predicted to require only one-tenth of the local oscillator power required by similar GaAs diodes.

  19. Widely tunable narrow-band coherent Terahertz radiation from an undulator at THU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, X.; Wang, D.; Tian, Q.; Liang, Y.; Niu, L.; Yan, L.; Du, Y.; Huang, W.; Tang, C.

    2018-01-01

    There is anxious demand for intense widely tunable narrow-band Terahertz (THz) radiation in scientific research, which is regarded as a powerful tool for the coherent control of matter. We report the generation of widely tunable THz radiation from a planar permanent magnet undulator at Tsinghua University (THU). A relativistic electron beam is compressed by a magnetic chicane into sub-ps bunch length to excite THz radiation in the undulator coherently. The THz frequency can be tuned from 0.4 THz to 10 THz continuously with narrow-band spectrums when the undulator gap ranges from 23 mm to 75 mm. The measured pulse THz radiation energy from 220 pC bunch is 3.5 μJ at 1 THz and tens of μJ pulse energy (corresponding peak power of 10 MW) can be obtained when excited by 1 nC beam extrapolated from the property of coherent radiation. The experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions, which demonstrates a suitable THz source for the many applications that require intense and widely tunable THz sources.

  20. High-gain Seeded FEL Amplifier Tunable in the Terahertz Range

    CERN Document Server

    Sung, C; Pellegrini, C; Ralph, J E; Reiche, S; Rosenzweig, J B; Tochitsky, Sergei Ya

    2005-01-01

    The lack of a high-power, relatively low-cost and compact terahertz (THz) source in the range 0.3-3x10(12) Hz is the major obstacle in progressing on biomedical and material studies at these wavelengths. A high-gain, single pass seeded FEL technique allows to obtain high power THz pulses of a high spectral brightness. We describe an ongoing project at the Neptune laboratory where a ~ 1kW seed pulse generated by difference frequency mixing of CO2 laser lines in a GaAs nonlinear crystal is injected into a waveguide FEL amplifier. The FEL is driven by a 5 ps (r.m.s) long electron pulse with a peak current up to 100A provided by a regular S-band photoinjector. According to 3-D, time dependent simulations, up to ~ 10 MW THz power can be generated using a 2 meter long planar undulator. By mixing different pairs of CO2 laser lines and matching resonant energy of the electron beam, tunability in the 100-400 mm range is expected. A tunable Fabri-Perot interferometer will be used to select a high-power 5ps THz pulse. T...

  1. TERAHERTZ REFLECTANCE SPECTRA OF SKIN DERMATITIS AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Strepitov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals withthe diagnostics possibility of dermatitis and morphological changes of human skin using terahertz frequency range equal to 2,0¸0,05 THz. Features of different types of human skin diseases occur in vivo over the entire frequency range, especially in the field of vibration: 2,0¸1,5 THz. They were caused by the backscattering on skin new formations in its upper layers. In terahertz reflection spectra spectral lines of different dermatitis, age spots, haematoma are well distinguishable. Terahertz radiation penetrates well through the medical bandages. At the same time in a single scan, lasting about one minute, the spectrum is processed not only of the bandages, but of different skin layers.

  2. Terahertz detection of alcohol using a photonic crystal fiber sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Jakeya; Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Kawsar; Dinovitser, Alex; Ng, Brian W-H; Abbott, Derek

    2018-04-01

    Ethanol is widely used in chemical industrial processes as well as in the food and beverage industry. Therefore, methods of detecting alcohol must be accurate, precise, and reliable. In this content, a novel Zeonex-based photonic crystal fiber (PCF) has been modeled and analyzed for ethanol detection in terahertz frequency range. A finite-element-method-based simulation of the PCF sensor shows a high relative sensitivity of 68.87% with negligible confinement loss of 7.79×10 -12    cm -1 at 1 THz frequency and x -polarization mode. Moreover, the core power fraction, birefringence, effective material loss, dispersion, and numerical aperture are also determined in the terahertz frequency range. Owing to the simple fiber structure, existing fabrication methods are feasible. With the outstanding waveguiding properties, the proposed sensor can potentially be used in ethanol detection, as well as polarization-preserving applications of terahertz waves.

  3. A polarization-insensitive plasmonic photoconductive terahertz emitter

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xurong

    2017-11-16

    We present a polarization-insensitive plasmonic photoconductive terahertz emitter that uses a two-dimensional array of nanoscale cross-shaped apertures as the plasmonic contact electrodes. The geometry of the cross-shaped apertures is set to maximize optical pump absorption in close proximity to the contact electrodes. The two-dimensional symmetry of the cross-shaped apertures offers a polarization-insensitive interaction between the plasmonic contact electrodes and optical pump beam. We experimentally demonstrate a polarization-insensitive terahertz radiation from the presented emitter in response to a femtosecond optical pump beam and similar terahertz radiation powers compared to previously demonstrated polarization-sensitive photoconductive emitters with plasmonic contact electrode gratings at the optimum optical pump polarization.

  4. Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Henrik

    This thesis describes time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy measurements on various semiconductor nanostructures. The aim is to study the carrier dynamics in these nanostructures on a picosecond timescale. In a typical experiment carriers are excited with a visible or near-infrared pulse and by me......This thesis describes time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy measurements on various semiconductor nanostructures. The aim is to study the carrier dynamics in these nanostructures on a picosecond timescale. In a typical experiment carriers are excited with a visible or near-infrared pulse...... and by measuring the transmission of a terahertz probe pulse, the photoconductivity of the excited sample can be obtained. By changing the relative arrival time at the sample between the pump and the probe pulse, the photoconductivity dynamics can be studied on a picosecond timescale. The rst studied semiconductor...

  5. Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser With Efficient Coupling and Beam Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Kawamura, Jonathan H.; Lin, Robert H.; Williams, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are unipolar semiconductor lasers, where the wavelength of emitted radiation is determined by the engineering of quantum states within the conduction band in coupled multiple-quantum-well heterostructures to have the desired energy separation. The recent development of terahertz QCLs has provided a new generation of solid-state sources for radiation in the terahertz frequency range. Terahertz QCLs have been demonstrated from 0.84 to 5.0 THz both in pulsed mode and continuous wave mode (CW mode). The approach employs a resonant-phonon depopulation concept. The metal-metal (MM) waveguide fabrication is performed using Cu-Cu thermo-compression bonding to bond the GaAs/AlGaAs epitaxial layer to a GaAs receptor wafer.

  6. Invisible Security Printing on Photoresist Polymer Readable by Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jun Shin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally modulate the refractive index and the absorption coefficient of an SU-8 dry film in the terahertz region by UV light (362 nm exposure with time dependency. Consequently, the refractive index of SU-8 film is increased by approximately 6% after UV light exposure. Moreover, the absorption coefficient also changes significantly. Using the reflective terahertz imaging technique, in addition, we can read security information printed by UV treatment on an SU-8 film that is transparent in the visible spectrum. From these results, we successfully demonstrate security printing and reading by using photoresist materials and the terahertz technique. This investigation would provide a new insight into anti-counterfeiting applications in fields that need security.

  7. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of edible oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinovitser, Alex; Valchev, Dimitar G.; Abbott, Derek

    2017-06-01

    Chemical degradation of edible oils has been studied using conventional spectroscopic methods spanning the spectrum from ultraviolet to mid-IR. However, the possibility of morphological changes of oil molecules that can be detected at terahertz frequencies is beginning to receive some attention. Furthermore, the rapidly decreasing cost of this technology and its capability for convenient, in situ measurement of material properties, raises the possibility of monitoring oil during cooking and processing at production facilities, and more generally within the food industry. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that oil undergoes chemical and physical changes when heated above the smoke point, which can be detected in the 0.05-2 THz spectral range, measured using the conventional terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The measurements demonstrate a null result in that there is no significant change in the spectra of terahertz optical parameters after heating above the smoke point for 5 min.

  8. Electrically Tunable Reflective Terahertz Phase Shifter Based on Liquid Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Xia, Tianyu; Jing, Shuaicheng; Deng, Guangsheng; Lu, Hongbo; Fang, Yong; Yin, Zhiping

    2018-02-01

    We present a reflective spatial phase shifter which operates at terahertz regime above 325 GHz. The controllable permittivity of the nematic liquid crystals was utilized to realize a tunable terahertz (THz) reflective phase shifter. The reflective characteristics of the terahertz electromagnetic waves and the liquid crystal parameters were calculated and analyzed. We provide the simulation results for the effect of the incident angle of the plane wave on the reflection. The experiment was carried out considering an array consisting of 30 × 30 patch elements, printed on a 20 × 20 mm quartz substrate with 1-mm thickness. The phase shifter provides a tunable phase range of 300° over the frequency range of 325 to 337.6 GHz. The maximum phase shift of 331° is achieved at 330 GHz. The proposed phase shifter is a potential candidate for THz applications, particularly for reconfigurable reflectarrays.

  9. Terahertz thickness determination with interferometric vibration correction for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Tobias; Weber, Stefan; Klier, Jens; Bachtler, Sebastian; Molter, Daniel; Jonuscheit, Joachim; Von Freymann, Georg

    2018-05-14

    In many industrial fields, like automotive and painting industry, the thickness of thin layers is a crucial parameter for quality control. Hence, the demand for thickness measurement techniques continuously grows. In particular, non-destructive and contact-free terahertz techniques access a wide range of thickness determination applications. However, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy based systems perform the measurement in a sampling manner, requiring fixed distances between measurement head and sample. In harsh industrial environments vibrations of sample and measurement head distort the time-base and decrease measurement accuracy. We present an interferometer-based vibration correction for terahertz time-domain measurements, able to reduce thickness distortion by one order of magnitude for vibrations with frequencies up to 100 Hz and amplitudes up to 100 µm. We further verify the experimental results by numerical calculations and find very good agreement.

  10. Graphene Based Terahertz Absorber Designed With Effective Surface Conductivity Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Booth, Tim

    Young field of terahertz (THz) science and technology demands new materials and devices, such as filters, modulators, polarization converters and absorbers. Graphene, a recently discovered single-atom-thick material, provides exciting properties for functional terahertz applications. Graphene...... conductivity and how to use it in optical design. We demonstrate a tunable THz perfect absorber, which consists of continuous graphene various structured graphene metamaterials above a metal mirror. Changing the Fermi level from 0 eV to 0.5 eV allows for drastic changes in absorbance from less than 0.1 to 1...

  11. Terahertz time-domain transmission and reflection spectroscopy of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Tae Yoon; Choi, Kyu Jin; Park, Byoung Cheol; Ha, Tae Woo; Sim, Kyung Ik; Kim, Jea Hoon; Ha, Dong Gwang; Chang, Yonuk

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system for transmission and reflection measurements of metallic thin films. Using our THz-TDS system, we studied the conventional superconductor niobium (Nb) in the normal state in the spectral range from 5 to 50 cm -1 . Both the real and imaginary parts of the conductivity are acquired without Kramers-Kronig analysis. Nb exhibits a nearly frequency independent real conductivity spectrum in the terahertz range, with a very small imaginary part.

  12. Terahertz-field-induced photoluminescence of nanostructured gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Malureanu, Radu; Zalkovskij, Maksim

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate photoluminescence from nanostructured ultrathin gold films subjected to strong single-cycle terahertz transients with peak electric field over 300 kV/cm. We show that UV-Vis-NIR light is being generated and the efficiency of the process is strongly enhanced at the pe......We experimentally demonstrate photoluminescence from nanostructured ultrathin gold films subjected to strong single-cycle terahertz transients with peak electric field over 300 kV/cm. We show that UV-Vis-NIR light is being generated and the efficiency of the process is strongly enhanced...

  13. Evaluation of skin moisturizer effects using terahertz time domain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Meza, L. H.; Rojas-Landeros, S. C.; Castro-Camus, E.; Alfaro-Gomez, M.

    2018-02-01

    We use terahertz time domain imaging for the evaluation of the effects of skin-moisturizers in vivo. We evaluate three principal substances used in commercial moisturizers: glycerin, hyaluronic acid and lanolin. We image the interaction of the forearm with each of the substances taking terahertz spectra at sequential times. With this, we are able to measure the effect of the substances on the hydration level of the skin in time, determining the feasibility of using THz imaging for the evaluation of the products and their effects on the hydration levels of the skin.

  14. Modified planar functions and their components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Meidl, Wilfried Meidl

    2017-01-01

    functions in odd characteristic as a vectorial bent function. We finally point out that though these components behave somewhat different than the multivariate bent4 functions, they are bent or semibent functions shifted by a certain quadratic term, a property which they share with their multivariate......Zhou ([20]) introduced modified planar functions in order to describe (2n; 2n; 2n; 1) relative difference sets R as a graph of a function on the finite field F2n, and pointed out that projections of R are difference sets that can be described by negabent or bent4 functions, which are Boolean...... functions given in multivariate form. One of the objectives of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of these component functions of modified planar functions. Moreover, we obtain a description of modified planar functions by their components which is similar to that of the classical planar...

  15. Planar Elongation Measurements on Soft Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2009-01-01

    A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation.......A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation....

  16. Generators for finite depth subfactor planar algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The main result of Kodiyalam and Tupurani [3] shows that a subfactor planar algebra of finite depth is singly generated with a finite presentation. If P is a subfactor planar algebra of depth k, it is shown there that a single 2k-box generates P. It is natural to ask what the smallest s is such that a single s-box generates P. While ...

  17. Planar half-cell shaped precursor body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to a half-cell shaped precursor body of either anode type or cathode type, the half-cell shaped precursor body being prepared to be free sintered to form a sintered or pre-sintered half-cell being adapted to be stacked in a solid oxide fuel cell stack. The obtained half......-cell has an improved planar shape, which remains planar also after a sintering process and during temperature fluctuations....

  18. Planarity certification of ATLAS Micromegas detector panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Ralph; Biebel, Otmar; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Loesel, Philipp; Herrmann, Maximilian [LMU Muenchen (Germany); Zibell, Andre [JMU Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    During the second long LHC shutdown, 2019/20, the precision tracking detectors of the ATLAS muon spectrometer in the inner end caps will be replaced using Micromegas, a planar gas-detector technology. Modules of 2 m{sup 2} area are built in quadruplets from five precisely planar sandwich panels that define the anodes and the cathodes of the four active detector planes. A panel is composed of three consecutive layers FR4 - aluminum honeycomb - FR4. Single plane spatial particle resolution below 100 μm is achievable when the deviations from planarity of the strip-anodes do not exceed 80 μm RMS over the whole active area and the parallelism of the readout strips is within 30 μm. In order to measure the dimensional accuracy of each panel, laser distance sensors combined with a coordinate measurement system have been investigated. The sensor requirements to measure the planarity of the panels are a resolution of 0.3 μm and a beam spot diameter of ∼20 μm, well below 100 μ m the size of the smallest structures. We report on achieved planarities of the panels and the performance of the laser sensor system. A panel with an RMS better than 30 μm was build and the evolution of its planarity due to humidity and temperature effects is shown.

  19. Terahertz pulsed imaging study of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Altan, Hakan; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç

    2015-07-01

    Current diagnostic techniques in dentistry rely predominantly on X-rays to monitor dental caries. Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) has great potential for medical applications since it is a nondestructive imaging method. It does not cause any ionization hazard on biological samples due to low energy of THz radiation. Even though it is strongly absorbed by water which exhibits very unique chemical and physical properties that contribute to strong interaction with THz radiation, teeth can still be investigated in three dimensions. Recent investigations suggest that this method can be used in the early identification of dental diseases and imperfections in the tooth structure without the hazards of using techniques which rely on x-rays. We constructed a continuous wave (CW) and time-domain reflection mode raster scan THz imaging system that enables us to investigate various teeth samples in two or three dimensions. The samples comprised of either slices of individual tooth samples or rows of teeth embedded in wax, and the imaging was done by scanning the sample across the focus of the THz beam. 2D images were generated by acquiring the intensity of the THz radiation at each pixel, while 3D images were generated by collecting the amplitude of the reflected signal at each pixel. After analyzing the measurements in both the spatial and frequency domains, the results suggest that the THz pulse is sensitive to variations in the structure of the samples that suggest that this method can be useful in detecting the presence of caries.

  20. Terahertz Josephson spectral analysis and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snezhko, A. V.; Gundareva, I. I.; Lyatti, M. V.; Volkov, O. Y.; Pavlovskiy, V. V.; Poppe, U.; Divin, Y. Y.

    2017-04-01

    Principles of Hilbert-transform spectral analysis (HTSA) are presented and advantages of the technique in the terahertz (THz) frequency range are discussed. THz HTSA requires Josephson junctions with high values of characteristic voltages I c R n and dynamics described by a simple resistively shunted junction (RSJ) model. To meet these requirements, [001]- and [100]-tilt YBa2Cu3O7-x bicrystal junctions with deviations from the RSJ model less than 1% have been developed. Demonstrators of Hilbert-transform spectrum analyzers with various cryogenic environments, including integration into Stirling coolers, are described. Spectrum analyzers have been characterized in the spectral range from 50 GHz to 3 THz. Inside a power dynamic range of five orders, an instrumental function of the analyzers has been found to have a Lorentz form around a single frequency of 1.48 THz with a spectral resolution as low as 0.9 GHz. Spectra of THz radiation from optically pumped gas lasers and semiconductor frequency multipliers have been studied with these spectrum analyzers and the regimes of these radiation sources were optimized for a single-frequency operation. Future applications of HTSA will be related with quick and precise spectral characterization of new radiation sources and identification of substances in the THz frequency range.

  1. Ultrafast terahertz Faraday rotation in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyman, J. N.; Foo Kune, R. F.; Alebachew, B. A.; Nguyen, M. D. [Macalester College, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55105 (United States); Robinson, J. T. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-12-07

    Terahertz (THz) Faraday rotation measurements were performed to investigate carrier dynamics in p-type Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene. We used static and time-resolved polarization-sensitive THz transmission measurements in a magnetic field to probe free carriers in GaAs, InP, and Graphene. Static measurements probe the equilibrium carrier density and momentum scattering rate. Time-resolved (optical pump/THz probe) measurements probe the change in these quantities following photoexcitation. In a typical CVD graphene sample, we found that 0.5 ps following photoexcitation with 1 × 10{sup 13} photons/cm{sup 2} pulses at 800 nm the effective hole scattering time decreased from 37 fs to 34.5 fs, while the carrier concentration increased from 2.0 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} to 2.04 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}, leading to a transient decrease in the conductivity of the film.

  2. Photonic quasi-crystal terahertz lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Miriam Serena; Nobile, Michele; Ronzani, Alberto; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Castellano, Fabrizio; Talora, Valerio; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles

    2014-12-01

    Quasi-crystal structures do not present a full spatial periodicity but are nevertheless constructed starting from deterministic generation rules. When made of different dielectric materials, they often possess fascinating optical properties, which lie between those of periodic photonic crystals and those of a random arrangement of scatterers. Indeed, they can support extended band-like states with pseudogaps in the energy spectrum, but lacking translational invariance, they also intrinsically feature a pattern of ‘defects’, which can give rise to critically localized modes confined in space, similar to Anderson modes in random structures. If used as laser resonators, photonic quasi-crystals open up design possibilities that are simply not possible in a conventional periodic photonic crystal. In this letter, we exploit the concept of a 2D photonic quasi crystal in an electrically injected laser; specifically, we pattern the top surface of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser with a Penrose tiling of pentagonal rotational symmetry, reaching 0.1-0.2% wall-plug efficiencies and 65 mW peak output powers with characteristic surface-emitting conical beam profiles, result of the rich quasi-crystal Fourier spectrum.

  3. Transient photoconductivity in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells, measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Henrik; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Cooke, David

    2009-01-01

    Terahertz conductivity of InGaN/GaN MQWs was studied by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. Restoration of the built-in piezoelectric field leads to a nonexponential carrier density decay. Terahertz conductivity spectrum is described by the Drude-Smith......Terahertz conductivity of InGaN/GaN MQWs was studied by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. Restoration of the built-in piezoelectric field leads to a nonexponential carrier density decay. Terahertz conductivity spectrum is described by the Drude-Smith...

  4. Charge transport in silicon nanocrystal superlattices in the terahertz regime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Hynek; Zajac, Vít; Kužel, Petr; Malý, P.; Gutsch, S.; Hiller, D.; Zacharias, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 19 (2015), "195443-1"-"195443-10" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12386S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon nanocrystals * charge transport * terahertz spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  5. A wavefront analyzer for terahertz time-domain spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abraham, E.; Brossard, M.; Fauche, P.

    2017-01-01

    the terahertz wavefront and calculate its Zernike coefficients. In particular, we especially show that the focus spot of the spectrometer suffers from optical aberrations such as remaining defocus, first and second order astigmatisms, as well as spherical aberration. This opens a route to wavefront correction...

  6. Optical bistability of graphene in the terahertz range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peres, N. M. R.; Bludov, Yu V.; Santos, Jaime E.

    2014-01-01

    We use an exact solution of the relaxation-time Boltzmann equation in a uniform ac electric field to describe the nonlinear optical response of graphene in the terahertz (THz) range. The cases of monolayer, bilayer, and ABA-stacked trilayer graphene are considered, and the monolayer species...

  7. The Third International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology: Symposium proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Papers from the symposium are presented that are relevant to the generation, detection, and use of the terahertz spectral region for space astronomy and remote sensing of the Earth's upper atmosphere. The program included thirteen sessions covering a wide variety of topics including solid-state oscillators, power-combining techniques, mixers, harmonic multipliers, antennas and antenna arrays, submillimeter receivers, and measurement techniques.

  8. Fundamental aspects of surface plasmon polaritons at terahertz frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez Rivas, J.; Zhang, Y.; Berrier, A.; Saeedkia, D.

    2013-01-01

    We present in this chapter an introduction to the field of terahertz (THz) plasmonics. The characteristics of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are determined by the complex permittivity of conductors. Therefore, we introduce the Drude model to describe the permittivity of conductors at THz

  9. Ultrafast terahertz scanning tunneling microscopy with atomic resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelic, Vedran; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Nguyen, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that ultrafast terahertz scanning tunneling microscopy (THz-STM) can probe single atoms on a silicon surface with simultaneous sub-nanometer and sub-picosecond spatio-temporal resolution. THz-STM is established as a new technique for exploring high-field non-equilibrium tunneling...

  10. Terahertz reflection spectroscopy of Debye relaxation in polar liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Cooke, David; Tanaka, Koichiro

    2009-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation interacts strongly with the intermolecular hydrogen-bond network in aqueous liquids. The dielectric properties of liquid water and aqueous solutions in the THz spectral region are closely linked to the microscopic dynamics of the liquid solution, and hence THz spectrosco...

  11. Time Resolved Broadband Terahertz Relaxation Dynamics of Electron in Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tianwu; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Cooke, David G.

    We investigated the transient response of the solvated electron in water ejected by photodetachment from potassium ferrocyanide using time resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TSTS). Ultrabroadband THz transients are generated and detected by a two-color femtosecond-induced air plasma and air biased...

  12. Terahertz wave tomographic imaging with a Fresnel lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Wang; X.-C. Zhang

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate three-dimensional tomographic imaging using a Fresnel lens with broadband terahertz pulses. Objects at various locations along the beam propagation path are uniquely imaged on the same imaging plane using a Fresnel lens with different frequencies of the imaging beam. This procedure allows the reconstruction of an object's tomographic contrast image by assembling the frequency-dependent images.

  13. Terahertz heterodyne technology for astronomy and planetary science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Heterodyne detection techniques play an important role in high-resolution spectroscopy in astronomy and planetary science. In particular, heterodyne technology in the Terahertz range has rapidly evolved in recent years. Cryogenically cooled receivers approaching quantum-limited sensitivity have been

  14. In situ spectroscopic characterization of a terahertz resonant cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichel, Kimberly S.; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2014-01-01

    In many cases, the characterization of the frequency- dependent electric field profile inside a narrowband res- onator is challenging, either due to limited optical access or to the perturbative effects of invasive probes. An isolated groove inside a terahertz parallel-plate wave- guide provides ...

  15. Uncovering the Terahertz Spectrum of Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Michael T; Korter, Timothy M

    2016-01-21

    Terahertz vibrational spectroscopy has evolved into a powerful tool for the detection and characterization of transition metal sulfate compounds, specifically for its ability to differentiate between various hydrated forms with high specificity. Copper(II) sulfate is one such system where multiple crystalline hydrates have had their terahertz spectra fully assigned, and the unique spectral fingerprints of the forms allows for characterization of multicomponent systems with relative ease. Yet the most commonly occurring form, copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O), has proven elusive due to the presence of a broad absorption across much of the terahertz region, making the unambiguous identification of its spectral signature difficult. Here, it is shown that the sub-100 cm(-1) spectrum of CuSO4·5H2O is obscured by absorption from adsorbed water and that controlled drying reveals sharp underlying features. The crystalline composition of the samples was monitored in parallel by X-ray diffraction as a function of drying time, supporting the spectroscopic results. Finally, the terahertz spectrum of CuSO4·5H2O was fully assigned using solid-state density functional theory simulations, helping attribute the additional absorptions that appear after excessive drying to formation of CuSO4·3H2O.

  16. Terahertz Fibres and Functional FibreI-Based Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Hualong

    The area of Terahertz (THz) radiation has been proved to be a very promising utility for a wide range of applications. However, since current THz systems predominantly utilize freespace propagation, the large size and requirement of careful alignment thus increasing the complexity are the drawbacks...

  17. Wideband Integrated Lens Antennas for Terahertz Deep Space Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yurduseven, O.

    2016-01-01

    The Terahertz (THz) band is the portion of the spectrum that covers a frequency range from 300 GHz to 3 THz. The potential of this band has been proven for numerous type of applications including medical imaging, non-destructive testing, space observation, spectroscopy and security screening, thanks

  18. Ultrasensitive Terahertz Waveguide Modulators Using Multilayer Graphene Metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khromova, I.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We study terahertz-infrared electromagnetic properties of multilayer graphene- dielectric metamaterial and present novel waveguide-based devices: modulators with high mod- ulation depth ( > 38 dB at 0 : 07 eV graphene’s Fermi energy change) or extreme sensitivity (mod- ulation depth of > 13 : 2 d...

  19. Terahertz-induced Kerr effect in amorphous chalcogenide glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zalkovskij, Maksim; Strikwerda, Andrew; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the terahertz-induced third-order (Kerr) nonlinear optical properties of the amorphous chalcogenide glasses As2S3 and As2Se3. Chalcogenide glasses are known for their high optical Kerr nonlinearities which can be several hundred times greater than those of fused silica. We use...

  20. Quantitative measurement of mixtures by terahertz time–domain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    earth and space science, quality control of food and agricultural products and global environmental monitoring. In quantitative applications, terahertz technology has been widely used for studying dif- ferent kinds of mixtures, such as amino acids,. 8 ter- nary chemical mixtures,. 9 pharmaceuticals,. 10 racemic compounds. 11.

  1. Terahertz transmission of NbN superconductor thin film

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Roman; Koláček, Jan; Šimša, Zdeněk; Šindler, Michal; Skrbek, L.; Il'in, K.; Sieger, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 470, č. 19 (2010), s. 932-934 ISSN 0921-4534 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : far- infrared transmission * NbN * superconducting film * magnetic vortices * terahertz waves Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.407, year: 2010

  2. Terahertz Wave Approach and Application on FRP Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Hee Im

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Terahertz (THz applications have emerged as one of the most new powerful nondestructive evaluation (NDE techniques. A new T-ray time-domain spectroscopy system was utilized for detecting and evaluating orientation influence in carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRPs composite laminates. Investigation of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS was made, and reflection and transmission configurations were studied as a nondestructive evaluation technique. Here, the CFRP composites derived their excellent mechanical strength, stiffness, and electrical conductivity from carbon fibers. Especially, the electrical conductivity of the CFRP composites depends on the direction of unidirectional fibers since carbon fibers are electrically conducting while the epoxy matrix is not. In order to solve various material properties, the index of refraction (n and the absorption coefficient (α are derived in reflective and transmission configurations using the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Also, for a 48-ply thermoplastic polyphenylene-sulfide-(PPS- based CFRP solid laminate and nonconducting materials, the terahertz scanning images were made at the angles ranged from 0° to 180° with respect to the nominal fiber axis. So, the images were mapped out based on the electrical field (E-field direction in the CFRP solid laminates. It is found that the conductivity (σ depends on the angles of the nominal axis in the unidirectional fiber.

  3. Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, Ruth M; Cole, Bryan E; Wallace, Vincent P; Pye, Richard J; Arnone, Donald D; Linfield, Edmund H; Pepper, Michael

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) in reflection geometry for the study of skin tissue and related cancers both in vitro and in vivo. The sensitivity of terahertz radiation to polar molecules, such as water, makes TPI suitable for studying the hydration levels in the skin and the determination of the lateral spread of skin cancer pre-operatively. By studying the terahertz pulse shape in the time domain we have been able to differentiate between diseased and normal tissue for the study of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Basal cell carcinoma has shown a positive terahertz contrast, and inflammation and scar tissue a negative terahertz contrast compared to normal tissue. In vivo measurements on the stratum corneum have enabled visualization of the stratum corneum-epidermis interface and the study of skin hydration levels. These results demonstrate the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the study of skin tissue and its related disorders, both in vitro and in vivo

  4. Study on spectral features of terahertz wave propagating in the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shengwu

    2018-03-01

    Now, Terahertz technology has been widely used in many fields, which is mainly related to imaging detection. While the frequency range of the terahertz-wave is located between microwave and visible light, whether the existing visible light principle is applicable to terahertz-wave should be studied again. Through experiment, we measure the terahertz-wave field amplitude distribution on the receiving plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation in the air and picture out the energy distribution curve; derive an energy decay formula of terahertz wave based on the results; design a terahertz wavelength apparatus using the F-P interferometer theory; test the wavelength between 1 and 3 THz from the SIFIR-50THz laser of American Corehent company; finally analyze the related factors affecting the measurement precision including the beam incident angle, mechanical vibration, temperature fluctuation and the refractive index fluctuation.

  5. Terahertz transmission properties of silicon wafers using continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chihoon; Ahn, Jae Sung; Ji, Taeksoo; Eom, Joo Beom

    2017-04-01

    We present the spectral properties of Si wafers using continuous-wave terahertz (CW-THz) spectroscopy. By using a tunable laser source and a fixed distributed-feedback laser diode (DFB-LD), a stably tunable beat source for CW-THz spectroscopy system can be implemented. THz radiation is generated in the frequency range of 100 GHz-800 GHz by photomixing in a photoconductive antenna. We also measured CW-THz waveforms by changing the beat frequency and confirmed repeatability through repeated measurement. We calculated the peaks of the THz frequency by taking fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) of measured THz waveforms. The feasibility of CW-THz spectroscopy is demonstrated by the THz spectra of Si wafers with different resistivities, mobilities, and carrier concentrations. The results show that Si wafers with a lower resistivity absorb more THz waves. Thus, we expect our CW-THz system to have the advantage of being able to perform fast non-destructive analysis.

  6. Terahertz transmission properties of silicon wafers using continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chihoon; Ahn, Jae Sung; Eom, Joo Beom; Ji, Taeksoo

    2017-01-01

    We present the spectral properties of Si wafers using continuous-wave terahertz (CW-THz) spectroscopy. By using a tunable laser source and a fixed distributed-feedback laser diode (DFB-LD), a stably tunable beat source for CW-THz spectroscopy system can be implemented. THz radiation is generated in the frequency range of 100 GHz–800 GHz by photomixing in a photoconductive antenna. We also measured CW-THz waveforms by changing the beat frequency and confirmed repeatability through repeated measurement. We calculated the peaks of the THz frequency by taking fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) of measured THz waveforms. The feasibility of CW-THz spectroscopy is demonstrated by the THz spectra of Si wafers with different resistivities, mobilities, and carrier concentrations. The results show that Si wafers with a lower resistivity absorb more THz waves. Thus, we expect our CW-THz system to have the advantage of being able to perform fast non-destructive analysis. (paper)

  7. Online terahertz thickness measurement in films and coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duling, Irl N.; White, Jeffrey S.

    2017-02-01

    Pulsed terahertz systems are currently being deployed for online process control and quality control of multi-layered products for use in the building products and aerospace industries. While many laboratory applications of terahertz can allow waveforms to be acquired at rates of 1 - 40 Hz, online applications require measurement rates of in excess of 100Hz. The existing technologies of thickness measurement (nuclear, x-ray, or laser gauges) have rates between 100 and 1000 Hz. At these rates, the single waveform bandwidth must still remain at 2THz or above to allow thinner layers to be measured. In the applications where terahertz can provide unique capability (e.g. multi-layer thickness, delamination, density) long-term stability must be guaranteed within the tolerance required by the measurement. This can mean multi-day stability of less than a micron. The software that runs on these systems must be flexible enough to allow multiple product configurations, while maintaining the simplicity required by plant operators. The final requirement is to have systems that can withstand the environmental conditions of the measurement. This might mean qualification in explosive environments, or operation in hot, wet or dusty environments. All of these requirements can put restrictions on not only the voltage of electronic circuitry used, but also the wavelength and optical power used for the transmitter and receiver. The application of terahertz systems to online process control presents unique challenges that not only effect the physical design of the system, but can also effect the choices made on the terahertz technology itself.

  8. Detection of Ionic liquid using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Zhao, Xiaojing; Liu, Shangjian; Zuo, Jian; Zhang, Cunlin

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz (THz, THz+1012Hz) spectroscopy is a far-infrared analytical technology with spectral bands locating between microware and infrared ranges. Being of excellent transmission, non-destruction and high discrimination, this technology has been applied in various fields such as physics, chemistry, nondestructive detection, communication, biomedicine public security. Terahertz spectrum is corresponding with vibration and rotation of liquid molecules, which is suitable to identify and study the liquid molecular dynamics. It is as a powerful spectral detection technology, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is widely used in solution detection. can enable us to extract the material parameters or dielectric spectrum that show material micro-structure and dynamics by measuring amplitude and phase from coherent terahertz pulses. Ionic liquid exists in most biological tissues, and it is very important for life. It has recently been suggested that near-fired terahertz ionic contrast microscopy can be employed to image subtle changes in ionic concentrations arising from neuronal activity. In this paper, we detected Ionic liquid with different concentrations at room temperature by THz-TDS technique in the range of 0.2-1.5 THz. The liquid cell with a thickness of 0.2mm is made of quartz. The absorption coefficient, refractive index and dielectric function of solutions can be extracted based on THz-TDS. We use an expanded model for fitting the dielectric function based on a combination of a Debye relation for the anions and cations. We find A linear increase of the real and imaginary part of the dielectric function compared with pure water with increasing ion concentrations. A good agreement between the model and the experimental results is obtained. By means of dielectric relaxation process, it was found that the characteristic time of molecular movement and the information related to the liquid molecular structure and movement was obtained.

  9. TERAHERTZ – YESTERDAY, TODAY, AND TOMORROW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Duque

    2016-03-01

      El término terahertz (THz se convirtió en una de las palabras más populares de la ciencia hoy en día. ¿Por qué? ¿Y qué es esto? ¿Por qué cada vez más libros, artículos y conferencias científicas se están dedicando a este tema en todo el mundo? ¿Por qué centros THz se están estableciendo en muchas universidades y laboratorios? ¿Por qué han aparecido programas académicos sobre THz en diferentes países? El artículo presenta respuestas breves a estas preguntas. En él se explica lo que es la radiación THz y que es la llamada brecha THz. Presentamos las peculiaridades de la radiación THz y mencionamos sus aplicaciones más importantes. Más adelante, describimos el estado del arte en la ciencia THz. En un artículo corto es imposible cubrir todos los aspectos científicos y técnicos de la ciencia THz, por lo tanto, restringiremos la discusión a los dispositivos y las tecnologías basadas en nanoestructuras semiconductoras en dos campos muy importantes a saber, las fuentes y detectores de THz; prestando especial atención a sus diferencias con respecto a los dispositivos ópticos convencionales. Esperamos que los lectores adquieran una familiaridad suficiente con la ciencia de THz y que traten de encontrar sus caminos propios para implementar la radiación THz en sus actividades científicas.

  10. Quantum-mechanical designed terahertz laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz, A.; Fasching, G.; Unterrainer, K.; Zobl, R.; Andrews, M.A.; Roch, T.; Schrenk, W.; Strasser, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The terahertz-frequency region (1 THz=10 12 Hz) lies between RF-electronics and the photonics. Due to the large demand of coherent sources in this spectral range for applications liKEX medical imaging, chemical sensing and security applications large effort is put into the development of the THz-technology to close the THz-gap. The RF-electronics is able to generate frequencies up to around 0.1 THz, limited by the RC-time-constant of the system. The photonics on the other hand generates frequencies down to around 100 THz, defined by the bandgap of the used semiconducting material. Changing the wavelength requires the selection of a new material or of a new material composition. A new concept for coherent light sources is the quantum cascade laser (QCL), which was developed for the mid-infrared spectral region. The major advantage of the QCL-structure is the possibility to design the emission wavelength by band structure engineering. The wavelength is defined by the energy difference of quantized states in the conduction band. Here, we present a QCL working in the THz spectral region at 3 THz. The design is based on optical transitions between subbands of an AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure. The thickness of the GaAs and AlGaAs layers were calculated to obtain quantized transitions at the desired THz-frequency. The wavefunctions were optimized to achieve the largest possible matrix element. 271 cascades were grown by molecular beam epitaxy to increase the optical gain and to achieve a waveguide thickness comparable to the THz-wavelength. We report lasing from conventional ridge waveguide and microcavity devices. (author)

  11. Metrology for terahertz time-domain spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, John F.; Naftaly, Mira

    2015-12-01

    In recent years the terahertz time-domain spectrometer (THz TDS) [1] has emerged as a key measurement device for spectroscopic investigations in the frequency range of 0.1-5 THz. To date, almost every type of material has been studied using THz TDS, including semiconductors, ceramics, polymers, metal films, liquid crystals, glasses, pharmaceuticals, DNA molecules, proteins, gases, composites, foams, oils, and many others. Measurements with a TDS are made in the time domain; conversion from the time domain data to a frequency spectrum is achieved by applying the Fourier Transform, calculated numerically using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. As in many other types of spectrometer, THz TDS requires that the sample data be referenced to similarly acquired data with no sample present. Unlike frequency-domain spectrometers which detect light intensity and measure absorption spectra, a TDS records both amplitude and phase information, and therefore yields both the absorption coefficient and the refractive index of the sample material. The analysis of the data from THz TDS relies on the assumptions that: a) the frequency scale is accurate; b) the measurement of THz field amplitude is linear; and c) that the presence of the sample does not affect the performance characteristics of the instrument. The frequency scale of a THz TDS is derived from the displacement of the delay line; via FFT, positioning errors may give rise to frequency errors that are difficult to quantify. The measurement of the field amplitude in a THz TDS is required to be linear with a dynamic range of the order of 10 000. And attention must be given to the sample positioning and handling in order to avoid sample-related errors.

  12. Optical generation,detection and non-destructive testing applications of terahertz waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Weili; LIANG; Dachuan; TIAN; Zhen; HAN; Jiaguang; GU; Jianqiang; HE; Mingxia; OUYANG; Chunmei

    2016-01-01

    Optoelectronic terahertz generation and detection play a key role in the applications of non-destructive testing,which involves different areas such as physics,biological,material science,imaging,explosions detection,astronomy applications,semiconductor technology and superconductiong electronics. In this article,we present a reviewof the principle and performance of typical terahertz sources,detectors and non-destructive testing applications. On this basis,the newdevelopment and trends of terahertz radiation detectors are also discussed.

  13. Evanescent field refractometry in planar optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Christopher; Jantzen, Alexander; Gray, Alan C; Gow, Paul C; Carpenter, Lewis G; Bannerman, Rex H S; Gates, James C; Smith, Peter G R

    2018-02-15

    This Letter demonstrates a refractometer in integrated optical fiber, a new optical platform that planarizes fiber using flame hydrolysis deposition (FHD). The unique advantage of the technology is survivability in harsh environments. The platform is mechanically robust, and can survive elevated temperatures approaching 1000°C and exposure to common solvents, including acetone, gasoline, and methanol. For the demonstrated refractometer, fabrication was achieved through wet etching an SMF-28 fiber to a diameter of 8 μm before FHD planarization. An external refractive index was monitored using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), written into the core of the planarized fiber. A direct comparison to alternative FBG refractometers is made, for which the developed platform is shown to have comparable sensitivity, with the added advantage of survivability in harsh environments.

  14. Technical errors in planar bone scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Sleiman Y; Collier, B David; Elgazzar, Abdelhamid H; Khalil, Magdy M

    2004-09-01

    Optimal technique for planar bone scanning improves image quality, which in turn improves diagnostic efficacy. Because planar bone scanning is one of the most frequently performed nuclear medicine examinations, maintaining high standards for this examination is a daily concern for most nuclear medicine departments. Although some problems such as patient motion are frequently encountered, the degraded images produced by many other deviations from optimal technique are rarely seen in clinical practice and therefore may be difficult to recognize. The objectives of this article are to list optimal techniques for 3-phase and whole-body bone scanning, to describe and illustrate a selection of deviations from these optimal techniques for planar bone scanning, and to explain how to minimize or avoid such technical errors.

  15. Planar quantum squeezing and atom interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Q. Y.; Drummond, P. D.; Reid, M. D. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum-Atom Optics, Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne 3122 (Australia); Peng Shiguo [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-08-15

    We obtain a lower bound on the sum of two orthogonal spin component variances in a plane. This gives a planar uncertainty relation which holds even when the Heisenberg relation is not useful. We investigate the asymptotic, large-J limit and derive the properties of the planar quantum squeezed states that saturate this uncertainty relation. These states extend the concept of spin squeezing to any two conjugate spin directions. We show that planar quantum squeezing can be achieved experimentally as the ground state of a Bose-Einstein condensate in two coupled potential wells with a critical attractive interaction. These states reduce interferometric phase noise at all phase angles simultaneously. This is useful for one-shot interferometric phase measurements where the measured phase is completely unknown. Our results can also be used to derive entanglement criteria for multiple spins J at separated sites, with applications in quantum information.

  16. Inkjet-based adaptive planarization (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Shrawan; Grigas, Michelle M.; Khusnatdinov, Niyaz; Sreenivasan, Srinivasan V.

    2017-03-01

    Planarization is a critical unit step in the lithography process because it enables patterning of surfaces with versatile pattern density without compromising on the stringent planarity and depth-of-focus requirements. In addition to nanoscale pattern density variation, parasitics such as pre-existing wafer topography, can corrupt the desired process output after planarization. The topography of any surface can be classified in three broad categories, depending upon the amplitude and spatial wavelength of the same [1], [2]: (i) nominal shape, (ii) nanotopography and (iii) roughness. The nominal shape is given by the largest spatial wavelengths, typically back is one technique used for micron scale device manufacturing [3]. As the name implies, a glass dielectric is spin-coated on the substrate followed by etching in a chemistry that ensures equal etching rates for both the sacrificial glass and the underlying film or substrate material. Photoresists may also be used instead of glass. However, the global planarity that can be achieved by this technique is limited. Also, planarization over a large isolated topographical feature has been studied for the reverse-tone Jet-and-Flash Imprint Lithography process, also known as JFIL-R [4]. This relies on surface tension and capillary effects to smoothen a spin-coated Si containing film that can be etched to obtain a smooth profile. To meet the stringent requirement of planarity in submicron device technologies Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) is the most widely used planarization technology [5], [6]. It uses a combination of abrasive laden chemical slurry and a mechanical pad for achieving planar profiles. The biggest concern with CMP is the dependence of material removal rate on the pattern density of material, leading to the formation of a step between the high density and low-density. The step shows up as a long-range thickness variation in the planarized film, similar in scale to pre-existing substrate topography

  17. Planar dynamical systems selected classical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yirong; Huang, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    This book presents in an elementary way the recent significant developments in the qualitative theory of planar dynamical systems. The subjects are covered as follows: the studies of center and isochronous center problems, multiple Hopf bifurcations and local and global bifurcations of the equivariant planar vector fields which concern with Hilbert's 16th problem. This book is intended for graduate students, post-doctors and researchers in the area of theories and applications of dynamical systems. For all engineers who are interested the theory of dynamical systems, it is also a reasona

  18. Extending applicability of terahertz spectroscopy for biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Ramakrishnan

    Terahertz (THz) vibrational resonance spectroscopy has recently emerged as a promising technique for fingerprinting biological molecules. Absorption spectra in this frequency range (0.1-10 THz) reflect molecular internal vibrations involving the weakest hydrogen bonds and/or non-bonded interactions, which are species specific. Of prime importance is improving detection sensitivity of molecules with low absorption characteristics in the THz gap. Also of importance is the characterization of biological molecules in the THz gap (10-25 cm-1) by physical parameters (refractive index and absorption coefficient) rather than sample dependent parameters (transmission, reflection) and extending spectroscopy to the low THz range where remote sensing is most viable. To address the sensitivity issue, it is shown that periodic arrays of rectangular slots with subwavelength width provide for local electromagnetic field enhancements due to edge effects in the low frequency range of interest, 10-25 cm-1 (300-750 GHz). Periodic structures of Au, doped Si and InSb were studied. InSb is confirmed to offer the highest results with the local power enhancements on the order of 1100 at frequency 14 cm -1. InSb and Si have large skin depths in the frequency range of interest and so the analysis of their structures was done through the Fourier expansion method of field diffracted from gratings. Au however has small skin depths at these frequencies compared to the thickness. Surface impedance boundary conditions were employed to model the Au structure, for which the Fourier expansion method was unsuitable owing to the huge magnitude of Au permittivity. The applications possibly include development of novel bio-sensors, with the strongly enhanced local electromagnetic fields leading to increased detection sensitivity, and monitoring biophysical processes such as DNA denaturation. Transmission and reflection data from parallel, independent experiments are utilized in the Interference

  19. Terahertz wave reflective sensing and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hua

    Sensing and imaging technologies using terahertz (THz) radiation have found diverse applications as they approach maturity. Since the burgeoning of this technique in the 1990's, many THz sensing and imaging investigations have been designed and conducted in transmission geometry, which provides sufficient phase and amplitude contrast for the study of the spectral properties of targets in the THz domain. Driven by rising expectations that THz technology will be a potential candidate in the next generation of security screening, remote sensing, biomedical imaging and non-destructive testing (NDT), most THz sensing and imaging modalities are being extended to reflection geometry, which offers unique and adaptive solutions, and multi-dimensional information in many real scenarios. This thesis takes an application-focused approach to the advancement of THz wave reflective sensing and imaging systems: The absorption signature of the explosive material hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5triazine (RDX) is measured at 30 m---the longest standoff distance so far attained by THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The standoff distance sensing ability of THz-TDS is investigated along with discussions specifying the influences of a variety of factors such as propagation distance, water vapor absorption and collection efficiency. Highly directional THz radiation from four-wave mixing in laser-induced air plasmas is first observed and measured, which provides a potential solution for the atmospheric absorption effect in standoff THz sensing. The simulations of the beam profiles also illuminate the underlying physics behind the interaction of the optical beam with the plasma. THz wave reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging is realized the first time. Absorption features of some explosives and related compounds (ERCs) and biochemical materials are identified by using adaptive feature extraction method. Good classification results using multiple pattern recognition methods are

  20. Numerical Study of Planar GPR Antenna Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Hansen, Thorkild

    2004-01-01

    The formulation of planar near-field measurements of GPR antennas determines the plane-wave spectra of the GPR antenna in terms of measurements obtained with a buried probe as the GPR antenna moves over a scan plane on the ground. A numerical study investigates how the formulation is affected by (1...

  1. Fundamental losses in planar Bragg waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinogradov, A. V.; Mitrofanov, A. N.; Popov, A. V.; Fedin, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers a planar Bragg waveguide. The guided modes and their dissipation due to the fundamental absorption are described. In the interacting-wave approximation, an analytical relation between the characteristics of the modes and parameters of the Bragg-waveguide geometry was

  2. Development of planar detectors with active edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povoli, M.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Giacomini, G.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first batch of planar active edge sensors fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Trento, Italy) on the way to the development of full 3D detectors with active edges. The main design and technological aspects are reported, along with selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures.

  3. Development of planar detectors with active edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povoli, M., E-mail: povoli@disi.unitn.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Giacomini, G.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    We report on the first batch of planar active edge sensors fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Trento, Italy) on the way to the development of full 3D detectors with active edges. The main design and technological aspects are reported, along with selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures.

  4. Planar quark diagrams and binary spin processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, A.A.; Ivanov, N.Ya.

    1986-01-01

    Contributions of planar diagrams to the binary scattering processes are analyzed. The analysis is based on the predictions of quark-gluon picture of strong interactions for the coupling of reggeons with quarks as well as on the SU(6)-classification of hadrons. The dependence of contributions of nonplanar corrections on spins and quark composition of interacting particles is discussed

  5. Image Alignment by Piecewise Planar Region Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, Z.; Gevers, T.

    2014-01-01

    Robust image registration is a challenging problem, especially when dealing with severe changes in illumination and viewpoint. Previous methods assume a global geometric model (e.g., homography) and, hence, are only able to align images under predefined constraints (e.g., planar scenes and

  6. Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt

    2006-01-01

    We obtain a characterization of ACC0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...

  7. Alliances and Bisection Width for Planar Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin; Revsbæk, Morten

    2013-01-01

    An alliance in a graph is a set of vertices (allies) such that each vertex in the alliance has at least as many allies (counting the vertex itself) as non-allies in its neighborhood of the graph. We show that any planar graph with minimum degree at least 4 can be split into two alliances in polyn...

  8. A planar calculus for infinite index subfactors

    OpenAIRE

    Penneys, David

    2011-01-01

    We develop an analog of Jones' planar calculus for II_1-factor bimodules with arbitrary left and right von Neumann dimension. We generalize to bimodules Burns' results on rotations and extremality for infinite index subfactors. These results are obtained without Jones' basic construction and the resulting Jones projections.

  9. A Planar Calculus for Infinite Index Subfactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penneys, David

    2013-05-01

    We develop an analog of Jones' planar calculus for II 1-factor bimodules with arbitrary left and right von Neumann dimension. We generalize to bimodules Burns' results on rotations and extremality for infinite index subfactors. These results are obtained without Jones' basic construction and the resulting Jones projections.

  10. Connected feedback vertex set in planar graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoriev, Alexander; Sitters, René

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of finding a minimum tree spanning the faces of a given planar graph. We show that a constant factor approximation follows from the unconnected version if the minimum degree is 3. Moreover, we present a polynomial time approximation scheme for both the connected and unconnected

  11. Are ghosts necessary in planar gauges?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummer, W.

    1988-01-01

    The introduction of Faddeev-Popov ghosts in axial gauges and especially in the ones of the planar type is not a technical necessity for the general proof of renormalization and gauge independence. It is shown that all necessary identities for Green's functions and for one-particle-irreducible vertices arise in a completely ghost-free formulation as well

  12. Searching for planar signatures in WMAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramo, L. Raul; Bernui, Armando; Pereira, Thiago S.

    2009-01-01

    We search for planar deviations of statistical isotropy in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data by applying a recently introduced angular-planar statistics both to full-sky and to masked temperature maps, including in our analysis the effect of the residual foreground contamination and systematics in the foreground removing process as sources of error. We confirm earlier findings that full-sky maps exhibit anomalies at the planar (l) and angular (l) scales (l,l) = (2,5),(4,7), and (6,8), which seem to be due to unremoved foregrounds since this features are present in the full-sky map but not in the masked maps. On the other hand, our test detects slightly anomalous results at the scales (l,l) = (10,8) and (2,9) in the masked maps but not in the full-sky one, indicating that the foreground cleaning procedure (used to generate the full-sky map) could not only be creating false anomalies but also hiding existing ones. We also find a significant trace of an anomaly in the full-sky map at the scale (l,l) = (10,5), which is still present when we consider galactic cuts of 18.3% and 28.4%. As regards the quadrupole (l = 2), we find a coherent over-modulation over the whole celestial sphere, for all full-sky and cut-sky maps. Overall, our results seem to indicate that current CMB maps derived from WMAP data do not show significant signs of anisotropies, as measured by our angular-planar estimator. However, we have detected a curious coherence of planar modulations at angular scales of the order of the galaxy's plane, which may be an indication of residual contaminations in the full- and cut-sky maps

  13. Low frequency terahertz-induced demagnetization in ferromagnetic nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalaby, Mostafa, E-mail: most.shalaby@gmail.com; Vicario, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.vicario@psi.ch [SwissFEL, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Hauri, Christoph P., E-mail: christoph.hauri@psi.ch [SwissFEL, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-05-02

    A laser stimulus at terahertz (THz) frequency is expected to offer superior control over magnetization dynamics compared to an optical pulse, where ultrafast demagnetization is mediated by heat deposition. As a THz field cycle occurs on a timescale similar to the natural speed of spin motions, this can open a path for triggering precessional magnetization motion and ultimately ultrafast magnetic switching by the THz magnetic field component, without quenching. Here, we explore the ultrafast magnetic response of a ferromagnetic nickel thin film excited by a strong (33 MV/cm) terahertz transient in non-resonant conditions. While the magnetic laser pulse component induces ultrafast magnetic precessions, we experimentally found that at high pump fluence, the THz pulse leads to large quenching which dominates the precessional motion by far. Furthermore, degradation of magnetic properties sets in and leads to permanent modifications of the Ni thin film and damage.

  14. The application of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging in biomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shangjian; Yu Fei; Li Kai; Zhou Jing

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) science and technology is gaining increasing attention in the biomedical field. Compared with traditional medical diagnosis methods using infrared radiation, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-rays or ultrasound, THz radiation has low energy, high spatial resolution, a broad spectral range, and is a reliable means of imaging for the human body. Terahertz waves have strong penetration and high fingerprint specificity, so they can play an important role in drug detection and identification. This paper reviews the special techniques based on conventional THz time-domain setups in disease detection and drug identification. With regard to the biomedical fields, we focus on the application of THz radiation in studies of skin tissue, gene expression, cells, cancer imaging, the quantitative analysis of drugs, and so on. We also present an overview of the future challenges and prospects of THz research in medicine. (authors)

  15. Anisotropic effects of terahertz emission from laser sparks in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zharova, N. A.; Mironov, V. A.; Fadeev, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Strong terahertz (THz) radiation can be generated by intense femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air. The excitation of transient current induced in the wake just behind the laser pulse is studied in detail using numerical simulations on the basis of Maxwell's equations for THz-band fields and hydrodynamic model for the plasma motion. It is shown that the thermal effects, anisotropic in character in the case of linear polarized laser field, can explain observed quadrupole-type THz radiation pattern in the experiment performed by Akhmedzhanov et al. [Radiophys. Quantum Electron. 52, 482 (2009)]. Taking into account the transverse structure of the plasma filament, our numerical code enables us to calculate the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of terahertz electron current, its spectrum, and angular emission pattern. It is shown that an expansion of full fields in terms of azimuthal modes is a useful tool for research of THz generation in many situations of practical interest.

  16. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Terahertz and Mid Infrared Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Mauro F; Terahertz and Mid Infrared Radiation

    2011-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) radiation  (TERA-MIR) can be transmitted through nearly any material without causing biological harm. Novel and rapid methods of detection can be created with devices operation in these spectral ranges allowing scanning for weapons, detecting hidden explosives (including plastic landmines), controlling the quality of food and a host of other exciting applications.  This book focuses on mathematical and physical aspects of the field, on unifying these two spectral domains (THz and MIR) with regard to common sources, detectors, materials and applications, and on key interdisciplinary topics. The main THz and MIR source is the quantum cascade laser (QCL). Thus significant attention is paid to the challenge of turning this advanced technology into affordable commercial devices so as to exploit its enormous potential. However other alternatives to THz QCLs are also presented, e.g.  sub-terahertz imaging from avalanching GaAs bipolar transistors, Josephson junctions as THz ...

  17. Tailoring the slow light behavior in terahertz metasurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjappa, Manukumara; Cong, Longqing; Singh, Ranjan, E-mail: ranjans@ntu.edu.sg [Center for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Chiam, Sher-Yi [NUS High School of Math and Science, 20 Clementi Avenue 1, Singapore, Singapore 129957 (Singapore); Bettiol, Andrew A. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Science Drive 3, Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Zhang, Weili [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oklahoma State University, 202 Engineering South, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

    2015-05-04

    We experimentally study the effect of near field coupling on the transmission of light in terahertz metasurfaces. Our results show that tailoring the coupling between the resonators modulates the amplitude of resulting electromagnetically induced transmission, probed under different types of asymmetries in the coupled system. Observed change in the transmission amplitude is attributed to the change in the amount of destructive interference between the resonators in the vicinity of strong near field coupling. We employ a two-particle model to theoretically study the influence of the coupling between bright and quasi-dark modes on the transmission properties of the system and we find an excellent agreement with our observed results. Adding to the enhanced transmission characteristics, our results provide a deeper insight into the metamaterial analogues of atomic electromagnetically induced transparency and offer an approach to engineer slow light devices, broadband filters, and attenuators at terahertz frequencies.

  18. Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Caroline B; Gibson, Adam P [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Fitzgerald, Anthony; Wallace, Vincent P [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009 (Australia); Reese, George; Tekkis, Paris [Division of Surgery, Chelsea and Westminster Campus, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Goldin, Robert [Centre for Pathology, Imperial College London, St Mary' s Campus, London (United Kingdom); O' Kelly, P S [TeraView Ltd, Platinum Building, St John' s Innovation Park, Cowley Road, Cambridge, CB4 0WS (United Kingdom); Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma, E-mail: c.reid@medphys.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT (Hong Kong)

    2011-07-21

    We present the results from a feasibility study which measures properties in the terahertz frequency range of excised cancerous, dysplastic and healthy colonic tissues from 30 patients. We compare their absorption and refractive index spectra to identify trends which may enable different tissue types to be distinguished. In addition, we present statistical models based on variations between up to 17 parameters calculated from the reflected time and frequency domain signals of all the measured tissues. These models produce a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 77% in distinguishing between healthy and all diseased tissues and a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 71% in distinguishing between dysplastic and healthy tissues. The contrast between the tissue types was supported by histological staining studies which showed an increased vascularity in regions of increased terahertz absorption.

  19. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  20. A modified hexagonal photonic crystal fiber for terahertz applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Saiful; Sultana, Jakeya; Faisal, Mohammad; Islam, Mohammad Rakibul; Dinovitser, Alex; Ng, Brian W.-H.; Abbott, Derek

    2018-05-01

    We present a Zeonex based highly birefringent and dispersion flattened porous core photonic crystal fiber (PC-PCF) for polarization preserving applications in the terahertz region. In order to facilitate birefringence, an array of elliptical shaped air holes surrounded by porous cladding is introduced. The porous cladding comprises circular air-holes in a modified hexagonal arrangement. The transmission characteristics of the proposed PCF are investigated using a full-vector finite element method with perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary conditions. Simulation results show a high birefringence of 0.086 and an ultra-flattened dispersion variation of ± 0.03 ps/THz/cm at optimal design parameters. Besides, a number of other important wave-guiding properties including frequency dependence of the effective material loss (EML), confinement loss, and effective area are also investigated to assess the fiber's effectiveness as a terahertz waveguide.

  1. Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Caroline B; Gibson, Adam P; Fitzgerald, Anthony; Wallace, Vincent P; Reese, George; Tekkis, Paris; Goldin, Robert; O'Kelly, P S; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2011-01-01

    We present the results from a feasibility study which measures properties in the terahertz frequency range of excised cancerous, dysplastic and healthy colonic tissues from 30 patients. We compare their absorption and refractive index spectra to identify trends which may enable different tissue types to be distinguished. In addition, we present statistical models based on variations between up to 17 parameters calculated from the reflected time and frequency domain signals of all the measured tissues. These models produce a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 77% in distinguishing between healthy and all diseased tissues and a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 71% in distinguishing between dysplastic and healthy tissues. The contrast between the tissue types was supported by histological staining studies which showed an increased vascularity in regions of increased terahertz absorption.

  2. Nonrelativistic electron bunch train for coherently enhanced terahertz radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuelin; Kim, Kwang-Je

    2008-01-01

    We propose to generate a train of prebunched electron beams for producing coherently enhanced Smith-Purcell radiation [S. J. Smith and E. M. Purcell, Phys. Rev. 92, 1069 (1953)] in the terahertz wavelength range. In this scheme, a train of picosecond laser pulses is produced to drive a photoemission gun to generate a train of 50 keV electron pulses. The parameters are chosen so that the space-charge effect does not destroy the pulse time structure. Smith-Purcell radiation from the electron pulse train is enhanced due both to the short length of the individual electron bunch and to the repetitive structure of the beam. Example systems producing coherent terahertz power at about 1 mW are described

  3. Harmonics radiation of graphene surface plasmon polaritons in terahertz regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D., E-mail: dazhi_li@hotmail.com [Institute for Laser Technology, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Wang, Y. [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Nakajima, M. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hashida, M. [Advanced Research Center for Beam Science, ICR, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Wei, Y. [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Miyamoto, S. [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, Ako, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan)

    2016-06-03

    This letter presents an approach to extract terahertz radiation from surface plasmon polaritons excited in the surface of a uniform graphene structure by an electron beam. A sidewall configuration is proposed to lift the surface plasmon mode to be close to the light line, so that some of its harmonics have chances to go above the light line and become radiative. The harmonics are considered to be excited by a train of periodic electron bunches. The physical mechanism in this scheme is analyzed with three-dimensional theory, and the harmonics excitation and radiation are demonstrated through numerical calculations. The results show that this technique could be an alternative to transform the surface plasmon polaritons into radiation. - Highlights: • An approach to extract terahertz radiation from graphene surface plasmon polaritons is presented. • A sidewall configuration is proposed to lift the surface plasmon mode. • Harmonics of surface plasmon polaritons are possible to radiate.

  4. Terahertz hot electron bolometer waveguide mixers for GREAT

    OpenAIRE

    Pütz, P.; Honingh, C. E.; Jacobs, K.; Justen, M.; Schultz, M.; Stutzki, J.

    2012-01-01

    Supplementing the publications based on the first-light observations with the German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz frequencies (GREAT) on SOFIA, we present background information on the underlying heterodyne detector technology. We describe the superconducting hot electron bolometer (HEB) detectors that are used as frequency mixers in the L1 (1400 GHz), L2 (1900 GHz), and M (2500 GHz) channels of GREAT. Measured performance of the detectors is presented and background information on the...

  5. Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, A; Tittel, F K; Mittleman, D M; Dengler, R; Siegel, P H; Scalari, G; Ajili, L; Faist, J; Beere, H E; Linfield, E H; Davies, A G; Ritchie, D A

    2004-03-15

    We have measured the spectral linewidths of three continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers operating at terahertz frequencies by heterodyning the free-running quantum cascade laser with two far-infrared gas lasers. Beat notes are detected with a GaAs diode mixer and a microwave spectrum analyzer, permitting very precise frequency measurements and giving instantaneous linewidths of less than -30 kHz. Characteristics are also reported for frequency tuning as the injection current is varied.

  6. Quantum theory of terahertz conductivity of semiconductor nanostructures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostatnický, T.; Pushkarev, Vladimir; Němec, Hynek; Kužel, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 8 (2018), s. 1-8, č. článku 085426. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-03662S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 607521 - NOTEDEV Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanostructures * nanoparticles * terahertz conductivity * quantum theory * linear response Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  7. Terahertz Technology for Defense and Security-Related Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Heiselberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Denne afhandling omhandler udvalgte aspekter af terahertz (THz) teknologi med potentiale i forsvars- og sikkerheds-relaterede applikationer. En ny metode til samtidig dataopsamling i tidsopløst THz spektroskopi eksperimenter er blevet udviklet. Denne teknik demonstreres ved bestemmelse af fladekonduktiviteten af fotogenererede ladningsbrere i semiisolerende gallium arsenid. En sammenligning med resultater opnået ved hjælp af en standard dataopsamlingsprocedure viser at den nye metode minimere...

  8. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft Composites Using Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-10

    silicon or silicon dioxide in polypropylene . 50 THz NDE is also being proposed as a method of inspecting the adhesive bond- line of space...weave the overlapping pattern used in the composite. The polyimide resin is added and permeates throughout the individual glass fiber strands. The...dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.590301 65. Rutz, F., Hasek, T., Koch, M., Richter, H., Ewert, U. (2006). Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers

  9. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of edible oils

    OpenAIRE

    Dinovitser, Alex; Valchev, Dimitar G.; Abbott, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Chemical degradation of edible oils has been studied using conventional spectroscopic methods spanning the spectrum from ultraviolet to mid-IR. However, the possibility of morphological changes of oil molecules that can be detected at terahertz frequencies is beginning to receive some attention. Furthermore, the rapidly decreasing cost of this technology and its capability for convenient, in situ measurement of material properties, raises the possibility of monitoring oil during cooking and p...

  10. Quantum behavior of terahertz photoconductivity in silicon nanocrystals networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pushkarev, Vladimir; Ostatnický, T.; Němec, Hynek; Chlouba, T.; Trojánek, F.; Malý, P.; Zacharias, M.; Gutsch, S.; Hiller, D.; Kužel, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 12 (2017), s. 1-9, č. článku 125424. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-03662S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 607521 - NOTEDEV Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : terahertz spectroscopy * charge transport * silicon nanocrystals * linear response theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  11. Terahertz-Radiation-Enhanced Emission of Fluorescence from Gas Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingle; Zhang, X.-C.

    2009-01-01

    We report the study of femtosecond laser-induced air plasma fluorescence under the illumination of terahertz (THz) pulses. Semiclassical modeling and experimental verification indicate that time-resolved THz radiation-enhanced emission of fluorescence is dominated by the electron kinetics and the electron-impact excitation of gas molecules or ions. We demonstrate that the temporal waveform of the THz field could be retrieved from the transient enhanced fluorescence, making omnidirectional, coherent detection available for THz time-domain spectroscopy.

  12. Percolation-enhanced generation of terahertz pulses by optical rectification on ultrathin gold films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakrishnan, G.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Emission of pulses of electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz range is observed when ultrathin gold films on glass are illuminated with femtosecond near-IR laser pulses. A distinct maximum is observed in the emitted terahertz amplitude from films of average thickness just above the percolation

  13. Highly Resolved Sub-Terahertz Vibrational Spectroscopy of Biological Macromolecules and Bacteria Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    HIGHLY RESOLVED SUB-TERAHERTZ VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY OF BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES AND BACTERIA CELLS ECBC...SUBTITLE Highly Resolved Sub-Terahertz Vibrational Spectroscopy of Biological Macromolecules and Bacteria Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911SR-14-P...22 4.3 Bacteria THz Study

  14. Broadband, wide-angle and tunable terahertz absorber based on cross-shaped graphene arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Binggang; Gu, Mingyue; Xiao, Sanshui

    2017-01-01

    Tunable terahertz absorbers composed of periodically cross-shaped graphene arrays with the ability to achieve nearunity absorbance are proposed and studied. Our results demonstrate that the bandwidth of absorption rate above 90% can reach up to 1.13 terahertz by use of a single layer of cross-sha...

  15. Relaxation and crystallization of amorphous carbamazepine studied by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitler, J Axel; Taday, Philip F; Pepper, Michael

    2007-01-01

    At the example of carbamazepine the crystallization of a small organic molecule from its amorphous phase was studied using in situ variable temperature terahertz pulsed spectroscopy (TPS). Even though terahertz spectra of disordered materials in the glassy state exhibit no distinct spectral featu...

  16. Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy based on hot electron bolometer (HEB) heterodyne detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerecht, Eyal; You, Lixing

    2008-02-01

    Imaging and spectroscopy at terahertz frequencies have great potential for healthcare, plasma diagnostics, and homeland security applications. Terahertz frequencies correspond to energy level transitions of important molecules in biology and astrophysics. Terahertz radiation (T-rays) can penetrate clothing and, to some extent, can also penetrate biological materials. Because of their shorter wavelengths, they offer higher spatial resolution than do microwaves or millimeter waves. We are developing hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixer receivers for heterodyne detection at terahertz frequencies. HEB detectors provide unprecedented sensitivity and spectral resolution at terahertz frequencies. We describe the development of a two-pixel focal plane array (FPA) based on HEB technology. Furthermore, we have demonstrated a fully automated, two-dimensional scanning, passive imaging system based on our HEB technology operating at 0.85 THz. Our high spectral resolution terahertz imager has a total system noise equivalent temperature difference (NEΔT) value of better than 0.5 K and a spatial resolution of a few millimeters. HEB technology is becoming the basis for advanced terahertz imaging and spectroscopic technologies for the study of biological and chemical agents over the entire terahertz spectrum.

  17. Convergence of photonics and electronics for Terahertz wireless communications – the ITN CELTA project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2016-01-01

    Terahertz wireless communications is expected to offer the required high capacity and low latency performance required from short-range wireless access and control applications. We present an overview of some the activities in this area in the newly started H2020 ITN project CELTA: convergence of...... of electronics and photonics technologies enabling Terahertz applications...

  18. 77 FR 59941 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Terahertz Scanning Systems for Cancer Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Terahertz Scanning Systems for Cancer Pathology AGENCY: National Institutes of Health... field of use limited to terahertz scanning systems for cancer pathology. Upon the expiration or...

  19. Excitation of a double corrugation slow-wave structure in terahertz range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Krozer, Viktor; Kotiranta, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that the technology is constantly advancing, the realization of terahertz components is still heavily constrained by problems arising from technological limitations. As a result, the design of terahertz components still remains a challenging problem. In this work, an excitati...

  20. FDTD Simulation on Terahertz Waves Propagation Through a Dusty Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maoyan; Zhang, Meng; Li, Guiping; Jiang, Baojun; Zhang, Xiaochuan; Xu, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The frequency dependent permittivity for dusty plasmas is provided by introducing the charging response factor and charge relaxation rate of airborne particles. The field equations that describe the characteristics of Terahertz (THz) waves propagation in a dusty plasma sheath are derived and discretized on the basis of the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) in the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Compared with numerical solutions in reference, the accuracy for the ADE FDTD method is validated. The reflection property of the metal Aluminum interlayer of the sheath at THz frequencies is discussed. The effects of the thickness, effective collision frequency, airborne particle density, and charge relaxation rate of airborne particles on the electromagnetic properties of Terahertz waves through a dusty plasma slab are investigated. Finally, some potential applications for Terahertz waves in information and communication are analyzed. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41104097, 11504252, 61201007, 41304119), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Nos. ZYGX2015J039, ZYGX2015J041), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20120185120012)

  1. All-dielectric rod antenna array for terahertz communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Yamada, Ryoumei; Fujita, Masayuki; Nagatsuma, Tadao

    2018-05-01

    The terahertz band holds a potential for point-to-point short-range wireless communications at sub-terabit speed. To realize this potential, supporting antennas must have a wide bandwidth to sustain high data rate and must have high gain and low dissipation to compensate for the free space path loss that scales quadratically with frequency. Here we propose an all-dielectric rod antenna array with high radiation efficiency, high gain, and wide bandwidth. The proposed array is integral to a low-loss photonic crystal waveguide platform, and intrinsic silicon is the only constituent material for both the antenna and the feed to maintain the simplicity, compactness, and efficiency. Effective medium theory plays a key role in the antenna performance and integrability. An experimental validation with continuous-wave terahertz electronic systems confirms the minimum gain of 20 dBi across 315-390 GHz. A demonstration shows that a pair of such identical rod array antennas can handle bit-error-free transmission at the speed up to 10 Gbit/s. Further development of this antenna will build critical components for future terahertz communication systems.

  2. The Terahertz Scattering Analysis of Rough Metallic and Dielectric Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The terahertz scattering characteristics of metallic and dielectric rough targets is important for the investigation of the terahertz radar targets properties. According to the stationary phase theory and scalar approximation, if the radius of curvature at any point of the surface is much larger than the incident wavelength, and the wavelength is also much longer than the surface height function and Root-Mean-Square (RMS surface slope, the coherent and incoherent scattering Radar Cross Section (RCS of rough metallic and dielectric targets can be obtained. Based on the stationary phase approximation, the coherent RCS of rough conductors, smooth dielectric targets and rough dielectric targets can be easily deputed. The scattering characteristics of electrically large smooth Al and painted spheres are investigated in this paper, and the calculated RCS are verified by Mie scattering theory, the error is less than 0.1 dBm2. Based on lambert theory, it is demonstrated that the incoherent RCS is analyzed with better precision if the rough surfaces are divided into much more facets. In this paper, the coherent and incoherent scattering of rough Al and painted spheres are numerically observed, and the effects of surface roughness and materials are analyzed. The conclusions provide theoretical foundation for the terahertz scattering characteristics of electrically large rough targets.

  3. ytterbium- & erbium-doped silica for planar waveguide lasers & amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyndgaard, Morten Glarborg

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate ytterbium doped planar components and investigate the possibilities of making erbium/ytterbium codoped planar waveguides in germano-silica glass. Furthermore, tools for modelling lasers and erbium/ytterbium doped amplifiers. The planar waveguides were...

  4. Proposal of limit moment equation applicable to planar/non-planar flaw in wall thinned pipes under bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Masataka; Meshii, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A limit moment equation applicable to planar/non-planar flaw of 0 ≤ θ ≤ π found in wall thinned straight pipes was proposed. → An idea to rationally classify planar/non-planar flaw in wall thinned pipes was proposed. → The equation based on the experimental observation focused on the fracture mode. - Abstract: In this paper, a limit bending moment equation applicable to all types of planar and non-planar flaws in wall-thinned straight pipes under bending was proposed. A system to rationally classify the planar/non-planar flaws in wall-thinned pipes was suggested based on experimental observations focused on the fracture mode. The results demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between axial and circumferential long flaws in wall-thinned pipes.

  5. Terahertz sensing of highly absorptive water-methanol mixtures with multiple resonances in metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Singh, Leena; Xu, Ningning; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Weili; Xie, Lijuan

    2017-06-26

    Terahertz sensing of highly absorptive aqueous solutions remains challenging due to strong absorption of water in the terahertz regime. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a cost-effective metamaterial-based sensor integrated with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for highly absorptive water-methanol mixture sensing. This metamaterial has simple asymmetric wire structures that support multiple resonances including a fundamental Fano resonance and higher order dipolar resonance in the terahertz regime. Both the resonance modes have strong intensity in the transmission spectra which we exploit for detection of the highly absorptive water-methanol mixtures. The experimentally characterized sensitivities of the Fano and dipole resonances for the water-methanol mixtures are found to be 160 and 305 GHz/RIU, respectively. This method provides a robust route for metamaterial-assisted terahertz sensing of highly absorptive chemical and biochemical materials with multiple resonances and high accuracy.

  6. Numerical simulation of terahertz generation and detection based on ultrafast photoconductive antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long-chao; Fan, Wen-hui

    2011-08-01

    The numerical simulation of terahertz generation and detection in the interaction between femtosecond laser pulse and photoconductive material has been reported in this paper. The simulation model based on the Drude-Lorentz theory is used, and takes into account the phenomena that photo-generated electrons and holes are separated by the external bias field, which is screened by the space-charge field simultaneously. According to the numerical calculation, the terahertz time-domain waveforms and their Fourier-transformed spectra are presented under different conditions. The simulation results indicate that terahertz generation and detection properties of photoconductive antennas are largely influenced by three major factors, including photo-carriers' lifetime, laser pulse width and pump laser power. Finally, a simple model has been applied to simulate the detected terahertz pulses by photoconductive antennas with various photo-carriers' lifetimes, and the results show that the detected terahertz spectra are very different from the spectra radiated from the emitter.

  7. Characteristic responses of biological and nanoscale systems in the terahertz frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeluts, A A; Balakin, A V; Evdokimov, M G; Ozheredov, I A; Sapozhnikov, D A; Solyankin, P M; Shkurinov, A P [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Esaulkov, M N; Nazarov, M M [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Cherkasova, O P [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-31

    This paper briefly examines methods for the generation of pulsed terahertz radiation and principles of pulsed terahertz spectroscopy, an advanced informative method for studies of complex biological and nanostructured systems. Some of its practical applications are described. Using a number of steroid hormones as examples, we demonstrate that terahertz spectroscopy in combination with molecular dynamics methods and computer simulation allows one to gain information about the structure of molecules in crystals. A 'terahertz colour vision' method is proposed for analysis of pulsed terahertz signals reflected from biological tissues and it is shown that this method can be effectively used to analyse the properties of biological tissues and for early skin cancer diagnosis. (laser biophotonics)

  8. Regular shock refraction in planar ideal MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmont, P; Keppens, R

    2010-01-01

    We study the classical problem of planar shock refraction at an oblique density discontinuity, separating two gases at rest, in planar ideal (magneto)hydrodynamics. In the hydrodynamical case, 3 signals arise and the interface becomes Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable due to vorticity deposition on the shocked contact. In the magnetohydrodynamical case, on the other hand, when the normal component of the magnetic field does not vanish, 5 signals will arise. The interface then typically remains stable, since the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions in ideal MHD do not allow for vorticity deposition on a contact discontinuity. We present an exact Riemann solver based solution strategy to describe the initial self similar refraction phase. Using grid-adaptive MHD simulations, we show that after reflection from the top wall, the interface remains stable.

  9. Planar algebra of the subgroup-subfactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We think of R α G as the II1-factor (R ∪{ug: g ∈ G}) ⊂ L(L2(R)), where ug(ˆx) ..... define a global trace on P, where for 0± the trace for P0± ∼= C is the obvious identity .... function for strings is either a local maximum or a local minimum. ..... In order to understand how the inclusion tangles act on the subgroup-subfactor planar.

  10. Planar graphical models which are easy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chernyak, Vladimir [WAYNE STATE UNIV

    2009-01-01

    We describe a rich family of binary variables statistical mechanics models on planar graphs which are equivalent to Gaussian Grassmann Graphical models (free fermions). Calculation of partition function (weighted counting) in the models is easy (of polynomial complexity) as reduced to evaluation of determinants of matrixes linear in the number of variables. In particular, this family of models covers Holographic Algorithms of Valiant and extends on the Gauge Transformations discussed in our previous works.

  11. Wavelet Radiosity on Arbitrary Planar Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Holzschuch , Nicolas; Cuny , François; Alonso , Laurent

    2000-01-01

    Colloque avec actes et comité de lecture. internationale.; International audience; Wavelet radiosity is, by its nature, restricted to parallelograms or triangles. This paper presents an innovative technique enabling wavelet radiosity computations on planar surfaces of arbitrary shape, including concave contours or contours with holes. This technique replaces the need for triangulating such complicated shapes, greatly reducing the complexity of the wavelet radiosity algorithm and the computati...

  12. Determinantal spanning forests on planar graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Kenyon, Richard

    2017-01-01

    We generalize the uniform spanning tree to construct a family of determinantal measures on essential spanning forests on periodic planar graphs in which every component tree is bi-infinite. Like the uniform spanning tree, these measures arise naturally from the laplacian on the graph. More generally these results hold for the "massive" laplacian determinant which counts rooted spanning forests with weight $M$ per finite component. These measures typically have a form of conformal invariance, ...

  13. Hairy planar black holes in higher dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceña, Andrés [Instituto de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo,Mendoza (Argentina); Anabalón, Andrés [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias,Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Université de Lyon, Laboratoire de Physique,UMR 5672, CNRS, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon,46 allé d’Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso,Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Mann, Robert [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute,31 Caroline Street North Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2014-01-28

    We construct exact hairy planar black holes in D-dimensional AdS gravity. These solutions are regular except at the singularity and have stress-energy that satisfies the null energy condition. We present a detailed analysis of their thermodynamical properties and show that the first law is satisfied. We also discuss these solutions in the context of AdS/CFT duality and construct the associated c-function.

  14. Planar Quantum Mechanics: an Intriguing Supersymmetric Example

    CERN Document Server

    Veneziano, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    After setting up a Hamiltonian formulation of planar (matrix) quantum mechanics, we illustrate its effectiveness in a non-trivial supersymmetric example. The numerical and analytical study of two sectors of the model, as a function of 't Hooft's coupling $\\lambda$, reveals both a phase transition at $\\lambda=1$ (disappearence of the mass gap and discontinuous jump in Witten's index) and a new form of strong-weak duality for $\\lambda \\to 1/\\lambda$.

  15. Miniaturized Air-Driven Planar Magnetic Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of two miniaturized air-driven planar magnetic generators. In order to reduce the magnetic resistance torque, Generator 1 establishes a static magnetic field by consisting a multilayer planar coil as the stator and two multi-pole permanent-magnet (PM rotors on both sides of the coil. To further decrease the starting torque and save more space, Generator 2 adopts the multilayer planar coil as the rotor and the multi-pole PMs as the stator, eliminating the casing without compromising the magnetic structure or output performance. The prototypes were tested gathering energy from wind which can work at a low wind speed of 1~2 m/s. Prototype of Generator 1 is with a volume of 2.61 cm3 and its normalized voltage reaches 485 mV/krpm. Prototype of Generator 2 has a volume of 0.92 cm3 and a normalized voltage as high as 538 mV/krpm. Additionally, output voltage can be estimated at better than 96% accuracy by the theoretical model developed in this paper. The two micro generators are capable of producing substantial electricity with little volume to serve as compact power conversion devices.

  16. Modeling and optimization of planar microcoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyzavi, Ali; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic actuation has emerged as a useful tool for manipulating particles, droplets and biological samples in microfluidics. A planar coil is one of the suitable candidates for magnetic actuation and has the potential to be integrated in digital microfluidic devices. A simple model of microcoils is needed to optimize their use in actuation applications. This paper first develops an analytical model for calculating the magnetic field of a planar microcoil. The model was validated by experimental data from microcoils fabricated on printed circuit boards (PCB). The model was used for calculating the field strength and the force acting on a magnetic object. Finally, the effect of different coil parameters such as the magnitude of the electric current, the gap between the wires and the number of wire segments is discussed. Both analytical and experimental results show that a smaller gap size between wire segments, more wire segments and a higher electric current can increase both the magnitude and the gradient of the magnetic field, and consequently cause a higher actuating force. The planar coil analyzed in the paper is suitable for applications in magnetic droplet-based microfluidics

  17. Terahertz metamaterials and systems based on rolled-up 3D elements: designs, technological approaches, and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Victor Ya.; Naumova, Elena V.; Golod, Sergey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir A.; Bocharov, Andrey A.; Kubarev, Vitaliy V.

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic metamaterials opened the way to extraordinary manipulation of radiation. Terahertz (THz) and optical metamaterials are usually fabricated by traditional planar-patterning approaches, while the majority of practical applications require metamaterials with 3D resonators. Making arrays of precise 3D micro- and nanoresonators is still a challenging problem. Here we present a versatile set of approaches to fabrication of metamaterials with 3D resonators rolled-up from strained films, demonstrate novel THz metamaterials/systems, and show giant polarization rotation by several chiral metamaterials/systems. The polarization spectra of chiral metamaterials on semiconductor substrates exhibit ultrasharp quasiperiodic peaks. Application of 3D printing allowed assembling more complex systems, including the bianisotropic system with optimal microhelices, which showed an extreme polarization azimuth rotation of 85° with drop by 150° at a frequency shift of 0.4%. We refer the quasiperiodic peaks in the polarization spectra of metamaterial systems to the interplay of different resonances, including peculiar chiral waveguide resonance. Formed metamaterials cannot be made by any other presently available technology. All steps of presented fabrication approaches are parallel, IC-compatible and allow mass fabrication with scaling of rolled-up resonators up to visible frequencies. We anticipate that the rolled-up meta-atoms will be ideal building blocks for future generations of commercial metamaterials, devices and systems on their basis. PMID:28256587

  18. FDTD-based quantitative analysis of terahertz wave detection for multilayered structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wanli; Zhong, Shuncong; Shen, Yaochun; Zhou, Qing; Yao, Ligang

    2014-10-01

    Experimental investigations have shown that terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) is able to quantitatively characterize a range of multilayered media (e.g., biological issues, pharmaceutical tablet coatings, layered polymer composites, etc.). Advanced modeling of the interaction of terahertz radiation with a multilayered medium is required to enable the wide application of terahertz technology in a number of emerging fields, including nondestructive testing. Indeed, there have already been many theoretical analyses performed on the propagation of terahertz radiation in various multilayered media. However, to date, most of these studies used 1D or 2D models, and the dispersive nature of the dielectric layers was not considered or was simplified. In the present work, the theoretical framework of using terahertz waves for the quantitative characterization of multilayered media was established. A 3D model based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is proposed. A batch of pharmaceutical tablets with a single coating layer of different coating thicknesses and different refractive indices was modeled. The reflected terahertz wave from such a sample was computed using the FDTD method, assuming that the incident terahertz wave is broadband, covering a frequency range up to 3.5 THz. The simulated results for all of the pharmaceutical-coated tablets considered were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results obtained using a commercial TPI system. In addition, we studied a three-layered medium to mimic the occurrence of defects in the sample.

  19. Planar Poincare chart - A planar graphic representation of the state of light polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Hunter, William W., Jr.; Ocheltree, Stewart L.

    1989-01-01

    The planar Poincare chart, which represents the complete planar equivalence of the Poincare sphere, is proposed. The four sets of basic lines are drawn on two separate charts for the generalization and convenience of reading the scale. The chart indicates the rotation of the principal axes of linear birefringent material. The relationships between parameters of the two charts are given as 2xi-2phi (orientation angle of the major axis-ellipticity angle) pair and 2alpha-delta (angle of amplitude ratio-phase difference angle) pair. The results are useful for designing and analyzing polarization properties of optical components with birefringent properties.

  20. Elliptical metasurfaces for cloaking and antenna applications at microwave and terahertz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpourbernety, Hossein

    One of the interesting applications of metamaterials is the phenomenon of electromagnetic invisibility and cloaking, which implies the suppression of bistatic scattering width of a given object, independent of incident and observation angles. In this regard, diverse techniques have been proposed to analyze and design electromagnetic cloak structures, including transformation optics, anomalous resonance methods, transmission-line networks, and plasmonic cloaking, among others. A common drawback of all these methods is that they rely on bulk materials, which are difficult to realize in practice. To overcome this issue, the mantle cloaking method has been proposed, which utilizes an ultrathin metasurface that provides anti-phase surface currents to reduce the scattering dominant mode of a given object. Recently, an analytical model has been proposed to cloak dielectric and conducting cylindrical objects realized with printed and slotted arrays at microwave frequencies. At low-terahertz (THz) frequencies, one of the promising materials to realize the required metasurface is graphene. In this regard, a graphene monolayer, characterized by inductive reactance, has been proposed to cloak dielectric planar and cylindrical objects. Then, it has been shown that a metasurface made of graphene nanopatches owns dual capacitive/inductive inductance and can be used to cloak both dielectric and conducting cylindrical objects at low-THz frequencies. So far, planar and cylindrical dielectric and conducting structures have been studied. In our study, we have extended the concept and presented an accurate analytical approach to investigate the cloaking of two-dimensional (2-D) elliptical objects including infinite dielectric elliptical cylinders using graphene monolayer; metallic elliptical cylinders, and also, as a special case, 2-D metallic strips using a nanostructured graphene patch array at low-THz frequencies. We have also obtained the results for cloaking of ellipses at

  1. Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maysonnave, J; Maussang, K; Freeman, J R; Jukam, N; Madéo, J; Cavalié, P; Rungsawang, R; Khanna, S P; Linfield, E H; Davies, A G; Beere, H E; Ritchie, D A; Dhillon, S S; Tignon, J

    2012-09-10

    A novel scheme to achieve mode-locking of a multimode laser is demonstrated. Traditional methods to produce ultrashort laser pulses are based on modulating the cavity gain or losses at the cavity roundtrip frequency, favoring the pulsed emission. Here, we rather directly act on the phases of the modes, resulting in constructive interference for the appropriated phase relationship. This was performed on a terahertz quantum cascade laser by multimode injection seeding with an external terahertz pulse, resulting in phase mode-locked terahertz laser pulses of 9 ps duration, characterized unambiguously in the time domain.

  2. Flexible manipulation of terahertz wave reflection using polarization insensitive coding metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiu-Sheng, Li; Ze-Jiang, Zhao; Jian-Quan, Yao

    2017-11-27

    In order to extend to 3-bit encoding, we propose notched-wheel structures as polarization insensitive coding metasurfaces to control terahertz wave reflection and suppress backward scattering. By using a coding sequence of "00110011…" along x-axis direction and 16 × 16 random coding sequence, we investigate the polarization insensitive properties of the coding metasurfaces. By designing the coding sequences of the basic coding elements, the terahertz wave reflection can be flexibly manipulated. Additionally, radar cross section (RCS) reduction in the backward direction is less than -10dB in a wide band. The present approach can offer application for novel terahertz manipulation devices.

  3. Generation of high-power terahertz radiation by femtosecond-terawatt lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashima, Shigeki; Hosoda, Makoto; Daido, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    We observed electromagnetic waves in the terahertz (THz) frequency range from a Ti foil excited by tabletop terawatt (T-cube) laser pulses. The radiation power was increased drastically with increasing its laser power. We also investigated the polarization characteristics of the sub-terahertz wave. It is found that the polarization of the radiated sub-terahertz waves was parallel to the incident beam plane, which is independent on the pump laser polarization. These results indicate transient electric field to the incident plane is generated by laser-plasma interaction, i.e., laser wake field and coherent plasma wave. (author)

  4. In vitro terahertz monitoring of muscle tissue dehydration under the action of hyperosmotic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesnikov, A S; Kolesnikova, E A; Popov, A P; Tuchin, V V [N.G. Chernyshevsky Saratov State University, Saratov (Russian Federation); Nazarov, M M [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Shkurinov, A P [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-31

    Dehydration of muscle tissue in vitro under the action of biologically compatible hyperosmotic agents is studied using a laser terahertz spectrometer in the frequency range from 0.25 to 2.5 THz. Broadband terahertz absorption and reflection spectra of the bovine skeletal muscle tissue were obtained under the action of glycerol, polyethylene glycol with the molecular weight 600 (PEG-600), and propylene glycol. The presented results are proposed for application in developing the methods of image contrast enhancement and increasing the depth of biological tissue probing with terahertz radiation. (laser biophotonics)

  5. High harmonic terahertz confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Wenjie; Guan, Xiaotong; Yan, Yang [THz Research Center, School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The harmonic confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam is proposed in this paper in order to develop compact and high power terahertz radiation source. A 0.56 THz third harmonic confocal gyrotron with a dual arc section nonuniform electron beam has been designed and investigated. The studies show that confocal cavity has extremely low mode density, and has great advantage to operate at high harmonic. Nonuniform electron beam is an approach to improve output power and interaction efficiency of confocal gyrotron. A dual arc beam magnetron injection gun for designed confocal gyrotron has been developed and presented in this paper.

  6. Structure-terahertz property relationship in yttrium aluminum garnet ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steere, D.W.; Clark, B.M.; Sundaram, S.K. [Alfred University, Terahertz and Millimeter Waves Laboratory (T-Lab), Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, The New York State College of Ceramics, Alfred, NY (United States); Gaume, R. [Townes Laser Institute and the NanoScience Technology Center, CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Terahertz (THz) transmission measurements on chemically variant yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramics are described. Chemical compositions and processing parameters were varied to determine the effect of stoichiometry, density, and pore volume distribution on the optical and dielectric properties in the THz frequency regime. Density has the largest effect on properties out of the parameters that were investigated. In addition, a linear correlation between cubic root of real permittivity at 1 THz and average density of these samples is observed. Our results show promise for design and fabrication of advanced optical materials and devices with desired THz properties via controlling density and porosity of the materials. (orig.)

  7. Widely tunable quantum cascade laser-based terahertz source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Andriy A; Light, Alexander R; Waldman, Jerry; Erickson, Neal; Qian, Xifeng

    2014-07-10

    A compact, tunable, ultranarrowband terahertz source, Δν∼1  MHz, is demonstrated by upconversion of a 2.324 THz, free-running quantum cascade laser with a THz Schottky-diode-balanced mixer using a swept, synthesized microwave source to drive the nonlinearity. Continuously tunable radiation of 1 μW power is demonstrated in two frequency regions: ν(Laser) ± 0 to 50 GHz and ν(Laser) ± 70 to 115 GHz. The sideband spectra were characterized with a Fourier-transform spectrometer, and the radiation was tuned through CO, HDO, and D2O rotational transitions.

  8. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging of artificial RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Bernd M.; Hoffmann, Matthias; Helm, Hanspeter

    2005-01-01

    We use terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to measure the far-infrared dielectric function of two artificial RNA single strands, composed of polyadenylic acid (poly-A) and polycytidylic acid (poly-C). We find a significant difference in the absorption between the two types of RNA strands......, and we show that we can use this difference to record images of spot arrays of the RNA strands. Under controlled conditions it is possible to use the THz image to distinguish between the two RNA strands. We discuss the requirements to sample preparation imposed by the lack of sharp spectral features...

  9. Resonating Terahertz Response of Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Apertures

    KAUST Repository

    D’ Apuzzo, Fausto; Candeloro, Patrizio; Domenici, Fabio; Autore, M.; Di Pietro, Paola; Perucchi, Andrea; Roy, P.; Sennato, Simona; Bordi, Federico; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Lupi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) peaks mediated by plasmonic excitations can be observed in a variety of subwavelength patterned metallic surfaces. In this paper, we have fabricated and spectroscopically characterized plasmon devices exhibiting EOT peaks at terahertz (THz) frequencies. These devices, which resonate with intermediate and collective modes of macromolecules, can be used for detection of materials of biological interest and their performances have been experimentally determined by measuring the variation of the EOT frequencies for thin sub-micrometric organic layers deposited onto the device surface.

  10. Performance analysis of LDPC codes on OOK terahertz wireless channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chun; Wang Chang; Cao Jun-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric absorption, scattering, and scintillation are the major causes to deteriorate the transmission quality of terahertz (THz) wireless communications. An error control coding scheme based on low density parity check (LDPC) codes with soft decision decoding algorithm is proposed to improve the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of an on-off keying (OOK) modulated THz signal through atmospheric channel. The THz wave propagation characteristics and channel model in atmosphere is set up. Numerical simulations validate the great performance of LDPC codes against the atmospheric fading and demonstrate the huge potential in future ultra-high speed beyond Gbps THz communications. (paper)

  11. Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, Torsten; Siebert, Karsten; Czasch, Stephanie; Bauer, Tobias; Roskos, Hartmut G

    2002-01-01

    'Visualization' in imaging is the process of extracting useful information from raw data in such a way that meaningful physical contrasts are developed. 'Classification' is the subsequent process of defining parameter ranges which allow us to identify elements of images such as different tissues or different objects. In this paper, we explore techniques for visualization and classification in terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) for biomedical applications. For archived (formalin-fixed, alcohol-dehydrated and paraffin-mounted) test samples, we investigate both time- and frequency-domain methods based on bright- and dark-field TPI. Successful tissue classification is demonstrated

  12. Terahertz spectroscopic analysis of crystal orientation in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeyanagi, Chisato; Kaneko, Takuya; Ohki, Yoshimichi

    2018-05-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is attracting keen attention as a new spectroscopic tool for characterizing various materials. In this research, the possibility of analyzing the crystal orientation in a crystalline polymer by THz-TDS is investigated by measuring angle-resolved THz absorption spectra for sheets of poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(ethylene naphthalate), and poly(phenylene sulfide). The resultant angle dependence of the absorption intensity of each polymer is similar to that of the crystal orientation examined using pole figures of X-ray diffraction. More specifically, THz-TDS can indicate the alignment of molecules in polymers.

  13. Enhanced terahertz magnetic dipole response by subwavelength fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atakaramians, Shaghik; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.

    2018-01-01

    Dielectric sub-wavelength particles have opened up a new platform for realization of magnetic light. Recently, we have demonstrated that a dipole emitter by a sub-wavelength fiber leads to an enhanced magnetic response. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an enhanced magnetic dipole source......-fiber system excited by a magnetic source. This coupled magnetic dipole and optical fiber system can be considered a unit cell of metasurfaces for manipulation of terahertz radiation and is a proof-of-concept of a possibility to achieve enhanced radiation of a dipole source in proximity of a sub...

  14. Theoretical and experimental study on broadband terahertz atmospheric transmission characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Shi-Bei; Zhong Kai; Wang Mao-Rong; Liu Chu; Xu De-Gang; Yao Jian-Quan; Xiao Yong; Wang Wen-Peng

    2017-01-01

    Broadband terahertz (THz) atmospheric transmission characteristics from 0 to 8 THz are theoretically simulated based on a standard Van Vleck–Weisskopf line shape, considering 1696 water absorption lines and 298 oxygen absorption lines. The influences of humidity, temperature, and pressure on the THz atmospheric absorption are analyzed and experimentally verified with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) system, showing good consistency. The investigation and evaluation on high-frequency atmospheric windows are good supplements to existing data in the low-frequency range and lay the foundation for aircraft-based high-altitude applications of THz communication and radar. (paper)

  15. Detection of internal fields in double-metal terahertz resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Oleg; Han, Zhanghua; Ding, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) double-metal plasmonic resonators enable enhanced light-matter coupling by exploiting strong field confinement. The double-metal design however restricts access to the internal fields. We propose and demonstrate a method for spatial mapping and spectroscopic analysis of the internal...... electromagnetic fields in double-metal plasmonic resonators. We use the concept of image charges and aperture-type scanning near-field THz time-domain microscopy to probe the fields confined within the closed resonator. The experimental method opens doors to studies of light-matter coupling in deeply sub...

  16. Plasma characterization using terahertz-wave-enhanced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingle; Zhang, X.-C.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that the terahertz-wave-enhanced fluorescence emission from excited atoms or molecules can be employed in the characterization of laser-induced gas plasmas. The electron relaxation time and plasma density were deduced through applying the electron impact excitation/ionization and electron-ion recombination processes to the measured time-dependent enhanced fluorescence. The electron collision dynamics of nitrogen plasma excited at different gas pressures and laser pulse energies have been systematically investigated. This plasma characterization method provides picosecond temporal resolution and enables omnidirectional optical signal collection.

  17. Photonic-crystal diplexers for terahertz-wave applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yata, Masahiro; Fujita, Masayuki; Nagatsuma, Tadao

    2016-04-04

    A compact diplexer is designed using a silicon photonic-crystal directional coupler of length comparable to the incident wavelength. The diplexer theoretically and experimentally exhibits a cross state bandwidth as broad as 2% of the operation frequency, with over 40-dB isolation between the cross and bar ports. We also demonstrate 1.5-Gbit/s frequency-division communication in the 0.32- and 0.33-THz bands using a single-wavelength-sized diplexer, and discuss the transmission bandwidth. Our study demonstrates the potential for application of photonic crystals as terahertz-wave integration platforms.

  18. Fiber MOPA based tunable source for terahertz spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, A; Lin, D; Alam, S U; Zhang, Z; Ibsen, M; Richardson, D J; Young, J; Wright, P; Ozanyan, K; Stringer, M; Miles, R E

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a terahertz spectrometer based on difference frequency generation of beams from an ytterbium fiber master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system. The spectrometer has a resolution of ∼ 2 GHz. It can be tuned rapidly over several hundred GHz, and a wider frequency range can be covered (0.7–2.5 THz demonstrated) by swapping in alternate seed lasers and adjusting the alignment of the beams into the difference frequency generation (DFG) crystal. The system was constructed entirely from commercially available fiber and fiber components. We present some demonstration data on water vapor absorption lines

  19. Resonating Terahertz Response of Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Apertures

    KAUST Repository

    D’Apuzzo, Fausto

    2014-10-11

    Extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) peaks mediated by plasmonic excitations can be observed in a variety of subwavelength patterned metallic surfaces. In this paper, we have fabricated and spectroscopically characterized plasmon devices exhibiting EOT peaks at terahertz (THz) frequencies. These devices, which resonate with intermediate and collective modes of macromolecules, can be used for detection of materials of biological interest and their performances have been experimentally determined by measuring the variation of the EOT frequencies for thin sub-micrometric organic layers deposited onto the device surface.

  20. High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, D.P.; Hettrick, S.J.; Li, C.; Mackenzie, J.I.; Beach, R.J.; Mitchell, S.C.; Meissner, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    The advantages and potential hazards of using a planar waveguide as the host in a high-power diode-pumped laser system are described. The techniques discussed include the use of proximity-coupled diodes, double-clad waveguides, unstable resonators, tapers, and integrated passive Q switches. Laser devices are described based on Yb 3+ -, Nd 3+ -, and Tm 3+ -doped YAG, and monolithic and highly compact waveguide lasers with outputs greater than 10 W are demonstrated. The prospects for scaling to the 100 W level and for further integration of devices for added functionality in a monolithic laser system are discussed. (author)

  1. Planar permanent magnet multipoles: Measurements and configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremer, T.; Tatchyn, R.

    1995-05-01

    Biplanar arrays of N rectangular permanent magnet (PM) blocks can be used to generate high quality N-pole fields in close proximity to the array axis. In applications featuring small-diameter charged particle beams, N-poles of adequate quality can be realized at relatively low cost using small volumes of PM material. In this paper we report on recent measurements performed on planar PM multipoles, and discuss techniques for improving the field quality of such devices at distances appreciably far away from the axis. Applications to hybrid/PM insertion device designs for linac-driven Free Electron Laser (FEL) operation in the x-ray range are described

  2. Broadband Planar 5:1 Impedence Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Negar; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, Samuel H.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a broadband Guanella-type planar impedance transformer that transforms so 50 omega to 10 omega with a 10 dB bandwidth of 1-14GHz. The transformer is designed on a flexible 50 micrometer thick polyimide substrate in microstrip and parallel-plate transmission line topologies, and is Inspired by the traditional 4:1 Guanella transformer. Back-to-back transformers were designed and fabricated for characterization in a 50 omega system. Simulated and measured results are in excellent agreement.

  3. Development of planar waveguides in zinc telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valette, Serge

    1977-02-01

    Zinc telluride (ZnTe) is one of the most attractive semi-conductors for monolithic integrated optics. In this study, the general characteristics of the planar optical waveguides achieved by implantation of light ions in ZnTe are investigated. Different aspects of prism-coupling and coherent light guiding have been taken up theoretically and experimentally. Some assumptions about the physical origin of these structures are discussed in order to explain all these results and the weak losses which have been measured. [fr

  4. Some remarks on non-planar Feynman diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielas, Krzysztof; Dubovyk, Ievgen; Gluza, Janusz

    2013-12-01

    Two criteria for planarity of a Feynman diagram upon its propagators (momentum ows) are presented. Instructive Mathematica programs that solve the problem and examples are provided. A simple geometric argument is used to show that while one can planarize non-planar graphs by embedding them on higher-genus surfaces (in the example it is a torus), there is still a problem with defining appropriate dual variables since the corresponding faces of the graph are absorbed by torus generators.

  5. Some remarks on non-planar Feynman diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielas, Krzysztof; Dubovyk, Ievgen; Gluza, Janusz [Silesia Univ., Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Riemann, Tord [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    Two criteria for planarity of a Feynman diagram upon its propagators (momentum ows) are presented. Instructive Mathematica programs that solve the problem and examples are provided. A simple geometric argument is used to show that while one can planarize non-planar graphs by embedding them on higher-genus surfaces (in the example it is a torus), there is still a problem with defining appropriate dual variables since the corresponding faces of the graph are absorbed by torus generators.

  6. Modulation of terahertz generation in dual-color filaments by an external electric field and preformed plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Min; Li An-Yuan; Yuan Shuai; Zeng He-Ping; He Bo-Qu

    2016-01-01

    Terahertz generation driven by dual-color filaments in air is demonstrated to be remarkably enhanced by applying an external electric field to the filaments. As terahertz generation is sensitive to the dual-color phase difference, a preformed plasma is verified efficiently in modulating terahertz radiation from linear to elliptical polarization. In the presence of preformed plasma, a dual-color filament generates terahertz pulses of elliptical polarization and the corresponding ellipse rotates regularly with the change of the preformed plasma density. The observed terahertz modulation with the external electric field and the preformed plasma provides a simple way to estimate the plasma density and evaluate the photocurrent dynamics of the dual-color filaments. It provides further experimental evidence of the photo-current model in governing the dual-color filament driven terahertz generation processes. (paper)

  7. Multistability in planar liquid crystal wells

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Chong; Majumdar, Apala; Erban, Radek

    2012-01-01

    A planar bistable liquid crystal device, reported in Tsakonas, is modeled within the Landau-de Gennes theory for nematic liquid crystals. This planar device consists of an array of square micrometer-sized wells. We obtain six different classes of equilibrium profiles and these profiles are classified as diagonal or rotated solutions. In the strong anchoring case, we propose a Dirichlet boundary condition that mimics the experimentally imposed tangent boundary conditions. In the weak anchoring case, we present a suitable surface energy and study the multiplicity of solutions as a function of the anchoring strength. We find that diagonal solutions exist for all values of the anchoring strength W≥0, while rotated solutions only exist for W≥W c>0, where W c is a critical anchoring strength that has been computed numerically. We propose a dynamic model for the switching mechanisms based on only dielectric effects. For sufficiently strong external electric fields, we numerically demonstrate diagonal-to-rotated and rotated-to-diagonal switching by allowing for variable anchoring strength across the domain boundary. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  8. Multistability in planar liquid crystal wells

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Chong

    2012-06-08

    A planar bistable liquid crystal device, reported in Tsakonas, is modeled within the Landau-de Gennes theory for nematic liquid crystals. This planar device consists of an array of square micrometer-sized wells. We obtain six different classes of equilibrium profiles and these profiles are classified as diagonal or rotated solutions. In the strong anchoring case, we propose a Dirichlet boundary condition that mimics the experimentally imposed tangent boundary conditions. In the weak anchoring case, we present a suitable surface energy and study the multiplicity of solutions as a function of the anchoring strength. We find that diagonal solutions exist for all values of the anchoring strength W≥0, while rotated solutions only exist for W≥W c>0, where W c is a critical anchoring strength that has been computed numerically. We propose a dynamic model for the switching mechanisms based on only dielectric effects. For sufficiently strong external electric fields, we numerically demonstrate diagonal-to-rotated and rotated-to-diagonal switching by allowing for variable anchoring strength across the domain boundary. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  9. Motion video analysis using planar parallax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Harpreet S.

    1994-04-01

    Motion and structure analysis in video sequences can lead to efficient descriptions of objects and their motions. Interesting events in videos can be detected using such an analysis--for instance independent object motion when the camera itself is moving, figure-ground segregation based on the saliency of a structure compared to its surroundings. In this paper we present a method for 3D motion and structure analysis that uses a planar surface in the environment as a reference coordinate system to describe a video sequence. The motion in the video sequence is described as the motion of the reference plane, and the parallax motion of all the non-planar components of the scene. It is shown how this method simplifies the otherwise hard general 3D motion analysis problem. In addition, a natural coordinate system in the environment is used to describe the scene which can simplify motion based segmentation. This work is a part of an ongoing effort in our group towards video annotation and analysis for indexing and retrieval. Results from a demonstration system being developed are presented.

  10. Planar patch clamp: advances in electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Andrea; Farre, Cecilia; Haarmann, Claudia; Haythornthwaite, Ali; Kreir, Mohamed; Stoelzle, Sonja; George, Michael; Fertig, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Ion channels have gained increased interest as therapeutic targets over recent years, since a growing number of human and animal diseases have been attributed to defects in ion channel function. Potassium channels are the largest and most diverse family of ion channels. Pharmaceutical agents such as Glibenclamide, an inhibitor of K(ATP) channel activity which promotes insulin release, have been successfully sold on the market for many years. So far, only a small group of the known ion channels have been addressed as potential drug targets. The functional testing of drugs on these ion channels has always been the bottleneck in the development of these types of pharmaceutical compounds.New generations of automated patch clamp screening platforms allow a higher throughput for drug testing and widen this bottleneck. Due to their planar chip design not only is a higher throughput achieved, but new applications have also become possible. One of the advantages of planar patch clamp is the possibility of perfusing the intracellular side of the membrane during a patch clamp experiment in the whole-cell configuration. Furthermore, the extracellular membrane remains accessible for compound application during the experiment.Internal perfusion can be used not only for patch clamp experiments with cell membranes, but also for those with artificial lipid bilayers. In this chapter we describe how internal perfusion can be applied to potassium channels expressed in Jurkat cells, and to Gramicidin channels reconstituted in a lipid bilayer.

  11. Optical magnetism in planar metamaterial heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgia T; Fleischman, Dagny; Davoyan, Artur; Yeh, Pochi; Atwater, Harry A

    2018-01-18

    Harnessing artificial optical magnetism has previously required complex two- and three-dimensional structures, such as nanoparticle arrays and split-ring metamaterials. By contrast, planar structures, and in particular dielectric/metal multilayer metamaterials, have been generally considered non-magnetic. Although the hyperbolic and plasmonic properties of these systems have been extensively investigated, their assumed non-magnetic response limits their performance to transverse magnetic (TM) polarization. We propose and experimentally validate a mechanism for artificial magnetism in planar multilayer metamaterials. We also demonstrate that the magnetic properties of high-index dielectric/metal hyperbolic metamaterials can be anisotropic, leading to magnetic hyperbolic dispersion in certain frequency regimes. We show that such systems can support transverse electric polarized interface-bound waves, analogous to their TM counterparts, surface plasmon polaritons. Our results open a route for tailoring optical artificial magnetism in lithography-free layered systems and enable us to generalize the plasmonic and hyperbolic properties to encompass both linear polarizations.

  12. Overview of Planar Magnetic Technology — Fundamental Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    The momentum towards high efficiency, high frequency, and high power density in power supplies limits wide use of conventional wire-wound magnetic components. This article gives an overview of planar magnetic technologies with respect to the development of modern power electronics. The major...... advantages and disadvantages in the use of planar magnetics for high frequency power converters are covered, and publications on planar magnetics are reviewed. A detailed survey of winding conduction loss, leakage inductance and winding capacitance for planar magnetics is presented so power electronics...

  13. Guidelines for optimization of planar HDR implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwicker, R.D.; Schmidt-Ullrich, R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Conventional low dose rate (LDR) planar Ir-192 implants are typically carried out using at most a few different source strengths. Remote afterloading offers a much higher degree of flexibility with individually programmable dwell times. Dedicated software is available to generate individual dwell times producing isodose surfaces which contour as closely as possible the target volume. The success of these algorithms in enclosing the target volume while sparing normal tissues is dependent on the positioning of the source guides which constrain the dwell points. In this work we provide source placement guidelines for optimal coverage and dose uniformity in planar high dose rate (HDR) implants. The resulting distributions are compared with LDR treatments in terms of dose uniformity and early and late tissue effects. Materials and methods: Computer studies were undertaken to determine source positions and dwell times for optimal dose uniformity in planar HDR implants, and the results were compared to those obtained using corresponding LDR implant geometries. The improvements in the dose distributions achieved with the remote after loader are expected to help offset the increased late tissue effects which can occur when LDR irradiation is replaced with a few large HDR fractions. Equivalent differential volume-dose (DVD) curves for early and late effects were calculated for different numbers of HDR fractions using a linear-quadratic model and compared to the corresponding curves for the LDR regime. Results: Tables of source placement parameters were generated as guidelines for achieving highly homogeneous planar HDR dose distributions. Differential volume-dose data generated inside the target volume provide a quantitative measure of the improvement in real dose homogeneity obtained with remote afterloading. The net result is a shift of the peak in the DVD curve toward lower doses relative to the LDR implant. The equivalent DVD curves for late effects obtained

  14. Intraband dynamics and terahertz emission in biased semiconductor superlattices coupled to double far-infrared pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Li; Xian-Wu, Mi

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies both the intraband polarization and terahertz emission of a semiconductor superlattice in combined dc and ac electric fields by using the superposition of two identical time delayed and phase shifted optical pulses. By adjusting the delay between these two optical pulses, our results show that the intraband polarization is sensitive to the time delay. The peak values appear again for the terahertz emission intensity due to the superposition of two optical pulses. The emission lines of terahertz blueshift and redshift in different ac electric fields and dynamic localization appears. The emission lines of THz only appear to blueshift when the biased superlattice is driven by a single optical pulse. Due to excitonic dynamic localization, the terahertz emission intensity decays with time in different dc and ac electric fields. These are features of this superlattice which distinguish it from a superlattice generated by a single optical pulse to drive it. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  15. Terahertz emission from a large-area GaInAsN emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, Falk; Winnerl, Stephan; Schneider, Harald; Helm, Manfred; Koehler, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    A large-area interdigitated terahertz emitter based on molecular-beam epitaxy grown GaInAsN with an additional AlGaAs heterostructure is investigated as a terahertz source for excitation wavelengths between 1.1 and 1.5 μm. The optical and electrical properties of the emitter material exhibit absorption up to a wavelength of 1.5 μm and have a resistivity of 550 kΩ cm. Terahertz waves were detected by electro-optical sampling with a bandwidth exceeding 2 THz. Best performance is found for excitation wavelengths below 1.35 μm. Furthermore the emission properties for several excitation powers are investigated, showing a linear increase in terahertz emission

  16. Superiority of terahertz over infrared transmission through bandages and burn wound ointments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suen, Jonathan Y.; Padilla, Willie J.

    2016-01-01

    Terahertz electromagnetic waves have long been proposed to be ideal for spectroscopy and imaging through non-polar dielectric materials that contain no water. Terahertz radiation may thus be useful for monitoring burn and wound injury recovery, as common care treatments involve application of both a clinical dressing and topical ointment. Here, we investigate the optical properties of typical care treatments in the millimeter wave (150–300 GHz), terahertz (0.3–3 THz), and infrared (14.5–0.67 μm) ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. We find that THz radiation realizes low absorption coefficients and high levels of transmission compared to infrared wavelengths, which were strongly attenuated. Terahertz imaging can enable safe, non-ionizing, noninvasive monitoring of the healing process directly through clinical dressings and recovery ointments, minimizing the frequency of dressing changes and thus increasing the rate of the healing process.

  17. Terahertz radiation induced chaotic electron transport in semiconductor superlattices with a tilted magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Cao, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Chaotic electron transport in semiconductor superlattice induced by terahertz electric field that is superimposed on a dc electric field along the superlattice axis are studied using the semiclassical motion equations including the effect of dissipation. A magnetic field that is tilted relative to the superlattice axis is also applied to the system. Numerical simulation shows that electrons in superlattice miniband exhibit complicate nonlinear oscillating modes with the influence of terahertz radiation. Transitions between frequency-locking and chaos via pattern forming bifurcations are observed with the varying of terahertz amplitude. It is found that the chaotic regions gradually contract as the dissipation increases. We attribute the appearance of complicate nonlinear oscillation in superlattice to the interaction between terahertz radiation and internal cooperative oscillating mode relative to Bloch oscillation and cyclotron oscillation

  18. Terahertz radiation induced chaotic electron transport in semiconductor superlattices with a tilted magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Wang, F; Cao, J C

    2014-09-01

    Chaotic electron transport in semiconductor superlattice induced by terahertz electric field that is superimposed on a dc electric field along the superlattice axis are studied using the semiclassical motion equations including the effect of dissipation. A magnetic field that is tilted relative to the superlattice axis is also applied to the system. Numerical simulation shows that electrons in superlattice miniband exhibit complicate nonlinear oscillating modes with the influence of terahertz radiation. Transitions between frequency-locking and chaos via pattern forming bifurcations are observed with the varying of terahertz amplitude. It is found that the chaotic regions gradually contract as the dissipation increases. We attribute the appearance of complicate nonlinear oscillation in superlattice to the interaction between terahertz radiation and internal cooperative oscillating mode relative to Bloch oscillation and cyclotron oscillation.

  19. Time-reversed lasing in the terahertz range and its preliminary study in sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yun, E-mail: shenyunoptics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Liu, Huaqing [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Deng, Xiaohua [Institute of Space Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang, Guoping [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2017-02-05

    Time-reversed lasing in a uniform slab and a grating structure are investigated in the terahertz range. The results show that both the uniform slab and grating can support terahertz time-reversed lasing. Nevertheless, due to the tunable effective refractive index, the grating structure can not only exhibit time-reversed lasing more effectively and flexibly than a uniform slab, but also can realize significant absorption in a broader operating frequency range. Furthermore, applications of terahertz time-reversed lasing for novel concentration/thickness sensors are preliminarily studied in a single-channel coherent perfect absorber system. - Highlights: • Time-reversed lasing are investigated in the terahertz range. • The grating structure exhibit time-reversed lasing more effectively and flexibly than a uniform slab. • THz time-reversed lasing for novel concentration/thickness sensors are studied.

  20. Theoretical Investigation of Current Instabilities and Terahertz Oscillations in a Two-Dimensional Electron Fluid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dyakonov, M

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop further the theory of novel mechanisms for generation and detection of electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz range using the plasma oscillations of the two...

  1. Nondestructive Imaging of an Object Using the Compact Continuous-Wave Sub-Terahertz Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Seok; Kwon, Il Bub; Yoon, Dong Jin; Seo, Dae Cheol [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    This paper presented compact CW sub-THz imaging system using the terahertz transmitter(Tx) that generating 0.34 THz electromagnetic wave on based electronic device. Using 0.34 THz electromagnetic wave generated by Tx, we transmitted to sample by point by point scan method and measured transmitting terahertz wave magnitude and phase information respectively with terahertz receiver(Rx) based on sub harmonic mixer. This paper measured and compared images of several samples to obtain better imaging results by changing time delay and step distance of scanning stage which affect image resolution. Also, through the imaging measurement of various samples, we were able to assure possibility of application of terahertz wave

  2. Nondestructive Imaging of an Object Using the Compact Continuous-Wave Sub-Terahertz Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jin Seok; Kwon, Il Bub; Yoon, Dong Jin; Seo, Dae Cheol

    2010-01-01

    This paper presented compact CW sub-THz imaging system using the terahertz transmitter(Tx) that generating 0.34 THz electromagnetic wave on based electronic device. Using 0.34 THz electromagnetic wave generated by Tx, we transmitted to sample by point by point scan method and measured transmitting terahertz wave magnitude and phase information respectively with terahertz receiver(Rx) based on sub harmonic mixer. This paper measured and compared images of several samples to obtain better imaging results by changing time delay and step distance of scanning stage which affect image resolution. Also, through the imaging measurement of various samples, we were able to assure possibility of application of terahertz wave

  3. Feasibility and Characterization of Common and Exotic Filaments for Use in 3D Printed Terahertz Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, A. D.; Lewis, R. A.

    2018-06-01

    Recent years have seen an influx of applications utilizing 3D printed devices in the terahertz regime. The simplest, and perhaps most versatile, modality allowing this is Fused Deposition Modelling. In this work, a holistic analysis of the terahertz optical, mechanical and printing properties of 17 common and exotic 3D printer filaments used in Fused Deposition Modelling is performed. High impact polystyrene is found to be the best filament, with a useable frequency range of 0.1-1.3 THz, while remaining easily printed. Nylon, polylactic acid and polyvinyl alcohol give the least desirable terahertz response, satisfactory only below 0.5 THz. Interestingly, most modified filaments aimed at increasing mechanical properties and ease of printing do so without compromising the useable terahertz optical window.

  4. Terahertz radiation induced chaotic electron transport in semiconductor superlattices with a tilted magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C., E-mail: cwang@mail.sim.ac.cn; Wang, F.; Cao, J. C., E-mail: jccao@mail.sim.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Terahertz Solid-State Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2014-09-01

    Chaotic electron transport in semiconductor superlattice induced by terahertz electric field that is superimposed on a dc electric field along the superlattice axis are studied using the semiclassical motion equations including the effect of dissipation. A magnetic field that is tilted relative to the superlattice axis is also applied to the system. Numerical simulation shows that electrons in superlattice miniband exhibit complicate nonlinear oscillating modes with the influence of terahertz radiation. Transitions between frequency-locking and chaos via pattern forming bifurcations are observed with the varying of terahertz amplitude. It is found that the chaotic regions gradually contract as the dissipation increases. We attribute the appearance of complicate nonlinear oscillation in superlattice to the interaction between terahertz radiation and internal cooperative oscillating mode relative to Bloch oscillation and cyclotron oscillation.

  5. Time Domain Terahertz Axial Computed Tomography Non Destructive Evaluation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to demonstrate key elements of feasibility for a high speed automated time domain terahertz computed axial tomography (TD-THz CT) non destructive...

  6. A Tunable Eight-Wavelength Terahertz Modulator Based on Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, K.; Chen, H.; Zhou, W.; Zhuang, Y.; Wang, J.

    2017-11-01

    We propose a tunable eight-wavelength terahertz modulator based on a structure of triple triangular lattice photonic crystals by using photonic crystals in the terahertz regime. The triple triangular lattice was formed by nesting circular, square, and triangular dielectric cylinders. Three square point defects were introduced into the perfect photonic crystal to produce eight defect modes. GaAs was used as the point defects to realize tunability. We used a structure with a reflecting barrier to achieve modulation at high transmission rate. The insertion loss and extinction ratio were 0.122 and 38.54 dB, respectively. The modulation rate was 0.788 dB. The performance of the eightwavelength terahertz modulator showed great potential for use in future terahertz communication systems.

  7. Time Domain Terahertz Axial Computed Tomography Non Destructive Evaluation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase 2 project, we propose to develop, construct, and deliver to NASA a computed axial tomography time-domain terahertz (CT TD-THz) non destructive...

  8. Time-Frequency Analysis of Terahertz Radar Signals for Rapid Heart and Breath Rate Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Massar, Melody L

    2008-01-01

    We develop new time-frequency analytic techniques which facilitate the detection of a person's heart and breath rates from the Doppler shift the movement of their body induces in a terahertz radar signal...

  9. Non-invasive detection of murals with pulsed terahertz reflected imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Minjie; Sun, Wenfeng; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Qunxi; Zhang, Yan

    2015-11-01

    Pulsed terahertz reflected imaging technology has been expected to have great potential for the non-invasive analysis of artworks. In this paper, three types of defects hidden in the plaster used to simulate the cases of defects in the murals, have been investigated by a pulsed terahertz reflected imaging system. These preset defects include a circular groove, a cross-shaped slit and a piece of "Y-type" metal plate built in the plaster. With the terahertz reflective tomography, information about defects has been determined involving the thickness from the surface of sample to the built-in defect, the profile and distribution of the defect. Additionally, three-dimensional analyses have been performed in order to reveal the internal structure of defects. Terahertz reflective imaging can be applied to the defect investigation of the murals.

  10. Ultrafast terahertz control of extreme tunnel currents through single atoms on a silicon surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelic, Vedran; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Nguyen, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    scanning tunnelling microscopy (THz-STM) in ultrahigh vacuum as a new platform for exploring ultrafast non-equilibrium tunnelling dynamics with atomic precision. Extreme terahertz-pulse-driven tunnel currents up to 10(7) times larger than steady-state currents in conventional STM are used to image...... terahertz-induced band bending and non-equilibrium charging of surface states opens new conduction pathways to the bulk, enabling extreme transient tunnel currents to flow between the tip and sample.......Ultrafast control of current on the atomic scale is essential for future innovations in nanoelectronics. Extremely localized transient electric fields on the nanoscale can be achieved by coupling picosecond duration terahertz pulses to metallic nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate terahertz...

  11. Superiority of terahertz over infrared transmission through bandages and burn wound ointments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suen, Jonathan Y., E-mail: j.suen@duke.edu; Padilla, Willie J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2016-06-06

    Terahertz electromagnetic waves have long been proposed to be ideal for spectroscopy and imaging through non-polar dielectric materials that contain no water. Terahertz radiation may thus be useful for monitoring burn and wound injury recovery, as common care treatments involve application of both a clinical dressing and topical ointment. Here, we investigate the optical properties of typical care treatments in the millimeter wave (150–300 GHz), terahertz (0.3–3 THz), and infrared (14.5–0.67 μm) ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. We find that THz radiation realizes low absorption coefficients and high levels of transmission compared to infrared wavelengths, which were strongly attenuated. Terahertz imaging can enable safe, non-ionizing, noninvasive monitoring of the healing process directly through clinical dressings and recovery ointments, minimizing the frequency of dressing changes and thus increasing the rate of the healing process.

  12. Terahertz detectors for long wavelength multi-spectral imaging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyo, Sungkwun Kenneth; Wanke, Michael Clement; Reno, John Louis; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Grine, Albert D.

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a wavelength tunable detector for Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging. Our approach was to utilize plasmons in the channel of a specially designed field-effect transistor called the grating-gate detector. Grating-gate detectors exhibit narrow-linewidth, broad spectral tunability through application of a gate bias, and no angular dependence in their photoresponse. As such, if suitable sensitivity can be attained, they are viable candidates for Terahertz multi-spectral focal plane arrays. When this work began, grating-gate gate detectors, while having many promising characteristics, had a noise-equivalent power (NEP) of only 10{sup -5} W/{radical}Hz. Over the duration of this project, we have obtained a true NEP of 10{sup -8} W/{radical}Hz and a scaled NEP of 10{sup -9}W/{radical}Hz. The ultimate goal for these detectors is to reach a NEP in the 10{sup -9{yields}-10}W/{radical}Hz range; we have not yet seen a roadblock to continued improvement.

  13. Continuous wave terahertz reflection imaging of human colorectal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

    2013-03-01

    Continuous wave terahertz (THz) imaging has the potential to offer a safe, non-ionizing, and nondestructive medical imaging modality for delineating colorectal cancer. Fresh excisions of normal colon tissue were obtained from surgeries performed at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester. Reflection measurements of thick sections of colorectal tissues, mounted in an aluminum sample holder, were obtained for both fresh and formalin fixed tissues. The two-dimensional reflection images were acquired by using an optically pumped far-infrared molecular gas laser operating at 584 GHz with liquid Helium cooled silicon bolometer detector. Using polarizers in the experiment both co-polarized and cross-polarized remittance form the samples was collected. Analysis of the images showed the importance of understanding the effects of formalin fixation while determining reflectance level of tissue response. The resulting co- and cross-polarized images of both normal and formalin fixed tissues showed uniform terahertz response over the entire sample area. Initial measurements indicated a co-polarized reflectance of 16%, and a cross-polarized reflectance of 0.55% from fresh excisions of normal colonic tissues.

  14. Electro-optic transceivers for terahertz-wave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.; Tani, M.; Jiang, Zhiping; Zhang, X.-C.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the reciprocal behavior of the optical rectification and the electro-optic effect in a nonlinear optical crystal, an electro-optic transceiver can alternately transmit pulsed electromagnetic radiation (optical rectification) and detect the return signal (electro-optic effect) in the same crystal. However, the optimal condition of the electro-optic transceiver may be very different from that of the spatially separated emitter and receiver. We present a detailed description of the crystal-orientation dependence of the electro-optic terahertz devices (transmitter, receiver, and transceiver). It is found that for a (110) zinc-blende electro-optical crystal, the efficiency of the electro-optic transceiver will be optimized when the angle between the polarization of the optical pump beam and the crystallographic z axis [0,0,1] is 26 degree. Meanwhile, for a (111) crystal, the angle between the optical beam and the crystallographic direction [-1,-1,2] should be 23 degree. The experimental results from a (110) ZnTe transceiver verify theoretical calculations and demonstrate a direct way to optimize the working efficiency of an electro-optic terahertz transceiver. [copyright] 2001 Optical Society of America

  15. Characteristics of Gadolinium Oxide Nanoparticles Using Terahertz Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongkyu; Maeng, Inhee; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Oh, Seung Jae; Kim, Taekhoon; Cho, Byung Kyu; Lee, Kwangyeol

    2009-01-01

    The penetration property of the terahertz electromagnetic (THz) wave is relevant to its use. We used the THz wave spectroscopy system which easily penetrates some materials that do not contain water, e.g., plastic and ceramics. The system has been developed for several purposes, including measuring the properties of semiconductors and bio-materials, and detecting plastic bombs and ceramic knives at airports. It is also used for medical imaging systems, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), at some research institutes. It can show not only the difference in amplitude, but also the difference of the phase of each point of sample. MRI technology usually uses contrast agents to enhance the quality of the image. Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), made with a heavy metal ion, is commonly used as a clinical MRI contrast agent. Gadolinium oxide (Gd 2 O 3 ) nanoparticle is a new contrast agent. It serves to equip the core of each particle with antibodies or ligands. It can freely circulate in blood vessels without amassing in the liver or lungs. This study shows the characteristics of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles to further advance terahertz medical imaging.

  16. Design strategy for terahertz quantum dot cascade lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Benjamin A; Williams, Benjamin S

    2016-10-31

    The development of quantum dot cascade lasers has been proposed as a path to obtain terahertz semiconductor lasers that operate at room temperature. The expected benefit is due to the suppression of nonradiative electron-phonon scattering and reduced dephasing that accompanies discretization of the electronic energy spectrum. We present numerical modeling which predicts that simple scaling of conventional quantum well based designs to the quantum dot regime will likely fail due to electrical instability associated with high-field domain formation. A design strategy adapted for terahertz quantum dot cascade lasers is presented which avoids these problems. Counterintuitively, this involves the resonant depopulation of the laser's upper state with the LO-phonon energy. The strategy is tested theoretically using a density matrix model of transport and gain, which predicts sufficient gain for lasing at stable operating points. Finally, the effect of quantum dot size inhomogeneity on the optical lineshape is explored, suggesting that the design concept is robust to a moderate amount of statistical variation.

  17. A hybrid plasmonic waveguide terahertz quantum cascade laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degl' Innocenti, Riccardo, E-mail: rd448@cam.ac.uk; Shah, Yash D.; Wallis, Robert; Klimont, Adam; Ren, Yuan; Jessop, David S.; Beere, Harvey E.; Ritchie, David A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-23

    We present the realization of a quantum cascade laser emitting at around 2.85 THz, based on a hybrid plasmonic waveguide with a low refractive index dielectric cladding. This hybrid waveguide design allows the performance of a double-metal waveguide to be retained, while improving the emission far-field. A set of lasers based on the same active region material were fabricated with different metal layer thicknesses. A detailed characterization of the performance of these lasers revealed that there is an optimal trade-off that yields the best far-field emission and the maximum temperature of operation. By exploiting the pure plasmonic mode of these waveguides, the standard operation conditions of a double-metal quantum cascade laser were retrieved, such that the maximum operating temperature of these devices is not affected by the process. These results pave the way to realizing a class of integrated devices working in the terahertz range which could be further exploited to fabricate terahertz on-chip circuitry.

  18. Enhanced terahertz magnetic dipole response by subwavelength fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghik Atakaramians

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric sub-wavelength particles have opened up a new platform for realization of magnetic light. Recently, we have demonstrated that a dipole emitter by a sub-wavelength fiber leads to an enhanced magnetic response. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an enhanced magnetic dipole source in the terahertz frequency range. By placing the fiber next to the hole in a metal screen, we find that the radiation power can be enhanced more than one order of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the excitation of the Mie-type resonances in the fiber. We demonstrate that such a system is equivalent to a double-fiber system excited by a magnetic source. This coupled magnetic dipole and optical fiber system can be considered a unit cell of metasurfaces for manipulation of terahertz radiation and is a proof-of-concept of a possibility to achieve enhanced radiation of a dipole source in proximity of a sub-wavelength fiber. It can also be scaled down to optical frequencies opening up promising avenues for developing integrated nanophotonic devices such as nanoantennas or lasers on fibers.

  19. Characterization of terahertz waves on foreign materials of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Sun-Kyu; Chiou, Chien-Ping; Jung, Jong-An

    2018-04-01

    Carbon-fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are widely utilized due to their comparatively high performance in engineering structures. It is well understood that a nondestructive technique would be very beneficial. A new terahertz radiation has been recognized for its importance in technological applications. Recently, T-ray (terahertz ray) advances in technology and instrumentation have provided a probing field on the electromagnetic spectrum. In carbon composites, the penetration characterization of T-ray waves was fundamentally investigated in order to measure the painting thickness. Also, another study dealt with THz scan images of honeycomb sandwich composite panels using a refractive index (n), an absorption coefficient (α), the electrical conductivity of glass fiber embedded epoxy matrix composites, and carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) skin. For experiments, a method of detecting FRP composites with impact damage is presented, which utilizes aluminum wires intertwined with woven carbon fibers as they are inserted into the surface of the CFRP honeycomb sandwich panels. Intensive characterization of T-ray for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of carbon composite reinforced plastics (CFRP) composites is discussed in relation to the E-field influence with CFRP composite laminates.

  20. Amplification of terahertz pulses in gases beyond thermodynamic equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaab, G. W.; Schroeck, K.; Havenith, M.

    2007-03-01

    In Ebbinghaus [Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 15, 72 (2006)] we reported terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in a plasma at low pressure, we observed a simultaneous absorption and amplification process within each single rotational transition. Here we show that this observation is a direct consequence of the short interaction time of the pulsed terahertz radiation with the plasma, which is shorter than the average collision time between the molecules. Thus, during the measurement time the molecular states may be considered entangled. Solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation yields a linear term that may be neglected for long observation times, large frequencies, or nonentangled states. We determine the restrictions for the observation of this effect and calculate the spectrum of a simple diatomic molecule. Using this model we are able to explain the spectral features showing a change from emission to absorption as observed previously. In addition we find that the amplification and absorption do not follow the typical Lambert-Beer exponential law but an approximate square law.

  1. Origin of strain-induced resonances in flexible terahertz metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiu-Yun; Li Xiao-Ning; Xu Hua; Liang Xian-Ting; Zheng Li-Ren; Zhang Xian-Peng; Lu Yue-Hui; Song Wei-Jie; Lee, Young-Pak; Rhee, Joo-Yull

    2016-01-01

    Two types of flexible terahertz metamaterials were fabricated on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates. The unit cell of one type consists of two identical split-ring resonators (SRRs) that are arranged face-to-face (i.e., FlexMetaF); the unit cell of the other type has nothing different but is arranged back-to-back (i.e., FlexMetaB). FlexMetaF and FlexMetaB illustrate the similar transmission dips under zero strain because the excitation of fundamental inductive–capacitive (LC) resonance is mainly dependent on the geometric structure of individual SRR. However, if a gradually variant strain is applied to bend FlexMetaF and FlexMetaB, the new resonant peaks appear: in the case of FlexMetaF, the peaks are located at the lower frequencies; in the case of FlexMetaB, the peaks appear at the frequencies adjacent to the LC resonance. The origin and evolution of strain-induced resonances are studied. The origin is ascribed to the detuning effect and the different responses to strain from FlexMetaF and FlexMetaB are associated with the coupling effect. These findings may improve the understanding on flexible terahertz metamaterials and benefit their applications in flexible or curved devices. (paper)

  2. Characteristics of Gadolinium Oxide Nanoparticles Using Terahertz Spectroscopy (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongkyu; Maeng, Inhee; Oh, Seung Jae; Kim, Taekhoon; Cho, Byung Kyu; Lee, Kwangyeol; Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2009-04-01

    The penetration property of the terahertz electromagnetic (THz) wave is relevant to its use. We used the THz wave spectroscopy system which easily penetrates some materials that do not contain water, e.g., plastic and ceramics. The system has been developed for several purposes, including measuring the properties of semiconductors and bio-materials, and detecting plastic bombs and ceramic knives at airports. It is also used for medical imaging systems, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), at some research institutes. It can show not only the difference in amplitude, but also the difference of the phase of each point of sample. MRI technology usually uses contrast agents to enhance the quality of the image. Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), made with a heavy metal ion, is commonly used as a clinical MRI contrast agent. Gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticle is a new contrast agent. It serves to equip the core of each particle with antibodies or ligands. It can freely circulate in blood vessels without amassing in the liver or lungs. This study shows the characteristics of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles to further advance terahertz medical imaging.

  3. Broadband and high-efficient terahertz wave deflection based on C-shaped complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Zhen

    2013-09-01

    A terahertz metamaterial comprised of C-shaped SRRs was experimentally devised and demonstrated to exhibit high-efficient and broadband anomalous refraction with strong phase discontinuities. The generalized refraction properties of the proposed metamaterial, including the effect of various incident angles and polarizations were investigated at broad terahertz frequencies. By employing such metasurface, we demonstrated a simple method to tailor transmission and phase of terahertz wave. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Broadband and high-efficient terahertz wave deflection based on C-shaped complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Zhen; Zhang, Xueqian; Yue, Weisheng; Gu, Jianqiang; Zhang, Shuang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2013-01-01

    A terahertz metamaterial comprised of C-shaped SRRs was experimentally devised and demonstrated to exhibit high-efficient and broadband anomalous refraction with strong phase discontinuities. The generalized refraction properties of the proposed metamaterial, including the effect of various incident angles and polarizations were investigated at broad terahertz frequencies. By employing such metasurface, we demonstrated a simple method to tailor transmission and phase of terahertz wave. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Terahertz pulse imaging for tree-ring analysis: a preliminary study for dendrochronology applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J B; Mourou, M; Whitaker, J F; Labaune, J; Mourou, G A; Duling, I N III; Williamson, S L; Lavier, C; Menu, M

    2009-01-01

    Time-domain terahertz reflection imaging is presented as a novel method of measuring otherwise inaccessible tree rings in wooden cultural heritage for the purpose of tree-ring crossdating. Axial and lateral two-dimensional terahertz images of obscured ring patterns are statistically validated with respect to their corresponding optical photographs via adapted dendrochronological methods. Results are compared to similar analysis of x-ray images of a wood specimen

  6. Fabrication of Terahertz Wave Resonators with Alumina Diamond Photonic Crystals for Frequency Amplification in Water Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, N; Niki, T; Kirihara, S

    2011-01-01

    Terahertz wave resonators composed of alumina photonic crystals with diamond lattice structures were designed and fabricated by using micro stereolithography. These three dimensional periodic structures can reflect perfectly electromagnetic waves through Bragg diffraction. A micro glass cell including water solutions was put between the photonic crystals as a novel resonance sensor with terahertz frequency range. The localized and amplified waves in the resonators were measured by a spectroscopy, and visualized by theoretical simulations.

  7. Generation of phase-locked and tunable continuous-wave radiation in the terahertz regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, Qudsia; Griebel, Martin; Kleine-Ostmann, Thomas; Bratschitsch, Rudolf

    2005-12-01

    Broadly tunable phase-stable single-frequency terahertz radiation is generated with an optical heterodyne photomixer. The photomixer is excited by two near-infrared CW diode lasers that are phase locked to the stabilized optical frequency comb of a femtosecond titanium:sapphire laser. The terahertz radiation emitted by the photomixer is downconverted into RF frequencies with a waveguide harmonic mixer and measurement-limited linewidths at the Hertz level are demonstrated.

  8. Broadband terahertz generation using the semiconductor-metal transition in VO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Charipar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of broadband terahertz emitters based on the semiconductor-metal transition in thin film VO2 (vanadium dioxide. With the appropriate geometry, picosecond electrical pulses are generated by illuminating 120 nm thick VO2 with 280 fs pulses from a femtosecond laser. These ultrafast electrical pulses are used to drive a simple dipole antenna, generating broadband terahertz radiation.

  9. Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian; Tian, Zhen; Yue, Weisheng; Gu, Jianqiang; Zhang, Shuang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2013-01-01

    A broadband terahertz wave deflector based on metasurface induced phase discontinuities is reported. Various frequency components ranging from 0.43 to 1.0 THz with polarization orthogonal to the incidence are deflected into a broad range of angles from 25° to 84°. A Fresnel zone plate consequently developed from the beam deflector is capable of focusing a broadband terahertz radiation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Continuous terahertz-wave generation using a monolithically integrated horn antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peytavit, E.; Beck, A.; Akalin, T.; Lampin, J.-F.; Hindle, F.; Yang, C.; Mouret, G.

    2008-09-01

    A transverse electromagnetic horn antenna is monolithically integrated with a standard ultrafast interdigitated electrode photodetector on low-temperature-grown GaAs. Continuous-wave terahertz radiation is generated at frequencies up to 2 THz with a maximum power of approximately 1 μW at 780 GHz. Experimental variations in the terahertz power as function of the frequency are explained by means of electromagnetic simulations of the antenna and the photomixer vicinity.

  11. Propagation of terahertz pulses in photoexcited media: analytical theory for layered systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kužel, Petr; Kadlec, Filip; Němec, Hynek

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 2 (2007), 024506/1-024506/11 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0286 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : terahertz * photoconductivity * ultrafast response * photonic crystals * optical pump * terahertz probe Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.044, year: 2007

  12. Investigation of the Emissivity and Suitability of a Carbon Thin Film for Terahertz Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    however, the understanding that the introduction of a carbon thin film could reduce signal loss and will result in a change in thermal fluctuations is...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS INVESTIGATION OF THE EMISSIVITY AND SUITABILITY OF A CARBON THIN FILM FOR TERAHERTZ ABSORBERS...TITLE AND SUBTITLE INVESTIGATION OF THE EMISSIVITY AND SUITABILITY OF A CARBON THIN FILM FOR TERAHERTZ ABSORBERS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Naomi C

  13. Investigation of Layer Structure of the Takamatsuzuka Mural Paintings by Terahertz Imaging Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inuzuka, M.; Kouzuma, Y.; Sugioka, N.; Fukunaga, K.; Tateishi, T.

    2017-04-01

    Terahertz imaging can be a powerful tool in conservation science for cultural heritages. In this study, a new terahertz imaging system was applied to the Takamatsuzuka mural painting of a blue dragon, and the condition of the plaster layer was diagnosed. As a result, the locations where the plaster layer appears solid on the surface but in actuality may have peeled off the underlying tuff stone were revealed and viewed as two-dimensional images.

  14. Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian

    2013-06-21

    A broadband terahertz wave deflector based on metasurface induced phase discontinuities is reported. Various frequency components ranging from 0.43 to 1.0 THz with polarization orthogonal to the incidence are deflected into a broad range of angles from 25° to 84°. A Fresnel zone plate consequently developed from the beam deflector is capable of focusing a broadband terahertz radiation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Homogeneous spectral spanning of terahertz semiconductor lasers with radio frequency modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, W J; Li, H; Zhou, T; Cao, J C

    2017-03-08

    Homogeneous broadband and electrically pumped semiconductor radiation sources emitting in the terahertz regime are highly desirable for various applications, including spectroscopy, chemical sensing, and gas identification. In the frequency range between 1 and 5 THz, unipolar quantum cascade lasers employing electron inter-subband transitions in multiple-quantum-well structures are the most powerful semiconductor light sources. However, these devices are normally characterized by either a narrow emission spectrum due to the narrow gain bandwidth of the inter-subband optical transitions or an inhomogeneous broad terahertz spectrum from lasers with heterogeneous stacks of active regions. Here, we report the demonstration of homogeneous spectral spanning of long-cavity terahertz semiconductor quantum cascade lasers based on a bound-to-continuum and resonant phonon design under radio frequency modulation. At a single drive current, the terahertz spectrum under radio frequency modulation continuously spans 330 GHz (~8% of the central frequency), which is the record for single plasmon waveguide terahertz lasers with a bound-to-continuum design. The homogeneous broadband terahertz sources can be used for spectroscopic applications, i.e., GaAs etalon transmission measurement and ammonia gas identification.

  16. Dynamic Gesture Recognition with a Terahertz Radar Based on Range Profile Sequences and Doppler Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Cao, Zongjie; Pi, Yiming

    2017-12-21

    The frequency of terahertz radar ranges from 0.1 THz to 10 THz, which is higher than that of microwaves. Multi-modal signals, including high-resolution range profile (HRRP) and Doppler signatures, can be acquired by the terahertz radar system. These two kinds of information are commonly used in automatic target recognition; however, dynamic gesture recognition is rarely discussed in the terahertz regime. In this paper, a dynamic gesture recognition system using a terahertz radar is proposed, based on multi-modal signals. The HRRP sequences and Doppler signatures were first achieved from the radar echoes. Considering the electromagnetic scattering characteristics, a feature extraction model is designed using location parameter estimation of scattering centers. Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) extended to multi-modal signals is used to accomplish the classifications. Ten types of gesture signals, collected from a terahertz radar, are applied to validate the analysis and the recognition system. The results of the experiment indicate that the recognition rate reaches more than 91%. This research verifies the potential applications of dynamic gesture recognition using a terahertz radar.

  17. Markets, Availability, Notice, and Technical Performance of Terahertz Systems: Historic Development, Present, and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochrein, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Although a lot of work has already been done under the older terms "far infrared" or "sub-millimeter waves", the term "terahertz" stands for a novel technique offering many potential applications. The latter term also represents a new generation of systems with the opportunity for coherent, time-resolved detection. In addition to the well-known technical opportunities, an historical examination of Internet usage, as well as the number of publications and patent applications, confirms ongoing interest in this technique. These activities' annual growth rate is between 9 % and 21 %. The geographical distribution shows the center of terahertz activities. A shift from the scientific to more application-oriented research can be observed. We present a survey among worldwide terahertz suppliers with special focus on the European region and the use of terahertz systems in the field of measurement and analytical applications. This reveals the current state of terahertz systems' commercial and geographical availability as well as their costs, target markets, and technical performance. Component cost distribution using the example of an optical pulsed time-domain terahertz system gives an impression of the prevailing cost structure. The predication regarding prospective market development, decreasing system costs and higher availability shows a convenient situation for potential users and interested customers. The causes are primarily increased competition and larger quantities in the future.

  18. [The Lambert-Beer's law characterization of formal analysis in Terahertz spectrum quantitative testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hai-Xia; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Zhao, Xiao-Yan; Li, Zhi; Yan, Fang; Zhang, Han

    2013-12-01

    The present paper discusses the Lambert-Beer' s law application in the terahertz spectrum, studies the single amino acid tablet sample (glutamine) and two kinds of amino acids mixture tablet (threonine and cystine) under the condition of different concentrations. Absorbance and absorption coefficient was analyzed in the description of the terahertz optical properties of matter. By comparing absorption coefficient and absorbance value of the single component in the vicinity of 1. 72 THz, we verified the material under two kinds of absorption characterization of quantity of THz wave absorption along with the change in the concentration. Using the index of goodness of fit R , it studied the stand or fall of linear relationship between the terahertz absorption quantity of material and concentration under two kinds of representation. This paper analyzes the two components mixture under two kinds of absorption characterization of quantity of terahertz absorption in 0. 3-2. 6 THz. Using the similarity co- efficient and the estimate concentration error as evaluation index, it has been clear that the absorbance of additivity instead of the absorption coefficient should be used during the terahertz spectrum quantitative test, and the Lambert-Beer's law application in the terahertz wave band was further clarified.

  19. MCM Polarimetric Radiometers for Planar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Dawson, Douglas; Gaier, Todd

    2007-01-01

    A polarimetric radiometer that operates at a frequency of 40 GHz has been designed and built as a prototype of multiple identical units that could be arranged in a planar array for scientific measurements. Such an array is planned for use in studying the cosmic microwave background (CMB). All of the subsystems and components of this polarimetric radiometer are integrated into a single multi-chip module (MCM) of substantially planar geometry. In comparison with traditional designs of polarimetric radiometers, the MCM design is expected to greatly reduce the cost per unit in an array of many such units. The design of the unit is dictated partly by a requirement, in the planned CMB application, to measure the Stokes parameters I, Q, and U of the CMB radiation with high sensitivity. (A complete definition of the Stokes parameters would exceed the scope of this article. In necessarily oversimplified terms, I is a measure of total intensity of radiation, while Q and U are measures of the relationships between the horizontally and vertically polarized components of radiation.) Because the sensitivity of a single polarimeter cannot be increased significantly, the only way to satisfy the high-sensitivity requirement is to make a large array of polarimeters that operate in parallel. The MCM includes contact pins that can be plugged into receptacles on a standard printed-circuit board (PCB). All of the required microwave functionality is implemented within the MCM; any required supporting non-microwave ("back-end") electronic functionality, including the provision of DC bias and control signals, can be implemented by standard PCB techniques. On the way from a microwave antenna to the MCM, the incoming microwave signal passes through an orthomode transducer (OMT), which splits the radiation into an h + i(nu) beam and an h - i(nu) beam (where, using complex-number notation, h denotes the horizontal component, nu denotes the vertical component, and +/-i denotes a +/-90deg phase

  20. Organic hybrid planar-nanocrystalline bulk heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R [Ann Arbor, MI; Yang, Fan [Piscataway, NJ

    2011-03-01

    A photosensitive optoelectronic device having an improved hybrid planar bulk heterojunction includes a plurality of photoconductive materials disposed between the anode and the cathode. The photoconductive materials include a first continuous layer of donor material and a second continuous layer of acceptor material. A first network of donor material or materials extends from the first continuous layer toward the second continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of holes to the first continuous layer. A second network of acceptor material or materials extends from the second continuous layer toward the first continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of electrons to the second continuous layer. The first network and the second network are interlaced with each other. At least one other photoconductive material is interspersed between the interlaced networks. This other photoconductive material or materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor and acceptor materials.