Baydin, Atilim Gunes
2008-01-01
With the aim of producing a stable human-like bipedal gait, a five-link planar walking mechanism was coupled with a central pattern generator (CPG) network, consisting of units based on Matsuoka's half-center oscillator model. As a minimalistic approach to bipedal walking, this type of walking mechanism contains only four actuators (two in the hip joints and two in the knee joints), and is lacking feet and ankles. Firstly, the mechanism was designed and built as a physical simulation programmed from scratch, providing a platform for hand-tuned tests and the creation of a CPG controller by genetic algorithms (GA). The oscillatory characteristics of the CPG network together with its internal connection structure and the feedback pathways from the environment were subject to GA optimization. The approach proved successful and the results were then transferred to a hardware realization of the five-link walking mechanism, to test how well these perform under real-world dynamics. Results suggest that the biological...
Theories of bipedal walking: an odyssey.
Vaughan, Christopher L
2003-04-01
In this paper six theories of bipedal walking, and the evidence in support of the theories, are reviewed. They include: evolution, minimising energy consumption, maturation in children, central pattern generators, linking control and effect, and robots on two legs. Specifically, the six theories posit that: (1) bipedalism is the fundamental evolutionary adaptation that sets hominids--and therefore humans--apart from other primates; (2) locomotion is the translation of the centre of gravity along a pathway requiring the least expenditure of energy; (3) when a young child takes its first few halting steps, his or her biomechanical strategy is to minimise the risk of falling; (4) a dedicated network of interneurons in the spinal cord generates the rhythm and cyclic pattern of electromyographic signals that give rise to bipedal gait; (5) bipedal locomotion is generated through global entrainment of the neural system on the one hand, and the musculoskeletal system plus environment on the other; and (6) powered dynamic gait in a bipedal robot can be realised only through a strategy which is based on stability and real-time feedback control. The published record suggests that each of the theories has some measure of support. However, it is important to note that there are other important theories of locomotion which have not been covered in this review. Despite such omissions, this odyssey has explored the wide spectrum of bipedal walking, from its origins through to the integration of the nervous, muscular and skeletal systems.
Modeling, simulation and optimization of bipedal walking
Berns, Karsten
2013-01-01
The model-based investigation of motions of anthropomorphic systems is an important interdisciplinary research topic involving specialists from many fields such as Robotics, Biomechanics, Physiology, Orthopedics, Psychology, Neurosciences, Sports, Computer Graphics and Applied Mathematics. This book presents a study of basic locomotion forms such as walking and running is of particular interest due to the high demand on dynamic coordination, actuator efficiency and balance control. Mathematical models and numerical simulation and optimization techniques are explained, in combination with experimental data, which can help to better understand the basic underlying mechanisms of these motions and to improve them. Example topics treated in this book are Modeling techniques for anthropomorphic bipedal walking systems Optimized walking motions for different objective functions Identification of objective functions from measurements Simulation and optimization approaches for humanoid robots Biologically inspired con...
Optimization of Mass and Stiffness Distribution for Efficient Bipedal Walking
Duindam, V.; Stramigioli, Stefano
2005-01-01
Energy-efficient control of bipedal walking robots requires both minimization of mechanical energy losses (often mainly due to impacts) and the use of natural oscillations in a mechanism to minimize actuator torques (as shown by research on passive dynamic walking). In this paper, we discuss how
Center of mass mechanics of chimpanzee bipedal walking.
Demes, Brigitte; Thompson, Nathan E; O'Neill, Matthew C; Umberger, Brian R
2015-03-01
Center of mass (CoM) oscillations were documented for 81 bipedal walking strides of three chimpanzees. Full-stride ground reaction forces were recorded as well as kinematic data to synchronize force to gait events and to determine speed. Despite being a bent-hip, bent-knee (BHBK) gait, chimpanzee walking uses pendulum-like motion with vertical oscillations of the CoM that are similar in pattern and relative magnitude to those of humans. Maximum height is achieved during single support and minimum height during double support. The mediolateral oscillations of the CoM are more pronounced relative to stature than in human walking when compared at the same Froude speed. Despite the pendular nature of chimpanzee bipedalism, energy recoveries from exchanges of kinetic and potential energies are low on average and highly variable. This variability is probably related to the poor phasic coordination of energy fluctuations in these facultatively bipedal animals. The work on the CoM per unit mass and distance (mechanical cost of transport) is higher than that in humans, but lower than that in bipedally walking monkeys and gibbons. The pronounced side sway is not passive, but constitutes 10% of the total work of lifting and accelerating the CoM. CoM oscillations of bipedally walking chimpanzees are distinctly different from those of BHBK gait of humans with a flat trajectory, but this is often described as "chimpanzee-like" walking. Human BHBK gait is a poor model for chimpanzee bipedal walking and offers limited insights for reconstructing early hominin gait evolution. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Analysis and simulation of fully ankle actuated planar bipedal robots
Franken, M.C.J.; van Oort, Gijs; Stramigioli, Stefano
2008-01-01
This paper deals with the analysis of planar bipedal robots, based on passive dynamic walkers, which are actuated only by actuation of the ankle joints. An overview of the major design characteristics of such robots and their influence on the feasibility of a stable limit cycle is presented. It is
Analysis and simulation of fully ankle actuated planar bipedal robots
Franken, Michel; Oort, van Gijs; Stramigioli, Stefano
2008-01-01
This paper deals with the analysis of planar bipedal robots, based on passive dynamic walkers, which are actuated only by actuation of the ankle joints. An overview of the major design characteristics of such robots and their influence on the feasibility of a stable limit cycle is presented. It is s
Using intelligent controller to enhance the walking stability of bipedal walking robot
Hsieh, Tsung-Che; Chang, Chia-Der
2016-07-01
This paper is to improve the stability issue of the bipedal walking robot. The study of robot's pivot joint constructs the driver system to control the implementation. First, a Proportion-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller is designed by which is used the concept of tuning parameter to achieve the stability of the system. Second, Fuzzy controller and tradition PID controller is used to maintain output. It improved original PID controller efficacy. Finally, Artificial Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) is utilized which is made the controller to achieve self-studying and modify the effect which is completed by the intelligent controller. It improved bipedal robot's stability control of realization. The result is verified that the walking stability of the bipedal walking robot in Matlab/Simulink. The intelligent controller has achieved the desired position of motor joint and the target stability performance.
The role of series ankle elasticity in bipedal walking.
Zelik, Karl E; Huang, Tzu-Wei P; Adamczyk, Peter G; Kuo, Arthur D
2014-04-07
The elastic stretch-shortening cycle of the Achilles tendon during walking can reduce the active work demands on the plantarflexor muscles in series. However, this does not explain why or when this ankle work, whether by muscle or tendon, needs to be performed during gait. We therefore employ a simple bipedal walking model to investigate how ankle work and series elasticity impact economical locomotion. Our model shows that ankle elasticity can use passive dynamics to aid push-off late in single support, redirecting the body's center-of-mass (COM) motion upward. An appropriately timed, elastic push-off helps to reduce dissipative collision losses at contralateral heelstrike, and therefore the positive work needed to offset those losses and power steady walking. Thus, the model demonstrates how elastic ankle work can reduce the total energetic demands of walking, including work required from more proximal knee and hip muscles. We found that the key requirement for using ankle elasticity to achieve economical gait is the proper ratio of ankle stiffness to foot length. Optimal combination of these parameters ensures proper timing of elastic energy release prior to contralateral heelstrike, and sufficient energy storage to redirect the COM velocity. In fact, there exist parameter combinations that theoretically yield collision-free walking, thus requiring zero active work, albeit with relatively high ankle torques. Ankle elasticity also allows the hip to power economical walking by contributing indirectly to push-off. Whether walking is powered by the ankle or hip, ankle elasticity may aid walking economy by reducing collision losses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Analysis and Development of Walking Algorithm Kinematic Model for 5-Degree of Freedom Bipedal Robot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gerald Wahyudi Setiono
2012-12-01
Full Text Available A design of walking diagram and the calculation of a bipedal robot have been developed. The bipedal robot was designed and constructed with several kinds of servo bracket for the legs, two feet and a hip. Each of the bipedal robot leg was 5-degrees of freedom, three pitches (hip joint, knee joint and ankle joint and two rolls (hip joint and ankle joint. The walking algorithm of this bipedal robot was based on the triangle formulation of cosine law to get the angle value at each joint. The hip height, height of the swinging leg and the step distance are derived based on linear equation. This paper discussed the kinematic model analysis and the development of the walking diagram of the bipedal robot. Kinematics equations were derived, the joint angles were simulated and coded into Arduino board to be executed to the robot.
Theoretical analysis of the state of balance in bipedal walking.
Firmani, Flavio; Park, Edward J
2013-04-01
This paper presents a theoretical analysis based on classic mechanical principles of balance of forces in bipedal walking. Theories on the state of balance have been proposed in the area of humanoid robotics and although the laws of classical mechanics are equivalent to both humans and humanoid robots, the resulting motion obtained with these theories is unnatural when compared to normal human gait. Humanoid robots are commonly controlled using the zero moment point (ZMP) with the condition that the ZMP cannot exit the foot-support area. This condition is derived from a physical model in which the biped must always walk under dynamically balanced conditions, making the centre of pressure (CoP) and the ZMP always coincident. On the contrary, humans follow a different strategy characterized by a 'controlled fall' at the end of the swing phase. In this paper, we present a thorough theoretical analysis of the state of balance and show that the ZMP can exit the support area, and its location is representative of the imbalance state characterized by the separation between the ZMP and the CoP. Since humans exhibit this behavior, we also present proof-of-concept results of a single subject walking on an instrumented treadmill at different speeds (from slow 0.7 m/s to fast 2.0 m/s walking with increments of 0.1 m/s) with the motion recorded using an optical motion tracking system. In order to evaluate the experimental results of this model, the coefficient of determination (R2) is used to correlate the measured ground reaction forces and the resultant of inertial and gravitational forces (anteroposterior R² = 0.93, mediolateral R² = 0.89, and vertical R² = 0.86) indicating that there is a high correlation between the measurements. The results suggest that the subject exhibits a complete dynamically balanced gait during slow speeds while experiencing a controlled fall (end of swing phase) with faster speeds. This is quantified with the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD
Stable bipedal walking with a swing-leg protraction strategy.
Bhounsule, Pranav A; Zamani, Ali
2017-01-25
In bipedal locomotion, swing-leg protraction and retraction refer to the forward and backward motion, respectively, of the swing-leg before touchdown. Past studies have shown that swing-leg retraction strategy can lead to stable walking. We show that swing-leg protraction can also lead to stable walking. We use a simple 2D model of passive dynamic walking but with the addition of an actuator between the legs. We use the actuator to do full correction of the disturbance in a single step (a one-step dead-beat control). Specifically, for a given limit cycle we perturb the velocity at mid-stance. Then, we determine the foot placement strategy that allows the walker to return to the limit cycle in a single step. For a given limit cycle, we find that there is swing-leg protraction at shallow slopes and swing-leg retraction at steep slopes. As the limit cycle speed increases, the swing-leg protraction region increases. On close examination, we observe that the choice of swing-leg strategy is based on two opposing effects that determine the time from mid-stance to touchdown: the walker speed at mid-stance and the adjustment in the step length for one-step dead-beat control. When the walker speed dominates, the swing-leg retracts but when the step length dominates, the swing-leg protracts. This result suggests that swing-leg strategy for stable walking depends on the model parameters, the terrain, and the stability measure used for control. This novel finding has a clear implication in the development of controllers for robots, exoskeletons, and prosthetics and to understand stability in human gaits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Modeling and analysis of passive dynamic bipedal walking with segmented feet and compliant joints
Huang, Yan; Wang, Qi-Ning; Gao, Yue; Xie, Guang-Ming
2012-10-01
Passive dynamic walking has been developed as a possible explanation for the efficiency of the human gait. This paper presents a passive dynamic walking model with segmented feet, which makes the bipedal walking gait more close to natural human-like gait. The proposed model extends the simplest walking model with the addition of flat feet and torsional spring based compliance on ankle joints and toe joints, to achieve stable walking on a slope driven by gravity. The push-off phase includes foot rotations around the toe joint and around the toe tip, which shows a great resemblance to human normal walking. This paper investigates the effects of the segmented foot structure on bipedal walking in simulations. The model achieves satisfactory walking results on even or uneven slopes.
Modeling and analysis of passive dynamic bipedal walking with segmented feet and compliant joints
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yan Huang; Qi-Ning Wang; Yue Gao; Guang-Ming Xie
2012-01-01
Passive dynamic walking has been developed as a possible explanation for the efficiency of the human gait.This paper presents a passive dynamic walking model with segmented feet,which makes the bipedal walking gait more close to natural human-like gait.The proposed model extends the simplest walking model with the addition of flat feet and torsional spring based compliance on ankle joints and toe joints,to achieve stable walking on a slope driven by gravity.The push-off phase includes foot rotations around the toe joint and around the toe tip,which shows a great resemblance to human normal walking.This paper investigates the effects of the segmented foot structure on bipedal walking in simulations. The model achieves satisfactory walking results on even or uneven slopes.
Development of bipedal walking in humans and chimpanzees: a comparative study.
Kimura, Tasuku; Yaguramaki, Naoko
2009-01-01
Development of bipedal walking from the very early stage of walking was studied longitudinally in infant humans and chimpanzees. In contrast to adults, infants of neither species could walk steadily and rhythmically step by step. Short braking duration and small recovery of mechanical energy were demonstrated in infants of both species. The trunk was inclined forwards, the extension of lower limb joints was limited and the accelerating force was not strongly activated. Potential energy was not efficiently used in progression. Walking in adult chimpanzees still showed a forward-inclined trunk, short braking duration, small recovery of energy and large variance of parameters compared to the unique human adult bipedalism. The locomotor characteristics of presumed pre-bipedal ancestors are discussed.
Study of Bipedal Robot Walking Motion in Low Gravity: Investigation and Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aiman Omer
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Humanoid robots are expected to play a major role in the future of space and planetary exploration. Humanoid robot features could have many advantages, such as interacting with astronauts and the ability to perform human tasks. However, the challenge of developing such a robot is quite high due to many difficulties. One of the main difficulties is the difference in gravity. Most researchers in the field of bipedal locomotion have not paid much attention to the effect of gravity. Gravity is an important parameter in generating a bipedal locomotion trajectory. This research investigates the effect of gravity on bipedal walking motion. It focuses on low gravity, since most of the known planets and moons have lower gravity than earth. Further study is conducted on a full humanoid robot model walking subject to the moon’s gravity, and an approach for dealing with moon gravity is proposed in this paper.
Planning and Control of Stable Walking for a 3D Bipedal Robot
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Ching-Long Shih
2012-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a time-invariant feedback controller that simultaneously regulates the ZMP (zero-moment point position and the joint configuration of a 3D biped in order to achieve an asymptotically, periodic walking gait for a 3D bipedal robot with feet. The cyclic walking gait is composed of a successive single-support phase and an impulsive impact with full plane-contact between the feet and the ground. The biped robot has 10 DOFs (degrees of freedom in the single-support phase and 10 actuators. In order to avoid the unexpected rotation of the supporting foot, the position of the ZMP in the horizontal plane has to be controlled. It is also desired that the feedback controller tracks a parameterized reference trajectory to achieve walking stability. We use the method of virtual constraints previously implemented for controlling point-feet bipedal robots to create a set of parameterized reference walking trajectories. By creating the hybrid zero dynamics, an orbital stability study with Poincaré map is evaluated in a reduced space. We then design a supplemental event-based feedback controller to enhance walking stability. The walking gait has an average walking speed of 0.76m/sec (or 0.72 body lengths per second in the simulation study.
Simulation Studies of Bipedal Walking on the Moon and Mars
Yamada, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Narukawa, Terumasa; Takahashi, Masaki; Hase, Kimitaka; Liu, Meigen; Mukai, Chiaki
In order to walk upright on the Moon or Mars without falling, a specific walking strategy to account for altered gravitational conditions must be verified. We have therefore been studying changes in the kinematics of walking at different gravitational loads using a body weight suspension system. Our simulation consisted of three gravitational conditions: 1 g (Earth); 1/3 g (Mars); and 1/6 g (the Moon). Surface EMG recordings were taken from the leg muscles of subjects walking on a treadmill. Cadence, stance phase duration, and step length were calculated from the walking velocity and steps. Subsequent experiments revealed that muscle activity and the duration of the double support phase decreased as simulated gravity was reduced. These changes are apparently caused not only by the direct effects of unloading but also by kinematic adaptations to the same. It can be said that humans walk slowly with a shortened stride and elongated stance phase in order to adjust to low gravitational conditions. One major limitation of our study that may have affected walking stability was the fact that the suspension system was fixed to an immovable frame. We have begun further studies using a newer movable body weight suspension system to achieve more realistic simulations.
On the mechanics of functional asymmetry in bipedal walking.
Gregg, Robert D; Dhaher, Yasin Y; Degani, Amir; Lynch, Kevin M
2012-05-01
This paper uses two symmetrical models, the passive compass-gait biped and a five-link 3-D biped, to computationally investigate the cause and function of gait asymmetry. We show that for a range of slope angles during passive 2-D walking and mass distributions during controlled 3-D walking, these models have asymmetric walking patterns between the left and right legs due to the phenomenon of spontaneous symmetry-breaking. In both cases a stable asymmetric family of gaits emerges from a symmetric family of gaits as the total energy increases (e.g., fast speeds). The ground reaction forces of each leg reflect different roles, roughly corresponding to support, propulsion, and motion control as proposed by the hypothesis of functional asymmetry in able-bodied human walking. These results suggest that body mechanics, independent of neurophysiological mechanisms such as leg dominance, may contribute to able-bodied gait asymmetry.
Novel Control Algorithm for the Foot Placement of a Walking Bipedal Robot
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Wanli Liu
2013-04-01
Full Text Available A novel control algorithm for the foot placement of walking bipedal robots is proposed which can output the optimal step time and step location to obtain a desired walking gait from every feasible robot state. The step time and step location are determined by approximating the robot dynamics with the 3D linear inverted pendulum model and analytically solving the constraint equations. Intensive simulation studies are conducted to check the validity of the theoretical results. The results of this study show that the proposed control algorithm can get the system to a desired gait cycle from every feasible state within a finite number of steps.
Dynamic Stability of Passive Bipedal Walking on Rough Terrain:A Preliminary Simulation Study
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Parsa Nassiri Afshar; Lei Ren
2012-01-01
A simplified 2D passive dynamic model was simulated to walk down on a rough slope surface defined by deterministic profiles to investigate how the walking stability changes with increasing surface roughness.Our results show that the passive walker can walk on rough surfaces subject to surface roughness up to approximately 0.1％ of its leg length.This indicates that bipedal walkers based on passive dynamics may possess some intrinsic stability to adapt to rough terrains although the maximum roughness they can tolerate is small.Orbital stability method was used to quantify the walking stability before the walker started to fall over.It was found that the average maximum Floquet multiplier increases with surface roughness in a non-linear form.Although the passive walker remained orbitally stable for all the simulation cases,the results suggest that the possibility of the bipedal model moving away from its limit cycle increases with the surface roughness if subjected to additional perturbations.The number of consecutive steps before falling was used to measure the walking stability after the passive walker started to fall over.The results show that the number of steps before falling decreases exponentially with the increase in surface roughness.When the roughness magnitude approached to 0.73％ of the walker's leg length,it fell down to the ground as soon as it entered into the uneven terrain.It was also found that shifting the phase angle of the surface profile has apparent affect on the system stability.This is probably because point contact was used to simulate the heel strikes and the resulted variations in system states at heel strikes may have pronounced impact on the passive gaits,which have narrow basins of attraction.These results would provide insight into how the dynamic stability of passive bipedal walkers evolves with increasing surface roughness.
O'Neill, Matthew C; Lee, Leng-Feng; Demes, Brigitte; Thompson, Nathan E; Larson, Susan G; Stern, Jack T; Umberger, Brian R
2015-09-01
The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is a facultative biped and our closest living relative. As such, the musculoskeletal anatomies of their pelvis and hind limbs have long provided a comparative context for studies of human and fossil hominin locomotion. Yet, how the chimpanzee pelvis and hind limb actually move during bipedal walking is still not well defined. Here, we describe the three-dimensional (3-D) kinematics of the pelvis, hip, knee and ankle during bipedal walking and compare those values to humans walking at the same dimensionless and dimensional velocities. The stride-to-stride and intraspecific variations in 3-D kinematics were calculated using the adjusted coefficient of multiple correlation. Our results indicate that humans walk with a more stable pelvis than chimpanzees, especially in tilt and rotation. Both species exhibit similar magnitudes of pelvis list, but with segment motion that is opposite in phasing. In the hind limb, chimpanzees walk with a more flexed and abducted limb posture, and substantially exceed humans in the magnitude of hip rotation during a stride. The average stride-to-stride variation in joint and segment motion was greater in chimpanzees than humans, while the intraspecific variation was similar on average. These results demonstrate substantial differences between human and chimpanzee bipedal walking, in both the sagittal and non-sagittal planes. These new 3-D kinematic data are fundamental to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanics, energetics and control of chimpanzee bipedalism.
Asymptotically Stable Walking of a Five-Link Underactuated 3D Bipedal Robot
Chevallereau, Christine; Shih, Ching-Long; 10.1109/TRO.2008.2010366
2010-01-01
This paper presents three feedback controllers that achieve an asymptotically stable, periodic, and fast walking gait for a 3D (spatial) bipedal robot consisting of a torso, two legs, and passive (unactuated) point feet. The contact between the robot and the walking surface is assumed to inhibit yaw rotation. The studied robot has 8 DOF in the single support phase and 6 actuators. The interest of studying robots with point feet is that the robot's natural dynamics must be explicitly taken into account to achieve balance while walking. We use an extension of the method of virtual constraints and hybrid zero dynamics, in order to simultaneously compute a periodic orbit and an autonomous feedback controller that realizes the orbit. This method allows the computations to be carried out on a 2-DOF subsystem of the 8-DOF robot model. The stability of the walking gait under closed-loop control is evaluated with the linearization of the restricted Poincar\\'e map of the hybrid zero dynamics. Three strategies are explo...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bauer, Fabian; Römer, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.roemer@kit.edu; Fidlin, Alexander; Seemann, Wolfgang [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany)
2016-11-15
This paper presents a method to optimize the energy efficiency of walking bipedal robots by more than 80 % in a speed range from 0.3 to 2.3 m/s using elastic couplings—mechanical springs with movement speed independent parameters. The considered planar robot consists of a trunk, two two-segmented legs, two actuators in the hip joints, two actuators in the knee joints and an elastic coupling between the shanks. It is modeled as underactuated system to make use of its natural dynamics and feedback controlled via input–output linearization. A numerical optimization of the joint angle trajectories as well as the elastic couplings is performed to minimize the average energy expenditure over the whole speed range. The elastic couplings increase the swing leg motion’s natural frequency thus making smaller steps more efficient which reduce the impact loss at the touchdown of the swing leg. The process of energy turnover is investigated in detail for the robot with and without elastic coupling between the shanks. Furthermore, the influences of the elastic couplings’ topology and of joint friction are analyzed. It is shown that the optimization of the robot’s motion and elastic coupling towards energy efficiency leads to a slightly slower convergence rate of the controller, yet no loss of stability, but a lower sensitivity with respect to disturbances. The optimal elastic coupling discovered via numerical optimization is a linear torsion spring with transmissions between the shanks. A design proposal for this elastic coupling—which does not affect the robot’s trunk and parallel shank motion and can be used to enhance an existing robot—is given for planar as well as spatial robots.
[A model of bipedal walking adaptable to an unpredictably dynamic environment].
Yano, Masafumi; Tomita, Nozomi; Makino, Yoshinari
2010-11-01
Modern science has been developed through concept of subject-object separation. That is, nature has been cordoned off from human beings and objectified. We have attempted to discover ideal world laws wherein we can consider nature as homogeneous. The real world, however, is by far more complicated than what natural sciences have so far been able to decipher. There are many problems that cannot be effectively addressed with the existing scientific technology. Because the real world is so unpredictable and dynamic, it is impossible to objectify it in advance and apply traditional methodology. This real world problem arises especially in information processing systems, that is, the recognition and the motion control systems coping with the real world. The current information systems can only handle explicit and complete information. Life is an intrinsic part of nature. To be both pliant and sturdy in a complex environment requires autonomy capable of creating the information needed to control the self. It forms the premise for the cognizance and control of life systems that exist in reality. To "live," a life system must independently forge a harmonious relationship with an unlimited environment. It requires that the life system be capable of creating the information necessary for self-control. It is this autonomy that clearly distinguishes the world of life systems from the physical world. Here, we will show an example of adaptive bipedal walking under an indefinite environment.
Control strategy for energy-efficient bipedal walking with variable leg stiffness
Visser, L.C.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Carloni, Raffaella
In this work, we propose a hybrid model for a bipedal walker with controlled variable leg stiffness, and a control strategy for stable gait control. The control reference is a passive gait of the limit-case bipedal spring-loaded inverted pendulum model with massless feet, ensuring that the gait is
Control strategy for energy-efficient bipedal walking with variable leg stiffness
Visser, L.C.; Stramigioli, S.; Carloni, R.
2013-01-01
In this work, we propose a hybrid model for a bipedal walker with controlled variable leg stiffness, and a control strategy for stable gait control. The control reference is a passive gait of the limit-case bipedal spring-loaded inverted pendulum model with massless feet, ensuring that the gait is c
Holowka, Nicholas B; O'Neill, Matthew C; Thompson, Nathan E; Demes, Brigitte
2017-03-01
The longitudinal arch of the human foot is commonly thought to reduce midfoot joint motion to convert the foot into a rigid lever during push off in bipedal walking. In contrast, African apes have been observed to exhibit midfoot dorsiflexion following heel lift during terrestrial locomotion, presumably due to their possession of highly mobile midfoot joints. This assumed dichotomy between human and African ape midfoot mobility has recently been questioned based on indirect assessments of in vivo midfoot motion, such as plantar pressure and cadaver studies; however, direct quantitative analyses of African ape midfoot kinematics during locomotion remain scarce. Here, we used high-speed motion capture to measure three-dimensional foot kinematics in two male chimpanzees and five male humans walking bipedally at similar dimensionless speeds. We analyzed 10 steps per chimpanzee subject and five steps per human subject, and compared ranges of midfoot motion between species over stance phase, as well as within double- and single-limb support periods. Contrary to expectations, humans used a greater average range of midfoot motion than chimpanzees over the full duration of stance. This difference was driven by humans' dramatic plantarflexion and adduction of the midfoot joints during the second double-limb support period, which likely helps the foot generate power during push off. However, chimpanzees did use slightly but significantly more midfoot dorsiflexion than humans in the single limb-support period, during which heel lift begins. These results indicate that both stiffness and mobility are important to longitudinal arch function, and that the human foot evolved to utilize both during push off in bipedal walking. Thus, the presence of human-like midfoot joint morphology in fossil hominins should not be taken as indicating foot rigidity, but may signify the evolution of pedal anatomy conferring enhanced push off mechanics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Chen, Ching-Pei; Chen, Jing-Yi; Huang, Chun-Kai; Lu, Jau-Ching; Lin, Pei-Chun
2015-02-27
We report on a sensor data fusion algorithm via an extended Kalman filter for estimating the spatial motion of a bipedal robot. Through fusing the sensory information from joint encoders, a 6-axis inertial measurement unit and a 2-axis inclinometer, the robot's body state at a specific fixed position can be yielded. This position is also equal to the CoM when the robot is in the standing posture suggested by the detailed CAD model of the robot. In addition, this body state is further utilized to provide sensory information for feedback control on a bipedal robot with walking gait. The overall control strategy includes the proposed body state estimator as well as the damping controller, which regulates the body position state of the robot in real-time based on instant and historical position tracking errors. Moreover, a posture corrector for reducing unwanted torque during motion is addressed. The body state estimator and the feedback control structure are implemented in a child-size bipedal robot and the performance is experimentally evaluated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ching-Pei Chen
2015-02-01
Full Text Available We report on a sensor data fusion algorithm via an extended Kalman filter for estimating the spatial motion of a bipedal robot. Through fusing the sensory information from joint encoders, a 6-axis inertial measurement unit and a 2-axis inclinometer, the robot’s body state at a specific fixed position can be yielded. This position is also equal to the CoM when the robot is in the standing posture suggested by the detailed CAD model of the robot. In addition, this body state is further utilized to provide sensory information for feedback control on a bipedal robot with walking gait. The overall control strategy includes the proposed body state estimator as well as the damping controller, which regulates the body position state of the robot in real-time based on instant and historical position tracking errors. Moreover, a posture corrector for reducing unwanted torque during motion is addressed. The body state estimator and the feedback control structure are implemented in a child-size bipedal robot and the performance is experimentally evaluated.
Bipedal locomotion in granular media
Kingsbury, Mark; Zhang, Tingnan; Goldman, Daniel
Bipedal walking, locomotion characterized by alternating swing and double support phase, is well studied on ground where feet do not penetrate the substrate. On granular media like sand however, intrusion and extrusion phases also occur. In these phases, relative motion of the two feet requires that one or both feet slip through the material, degrading performance. To study walking in these phases, we designed and studied a planarized bipedal robot (1.6 kg, 42 cm) that walked in a fluidized bed of poppy seeds. We also simulated the robot in a multibody software environment (Chrono) using granular resistive force theory (RFT) to calculate foot forces. In experiment and simulation, the robot experienced slip during the intrusion phase, with the experiment presenting additional slip due to motor control error during the double support phase. This exaggerated slip gave insight (through analysis of ground reaction forces in simulation) into how slip occurs when relative motion exists between the two feet in the granular media, where the foot with higher relative drag forces (from its instantaneous orientation, rotation, relative direction of motion, and depth) remains stationary. With this relationship, we generated walking gaits for the robot to walk with minimal slip.
Performance Comparison of a Planar Bipedal Robot with Rigid and Compliant Legs
Jafarian, Matin; Oort, van Gijs; Carloni, Raffaella; Stramigioli, Stefano
2011-01-01
The purpose of this work is to study the effect of placing passive storage elements (springs) along the robot legs on its performance. We first present the model of a planar passive dynamic walker with compliant ground contact model, then replace its rigid legs with compliant legs. Simulation result
Verdaasdonk, B.W.
2008-01-01
Walking is a very important function of the human movement apparatus. The question how walking is controlled by the central nervous system is yet to be answered. A number of reasons lead us to believe that neural oscillators in the spinal cord, termed Central Pattern Generators (CPGs), have a major
Verdaasdonk, Bart Willem
2008-01-01
Walking is a very important function of the human movement apparatus. The question how walking is controlled by the central nervous system is yet to be answered. A number of reasons lead us to believe that neural oscillators in the spinal cord, termed Central Pattern Generators (CPGs), have a major
Exploiting Inherent Robustness and Natural Dynamics in the Control of Bipedal Walking Robots
2000-06-01
actuators to increase its performance. McGeer suggested using plantar flexion to enable a passive walker to walk on flat ground or uphill. Goswami, et...Potentiometers at the hips, knees, ankles, and boom measure joint angles and body pitch. Com- pression springs are used in the joint actuators to
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Weijie
2007-01-01
Modern human has different body proportion from early hominids and great apes. Comparing with others, in general, modern human adults have relatively long lower limb and heavier body weight. Since the lower limbs provide support to the whole body and play an important role in walking, it is proposed that the ratio of the lower limb to the whole body for modern human could be beneficial to bipedal walking. This study tried to estimate the muscle parameters of the lower limb in walking for the subjects with various body proportions. Using a simplified musculoskeletal model, some muscle parameters of the lower limb, e.g. muscle force, stress, work and power, were estimated for modern human adult, child, AL 288-1 (the fossil specimens of Australopithecus afarensis, 3.18 million years old) and apes. The results show that with the body proportion modern human adult spends less muscle work and power in walking than other subjects. The results imply that using the cost of transport (i.e. the muscle work of the lower limb per unit of displacement) as the criteria, the early hominids, if their body proportions were structurally similar to AL 288-1, could evolve towards what modern human adult looks like, in order to save energy during bipedal walking.
Mechatronic Wearable Exoskeletons for Bionic Bipedal Standing and Walking: A New Synthetic Approach
Onose, Gelu; Cârdei, Vladimir; Crăciunoiu, Ştefan T.; Avramescu, Valeriu; Opriş, Ioan; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Constantinescu, Marian Vladimir
2016-01-01
During the last few years, interest has been growing to mechatronic and robotic technologies utilized in wearable powered exoskeletons that assist standing and walking. The available literature includes single-case reports, clinical studies conducted in small groups of subjects, and several recent systematic reviews. These publications have fulfilled promotional and marketing objectives but have not yet resulted in a fully optimized, practical wearable exoskeleton. Here we evaluate the progress and future directions in this field from a joint perspective of health professionals, manufacturers, and consumers. We describe the taxonomy of existing technologies and highlight the main improvements needed for the development and functional optimization of the practical exoskeletons. PMID:27746711
Predicting human walking gaits with a simple planar model.
Martin, Anne E; Schmiedeler, James P
2014-04-11
Models of human walking with moderate complexity have the potential to accurately capture both joint kinematics and whole body energetics, thereby offering more simultaneous information than very simple models and less computational cost than very complex models. This work examines four- and six-link planar biped models with knees and rigid circular feet. The two differ in that the six-link model includes ankle joints. Stable periodic walking gaits are generated for both models using a hybrid zero dynamics-based control approach. To establish a baseline of how well the models can approximate normal human walking, gaits were optimized to match experimental human walking data, ranging in speed from very slow to very fast. The six-link model well matched the experimental step length, speed, and mean absolute power, while the four-link model did not, indicating that ankle work is a critical element in human walking models of this type. Beyond simply matching human data, the six-link model can be used in an optimization framework to predict normal human walking using a torque-squared objective function. The model well predicted experimental step length, joint motions, and mean absolute power over the full range of speeds.
Bipedal Walking Simulation System Using OpenGL for Humanoid Robot%基于OpenGL的仿人机器人步行仿真研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宋薇; 章亚男; 见浪護; 刘勖
2013-01-01
Foot model is usually considered as one point or a circle in most bipedal walking simulations for decreasing the modeling difficulty. However, such simulations are less persuasive because the foot model is much different from the real human foot. The dynamic model of a bipedal humanoid robot composed by multi-links was set up by using a graphic presentation software "Open GL" under C++ Builder 6.0 environment. Several different walking styles were analyzed that may exist in a walking sequence including the style of foot rotating with toes-contacting, to make the walking of the robot more like human beings. Switching among those styles depended on different contact situations between the foot and the ground. Control strategy for bipedal walking simulation utilized position feedback and sinusoidal input, and stable walking with dynamic walking styles changing was obtained in the simulation.%已有的仿真建模中,为了减少复杂性,大多将人足模型简化为点或圆弧,这与实际情况相差较远.在C++Builder 6.0环境下利用“Open GL”图形库建立了3D仿人型机器人双足步行仿真系统,用多关节串联机构模拟足部,实现包括由前脚掌支撑、足部转动的多种步态方式,并分析步行中各种步态间的转换,根据机器人脚跟、脚尖与地面接触状态的变化动态切换不同的步态方式,符合人足步行的实际情况,增强了机器人步行的灵活性与拟人性.该系统的控制部分采用位置反馈与正弦驱动相结合的行走控制方法,通过对人足模型的多关节动力学建模,有效地实现了机器人的稳定步行仿真,并实现了步行过程中的实时步态调整.
Aoi, Shinya; Ogihara, Naomichi; Funato, Tetsuro; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Kazuo
2010-05-01
The central pattern generators (CPGs) in the spinal cord strongly contribute to locomotor behavior. To achieve adaptive locomotion, locomotor rhythm generated by the CPGs is suggested to be functionally modulated by phase resetting based on sensory afferent or perturbations. Although phase resetting has been investigated during fictive locomotion in cats, its functional roles in actual locomotion have not been clarified. Recently, simulation studies have been conducted to examine the roles of phase resetting during human bipedal walking, assuming that locomotion is generated based on prescribed kinematics and feedback control. However, such kinematically based modeling cannot be used to fully elucidate the mechanisms of adaptation. In this article we proposed a more physiologically based mathematical model of the neural system for locomotion and investigated the functional roles of phase resetting. We constructed a locomotor CPG model based on a two-layered hierarchical network model of the rhythm generator (RG) and pattern formation (PF) networks. The RG model produces rhythm information using phase oscillators and regulates it by phase resetting based on foot-contact information. The PF model creates feedforward command signals based on rhythm information, which consists of the combination of five rectangular pulses based on previous analyses of muscle synergy. Simulation results showed that our model establishes adaptive walking against perturbing forces and variations in the environment, with phase resetting playing important roles in increasing the robustness of responses, suggesting that this mechanism of regulation may contribute to the generation of adaptive human bipedal locomotion.
Wang, W J; Crompton, R H; Li, Y; Gunther, M M
2003-05-01
We have previously reported that predictive dynamic modeling suggests that the 'bent-hip, bent-knee' gait, which some attribute to Australopithecus afarensis AL-288-1, would have been much more expensive in mechanical terms for this hominid than an upright gait. Normal walking by modern adult humans owes much of its efficiency to conservation of energy by transformation between its potential and kinetic states. These findings suggest the question if, and to what extent, energy transformation exists in 'bent-hip, bent-knee' gait. This study calculates energy transformation in humans walking upright, at three different speeds, and walking 'bent-hip, bent-knee'. Kinematic data were gathered from video sequences and kinetic (ground reaction force) data from synchronous forceplate measurement. Applying Newtonian mechanics to our experimental data, the fluctuations of kinetic and potential energy in the body centre of mass were obtained and the effects of energy transformation evaluated and compared. In erect walking the fluctuations of two forms of energy are indeed largely out-of-phase, so that energy transformation occurs and total energy is conserved. In 'bent-hip, bent-knee' walking, however, the fluctuations of the kinetic and potential energy are much more in-phase, so that energy transformation occurs to a much lesser extent. Among all modes of walking the highest energy recovery is obtained in subjectively 'comfortable' walking, the next highest in subjectively 'fast' or 'slow' walking, and the least lowest in 'bent-hip, bent-knee' walking. The results imply that if 'bent-hip, bent-knee' gait was indeed habitually practiced by early bipedal hominids, a very substantial (and in our view as yet unidentified) selective advantage would have had to accrue, to offset the selective disadvantages of 'bent-hip, bent-knee' gait in terms of energy transformation.
Planning and Control of COP-Switch-Based Planar Biped Walking
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
X. Luo; W. Li; C. Zhu
2011-01-01
Efficient walking is one of the main goals of researches on biped robots. A feasible way is to translate the understanding from human walking into robot walking, for example, an artificial control approach on a human like walking structure. In this paper, a walking pattern based on Center of Pressure (COP) switched and modeled after human walking is introduced firstly.Then, a parameterization method for the proposed walking gait is presented. In view of the complication, a multi-space planning method which divides the whole planning task into three sub-spaces, including simplified model space, work space and joint space, is proposed. Furthermore, a finite-state-based control method is also developed to implement the proposed walking pattern. The state switches of this method are driven by sensor events. For convincing verification, a 2D simulation system with a 9-link planar biped robot is developed. The simulation results exhibit an efficient walking gait.
Walking loads analysis based on a new bipedal model and its parameters’effect%基于新型双足模型的步行荷载分析及其参数研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王益鹤; 杨娜
2015-01-01
It was previously shown that a bipedal model can be employed to simulate human periodic walking. Based on the model in ISO 5982 and a bipedal model,a new bipedal model was introduced.The dynamic equations of human walking were established by means of Lagrange equations.The mass,damping,stiffness matrices,and the force vector of the human walking system were defined from these equations.Walking characteristics and energy change were studied.The effects of leg stiffness,impact angle and walking speed on the reaction force of ground were analyzed.The results showed that the new bipedal model can be used to simulate human periodic walking cycles consisting of single and double support phases;the total energy of the model is constant,it includes gravitational potential energy,kinetic energy and elastic potential energy,they convertes each other in walking process;variations of leg stiffness,impact angle and walking speed have a greater effect on walking characteristics,but leg stiffness has a smaller effect on walking period and walking step length.%双足模型可模拟人的周期步行问题。基于 ISO 5982模型与双足模型，建立了新型双足步行模型。采用Lagrange 方程描述步行过程中的运动方程，确定了系统的质量矩阵、刚度矩阵、阻尼矩阵和荷载向量。研究了人体步行的力学特性及能量变化过程，分析了腿刚度、冲击角和步行速度等参数对地面反力的影响。结果表明：新型双足模型能够模拟包括双足和单足支撑阶段完整连续的步行过程；连续平稳步行中的总能量恒定，各能量随步行过程在重力势能、弹性势能和动能之间转化；腿刚度、冲击角和步行速度对步行特性有较大影响，但腿刚度对步行周期和步长的影响较小。
Skeletal adaptations to bipedalism
Vasiljević Perica; Žabar Andrea; Aleksić Milena
2014-01-01
Bipedalism is the main characteristic of humans. During evolutin bipedalism emerged probably as an adaptation to a changing environment. Major changes in skeletal system included femur, pelvis, skull and spine. The significance of bipedal locomotion: Bipedalism freed the forelimbs for carrying objects, creation and usage of tools. In the upright position animals have a broader view of the environment and the early detection of predators is crucial for survival. Bipedal locomotion makes larger...
Foot placement in robotic bipedal locomotion
De Boer, T.
2012-01-01
Human walking is remarkably robust, versatile and energy-efficient: humans have the ability to handle large unexpected disturbances, perform a wide variety of gaits and consume little energy. A bipedal walking robot that performs well on all of these aspects has not yet been developed. Some robots a
Foot placement in robotic bipedal locomotion
De Boer, T.
2012-01-01
Human walking is remarkably robust, versatile and energy-efficient: humans have the ability to handle large unexpected disturbances, perform a wide variety of gaits and consume little energy. A bipedal walking robot that performs well on all of these aspects has not yet been developed. Some robots a
Skeletal adaptations to bipedalism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasiljević Perica
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Bipedalism is the main characteristic of humans. During evolutin bipedalism emerged probably as an adaptation to a changing environment. Major changes in skeletal system included femur, pelvis, skull and spine. The significance of bipedal locomotion: Bipedalism freed the forelimbs for carrying objects, creation and usage of tools. In the upright position animals have a broader view of the environment and the early detection of predators is crucial for survival. Bipedal locomotion makes larger distances easier to pass, which is very important in the migration of hominids.
Stability and control of dynamic walking for a five-link planar biped robot with feet
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chenglong FU; Ken CHEN; Jing XIONG; Leon XU
2007-01-01
During dynamic walking of biped robots, the underactuated rotating degree of freedom (DOF) emerges between the support foot and the ground, which makes the biped model hybrid and dimension-variant. This paper addresses the asymptotic orbit stability for dimension-variant hybrid systems (DVHS). Based on the generalized Poincare map, the stability criterion for DVHS is also presented, and the result is then used to study dynamic walking for a five-link planar biped robot with feet. Time-invariant gait planning and nonlinear control strategy for dynamic walking with flat feet is also introduced. Simulation results indicate that an asymptotically stable limit cycle of dynamic walking is achieved by the proposed method.
Underwater bipedal locomotion by octopuses in disguise.
Huffard, Christine L; Boneka, Farnis; Full, Robert J
2005-03-25
Here we report bipedal movement with a hydrostatic skeleton. Two species of octopus walk on two alternating arms using a rolling gait and appear to use the remaining six arms for camouflage. Octopus marginatus resembles a coconut, and Octopus (Abdopus) aculeatus, a clump of floating algae. Using underwater video, we analyzed the kinematics of their strides. Each arm was on the sand for more than half of the stride, qualifying this behavior as a form of walking.
Three-dimensional kinematics of capuchin monkey bipedalism.
Demes, Brigitte
2011-05-01
Capuchin monkeys are known to use bipedalism when transporting food items and tools. The bipedal gait of two capuchin monkeys in the laboratory was studied with three-dimensional kinematics. Capuchins progress bipedally with a bent-hip, bent-knee gait. The knee collapses into flexion during stance and the hip drops in height. The knee is also highly flexed during swing to allow the foot which is plantarflexed to clear the ground. The forefoot makes first contact at touchdown. Stride frequency is high, and stride length and limb excursion low. Hind limb retraction is limited, presumably to reduce the pitch moment of the forward-leaning trunk. Unlike human bipedalism, the bipedal gait of capuchins is not a vaulting gait, and energy recovery from pendulum-like exchanges is unlikely. It extends into speeds at which humans and other animals run, but without a human-like gait transition. In this respect it resembles avian bipedal gaits. It remains to be tested whether energy is recovered through cyclic elastic storage and release as in bipedal birds at higher speeds. Capuchin bipedalism has many features in common with the facultative bipedalism of other primates which is further evidence for restrictions on a fully upright striding gait in primates that transition to bipedalism. It differs from the facultative bipedalism of other primates in the lack of an extended double-support phase and short aerial phases at higher speeds that make it a run by kinematic definition. This demonstrates that facultative bipedalism of quadrupedal primates need not necessarily be a walking gait.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jau-Ching Lu; Jing-Yi Chen; Pei-Chun Lin
2013-01-01
We report the development of turning behavior on a child-size bipedal robot that addresses two common scenarios:turning in place and simultaneous walking and turning.About turning in place,three strategies are investigated and compared,including body-first,leg-first,and body/leg-simultaneous.These three strategies are used for three actions,respectively:when walking follows turning immediately,when space behind the robot is very tight,and when a large turning angle is desired.Concerning simultaneous walking and turning,the linear inverted pendulum is used as the motion model in the single-leg support phase,and the polynomial-based trajectory is used as the motion model in the double-leg support phase and for smooth motion connectivity to motions in a priori and a posteriori single-leg support phases.Compared to the trajectory generation of ordinary walking,that of simultaneous walking and turning introduces only two extra parameters:one for determining new heading direction and the other for smoothing the Center of Mass (COM) trajectory.The trajectory design methodology is validated in both simulation and experimental environments,and successful robot behavior confirms the effectiveness of the strategy.
Laetoli footprints preserve earliest direct evidence of human-like bipedal biomechanics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David A Raichlen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Debates over the evolution of hominin bipedalism, a defining human characteristic, revolve around whether early bipeds walked more like humans, with energetically efficient extended hind limbs, or more like apes with flexed hind limbs. The 3.6 million year old hominin footprints at Laetoli, Tanzania represent the earliest direct evidence of hominin bipedalism. Determining the kinematics of Laetoli hominins will allow us to understand whether selection acted to decrease energy costs of bipedalism by 3.6 Ma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an experimental design, we show that the Laetoli hominins walked with weight transfer most similar to the economical extended limb bipedalism of humans. Humans walked through a sand trackway using both extended limb bipedalism, and more flexed limb bipedalism. Footprint morphology from extended limb trials matches weight distribution patterns found in the Laetoli footprints. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide us with the earliest direct evidence of kinematically human-like bipedalism currently known, and show that extended limb bipedalism evolved long before the appearance of the genus Homo. Since extended-limb bipedalism is more energetically economical than ape-like bipedalism, energy expenditure was likely an important selection pressure on hominin bipeds by 3.6 Ma.
Reactive and anticipatory control of posture and bipedal locomotion in a nonhuman primate.
Mori, Futoshi; Nakajima, Katsumi; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Takasu, Chijiko; Mori, Masahiro; Tsujimoto, Toru; Tsukada, Hideo; Mori, Shigemi
2004-01-01
Bipedal locomotion is a common daily activity. Despite its apparent simplicity, it is a complex set of movements that requires the integrated neural control of multiple body segments. We have recently shown that the juvenile Japanese monkey, M. fuscata, can be operant-trained to walk bipedally on moving treadmill. It can control the body axis and lower limb movements when confronted by a change in treadmill speed. M. fuscata can also walk bipedally on a slanted treadmill. Furthermore, it can learn to clear an obstacle attached to the treadmill's belt. When failing to clear the obstacle, the monkey stumbles but quickly corrects its posture and the associated movements of multiple motor segments to again resume smooth bipedal walking. These results give indication that in learning to walk bipedally, M. fuscata transforms relevant visual, vestibular, proprioceptive, and exteroceptive sensory inputs into commands that engage both anticipatory and reactive motor mechanisms. Both mechanisms are essential for meeting external demands imposed upon posture and locomotion.
Improving Inverse Dynamics Accuracy in a Planar Walking Model Based on Stable Reference Point
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alaa Abdulrahman
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Physiologically and biomechanically, the human body represents a complicated system with an abundance of degrees of freedom (DOF. When developing mathematical representations of the body, a researcher has to decide on how many of those DOF to include in the model. Though accuracy can be enhanced at the cost of complexity by including more DOF, their necessity must be rigorously examined. In this study a planar seven-segment human body walking model with single DOF joints was developed. A reference point was added to the model to track the body’s global position while moving. Due to the kinematic instability of the pelvis, the top of the head was selected as the reference point, which also assimilates the vestibular sensor position. Inverse dynamics methods were used to formulate and solve the equations of motion based on Newton-Euler formulae. The torques and ground reaction forces generated by the planar model during a regular gait cycle were compared with similar results from a more complex three-dimensional OpenSim model with muscles, which resulted in correlation errors in the range of 0.9–0.98. The close comparison between the two torque outputs supports the use of planar models in gait studies.
Design and Experimental Implementation of Bipedal robot
Sreejith C; Sreeshma K
2012-01-01
Biped robots have better mobility than conventional wheeled robots, but they tend to tip over easily. To be able to walk stably in various environments, such as on rough terrain, up and down slopes, or in regions containing obstacles, it is necessary for the robot to adapt to the ground conditions with a foot motion, and maintain its stability with a torso motion. In this paper, we first formulate the design and walking pattern for a bipedal robot and then a kicking robot has been developed f...
Early Permian bipedal reptile.
Berman, D S; Reisz, R R; Scott, D; Henrici, A C; Sumida, S S; Martens, T
2000-11-03
A 290-million-year-old reptilian skeleton from the Lower Permian (Asselian) of Germany provides evidence of abilities for cursorial bipedal locomotion, employing a parasagittal digitigrade posture. The skeleton is of a small bolosaurid, Eudibamus cursoris, gen. et sp. nov. and confirms the widespread distribution of Bolosauridae across Laurasia during this early stage of amniote evolution. E. cursoris is the oldest known representative of Parareptilia, a major clade of reptiles.
Design and Experimental Implementation of Bipedal robot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sreejith C
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Biped robots have better mobility than conventional wheeled robots, but they tend to tip over easily. To be able to walk stably in various environments, such as on rough terrain, up and down slopes, or in regions containing obstacles, it is necessary for the robot to adapt to the ground conditions with a foot motion, and maintain its stability with a torso motion. In this paper, we first formulate the design and walking pattern for a bipedal robot and then a kicking robot has been developed for experimental verification. Finally, the correlation between the design and the walking patterns is described through simulation studies, and the effectiveness of the proposed methods is confirmed by simulation examples and experimental results.
Planning energy-efficient bipedal locomotion on patterned terrain
Zamani, Ali; Bhounsule, Pranav A.; Taha, Ahmad
2016-05-01
Energy-eﬃcient bipedal walking is essential in realizing practical bipedal systems. However, current energy-eﬃcient bipedal robots (e.g., passive-dynamics-inspired robots) are limited to walking at a single speed and step length. The objective of this work is to address this gap by developing a method of synthesizing energy-eﬃcient bipedal locomotion on patterned terrain consisting of stepping stones using energy-eﬃcient primitives. A model of Cornell Ranger (a passive-dynamics inspired robot) is utilized to illustrate our technique. First, an energy-optimal trajectory control problem for a single step is formulated and solved. The solution minimizes the Total Cost Of Transport (TCOT is defined as the energy used per unit weight per unit distance travelled) subject to various constraints such as actuator limits, foot scuﬃng, joint kinematic limits, ground reaction forces. The outcome of the optimization scheme is a table of TCOT values as a function of step length and step velocity. Next, we parameterize the terrain to identify the location of the stepping stones. Finally, the TCOT table is used in conjunction with the parameterized terrain to plan an energy-eﬃcient stepping strategy.
Preuschoft, Holger
2004-01-01
Morphology and biomechanics are linked by causal morphogenesis (‘Wolff's law’) and the interplay of mutations and selection (Darwin's ‘survival of the fittest’). Thus shape-based selective pressures can be determined. In both cases we need to know which biomechanical factors lead to skeletal adaptation, and which ones exert selective pressures on body shape. Each bone must be able to sustain the greatest regularly occurring loads. Smaller loads are unlikely to lead to adaptation of morphology. The highest loads occur primarily in posture and locomotion, simply because of the effect of body weight (or its multiple). In the skull, however, it is biting and chewing that result in the greatest loads. Body shape adapted for an arboreal lifestyle also smooths the way towards bipedality. Hindlimb dominance, length of the limbs in relation to the axial skeleton, grasping hands and feet, mass distribution (especially of the limb segments), thoracic shape, rib curvatures, and the position of the centre of gravity are the adaptations to arboreality that also pre-adapt for bipedality. Five divergent locomotor/morphological types have evolved from this base: arm-swinging in gibbons, forelimb-dominated slow climbing in orang-utans, quadrupedalism/climbing in the African apes, an unknown mix of climbing and bipedal walking in australopithecines, and the remarkably endurant bipedal walking of humans. All other apes are also facultative bipeds, but it is the biomechanical characteristics of bipedalism in orang-utans, the most arboreal great ape, which is closest to that in humans. If not evolutionary accident, what selective factor can explain why two forms adopted bipedality? Most authors tend to connect bipedal locomotion with some aspect of progressively increasing distance between trees because of climatic changes. More precise factors, in accordance with biomechanical requirements, include stone-throwing, thermoregulation or wading in shallow water. Once bipedality has
Humanoid Walking Robot: Modeling, Inverse Dynamics, and Gain Scheduling Control
Elvedin Kljuno; Williams, Robert L.
2010-01-01
This article presents reference-model-based control design for a 10 degree-of-freedom bipedal walking robot, using nonlinear gain scheduling. The main goal is to show concentrated mass models can be used for prediction of the required joint torques for a bipedal walking robot. Relatively complicated architecture, high DOF, and balancing requirements make the control task of these robots difficult. Although linear control techniques can be used to control bipedal robots, nonlinear control is n...
Bipedal tool use strengthens chimpanzee hand preferences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Braccini, Stephanie; Lambeth, Susan; Schapiro, Steve;
2010-01-01
The degree to which non-human primate behavior is lateralized, at either individual or population levels, remains controversial. We investigated the relationship between hand preference and posture during tool use in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) during bipedal tool use. We experimentally induced...... tool use in a supported bipedal posture, an unsupported bipedal posture, and a seated posture. Neither bipedal tool use nor these supported conditions have been previously evaluated in apes. The hypotheses tested were 1) bipedal posture will increase the strength of hand preference, and 2) a bipedal...... stance, without the use of one hand for support, will elicit a right hand preference. Results supported the first, but not the second hypothesis: bipedalism induced the subjects to become more lateralized, but not in any particular direction. Instead, it appears that subtle pre-existing lateral biases...
Rummel, Juergen; Blum, Yvonne; Seyfarth, Andre
The implementation of bipedal gaits in legged robots is still a challenge in state-of-the-art engineering. Human gaits could be realized by imitating human leg dynamics where a spring-like leg behavior is found as represented in the bipedal spring-mass model. In this study we explore the gap between walking and running by investigating periodic gait patterns. We found an almost continuous morphing of gait patterns between walking and running. The technical feasibility of this transition is, however, restricted by the duration of swing phase. In practice, this requires an abrupt gait transition between both gaits, while a change of speed is not necessary.
Biologically Inspired Self-Stabilizing Control for Bipedal Robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Woosung Yang
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Despite recent major advances in computational power and control algorithms, the stable and robust control of a bipedal robot is still a challenging issue due to the complexity and high nonlinearity of robot dynamics. To address the issue an efficient and powerful alternative based on a biologically inspired control framework employing neural oscillators is proposed and tested. In a numerical test the virtual force controller combined with the neural oscillator of a humanoid robot generated rhythmic control signals and stable bipedal locomotion when coupled with proper impedance components. The entrainment nature inherent to neural oscillators also achieved stable and robust walking even in the presence of unexpected disturbances, in that the centre of mass (COM was successfully kept in phase with the zero moment point (ZMP input trajectory. The efficiency of the proposed control scheme is discussed alongside simulation results.
Bipedal Robot Locomotion on a Terrain with Pitfalls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alireza Tabrizizadeh
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper a locomotion control system for bipedal robot is proposed to provide desirable walking on a terrain and skipping over a pitfall preventing the robot from falling in it. The proposed strategy is a combination of motion optimization based on particle swarm optimization algorithm and utilization of mode switching at the higher level controller. The model for bipedal robot is a compass gait model but the presented method is general and could be appropriately extended and generalized for other complicated models. Principles of minimalistic designs are also respected and simple central pattern generator and simple mechanical feedback control are used to produce and maintain desirable motion patterns of the robot.
Instability-induced hierarchy in bipedal locomotion
Ohgane, Kunishige; Ueda, Kei-Ichi
2008-05-01
One of the important features of human locomotion is its instant adaptability to various unpredictable changes of physical and environmental conditions. This property is known as flexibility. Modeling the bipedal locomotion system, we show that initial-state coordination by a global variable which encodes the attractor basins of the system can yield flexibility. This model is based on the following hypotheses: (i) the walking velocity is a global variable, and (ii) the leg posture at the beginning of the stance phase is the initial state of the gait. Moreover, we confirm these hypotheses. We investigate the regions near the neutral states between walking and falling phases using numerical experiments and demonstrate that global variables can be defined as the dominant unstable directions of the system dynamics near the neutral states. We propose the concept of an “instability-induced hierarchy.” In this hierarchy, global variables govern other variables near neutral states; i.e., they become elements of a higher level.
Human bipedalism and body-mass index.
Yi, Su Do; Noh, Jae Dong; Minnhagen, Petter; Song, Mi-Young; Chon, Tae-Soo; Kim, Beom Jun
2017-06-16
Body-mass index, abbreviated as BMI and given by M/H (2) with the mass M and the height H, has been widely used as a useful proxy to measure a general health status of a human individual. We generalise BMI in the form of M/H (p) and pursue to answer the question of the value of p for populations of animal species including human. We compare values of p for several different datasets for human populations with the ones obtained for other animal populations of fish, whales, and land mammals. All animal populations but humans analyzed in our work are shown to have p ≈ 3 unanimously. In contrast, human populations are different: As young infants grow to become toddlers and keep growing, the sudden change of p is observed at about one year after birth. Infants younger than one year old exhibit significantly larger value of p than two, while children between one and five years old show p ≈ 2, sharply different from other animal species. The observation implies the importance of the upright posture of human individuals. We also propose a simple mechanical model for a human body and suggest that standing and walking upright should put a clear division between bipedal human (p ≈ 2) and other animals (p ≈ 3).
Collision-based mechanics of bipedal hopping
Gutmann, Anne K.; Lee, David V; McGowan, Craig P.
2013-01-01
The muscle work required to sustain steady-speed locomotion depends largely upon the mechanical energy needed to redirect the centre of mass and the degree to which this energy can be stored and returned elastically. Previous studies have found that large bipedal hoppers can elastically store and return a large fraction of the energy required to hop, whereas small bipedal hoppers can only elastically store and return a relatively small fraction. Here, we consider the extent to which large and...
Compass gait mechanics account for top walking speeds in ducks and humans.
Usherwood, James R; Szymanek, Katie L; Daley, Monica A
2008-12-01
The constraints to maximum walking speed and the underlying cause of the walk-run transition remains controversial. However, the motions of the body and legs can be reduced to a few mechanical principles, which, if valid, impose simple physics-based limits to walking speed. Bipedal walking may be viewed as a vaulting gait, with the centre of mass (CoM) passing over a stiff stance leg (an 'inverted pendulum'), while the swing leg swings forward (as a pendulum). At its simplest, this forms a 'compass gait' walker, which has a maximum walking speed constrained by simple mechanics: walk too fast, or with too high a step length, and gravity fails to keep the stance foot attached to the floor. But how useful is such an extremely reductionist model? In the present study, we report measurements on a range of duck breeds as example unspecialized, non-planar, crouch-limbed walkers and contrast these findings with previous measurements on humans, using the theoretical framework of compass gait walking. Ducks walked as inverted pendulums with near-passive swing legs up to relative velocities around 0.5, remarkably consistent with the theoretical model. By contrast, top walking speeds in humans cannot be achieved with passive swing legs: humans, while still constrained by compass gait mechanics, extend their envelope of walking speeds by using relatively high step frequencies. Therefore, the capacity to drive the swing leg forward by walking humans may be a specialization for walking, allowing near-passive vaulting of the CoM at walking speeds 4/3 that possible with a passive (duck-like) swing leg.
Foramen magnum position in bipedal mammals.
Russo, Gabrielle A; Kirk, E Christopher
2013-11-01
The anterior position of the human foramen magnum is often explained as an adaptation for maintaining balance of the head atop the cervical vertebral column during bipedalism and the assumption of orthograde trunk postures. Accordingly, the relative placement of the foramen magnum on the basicranium has been used to infer bipedal locomotion and hominin status for a number of Mio-Pliocene fossil taxa. Nonetheless, previous studies have struggled to validate the functional link between foramen magnum position and bipedal locomotion. Here, we test the hypothesis that an anteriorly positioned foramen magnum is related to bipedalism through a comparison of basicranial anatomy between bipeds and quadrupeds from three mammalian clades: marsupials, rodents and primates. Additionally, we examine whether strepsirrhine primates that habitually assume orthograde trunk postures exhibit more anteriorly positioned foramina magna compared with non-orthograde strepsirrhines. Our comparative data reveal that bipedal marsupials and rodents have foramina magna that are more anteriorly located than those of quadrupedal close relatives. The foramen magnum is also situated more anteriorly in orthograde strepsirrhines than in pronograde or antipronograde strepsirrhines. Among the primates sampled, humans exhibit the most anteriorly positioned foramina magna. The results of this analysis support the utility of foramen magnum position as an indicator of bipedal locomotion in fossil hominins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peng, Chunye; Ono, Kyosuke
In this paper we solve the energy-efficient periodic gaits for a biped mechanism walking in the sagittal plane. The biped locomotion mechanism that has thighs, shanks and small feet is modeled as a four-degree-of-freedom (DOF) link system composed of a two-DOF stance leg and a two-DOF swing leg that are connected directly at the hip joint. Using the optimal trajectory planning method based on function approximation, we obtained minimum square input torque trajectories of cyclic walking gaits with flexed knee stance leg for both full-actuated and under-actuated models that are similar to those of the human walking. Also, the validity of this gait generating method is confirmed by forward dynamic simulation.
Haptic feedback helps bipedal coordination.
Roelofsen, Eefje G J; Bosga, Jurjen; Rosenbaum, David A; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Hullegie, Wim; van Cingel, Robert; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J
2016-10-01
The present study investigated whether special haptic or visual feedback would facilitate the coordination of in-phase, cyclical feet movements of different amplitudes. Seventeen healthy participants sat with their feet on sliding panels that were moved externally over the same or different amplitudes. The participants were asked to generate simultaneous knee flexion-extension movements, or to let their feet be dragged, resulting in reference foot displacements of 150 mm and experimental foot displacements of 150, 120, or 90 mm. Four types of feedback were given: (1) special haptic feedback, involving actively following the motions of the sliders manipulated by two confederates, (2) haptic feedback resulting from passive motion, (3) veridical visual feedback, and (4) enhanced visual feedback. Both with respect to amplitude assimilation effects, correlations and standard deviation of relative phase, the results showed that enhanced visual feedback did not facilitate bipedal independence, but haptic feedback with active movement did. Implications of the findings for movement rehabilitation contexts are discussed.
Torque-stiffness-controlled dynamic walking with central pattern generators.
Huang, Yan; Vanderborght, Bram; Van Ham, Ronald; Wang, Qining
2014-12-01
Walking behavior is modulated by controlling joint torques in most existing passivity-based bipeds. Controlled Passive Walking with adaptable stiffness exhibits controllable natural motions and energy efficient gaits. In this paper, we propose torque-stiffness-controlled dynamic bipedal walking, which extends the concept of Controlled Passive Walking by introducing structured control parameters and a bio-inspired control method with central pattern generators. The proposed walking paradigm is beneficial in clarifying the respective effects of the external actuation and the internal natural dynamics. We present a seven-link biped model to validate the presented walking. Effects of joint torque and joint stiffness on gait selection, walking performance and walking pattern transitions are studied in simulations. The work in this paper develops a new solution of motion control of bipedal robots with adaptable stiffness and provides insights of efficient and sophisticated walking gaits of humans.
Collision-based mechanics of bipedal hopping.
Gutmann, Anne K; Lee, David V; McGowan, Craig P
2013-08-23
The muscle work required to sustain steady-speed locomotion depends largely upon the mechanical energy needed to redirect the centre of mass and the degree to which this energy can be stored and returned elastically. Previous studies have found that large bipedal hoppers can elastically store and return a large fraction of the energy required to hop, whereas small bipedal hoppers can only elastically store and return a relatively small fraction. Here, we consider the extent to which large and small bipedal hoppers (tammar wallabies, approx. 7 kg, and desert kangaroo rats, approx. 0.1 kg) reduce the mechanical energy needed to redirect the centre of mass by reducing collisions. We hypothesize that kangaroo rats will reduce collisions to a greater extent than wallabies since kangaroo rats cannot elastically store and return as high a fraction of the mechanical energy of hopping as wallabies. We find that kangaroo rats use a significantly smaller collision angle than wallabies by employing ground reaction force vectors that are more vertical and center of mass velocity vectors that are more horizontal and thereby reduce their mechanical cost of transport. A collision-based approach paired with tendon morphometry may reveal this effect more generally among bipedal runners and quadrupedal trotters.
Modelling, stability and biomechanical implications of three DOF passive bipedal gait
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Máximo Alejandro Roa Garzón
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Passive dynamic walkers can achieve a steady gait down an inclined plane simply by the influence of gravity. This article presents the modelling of a 3 DOF passive bipedal walker, searching for a relationship between gait characteristics, the robot’s physical properties and the slope of the plane. The proposed adimensional dynamical model’s equations are also given, implementing and modelling the dynamics is described and the main results are presented. Limits on robotic parameters leading to establishing stable limit cycles are also analysed as perio-dic doubling bifurcations appear to be natural in passive gait. Interesting results arose when comparing natural passive walking with human bipedal locomotion.
Decoding bipedal locomotion from the rat sensorimotor cortex
Rigosa, J.; Panarese, A.; Dominici, N.; Friedli, L.; van den Brand, R.; Carpaneto, J.; DiGiovanna, J.; Courtine, G.; Micera, S.
2015-10-01
Objective. Decoding forelimb movements from the firing activity of cortical neurons has been interfaced with robotic and prosthetic systems to replace lost upper limb functions in humans. Despite the potential of this approach to improve locomotion and facilitate gait rehabilitation, decoding lower limb movement from the motor cortex has received comparatively little attention. Here, we performed experiments to identify the type and amount of information that can be decoded from neuronal ensemble activity in the hindlimb area of the rat motor cortex during bipedal locomotor tasks. Approach. Rats were trained to stand, step on a treadmill, walk overground and climb staircases in a bipedal posture. To impose this gait, the rats were secured in a robotic interface that provided support against the direction of gravity and in the mediolateral direction, but behaved transparently in the forward direction. After completion of training, rats were chronically implanted with a micro-wire array spanning the left hindlimb motor cortex to record single and multi-unit activity, and bipolar electrodes into 10 muscles of the right hindlimb to monitor electromyographic signals. Whole-body kinematics, muscle activity, and neural signals were simultaneously recorded during execution of the trained tasks over multiple days of testing. Hindlimb kinematics, muscle activity, gait phases, and locomotor tasks were decoded using offline classification algorithms. Main results. We found that the stance and swing phases of gait and the locomotor tasks were detected with accuracies as robust as 90% in all rats. Decoded hindlimb kinematics and muscle activity exhibited a larger variability across rats and tasks. Significance. Our study shows that the rodent motor cortex contains useful information for lower limb neuroprosthetic development. However, brain-machine interfaces estimating gait phases or locomotor behaviors, instead of continuous variables such as limb joint positions or speeds
Numerical bifurcation analysis of the bipedal spring-mass model
Merker, Andreas; Kaiser, Dieter; Hermann, Martin
2015-01-01
The spring-mass model and its numerous extensions are currently one of the best candidates for templates of human and animal locomotion. However, with increasing complexity, their applications can become very time-consuming. In this paper, we present an approach that is based on the calculation of bifurcations in the bipedal spring-mass model for walking. Since the bifurcations limit the region of stable walking, locomotion can be studied by computing the corresponding boundaries. Originally, the model was implemented as a hybrid dynamical system. Our new approach consists of the transformation of the series of initial value problems on different intervals into a single boundary value problem. Using this technique, discontinuities can be avoided and sophisticated numerical methods for studying parametrized nonlinear boundary value problems can be applied. Thus, appropriate extended systems are used to compute transcritical and period-doubling bifurcation points as well as turning points. We show that the resulting boundary value problems can be solved by the simple shooting method with sufficient accuracy, making the application of the more extensive multiple shooting superfluous. The proposed approach is fast, robust to numerical perturbations and allows determining complete manifolds of periodic solutions of the original problem.
The energetic costs of load-carrying and the evolution of bipedalism.
Watson, J C; Payne, R C; Chamberlain, A T; Jones, R K; Sellers, W I
2008-05-01
The evolution of habitual bipedalism is still a fundamental yet unsolved question for paleoanthropologists, and carrying is popular as an explanation for both the early adoption of upright walking and as a positive selection pressure once a terrestrial lifestyle had been adopted. However, to support or reject any hypothesis that suggests carrying efficiency was an important selective pressure, we need quantitative data on the costs of different forms of carrying behavior, especially infant-carrying since reduction in the grasping capabilities of the foot would have prevented infants from clinging on for long durations. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the mode of load carriage influences the energetic cost of locomotion. Oxygen consumption was measured in seven female participants walking at a constant speed while carrying four different 10-kg loads (a weighted vest, 5-kg dumbbells carried in each hand, a mannequin infant carried on one hip, and a 10-kg dumbbell carried in a single hand). Oxygen consumption was also measured during unloaded standing and unloaded walking. The results show that the weighted vest requires the least amount of energy of the four types of carrying and that, for this condition, humans are as efficient as mammals in general. The balanced load was carried with approximately the predicted energy cost. However, the asymmetrical conditions were considerably less efficient, indicating that, unless infant-carrying was the adaptive response to a strong environmental selection pressure, this behavior is unlikely to have been the precursor to the evolution of bipedalism.
Analysis, Control and Design of Walking Robots
van Oort, Gijs
2011-01-01
In this thesis five research questions are discussed that are related to the development of two-legged (bipedal) walking robots. The research questions are categorized in three main topics: analysis, control and actuation and design. The research questions are: - How can we analyze the behavior of a
Origin of Human Bipedalism as an Adaptation for Locomotion on Flexible Branches
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
S. K. S. Thorpe; R. L. Holder; R. H. Crompton
2007-01-01
Human bipedalism is commonly thought to have evolved from a quadrupedal terrestrial precursor, yet some recent paleontological evidence suggests that adaptations for bipedalism arose in an arboreal context...
Humanoid Walking Robot: Modeling, Inverse Dynamics, and Gain Scheduling Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elvedin Kljuno
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This article presents reference-model-based control design for a 10 degree-of-freedom bipedal walking robot, using nonlinear gain scheduling. The main goal is to show concentrated mass models can be used for prediction of the required joint torques for a bipedal walking robot. Relatively complicated architecture, high DOF, and balancing requirements make the control task of these robots difficult. Although linear control techniques can be used to control bipedal robots, nonlinear control is necessary for better performance. The emphasis of this work is to show that the reference model can be a bipedal walking model with concentrated mass at the center of gravity, which removes the problems related to design of a pseudo-inverse system. Another significance of this approach is the reduced calculation requirements due to the simplified procedure of nominal joint torques calculation. Kinematic and dynamic analysis is discussed including results for joint torques and ground force necessary to implement a prescribed walking motion. This analysis is accompanied by a comparison with experimental data. An inverse plant and a tracking error linearization-based controller design approach is described. We propose a novel combination of a nonlinear gain scheduling with a concentrated mass model for the MIMO bipedal robot system.
Biomechanics of running indicates endothermy in bipedal dinosaurs.
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Herman Pontzer
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the great unresolved controversies in paleobiology is whether extinct dinosaurs were endothermic, ectothermic, or some combination thereof, and when endothermy first evolved in the lineage leading to birds. Although it is well established that high, sustained growth rates and, presumably, high activity levels are ancestral for dinosaurs and pterosaurs (clade Ornithodira, other independent lines of evidence for high metabolic rates, locomotor costs, or endothermy are needed. For example, some studies have suggested that, because large dinosaurs may have been homeothermic due to their size alone and could have had heat loss problems, ectothermy would be a more plausible metabolic strategy for such animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe two new biomechanical approaches for reconstructing the metabolic rate of 14 extinct bipedal dinosauriforms during walking and running. These methods, well validated for extant animals, indicate that during walking and slow running the metabolic rate of at least the larger extinct dinosaurs exceeded the maximum aerobic capabilities of modern ectotherms, falling instead within the range of modern birds and mammals. Estimated metabolic rates for smaller dinosaurs are more ambiguous, but generally approach or exceed the ectotherm boundary. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support the hypothesis that endothermy was widespread in at least larger non-avian dinosaurs. It was plausibly ancestral for all dinosauriforms (perhaps Ornithodira, but this is perhaps more strongly indicated by high growth rates than by locomotor costs. The polarity of the evolution of endothermy indicates that rapid growth, insulation, erect postures, and perhaps aerobic power predated advanced "avian" lung structure and high locomotor costs.
Xizhe Zang; Xinyu Liu; Yixiang Liu; Sajid Iqbal; Jie Zhao
2016-01-01
To achieve high walking stability for a passive dynamic walking robot is not easy. In this article, we aim to investigate whether the walking performance for a passive dynamic walking robot can be improved by just simply changing the swing ankle angle before impact. To validate this idea, a passive bipedal walking model with two straight legs, two flat feet, a hip joint, and two ankle joints was built in this study. The walking dynamics that contains double stance phase was derived. By numeri...
Massaro, Luciana; Massa, Fabrizio; Simpson, Kathy; Fragaszy, Dorothy; Visalberghi, Elisabetta
2016-04-01
The ability to carry objects has been considered an important selective pressure favoring the evolution of bipedal locomotion in early hominins. Comparable behaviors by extant primates have been studied very little, as few primates habitually carry objects bipedally. However, wild bearded capuchins living at Fazenda Boa Vista spontaneously and habitually transport stone tools by walking bipedally, allowing us to examine the characteristics of bipedal locomotion during object transport by a generalized primate. In this pilot study, we investigated the mechanical aspects of position and velocity of the center of mass, trunk inclination, and forelimb postures, and the torque of the forces applied on each anatomical segment in wild bearded capuchin monkeys during the transport of objects, with particular attention to the tail and its role in balancing the body. Our results indicate that body mass strongly affects the posture of transport and that capuchins are able to carry heavy loads bipedally with a bent-hip-bent-knee posture, thanks to the "strategic" use of their extendable tail; in fact, without this anatomical structure, constituting only 5 % of their body mass, they would be unable to transport the loads that they habitually carry.
Bipedal nanowalker by pure physical mechanisms
Cheng, Juan; Hou, Ruizheng; Efremov, Artem; Liu, Ruchuan; van der Maarel, Johan RC; Wang, Zhisong
2013-01-01
Artificial nanowalkers are inspired by biomolecular counterparts from living cells, but remain far from comparable to the latter in design principles. The walkers reported to date mostly rely on chemical mechanisms to gain a direction; they all produce chemical wastes. Here we report a light-powered DNA bipedal walker based on a design principle derived from cellular walkers. The walker has two identical feet and the track has equal binding sites; yet the walker gains a direction by pure physical mechanisms that autonomously amplify an intra-site asymmetry into a ratchet effect. The nanowalker is free of any chemical waste. It has a distinct thermodynamic feature that it possesses the same equilibrium before and after operation, but generates a truly non-equilibrium distribution during operation. The demonstrated design principle exploits mechanical effects and is adaptable for use in other nanomachines.
Virtually Abelian quantum walks
Mauro D'Ariano, Giacomo; Erba, Marco; Perinotti, Paolo; Tosini, Alessandro
2017-01-01
We study discrete-time quantum walks on Cayley graphs of non-Abelian groups, focusing on the easiest case of virtually Abelian groups. We present a technique to reduce the quantum walk to an equivalent one on an Abelian group with coin system having larger dimension. This method allows one to extend the notion of wave-vector to the virtually Abelian case and study analytically the walk dynamics. We apply the technique in the case of two quantum walks on virtually Abelian groups with planar Cayley graphs, finding the exact solution in terms of dispersion relation.
The cost of leg forces in bipedal locomotion: a simple optimization study.
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John R Rebula
Full Text Available Simple optimization models show that bipedal locomotion may largely be governed by the mechanical work performed by the legs, minimization of which can automatically discover walking and running gaits. Work minimization can reproduce broad aspects of human ground reaction forces, such as a double-peaked profile for walking and a single peak for running, but the predicted peaks are unrealistically high and impulsive compared to the much smoother forces produced by humans. The smoothness might be explained better by a cost for the force rather than work produced by the legs, but it is unclear what features of force might be most relevant. We therefore tested a generalized force cost that can penalize force amplitude or its n-th time derivative, raised to the p-th power (or p-norm, across a variety of combinations for n and p. A simple model shows that this generalized force cost only produces smoother, human-like forces if it penalizes the rate rather than amplitude of force production, and only in combination with a work cost. Such a combined objective reproduces the characteristic profiles of human walking (R² = 0.96 and running (R² = 0.92, more so than minimization of either work or force amplitude alone (R² = -0.79 and R² = 0.22, respectively, for walking. Humans might find it preferable to avoid rapid force production, which may be mechanically and physiologically costly.
The cost of leg forces in bipedal locomotion: a simple optimization study.
Rebula, John R; Kuo, Arthur D
2015-01-01
Simple optimization models show that bipedal locomotion may largely be governed by the mechanical work performed by the legs, minimization of which can automatically discover walking and running gaits. Work minimization can reproduce broad aspects of human ground reaction forces, such as a double-peaked profile for walking and a single peak for running, but the predicted peaks are unrealistically high and impulsive compared to the much smoother forces produced by humans. The smoothness might be explained better by a cost for the force rather than work produced by the legs, but it is unclear what features of force might be most relevant. We therefore tested a generalized force cost that can penalize force amplitude or its n-th time derivative, raised to the p-th power (or p-norm), across a variety of combinations for n and p. A simple model shows that this generalized force cost only produces smoother, human-like forces if it penalizes the rate rather than amplitude of force production, and only in combination with a work cost. Such a combined objective reproduces the characteristic profiles of human walking (R² = 0.96) and running (R² = 0.92), more so than minimization of either work or force amplitude alone (R² = -0.79 and R² = 0.22, respectively, for walking). Humans might find it preferable to avoid rapid force production, which may be mechanically and physiologically costly.
From bone to plausible bipedal locomotion. Part II: Complete motion synthesis for bipedal primates.
Nicolas, Guillaume; Multon, Franck; Berillon, Gilles
2009-05-29
This paper addresses the problem of synthesizing plausible bipedal locomotion according to 3D anatomical reconstruction and general hypotheses on human motion control strategies. In a previous paper [Nicolas, G., Multon, F., Berillon, G., Marchal, F., 2007. From bone to plausible bipedal locomotion using inverse kinematics. Journal of Biomechanics 40 (5) 1048-1057], we have validated a method based on using inverse kinematics to obtain plausible lower-limb motions knowing the trajectory of the ankle. In this paper, we propose a more general approach that also involves computing a plausible trajectory of the ankles for a given skeleton. The inputs are the anatomical descriptions of the bipedal species, imposed footprints and a rest posture. This process is based on optimizing a reference ankle trajectory until a set of criteria is minimized. This optimization loop is based on the assumption that a plausible motion is supposed to have little internal mechanical work and should be as less jerky as possible. For each tested ankle trajectory, inverse kinematics is used to compute a lower-body motion that enables us to compute the resulting mechanical work and jerk. This method was tested on a set of modern humans (male and female, with various anthropometric properties). We show that the results obtained with this method are close to experimental data for most of the subjects. We also demonstrate that the method is not sensitive to the choice of the reference ankle trajectory; any ankle trajectory leads to very similar result. We finally apply the method to a skeleton of Pan paniscus (Bonobo), and compare the resulting motion to those described by zoologists.
Introduction to Focus Issue: Bipedal Locomotion-From Robots to Humans
Milton, John G.
2009-06-01
Running and walking, collectively referred to as bipedal locomotion, represent self-organized behaviors generated by a spatially distributed dynamical system operating under the constraint that a person must be able to move without falling down. The organizing principles involve both forces actively regulated by the nervous system and those generated passively by the biomechanical properties of the musculoskeletal system and the environment in which the movements occur. With the development of modern motion capture and electrophysiological techniques it has become possible to explore the dynamical interplay between the passive and active controllers of locomotion in a manner that directly compares observation to predictions made by relevant mathematical and computer models. Consequently, many of the techniques initially developed to study nonlinear dynamical systems, including stability analyses, phase resetting and entrainment properties of limit cycles, and fractal and multifractal analysis, have come to play major roles in guiding progress. This Focus Issue discusses bipedal locomotion from the point of view of dynamical systems theory with the goal of stimulating discussion between the dynamical systems, physics, biomechanics, and neuroscience communities.
Jung, Chang Keun; Park, Sukyung
2014-01-03
Although the compliant bipedal model could reproduce qualitative ground reaction force (GRF) of human walking, the model with a fixed pivot showed overestimations in stance leg rotation and the ratio of horizontal to vertical GRF. The human walking data showed a continuous forward progression of the center of pressure (CoP) during the stance phase and the suspension of the CoP near the forefoot before the onset of step transition. To better describe human gait dynamics with a minimal expense of model complexity, we proposed a compliant bipedal model with the accelerated pivot which associated the CoP excursion with the oscillatory behavior of the center of mass (CoM) with the existing simulation parameter and leg stiffness. Owing to the pivot acceleration defined to emulate human CoP profile, the arrival of the CoP at the limit of the stance foot over the single stance duration initiated the step-to-step transition. The proposed model showed an improved match of walking data. As the forward motion of CoM during single stance was partly accounted by forward pivot translation, the previously overestimated rotation of the stance leg was reduced and the corresponding horizontal GRF became closer to human data. The walking solutions of the model ranged over higher speed ranges (~1.7 m/s) than those of the fixed pivoted compliant bipedal model (~1.5m/s) and exhibited other gait parameters, such as touchdown angle, step length and step frequency, comparable to the experimental observations. The good matches between the model and experimental GRF data imply that the continuous pivot acceleration associated with CoM oscillatory behavior could serve as a useful framework of bipedal model.
The how and why of arm swing during human walking.
Meyns, P.; Bruijn, S.M.; Duysens, J.E.J.
2013-01-01
Humans walk bipedally, and thus, it is unclear why they swing their arms. In this paper, we will review the mechanisms and functions of arm swinging in human gait. First, we discuss the potential advantages of having swinging arms. Second, we go into the detail on the debate whether arm swing is ari
Another look at the foramen magnum in bipedal mammals.
Russo, Gabrielle A; Kirk, E Christopher
2017-04-01
A more anteriorly positioned foramen magnum evolved in concert with bipedalism at least four times within Mammalia: once in macropodid marsupials, once in heteromyid rodents, once in dipodid rodents, and once in hominoid primates. Here, we expand upon previous research on the factors influencing mammalian foramen magnum position (FMP) and angle with four new analyses. First, we quantify FMP using a metric (basioccipital ratio) not previously examined in a broad comparative sample of mammals. Second, we evaluate the potential influence of relative brain size on both FMP and foramen magnum angle (FMA). Third, we assess FMP in an additional rodent clade (Anomaluroidea) containing bipedal springhares (Pedetes spp.) and gliding/quadrupedal anomalures (Anomalurus spp.). Fourth, we determine the relationship between measures of FMP and FMA in extant hominoids and an expanded mammalian sample. Our results indicate that bipedal/orthograde mammals have shorter basioccipitals than their quadrupedal/non-orthograde relatives. Brain size alone has no discernible effect on FMP or FMA. Brain size relative to palate size has a weak influence on FMP in some clades, but effects are not evident in all metrics of FMP and are inconsistent among clades. Among anomaluroids, bipedal Pedetes exhibits a more anterior FMP than gliding/quadrupedal Anomalurus. The relationship between FMA and FMP in hominoids depends on the metric chosen for quantifying FMP, and if modern humans are included in the sample. However, the relationship between FMA and FMP is nonexistent or weak across rodents, marsupials, and, to a lesser extent, strepsirrhine primates. These results provide further evidence that bipedal mammals tend to have more anteriorly positioned foramina magna than their quadrupedal close relatives. Our findings also suggest that the evolution of FMP and FMA in hominins may not be closely coupled. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Discrete-State-Based Vision Navigation Control Algorithm for One Bipedal Robot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dunwen Wei
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Navigation with the specific objective can be defined by specifying desired timed trajectory. The concept of desired direction field is proposed to deal with such navigation problem. To lay down a principled discussion of the accuracy and efficiency of navigation algorithms, strictly quantitative definitions of tracking error, actuator effect, and time efficiency are established. In this paper, one vision navigation control method based on desired direction field is proposed. This proposed method uses discrete image sequences to form discrete state space, which is especially suitable for bipedal walking robots with single camera walking on a free-barrier plane surface to track the specific objective without overshoot. The shortest path method (SPM is proposed to design such direction field with the highest time efficiency. However, one improved control method called canonical piecewise-linear function (PLF is proposed. In order to restrain the noise disturbance from the camera sensor, the band width control method is presented to significantly decrease the error influence. The robustness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm are illustrated through a number of computer simulations considering the error from camera sensor. Simulation results show that the robustness and efficiency can be balanced by choosing the proper controlling value of band width.
Stability of an underactuated bipedal gait.
Mukherjee, S; Sangwan, V; Taneja, A; Seth, B
2007-01-01
A self-excited biped walking mechanism consisting of two legs that are connected in series at the hip joint through a servomotor is studied as a cyclic system with collisions. A torque proportional to angle between the shank of the swinging leg and the vertical is seen to sustain a gait. Each leg has a thigh and a shank connected at a passive knee joint that has a knee stopper restricting hyperextension similar to the human knee. A mathematical model for the dynamics of the system including the impact equations is used to analyse the stability of the system through examination of phase plane plots. Attractor lines along which the system approaches stability have been identified. A leg length for optimal stability has been identified. The biological basis for the proposed system has been identified by comparison with human gait.
Predicting the metabolic energy costs of bipedalism using evolutionary robotics.
Sellers, W I; Dennis, L A; Crompton, R H
2003-04-01
To understand the evolution of bipedalism among the hominoids in an ecological context we need to be able to estimate the energetic cost of locomotion in fossil forms. Ideally such an estimate would be based entirely on morphology since, except for the rare instances where footprints are preserved, this is the only primary source of evidence available. In this paper we use evolutionary robotics techniques (genetic algorithms, pattern generators and mechanical modeling) to produce a biomimetic simulation of bipedalism based on human body dimensions. The mechanical simulation is a seven-segment, two-dimensional model with motive force provided by tension generators representing the major muscle groups acting around the lower-limb joints. Metabolic energy costs are calculated from the muscle model, and bipedal gait is generated using a finite-state pattern generator whose parameters are produced using a genetic algorithm with locomotor economy (maximum distance for a fixed energy cost) as the fitness criterion. The model is validated by comparing the values it generates with those for modern humans. The result (maximum efficiency of 200 J m(-1)) is within 15% of the experimentally derived value, which is very encouraging and suggests that this is a useful analytic technique for investigating the locomotor behaviour of fossil forms. Initial work suggests that in the future this technique could be used to estimate other locomotor parameters such as top speed. In addition, the animations produced by this technique are qualitatively very convincing, which suggests that this may also be a useful technique for visualizing bipedal locomotion.
Dynamic walking stability of the TUlip robot by means of the extrapolated center of mass
Bouwman, W.M.; van Oort, Gijs; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Broenink, Johannes F.; Carloni, Raffaella
The TUlip robot was created to participate in the teensize league of Robocup. The TUlip robot is a bipedal robot intended for dynamic walking. It has six degrees of freedom for each leg: three for the hip, one for the knee and two for the ankle. This paper elaborates on the algorithm for the
FES-Assisted Walking with Spring Brake Orthosis: Simulation Studies
R. Jailani; Tokhi, M.O.; Gharooni, S. C.; B.S.K.K Ibrahim
2011-01-01
This paper presents a simulation of bipedal locomotion to generate stimulation pulses for activating muscles for paraplegic walking with wheel walker using functional electrical stimulation (FES) with spring brake orthosis (SBO). A new methodology for paraplegic gait, based on exploiting natural dynamics of human gait, is introduced. The work is a first effort towards restoring natural like swing phase in paraplegic gait through a new hybrid orthosis, referred to as spring brake orthosis (SBO...
[Walking abnormalities in children].
Segawa, Masaya
2010-11-01
Walking is a spontaneous movement termed locomotion that is promoted by activation of antigravity muscles by serotonergic (5HT) neurons. Development of antigravity activity follows 3 developmental epochs of the sleep-wake (S-W) cycle and is modulated by particular 5HT neurons in each epoch. Activation of antigravity activities occurs in the first epoch (around the age of 3 to 4 months) as restriction of atonia in rapid eye movement (REM) stage and development of circadian S-W cycle. These activities strengthen in the second epoch, with modulation of day-time sleep and induction of crawling around the age of 8 months and induction of walking by 1 year. Around the age of 1 year 6 months, absence of guarded walking and interlimb cordination is observed along with modulation of day-time sleep to once in the afternoon. Bipedal walking in upright position occurs in the third epoch, with development of a biphasic S-W cycle by the age of 4-5 years. Patients with infantile autism (IA), Rett syndrome (RTT), or Tourette syndrome (TS) show failure in the development of the first, second, or third epoch, respectively. Patients with IA fail to develop interlimb coordination; those with RTT, crawling and walking; and those with TS, walking in upright posture. Basic pathophysiology underlying these condition is failure in restricting atonia in REM stage; this induces dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus and consequently dys- or hypofunction of the dopamine (DA) neurons. DA hypofunction in the developing brain, associated with compensatory upward regulation of the DA receptors causes psychobehavioral disorders in infancy (IA), failure in synaptogenesis in the frontal cortex and functional development of the motor and associate cortexes in late infancy through the basal ganglia (RTT), and failure in functional development of the prefrontal cortex through the basal ganglia (TS). Further, locomotion failure in early childhood causes failure in development of functional
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xizhe Zang
2016-03-01
Full Text Available To achieve high walking stability for a passive dynamic walking robot is not easy. In this article, we aim to investigate whether the walking performance for a passive dynamic walking robot can be improved by just simply changing the swing ankle angle before impact. To validate this idea, a passive bipedal walking model with two straight legs, two flat feet, a hip joint, and two ankle joints was built in this study. The walking dynamics that contains double stance phase was derived. By numerical simulation of the walking in MATLAB, we found that the walking performance can be adjusted effectively by only simply changing the swing ankle angle before impact. A bigger swing ankle angle in a reasonable range will lead to a higher walking stability and a lower initial walking speed of the next step. A bigger swing ankle angle before impact leads to a bigger amount of energy lost during impact for the quasi-passive dynamic walking robot which will influence the walking stability of the next step.
The Design and Control of a Bipedal Robot with Sensory Feedback
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Teck-Chew Wee
2013-06-01
Full Text Available A stable walking motion requires effective gait balancing and robust posture correction algorithms. However, to develop and implement such intelligent motion algorithms remains a challenging task for researchers. Effective sensory feedback for stable posture control is essential for bipedal locomotion. In order to minimize the modelling errors and disturbances, this paper presents an effective sensory system and an alternative approach in generating a stable Centre-of-Mass (CoM trajectory by using an observer-based augmented model predictive control technique with sensory feedback. The proposed approach is used to apply an Augmented Model Predictive Control (AMPC algorithm with an on-line time shift and to look ahead to process future data to optimize a control signal by minimizing the cost function so that the system is able to track the desired Zero Moment Point (ZMP as closely as possible, and at the same time to limit the motion jerk. The robot’s feet are fitted with force sensors to measure the contact force’s location. An observer is also implemented into the system.
Neural Computation Scheme of Compound Control: Tacit Learning for Bipedal Locomotion
Shimoda, Shingo; Kimura, Hidenori
The growing need for controlling complex behaviors of versatile robots working in unpredictable environment has revealed the fundamental limitation of model-based control strategy that requires precise models of robots and environments before their operations. This difficulty is fundamental and has the same root with the well-known frame problem in artificial intelligence. It has been a central long standing issue in advanced robotics, as well as machine intelligence, to find a prospective clue to attack this fundamental difficulty. The general consensus shared by many leading researchers in the related field is that the body plays an important role in acquiring intelligence that can conquer unknowns. In particular, purposeful behaviors emerge during body-environment interactions with the help of an appropriately organized neural computational scheme that can exploit what the environment can afford. Along this line, we propose a new scheme of neural computation based on compound control which represents a typical feature of biological controls. This scheme is based on classical neuron models with local rules that can create macroscopic purposeful behaviors. This scheme is applied to a bipedal robot and generates the rhythm of walking without any model of robot dynamics and environments.
Gruss, Laura Tobias; Schmitt, Daniel
2015-03-05
The fossil record of the human pelvis reveals the selective priorities acting on hominin anatomy at different points in our evolutionary history, during which mechanical requirements for locomotion, childbirth and thermoregulation often conflicted. In our earliest upright ancestors, fundamental alterations of the pelvis compared with non-human primates facilitated bipedal walking. Further changes early in hominin evolution produced a platypelloid birth canal in a pelvis that was wide overall, with flaring ilia. This pelvic form was maintained over 3-4 Myr with only moderate changes in response to greater habitat diversity, changes in locomotor behaviour and increases in brain size. It was not until Homo sapiens evolved in Africa and the Middle East 200 000 years ago that the narrow anatomically modern pelvis with a more circular birth canal emerged. This major change appears to reflect selective pressures for further increases in neonatal brain size and for a narrow body shape associated with heat dissipation in warm environments. The advent of the modern birth canal, the shape and alignment of which require fetal rotation during birth, allowed the earliest members of our species to deal obstetrically with increases in encephalization while maintaining a narrow body to meet thermoregulatory demands and enhance locomotor performance.
Steroid-associated hip joint collapse in bipedal emus.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-Zhen Zheng
Full Text Available In this study we established a bipedal animal model of steroid-associated hip joint collapse in emus for testing potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of steroid-associated joint collapse in preclinical settings. Five adult male emus were treated with a steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON induction protocol using combination of pulsed lipopolysaccharide (LPS and methylprednisolone (MPS. Additional three emus were used as normal control. Post-induction, emu gait was observed, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed, and blood was collected for routine examination, including testing blood coagulation and lipid metabolism. Emus were sacrificed at week 24 post-induction, bilateral femora were collected for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT and histological analysis. Asymmetric limping gait and abnormal MRI signals were found in steroid-treated emus. SAON was found in all emus with a joint collapse incidence of 70%. The percentage of neutrophils (Neut % and parameters on lipid metabolism significantly increased after induction. Micro-CT revealed structure deterioration of subchondral trabecular bone. Histomorphometry showed larger fat cell fraction and size, thinning of subchondral plate and cartilage layer, smaller osteoblast perimeter percentage and less blood vessels distributed at collapsed region in SAON group as compared with the normal controls. Scanning electron microscope (SEM showed poor mineral matrix and more osteo-lacunae outline in the collapsed region in SAON group. The combination of pulsed LPS and MPS developed in the current study was safe and effective to induce SAON and deterioration of subchondral bone in bipedal emus with subsequent femoral head collapse, a typical clinical feature observed in patients under pulsed steroid treatment. In conclusion, bipedal emus could be used as an effective preclinical experimental model to evaluate potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of
Clemente, Christofer J
2014-08-01
The origin of bipedal locomotion in lizards is unclear. Modeling studies have suggested that bipedalism may be an exaptation, a byproduct of features originally designed to increase maneuverability, which were only later exploited. Measurement of the body center of mass (BCOM) in 124 species of lizards confirms a significant rearward shift among bipedal lineages. Further racetrack trials showed a significant acceleration threshold between bipedal and quadrupedal runs. These suggest good general support for a passive bipedal model, in which the combination of these features lead to passive lifting of the front of the body. However, variation in morphology could only account for 56% of the variation in acceleration thresholds, suggesting that dynamics have a significant influence on bipedalism. Deviation from the passive bipedal model was compared with node age, supporting an increase in the influence of dynamics over time. Together, these results show that bipedalism may have first arisen as a consequence of acceleration and a rearward shift in the BCOM, but subsequent linages have exploited this consequence to become bipedal more often, suggesting that bipedalism in lizards may convey some advantage. Exploitation of bipedalism was also associated with increased rates of phenotypic diversity, suggesting exploiting bipedalism may promote adaptive radiation.
Wang, Weijie; Crompton, Robin H; Carey, Tanya S; Günther, Michael M; Li, Yu; Savage, Russell; Sellers, Williams I
2004-12-01
Size and proportions of the postcranial skeleton differ markedly between Australopithecus afarensis and Homo ergaster, and between the latter and modern Homo sapiens. This study uses computer simulations of gait in models derived from the best-known skeletons of these species (AL 288-1, Australopithecus afarensis, 3.18 million year ago) and KNM-WT 15000 (Homo ergaster, 1.5-1.8 million year ago) compared to models of adult human males and females, to estimate the required muscle power during bipedal walking, and to compare this with those in modern humans. Skeletal measurements were carried out on a cast of KNM-WT 15000, but for AL 288-1 were taken from the literature. Muscle attachments were applied to the models based on their position relative to the bone in modern humans. Joint motions and moments from experiments on human walking were input into the models to calculate muscle stress and power. The models were tested in erect walking and 'bent-hip bent-knee' gait. Calculated muscle forces were verified against EMG activity phases from experimental data, with reference to reasonable activation/force delays. Calculated muscle powers are reasonably comparable to experimentally derived metabolic values from the literature, given likely values for muscle efficiency. The results show that: 1) if evaluated by the power expenditure per unit of mass (W/kg) in walking, AL 288-1 and KNM-WT 15000 would need similar power to modern humans; however, 2) with distance-specific parameters as the criteria, AL 288-1 would require to expend relatively more muscle power (W/kg.m(-1)) in comparison to modern humans. The results imply that in the evolution of bipedalism, body proportions, for example those of KNM-WT 15000, may have evolved to obtain an effective application of muscle power to bipedal walking over a long distance, or at high speed.
Energetics of bipedal running. II. Limb design and running mechanics.
Roberts, T J; Chen, M S; Taylor, C R
1998-10-01
Compared with quadrupeds, bipedal runners of the same weight have longer legs, take longer steps and can presumably use slower, more economical muscle fibers. One might predict that bipedal running is less expensive, but it is not. We hypothesized that bipeds recruit a larger volume of muscle to support their weight, eliminating the potential economy of longer legs and slower steps. To test our hypothesis, we calculated the relative volume of muscle needed to support body weight over a stride in small dogs (Canis familiaris) and wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) of the same weight. First, we confirmed that turkeys and dogs use approximately the same amount of energy to run at the same speed, and found that turkeys take 1. 8-fold longer steps. Higher muscle forces and/or longer muscle fibers would require a greater volume of active muscle, since muscle volume is proportional to the product of force and fascicle length. We measured both mean fascicle length and mean mechanical advantage for limb extensor muscles. Turkeys generated approximately the same total muscle force to support their weight during running and used muscle fascicles that are on average 2.1 times as long as in dogs, thus requiring a 2.5-fold greater active muscle volume. The greater volume appears to offset the economy of slower rates of force generation, supporting our hypothesis and providing a simple explanation for why it costs the same to run on two and four legs.
How Fast Can a Human Run? - Bipedal vs. Quadrupedal Running.
Kinugasa, Ryuta; Usami, Yoshiyuki
2016-01-01
Usain Bolt holds the current world record in the 100-m run, with a running time of 9.58 s, and has been described as the best human sprinter in history. However, this raises questions concerning the maximum human running speed, such as "Can the world's fastest men become faster still?" The correct answer is likely "Yes." We plotted the historical world records for bipedal and quadrupedal 100-m sprint times according to competition year. These historical records were plotted using several curve-fitting procedures. We found that the projected speeds intersected in 2048, when for the first time, the winning quadrupedal 100-m sprint time could be lower, at 9.276 s, than the winning bipedal time of 9.383 s. Video analysis revealed that in quadrupedal running, humans employed a transverse gallop with a small angular excursion. These results suggest that in the future, the fastest human on the planet might be a quadrupedal runner at the 2048 Olympics. This may be achieved by shifting up to the rotary gallop and taking longer strides with wide sagittal trunk motion.
... safety reasons, especially on uneven ground. See a physical therapist for exercise therapy and walking retraining. For a ... the right position for standing and walking. A physical therapist can supply these and provide exercise therapy, if ...
Variable Stiffness Actuators: Modeling, Control, and Application to Compliant Bipedal Walking
Visser, L.C.
2013-01-01
Robots are traditionally used in factory environments, where they perform tasks with high precision and speed. This kind of robots is designed to have a high mechanical stiffness and with powerful motors, so that the required precision and speed can be achieved. However, such designs are inherently
Variable stiffness actuators : modeling, control, and application to compliant bipedal walking
Visser, L.C.
2013-01-01
Robots are traditionally used in factory environments, where they perform tasks with high precision and speed. This kind of robots is designed to have a high mechanical stiffness and with powerful motors, so that the required precision and speed can be achieved. However, such designs are inherently
Obayashi, Ippei; Aoi, Shinya; Tsuchiya, Kazuo; Kokubu, Hiroshi
2016-06-01
Passive dynamic walking is a useful model for investigating the mechanical functions of the body that produce energy-efficient walking. The basin of attraction is very small and thin, and it has a fractal-like shape; this explains the difficulty in producing stable passive dynamic walking. The underlying mechanism that produces these geometric characteristics was not known. In this paper, we consider this from the viewpoint of dynamical systems theory, and we use the simplest walking model to clarify the mechanism that forms the basin of attraction for passive dynamic walking. We show that the intrinsic saddle-type hyperbolicity of the upright equilibrium point in the governing dynamics plays an important role in the geometrical characteristics of the basin of attraction; this contributes to our understanding of the stability mechanism of bipedal walking.
Osborn, Michelle L; Homberger, Dominique G
2015-09-01
The combination of large mastoid processes and clavicles is unique to humans, but the biomechanical and evolutionary significance of their special configuration is poorly understood. As part of the newly conceptualized shoulder suspension apparatus, the mastoid processes and clavicles are shaped by forces exerted by the musculo-fascial components of the cleidomastoid and clavotrapezius muscles as they suspend the shoulders from the head. Because both skeletal elements develop during infancy in tandem with the attainment of an upright posture, increased manual dexterity, and the capacity for walking, we hypothesized that the same forces would have shaped them as the shoulder suspension apparatus evolved in ancestral humans in tandem with an upright posture, increased manual dexterity, and bipedality with swinging arms. Because the shoulder suspension apparatus is subjected to asymmetrical forces from handedness, we predicted that its skeletal features would grow asymmetrically. We used this prediction to test our hypothesis in a natural experiment to correlate the size of the skeletal features with the forces exerted on them. We (1) measured biomechanically relevant bony features within the shoulder suspension apparatus in 101 male human specimens (62 of known handedness); and (2) modeled and analyzed the forces within the shoulder suspension apparatus from X-ray CT data. We identified eight right-handed characters and demonstrated the causal relationship between these right-handed characters and the magnitude and direction of forces acting on them. Our data suggest that the presence of the shoulder suspension apparatus in humans was a necessary precondition for human bipedality.
Towards bipedal behavior on a quadrupedal platform using optimal control
Topping, T. Turner; Vasilopoulos, Vasileios; De, Avik; Koditschek, Daniel E.
2016-05-01
This paper explores the applicability of a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controller design to the problem of bipedal stance on the Minitaur [1] quadrupedal robot. Restricted to the sagittal plane, this behavior exposes a three degree of freedom (DOF) double inverted pendulum with extensible length that can be projected onto the familiar underactuated revolute-revolute "Acrobot" model by assuming a locked prismatic DOF, and a pinned toe. While previous work has documented the successful use of local LQR control to stabilize a physical Acrobot, simulations reveal that a design very similar to those discussed in the past literature cannot achieve an empirically viable controller for our physical plant. Experiments with a series of increasingly close physical facsimiles leading to the actual Minitaur platform itself corroborate and underscore the physical Minitaur platform corroborate and underscore the implications of the simulation study. We conclude that local LQR-based linearized controller designs are too fragile to stabilize the physical Minitaur platform around its vertically erect equilibrium and end with a brief assessment of a variety of more sophisticated nonlinear control approaches whose pursuit is now in progress.
Enforced bipedal downhill running induces Achilles tendinosis in rats.
Ng, Gabriel Yin-Fat; Chung, Polly Yee-Man; Wang, Jenny Shijie; Cheung, Roy Tsz-Hei
2011-01-01
Enforced downhill running has been reported to induce tendinosis in the rat supraspinatus tendon but similar exercise failed to induce Achilles tendinosis in this animal. Due to the presence of acromial arch in the shoulder, accessing the supraspinatus tendon with physical modalities is difficult; thus this model may not be suitable for studying the treatment for tendinosis. To develop a rat model for Achilles tendinosis, we tested 14 mature Sprague-Dawley rats by dividing them into 2 groups of 7 each. The experimental group was subjected to a daily enforced downhill bipedal running program by suspending their upper bodies so that they ran with their hind limbs on a treadmill for 1 hr/day for 8 weeks. The downward inclination was 20 degrees and the speed was 17 m/min. The animals in the control group did not undergo any exercise. After 8 weeks, the Achilles tendons were harvested and subjected to histological and biomechanical analysis. Histological examination revealed tenocyte proliferation, change in tenocytes appearance, and collagen bundle disintegration in the running group. The biomechanical testing revealed significant decrease in stiffness (p = 0.002) and ultimate tensile strength (p = 0.016) in the running group than in the control group. Both the histological and biomechanical findings are suggestive of changes in the tendon of the running group that resembled the pathological changes of tendinosis in human. This new model of Achilles tendinosis in rat will be useful for studying the etiology and subsequent management strategies of this condition.
Gestation and the evolution of vertical stance bipedal humans
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D.S. Robertson
2011-12-01
Full Text Available During mammalian gestation a change in maternal stance alters the velocities of maternal blood flows and results in a changed rate of delivery and distribution of nutrients required to form the bone and tissue in various parts of a developing foetus. The latter in turn results in change in the extent and position of tissue and bone formation in the foetus. It is shown that such changes would, over many generations, alter the physical characteristics of the ancestor offspring under conditions where the pregnant maternal ancestor normally exhibiting horizontal stance was constrained to adopt a vertical stance for all or most of the gestation period. This behaviour produced the physical characteristics seen in humans and other Hominidae primates, including the vertical stance and bipedalism of the former accompanied by increase in skull and brain size. The manner in which difficulties of giving birth as the change from horizontal stance to vertical stance proceeded from generation to generation, limited survival is discussed andreasons for the adoption of this behaviour are proposed. The induction of evolutionary change and the operation of natural selection through alterations in the characteristics of embryo/foetus of an animal, induced by physical, chemical, mechanical or behavioural means, is shown to be feasible. The changes are not related to the Lamarckian principle of inheritance of acquired characteristics as the changes described occurred before birth and are not related to any physical or mental characteristics already present in or acquired during the lifetime of the breeding pair.
... your legs or feet Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease Diseases such as arthritis or multiple sclerosis Vision or balance problems Treatment of walking problems depends on the cause. Physical therapy, surgery, or mobility aids may help.
Visual control of foot placement when walking over complex terrain.
Matthis, Jonathan S; Fajen, Brett R
2014-02-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of visual information in the control of walking over complex terrain with irregularly spaced obstacles. We developed an experimental paradigm to measure how far along the future path people need to see in order to maintain forward progress and avoid stepping on obstacles. Participants walked over an array of randomly distributed virtual obstacles that were projected onto the floor by an LCD projector while their movements were tracked by a full-body motion capture system. Walking behavior in a full-vision control condition was compared with behavior in a number of other visibility conditions in which obstacles did not appear until they fell within a window of visibility centered on the moving observer. Collisions with obstacles were more frequent and, for some participants, walking speed was slower when the visibility window constrained vision to less than two step lengths ahead. When window sizes were greater than two step lengths, the frequency of collisions and walking speed were weakly affected or unaffected. We conclude that visual information from at least two step lengths ahead is needed to guide foot placement when walking over complex terrain. When placed in the context of recent research on the biomechanics of walking, the findings suggest that two step lengths of visual information may be needed because it allows walkers to exploit the passive mechanical forces inherent to bipedal locomotion, thereby avoiding obstacles while maximizing energetic efficiency. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Foot trajectory approximation using the pendulum model of walking.
Fang, Juan; Vuckovic, Aleksandra; Galen, Sujay; Conway, Bernard A; Hunt, Kenneth J
2014-01-01
Generating a natural foot trajectory is an important objective in robotic systems for rehabilitation of walking. Human walking has pendular properties, so the pendulum model of walking has been used in bipedal robots which produce rhythmic gait patterns. Whether natural foot trajectories can be produced by the pendulum model needs to be addressed as a first step towards applying the pendulum concept in gait orthosis design. This study investigated circle approximation of the foot trajectories, with focus on the geometry of the pendulum model of walking. Three able-bodied subjects walked overground at various speeds, and foot trajectories relative to the hip were analysed. Four circle approximation approaches were developed, and best-fit circle algorithms were derived to fit the trajectories of the ankle, heel and toe. The study confirmed that the ankle and heel trajectories during stance and the toe trajectory in both the stance and the swing phases during walking at various speeds could be well modelled by a rigid pendulum. All the pendulum models were centred around the hip with pendular lengths approximately equal to the segment distances from the hip. This observation provides a new approach for using the pendulum model of walking in gait orthosis design.
Joint loads in marsupial ankles reflect habitual bipedalism versus quadrupedalism.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kristian J Carlson
Full Text Available Joint surfaces of limb bones are loaded in compression by reaction forces generated from body weight and musculotendon complexes bridging them. In general, joints of eutherian mammals have regions of high radiodensity subchondral bone that are better at resisting compressive forces than low radiodensity subchondral bone. Identifying similar form-function relationships between subchondral radiodensity distribution and joint load distribution within the marsupial postcranium, in addition to providing a richer understanding of marsupial functional morphology, can serve as a phylogenetic control in evaluating analogous relationships within eutherian mammals. Where commonalities are established across phylogenetic borders, unifying principles in mammalian physiology, morphology, and behavior can be identified. Here, we assess subchondral radiodensity patterns in distal tibiae of several marsupial taxa characterized by different habitual activities (e.g., locomotion. Computed tomography scanning, maximum intensity projection maps, and pixel counting were used to quantify radiodensity in 41 distal tibiae of bipedal (5 species, arboreal quadrupedal (4 species, and terrestrial quadrupedal (5 species marsupials. Bipeds (Macropus and Wallabia exhibit more expansive areas of high radiodensity in the distal tibia than arboreal (Dendrolagus, Phascolarctos, and Trichosurus or terrestrial quadrupeds (Sarcophilus, Thylacinus, Lasiorhinus, and Vombatus, which may reflect the former carrying body weight only through the hind limbs. Arboreal quadrupeds exhibit smallest areas of high radiodensity, though they differ non-significantly from terrestrial quadrupeds. This could indicate slightly more compliant gaits by arboreal quadrupeds compared to terrestrial quadrupeds. The observed radiodensity patterns in marsupial tibiae, though their statistical differences disappear when controlling for phylogeny, corroborate previously documented patterns in primates and
Kivell, Tracy L; Schmitt, Daniel
2009-08-25
Despite decades of debate, it remains unclear whether human bipedalism evolved from a terrestrial knuckle-walking ancestor or from a more generalized, arboreal ape ancestor. Proponents of the knuckle-walking hypothesis focused on the wrist and hand to find morphological evidence of this behavior in the human fossil record. These studies, however, have not examined variation or development of purported knuckle-walking features in apes or other primates, data that are critical to resolution of this long-standing debate. Here we present novel data on the frequency and development of putative knuckle-walking features of the wrist in apes and monkeys. We use these data to test the hypothesis that all knuckle-walking apes share similar anatomical features and that these features can be used to reliably infer locomotor behavior in our extinct ancestors. Contrary to previous expectations, features long-assumed to indicate knuckle-walking behavior are not found in all African apes, show different developmental patterns across species, and are found in nonknuckle-walking primates as well. However, variation among African ape wrist morphology can be clearly explained if we accept the likely independent evolution of 2 fundamentally different biomechanical modes of knuckle-walking: an extended wrist posture in an arboreal environment (Pan) versus a neutral, columnar hand posture in a terrestrial environment (Gorilla). The presence of purported knuckle-walking features in the hominin wrist can thus be viewed as evidence of arboreality, not terrestriality, and provide evidence that human bipedalism evolved from a more arboreal ancestor occupying the ecological niche common to all living apes.
Verdaasdonk, B W; Koopman, H F J M; van der Helm, F C T
2009-07-01
Like human walking, passive dynamic walking-i.e. walking down a slope with no actuation except gravity-is energy efficient by exploiting the natural dynamics. In the animal world, neural oscillators termed central pattern generators (CPGs) provide the basic rhythm for muscular activity in locomotion. We present a CPG model, which automatically tunes into the resonance frequency of the passive dynamics of a bipedal walker, i.e. the CPG model exhibits resonance tuning behavior. Each leg is coupled to its own CPG, controlling the hip moment of force. Resonance tuning above the endogenous frequency of the CPG-i.e. the CPG's eigenfrequency-is achieved by feedback of both limb angles to their corresponding CPG, while integration of the limb angles provides resonance tuning at and below the endogenous frequency of the CPG. Feedback of the angular velocity of both limbs to their corresponding CPG compensates for the time delay in the loop coupling each limb to its CPG. The resonance tuning behavior of the CPG model allows the gait velocity to be controlled by a single parameter, while retaining the energy efficiency of passive dynamic walking.
Perturbations of planar algebras
Das, Paramita; Gupta, Ved Prakash
2010-01-01
We introduce the concept of {\\em weight} of a planar algebra $P$ and construct a new planar algebra referred as the {\\em perturbation of $P$} by the weight. We establish a one-to-one correspondence between pivotal structures on 2-categories and perturbations of planar algebras by weights. To each bifinite bimodule over $II_1$-factors, we associate a {\\em bimodule planar algebra} bimodule corresponds naturally with sphericality of the bimodule planar algebra. As a consequence of this, we reproduce an extension of Jones' theorem (of associating 'subfactor planar algebras' to extremal subfactors). Conversely, given a bimodule planar algebra, we construct a bifinite bimodule whose associated bimodule planar algebra is the one which we start with using perturbations and Jones-Walker-Shlyakhtenko-Kodiyalam-Sunder method of reconstructing an extremal subfactor from a subfactor planar algebra. We show that the perturbation class of a bimodule planar algebra contains a unique spherical unimodular bimodule planar algeb...
Explicit expression of the counting generating function for Gessel's walk
Kurkova, Irina
2009-01-01
We consider the so-called Gessel's walk, that is the planar random walk that is confined to the first quadrant and that can move in unit steps to the West, North-East, East and South-West. For this walk we make explicit the generating function of the number of paths starting at $(0,0)$ and ending at $(i,j)$ in time $k$.
Preferred gait and walk-run transition speeds in ostriches measured using GPS-IMU sensors.
Daley, Monica A; Channon, Anthony J; Nolan, Grant S; Hall, Jade
2016-10-15
The ostrich (Struthio camelus) is widely appreciated as a fast and agile bipedal athlete, and is a useful comparative bipedal model for human locomotion. Here, we used GPS-IMU sensors to measure naturally selected gait dynamics of ostriches roaming freely over a wide range of speeds in an open field and developed a quantitative method for distinguishing walking and running using accelerometry. We compared freely selected gait-speed distributions with previous laboratory measures of gait dynamics and energetics. We also measured the walk-run and run-walk transition speeds and compared them with those reported for humans. We found that ostriches prefer to walk remarkably slowly, with a narrow walking speed distribution consistent with minimizing cost of transport (CoT) according to a rigid-legged walking model. The dimensionless speeds of the walk-run and run-walk transitions are slower than those observed in humans. Unlike humans, ostriches transition to a run well below the mechanical limit necessitating an aerial phase, as predicted by a compass-gait walking model. When running, ostriches use a broad speed distribution, consistent with previous observations that ostriches are relatively economical runners and have a flat curve for CoT against speed. In contrast, horses exhibit U-shaped curves for CoT against speed, with a narrow speed range within each gait for minimizing CoT. Overall, the gait dynamics of ostriches moving freely over natural terrain are consistent with previous lab-based measures of locomotion. Nonetheless, ostriches, like humans, exhibit a gait-transition hysteresis that is not explained by steady-state locomotor dynamics and energetics. Further study is required to understand the dynamics of gait transitions.
Tail autotomy affects bipedalism but not sprint performance in a cursorial Mediterranean lizard
Savvides, Pantelis; Stavrou, Maria; Pafilis, Panayiotis; Sfenthourakis, Spyros
2017-02-01
Running is essential in all terrestrial animals mainly for finding food and mates and escaping from predators. Lizards employ running in all their everyday functions, among which defense stands out. Besides flight, tail autotomy is another very common antipredatory strategy within most lizard families. The impact of tail loss to sprint performance seems to be species dependent. In some lizard species, tail shedding reduces sprint speed, in other species, increases it, and, in a few species, speed is not affected at all. Here, we aimed to clarify the effect of tail autotomy on the sprint performance of a cursorial lizard with particular adaptations for running, such as bipedalism and spike-like protruding scales (fringes) on the toepads that allow high speed on sandy substrates. We hypothesized that individuals that performed bipedalism, and have more and larger fringes, would achieve higher sprint performance. We also anticipated that tail shedding would affect sprint speed (though we were not able to define in what way because of the unpredictable effects that tail loss has on different species). According to our results, individuals that ran bipedally were faster; limb length and fringe size had limited effects on sprint performance whereas tail autotomy affected quadrupedal running only in females. Nonetheless, tail loss significantly affected bipedalism: the ability for running on hindlimbs was completely lost in all adult individuals and in 72.3% of juveniles.
Hashimoto, Teruo; Ueno, Kenichi; Ogawa, Akitoshi; Asamizuya, Takeshi; Suzuki, Chisato; Cheng, Kang; Tanaka, Michio; Taoka, Miki; Iwamura, Yoshiaki; Suwa, Gen; Iriki, Atsushi
2013-11-19
People have long speculated whether the evolution of bipedalism in early hominins triggered tool use (by freeing their hands) or whether the necessity of making and using tools encouraged the shift to upright gait. Either way, it is commonly thought that one led to the other. In this study, we sought to shed new light on the origins of manual dexterity and bipedalism by mapping the neural representations in the brain of the fingers and toes of living people and monkeys. Contrary to the 'hand-in-glove' notion outlined above, our results suggest that adaptations underlying tool use evolved independently of those required for human bipedality. In both humans and monkeys, we found that each finger was represented separately in the primary sensorimotor cortex just as they are physically separated in the hand. This reflects the ability to use each digit independently, as required for the complex manipulation involved in tool use. The neural mapping of the subjects' toes differed, however. In the monkeys, the somatotopic representation of the toes was fused, showing that the digits function predominantly as a unit in general grasping. Humans, by contrast, had an independent neurological representation of the big toe (hallux), suggesting association with bipedal locomotion. These observations suggest that the brain circuits for the hand had advanced beyond simple grasping, whereas our primate ancestors were still general arboreal quadrupeds. This early adaptation laid the foundation for the evolution of manual dexterity, which was preserved and enhanced in hominins. In hominins, a separate adaptation, involving the neural separation of the big toe, apparently occurred with bipedality. This accords with the known fossil evidence, including the recently reported hominin fossils which have been dated to 4.4 million years ago.
Foot Placement Indicator for Balance of Planar Bipeds with Point Feet
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Pieter van Zutven
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract If humanoid robots are to be used in society, they should be able to maintain their balance. Knowing where to step is crucially important. In this paper we contribute an algorithm that can compute the foot step location such that bipedal balance is maintained for planar bipeds with point feet and an arbitrary number of non-massless links on a horizontal and flat ground. The algorithm is called the foot placement indicator (FPI and it extends the foot placement estimator (FPE. The FPE uses an inverted pendulum model to capture the dynamics of a humanoid robot, whereas the FPI deals with multi-body models with distributed masses. This paper analyses equilibrium sets and the stability of planar bipeds with point feet. The algorithm uses conservation of energy throughout the step, taking into account the instantaneous impact dynamics at foot strike. A simulation case study on a five-link planar biped shows the effectiveness of the FPI.
Foot Placement Indicator for Balance of Planar Bipeds with Point Feet
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Pieter van Zutven
2013-05-01
Full Text Available If humanoid robots are to be used in society, they should be able to maintain their balance. Knowing where to step is crucially important. In this paper we contribute an algorithm that can compute the foot step location such that bipedal balance is maintained for planar bipeds with point feet and an arbitrary number of non‐massless links on a horizontal and flat ground. The algorithm is called the foot placement indicator (FPI and it extends the foot placement estimator (FPE. The FPE uses an inverted pendulum model to capture the dynamics of a humanoid robot, whereas the FPI deals with multi‐body models with distributed masses. This paper analyses equilibrium sets and the stability of planar bipeds with point feet. The algorithm uses conservation of energy throughout the step, taking into account the instantaneous impact dynamics at foot strike. A simulation case study on a five‐link planar biped shows the effectiveness of the FPI.
Superdiffusive Dispersals Impart the Geometry of Underlying Random Walks
Zaburdaev, V.; Fouxon, I.; Denisov, S.; Barkai, E.
2016-12-01
It is recognized now that a variety of real-life phenomena ranging from diffusion of cold atoms to the motion of humans exhibit dispersal faster than normal diffusion. Lévy walks is a model that excelled in describing such superdiffusive behaviors albeit in one dimension. Here we show that, in contrast to standard random walks, the microscopic geometry of planar superdiffusive Lévy walks is imprinted in the asymptotic distribution of the walkers. The geometry of the underlying walk can be inferred from trajectories of the walkers by calculating the analogue of the Pearson coefficient.
A Study on Bipedal and Mobile Robot Behavior Through Modeling and Simulation
Nirmala Nirmala; Prianggada Indra Tanaya; Maralo Sinaga
2015-01-01
The purpose of this work is to study and analyze mobile robot behavior. In performing this, a framework is adopted and developed for mobile and bipedal robot. The robots are design, build, and run as proceed from the development of mechanical structure, electronics and control integration, and control software application. The behavior of those robots are difficult to be observed and analyzed qualitatively. To evaluate the design and behavior quality, modeling and simulation of robot structur...
Robustness: a new SLIP model based criterion for gait transitions in bipedal locomotion
Martinez Salazar, Harold Roberto; Carbajal, Juan Pablo; Ivanenko, Yuri P.
2014-01-01
Bipedal locomotion is a phenomenon that still eludes a fundamental and concise mathematical understanding. Conceptual models that capture some relevant aspects of the process exist but their full explanatory power is not yet exhausted. In the current study, we introduce the robustness criterion which defines the conditions for stable locomotion when steps are taken with imprecise angle of attack. Intuitively, the necessity of a higher precision indicates the difficulty to continue moving with...
Optimal bipedal interactions with dynamic terrain: synthesis and analysis via nonlinear programming
Hubicki, Christian; Goldman, Daniel; Ames, Aaron
In terrestrial locomotion, gait dynamics and motor control behaviors are tuned to interact efficiently and stably with the dynamics of the terrain (i.e. terradynamics). This controlled interaction must be particularly thoughtful in bipeds, as their reduced contact points render them highly susceptible to falls. While bipedalism under rigid terrain assumptions is well-studied, insights for two-legged locomotion on soft terrain, such as sand and dirt, are comparatively sparse. We seek an understanding of how biological bipeds stably and economically negotiate granular media, with an eye toward imbuing those abilities in bipedal robots. We present a trajectory optimization method for controlled systems subject to granular intrusion. By formulating a large-scale nonlinear program (NLP) with reduced-order resistive force theory (RFT) models and jamming cone dynamics, the optimized motions are informed and shaped by the dynamics of the terrain. Using a variant of direct collocation methods, we can express all optimization objectives and constraints in closed-form, resulting in rapid solving by standard NLP solvers, such as IPOPT. We employ this tool to analyze emergent features of bipedal locomotion in granular media, with an eye toward robotic implementation.
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Rodrigo Pires e Albuquerque
2013-08-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A comparative analysis by applying the criteria of the original classification Ahlbäck in the anteroposterior (AP bipedal knee in extension and anteroposterior (AP monopodal knee in symptomatic knee arthrosis. With this analysis we intend to observe the agreement, any advantage or difference between the incidence and degree of joint involvement between the orthopedic surgeons and radiologists with the referring physician. METHODS: From January 2012 to March 2012, was a prospective study of 60 symptomatic arthrosis knees (60 patients, clinically selected group of outpatient knee and radiographic proposals submitted to the search. Of the 60 patients, 39 were female and 21 male, mean age 64 years (ranging from 50 to 84 years. Of the 60 knees studied, 37 corresponded to the right side and 23 on the left side. Statistical analysis was performed by Kappa statistics, which evaluates the interobserver agreement for qualitative data. RESULTS: According to the scale of Ahlbäck, there was a significant agreement (p < 0.0001 intra-observer in the classification of knee osteoarthritis among the five evaluators. There was a significant agreement (p < 0.0001 with inter-observer referring physician in the incidence of AP monopodal and AP bipedal for the four raters. CONCLUSION: The study found no difference between the incidence in the AP monopodal versus AP bipedal in osteoarthritis of the knee.
Bipedal locomotion in Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820 and Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938
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O. Rocha-Barbosa
Full Text Available Bipedalism has evolved on numerous occasions in phylogenetically diverse lizard families. In this paper we describe, for the first time, bipedal locomotion on South American lizards, the sand-dweller Liolaemus lutzae and the generalist Tropidurus torquatus. The lizards were videotaped running on a racetrack and the sequences were analyzed frame by frame. The body posture, as a whole, diverged a lot during bipedal locomotion between the two species, even though there was no difference regarding their sprint performance. The locomotor behavior of L. lutzae is, in general, more similar to the one observed on other sand-dweller lizards. Certain particularities are common, such as the digitigrade posture at footfall and throughout stance, trunk angles; and tail posture. In contrast, T. torquatus exhibited high trunk angles and dragged its tail, in a posture compared to basilisks. This body posture could be related to certain characteristics and obstacles of a microhabitat such as the one around lakes and streams (basilisks and the one with compact shrubby vegetation (T. torquatus.
Reflex control of robotic gait using human walking data.
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Catherine A Macleod
Full Text Available Control of human walking is not thoroughly understood, which has implications in developing suitable strategies for the retraining of a functional gait following neurological injuries such as spinal cord injury (SCI. Bipedal robots allow us to investigate simple elements of the complex nervous system to quantify their contribution to motor control. RunBot is a bipedal robot which operates through reflexes without using central pattern generators or trajectory planning algorithms. Ground contact information from the feet is used to activate motors in the legs, generating a gait cycle visually similar to that of humans. Rather than developing a more complicated biologically realistic neural system to control the robot's stepping, we have instead further simplified our model by measuring the correlation between heel contact and leg muscle activity (EMG in human subjects during walking and from this data created filter functions transferring the sensory data into motor actions. Adaptive filtering was used to identify the unknown transfer functions which translate the contact information into muscle activation signals. Our results show a causal relationship between ground contact information from the heel and EMG, which allows us to create a minimal, linear, analogue control system for controlling walking. The derived transfer functions were applied to RunBot II as a proof of concept. The gait cycle produced was stable and controlled, which is a positive indication that the transfer functions have potential for use in the control of assistive devices for the retraining of an efficient and effective gait with potential applications in SCI rehabilitation.
Tan, Uner
2014-01-01
Two consanguineous families with Uner Tan Syndrome (UTS) were analyzed in relation to self-organizing processes in complex systems, and the evolutionary emergence of human bipedalism. The cases had the key symptoms of previously reported cases of UTS, such as quadrupedalism, mental retardation, and dysarthric or no speech, but the new cases also exhibited infantile hypotonia and are designated UTS Type-II. There were 10 siblings in Branch I and 12 siblings in Branch II. Of these, there were seven cases exhibiting habitual quadrupedal locomotion (QL): four deceased and three living. The infantile hypotonia in the surviving cases gradually disappeared over a period of years, so that they could sit by about 10 years, crawl on hands and knees by about 12 years. They began walking on all fours around 14 years, habitually using QL. Neurological examinations showed normal tonus in their arms and legs, no Babinski sign, brisk tendon reflexes especially in the legs, and mild tremor. The patients could not walk in a straight line, but (except in one case) could stand up and maintain upright posture with truncal ataxia. Cerebello-vermial hypoplasia and mild gyral simplification were noted in their MRIs. The results of the genetic analysis were inconclusive: no genetic code could be identified as the triggering factor for the syndrome in these families. Instead, the extremely low socio-economic status of the patients was thought to play a role in the emergence of UTS, possibly by epigenetically changing the brain structure and function, with a consequent selection of ancestral neural networks for QL during locomotor development. It was suggested that UTS may be regarded as one of the unpredictable outcomes of self-organization within a complex system. It was also noted that the prominent feature of this syndrome, the diagonal-sequence habitual QL, generated an interference between ipsilateral hands and feet, as in non-human primates. It was suggested that this may have been
FES-Assisted Walking with Spring Brake Orthosis: Simulation Studies
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R. Jailani
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation of bipedal locomotion to generate stimulation pulses for activating muscles for paraplegic walking with wheel walker using functional electrical stimulation (FES with spring brake orthosis (SBO. A new methodology for paraplegic gait, based on exploiting natural dynamics of human gait, is introduced. The work is a first effort towards restoring natural like swing phase in paraplegic gait through a new hybrid orthosis, referred to as spring brake orthosis (SBO. This mechanism simplifies the control task and results in smooth motion and more-natural like trajectory produced by the flexion reflex for gait in spinal cord injured subjects. SBO can eliminate reliance on the withdrawal reflex and foot-ground clearance without extra upper body effort. The stored energy in the spring of SBO is used to replace stimulation pulses in knee flexion and reduce total required torque for the paraplegic walking with wheel walker. The study is carried out with a model of humanoid with wheel walker using the Visual Nastran (Vn4D dynamic simulation software. Stimulated muscle model of quadriceps is developed for knee extension. Fuzzy logic control (FLC is developed in Matlab/Simulink to regulate the muscle stimulation pulse-width required to drive FES-assisted walking gait and the computed motion is visualised in graphic animation from Vn4D. The simulation results show that SBO can be successfully used with FES for paraplegic walking with wheel walker with all the advantages discussed over the current hybrid orthoses available.
Effect of walking speed on the gait of king penguins: An accelerometric approach.
Willener, Astrid S T; Handrich, Yves; Halsey, Lewis G; Strike, Siobhán
2015-12-21
Little is known about non-human bipedal gaits. This is probably due to the fact that most large animals are quadrupedal and that non-human bipedal animals are mostly birds, whose primary form of locomotion is flight. Very little research has been conducted on penguin pedestrian locomotion with the focus instead on their associated high energy expenditure. In animals, tri-axial accelerometers are frequently used to estimate physiological energy cost, as well as to define the behaviour pattern of a species, or the kinematics of swimming. In this study, we showed how an accelerometer-based technique could be used to determine the biomechanical characteristics of pedestrian locomotion. Eight king penguins, which represent the only family of birds to have an upright bipedal gait, were trained to walk on a treadmill. The trunk tri-axial accelerations were recorded while the bird was walking at four different speeds (1.0, 1.2, 1.4 and 1.6km/h), enabling the amplitude of dynamic body acceleration along the three axes (amplitude of DBAx, DBAy and DBAz), stride frequency, waddling and leaning amplitude, as well as the leaning angle to be defined. The magnitude of the measured variables showed a significant increase with increasing speed, apart from the backwards angle of lean, which decreased with increasing speed. The variability of the measured variables also showed a significant increase with speed apart from the DBAz amplitude, the waddling amplitude, and the leaning angle, where no significant effect of the walking speed was found. This paper is the first approach to describe 3D biomechanics with an accelerometer on wild animals, demonstrating the potential of this technique.
A model-experiment comparison of system dynamics for human walking and running.
Lipfert, Susanne W; Günther, Michael; Renjewski, Daniel; Grimmer, Sten; Seyfarth, Andre
2012-01-07
The human musculo-skeletal system comprises high complexity which makes it difficult to identify underlying basic principles of bipedal locomotion. To tackle this challenge, a common approach is to strip away complexity and formulate a reductive model. With utter simplicity a bipedal spring-mass model gives good predictions of the human gait dynamics, however, it has not been fully investigated whether center of mass motion over time of walking and running is comparable between the model and the human body over a wide range of speed. To test the model's ability in this respect, we compare sagittal center of mass trajectories of model and human data for speeds ranging from 0.5 m/s to 4 m/s. For simulations, system parameters and initial conditions are extracted from experimental observations of 28 subjects. The leg parameters stiffness and length are extracted from functional fitting to the subjects' leg force-length curves. With small variations of the touch-down angle of the leg and the vertical position of the center of mass at apex, we find successful spring-mass simulations for moderate walking and medium running speeds. Predictions of the sagittal center of mass trajectories and ground reaction forces are good, but their amplitudes are overestimated, while contact time is underestimated. At faster walking speeds and slower running speeds we do not find successful model locomotion with the extent of allowed parameter variation. We conclude that the existing limitations may be improved by adding complexity to the model.
Padgett, Ron
2000-01-01
Discusses the long history of writing poems about a walk, noting many titles. Notes four basic types of walk poems and includes one by American poet Bill Zavatksy, called "Class Walk With Notebooks After Storm." Offers numerous brief ideas for both the writing and the form of walk poems. (SR)
Ettema, Dick; Smajic, Ifeta
2015-01-01
While there is a substantial body of research on the health implications of walking, the physical, emotional and social outcomes of walking have received limited attention. This paper explores the wellbeing effects of walking and how the walking environment fosters or hinders such wellbeing effects.
Ettema, Dick; Smajic, Ifeta
2015-01-01
While there is a substantial body of research on the health implications of walking, the physical, emotional and social outcomes of walking have received limited attention. This paper explores the wellbeing effects of walking and how the walking environment fosters or hinders such wellbeing effects.
Willey, David
2010-01-01
This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…
Willey, David
2010-01-01
This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…
New bifurcations in the simplest passive walking model
Li, Qingdu; Tang, Song; Yang, Xiao-Song
2013-12-01
This paper uncovers several new stable periodic gaits in the simplest passive walking bipedal model proposed in the literature. It is demonstrated that the model has period-3 to period-7 gaits beside the period-1 gaits found by Garcia et al. By simulations, this paper shows that each of these new gaits leads to chaos via period-doubling bifurcation and loses its stability by cyclic-fold bifurcation. This interesting phenomenon suggests a series of new bifurcation scenarios that have not been observed before. To confirm the new gaits and their bifurcations, this paper presents computer assisted proofs on the existence and stability of each periodic gait and its period-doubling gaits with the interval Newton method. To verify that the routes indeed lead to chaos, computer-assisted proofs are also given by means of topological horseshoes theory.
Plantar pressure changes in normal and pathological foot during bipedal standing
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Rai D
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Background : Plantar pressure measurement during bipedal standing provides an important information of loading of human body on foot under various postural activities. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to monitor the plantar pressure during bipedal standing in normal and pathological conditions. Use of orthotics in attenuating the peak pressure to distribute it uniformly on plantar surface of the foot was also examined. Methods: The pedobarographs of 66 subjects were recorded using computer assisted indigenously developed optical pedobarograph. The pedobarographs were evaluated using Asha 3-D software developed during present study. Standard size universal orthotics (FootmaxxTM, Canada was used to determine the effect in attenuating the peak pressure. Results: Results showed distribution of plantar pressure in the right and left foot of normal subject under the various regions was not equal. It was observed that among the normal subjects 17% experienced equal pressure on the both feet, 7% showed greater pressure on left foot and 76% found higher load on the right foot. Similarly the pathological subjects were analyzed and noticed the changes in the pedobarographs depending upon the type and location of pathology. It was found that orthotics improved the plantar pressure and distributed it uniformly to make the person standing comfortably. Conclusion: Plantar pressure measurement techniques are useful in the analysis and understanding of the biomechanics of human foot. It was found that orthotics attenuated the peak pressure and distributed it uniformly on the plantar area of the foot. The data seem to be useful in understanding the biomechanics of bipedal standing.
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Brice Isableu
2017-06-01
Full Text Available We compared postural control of expert gymnasts (G to that of non-gymnasts (NG during bipedal closed-eyes quiet standing using conventional and nonlinear dynamical measures of center of foot pressure (COP trajectories. Earlier findings based on COP classical variables showed that gymnasts exhibited a better control of postural balance but only in demanding stances. We examined whether the effect of expertise in Gymnastic can be uncovered in less demanding stances, from the analysis of the dynamic patterns of COP trajectories. Three dependent variables were computed to describe the subject’s postural behavior: the variability of COP displacements (ACoP, the variability of the COP velocities (VCoP and the sample entropy of COP (SEnCoP to quantify COP regularity (i.e., predictability. Conventional analysis of COP trajectories showed that NG and G exhibited similar amount and control of postural sway, as indicated by similar ACoP and VCoP values observed in NG and G, respectively. These results suggest that the specialized balance training received by G may not transfer to less challenging balance conditions such as the bipedal eyes-closed stance condition used in the present experiment. Interestingly, nonlinear dynamical analysis of COP trajectories regarding COP regularity showed that G exhibited more irregular COP fluctuations relative to NG, as indicated by the higher SEnCoP values observed for the G than for the NG. The present results showed that a finer-grained analysis of the dynamic patterns of the COP displacements is required to uncover an effect of gymnastic expertise on postural control in nondemanding postural stance. The present findings shed light on the surplus value in the nonlinear dynamical analysis of COP trajectories to gain further insight into the mechanisms involved in the control of bipedal posture.
Diffraction and interference of walking drops
Pucci, Giuseppe; Harris, Daniel M.; Bush, John W. M.
2016-11-01
A decade ago, Yves Couder and Emmanuel Fort discovered a wave-particle association on the macroscopic scale: a drop can bounce indefinitely on a vibrating bath of the same liquid and can be piloted by the waves that it generates. These walking droplets have been shown to exhibit several quantum-like features, including single-particle diffraction and interference. Recently, the original diffraction and interference experiments of Couder and Fort have been revisited and contested. We have revisited this system using an improved experimental set-up, and observed a strong dependence of the behavior on system parameters, including drop size and vibrational forcing. In both the single- and the double-slit geometries, the diffraction pattern is dominated by the interaction of the walking droplet with a planar boundary. Critically, in the double-slit geometry, the walking droplet is influenced by both slits by virtue of its spatially extended wave field. NSF support via CMMI-1333242.
Lee, Scott; Richards, Zachary
2015-03-01
The section modulus of a bone is a measure of its ability to resist bending torques. Carnivorous dinosaurs presumably had strong arm bones to hold struggling prey during hunting. Some theropods are believed to have become herbivorous and such animals would not have needed such strong arms. In this work, the section moduli of the humerus bones of bipedal theropod dinosaurs (from Microvenator celer to Tyrannosaurus rex) are studied to determine the maximum bending loads their arms could withstand. The results show that bending strength is not of uniform importance to these magnificent animals. The predatory theropods had strong arms for use in hunting. In contrast, the herbivorous dinosaurs had weaker arms.
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Uner eTan
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Two consanguineous families with Uner Tan Syndrome (UTS were analyzed in relation to self-organizing processes in complex systems, and the evolutionary emergence of human bipedalism. The cases had the key symptoms of previously reported cases of UTS, such as quadrupedalism, mental retardation, and dysarthric or no speech, but the new cases also exhibited infantile hypotonia and are designated UTS Type-II. There were 10 siblings in Branch I and 12 siblings in Branch II. Of these, there were seven cases exhibiting habitual quadrupedal locomotion (QL: four deceased and three living. The infantile hypotonia in the surviving cases gradually disappeared over a period of years, so that they could sit by about 10 years, crawl on hands and knees by about 12 years. They began walking on all fours around 14 years, habitually using QL. Neurological examinations showed normal tonus in their arms and legs, no Babinski sign, brisk tendon reflexes especially in the legs, and mild tremor. The patients could not walk in a straight line, but (except in one case could stand up and maintain upright posture with truncal ataxia. Cerebello-vermial hypoplasia and mild gyral simplification were noted in their MRIs. The results of the genetic analysis were inconclusive: no genetic code could be identified as the triggering factor for the syndrome in these families. Instead, the extremely low socio-economic status of the patients was thought to play a role in the emergence of UTS, possibly by epigenetically changing the brain structure and function, with a consequent selection of ancestral neural networks for QL during locomotor development. It was suggested that UTS may be regarded as one of the unpredictable outcomes of self-organization within a complex system. It was also noted that the prominent feature of this syndrome, the diagonal-sequence habitual QL, generated an interference between ipsilateral hands and feet, as in non-human primates. It was suggested that this
A bipedal DNA motor that travels back and forth between two DNA origami tiles.
Liber, Miran; Tomov, Toma E; Tsukanov, Roman; Berger, Yaron; Nir, Eyal
2015-02-04
In this work, the successful operation of a dynamic DNA device constructed from two DNA origami building blocks is reported. The device includes a bipedal walker that strides back and forth between the two origami tiles. Two different DNA origami tiles are first prepared separately; they are then joined together in a controlled manner by a set of DNA strands to form a stable track in high yield as confirmed by single-molecule fluorescence (SMF). Second, a bipedal DNA motor, initially attached to one of the two origami units and operated by sequential interaction with "fuel" and "antifuel" DNA strands, moves from one origami tile to another and then back again. The operational yield, measured by SMF, was similar to that of a motor operating on a similar track embedded in a single origami tile, confirming that the transfer across the junction from one tile to the other does not result in dissociation that is any more than that of steps on a single tile. These results demonstrate that moving parts can reliably travel from one origami unit to another, and it demonstrates the feasibility of dynamic DNA molecular machines that are made of more than a single origami building block. This study is a step toward the development of motors that can stride over micrometer distances.
Push recovery for the standing under-actuated bipedal robot using the hip strategy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chao LI; Rong XIONG‡; Qiu-guo ZHU; Jun WU; Ya-liang WANG; Yi-ming HUANG
2015-01-01
This paper presents a control algorithm for push recovery, which particularly focuses on the hip strategy when an external disturbance is applied on the body of a standing under-actuated biped. By analyzing a simplified dynamic model of a bipedal robot in the stance phase, it is found that horizontal stability can be maintained with a suitably controlled torque applied at the hip. However, errors in the angle or angular velocity of body posture may appear, due to the dynamic coupling of the transla-tional and rotational motions. To solve this problem, different hip strategies are discussed for two cases when (1) external dis-turbance is applied on the center of mass (CoM) and (2) external torque is acting around the CoM, and a universal hip strategy is derived for most disturbances. Moreover, three torque primitives for the hip, depending on the type of disturbance, are designed to achieve translational and rotational balance recovery simultaneously. Compared with closed-loop control, the advantage of the open-loop methods of torque primitives lies in rapid response and reasonable performance. Finally, simulation studies of the push recovery of a bipedal robot are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
A Study on Bipedal and Mobile Robot Behavior Through Modeling and Simulation
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Nirmala Nirmala
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to study and analyze mobile robot behavior. In performing this, a framework is adopted and developed for mobile and bipedal robot. The robots are design, build, and run as proceed from the development of mechanical structure, electronics and control integration, and control software application. The behavior of those robots are difficult to be observed and analyzed qualitatively. To evaluate the design and behavior quality, modeling and simulation of robot structure and its task capability is performed. The stepwise procedure to robot behavior study is explained. Behavior cases study are experimented to bipedal robots, transporter robot and Autonomous Guided Vehicle (AGV developed at our institution. The experimentation are conducted on those robots by adjusting their dynamic properties and/or surrounding environment. Validation is performed by comparing the simulation result and the real robot execution. The simulation gives a more idealistic behavior execution rather than realistic one. Adjustments are performed to fine tuning simulation's parameters to provide a more realistic performance.
Dávid-Barrett, Tamás; Dunbar, Robin I M
2016-05-01
Bipedality evolved early in hominin evolution, and at some point was associated with hair loss over most of the body. One classic explanation (Wheeler 1984: J. Hum. Evol. 13, 91-98) was that these traits evolved to reduce heat overload when australopiths were foraging in more open tropical habitats where they were exposed to the direct effects of sunlight at midday. A recent critique of this model (Ruxton & Wilkinson 2011a: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 20965-20969) argued that it ignored the endogenous costs of heat generated by locomotion, and concluded that only hair loss provided a significant reduction in heat load. We add two crucial corrections to this model (the altitude at which australopiths actually lived and activity scheduling) and show that when these are included there are substantial reductions in heat load for bipedal locomotion even for furred animals. In addition, we add one further consideration to the model: we extend the analysis across the full 24 h day, and show that fur loss could not have evolved until much later because of the thermoregulatory costs this would have incurred at the altitudes where australopiths actually lived. Fur loss is most likely associated with the exploitation of open habitats at much lower altitudes at a much later date by the genus Homo.
How Fast Can a Human Run? − Bipedal vs. Quadrupedal Running
Kinugasa, Ryuta; Usami, Yoshiyuki
2016-01-01
Usain Bolt holds the current world record in the 100-m run, with a running time of 9.58 s, and has been described as the best human sprinter in history. However, this raises questions concerning the maximum human running speed, such as “Can the world’s fastest men become faster still?” The correct answer is likely “Yes.” We plotted the historical world records for bipedal and quadrupedal 100-m sprint times according to competition year. These historical records were plotted using several curve-fitting procedures. We found that the projected speeds intersected in 2048, when for the first time, the winning quadrupedal 100-m sprint time could be lower, at 9.276 s, than the winning bipedal time of 9.383 s. Video analysis revealed that in quadrupedal running, humans employed a transverse gallop with a small angular excursion. These results suggest that in the future, the fastest human on the planet might be a quadrupedal runner at the 2048 Olympics. This may be achieved by shifting up to the rotary gallop and taking longer strides with wide sagittal trunk motion. PMID:27446911
Hall, Joanne L; Donovan, Diane
2012-01-01
In 1980 Alltop produced a family of cubic phase sequences that nearly meet the Welch bound for maximum non-peak correlation magnitude. This family of sequences were shown by Wooters and Fields to be useful for quantum state tomography. Alltop's construction used a function that is not planar, but whose difference function is planar. In this paper we show that Alltop type functions cannot exist in fields of characteristic 3 and that for a known class of planar functions, $x^3$ is the only Alltop type function.
Rousseva, Jenia; Kovchegov, Yevgeniy
2017-03-01
We study an inhomogeneous quantum walk on a line that evolves according to alternating coins, each a rotation matrix. For the quantum walk with the coin alternating between clockwise and counterclockwise rotations by the same angle, we derive a closed form solution for the propagation of probabilities, and provide its asymptotic approximation via the method of stationary phase. Finally, we observe that for a x03c0;/4 angle, this alternating rotation walk will replicate the renown Hadamard walk.
Planar Resonators for Metamaterials
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M. Blaha
2012-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation into a combination of electric and magnetic planar resonators in order to design the building element of a volumetric metamaterial showing simultaneously negative electric and magnetic polarizabilities under irradiation by an electromagnetic wave. Two combinations of particular planar resonators are taken into consideration. These planar resonators are an electric dipole, a split ring resonator and a double H-shaped resonator. The response of the single resonant particle composed of a resonator with an electric response and a resonator with a magnetic response is strongly anisotropic. Proper spatial arrangement of these particles can make the response isotropic. This is obtained by proper placement of six planar resonators on the surface of a cube that now represents a metamaterial unit cell. The cells are distributed in space with 3D periodicity.
Orr, Caley M
2005-11-01
distal radius in the hominin lineage might be indicative of a knuckle-walking ancestry for bipedal hominins if interpreted within the biomechanical and phylogenetic context of hominid locomotor evolution. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Jason K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Netrapalli, Praneeth [STUDENT UT AUSTIN
2010-11-12
Inference and learning of graphical models are both well-studied problems in statistics and machine learning that have found many applications in science and engineering. However, exact inference is intractable in general graphical models, which suggests the problem of seeking the best approximation to a collection of random variables within some tractable family of graphical models. In this paper, we focus our attention on the class of planar Ising models, for which inference is tractable using techniques of statistical physics [Kac and Ward; Kasteleyn]. Based on these techniques and recent methods for planarity testing and planar embedding [Chrobak and Payne], we propose a simple greedy algorithm for learning the best planar Ising model to approximate an arbitrary collection of binary random variables (possibly from sample data). Given the set of all pairwise correlations among variables, we select a planar graph and optimal planar Ising model defined on this graph to best approximate that set of correlations. We present the results of numerical experiments evaluating the performance of our algorithm.
Xie, Ning; Li, Mo; Wu, Tao; Liu, Jun; Wang, Binbin; Tang, Feng
2015-07-01
Previous studies implied indirectly that an elevated osteopontin (OPN) level might play a key role in the pathomechanism of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Nonetheless, up to now, no direct evidence was proposed to determine this issue. The aim was to determine the role of OPN in the pathomechanism of scoliosis. This was an experimental study to investigate the role of OPN in a bipedal mouse scoliosis model. All procedures were performed under the approval and supervision of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of our university. A new bipedal mouse model with elevated OPN level was established in this study. Amputation of forelimbs and tail was performed on 80 male C3H/HeJ mice at the age of 3 weeks. Then, these mice were randomly divided into two groups: Group A consisted of 40 mice treated with OPN 40 mg/kg daily and Group B consisted of the remaining 40 mice treated with saline. Then, 40 quadruped mice with saline were included in Group C. Body length, X-rays, and computed tomographic scans were obtained at the twentieth week. Then, scoliosis incidence, curve magnitude, and circulating OPN level were compared among groups. Osteopontin level was significantly higher in Group A compared with that in Groups B and C. Spine deformity was identified in 37 mice in Group A, 21 mice in Group B, and 5 mice in Group C. The average Cobb angle was 29.8° in Group A, 20.9° in Group B, and 17.5° in Group C. Although no significant difference of body length was found, significant statistical difference was noted in terms of scoliosis incidence and curve magnitude, among the three groups. The results of the present study indicated that the elevated OPN level might play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of scoliosis, that is, it not only raises the risk for scoliosis in bipedal mice but also contributes to curve progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yamamoto Akihiro
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Currently, many bipedal robots have been proposed to realize the high energy efficiency walking. The passive dynamic walking does not require control input. Generally, a foot of passive dynamic walking robot is an arc foot. In this paper, it is intended to establish a control method and control mechanism to achieve energy efficient and stable gate. Therefore, we developed 3D quasi-passive walker with flat feet driven by an antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscle. An antagonistic mechanism is constituted by a pair of McKibben muscle. And an antagonistic pneumatic system is used as joint actuators of linkage mechanisms which control the torque, joint stiffness and position simultaneously. Finally, this report shows that the 3D quasi-passive walking in the level ground can realize by the swinging (simple input of the frontal direction, and the stride of the robot is proportional to lateral-plane input.
Control of a Step Walking Combined to Arms Swinging for a Three Dimensional Humanoid Prototype
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Amira Aloulou
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Present researches focus to make humanoid robots more and more autonomous so they can assist human in daily works like taking care of children, aged or disabled persons. In such social activities, the contemporary humanoid robots are expected to have human like morphology and gait. Studies on bipedal locomotion for humanoid robots are then part of the hottest topics in the field of robotic researches. Knowing the benefits of arm swinging for human gait, we propose in this study a new prototype of female humanoid robot morphology having the capabilities to swing arms during step walking. Approach: A new humanoid robot prototype had been introduced based on a human morphology corresponding to a woman whose weight is 70 kg and height is 1,73 m and using realistic gait parameters of a women. The female humanoid robot prototype was composed of fifteen links associated to twenty-six degrees of freedom. Winter statistical model had been applied to determine all physical parameters corresponding to each link. Modeling the proposed humanoid robot implies first to establish the kinematic model basically founded on Eulers transformation matrix and then to set the dynamic model computed using the Newton-Euler method. To show how the arms played an important role in bipedal gait, we had chosen to consider the whole body as two independent robotic systems: the upper body and the lower body. Results: Both three dimensional kinematic and dynamic models of the humanoid robot had been developed. The three dimensional humanoid robot was controlled via a feedback linearization control during the single support, impact and double support phases. The simulation results showed the arm swing during the step of walking. Conclusion: The humanoid robot proposed has a human like morphology and ensures the function of a step walking with arm swinging. The applied control laws have ensured to the robot desired performances during a step walking.
Self-reported walking ability predicts functional mobility performance in frail older adults.
Alexander, N B; Guire, K E; Thelen, D G; Ashton-Miller, J A; Schultz, A B; Grunawalt, J C; Giordani, B
2000-11-01
To determine how self-reported physical function relates to performance in each of three mobility domains: walking, stance maintenance, and rising from chairs. Cross-sectional analysis of older adults. University-based laboratory and community-based congregate housing facilities. Two hundred twenty-one older adults (mean age, 79.9 years; range, 60-102 years) without clinical evidence of dementia (mean Folstein Mini-Mental State score, 28; range, 24-30). We compared the responses of these older adults on a questionnaire battery used by the Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (EPESE) project, to performance on mobility tasks of graded difficulty. Responses to the EPESE battery included: (1) whether assistance was required to perform seven Katz activities of daily living (ADL) items, specifically with walking and transferring; (2) three Rosow-Breslau items, including the ability to walk up stairs and walk a half mile; and (3) five Nagi items, including difficulty stooping, reaching, and lifting objects. The performance measures included the ability to perform, and time taken to perform, tasks in three summary score domains: (1) walking ("Walking," seven tasks, including walking with an assistive device, turning, stair climbing, tandem walking); (2) stance maintenance ("Stance," six tasks, including unipedal, bipedal, tandem, and maximum lean); and (3) chair rise ("Chair Rise," six tasks, including rising from a variety of seat heights with and without the use of hands for assistance). A total score combines scores in each Walking, Stance, and Chair Rise domain. We also analyzed how cognitive/ behavioral factors such as depression and self-efficacy related to the residuals from the self-report and performance-based ANOVA models. Rosow-Breslau items have the strongest relationship with the three performance domains, Walking, Stance, and Chair Rise (eta-squared ranging from 0.21 to 0.44). These three performance domains are as strongly
Taga, Gentaro
1994-08-01
A principle of locomotor control in an unpredictably changing environment is presented on the basis of neurophysiology and biomechanics from the perspective of nonlinear dynamics theory. Locomotor movements emerge as a limit cycle generated through global entrainment among the neuro-musculo-skeletal system and the environment. A computer simulation of a specific model of bipedal locomotion shows its ability to adapt to a changing environment in real-time. The stability of the limit cycle is maintained despite the presence of time delays in transporting and processing information between the neural rhythm generator and the musculo-skeletal system. With considerable time delays, however, the locomotor pattern becomes chaotic, which is compared with a gait of patients with neural deficits. A general framework for motor control is discussed toward the control of movements in an unpredictable environment.
Intra-task variability of trunk coordination during a rate-controlled bipedal dance jump.
Smith, Jo Armour; Siemienski, Adam; Popovich, John M; Kulig, Kornelia
2012-01-01
In this study, we investigated trunk coordination during rate-controlled bipedal vertical dance jumps. The aims of the study were to investigate the pattern of coordination and the magnitude of coordination variability within jump phases and relative to phase-defining events during the jump. Lumbar and thoracic kinematics were collected from seven dancers during a series of jumps at 95 beats per minute. The vector coding technique was used to quantify the pattern and variability of trunk coordination. Coordination was predominantly anti-phase during propulsion and landing. Mean coordination variability peaked just before the landing phase and at the transition from landing to propulsion phases, and was lowest during the propulsion phase just before toe-off. The results indicate that peaks in variability could be explained by task and phase-specific biomechanical demands.
The influence of initial bipedal stance width on the clinical measurement of unipedal balance time
Richardson, James K.; Tang, Chi; Nwagwu, Chijioke; Nnodim, Joseph
2012-01-01
Objective To determine the effect of varying initial bipedal stance width (ISW) on the clinical measurement of unipedal balance time (UBT). Design Observational, cross sectional study. Setting Academic physiatric outpatient facility. Subjects Thirty-one clinic subjects with neuromuscular and/or musculoskeletal conditions known to influence mobility, and 30 similarly-aged healthy subjects. Methods Demographic and clinical information were recorded. UBT was determined under three distinct conditions by varying bipedal inter-malleolar distance: 1) ISW of 0.3 body height; 2) ISW of 0.05 body height; and 3) ISW of 0 body height. The last was accomplished by subjects assuming unipedal balance while using the hands on a horizontal surface for stabilization. Subjects lifted the contralateral foot (or hands in the case of 0 body height condition) in response to a cadenced command to minimize variation in rate of weight transfer Main Outcome Measurements UBT under each of the three ISW conditions. Results Mean UBT increased with decreasing ISW, and the differences were significant when comparing each ISW with the next smaller. Healthy subjects demonstrated greater UBT than clinic subjects at each ISW, but the magnitude of these group differences were similar across ISW condition. A UBT > 10 seconds in the 0.3 body height ISW was the best discriminator between clinic and healthy subjects. Conclusions Because UBT varies with ISW, standardization of ISW is necessary for accurate within subject, and between subject, comparisons in UBT. Healthy subjects were best differentiated from clinic subjects by UBT > 10 sec in the 0.3 body height ISW condition. PMID:20430326
Kinesiology-Based Robot Foot Design for Human-Like Walking
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SangJoo Kwon
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Compared with the conventional flat foot, the flexible foot is advantageous in implementing human‐like walking and much reduces energy consumption. In this paper, from an anatomical and kinesiological point of view, a flexible foot with toes and heels is investigated for a bipedal robot and three critical design parameters for walking stability are drawn, which include stiffness of toes and heels, frontal toe position, and ankle joint position. In addition, a human‐like walking trajectory compatible with the flexible foot is proposed by mimicking a human walking pattern. First of all, the zero moment point (ZMP trajectory continuously moves forward without stopping, even in the single support phase. Secondly, the centre of mass (CoM trajectory includes vertical motion similar to that seen in human beings. Thirdly, the ankle trajectory follows the rotational motion of a human foot while being lifted from and landing on the ground. Through the simulation study, it is shown that the suggested design parameters can be applied as useful indices for the mechanical design of biped feet; interestingly, the vertical motion of the centre of mass tends to compensate for the transient response in the initial walking step.
Rhythm Pattern of Sole through Electrification of the Human Body When Walking
Takiguchi, Kiyoaki; Wada, Takayuki; Tohyama, Shigeki
The rhythm of automatic cyclic movements such as walking is known to be generated by a rhythm generator called CPG in the spinal cord. The measurement of rhythm characteristics in walking is considered to be important for analyzing human bipedal walking and adaptive walking on irregular terrain. In particular, the soles that contact the terrain surface perform flexible movements similar to the movement of the fins of a lungfish, which is considered to be the predecessor of land animals. The sole movements are believed to be a basic movement acquired during prehistoric times. The detailed rhythm pattern of sole motion is considered to be important. We developed a method for measuring electrification without installing device on a subject's body and footwear for stabilizing the electrification of the human body. We measured the rhythm pattern of 20 subjects including 4 infants when walking by using this system and the corresponding equipment. Therefore, we confirmed the commonality of the correlative rhythm patterns of 20 subjects. Further, with regard to an individual subject, the reproducibility of a rhythm pattern with strong correlation coefficient > 0.93 ± 0.5 (mean ± SD) concerning rhythms of trials that are differently conducted on adult subjects could be confirmed.
Development of energy and time parameters in the walking of healthy human infants.
Kimura, Tasuku; Yaguramaki, Naoko; Fujita, Masaki; Ogiue-Ikeda, Mari; Nishizawa, Satoshi; Ueda, Yutaka
2005-11-01
Sixteen infants were analyzed longitudinally from the onset of independent walking to 3 years of age using time parameters, speed and energy recovery. Considerable variation and irregularities were observed in many parameters of infant walking, especially until 13 months of age when infants had difficulty in walking steadily step by step. Infant walking until 3 years of age was characterized by a small braking duration, caused mainly by the forward inclination of the trunk, a large relative stance phase duration, which maintained static balance, short stride length, due to the small range of the lower limb joint angle, and a small recovery of external energy. These characteristics were also predominantly evident until 13 months of age. The small recovery characteristic of infants was caused by flexed lower limb joints, pronounced irregularities in energy output, and in younger infants, slow speed. The maximum recovery up until 2 years of age, though smaller than in adults, appeared at about 0.45 dimensionless speed, which is about the same speed that adults in particular naturally and at which their maximum recovery appeared. The forward inclination of the trunk and the lower limb joint angle, influenced the development of many characteristics of bipedal walking.
Passive Dynamics Explain Quadrupedal Walking, Trotting, and Tölting.
Gan, Zhenyu; Wiestner, Thomas; Weishaupt, Michael A; Waldern, Nina M; David Remy, C
2016-03-01
This paper presents a simplistic passive dynamic model that is able to create realistic quadrupedal walking, tölting, and trotting motions. The model is inspired by the bipedal spring loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) model and consists of a distributed mass on four massless legs. Each of the legs is either in ground contact, retracted for swing, or is ready for touch down with a predefined angle of attack. Different gaits, that is, periodic motions differing in interlimb coordination patterns, are generated by choosing different initial model states. Contact patterns and ground reaction forces (GRFs) evolve solely from these initial conditions. By identifying appropriate system parameters in an optimization framework, the model is able to closely match experimentally recorded vertical GRFs of walking and trotting of Warmblood horses, and of tölting of Icelandic horses. In a detailed study, we investigated the sensitivity of the obtained solutions with respect to all states and parameters and quantified the improvement in fitting GRF by including an additional head and neck segment. Our work suggests that quadrupedal gaits are merely different dynamic modes of the same structural system and that we can interpret different gaits as different nonlinear elastic oscillations that propel an animal forward.
Prediction of walking possibility in crawling children in poliomyelitis.
Arora, S S; Tandon, H
1999-01-01
Crawling is one of the most common modes of ambulating in children with severe paralysis and deformities in poliomyelitis. Restoring upright posture and bipedal gait, although desirable, has its own limitations due to various factors. Fifty-three children below the age of 12 years (29 boys and 24 girls) crawling due to post-poliomyelitis residual paralysis were assessed for the genesis of crawling as a mode of ambulating. The patterns of crawling were classified according to Cross's classification. Paralyzed muscles and deformities in definite combinations were found responsible for each type of crawling. Trunk muscles, gluteus maximus, quadriceps, hamstrings, tibialis anterior, and triceps surae were identified as muscles crucial for walking in order of priority. At least antigravity power in these muscles was necessary for an upright posture and walking with support. Various combinations of treatment modalities were used to correct the deformities before fitting an orthosis and instituting gait training. Thirty-four children became outdoor walkers, 14 indoor walkers, and five remained nonwalkers. The most favorable patterns of crawling for restoration of upright posture were true quadruped progression (30 cases) and infant-like crawl (14 cases). Average follow-up was 17 months (range, 6 months to 5 years).
Negahban, Hossein; Aryan, Najmolhoda; Mazaheri, Masood; Norasteh, Ali Asghar; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali
2013-06-01
It was hypothesized that training in 'static balance' or 'dynamic balance' sports has differential effects on postural control and its attention demands during quiet standing. In order to test this hypothesis, two groups of female athletes practicing shooting, as a 'static balance' sport, and Taekwondo, as a 'dynamic balance' sport, and a control group of non-physically active females voluntarily participated in this study. Postural control was assessed during bipedal and unipedal stance with and without performing a Go/No-go reaction time task. Visual and/or support surface conditions were manipulated in bipedal and unipedal stances in order to modify postural difficulty. Mixed model analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of dual tasking on postural and cognitive performance. Similar pattern of results were found in bipedal and unipedal stances, with Taekwondo practitioners displaying larger sway, shooters displaying lower sway and non-athletes displaying sway characteristics intermediate to Taekwondo and shooting athletes. Larger effect was found in bipedal stance. Single to dual-task comparison of postural control showed no significant effect of mental task on sway velocity in shooters, indicating less cognitive effort invested in balance control during bipedal stance. We suggest that expertise in shooting has a more pronounced effect on decreased sway in static balance conditions. Furthermore, shooters invest less attention in postures that are more specific to their training, i.e. bipedal stance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The peeling process of infinite Boltzmann planar maps
Budd, Timothy
2015-01-01
We start by studying a peeling process on finite random planar maps with faces of arbitrary degrees determined by a general weight sequence, which satisfies an admissibility criterion. The corresponding perimeter process is identified as a biased random walk, in terms of which the admissibility criterion has a very simple interpretation. The finite random planar maps under consideration were recently proved to possess a well-defined local limit known as the infinite Boltzmann planar map (IBPM). Inspired by recent work of Curien and Le Gall, we show that the peeling process on the IBPM can be obtained from the peeling process of finite random maps by conditioning the perimeter process to stay positive. The simplicity of the resulting description of the peeling process allows us to obtain the scaling limit of the associated perimeter and volume process for arbitrary regular critical weight sequences.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU An-Cai; XU Xin-Jian; WU Zhi-Xi; WANG Ying-Hai
2007-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of random walks on weighted networks. Assuming that the edge weight and the node strength are used as local information by a random walker. Two kinds of walks, weight-dependent walk and strength-dependent walk, are studied. Exact expressions for stationary distribution and average return time are derived and confirmed by computer simulations. The distribution of average return time and the mean-square that a weight-dependent walker can arrive at a new territory more easily than a strength-dependent one.
Planar, monolithically integrated coil
Roozeboom, F.; Reefman, D.; Klootwijk, J.H.; Tiemeijer, L.F.; Ruigrok, J.
2013-01-01
The present invention provides a means to integrate planar coils on silicon, while providing a high inductance. This high inductance is achieved through a special back- and front sided shielding of a material. In many applications, high-value inductors are a necessity. In particular, this holds for
1981-05-01
try todefine a complex planar spline by holomorphic elements like polynomials, then by the well known identity theorem (e.g. Diederich- Remmert [9, p...R. Remmert : Funktionentheorie I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1972, 246 p. 10 0. Lehto - K.I. Virtanen: Quasikonforme AbbildunQen, Springer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Recent developments of the ultra-wideband(UWB)planar antennas are reviewed,where the progress in UWB plate monopole antennas,UWB printed monopole antennas and the UWB printed slot antennas is introduced and compared.In addition,the UWB printed antennas with the band-notched functions are also presented.
Bipedal gait experiment for functional electrical stimulation%服务于功能性电刺激的双足步态实验
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王颖; 张定国
2012-01-01
BACKGROUND: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) uses electrical pulse of low level to stimulate the peripheral nerve of muscles in order to restore the motor functions, and it has already achieved clinical success in area of paraplegic walking. However, the patterns of FES are inflexible, unstable and hard to operate for the end-users at present.OBJECTIVE: To study the synergistic action of the muscles involved in walking movements for simplifying the design of FES control patterns based on gait analysis and to make the subjects perform expected involuntary walking movements using FES.METHODS: According to the characteristics of bipedal walking, a method of gait research was proposed based on measurement and analysis of joint angle and electromyography signal. It served for FES system design, which generated the desired stimulation patterns for muscle groups of lower limbs, and realized the corresponding collaborative activation of the muscle groups.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Satisfactory involuntary walking of a healthy subject without self-control was realized using the FES method proposed. The results from the experiment had verified the feasibility of FES in lower limb rehabilitation. It sheds light on more complex FES control methods, and provides experimental support for clinical study on paralyzed patients in future.%背景:功能性电刺激利用低频弱电流脉冲刺激失去神经控制的肌肉已经在截瘫行走的临床应用中取得了小范围成功,但现有的电刺激模式存在不灵活、不易操作、且稳定性不高的缺点.目的:基于步态分析方法,研究涉及到步行动作的各肌肉群的协同动作关系,将肌肉电刺激模式简化为无需患者操作的规律性控制策略,并验证该策略在功能性电刺激实验中的有效性.方法:针对双足步行的特点,提出一种基于关节角变化趋势及肌电信号强度变化的步态研究方法,旨在服务于功能性电刺激的设计,为下肢肌肉
Gait-specific energetics contributes to economical walking and running in emus and ostriches.
Watson, Rebecca R; Rubenson, Jonas; Coder, Lisa; Hoyt, Donald F; Propert, Matthew W G; Marsh, Richard L
2011-07-07
A widely held assumption is that metabolic rate (Ė(met)) during legged locomotion is linked to the mechanics of different gaits and this linkage helps explain the preferred speeds of animals in nature. However, despite several prominent exceptions, Ė(met) of walking and running vertebrates has been nearly uniformly characterized as increasing linearly with speed across all gaits. This description of locomotor energetics does not predict energetically optimal speeds for minimal cost of transport (E(cot)). We tested whether large bipedal ratite birds (emus and ostriches) have gait-specific energetics during walking and running similar to those found in humans. We found that during locomotion, emus showed a curvilinear relationship between Ė(met) and speed during walking, and both emus and ostriches demonstrated an abrupt change in the slope of Ė(met) versus speed at the gait transition with a linear increase during running. Similar to human locomotion, the minimum net E(cot) calculated after subtracting resting metabolism was lower in walking than in running in both species. However, the difference in net E(cot) between walking and running was less than is found in humans because of a greater change in the slope of Ė(met) versus speed at the gait transition, which lowers the cost of running for the avian bipeds. For emus, we also show that animals moving freely overground avoid a range of speeds surrounding the gait-transition speed within which the E(cot) is large. These data suggest that deviations from a linear relation of metabolic rate and speed and variations in transport costs with speed are more widespread than is often assumed, and provide new evidence that locomotor energetics influences the choice of speed in bipedal animals. The low cost of transport for walking is probably ecologically important for emus and ostriches because they spend the majority of their active day walking, and thus the energy used for locomotion is a large part of their daily
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aiman Omer
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Bipedal humanoid robots are expected to play a major role in the future. Performing bipedal locomotion requires high energy due to the high torque that needs to be provided by its legs’ joints. Taking the WABIAN-2R as an example, it uses harmonic gears in its joint to increase the torque. However, using such a mechanism increases the weight of the legs and therefore increases energy consumption. Therefore, the idea of developing a mechanism with adjustable stiffness to be connected to the leg joint is introduced here. The proposed mechanism would have the ability to provide passive and active motion. The mechanism would be attached to the ankle pitch joint as an artificial tendon. Using computer simulations, the dynamical performance of the mechanism is analytically evaluated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petra Hlavackova
Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the relative contribution of each leg to unperturbed bipedal posture in lower limb amputees. To achieve this goal, eight unilateral traumatic trans-femoral amputees (TFA were asked to stand as still as possible on a plantar pressure data acquisition system with their eyes closed. Four dependent variables were computed to describe the subject's postural behavior: (1 body weight distribution, (2 amplitude, (3 velocity and (4 regularity of centre of foot pressure (CoP trajectories under the amputated (A leg and the non-amputated (NA leg. Results showed a larger body weight distribution applied to the NA leg than to the A leg and a more regular CoP profiles (lower sample entropy values with greater amplitude and velocity under the NA leg than under the A leg. Taken together, these findings suggest that the NA leg and the A leg do not equally contribute to the control of unperturbed bipedal posture in TFA. The observation that TFA do actively control unperturbed bipedal posture with their NA leg could be viewed as an adaptive process to the loss of the lower leg afferents and efferents because of the unilateral lower-limb amputation. From a methodological point of view, these results demonstrate the suitability of computing bilateral CoP trajectories regularity for the assessment of lateralized postural control under pathological conditions.
Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts
2012-07-31
This podcast is based on the August 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. While more adults are walking, only half get the recommended amount of physical activity. Listen to learn how communities, employers, and individuals may help increase walking. Created: 7/31/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/7/2012.
Rotor-Router Walks on Directed Covers of Graphs
Huss, Wilfried
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is to study the behaviour of rotor-router walks on directed covers of finite graphs. The latter are also called in the literature trees with finitely many cone types or periodic trees. A rotor-router walk is a deterministic version of a random walk, in which the walker is routed to each of the neighbouring vertices in some fixed cyclic order. We study several quantities related to rotor-router walks such as: order of the rotor-router group, order of the root element in the rotor-router group and the connection with random walks. For random initial configurations of rotors, we also address the question of recurrence and transience of transfinite rotor-router walks. On homogeneous trees, the recurrence/transience was studied by Angel and Holroyd. We extend their theory and provide an example of a directed cover such that the rotor-router walk can be either recurrent or transient, depending only on the planar embedding of the periodic tree.
Dielectric Covered Planar Antennas
Llombart Juan, Nuria (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Gill, John J. (Inventor); Skalare, Anders J. (Inventor); Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
An antenna element suitable for integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies is disclosed. The antenna element comprises an extended spherical (e.g. hemispherical) semiconductor lens, e.g. silicon, antenna fed by a leaky wave waveguide feed. The extended spherical lens comprises a substantially spherical lens adjacent a substantially planar lens extension. A couple of TE/TM leaky wave modes are excited in a resonant cavity formed between a ground plane and the substantially planar lens extension by a waveguide block coupled to the ground plane. Due to these modes, the primary feed radiates inside the lens with a directive pattern that illuminates a small sector of the lens. The antenna structure is compatible with known semiconductor fabrication technology and enables production of large format imaging arrays.
Planar electrochemical device assembly
Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.
2007-06-19
A pre-fabricated electrochemical device having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films is bonded to a porous electrically conductive support. A second porous electrically conductive support may be bonded to a counter electrode of the electrochemical device. Multiple electrochemical devices may be bonded in parallel to a single porous support, such as a perforated sheet to provide a planar array. Planar arrays may be arranged in a stacked interconnected array. A method of making a supported electrochemical device is disclosed wherein the method includes a step of bonding a pre-fabricated electrochemical device layer to an existing porous metal or porous metal alloy layer.
Biomechanical analysis of rollator walking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alkjaer, T; Larsen, Peter K; Pedersen, Gitte
2006-01-01
The rollator is a very popular walking aid. However, knowledge about how a rollator affects the walking patterns is limited. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanical effects of walking with and without a rollator on the walking pattern in healthy subjects.......The rollator is a very popular walking aid. However, knowledge about how a rollator affects the walking patterns is limited. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanical effects of walking with and without a rollator on the walking pattern in healthy subjects....
Bason, Y.; Klein, L.; Yau, J. -B.; Hong, X.; Hoffman, J.; Ahn, C. H.
2005-01-01
We suggest a new type of magnetic random access memory (MRAM) that is based on the phenomenon of the planar Hall effect (PHE) in magnetic films, and we demonstrate this idea with manganite films. The PHE-MRAM is structurally simpler than currently developed MRAM that is based on magnetoresistance tunnel junctions (MTJ), with the tunnel junction structure being replaced by a single layer film.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David J. Aldous
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Modeling a road network as a planar graph seems very natural. However, in studying continuum limits of such networks it is useful to take {\\em routes} rather than {\\em edges} as primitives. This article is intended to introduce the relevant (discrete setting notion of {\\em routed network} to graph theorists. We give a naive classification of all 71 topologically different such networks on 4 leaves, and pose a variety of challenging research questions.
Hip proprioceptive feedback influences the control of mediolateral stability during human walking.
Roden-Reynolds, Devin C; Walker, Megan H; Wasserman, Camille R; Dean, Jesse C
2015-10-01
Active control of the mediolateral location of the feet is an important component of a stable bipedal walking pattern, although the roles of sensory feedback in this process are unclear. In the present experiments, we tested whether hip abductor proprioception influenced the control of mediolateral gait motion. Participants performed a series of quiet standing and treadmill walking trials. In some trials, 80-Hz vibration was applied intermittently over the right gluteus medius (GM) to evoke artificial proprioceptive feedback. During walking, the GM was vibrated during either right leg stance (to elicit a perception that the pelvis was closer mediolaterally to the stance foot) or swing (to elicit a perception that the swing leg was more adducted). Vibration during quiet standing evoked leftward sway in most participants (13 of 16), as expected from its predicted perceptual effects. Across the 13 participants sensitive to vibration, stance phase vibration caused the contralateral leg to be placed significantly closer to the midline (by ∼2 mm) at the end of the ongoing step. In contrast, swing phase vibration caused the vibrated leg to be placed significantly farther mediolaterally from the midline (by ∼2 mm), whereas the pelvis was held closer to the stance foot (by ∼1 mm). The estimated mediolateral margin of stability was thus decreased by stance phase vibration but increased by swing phase vibration. Although the observed effects of vibration were small, they were consistent with humans monitoring hip proprioceptive feedback while walking to maintain stable mediolateral gait motion.
Motor patterns during walking on a slippery walkway.
Cappellini, Germana; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Dominici, Nadia; Poppele, Richard E; Lacquaniti, Francesco
2010-02-01
Friction and gravity represent two basic physical constraints of terrestrial locomotion that affect both motor patterns and the biomechanics of bipedal gait. To provide insights into the spatiotemporal organization of the motor output in connection with ground contact forces, we studied adaptation of human gait to steady low-friction conditions. Subjects walked along a slippery walkway (7 m long; friction coefficient approximately 0.06) or a normal, nonslippery floor at a natural speed. We recorded gait kinematics, ground reaction forces, and bilateral electromyographic (EMG) activity of 16 leg and trunk muscles and we mapped the recorded EMG patterns onto the spinal cord in approximate rostrocaudal locations of the motoneuron (MN) pools to characterize the spatiotemporal organization of the motor output. The results revealed several idiosyncratic features of walking on the slippery surface. The step length, cycle duration, and horizontal shear forces were significantly smaller, the head orientation tended to be stabilized in space, whereas arm movements, trunk rotations, and lateral trunk inclinations considerably increased and foot motion and gait kinematics resembled those of a nonplantigrade gait. Furthermore, walking on the slippery surface required stabilization of the hip and of the center-of-body mass in the frontal plane, which significantly improved with practice. Motor patterns were characterized by an enhanced (roughly twofold) level of MN activity, substantial decoupling of anatomical synergists, and the absence of systematic displacements of the center of MN activity in the lumbosacral enlargement. Overall, the results show that when subjects are confronted with unsteady surface conditions, like the slippery floor, they adopt a gait mode that tends to keep the COM centered over the supporting limbs and to increase limb stiffness. We suggest that this behavior may represent a distinct gait mode that is particularly suited to uncertain surface
Quantum walks: a comprehensive review
Venegas-Andraca, Salvador E
2012-01-01
Quantum walks, the quantum mechanical counterpart of classical random walks, is an advanced tool for building quantum algorithms that has been recently shown to constitute a universal model of quantum computation. Quantum walks is now a solid field of research of quantum computation full of exciting open problems for physicists, computer scientists, mathematicians and engineers. In this paper we review theoretical advances on the foundations of both discrete- and continuous-time quantum walks, together with the role that randomness plays in quantum walks, the connections between the mathematical models of coined discrete quantum walks and continuous quantum walks, the quantumness of quantum walks, a summary of papers published on discrete quantum walks and entanglement as well as a succinct review of experimental proposals and realizations of discrete-time quantum walks. Furthermore, we have reviewed several algorithms based on both discrete- and continuous-time quantum walks as well as a most important resul...
Walking - Sensing - Participation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bødker, Mads; Meinhardt, Nina Dam; Browning, David
Building on ethnographic research and social theory in the field of ‘mobilities’, this workshop paper suggests that field work based on simply walking with people entails a form of embodied participation that informs technological interventions by creating a space within which to address a wider ...... set of experiential or ‘felt’ qualities of living with mobile technologies. Moving from reflections on the value of walking with people, the paper outlines some affordances of a smartphone application built to capture place experiences through walking....
When Human Walking is a Random Walk
Hausdorff, J. M.
1998-03-01
The complex, hierarchical locomotor system normally does a remarkable job of controlling an inherently unstable, multi-joint system. Nevertheless, the stride interval --- the duration of a gait cycle --- fluctuates from one stride to the next, even under stationary conditions. We used random walk analysis to study the dynamical properties of these fluctuations under normal conditions and how they change with disease and aging. Random walk analysis of the stride-to-stride fluctuations of healthy, young adult men surprisingly reveals a self-similar pattern: fluctuations at one time scale are statistically similar to those at multiple other time scales (Hausdorff et al, J Appl Phsyiol, 1995). To study the stability of this fractal property, we analyzed data obtained from healthy subjects who walked for 1 hour at their usual pace, as well as at slower and faster speeds. The stride interval fluctuations exhibited long-range correlations with power-law decay for up to a thousand strides at all three walking rates. In contrast, during metronomically-paced walking, these long-range correlations disappeared; variations in the stride interval were uncorrelated and non-fractal (Hausdorff et al, J Appl Phsyiol, 1996). To gain insight into the mechanism(s) responsible for this fractal property, we examined the effects of aging and neurological impairment. Using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), we computed α, a measure of the degree to which one stride interval is correlated with previous and subsequent intervals over different time scales. α was significantly lower in healthy elderly subjects compared to young adults (p < .003) and in subjects with Huntington's disease, a neuro-degenerative disorder of the central nervous system, compared to disease-free controls (p < 0.005) (Hausdorff et al, J Appl Phsyiol, 1997). α was also significantly related to degree of functional impairment in subjects with Huntington's disease (r=0.78). Recently, we have observed that just as
Crossover from random walk to self-avoiding walk
Rieger, Jens
1988-11-01
A one-dimensional n-step random walk on openZ1 which must not visit a vertex more than k times is studied via Monte Carlo methods. The dependences of the mean-square end-to-end distance of the walk and of the fraction of trapped walks on λ=(k-1)/n will be given for the range from λ=0 (self-avoiding walk) to λ=1 (unrestricted random walk). From the results it is conjectured that in the limit n-->∞ the walk obeys simple random walk statistics with respect to its static properties for all λ>0.
... may simply monitor your child's gait during regular office visits. If a physical problem is contributing to toe walking, treatment options may include: Physical therapy. Gentle stretching of the leg and foot muscles may improve ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vestergaard, Maria Quvang Harck; Olesen, Mette; Helmer, Pernille Falborg
2014-01-01
individuals in Denmark conduct and experience walking, and the ‘rationalities’ (Giddens 1984) that lie behind their choice of mobility. It provides insight into how different lifestyles perceive and act walking in their everyday life. Kaufmann (2002) describes how the individual mobility is influenced......’ of mobility (Jensen 2013:111) such as the urban environment, and the infrastructures. Walking has indeed also a ‘software dimension’ as an embodied performance that trigger the human senses (Jensen 2013) and which is closely related to the habitus and identity of the individual (Halprin 1963). The individual...... by individual strategies, values, perceptions and habits, and how appropriation of mobility is constructed through the internalization of standards and values. The act of walking could thus be understood as the result of dynamic internal negotiation of individual, everyday mobility strategies (Lassen 2005...
Tan, Uner
2007-01-01
transition from quadrupedality to bipedality. That is, the activity of the philogenetically youngest supraspinal centers for bipedal walking responsible for suppression of the older supraspinal centers for quadrupedal gait may be interrupted at the atavistic level due to genetic and/or environmental factors. Consequently, it is assumed that these individuals prefer their natural wrist-walking to move around more quickly and efficiently.
Prediction for RNA planar pseudoknots
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Hengwu; Zhu Daming; Liu Zhendong; Li Hong
2007-01-01
Based on m-stems and semi-extensible structure, a model is presented to represent RNA planar pseudoknots, and corresponding dynamic programming algorithm is designed and implemented to predict arbitrary planar pseudoknots and simple non-planar pseudoknots with O(n4) time and O(n3) space. The algorithm folds total 245 sequences in the Pseudobase database, and the test results indicate that the algorithm has good accuracy, sensitivity and specificity.
Planar Para Algebras, Reflection Positivity
Jaffe, Arthur; Liu, Zhengwei
2017-05-01
We define a planar para algebra, which arises naturally from combining planar algebras with the idea of ZN para symmetry in physics. A subfactor planar para algebra is a Hilbert space representation of planar tangles with parafermionic defects that are invariant under para isotopy. For each ZN, we construct a family of subfactor planar para algebras that play the role of Temperley-Lieb-Jones planar algebras. The first example in this family is the parafermion planar para algebra (PAPPA). Based on this example, we introduce parafermion Pauli matrices, quaternion relations, and braided relations for parafermion algebras, which one can use in the study of quantum information. An important ingredient in planar para algebra theory is the string Fourier transform (SFT), which we use on the matrix algebra generated by the Pauli matrices. Two different reflections play an important role in the theory of planar para algebras. One is the adjoint operator; the other is the modular conjugation in Tomita-Takesaki theory. We use the latter one to define the double algebra and to introduce reflection positivity. We give a new and geometric proof of reflection positivity by relating the two reflections through the string Fourier transform.
Persistence of motor-equivalent postural fluctuations during bipedal quiet standing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julius Verrel
Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical work indicates that the central nervous system is able to stabilize motor performance by selectively suppressing task-relevant variability (TRV, while allowing task-equivalent variability (TEV to occur. During unperturbed bipedal standing, it has previously been observed that, for task variables such as the whole-body center of mass (CoM, TEV exceeds TRV in amplitude. However, selective control (and correction of TRV should also lead to different temporal characteristics, with TEV exhibiting higher temporal persistence compared to TRV. The present study was specifically designed to test this prediction. Kinematics of prolonged quiet standing (5 minutes was measured in fourteen healthy young participants, with eyes closed. Using the uncontrolled manifold analysis, postural variability in six sagittal joint angles was decomposed into TEV and TRV with respect to four task variables: (1 center of mass (CoM position, (2 head position, (3 trunk orientation and (4 head orientation. Persistence of fluctuations within the two variability components was quantified by the time-lagged auto-correlation, with eight time lags between 1 and 128 seconds. The pattern of results differed between task variables. For three of the four task variables (CoM position, head position, trunk orientation, TEV significantly exceeded TRV over the entire 300 s-period.The autocorrelation analysis confirmed our main hypothesis for CoM position and head position: at intermediate and longer time delays, TEV exhibited higher persistence than TRV. Trunk orientation showed a similar trend, while head orientation did not show a systematic difference between TEV and TRV persistence. The combination of temporal and task-equivalent analyses in the present study allow a refined characterization of the dynamic control processes underlying the stabilization of upright standing. The results confirm the prediction, derived from computational motor control, that task
Persistence of motor-equivalent postural fluctuations during bipedal quiet standing.
Verrel, Julius; Pradon, Didier; Vuillerme, Nicolas
2012-01-01
Theoretical and empirical work indicates that the central nervous system is able to stabilize motor performance by selectively suppressing task-relevant variability (TRV), while allowing task-equivalent variability (TEV) to occur. During unperturbed bipedal standing, it has previously been observed that, for task variables such as the whole-body center of mass (CoM), TEV exceeds TRV in amplitude. However, selective control (and correction) of TRV should also lead to different temporal characteristics, with TEV exhibiting higher temporal persistence compared to TRV. The present study was specifically designed to test this prediction. Kinematics of prolonged quiet standing (5 minutes) was measured in fourteen healthy young participants, with eyes closed. Using the uncontrolled manifold analysis, postural variability in six sagittal joint angles was decomposed into TEV and TRV with respect to four task variables: (1) center of mass (CoM) position, (2) head position, (3) trunk orientation and (4) head orientation. Persistence of fluctuations within the two variability components was quantified by the time-lagged auto-correlation, with eight time lags between 1 and 128 seconds. The pattern of results differed between task variables. For three of the four task variables (CoM position, head position, trunk orientation), TEV significantly exceeded TRV over the entire 300 s-period.The autocorrelation analysis confirmed our main hypothesis for CoM position and head position: at intermediate and longer time delays, TEV exhibited higher persistence than TRV. Trunk orientation showed a similar trend, while head orientation did not show a systematic difference between TEV and TRV persistence. The combination of temporal and task-equivalent analyses in the present study allow a refined characterization of the dynamic control processes underlying the stabilization of upright standing. The results confirm the prediction, derived from computational motor control, that task
Audu, Musa L; Kirsch, Robert F; Triolo, Ronald J
2007-01-01
We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) biomechanical model of human standing that enables us to study the mechanisms of posture and balance simultaneously in various directions in space. Since the two feet are on the ground, the system defines a kinematically closed-chain which has redundancy problems that cannot be resolved using the laws of mechanics alone. We have developed a computational (optimization) technique that avoids the problems with the closed-chain formulation thus giving users of such models the ability to make predictions of joint moments, and potentially, muscle activations using more sophisticated musculoskeletal models. This paper describes the experimental verification of the computational technique that is used to estimate the ground reaction vector acting on an unconstrained foot while the other foot is attached to the ground, thus allowing human bipedal standing to be analyzed as an open-chain system. The computational approach was verified in terms of its ability to predict lower extremity joint moments derived from inverse dynamic simulations performed on data acquired from four able-bodied volunteers standing in various postures on force platforms. Sensitivity analyses performed with model simulations indicated which ground reaction force (GRF) and center of pressure (COP) components were most critical for providing better estimates of the joint moments. Overall, the joint moments predicted by the optimization approach are strongly correlated with the joint moments computed using the experimentally measured GRF and COP (0.78 unity slope (experimental=computational results) for postures of the four subjects examined. These results indicate that this model-based technique can be relied upon to predict reasonable and consistent estimates of the joint moments using the predicted GRF and COP for most standing postures.
Interrogating Planar Cyclooctatetraenes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hensel, Thomas
The present thesis addresses the synthesis, analysis and possible applications of different diazadioxa- and azatioxa[8]circulenes to investigate antiaromaticity of a planar cyclooctatetraene (COT). To achieve this goal, different synthetic strategies were developed, all employing 3,6-dihydroxycar......The present thesis addresses the synthesis, analysis and possible applications of different diazadioxa- and azatioxa[8]circulenes to investigate antiaromaticity of a planar cyclooctatetraene (COT). To achieve this goal, different synthetic strategies were developed, all employing 3...... bound carbazole, giving the trimer a helical structure. On the basis of the investigations on oxidative dimerizations of 3,6-dihydroxycarbazoles and previous mechanistic studies by Erdman and Högberg on 1,4-benzqoquinone condensations, the mechanisms of the formation of azatrioxa- and diazadioxa-[8...... (antiaromatic) ring-current influence on the chemical shift values was visible. In addition to that, a comparison of bond-lengths derived from single crystal X-ray structure showed slight alternations (1.40-1.43 Å) in the COTs of azatrioxa- and diazadioxa[8]circulenes. All investigated COT cores therefore...
Biomechanical analysis of rollator walking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nielsen Linda H
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rollator is a very popular walking aid. However, knowledge about how a rollator affects the walking patterns is limited. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanical effects of walking with and without a rollator on the walking pattern in healthy subjects. Methods The walking pattern during walking with and without rollator was analyzed using a three-dimensional inverse dynamics method. Sagittal joint dynamics and kinematics of the ankle, knee and hip were calculated. In addition, hip joint dynamics and kinematics in the frontal plane were calculated. Seven healthy women participated in the study. Results The hip was more flexed while the knee and ankle joints were less flexed/dorsiflexed during rollator walking. The ROM of the ankle and knee joints was reduced during rollator-walking. Rollator-walking caused a reduction in the knee extensor moment by 50% when compared to normal walking. The ankle plantarflexor and hip abductor moments were smaller when walking with a rollator. In contrast, the angular impulse of the hip extensors was significantly increased during rollator-walking. Conclusion Walking with a rollator unloaded the ankle and especially the knee extensors, increased the hip flexion and thus the contribution of hip extensors to produce movement. Thus, rollator walking did not result in an overall unloading of the muscles and joints of the lower extremities. However, the long-term effect of rollator walking is unknown and further investigation in this field is needed.
Mitchell, Duncan; Fuller, Andrea; Maloney, Shane K
2009-05-01
Other than the hominin lineage, baboons are the diurnally active primates that have colonized the arid plains of Africa most successfully. While the hominin lineage adopted bipedalism before colonizing the open, dry plains, baboons retained a quadrupedal mode of locomotion. Because bipedalism has been considered to reduce the thermoregulatory stress of inhabiting open dry plains, we investigated how baboons cope with thermal loads and water restriction. Using implanted data loggers, we measured abdominal temperature every 5 min in six unrestrained baboons while they were exposed to simulated desert conditions (15 degrees C at night rising to 35 degrees C during the day, with and without extra radiant heating), or an ambient temperature of 22 degrees C. At 22 degrees C, core temperature averaged 37.9 degrees C and cycled nychthemerally by 1.7 degrees C. Mean, minimum, and maximum daily core temperatures in euhydrated baboons in the simulated desert environments did not differ from the temperatures displayed in the 22 degrees C environment, even when radiant heating was applied. At 22 degrees C, restricting water intake did not affect core temperature. During the desert simulations, maximum core temperature increased significantly on each day of water deprivation, with the highest temperatures (>40 degrees C) on the third day in the simulation that included radiant heat. When drinking water heated to 38 degrees C was returned, core temperature decreased rapidly to a level lower than normal for that time of day. We conclude that baboons with access to water can maintain homeothermy in the face of high air temperatures and radiant heat loads, but that a lack of access to drinking water poses a major threat to baboon homeothermy. We speculate that any competitive thermoregulatory advantage of bipedalism in early hominins was related to coping with water shortage in hot environments, and that their freed hands might have enabled them to transport enough water to avoid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rashmoni Jana
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Fibularis tertius (FT is often considered as part of extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscle. The muscle is absent in hominoid apes and with the acquisition of the bipedal gait; the muscle emerged as a recent addition in the human foot. From its various modes of insertions, it is evident that the muscles of the sole are in search of its distal attachment, which can best support the relatively weak human midfoot. We describe an unusual insertion of the muscle in support of this hypothesis.
Unitary equivalence of quantum walks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goyal, Sandeep K., E-mail: sandeep.goyal@ucalgary.ca [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, 4000 Durban (South Africa); Konrad, Thomas [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, 4000 Durban (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP), KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa); Diósi, Lajos [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary)
2015-01-23
Highlights: • We have found unitary equivalent classes in coined quantum walks. • A single parameter family of coin operators is sufficient to realize all simple one-dimensional quantum walks. • Electric quantum walks are unitarily equivalent to time dependent quantum walks. - Abstract: A simple coined quantum walk in one dimension can be characterized by a SU(2) operator with three parameters which represents the coin toss. However, different such coin toss operators lead to equivalent dynamics of the quantum walker. In this manuscript we present the unitary equivalence classes of quantum walks and show that all the nonequivalent quantum walks can be distinguished by a single parameter. Moreover, we argue that the electric quantum walks are equivalent to quantum walks with time dependent coin toss operator.
Improved Dynamic Planar Point Location
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Arge, Lars; Georgiadis, Loukas
2006-01-01
We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time.......We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time....
Planar Para Algebras, Reflection Positivity
Jaffe, Arthur
2016-01-01
We define the notion of a planar para algebra, which arises naturally from combining planar algebras with the idea of $\\Z_{N}$ para symmetry in physics. A subfactor planar para algebra is a Hilbert space representation of planar tangles with parafermionic defects, that are invariant under isotopy. For each $\\Z_{N}$, we construct a family of subfactor planar para algebras which play the role of Temperley-Lieb-Jones planar algebras. The first example in this family is the parafermion planar para algebra. Based on this example, we introduce parafermion Pauli matrices, quaternion relations, and braided relations for parafermion algebras which one can use in the study of quantum information. Two different reflections play an important role in the theory of planar para algebras. One is the adjoint operator; the other is the modular conjugation in Tomita-Takesaki theory. We use the latter one to define the double algebra and to introduce reflection positivity. We give a new and geometric proof of reflection positivi...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mineev, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
The planar elliptic extension of the Laplacian growth is, after a proper parametrization, given in a form of a solution to the equation for areapreserving diffeomorphisms. The infinite set of conservation laws associated with such elliptic growth is interpreted in terms of potential theory, and the relations between two major forms of the elliptic growth are analyzed. The constants of integration for closed form solutions are identified as the singularities of the Schwarz function, which are located both inside and outside the moving contour. Well-posedness of the recovery of the elliptic operator governing the process from the continuum of interfaces parametrized by time is addressed and two examples of exact solutions of elliptic growth are presented.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacob, Riko
We determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage of the data structure...... is O(n). The data structure supports extreme point queries in a given direction, tangent queries through a given point, and queries for the neighboring points on the convex hull in O(log n) time. The extreme point queries can be used to decide whether or not a given line intersects the convex hull......, and the tangent queries to determine whether a given point is inside the convex hull. The space usage of the data structure is O(n). We give a lower bound on the amortized asymptotic time complexity that matches the performance of this data structure....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølfting; Jacob, Rico
2002-01-01
In this paper we determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage...... of the data structure is O(n). The data structure supports extreme point queries in a given direction, tangent queries through a given point, and queries for the neighboring points on the convex hull in O(log n) time. The extreme point queries can be used to decide whether or not a given line intersects...... the convex hull, and the tangent queries to determine whether a given point is inside the convex hull. We give a lower bound on the amortized asymptotic time complexity that matches the performance of this data structure....
Ferromagnetic Planar Nanocomposites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carbucicchio, M.; Rateo, M. [University of Parma, and INFM, Department of Physics (Italy)
2004-12-15
Modern permanent magnets require a high coercive field on account of a strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy, as well as a high saturation magnetization and high Curie temperature. The achievement of so different characteristics in a unique phase is the present main difficulty. In principle, this problem can be solved combining the high saturation magnetization of a soft phase with the high magnetic anisotropy of a hard phase, via the exchange coupling on a nanometric scale. The first attempts showed the feasibility of planar magnetic nanocomposites, where soft and hard magnetic layers are intercalated, but on the other hand they also stressed the difficulties still existing. The present paper reviews some theoretical aspects and experimental results, pointing out the potentiality of Moessbauer spectroscopy in determining the spin configuration, as well as the nature and thickness of interfaces, which strongly influence the exchange interaction in these systems.
Intersegmental coordination while walking up inclined surfaces: age and ramp angle effects.
Noble, Jeremy W; Prentice, Stephen D
2008-08-01
The lower-limb segment elevation angles during human locomotion have been shown to co-vary in a manner such that they approximate a plane when plotted against each other over a gait cycle. This relationship has been described as the Planar Co-Variation Law and has been shown to be consistent across various modes of locomotion on level ground. The goal of this study is to determine whether the Planar Co-Variation Law will hold in situations where the orientation of the walking surface is altered and if aging will have an effect on this intersegmental coordination during these locomotor tasks. Nine healthy young females (mean age = 21.4), and nine older adult females (mean age = 73.3) were asked to complete walking trials on level ground, and walking up ramps with inclines of 3 degrees , 6 degrees , 9 degrees and 12 degrees while the kinematics of their lower limbs were measured. It was found that the Planar Co-Variation Law was held across all ramp incline conditions by both the young adult and older adult groups. It was found that the changes in intersegmental coordination required to walk up the ramp resulted in a unique orientation of the co-variation plane for both groups when walking up a particular incline. The results of this study indicate that the Planar Co-Variation Law will include situations where the walking surface is not level and provides further support to models of motor control that have been proposed where walking patterns for different modes of gait can be predicted based on the orientation of the co-variation plane.
A Planarity Criterion for Graphs
Dosen, Kosta
2012-01-01
It is proven that a connected graph is planar if and only if all its cocycles with at least four edges are "grounded" in the graph. The notion of grounding of this planarity criterion, which is purely combinatorial, stems from the intuitive idea that with planarity there should be a linear ordering of the edges of a cocycle such that in the two subgraphs remaining after the removal of these edges there can be no crossing of disjoint paths that join the vertices of these edges. The proof given in the paper of the right-to-left direction of the equivalence is based on Kuratowski's Theorem for planarity involving $K_{3,3}$ and $K_5$, but the criterion itself does not mention $K_{3,3}$ and $K_5$. Some other variants of the criterion are also shown necessary and sufficient for planarity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jennifer McDuff
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Physical activity is beneficial for people with dementia, but little research explores subjective experiences of physical activity in this population. Interpretive description guided the analysis of 26 interviews conducted with 12 people with dementia. Three themes described the subjective meaning of everyday physical activity: Participants were attracted to activity because it improved physical well-being, provided social connections, gave opportunity to be in nature, and provided structure and focus; participants experienced impediments to activity because of physical discomfort, environmental factors, lack of enthusiasm, and memory loss; and participants made adjustments by choosing walking over other activities and by being active with others. Results show that physical activity remains important for people with dementia, although they encounter barriers. They may prefer walking with others as a form of activity. Findings could influence how nurses conceptualize wandering and suggest that walking programs could be well received by people with dementia.
Biomechanical conditions of walking
Fan, Y F; Luo, L P; Li, Z Y; Han, S Y; Lv, C S; Zhang, B
2015-01-01
The development of rehabilitation training program for lower limb injury does not usually include gait pattern design. This paper introduced a gait pattern design by using equations (conditions of walking). Following the requirements of reducing force to the injured side to avoid further injury, we developed a lower limb gait pattern to shorten the stride length so as to reduce walking speed, to delay the stance phase of the uninjured side and to reduce step length of the uninjured side. This gait pattern was then verified by the practice of a rehabilitation training of an Achilles tendon rupture patient, whose two-year rehabilitation training (with 24 tests) has proven that this pattern worked as intended. This indicates that rehabilitation training program for lower limb injury can rest on biomechanical conditions of walking based on experimental evidence.
Molacek, Jan; Bush, John
2012-11-01
Motivated by the hydrodynamic quantum analogue system of Yves Couder, we examine the dynamics of silicone oil drops bouncing on a vertically vibrating liquid bath. We report regime diagrams indicating the dependence of the vertical drop motion on the system parameters. A logarithmic spring model for the interface is developed, and provides new rationale for the regime diagrams. We further examine the spatio-temporal evolution of the standing waves created on the bath surface by repeated drop impacts. Measurement of the tangential coefficient of restitution of drops bouncing on a quiescent bath enables us to accurately determine all the major forces acting on the drop during flight and impact. By combining the horizontal and vertical dynamics, we thus develop a model for the walking drops that enables us to rationalize both the extent of the walking regime and the walking speeds. The model predictions compare favorably with experimental data in the parameter range explored.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eslambolchilar, Parisa; Bødker, Mads; Chamberlain, Alan
2016-01-01
It seems logical to argue that mobile computing technologies are intended for use "on-the-go." However, on closer inspection, the use of mobile technologies pose a number of challenges for users who are mobile, particularly moving around on foot. In engaging with such mobile technologies...... and their envisaged development, we argue that interaction designers must increasingly consider a multitude of perspectives that relate to walking in order to frame design problems appropriately. In this paper, we consider a number of perspectives on walking, and we discuss how these may inspire the design of mobile...... technologies. Drawing on insights from non-representational theory, we develop a partial vocabulary with which to engage with qualities of pedestrian mobility, and we outline how taking more mindful approaches to walking may enrich and inform the design space of handheld technologies....
The peeling process of infinite Boltzmann planar maps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Budd, Timothy George
2016-01-01
We start by studying a peeling process on finite random planar maps with faces of arbitrary degrees determined by a general weight sequence, which satisfies an admissibility criterion. The corresponding perimeter process is identified as a biased random walk, in terms of which the admissibility...... be obtained from the peeling process of finite random maps by conditioning the perimeter process to stay positive. The simplicity of the resulting description of the peeling process allows us to obtain the scaling limit of the associated perimeter and volume process for arbitrary regular critical weight...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vestergaard, Maria Quvang Harck; Olesen, Mette; Helmer, Pernille Falborg
2014-01-01
’ of mobility (Jensen 2013:111) such as the urban environment, and the infrastructures. Walking has indeed also a ‘software dimension’ as an embodied performance that trigger the human senses (Jensen 2013) and which is closely related to the habitus and identity of the individual (Halprin 1963). The individual...... the individuals evaluate, interpret and act (Bourdieu 1984), and how this affects their choice to walk. Therefore it could be questioned if whether an assessment of the physical environment is sufficient to identify all the factors that influence the individual perception of ‘walkability’, or if other influencing...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bødker, Mads; Browning, David; Meinhardt, Nina Dam
We suggest that ‘walking’ in ethnographic work sensitizes researchers to a particular means of making sense of place. Following a brief conceptual exposition, we present our research tool iMaCam) that supports capturing and representing activities such as walking.......We suggest that ‘walking’ in ethnographic work sensitizes researchers to a particular means of making sense of place. Following a brief conceptual exposition, we present our research tool iMaCam) that supports capturing and representing activities such as walking....
Aperiodic Quantum Random Walks
Ribeiro, P; Mosseri, R; Ribeiro, Pedro; Milman, Perola; Mosseri, Remy
2004-01-01
We generalize the quantum random walk protocol for a particle in a one-dimensional chain, by using several types of biased quantum coins, arranged in aperiodic sequences, in a manner that leads to a rich variety of possible wave function evolutions. Quasiperiodic sequences, following the Fibonacci prescription, are of particular interest, leading to a sub-ballistic wavefunction spreading. In contrast, random sequences leads to diffusive spreading, similar to the classical random walk behaviour. We also describe how to experimentally implement these aperiodic sequences.
Moore, Talia Y; Organ, Chris L; Edwards, Scott V; Biewener, Andrew A; Tabin, Clifford J; Jenkins, Farish A; Cooper, Kimberly L
2015-11-02
Recent rapid advances in experimental biology have expanded the opportunity for interdisciplinary investigations of the evolution of form and function in non-traditional model species. However, historical divisions of philosophy and methodology between evolutionary/organismal biologists and developmental geneticists often preclude an effective merging of disciplines. In an effort to overcome these divisions, we take advantage of the extraordinary morphological diversity of the rodent superfamily Dipodoidea, including the bipedal jerboas, to experimentally study the developmental mechanisms and biomechanical performance of a remarkably divergent limb structure. Here, we place multiple limb character states in a locomotor and phylogenetic context. Whereas obligate bipedalism arose just once in the ancestor of extant jerboas, we find that digit loss, metatarsal fusion, between-limb proportions, and within-hindlimb proportions all evolved independently of one another. Digit loss occurred three times through at least two distinct developmental mechanisms, and elongation of the hindlimb relative to the forelimb is not simply due to growth mechanisms that change proportions within the hindlimb. Furthermore, we find strong evidence for punctuated evolution of allometric scaling of hindlimb elements during the radiation of Dipodoidea. Our work demonstrates the value of leveraging the evolutionary history of a clade to establish criteria for identifying the developmental genetic mechanisms of morphological diversification.
Haberland, M; Kim, S
2015-02-02
Comparing the leg of an ostrich to that of a human suggests an important question to legged robot designers: should a robot's leg joint bend in the direction of running ('forwards') or opposite ('backwards')? Biological studies cannot answer this question for engineers due to significant differences between the biological and engineering domains. Instead, we investigated the inherent effect of joint bending direction on bipedal robot running efficiency by comparing energetically optimal gaits of a wide variety of robot designs sampled at random from a design space. We found that the great majority of robot designs have several locally optimal gaits with the knee bending backwards that are more efficient than the most efficient gait with the knee bending forwards. The most efficient backwards gaits do not exhibit lower touchdown losses than the most efficient forward gaits; rather, the improved efficiency of backwards gaits stems from lower torque and reduced motion at the hip. The reduced hip use of backwards gaits is enabled by the ability of the backwards knee, acting alone, to (1) propel the robot upwards and forwards simultaneously and (2) lift and protract the foot simultaneously. In the absence of other information, designers interested in building efficient bipedal robots with two-segment legs driven by electric motors should design the knee to bend backwards rather than forwards. Compared to common practices for choosing robot knee direction, application of this principle would have a strong tendency to improve robot efficiency and save design resources.
Medeiros, Rodrigo C.; Jaccard, Alexandre P. B.; Cliquet, Alberto
2011-01-01
Study design Experimental trial based on the analytical study of the radiographic standards of the sagittal spinal alignment in paraplegics in upright position under surface Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES). Objectives To evaluate changes in radiographic standards of the sagittal spinal alignment of paraplegics under three different models of NMES used to optimize the global bipedal posture. Setting The University Hospital Ambulatory (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, Brazil Methods Ten paraplegic patients were selected. Each patient underwent three different models of NMES. The influence that each NMES models exerted over the sagittal balance of the spine was evaluated by lateral panoramic x-rays. Wilcoxon’s Test was used to compare the modifications observed in each NMES model in the group studied. Results Using the femoral quadriceps muscles’ NMES as the starting point, the inclusion of the gluteus maximus’ NMES generated an increase of the lumbar lordosis and an decrease of the spinal tilt angle. These alterations resulted in partial improvement of the anterior sagittal imbalance. NMES of the paralyzed paravertebral lumbar muscles resulted in a more expressive increase on the lumbar lordosis with no important change on the spinal tilt. On the latter model, however, an improvement of 20% was observed in the global sagittal imbalance due to a posterior translation of the spine as pointed out by the decrease in the C7-HA horizontal distance. Conclusions The proposed NMES models were able to partially amend the anterior sagittal imbalance of the paraplegic patients in bipedal posture. PMID:22333891
Arm raising in humans under loaded vs. unloaded and bipedal vs. unipedal conditions.
Vernazza-Martin, S; Martin, N; Cincera, M; Pedotti, A; Massion, J
1999-10-30
The aim of the present experiment was to study the central organization of equilibrium control during arm raising in the frontal plane. Nine adult subjects (five seniors and four young adults) were asked to raise their right arm to a horizontal position in the frontal plane in two support conditions (bipedal vs. unipedal) and two load conditions (unloaded vs. a 3.5-kg load added on the moving hand). No instructions were given concerning the movement speed. The movements were performed at about half the maximum speed achievable under reaction time conditions. The final lateral center of mass (CM) position 1 s after the movement offset, and the time course of the CM shift during the movement were studied in the four experimental conditions, using a CM compensation index. The electromyographic (EMG) pattern of the main muscles involved in the movement performance and in the postural control were studied in three out of nine subjects during movements performed at two velocities (at the preferred speed and as fast as possible). The results indicate that (1) the CM shift remains minimized in the frontal plane during the time course of the arm movement and during the final stabilization of the arm regardless of the stance and load conditions; (2) the time course of the CM compensation index remains stable during the first 400 ms after the movement onset, decreasing late in the movement and increasing again at the end of the stabilization stage. A modelisation suggests that the time course is the result of the interaction of two controls: a first one, putative feedforward, starting early and decreasing with time and a second one, putative feedback, starting late in the movement and increasing with time; (3) both early and late index values are influenced by the support and load conditions, the highest index values being observed during unipedal stance and load conditions; (4) activation of quadratus lomborum (QL) contralateral to the raising arm is time locked with the
Multi-muscle control during bipedal stance: an EMG-EMG analysis approach.
Danna-Dos-Santos, Alessander; Boonstra, Tjeerd W; Degani, Adriana M; Cardoso, Vinicius S; Magalhaes, Alessandra T; Mochizuki, Luis; Leonard, Charles T
2014-01-01
Posture and postural reactions to mechanical perturbations require the harmonic modulation of the activity of multiple muscles. This precision can become suboptimal in the presence of neuromuscular disorders and result in higher fall risk and associated levels of comorbidity. This study was designed to investigate neurophysiological principles related to the generation and distribution of inputs to skeletal muscles previously recognized as a synergistic group. Specifically, we investigated the current hypothesis that correlated neural inputs, as measured by intermuscular coherence, are the mechanism used by the central nervous system to coordinate the formation of postural muscle synergies. This hypothesis was investigated by analyzing the strength and distribution of correlated neural inputs to postural muscles during the execution of a quiet stance task. Nine participants, 4 females and 5 males, mean age 29.2 years old (±6.1 SD), performed the task of standing while holding a 5-kg barbell in front of their bodies at chest level. Subjects were asked to maintain a standing position for 10 s while the activity of three postural muscles was recorded by surface electrodes: soleus (SOL), biceps femoris (BF), and lumbar erector spinae (ERE). EMG-EMG coherence was estimated for three muscle pairs (SOL/BF, SOL/ERE, and BF/ERE). Our choice of studying these muscles was made based on the fact that they have been reported as components of a functional (synergistic) muscle group that emerges during the execution of bipedal stance. In addition, an isometric contraction can be easily induced in this muscle group by simply adding a weight to the body's anterior aspect. The experimental condition elicited a significant increase in muscle activation levels for all three muscles (p EMG-EMG coherence analysis revealed significant coherence within two distinct frequency bands, 0-5 and 5-20 Hz. Significant coherence within the later frequency band was also found to be significantly
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bødker, Mads; Browning, David; Meinhardt, Nina Dam
We suggest that ‘walking’ in ethnographic work sensitizes researchers to a particular means of making sense of place. Following a brief conceptual exposition, we present our research tool iMaCam) that supports capturing and representing activities such as walking....
Walking. Sensing. Participation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bødker, Mads
2014-01-01
This paper uses three meditations to contemplate walking, sensing and participation as three ways with which we can extend the notion of ‘experiential computing’ proposed by Yoo (2010). By using the form of meditations, loosely associated concepts that are part introspective and part ‘causative’, i...
Dertien, Edwin Christian; Stramigioli, Stefano; Stramigioli, S.
This paper describes the design and construction of Dribbel, a passivity-based walking robot. Dribbel has been designed and built at the Control Engineering group of the University of Twente. This paper focuses on the practical side: the design approach, construction, electronics, and software
Dertien, Edwin
2006-01-01
This paper describes the design and construction of Dribbel, a passivity-based walking robot. Dribbel has been designed and built at the Control Engineering group of the University of Twente. This paper focuses on the practical side: the design approach, construction, electronics, and software desig
Walking Advisement: Program Description.
Byram Hills School District, Armonk, NY.
The Walking Advisement program at Crittenden Middle School in Armonk, New York was started during the 1984-1985 school year. It was based on the work of Alfred Arth, a middle school specialist at the University of Wyoming. Essentially, the program attempts to expand the guidance function of the school by bringing faculty and students together to…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Mattias Borg
2014-01-01
Steep slopes, white peaks and deep valleys make up the Andes. As phenomenologists of landscape have told us, different people have different landscapes. By moving across the terrain, walking along, we might get a sense of how this has been carved out by the movement of wind and water, tectonics...
Williams, P.; Sagraniching, E.; Bennett, M.; Singh, R.
1991-01-01
A walking robot was designed, analyzed, and tested as an intelligent, mobile, and a terrain adaptive system. The robot's design was an application of existing technologies. The design of the six legs modified and combines well understood mechanisms and was optimized for performance, flexibility, and simplicity. The body design incorporated two tripods for walking stability and ease of turning. The electrical hardware design used modularity and distributed processing to drive the motors. The software design used feedback to coordinate the system and simple keystrokes to give commands. The walking machine can be easily adapted to hostile environments such as high radiation zones and alien terrain. The primary goal of the leg design was to create a leg capable of supporting a robot's body and electrical hardware while walking or performing desired tasks, namely those required for planetary exploration. The leg designers intent was to study the maximum amount of flexibility and maneuverability achievable by the simplest and lightest leg design. The main constraints for the leg design were leg kinematics, ease of assembly, degrees of freedom, number of motors, overall size, and weight.
Deterministic Walks with Choice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beeler, Katy E.; Berenhaut, Kenneth S.; Cooper, Joshua N.; Hunter, Meagan N.; Barr, Peter S.
2014-01-10
This paper studies deterministic movement over toroidal grids, integrating local information, bounded memory and choice at individual nodes. The research is motivated by recent work on deterministic random walks, and applications in multi-agent systems. Several results regarding passing tokens through toroidal grids are discussed, as well as some open questions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Mattias Borg
2014-01-01
Steep slopes, white peaks and deep valleys make up the Andes. As phenomenologists of landscape have told us, different people have different landscapes. By moving across the terrain, walking along, we might get a sense of how this has been carved out by the movement of wind and water, tectonics...
Walking and Sensing Mobile Lives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bødker, Mads; Meinhardt, Nina Dam
In this position paper, we discuss how mindful walking with people allow us to explore sensory aspects of mobile lives that are typically absent from research. We present an app that aids researchers collect impressions from a walk.......In this position paper, we discuss how mindful walking with people allow us to explore sensory aspects of mobile lives that are typically absent from research. We present an app that aids researchers collect impressions from a walk....
Snakes and perturbed random walks
Basak, Gopal
2011-01-01
In this paper we study some properties of random walks perturbed at extrema, which are generalizations of the walks considered e.g., in Davis (1999). This process can also be viewed as a version of {\\em excited random walk}, studied recently by many authors. We obtain a few properties related to the range of the process with infinite memory. We also prove the Strong law, Central Limit Theorem, and the criterion for the recurrence of the perturbed walk with finite memory.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wen LIU; Jing LIN
2011-01-01
In this paper,we define a class of strongly connected digraph,called the k-walk-regular digraph,study some properties of it,provide its some algebraic characterization and point out that the O-walk-regular digraph is the same as the walk-regular digraph discussed BY Liu and Lin in 2010 and the D-walk-regular digraph is identical with the weakly distance-regular digraph defined by Comellas et al in 2004.
Walking and Sensing Mobile Lives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bødker, Mads; Meinhardt, Nina Dam
In this position paper, we discuss how mindful walking with people allow us to explore sensory aspects of mobile lives that are typically absent from research. We present an app that aids researchers collect impressions from a walk.......In this position paper, we discuss how mindful walking with people allow us to explore sensory aspects of mobile lives that are typically absent from research. We present an app that aids researchers collect impressions from a walk....
Closed planar curves without inflections
Ohno, Shuntaro; Umehara, Masaaki
2011-01-01
We define a computable topological invariant $\\mu(\\gamma)$ for generic closed planar regular curves $\\gamma$, which gives an effective lower bound for the number of inflection points on a given generic closed planar curve. Using it, we classify the topological types of locally convex curves (i.e. closed planar regular curves without inflections) whose numbers of crossings are less than or equal to five. Moreover, we discuss the relationship between the number of double tangents and the invariant $\\mu(\\gamma)$ on a given $\\gamma$.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Capuchin monkeys are known to exhibit sporadic bipedalism while performing specific tasks, such as cracking nuts. The bipedal posture and locomotion cause an increase in the metabolic cost and therefore increased blood supply to lower limbs is necessary. Here, we present a detailed anatomical description of the capuchin arteries and veins of the pelvic limb of Sapajus libidinosus in comparison with other primates. The arterial pattern of the bearded capuchin hind limb is more similar to other quadrupedal Cebus species. Similarities were also found to the pattern observed in the quadruped Papio, which is probably due to a comparable pelvis and the presence of the tail. Sapajus' traits show fewer similarities when compared to great apes and modern humans. Moreover, the bearded capuchin showed unique patterns for the femoral and the short saphenous veins. Although this species switches easily from quadrupedal to bipedal postures, our results indicate that the bearded capuchin has no specific or differential features that support extended bipedal posture and locomotion. Thus, the explanation for the behavioral differences found among capuchin genera probably includes other aspects of their physiology.
Quadratic Tangles in Planar Algebras
Jones, Vaughan F R
2010-01-01
In planar algebras, we show how to project certain simple "quadratic" tangles onto the linear space spanned by "linear" and "constant" tangles. We obtain some corollaries about the principal graphs and annular structure of subfactors.
Planar immersion lens with metasurfaces
Ho, John S; Tanabe, Yuji; Yeh, Alexander J; Fan, Shanhui; Poon, Ada S Y
2015-01-01
The solid immersion lens is a powerful optical tool that allows light entering material from air or vacuum to focus to a spot much smaller than the free-space wavelength. Conventionally, however, they rely on semispherical topographies and are non-planar and bulky, which limits their integration in many applications. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using planar structures, referred to as metasurfaces, to construct flat optical components for manipulating light in unusual ways. Here, we propose and demonstrate the concept of a planar immersion lens based on metasurfaces. The resulting planar device, when placed near an interface between air and dielectric material, can focus electromagnetic radiation incident from air to a spot in material smaller than the free-space wavelength. As an experimental demonstration, we fabricate an ultrathin and flexible microwave lens and further show that it achieves wireless energy transfer in material mimicking biological tissue.
Planar graphs theory and algorithms
Nishizeki, T
1988-01-01
Collected in this volume are most of the important theorems and algorithms currently known for planar graphs, together with constructive proofs for the theorems. Many of the algorithms are written in Pidgin PASCAL, and are the best-known ones; the complexities are linear or 0(nlogn). The first two chapters provide the foundations of graph theoretic notions and algorithmic techniques. The remaining chapters discuss the topics of planarity testing, embedding, drawing, vertex- or edge-coloring, maximum independence set, subgraph listing, planar separator theorem, Hamiltonian cycles, and single- or multicommodity flows. Suitable for a course on algorithms, graph theory, or planar graphs, the volume will also be useful for computer scientists and graph theorists at the research level. An extensive reference section is included.
Hitting times for random walks with restarts
Janson, Svante
2010-01-01
The time it takes a random walker in a lattice to reach the origin from another vertex $x$, has infinite mean. If the walker can restart the walk at $x$ at will, then the minimum expected hitting time $T(x,0)$ (minimized over restarting strategies) is finite; it was called the ``grade'' of $x$ by Dumitriu, Tetali and Winkler. They showed that, in a more general setting, the grade (a variant of the ``Gittins index'') plays a crucial role in control problems involving several Markov chains. Here we establish several conjectures of Dumitriu et al on the asymptotics of the grade in Euclidean lattices. In particular, we show that in the planar square lattice, $T(x,0)$ is asymptotic to $2|x|^2\\log|x|$ as $|x| \\to \\infty$. The proof hinges on the local variance of the potential kernel $h$ being almost constant on the level sets of $h$. We also show how the same method yields precise second order asymptotics for hitting times of a random walk (without restarts) in a lattice disk.
Compliant Biped Walking on Uneven Terrain with Point Feet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenqi Hou
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we aim to realize compliant biped walking on uneven terrain with point feet. A control system is designed for a 5-link planar biped walker. According to the role that each leg plays, the control system is decomposed into two parts: the swing leg control and the support leg control. The trajectory of the swing foot is generated in realtime to regulate the walking speed. By considering the reaction torque of the swing leg’s hip joint as disturbance, a sliding model controller is implemented at the support leg’s hip joint to control the torso’s posture angle. In order to make sure the landing foot does not rebound after impact, the vertical contact force control is set as the internal loop of the hip’s height control. In simulation, the control system is tested on a virtual 5-link planar biped walker in Matlab. Finally, stable biped walking is realized on uneven terrain with roughness up to 2cm.
Drinfeld center of planar algebra
Das, Paramita; Gupta, Ved Prakash
2012-01-01
We introduce fusion and contragadient of affine representations of a planar algebra $P$ (not necessarily having finite depth). We prove that if $N \\subset M$ is a subfactor realization of $P$, then the Drinfeld center of the $N$-$N$-bimodule category generated by $_N L^2 (M)_M$, is equivalent to the category Hilbert affine representations of $P$ satisfying certain finiteness criterion. As a consequence, we prove Kevin Walker's conjecture for planar algebras.
Quantum walks on Cayley graphs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez Acevedo, O [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modelisation, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 2 Avenue Adolphe Chauvin 95302 Cergy Pontoise Cedex (France); Institut fuer Mathematik und Informatik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn Str.15a, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Gobron, T [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modelisation, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 2 Avenue Adolphe Chauvin 95302 Cergy Pontoise Cedex (France)
2006-01-20
We address the problem of the construction of quantum walks on Cayley graphs. Our main motivation is the relationship between quantum algorithms and quantum walks. In particular, we discuss the choice of the dimension of the local Hilbert space and consider various classes of graphs on which the structure of quantum walks may differ. We completely characterize quantum walks on free groups and present partial results on more general cases. Some examples are given including a family of quantum walks on the hypercube involving a Clifford algebra.
Fractional random walk lattice dynamics
Michelitsch, Thomas; Riascos, Alejandro Perez; Nowakowski, Andrzeij; Nicolleau, Franck
2016-01-01
We analyze time-discrete and continuous `fractional' random walks on undirected regular networks with special focus on cubic periodic lattices in $n=1,2,3,..$ dimensions.The fractional random walk dynamics is governed by a master equation involving {\\it fractional powers of Laplacian matrices $L^{\\frac{\\alpha}{2}}$}where $\\alpha=2$ recovers the normal walk.First we demonstrate thatthe interval $0\\textless{}\\alpha\\leq 2$ is admissible for the fractional random walk. We derive analytical expressions for fractional transition matrix and closely related the average return probabilities. We further obtain thefundamental matrix $Z^{(\\alpha)}$, and the mean relaxation time (Kemeny constant) for the fractional random walk.The representation for the fundamental matrix $Z^{(\\alpha)}$ relates fractional random walks with normal random walks.We show that the fractional transition matrix elements exihibit for large cubic $n$-dimensional lattices a power law decay of an $n$-dimensional infinite spaceRiesz fractional deriva...
Fujie, Futaba
2014-01-01
Covering Walks in Graphs is aimed at researchers and graduate students in the graph theory community and provides a comprehensive treatment on measures of two well studied graphical properties, namely Hamiltonicity and traversability in graphs. This text looks into the famous Kӧnigsberg Bridge Problem, the Chinese Postman Problem, the Icosian Game and the Traveling Salesman Problem as well as well-known mathematicians who were involved in these problems. The concepts of different spanning walks with examples and present classical results on Hamiltonian numbers and upper Hamiltonian numbers of graphs are described; in some cases, the authors provide proofs of these results to illustrate the beauty and complexity of this area of research. Two new concepts of traceable numbers of graphs and traceable numbers of vertices of a graph which were inspired by and closely related to Hamiltonian numbers are introduced. Results are illustrated on these two concepts and the relationship between traceable concepts and...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Mads Toudal
2007-01-01
I report on our construction and analysis of the effective low energy Lagrangian for the Minimal Walking Technicolor (MWT) model. The parameters of the effective Lagrangian are constrained by imposing modified Weinberg sum rules and by imposing a value for the S parameter estimated from the under...... the underlying Technicolor theory. The constrained effective Lagrangian allows for an inverted vector vs. axial-vector mass spectrum in a large part of the parameter space....
Fitness Club
2015-01-01
Four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Spring Course 2015: 05.05/12.05/19.05/26.05 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Nordic%20Walking/NewForm.aspx? Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch
Aoi, Shinya; Ogihara, Naomichi; Funato, Tetsuro; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Kazuo
2010-01-01
The central pattern generators (CPGs) in the spinal cord strongly contribute to locomotor behavior. To achieve adaptive locomotion, locomotor rhythm generated by the CPGs is suggested to be functionally modulated by phase resetting based on sensory afferent or perturbations. Although phase resetting has been investigated during fictive locomotion in cats, its functional roles in actual locomotion have not been clarified. Recently, simulation studies have been conducted to examine the roles of...
Sugar, Thomas G.; Hollander, Kevin W.; Hitt, Joseph K.
2011-04-01
Developing bionic ankles poses great challenges due to the large moment, power, and energy that are required at the ankle. Researchers have added springs in series with a motor to reduce the peak power and energy requirements of a robotic ankle. We developed a "robotic tendon" that reduces the peak power by altering the required motor speed. By changing the required speed, the spring acts as a "load variable transmission." If a simple motor/gearbox solution is used, one walking step would require 38.8J and a peak motor power of 257 W. Using an optimized robotic tendon, the energy required is 21.2 J and the peak motor power is reduced to 96.6 W. We show that adding a passive spring in parallel with the robotic tendon reduces peak loads but the power and energy increase. Adding a passive spring in series with the robotic tendon reduces the energy requirements. We have built a prosthetic ankle SPARKy, Spring Ankle with Regenerative Kinetics, that allows a user to walk forwards, backwards, ascend and descend stairs, walk up and down slopes as well as jog.
Usherwood, J. R.; Channon, A. J.; Myatt, J. P.; Rankin, J. W.; Hubel, T. Y.
2012-01-01
Mechanically, the most economical gait for slow bipedal locomotion requires walking as an ‘inverted pendulum’, with: I, an impulsive, energy-dissipating leg compression at the beginning of stance; II, a stiff-limbed vault; and III, an impulsive, powering push-off at the end of stance. The characteristic ‘M’-shaped vertical ground reaction forces of walking in humans reflect this impulse–vault–impulse strategy. Humans achieve this gait by dissipating energy during the heel-to-sole transition in early stance, approximately stiff-limbed, flat-footed vaulting over midstance and ankle plantarflexion (powering the toes down) in late stance. Here, we show that the ‘M’-shaped walking ground reaction force profile does not require the plantigrade human foot or heel–sole–toe stance; it is maintained in tip–toe and high-heel walking as well as in ostriches. However, the unusual, stiff, human foot structure—with ground-contacting heel behind ankle and toes in front—enables both mechanically economical inverted pendular walking and physiologically economical muscle loading, by producing extreme changes in mechanical advantage between muscles and ground reaction forces. With a human foot, and heel–sole–toe strategy during stance, the shin muscles that dissipate energy, or calf muscles that power the push-off, need not be loaded at all—largely avoiding the ‘cost of muscle force’—during the passive vaulting phase. PMID:22572024
Usherwood, J R; Channon, A J; Myatt, J P; Rankin, J W; Hubel, T Y
2012-10-07
Mechanically, the most economical gait for slow bipedal locomotion requires walking as an 'inverted pendulum', with: I, an impulsive, energy-dissipating leg compression at the beginning of stance; II, a stiff-limbed vault; and III, an impulsive, powering push-off at the end of stance. The characteristic 'M'-shaped vertical ground reaction forces of walking in humans reflect this impulse-vault-impulse strategy. Humans achieve this gait by dissipating energy during the heel-to-sole transition in early stance, approximately stiff-limbed, flat-footed vaulting over midstance and ankle plantarflexion (powering the toes down) in late stance. Here, we show that the 'M'-shaped walking ground reaction force profile does not require the plantigrade human foot or heel-sole-toe stance; it is maintained in tip-toe and high-heel walking as well as in ostriches. However, the unusual, stiff, human foot structure--with ground-contacting heel behind ankle and toes in front--enables both mechanically economical inverted pendular walking and physiologically economical muscle loading, by producing extreme changes in mechanical advantage between muscles and ground reaction forces. With a human foot, and heel-sole-toe strategy during stance, the shin muscles that dissipate energy, or calf muscles that power the push-off, need not be loaded at all--largely avoiding the 'cost of muscle force'--during the passive vaulting phase.
Miller, Ross H; Brandon, Scott C E; Deluzio, Kevin J
2013-01-01
Both development and progression of knee osteoarthritis have been associated with the loading of the knee joint during walking. We are, therefore, interested in developing strategies for changing walking biomechanics to offload the knee joint without resorting to surgery. In this study, simulations of human walking were performed using a 2D bipedal forward dynamics model. A simulation generated by minimizing the metabolic cost of transport (CoT) resembled data measured from normal human walking. Three simulations targeted at minimizing the peak axial knee joint contact force instead of the CoT reduced the peak force by 12-25% and increased the CoT by 11-14%. The strategies used by the simulations were (1) reduction in gastrocnemius muscle force, (2) avoidance of knee flexion during stance, and (3) reduced stride length. Reduced gastrocnemius force resulted from a combination of changes in activation and changes in the gastrocnemius contractile component kinematics. The simulations that reduced the peak contact force avoided flexing the knee during stance when knee motion was unrestricted and adopted a shorter stride length when the simulated knee motion was penalized if it deviated from the measured human knee motion. A higher metabolic cost in an offloading gait would be detrimental for covering a long distance without fatigue but beneficial for exercise and weight loss. The predicted changes in the peak axial knee joint contact force from the simulations were consistent with estimates of the joint contact force in a human subject who emulated the predicted kinematics. The results demonstrate the potential of using muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulations to predict novel joint offloading interventions.
Quantum walks on general graphs
Kendon, V
2003-01-01
A scheme for a discrete time quantum walk on a general graph of N vertices with undirected edges is given, and compared with the continuous time quantum walk on a general graph introduced by Farhi and Gutmann [PRA 58 915 (1998)]. Both walks are contrasted with the examples of quantum walks in the literature treating graphs of fixed, small (< log N) degree. This illustrates the way in which extra information about the graph allows more efficient algorithms to be designed. To obtain a quantum speed up over classical for comparable resources it is necessary to code the position space of the quantum walk into a qubit register (or equivalent). The role of the oracle is also discussed and an efficient gate sequence is presented for implementing a discrete quantum walk given one copy of a quantum state encoding the adjacency matrix of the graph.
Quantum walks on Cayley graphs
Acevedo, O L
2006-01-01
We address the problem of the construction of quantum walks on Cayley graphs. Our main motivation is the relationship between quantum algorithms and quantum walks. Thus we consider quantum walks on a general basis and try to classify them as a preliminary step in the construction of new algorithms that could be devised in this way. In particular, we discuss the choice of the dimension of the local Hilbert space, and consider various classes of graphs on which the structure of quantum walks may differ. We characterize completely the quantum walks on free groups and present partial results on more general cases. Examples are given among which a family of quantum walks on the hypercube involving a Clifford Algebra.
Development and Feasibility Assessment of a Rotational Orthosis for Walking with Arm Swing.
Fang, Juan; Xie, Qing; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Xie, Le
2017-01-01
Interlimb neural coupling might underlie human bipedal locomotion, which is reflected in the fact that people swing their arms synchronously with leg movement in normal gait. Therefore, arm swing should be included in gait training to provide coordinated interlimb performance. The present study aimed to develop a Rotational Orthosis for Walking with Arm Swing (ROWAS), and evaluate its feasibility from the perspectives of implementation, acceptability and responsiveness. We developed the mechanical structures of the ROWAS system in SolidWorks, and implemented the concept in a prototype. Normal gait data were used as the reference performance of the shoulder, hip, knee and ankle joints of the prototype. The ROWAS prototype was tested for function assessment and further evaluated using five able-bodied subjects for user feedback. The ROWAS prototype produced coordinated performance in the upper and lower limbs, with joint profiles similar to those occurring in normal gait. The subjects reported a stronger feeling of walking with arm swing than without. The ROWAS system was deemed feasible according to the formal assessment criteria.
Bartsch, Christian; Kochler, Thomas; Müller, Sebastian; Popov, Serguei
2011-01-01
We consider a branching random walk on $\\Z$, where the particles behave differently in visited and unvisited sites. Informally, each site on the positive half-line contains initially a cookie. On the first visit of a site its cookie is removed and particles at positions with a cookie reproduce and move differently from particles on sites without cookies. Therefore, the movement and the reproduction of the particles depend on the previous behaviour of the population of particles. We study the question if the process is recurrent or transient, i.e., whether infinitely many particles visit the origin or not.
Barlow, Martin T; Sousi, Perla
2010-01-01
A recurrent graph $G$ has the infinite collision property if two independent random walks on $G$, started at the same point, collide infinitely often a.s. We give a simple criterion in terms of Green functions for a graph to have this property, and use it to prove that a critical Galton-Watson tree with finite variance conditioned to survive, the incipient infinite cluster in $\\Z^d$ with $d \\ge 19$ and the uniform spanning tree in $\\Z^2$ all have the infinite collision property. For power-law combs and spherically symmetric trees, we determine precisely the phase boundary for the infinite collision property.
Adam, John A
2009-01-01
How heavy is that cloud? Why can you see farther in rain than in fog? Why are the droplets on that spider web spaced apart so evenly? If you have ever asked questions like these while outdoors, and wondered how you might figure out the answers, this is a book for you. An entertaining and informative collection of fascinating puzzles from the natural world around us, A Mathematical Nature Walk will delight anyone who loves nature or math or both. John Adam presents ninety-six questions about many common natural phenomena--and a few uncommon ones--and then shows how to answer them using mostly b
Persistence of random walk records
Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.
2014-06-01
We study records generated by Brownian particles in one dimension. Specifically, we investigate an ordinary random walk and define the record as the maximal position of the walk. We compare the record of an individual random walk with the mean record, obtained as an average over infinitely many realizations. We term the walk ‘superior’ if the record is always above average, and conversely, the walk is said to be ‘inferior’ if the record is always below average. We find that the fraction of superior walks, S, decays algebraically with time, S ˜ t-β, in the limit t → ∞, and that the persistence exponent is nontrivial, β = 0.382 258…. The fraction of inferior walks, I, also decays as a power law, I ˜ t-α, but the persistence exponent is smaller, α = 0.241 608…. Both exponents are roots of transcendental equations involving the parabolic cylinder function. To obtain these theoretical results, we analyze the joint density of superior walks with a given record and position, while for inferior walks it suffices to study the density as a function of position.
Quantum Walks on the Hypercube
Moore, Cristopher; Moore, Cristopher; Russell, Alexander
2001-01-01
Recently, it has been shown that one-dimensional quantum walks can mix more quickly than classical random walks, suggesting that quantum Monte Carlo algorithms can outperform their classical counterparts. We study two quantum walks on the n-dimensional hypercube, one in discrete time and one in continuous time. In both cases we show that the quantum walk mixes in (\\pi/4)n steps, faster than the O(n log n) steps required by the classical walk. In the continuous-time case, the probability distribution is {\\em exactly} uniform at this time. More importantly, these walks expose several subtleties in the definition of mixing time for quantum walks. Even though the continuous-time walk has an O(n) instantaneous mixing time at which it is precisely uniform, it never approaches the uniform distribution when the stopping time is chosen randomly as in [AharonovAKV2001]. Our analysis treats interference between terms of different phase more carefully than is necessary for the walk on the cycle; previous general bounds p...
Physical implementation of quantum walks
Manouchehri, Kia
2013-01-01
Given the extensive application of random walks in virtually every science related discipline, we may be at the threshold of yet another problem solving paradigm with the advent of quantum walks. Over the past decade, quantum walks have been explored for their non-intuitive dynamics, which may hold the key to radically new quantum algorithms. This growing interest has been paralleled by a flurry of research into how one can implement quantum walks in laboratories. This book presents numerous proposals as well as actual experiments for such a physical realization, underpinned by a wide range of
Mak, Chi H; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A; Goodman, Myron F
2015-09-01
Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C→U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics.
Mak, Chi H.; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A.; Goodman, Myron F.
2015-09-01
Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C →U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics.
Mak, Chi H.; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A.; Goodman, Myron F.
2015-01-01
Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C → U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics. PMID:26465508
The planar two point algorithm
O. Booij; Z. Zivkovic
2009-01-01
Vision-based localization, mapping and navigation is often performed by searching for corresponding image points and estimating the epipolar geometry. It is known that the possible relative poses of a camera mounted on a mobile robot that moves over a planar ground floor, has two degrees of freedom.
The planar dynamics of airships
Regan, F. J.
1975-01-01
The forces and moments acting upon a LTA vehicle are considered in order to develop parameters describing planar motion. Similar expressions for HTA vehicles will be given to emphasize the greater complexity of aerodynamic effects when buoyancy effects cannot be neglected. A brief summary is also given of the use of virtual mass coefficients to calculate loads on airships.
Tuneable planar integrated optical systems.
Amberg, M; Oeder, A; Sinzinger, S; Hands, P J W; Love, G D
2007-08-20
Planar integrated free-space optical systems are well suited for a variety of applications, such as optical interconnects and security devices. Here, we demonstrate for the first time dynamic functionality of such microoptical systems by the integration of adaptive liquid-crystal-devices.
Approximation by planar elastic curves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge
2016-01-01
We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....
Planar Cell Polarity: A Bridge Too Far?
2008-01-01
Summary The mechanisms of planar cell polarity are being revealed by genetic analysis. Recent studies have provided new insights into interactions between three proteins involved in planar cell polarity: Flamingo, Frizzled and Van Gogh.
Imaging Properties of Planar Microlens Arrays
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
The planar microlens arrays is a two-dimensional array of optical component which is fabricated monolithically available. Imaging properties of planar microlens arrays are described, which provide both image multiplexer and erect, unit magnification images.
Quantum walks and search algorithms
Portugal, Renato
2013-01-01
This book addresses an interesting area of quantum computation called quantum walks, which play an important role in building quantum algorithms, in particular search algorithms. Quantum walks are the quantum analogue of classical random walks. It is known that quantum computers have great power for searching unsorted databases. This power extends to many kinds of searches, particularly to the problem of finding a specific location in a spatial layout, which can be modeled by a graph. The goal is to find a specific node knowing that the particle uses the edges to jump from one node to the next. This book is self-contained with main topics that include: Grover's algorithm, describing its geometrical interpretation and evolution by means of the spectral decomposition of the evolution operater Analytical solutions of quantum walks on important graphs like line, cycles, two-dimensional lattices, and hypercubes using Fourier transforms Quantum walks on generic graphs, describing methods to calculate the limiting d...
Walking around to grasp interaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lykke, Marianne; Jantzen, Christian
2013-01-01
with the sound installations. The aim was to gain an understanding of the role of the in-teraction, if interaction makes a difference for the understanding of the sound art. 30 walking interviews were carried out at ZKM, Karlsruhe with a total of 57 museum guests, individuals or groups. During the walk......The paper presents experiences from a study using walk-alongs to provide insight into museum visitors’ experience with interactive features of sound art installations. The overall goal of the study was to learn about the participants’ opinions and feelings about the possibility of interaction...... knowledge of spa-tial conditions, e.g. noise, crowds, darkness provided a profound and shared un-derstanding of e.g. the visitors’ engagement in and dislike of the installations. Another finding concerns group walking that, compared to walking with a sin-gle person, generated a diversified discussion...
Human treadmill walking needs attention
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Olivier
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to assess the attentional requirements of steady state treadmill walking in human subjects using a dual task paradigm. The extent of decrement of a secondary (cognitive RT task provides a measure of the attentional resources required to maintain performance of the primary (locomotor task. Varying the level of difficulty of the reaction time (RT task is used to verify the priority of allocation of attentional resources. Methods 11 healthy adult subjects were required to walk while simultaneously performing a RT task. Participants were instructed to bite a pressure transducer placed in the mouth as quickly as possible in response to an unpredictable electrical stimulation applied on the back of the neck. Each subject was tested under five different experimental conditions: simple RT task alone and while walking, recognition RT task alone and while walking, walking alone. A foot switch system composed of a pressure sensitive sensor was placed under the heel and forefoot of each foot to determine the gait cycle duration. Results Gait cycle duration was unchanged (p > 0.05 by the addition of the RT task. Regardless of the level of difficulty of the RT task, the RTs were longer during treadmill walking than in sitting conditions (p 0.05 was found between the attentional demand of the walking task and the decrement of performance found in the RT task under varying levels of difficulty. This finding suggests that the healthy subjects prioritized the control of walking at the expense of cognitive performance. Conclusion We conclude that treadmill walking in young adults is not a purely automatic task. The methodology and outcome measures used in this study provide an assessment of the attentional resources required by walking on the treadmill at a steady state.
Hu, David L.; Prakash, Manu; Chan, Brian; Bush, John W. M.
We report recent efforts in the design and construction of water-walking machines inspired by insects and spiders. The fundamental physical constraints on the size, proportion and dynamics of natural water-walkers are enumerated and used as design criteria for analogous mechanical devices. We report devices capable of rowing along the surface, leaping off the surface and climbing menisci by deforming the free surface. The most critical design constraint is that the devices be lightweight and non-wetting. Microscale manufacturing techniques and new man-made materials such as hydrophobic coatings and thermally actuated wires are implemented. Using highspeed cinematography and flow visualization, we compare the functionality and dynamics of our devices with those of their natural counterparts.
2005-01-01
The man who compared himself to a proton ! On 20 May, Gianni Motti went down into the LHC tunnel and walked around the 27 kilometres of the underground ring at an average, unaccelerated pace of 5 kph. This was an artistic rather than an athletic performance, aimed at drawing a parallel between the fantastic speed of the beams produced by the future accelerator and the leisurely stroll of a human. The artist, who hails from Lombardy, was accompanied by cameraman Ivo Zanetti, who filmed the event from start to finish, and physicist Jean-Pierre Merlo. The first part of the film can be seen at the Villa Bernasconi, 8 route du Grand-Lancy, Grand Lancy, until 26 June.
2005-01-01
The man who compared himself to a proton ! On 20 May, Gianni Motti went down into the LHC tunnel and walked around the 27 kilometres of the underground ring at an average, unaccelerated pace of 5 kph. This was an artistic rather than an athletic performance, aimed at drawing a parallel between the fantastic speed of the beams produced by the future accelerator and the leisurely stroll of a human. The artist, who hails from Lombardy, was accompanied by cameraman Ivo Zanetti, who filmed the event from start to finish, and physicist Jean-Pierre Merlo. The first part of the film can be seen at the Villa Bernasconi, 8 route du Grand-Lancy, Grand Lancy, until 26 June.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena Grigoryeva
2011-08-01
Full Text Available It is noteworthy that this country develops through two types of events: either through a jubilee or through a catastrophe.It seems that Irkutsk Airport will be built only after the next crash. At least the interest to this problem returns regularly after sad events, and this occurs almost half a century (a jubilee, too! – the Council of Ministers decided to relocate the Airport away from the city as long ago as 1962. The Airport does not relate to the topic of this issue, but an attentive reader understands that it is our Carthage, and that the Airport should be relocated. The Romans coped with it faster and more effectively.Back to Irkutsk’s jubilee, we should say that we will do without blare of trumpets. We will just make an unpretentious walk around the city in its summer 350. Each our route covers new (some of them have been completed by the jubilee and old buildings, some of them real monuments. All these buildings are integrated into public spaces of different quality and age.We will also touch on the problems, for old houses, especially the wooden ones often provoke a greedy developer to demolish or to burn them down. Thus a primitive thrift estimates an output of additional square meters. Not to mention how attractive it is to seize public spaces without demolition or without reallocation of the dwellers. Or, rather, the one who is to preserve, to cherish and to improve such houses for the good of the citizens never speaks about this sensitive issue. So we have to do it.Walking is a no-hurry genre, unlike the preparation for the celebration. Walking around the city you like is a pleasant and cognitive process. It will acquaint the architects with the works of their predecessors and colleagues. We hope that such a walk may be interesting for Irkutsk citizens and visitors, too. Isn’t it interesting to learn “at first hand” the intimate details of the restoration of the Trubetskoys’ estate
Walking indoors, walking outdoors: an fMRI study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Riccardo eDalla Volta
2015-10-01
Full Text Available An observation/execution matching system for walking has not been assessed yet. The present fMRI study was aimed at assessing whether, as for object-directed actions, an observation/execution matching system is active for walking and whether the spatial context of walking (open or narrow space recruits different neural correlates. Two experimental conditions were employed. In the execution condition, while being scanned, participants performed walking on a rolling cylinder located just outside the scanner. The same action was performed also while observing a video presenting either an open space (a country field or a narrow space (a corridor. In the observation condition, participants observed a video presenting an individual walking on the same cylinder on which the actual action was executed, the open space video and the narrow space video, respectively. Results showed common bilateral activations in the dorsal premotor/supplementary motor areas and in the posterior parietal lobe for both execution and observation of walking, thus supporting a matching system for this action. Moreover, specific sectors of the occipital-temporal cortex and the middle temporal gyrus were consistently active when processing a narrow space versus an open one, thus suggesting their involvement in the visuo-motor transformation required when walking in a narrow space. We forward that the present findings may have implications for rehabilitation of gait and sport training.
Perry, Kathleen A.; Radhakrishna, Sandya; Lage, Craig; Nkansah, Franklin; Pol, Victor; Kobayashi, Thom; West, Jeff P.; Crabtree, Phil
1994-09-01
Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) has been used to fabricate a 0.35 micrometers 16 Meg SRAM with quadruple polysilicon stacks. The use of CMP results in complete planarization of over one micron of topography. CMP planarization results in improved photolithography depth of field when compared to standard resist etchback planarization (REB). Data from a lot processed using CMP at contact dielectric and interlayer dielectric is compared to a lot that was processed using standard REB for planarization.
Visual control of walking velocity.
François, Matthieu; Morice, Antoine H P; Bootsma, Reinoud J; Montagne, Gilles
2011-06-01
Even if optical correlates of self-motion velocity have already been identified, their contribution to the control of displacement velocity remains to be established. In this study, we used a virtual reality set-up coupled to a treadmill to test the role of both Global Optic Flow Rate (GOFR) and Edge Rate (ER) in the regulation of walking velocity. Participants were required to walk at a constant velocity, corresponding to their preferred walking velocity, while eye height and texture density were manipulated. This manipulation perturbed the natural relationship between the actual walking velocity and its optical specification by GOFR and ER, respectively. Results revealed that both these sources of information are indeed used by participants to control walking speed, as demonstrated by a slowing down of actual walking velocity when the optical specification of velocity by either GOFR or ER gives rise to an overestimation of actual velocity, and vice versa. Gait analyses showed that these walking velocity adjustments result from simultaneous adaptations in both step length and step duration. The role of visual information in the control of self-motion velocity is discussed in relation with other factors.
Manufacturing of planar ceramic interconnects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Armstrong, B.L.; Coffey, G.W.; Meinhardt, K.D.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)
1996-12-31
The fabrication of ceramic interconnects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and separator plates for electrochemical separation devices has been a perennial challenge facing developers. Electrochemical vapor deposition (EVD), plasma spraying, pressing, tape casting and tape calendering are processes that are typically utilized to fabricate separator plates or interconnects for the various SOFC designs and electrochemical separation devices. For sake of brevity and the selection of a planar fuel cell or gas separation device design, pressing will be the only fabrication technique discussed here. This paper reports on the effect of the characteristics of two doped lanthanum manganite powders used in the initial studies as a planar porous separator for a fuel cell cathode and as a dense interconnect for an oxygen generator.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bill Phillips
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Monsters have always enjoyed a significant presence in the human imagination, and religion was instrumental in replacing the physical horror they engendered with that of a moral threat. Zombies, however, are amoral – their motivation purely instinctive and arbitrary, yet they are, perhaps, the most loathed of all contemporary monsters. One explanation for this lies in the theory of the uncanny valley, proposed by robotics engineer Masahiro Mori. According to the theory, we reserve our greatest fears for those things which seem most human, yet are not – such as dead bodies. Such a reaction is most likely a survival mechanism to protect us from danger and disease – a mechanism even more essential when the dead rise up and walk. From their beginnings zombies have reflected western societies’ greatest fears – be they of revolutionary Haitians, women, or communists. In recent years the rise in the popularity of the zombie in films, books and television series reflects our fears for the planet, the economy, and of death itself
Lavička, H; Kiss, T; Lutz, E; Jex, I
2011-01-01
We analyze a special class of 1-D quantum walks (QWs) realized using optical multi-ports. We assume non-perfect multi-ports showing errors in the connectivity, i.e. with a small probability the multi- ports can connect not to their nearest neighbor but to another multi-port at a fixed distance - we call this a jump. We study two cases of QW with jumps where multiple displacements can emerge at one timestep. The first case assumes time-correlated jumps (static disorder). In the second case, we choose the positions of jumps randomly in time (dynamic disorder). The probability distributions of position of the QW walker in both instances differ significantly: dynamic disorder leads to a Gaussian-like distribution, while for static disorder we find two distinct behaviors depending on the parity of jump size. In the case of even-sized jumps, the distribution exhibits a three-peak profile around the position of the initial excitation, whereas the probability distribution in the odd case follows a Laplace-like discre...
Illenberger, Patrin K.; Madawala, Udaya K.; Anderson, Iain A.
2016-04-01
Dielectric Elastomer Generators (DEG) offer an opportunity to capture the energy otherwise wasted from human motion. By integrating a DEG into the heel of standard footwear, it is possible to harness this energy to power portable devices. DEGs require substantial auxiliary systems which are commonly large, heavy and inefficient. A unique challenge for these low power generators is the combination of high voltage and low current. A void exists in the semiconductor market for devices that can meet these requirements. Until these become available, existing devices must be used in an innovative way to produce an effective DEG system. Existing systems such as the Bi-Directional Flyback (BDFB) and Self Priming Circuit (SPC) are an excellent example of this. The BDFB allows full charging and discharging of the DEG, improving power gained. The SPC allows fully passive voltage boosting, removing the priming source and simplifying the electronics. This paper outlines the drawbacks and benefits of active and passive electronic solutions for maximizing power from walking.
Integrated photonic quantum walks
Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Lebugle, Maxime; Guzman-Silva, Diego; Perez-Leija, Armando; Szameit, Alexander
2016-10-01
Over the last 20 years quantum walks (QWs) have gained increasing interest in the field of quantum information science and processing. In contrast to classical walkers, quantum objects exhibit intrinsic properties like non-locality and non-classical many-particle correlations, which renders QWs a versatile tool for quantum simulation and computation as well as for a deeper understanding of genuine quantum mechanics. Since they are highly controllable and hardly interact with their environment, photons seem to be ideally suited quantum walkers. In order to study and exploit photonic QWs, lattice structures that allow low loss coherent evolution of quantum states are demanded. Such requirements are perfectly met by integrated optical waveguide devices that additionally allow a substantial miniaturization of experimental settings. Moreover, by utilizing the femtosecond direct laser writing technique three-dimensional waveguide structures are capable of analyzing QWs also on higher dimensional geometries. In this context, advances and findings of photonic QWs are discussed in this review. Various concepts and experimental results are presented covering, such as different quantum transport regimes, the Boson sampling problem, and the discrete fractional quantum Fourier transform.
From Lévy walks to superdiffusive shock acceleration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zimbardo, Gaetano; Perri, Silvia, E-mail: gaetano.zimbardo@fis.unical.it, E-mail: silvia.perri@fis.unical.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 31C, I-87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy)
2013-11-20
In this paper, we present a general scenario for nondiffusive transport and we investigate the influence of anomalous, superdiffusive transport on Fermi acceleration processes at shocks. We explain why energetic particle superdiffusion can be described within the Lévy walk framework, which is based on a power-law distribution of free path lengths and on a coupling between free path length and free path duration. A self-contained derivation of the particle mean square displacement, which grows as (Δx {sup 2}) = 2D {sub α} t {sup α} with α > 1, and the particle propagator, is presented for Lévy walks, making use of a generalized version of the Montroll-Weiss equation. We also derive for the first time an explicit expression for the anomalous diffusion coefficient D {sub α} and we discuss how to obtain these quantities from energetic particle observations in space. The results are applied to the case of particle acceleration at an infinite planar shock front. Using the scaling properties of the Lévy walk propagator, the energy spectral indices are found to have values smaller than the ones predicted by the diffusive shock acceleration theory. Furthermore, when applying the results to ions with energies of a few MeV accelerated at the solar wind termination shock, the estimation of the anomalous diffusion coefficient associated with the superdiffusive motion gives acceleration times much smaller than the ones related to normal diffusion.
Walking Robot Locomotion System Conception
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ignatova D.
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This work is a brief analysis on the application and perspective of using the walking robots in different areas in practice. The most common characteristics of walking four legs robots are presented here. The specific features of the applied actuators in walking mechanisms are also shown in the article. The experience of Institute of Mechanics - BAS is illustrated in creation of Spiroid and Helicon1 gears and their assembly in actuation of studied robots. Loading on joints reductors of robot legs is modelled, when the geometrical and the walking parameters of the studied robot are preliminary defined. The obtained results are purposed for designing the control of the loading of reductor type Helicon in the legs of the robot, when it is experimentally tested.
Rosmanis, Ansis
2010-01-01
I introduce a new type of continuous-time quantum walk on graphs called the quantum snake walk, the basis states of which are fixed-length paths (snakes) in the underlying graph. First I analyze the quantum snake walk on the line, and I show that, even though most states stay localized throughout the evolution, there are specific states which most likely move on the line as wave packets with momentum inversely proportional to the length of the snake. Next I discuss how an algorithm based on the quantum snake walk might be able to solve an extended version of the glued trees problem which asks to find a path connecting both roots of the glued trees graph. No efficient quantum algorithm solving this problem is known yet.
Localization of reinforced random walks
Tarrès, Pierre
2011-01-01
We describe and analyze how reinforced random walks can eventually localize, i.e. only visit finitely many sites. After introducing vertex and edge self-interacting walks on a discrete graph in a general setting, and stating the main results and conjectures so far on the topic, we present martingale techniques that provide an alternative proof of the a.s. localization of vertex-reinforced random walks (VRRWs) on the integers on finitely many sites and, with positive probability, on five consecutive sites, initially proved by Pemantle and Volkov (1999). Next we introduce the continuous time-lines representation (sometimes called Rubin construction) and its martingale counterpart, and explain how it has been used to prove localization of some reinforced walks on one attracting edge. Then we show how a modified version of this construction enables one to propose a new short proof of the a.s. localization of VRRWs on five sites on Z.
Bouchaud walks with variable drift
Parra, Manuel Cabezas
2010-01-01
In this paper we study a sequence of Bouchaud trap models on $\\mathbb{Z}$ with drift. We analyze the possible scaling limits for a sequence of walks, where we make the drift decay to 0 as we rescale the walks. Depending on the speed of the decay of the drift we obtain three different scaling limits. If the drift decays slowly as we rescale the walks we obtain the inverse of an \\alpha$-stable subordinator as scaling limit. If the drift decays quickly as we rescale the walks, we obtain the F.I.N. diffusion as scaling limit. There is a critical speed of decay separating these two main regimes, where a new process appears as scaling limit. This critical speed is related to the index $\\alpha$ of the inhomogeneity of the environment.
Walking behavior in technicolored GUTs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doff, A. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana-UTFPR-COMAT, Pato Branco, PR (Brazil)
2009-03-15
There exist two ways to obtain walk behavior: assuming a large number of technifermions in the fundamental representation of the technicolor (TC) gauge group, or a small number of technifermions, assuming that these fermions are in higher-dimensional representations of the TC group. We propose a scheme to obtain the walking behavior based on technicolored GUTs (TGUTs), where elementary scalars with the TC degree of freedom may remain in the theory after the GUT symmetry breaking. (orig.)
Nessler, Jeff A; De Leon, Ray D; Sharp, Kelli; Kwak, Eugene; Minakata, Koyiro; Reinkensmeyer, David J
2006-06-01
There is a critical need to develop objective, quantitative techniques to assess motor function after spinal cord injury. Here, we assess the ability of a recently developed robotic device (the "rat stepper") to characterize locomotor impairment following contusion injury in rats. In particular, we analyzed how the kinematic features of hindlimb movement during bipedal, weight-supported treadmill stepping change following contusion, and whether these changes correlate with the recovery of open field locomotion. Female, Sprague-Dawley rats (n=29, 8 weeks of age) received mid thoracic contusion injuries of differing severities (11 mild, nine moderate, nine severe, and four sham). In a first experiment, 16 of the animals were evaluated weekly for 12 weeks using the robotic stepping device. In a second experiment, 17 of the animals were evaluated every other day for 4 weeks. The contused animals recovered open field locomotion based on the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan Scale (BBB) analysis, with most of the recovery occurring by 4 weeks post-injury. Analysis of 14 robotic measures of stepping revealed that several measures improved significantly during the same 4 weeks: swing velocity, step height, step length, hindlimb coordination, and the ability to support body weight. These measures were also significantly correlated with the BBB score. The number of steps taken during testing was not directly related to intrinsic recovery or correlated to the BBB score. These results suggest that it is the quality of weight-supported steps, rather than the quantity, that best reflects locomotor recovery after contusion injury, and that the quality of these steps is determined by the integrity of extensor, flexor, and bilateral coordination pathways. Thus, by measuring only a few weight-supported steps with motion capture, a sensitive, valid measure of locomotor recovery following contusion injury can be obtained across a broad range of impairment levels.
Tomov, Toma E; Tsukanov, Roman; Glick, Yair; Berger, Yaron; Liber, Miran; Avrahami, Dorit; Gerber, Doron; Nir, Eyal
2017-04-25
Realization of bioinspired molecular machines that can perform many and diverse operations in response to external chemical commands is a major goal in nanotechnology, but current molecular machines respond to only a few sequential commands. Lack of effective methods for introduction and removal of command compounds and low efficiencies of the reactions involved are major reasons for the limited performance. We introduce here a user interface based on a microfluidics device and single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy that allows efficient introduction and removal of chemical commands and enables detailed study of the reaction mechanisms involved in the operation of synthetic molecular machines. The microfluidics provided 64 consecutive DNA strand commands to a DNA-based motor system immobilized inside the microfluidics, driving a bipedal walker to perform 32 steps on a DNA origami track. The microfluidics enabled removal of redundant strands, resulting in a 6-fold increase in processivity relative to an identical motor operated without strand removal and significantly more operations than previously reported for user-controlled DNA nanomachines. In the motor operated without strand removal, redundant strands interfere with motor operation and reduce its performance. The microfluidics also enabled computer control of motor direction and speed. Furthermore, analysis of the reaction kinetics and motor performance in the absence of redundant strands, made possible by the microfluidics, enabled accurate modeling of the walker processivity. This enabled identification of dynamic boundaries and provided an explanation, based on the "trap state" mechanism, for why the motor did not perform an even larger number of steps. This understanding is very important for the development of future motors with significantly improved performance. Our universal interface enables two-way communication between user and molecular machine and, relying on concepts similar to that of solid
Planar Algebra of the Subgroup-Subfactor
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ved Prakash Gupta
2008-11-01
We give an identification between the planar algebra of the subgroup-subfactor $R \\rtimes H \\subset R \\rtimes G$ and the -invariant planar subalgebra of the planar algebra of the bipartite graph $\\star_n$, where $n=[G:H]$. The crucial step in this identification is an exhibition of a model for the basic construction tower, and thereafter of the standard invariant of $R \\rtimes H \\subset R \\rtimes G$ in terms of operator matrices. We also obtain an identification between the planar algebra of the fixed algebra subfactor $R^G \\subset R^H$ and the -invariant planar subalgebra of the planar algebra of the `flip’ of $\\star_n$.
Planar Algebra of the Subgroup-Subfactor
Gupta, Ved Prakash
2008-01-01
We give an identification between the planar algebra of the subgroup-subfactor $R \\rtimes H \\subset R \\rtimes G$ and the $G$-invariant planar subalgebra of the planar algebra of the bipartite graph $\\star_n$, where $n = [G : H]$. The crucial step in this identification is an exhibition of a model for the basic construction tower, and thereafter of the standard invariant, of $R \\rtimes H \\subset R \\rtimes G$ in terms of operator matrices. We also obtain an identification between the planar algebra of the fixed algebra subfactor $R^G \\subset R^H$ and the $G$-invariant planar subalgebra of the planar algebra of the `flip' of $\\star_n $.
Makino, Misato; Takami, Akiyoshi; Oda, Atsushi
2017-01-01
[Purpose] To investigate the features of backward walking in stroke patients with hemiplegia by focusing on the joint movements and moments of the paretic side, walking speed, stride length, and cadence. [Subjects and Methods] Nine stroke patients performed forward walking and backward walking along a 5-m walkway. Walking speed and stride length were self-selected. Movements were measured using a three-dimensional motion analysis system and a force plate. One walking cycle of the paretic side was analyzed. [Results] Walking speed, stride length, and cadence were significantly lower in backward walking than in forward walking. Peak hip extension was significantly lower in backward walking and peak hip flexion moment, knee extension moment, and ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion moments were lower in backward walking. [Conclusion] Unlike forward walking, backward walking requires conscious hip joint extension. Conscious extension of the hip joint is hard for stroke patients with hemiplegia. Therefore, the range of hip joint movement declined in backward walking, and walking speed and stride length also declined. The peak ankle plantar flexion moment was significantly lower in backward walking than in forward walking, and it was hard to generate propulsion power in backward walking. These difficulties also affected the walking speed. PMID:28265136
Planar Schottky technology for submillimeter wavelengths
Crowe, Thomas W.; Bishop, William L.; Hesler, Jeffrey L.; Marazita, Steven M.; Koh, Philip J.; Porterfield, David W.
1996-01-01
Work carried out in relation to the development of planar integrated Schottky diodes with the aim of increasing the sensitivity, reliability and efficiency of spaceborne heterodyne receivers, is reported. The results of this work include a planar diode mixer at 585 GHz with a total receiver noise temperature of 2,380 K double side band, and planar diode multipliers. The prospects for further integration of circuit elements with the GaAs diodes are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacopo Zenzeri
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to analyze the static stability of a computational architecture, based on the Passive Motion Paradigm, for coordinating the redundant degrees of freedom of a humanoid robot during whole-body reaching movements in bipedal standing. The analysis is based on a simulation study that implements the Functional Reach Test, originally developed for assessing the danger of falling in elderly people. The study is carried out in the YARP environment that allows realistic simulations with the iCub humanoid robot.
Improved optical planar waveguides for lasers Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Demonstrate efficacy of a novel growth technique for planar waveguides (PWG) Enable PWG laser technology with improved performance, efficiency and manufacturability....
Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors
Henriksen, A. D.; Dalslet, B. T.; Skieller, D. H.; Lee, K. H.; Okkels, F.; Hansen, M. F.
2010-07-01
Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can be significantly enhanced by a geometric factor. For the samples in the present study, we demonstrate an enhancement of the sensor output by a factor of about 100 compared to cross-shaped sensors. The presented construction opens a new design and application area of the planar Hall effect, which we term planar Hall effect bridge sensors.
The simulation model of planar electrochemical transducer
Zhevnenko, D. A.; Vergeles, S. S.; Krishtop, T. V.; Tereshonok, D. V.; Gornev, E. S.; Krishtop, V. G.
2016-12-01
Planar electrochemical systems are very perspective to build modern motion and pressure sensors. Planar microelectronic technology is successfully used for electrochemical transducer of motion parameters. These systems are characterized by an exceptionally high sensitivity towards mechanic exposure due to high rate of conversion of the mechanic signal to electric current. In this work, we have developed a mathematical model of this planar electrochemical system, which detects the mechanical signals. We simulate the processes of mass and charge transfer in planar electrochemical transducer and calculated its transfer function with different geometrical parameters of the system.
Graded-index planar waveguide solar concentrator.
Bouchard, Sébastien; Thibault, Simon
2014-03-01
Planar waveguides are useful to transport, concentrate and distribute light uniformly over large dimensions. Their capacity to collect and gather light efficiently over a large distance is interesting for many applications, like backlighting and solar concentration. For these reasons, the possibility of making them even more efficient could be of considerable interest for the community. The observation of the ray path inside a graded-index (GRIN) fiber inspired the development of a similar technology inside planar waveguides. In this Letter, we show that it has the potential to dramatically increase the efficiency of planar waveguide-based solar concentrators or backlighting using GRIN planar waveguides.
A Construction of the "2221" Planar Algebra
Han, Richard
2011-01-01
In this paper, we construct the "2221" subfactor planar algebra by finding it as a subalgebra of the graph planar algebra of its principal graph. In particular, we give a presentation of the "2221" subfactor planar algebra consisting of generators and relations. As a corollary, we have a planar algebra proof of the existence of a subfactor with principal graph "2221". To show the subfactor property, we use the jellyfish algorithm for evaluating closed diagrams. Lastly, we show uniqueness up to conjugation of "2221".
Mechanical design of walking machines.
Arikawa, Keisuke; Hirose, Shigeo
2007-01-15
The performance of existing actuators, such as electric motors, is very limited, be it power-weight ratio or energy efficiency. In this paper, we discuss the method to design a practical walking machine under this severe constraint with focus on two concepts, the gravitationally decoupled actuation (GDA) and the coupled drive. The GDA decouples the driving system against the gravitational field to suppress generation of negative power and improve energy efficiency. On the other hand, the coupled drive couples the driving system to distribute the output power equally among actuators and maximize the utilization of installed actuator power. First, we depict the GDA and coupled drive in detail. Then, we present actual machines, TITAN-III and VIII, quadruped walking machines designed on the basis of the GDA, and NINJA-I and II, quadruped wall walking machines designed on the basis of the coupled drive. Finally, we discuss walking machines that travel on three-dimensional terrain (3D terrain), which includes the ground, walls and ceiling. Then, we demonstrate with computer simulation that we can selectively leverage GDA and coupled drive by walking posture control.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natalie de Bruin
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This study explored the viability and efficacy of integrating cadence-matched, salient music into a walking intervention for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Twenty-two people with PD were randomised to a control (CTRL, n=11 or experimental (MUSIC, n=11 group. MUSIC subjects walked with an individualised music playlist three times a week for the intervention period. Playlists were designed to meet subject's musical preferences. In addition, the tempo of the music closely matched (±10–15 bpm the subject's preferred cadence. CTRL subjects continued with their regular activities during the intervention. The effects of training accompanied by “walking songs” were evaluated using objective measures of gait score. The MUSIC group improved gait velocity, stride time, cadence, and motor symptom severity following the intervention. This is the first study to demonstrate that music listening can be safely implemented amongst PD patients during home exercise.
Milligan, Carol J; Möller, Clemens
2013-01-01
Ion channels are integral membrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the plasma membrane and the membranes of intracellular organelles of both excitable and non-excitable cells. Ion channels are vital to a wide variety of biological processes and are prominent components of the nervous system and cardiovascular system, as well as controlling many metabolic functions. Furthermore, ion channels are known to be involved in many disease states and as such have become popular therapeutic targets. For many years now manual patch-clamping has been regarded as one of the best approaches for assaying ion channel function, through direct measurement of ion flow across these membrane proteins. Over the last decade there have been many remarkable breakthroughs in the development of technologies enabling the study of ion channels. One of these breakthroughs is the development of automated planar patch-clamp technology. Automated platforms have demonstrated the ability to generate high-quality data with high throughput capabilities, at great efficiency and reliability. Additional features such as simultaneous intracellular and extracellular perfusion of the cell membrane, current clamp operation, fast compound application, an increasing rate of parallelization, and more recently temperature control have been introduced. Furthermore, in addition to the well-established studies of over-expressed ion channel proteins in cell lines, new generations of planar patch-clamp systems have enabled successful studies of native and primary mammalian cells. This technology is becoming increasingly popular and extensively used both within areas of drug discovery as well as academic research. Many platforms have been developed including NPC-16 Patchliner(®) and SyncroPatch(®) 96 (Nanion Technologies GmbH, Munich), CytoPatch™ (Cytocentrics AG, Rostock), PatchXpress(®) 7000A, IonWorks(®) Quattro and IonWorks Barracuda™, (Molecular Devices, LLC); Dynaflow(®) HT (Cellectricon
Peres, Yuval; Sousi, Perla
2012-01-01
Let $\\mu_1,... \\mu_k$ be $d$-dimensional probability measures in $\\R^d$ with mean 0. At each step we choose one of the measures based on the history of the process and take a step according to that measure. We give conditions for transience of such processes and also construct examples of recurrent processes of this type. In particular, in dimension 3 we give the complete picture: every walk generated by two measures is transient and there exists a recurrent walk generated by three measures.
Pedagogies of the Walking Dead
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael A. Peters
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the trope of the zombie and the recent upsurge in popular culture surrounding the figure of the zombie described as the “walking dead”. We investigate this trope and figure as a means of analyzing the “pedagogy of the walking dead” with particular attention to the crisis of education in the era of neoliberal capitalism. In particular we examine the professionalization and responsibilization of teachers in the new regulative environment and ask whether there is any room left for the project of critical education.
Positron Emission Mammotomography with Dual Planar Detectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mark Smith; Raymond Raylman; Stanislaw Majewski
2003-06-29
Positron emission mammography (PEM) is usually performed with two stationary planar detectors above and below a compressed breast. There is image blurring normal to the detectors due to the limited angular range of the lines of response. Positron emission mammotomography (PEM-T) with dual planar detectors rotating about the breast can obtain complete angular sampling and has the potential to improve activity estimation.
Reversed planar elongation of soft polymeric networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Mette Krog; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard
2011-01-01
The newly developed planar elongation fixture, designed as an add-on to the filament stretch rheometer, is used to measure reversible large amplitude planar elongation on soft elastomers. The concept of this new fixture is to elongate an annulus, by keeping the perimeter constant. The deformation...
Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Armoni, Adi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino
2008-01-01
The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gravesen, Jens
2005-01-01
t is shown that a closed polygon with an odd number of vertices is the median of exactly one piecewise planar cylinder and one piecewise planar Möbius band, intersecting each other orthogonally. A closed polygon with an even number of vertices is in the generic case neither the median of a piecew...
Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, A.D.; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Skieller, D.H.
2010-01-01
Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can...... Hall effect bridge sensors....
The simplicity of planar networks
Viana, Matheus P.; Strano, Emanuele; Bordin, Patricia; Barthelemy, Marc
2013-12-01
Shortest paths are not always simple. In planar networks, they can be very different from those with the smallest number of turns - the simplest paths. The statistical comparison of the lengths of the shortest and simplest paths provides a non trivial and non local information about the spatial organization of these graphs. We define the simplicity index as the average ratio of these lengths and the simplicity profile characterizes the simplicity at different scales. We measure these metrics on artificial (roads, highways, railways) and natural networks (leaves, slime mould, insect wings) and show that there are fundamental differences in the organization of urban and biological systems, related to their function, navigation or distribution: straight lines are organized hierarchically in biological cases, and have random lengths and locations in urban systems. In the case of time evolving networks, the simplicity is able to reveal important structural changes during their evolution.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beiser, L. [Beiser (Leo) Inc., Flushing, NY (United States); Veligdan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)
1996-04-01
A Planar Optic Display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (I to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A Digital Micromirror Device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.
Insight into planar cell polarity.
Sebbagh, Michael; Borg, Jean-Paul
2014-11-01
Planar cell polarity or PCP refers to a uniform cellular organization within the plan, typically orthogonal to the apico-basal polarity axis. As such, PCP provides directional cues that control and coordinate the integration of cells in tissues to build a living organism. Although dysfunctions of this fundamental cellular process have been convincingly linked to the etiology of various pathologies such as cancer and developmental defects, the molecular mechanisms governing its establishment and maintenance remain poorly understood. Here, we review some aspects of invertebrate and vertebrate PCPs, highlighting similarities and differences, and discuss the prevalence of the non-canonical Wnt signaling as a central PCP pathway, as well as recent findings on the importance of cell contractility and cilia as promising avenues of investigation.
Planar Lenses at Visible Wavelengths
Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Devlin, Robert C; Oh, Jaewon; Zhu, Alexander Y; Capasso, Federico
2016-01-01
Sub-wavelength resolution imaging requires high numerical aperture (NA) lenses, which are bulky and expensive. Metasurfaces allow the miniaturization of conventional refractive optics into planar structures. We show that high-aspect-ratio titanium dioxide metasurfaces can be fabricated and designed as meta-lenses with NA = 0.8. Diffraction-limited focusing is demonstrated at wavelengths of 405 nm, 532 nm, and 660 nm with corresponding efficiencies of 86%, 73%, and 66%. The meta-lenses can resolve nanoscale features separated by sub-wavelength distances and provide magnification as high as 170x with image qualities comparable to a state-of-the-art commercial objective. Our results firmly establish that meta-lenses can have widespread applications in laser-based microscopy, imaging, and spectroscopy.
Adjustable phase planar helical undulator
Carr, Roger G.; Lidia, Steve
1993-11-01
We present here the design description of a new type of planar helical undulator, which we are constructing for the SPEAR storage ring at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. It comprises four rows of pure permanent magnet blocks, one row in each quadrant about the axis defined by the electron beam. Rows may be translated longitudinally with respect to each other to change the helicity of the magnetic field they create at the position of the beam. They may also be translated longitudinally to vary the energy of the x-rays emitted, unlike designs where this function is performed by varying the gap between the rows. This work includes numerical calculations of the fields, electron trajectories, and x-ray spectra, including off-axis effects.
The planar parabolic optical antenna.
Schoen, David T; Coenen, Toon; García de Abajo, F Javier; Brongersma, Mark L; Polman, Albert
2013-01-09
One of the simplest and most common structures used for directing light in macroscale applications is the parabolic reflector. Parabolic reflectors are ubiquitous in many technologies, from satellite dishes to hand-held flashlights. Today, there is a growing interest in the use of ultracompact metallic structures for manipulating light on the wavelength scale. Significant progress has been made in scaling radiowave antennas to the nanoscale for operation in the visible range, but similar scaling of parabolic reflectors employing ray-optics concepts has not yet been accomplished because of the difficulty in fabricating nanoscale three-dimensional surfaces. Here, we demonstrate that plasmon physics can be employed to realize a resonant elliptical cavity functioning as an essentially planar nanometallic structure that serves as a broadband unidirectional parabolic antenna at optical frequencies.
The simplicity of planar networks
Viana, Matheus P; Bordin, Patricia; Barthelemy, Marc
2013-01-01
Shortest paths are not always simple. In planar networks, they can be very different from those with the smallest number of turns - the simplest paths. The statistical comparison of the lengths of the shortest and simplest paths provides a non trivial and non local information about the spatial organization of these graphs. We define the simplicity index as the average ratio of these lengths and the simplicity profile characterizes the simplicity at different scales. We measure these metrics on artificial (roads, highways, railways) and natural networks (leaves, slime mould, insect wings) and show that there are fundamental differences in the organization of urban and biological systems, related to their function, navigation or distribution: straight lines are organized hierarchically in biological cases, and have random lengths and locations in urban systems. In the case of time evolving networks, the simplicity is able to reveal important structural changes during their evolution.
The Planar Sandwich and Other 1D Planar Heat Flow Test Problems in ExactPack
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singleton, Jr., Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-01-24
This report documents the implementation of several related 1D heat flow problems in the verification package ExactPack [1]. In particular, the planar sandwich class defined in Ref. [2], as well as the classes PlanarSandwichHot, PlanarSandwichHalf, and other generalizations of the planar sandwich problem, are defined and documented here. A rather general treatment of 1D heat flow is presented, whose main results have been implemented in the class Rod1D. All planar sandwich classes are derived from the parent class Rod1D.
Tan, Uner
2015-02-01
To investigate siblings from Kars (n = 2), Turkey, with diagonal-sequence quadrupedal locomotion (QL), severe mental retardation, and no speech (Uner Tan syndrome, UTS), in relation to the evolutionary emergence of human bipedal locomotion (BL). Video recordings were made to assess gaits. Brain MRI scanning was performed to visualize the cerebro-cerebellar malformations. Genome-wide association analyses were performed in venous blood samples. One of the two men with UTS showed early-onset QL and late-onset BL without infantile hypotonia, the other consistent QL with infantile hypotonia. No homozygosity was found in the genetic analysis. The family lived under extremely poor socioeconomic conditions. Low socioeconomic status may be a triggering factor for the epigenetic emergence of UTS. The neural networks responsible for the ancestral diagonal-sequence QL, evolutionarily preserved since about 400 MYA, may be selected during locomotor development, under the influence of self-organizing processes during pre- and postnatal periods. The diagonal-sequence QL induced ipsilateral limb interference in UTS cases as in nonhuman primates. To overcome this condition, our ancestors would prefer the attractor BL. This novel theory for the evolution of human bipedalism was evaluated in light of dynamical systems theory.
Adding one edge to planar graphs makes crossing number and 1-planarity hard
Cabello, Sergio
2012-01-01
A graph is near-planar if it can be obtained from a planar graph by adding an edge. We show the surprising fact that it is NP-hard to compute the crossing number of near-planar graphs. A graph is 1-planar if it has a drawing where every edge is crossed by at most one other edge. We show that it is NP-hard to decide whether a given near-planar graph is 1-planar. The main idea in both reductions is to consider the problem of simultaneously drawing two planar graphs inside a disk, with some of its vertices fixed at the boundary of the disk. This leads to the concept of anchored embedding, which is of independent interest. As an interesting consequence we obtain a new, geometric proof of NP-completeness of the crossing number problem, even when restricted to cubic graphs. This resolves a question of Hlin\\v{e}n\\'y.
Age-related differences in walking stability
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Menz, Hylton B; Lord, Stephen R; Fitzpatrick, Richard C
2003-01-01
.... to evaluate acceleration patterns at the head and pelvis in young and older subjects when walking on a level and an irregular walking surface, in order to develop an understanding of how ageing...
Brisk Walk May Help Sidestep Heart Disease
... fullstory_162978.html Brisk Walk May Help Sidestep Heart Disease In just 10 weeks, cholesterol, blood pressure and ... at moderate intensity may lower the risk of heart disease, a small study suggests. "We know walking is ...
Minnesota Walk-In Access Sites
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Minnesota Walk-In Access site (WIA) GIS data represents areas of private land that have been made open to the public for the purpose of walk-in (foot travel)...
A dual-learning paradigm can simultaneously train multiple characteristics of walking.
Statton, Matthew A; Toliver, Alexis; Bastian, Amy J
2016-05-01
Impairments in human motor patterns are complex: what is often observed as a single global deficit (e.g., limping when walking) is actually the sum of several distinct abnormalities. Motor adaptation can be useful to teach patients more normal motor patterns, yet conventional training paradigms focus on individual features of a movement, leaving others unaddressed. It is known that under certain conditions, distinct movement components can be simultaneously adapted without interference. These previous "dual-learning" studies focused solely on short, planar reaching movements, yet it is unknown whether these findings can generalize to a more complex behavior like walking. Here we asked whether a dual-learning paradigm, incorporating two distinct motor adaptation tasks, can be used to simultaneously train multiple components of the walking pattern. We developed a joint-angle learning task that provided biased visual feedback of sagittal joint angles to increase peak knee or hip flexion during the swing phase of walking. Healthy, young participants performed this task independently or concurrently with another locomotor adaptation task, split-belt treadmill adaptation, where subjects adapted their step length symmetry. We found that participants were able to successfully adapt both components of the walking pattern simultaneously, without interference, and at the same rate as adapting either component independently. This leads us to the interesting possibility that combining rehabilitation modalities within a single training session could be used to help alleviate multiple deficits at once in patients with complex gait impairments.
Walking Shoes: Features and Fit
... be snug, not tight. If you're a woman with wide feet, consider men's or boys' shoes, which are cut a bit larger through the heel and the ball of the foot. Walk in the shoes before buying them. They should feel comfortable right away. Make sure your heel fits snugly in ...
... the most ppular form of exercise among older adults and it's a great choice. What can walking do for you? strengthen muscles help prevent weight gain lower risks of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and osteoporosis improve balance lower the likelihood of falling If ...
Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor
Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; O'Brien, Jeremy; Wang, Jingbo; Matthews, Jonathan
2016-01-01
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise quantum walks have shown much potential as a frame- work for developing new quantum algorithms. In this paper, we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs ef...
Einstein's random walk and thermal diffusion
2013-01-01
Thermal diffusion has been studied for over 150 years. Despite of the long history and the increasing importance of the phenomenon, the physics of thermal diffusion remains poorly understood. In this paper Ludwig's thermal diffusion is explained using Einstein's random walk. The only new structure added is the spatial heterogeneity of the random walk to reflect the temperature gradient of thermal diffusion. Hence, the walk length and the walk speed are location dependent functions in this pap...
Wang, Jeen-Shing; Lin, Che-Wei; Yang, Ya-Ting C; Ho, Yu-Jen
2012-10-01
This paper presents a walking pattern classification and a walking distance estimation algorithm using gait phase information. A gait phase information retrieval algorithm was developed to analyze the duration of the phases in a gait cycle (i.e., stance, push-off, swing, and heel-strike phases). Based on the gait phase information, a decision tree based on the relations between gait phases was constructed for classifying three different walking patterns (level walking, walking upstairs, and walking downstairs). Gait phase information was also used for developing a walking distance estimation algorithm. The walking distance estimation algorithm consists of the processes of step count and step length estimation. The proposed walking pattern classification and walking distance estimation algorithm have been validated by a series of experiments. The accuracy of the proposed walking pattern classification was 98.87%, 95.45%, and 95.00% for level walking, walking upstairs, and walking downstairs, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed walking distance estimation algorithm was 96.42% over a walking distance.
Developmental Continuity? Crawling, Cruising, and Walking
Adolph, Karen E.; Berger, Sarah E.; Leo, Andrew J.
2011-01-01
This research examined developmental continuity between "cruising" (moving sideways holding onto furniture for support) and walking. Because cruising and walking involve locomotion in an upright posture, researchers have assumed that cruising is functionally related to walking. Study 1 showed that most infants crawl and cruise concurrently prior…
Claimed walking distance of lower limb amputees
Geertzen, JHB; Bosmans, JC; Van der Schans, CP; Dijkstra, PU
2005-01-01
Purpose: Walking ability in general and specifically for lower limb amputees is of major importance for social mobility and ADL independence. Walking determines prosthesis prescription. The aim of this study was to mathematically analyse factors influencing claimed walking distance of lower limb amp
Research of Humanoid Robot Biped Walking Model%仿人机器人双足行走模型研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
肖乐; 张玉生; 殷晨波
2011-01-01
针对仿人机器人双足行走的稳定性问题,引入零力矩点理论,根据稳定行走必须满足地面反作用力位于稳定区域内这个条件,推导出仿人机器人在行走过程中单双腿支撑期的稳定区域面积和稳定裕量.建立2种不同形状的仿人机器人双足模型,在足底和地面间创建一系列接触力,并通过机械系统动力学自动分析软件得到行走过程中足底各个点的受力曲线并进行受力分析,得出合理的双足形状.%Aiming at the problem of walking stability in humanoid robot, this paper introduces Zero Moment Point(ZMP) theory, the reaction force of ground must be inside the support polygon to maintain dynamic balance. The area of stable region and stability margin in single support phase and double support phase are deduced. Humanoid robot biped walking model with two different shapes is established, and a series of contact is set between sole and ground. The contact forces ware got through Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical System(ADAMS) software after analyzing simulation and the forces of the sole during walking, it gets reasonable bipedal shape.
Active quantum walks: a framework for quantum walks with adiabatic quantum evolution
Wu, Nan; Song, Fangmin; Li, Xiangdong
2016-05-01
We study a new methodology for quantum walk based algorithms. Different from the passive quantum walk, in which a walker is guided by a quantum walk procedure, the new framework that we developed allows the walker to move by an adiabatic procedure of quantum evolution, as an active way. The use of this active quantum walk is helpful to develop new quantum walk based searching and optimization algorithms.
Walking...A Step in the Right Direction!
... parts: Warm up by walking slowly. Increase your speed to a brisk walk. Brisk walking means walking fast enough to raise your heart ... go faster and farther. Add hills or some stairs to make your walks more challenging. Review the sample walking plan that follows for an idea of how ...
Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices
Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K. W.; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You
2016-06-01
The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.
DYNAMIC DESIGN OF VARIABLE SPEED PLANAR LINKAGES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yao Yanan; Yan Hongsen; Zou Huijun
2005-01-01
A method for improving dynamic characteristics of planar linkages by actively varying the speed function of the input link is presented. Design criteria and constraints for the dynamic design of variable speed planar linkages are developed. Both analytical and optimization approaches for determining suitable input speed functions to minimize the driving torque, the shaking moment, or both simultaneously of planar linkages, subject to various design requirements and constraints, are derived.Finally, some examples are given to illustrate the design procedure and to verify its feasibility.
Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.
Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You
2016-06-22
The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.
Disaggregate land uses and walking.
McConville, Megan E; Rodríguez, Daniel A; Clifton, Kelly; Cho, Gihyoug; Fleischhacker, Sheila
2011-01-01
Although researchers have explored associations between mixed-use development and physical activity, few have examined the influence of specific land uses. This study analyzes how the accessibility, intensity, and diversity of nonresidential land uses are related to walking for transportation. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate associations between walking for transportation and neighborhood land uses in a choice-based sample of individuals (n=260) in Montgomery County MD. Land uses examined included banks, bus stops, fast-food restaurants, grocery stores, libraries, rail stations, offices, parks, recreation centers, non-fast-food restaurants, retail, schools, sports facilities, night uses, physical activity uses, and social uses. Exposure to these uses was measured as the street distance from participants' homes to the closest instance of each land use (accessibility); the number of instances of each land use (intensity); and the number of different land uses (diversity). Data were collected from 2004-2006 and analyzed in 2009-2010. After adjusting for individual-level characteristics, the distances to banks, bus stops, fast-food restaurants, grocery stores, rail stations, physical activity uses, recreational facilities, restaurants, social uses and sports facilities were associated negatively with transportation walking (ORs [95% CI] range from 0.01 [0.001, 0.11] to 0.91 [0.85, 0.97]). The intensities of bus stops, grocery stores, offices, and retail stores in participants' neighborhoods were associated positively with transportation walking (ORs [95% CI] range from 1.05 [1.01, 1.08] to 5.42 [1.73, 17.01]). Land-use diversity also was associated positively with walking for transportation (ORs [95% CI] range from 1.39 [1.20, 1.59] to 1.69 [1.30, 2.20]). The accessibility and intensity of certain nonresidential land uses, along with land-use diversity, are positively associated with walking for transportation. A careful mix of land uses in a
Planar doped barrier subharmonic mixers
Lee, T. H.; East, J. R.; Haddad, G. I.
1992-01-01
The Planar Doped Barrier (PDB) diode is a device consisting of a p(+) doping spike between two intrinsic layers and n(+) ohmic contacts. This device has the advantages of controllable barrier height, diode capacitance and forward to reverse current ratio. A symmetrically designed PDB has an anti-symmetric current vs. voltage characteristic and is ideal for use as millimeter wave subharmonic mixers. We have fabricated such devices with barrier heights of 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 volts from GaAs and InGaAs using a multijunction honeycomb structure with junction diameters between one and ten microns. Initial RF measurements are encouraging. The 0.7 volt barrier height 4 micron GaAs devices were tested as subharmonic mixers at 202 GHz with an IF frequency of 1 GHz and had 18 dB of conversion loss. The estimated mismatch loss was 7 dB and was due to higher diode capacitance. The LO frequency was 100.5 GHz and the pump power was 8 mW.
Biased random walks on multiplex networks
Battiston, Federico; Latora, Vito
2015-01-01
Biased random walks on complex networks are a particular type of walks whose motion is biased on properties of the destination node, such as its degree. In recent years they have been exploited to design efficient strategies to explore a network, for instance by constructing maximally mixing trajectories or by sampling homogeneously the nodes. In multiplex networks, the nodes are related through different types of links (layers or communication channels), and the presence of connections at different layers multiplies the number of possible paths in the graph. In this work we introduce biased random walks on multiplex networks and provide analytical solutions for their long-term properties such as the stationary distribution and the entropy rate. We focus on degree-biased walks and distinguish between two subclasses of random walks: extensive biased walks consider the properties of each node separately at each layer, intensive biased walks deal instead with intrinsically multiplex variables. We study the effec...
High on Walking : Conquering Everyday Life.
Martinsen, Bente; Haahr, Anita; Dreyer, Pia; Norlyk, Annelise
2017-01-01
The aim of this study is to discuss the meaning of walking impairment among people who have previously been able to walk on their own. The study is based on findings from three different life situations: older people recovering after admission in intermediate care, people who have lost a leg, and people who live with Parkinson's disease. The analysis of the data is inspired by Paul Ricoeur's philosophy of interpretation. Four themes were identified: (a) I feel high in two ways; (b) Walking has to be automatic; (c) Every Monday, I walk with the girls in the park; and (d) I dream of walking along the street without sticks and things like that. The findings demonstrate that inability to walk profoundly affected the participants' lives. Other problems seemed small by comparison because walking impairment was at the same time experienced as a concrete physical limit and an existential deficit.
City Walks and Tactile Experience
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mădălina Diaconu
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to develop categories of the pedestrian’s tactile and kinaesthetic experience of the city. The beginning emphasizes the haptic qualities of surfaces and textures, which can be “palpated” visually or experienced by walking. Also the lived city is three-dimensional; its corporeal depth is discussed here in relation to the invisible sewers, protuberant profiles, and the formal diversity of roofscapes. A central role is ascribed in the present analysis to the formal similarities between the representation of the city by walking through it and the representation of the tactile form of objects. Additional aspects of the “tactile” experience of the city in a broad sense concern the feeling of their rhythms and the exposure to weather conditions. Finally, several aspects of contingency converge in the visible age of architectural works, which record traces of individual and collective histories.
Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.
1988-07-01
The random walk of a particle on a three-dimensional semi-infinite lattice is considered. In order to study the effect of the surface on the random walk, it is assumed that the velocity of the particle depends on the distance to the surface. Moreover it is assumed that at any point the particle may be absorbed with a certain probability. The probability of the return of the particle to the starting point and the average time of eventual return are calculated. The dependence of these quantities on the distance to the surface, the probability of absorption and the properties of the surface is discussed. The method of generating functions is used.
Groups, graphs and random walks
Salvatori, Maura; Sava-Huss, Ecaterina
2017-01-01
An accessible and panoramic account of the theory of random walks on groups and graphs, stressing the strong connections of the theory with other branches of mathematics, including geometric and combinatorial group theory, potential analysis, and theoretical computer science. This volume brings together original surveys and research-expository papers from renowned and leading experts, many of whom spoke at the workshop 'Groups, Graphs and Random Walks' celebrating the sixtieth birthday of Wolfgang Woess in Cortona, Italy. Topics include: growth and amenability of groups; Schrödinger operators and symbolic dynamics; ergodic theorems; Thompson's group F; Poisson boundaries; probability theory on buildings and groups of Lie type; structure trees for edge cuts in networks; and mathematical crystallography. In what is currently a fast-growing area of mathematics, this book provides an up-to-date and valuable reference for both researchers and graduate students, from which future research activities will undoubted...
Bru, Luis A; Di Molfetta, Giuseppe; Pérez, Armando; Roldán, Eugenio; Silva, Fernando
2016-01-01
We consider the 2D alternate quantum walk on a cylinder. We concentrate on the study of the motion along the open dimension, in the spirit of looking at the closed coordinate as a small or "hidden" extra dimension. If one starts from localized initial conditions on the lattice, the dynamics of the quantum walk that is obtained after tracing out the small dimension shows the contribution of several components, which can be understood from the study of the dispersion relations for this problem. In fact, these components originate from the contribution of the possible values of the quasi-momentum in the closed dimension. In the continuous space-time limit, the different components manifest as a set of Dirac equations, with each quasi-momentum providing the value of the corresponding mass. We briefly discuss the possible link of these ideas to the simulation of high energy physical theories that include extra dimensions.
Planar cell polarity of the kidney.
Schnell, Ulrike; Carroll, Thomas J
2016-05-01
Planar cell polarity (PCP) or tissue polarity refers to the polarization of tissues perpendicular to the apical-basal axis. Most epithelia, including the vertebrate kidney, show signs of planar polarity. In the kidney, defects in planar polarity are attributed to several disease states including multiple forms of cystic kidney disease. Indeed, planar cell polarity has been shown to be essential for several cellular processes that appear to be necessary for establishing and maintaining tubule diameter. However, uncovering the genetic mechanisms underlying PCP in the kidney has been complicated as the roles of many of the main players are not conserved in flies and vice versa. Here, we review a number of cellular and molecular processes that can affect PCP of the kidney with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms that do not appear to be conserved in flies or that are not part of canonical determinants.
Non-planar microfabricated gas chromatography column
Lewis, Patrick R.; Wheeler, David R.
2007-09-25
A non-planar microfabricated gas chromatography column comprises a planar substrate having a plurality of through holes, a top lid and a bottom lid bonded to opposite surfaces of the planar substrate, and inlet and outlet ports for injection of a sample gas and elution of separated analytes. A plurality of such planar substrates can be aligned and stacked to provide a longer column length having a small footprint. Furthermore, two or more separate channels can enable multi-channel or multi-dimensional gas chromatography. The through holes preferably have a circular cross section and can be coated with a stationary phase material or packed with a porous packing material. Importantly, uniform stationary phase coatings can be obtained and band broadening can be minimized with the circular channels. A heating or cooling element can be disposed on at least one of the lids to enable temperature programming of the column.
Point Location in Disconnected Planar Subdivisions
Bose, Prosenjit; Douieb, Karim; Dujmovic, Vida; King, James; Morin, Pat
2010-01-01
Let $G$ be a (possibly disconnected) planar subdivision and let $D$ be a probability measure over $\\R^2$. The current paper shows how to preprocess $(G,D)$ into an O(n) size data structure that can answer planar point location queries over $G$. The expected query time of this data structure, for a query point drawn according to $D$, is $O(H+1)$, where $H$ is a lower bound on the expected query time of any linear decision tree for point location in $G$. This extends the results of Collette et al (2008, 2009) from connected planar subdivisions to disconnected planar subdivisions. A version of this structure, when combined with existing results on succinct point location, provides a succinct distribution-sensitive point location structure.
Planar micro-optic solar concentrator
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Karp, Jason H; Tremblay, Eric J; Ford, Joseph E
2010-01-01
We present a new approach to solar concentration where sunlight collected by each lens in a two-dimensional lens array is coupled into a shared, planar waveguide using localized features placed at each lens focus...
Modified planar functions and their components
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Meidl, Wilfried Meidl
2017-01-01
functions in odd characteristic as a vectorial bent function. We finally point out that though these components behave somewhat different than the multivariate bent4 functions, they are bent or semibent functions shifted by a certain quadratic term, a property which they share with their multivariate......Zhou ([20]) introduced modified planar functions in order to describe (2n; 2n; 2n; 1) relative difference sets R as a graph of a function on the finite field F2n, and pointed out that projections of R are difference sets that can be described by negabent or bent4 functions, which are Boolean...... functions given in multivariate form. One of the objectives of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of these component functions of modified planar functions. Moreover, we obtain a description of modified planar functions by their components which is similar to that of the classical planar...
Structure of The Planar Galilean Conformal Algebra
Gao, Shoulan; Liu, Dong; Pei, Yufeng
2016-08-01
In this paper, we compute the low-dimensional cohomology groups of the planar Galilean conformal algebra introduced by Bagchi and Goparkumar. Consequently we determine its derivations, central extensions, and automorphisms.
Planar Gravitational Corrections For Supersymmetric Gauge Theories
Dijkgraaf, R; Ooguri, H; Vafa, C; Zanon, D
2004-01-01
In this paper we discuss the contribution of planar diagrams to gravitational F-terms for N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories admitting a large N description. We show how the planar diagrams lead to a universal contribution at the extremum of the glueball superpotential, leaving only the genus one contributions, as was previously conjectured. We also discuss the physical meaning of gravitational F-terms.
Terahertz planar waveguide devices based on graphene
Yuan, Yizhe; Guo, Xiaoyong; An, Liqun; Xu, Wen
2017-02-01
We present a theoretical study on graphene-semiconductor planar structures. The frequency of the photonic modes in the structure, which can be efficiently tuned via varying the sample parameters, is within the terahertz (THz) bandwidth. Furthermore, it is found that a roughly linear dispersion relation can be obtained for photonic modes in the THz region. Hence, the proposed graphene-semiconductor planar structures can be served as THz waveguide with desirable transmission characteristics.
Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices
Bao Zhang; Kang-Kang Meng; Mei-Yin Yang; Edmonds, K. W.; Hao Zhang; Kai-Ming Cai; Yu Sheng; Nan Zhang; Yang Ji; Jian-Hua Zhao; Hou-Zhi Zheng; Kai-You Wang
2015-01-01
The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the pie...
Planar Elongation Measurements on Soft Elastomers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Mette Krog; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.
2009-01-01
A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation.......A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation....
Planarity certification of ATLAS Micromegas detector panels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueller, Ralph; Biebel, Otmar; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Loesel, Philipp; Herrmann, Maximilian [LMU Muenchen (Germany); Zibell, Andre [JMU Wuerzburg (Germany)
2016-07-01
During the second long LHC shutdown, 2019/20, the precision tracking detectors of the ATLAS muon spectrometer in the inner end caps will be replaced using Micromegas, a planar gas-detector technology. Modules of 2 m{sup 2} area are built in quadruplets from five precisely planar sandwich panels that define the anodes and the cathodes of the four active detector planes. A panel is composed of three consecutive layers FR4 - aluminum honeycomb - FR4. Single plane spatial particle resolution below 100 μm is achievable when the deviations from planarity of the strip-anodes do not exceed 80 μm RMS over the whole active area and the parallelism of the readout strips is within 30 μm. In order to measure the dimensional accuracy of each panel, laser distance sensors combined with a coordinate measurement system have been investigated. The sensor requirements to measure the planarity of the panels are a resolution of 0.3 μm and a beam spot diameter of ∼20 μm, well below 100 μ m the size of the smallest structures. We report on achieved planarities of the panels and the performance of the laser sensor system. A panel with an RMS better than 30 μm was build and the evolution of its planarity due to humidity and temperature effects is shown.
Segment lengths influence hill walking strategies.
Sheehan, Riley C; Gottschall, Jinger S
2014-08-22
Segment lengths are known to influence walking kinematics and muscle activity patterns. During level walking at the same speed, taller individuals take longer, slower strides than shorter individuals. Based on this, we sought to determine if segment lengths also influenced hill walking strategies. We hypothesized that individuals with longer segments would display more joint flexion going uphill and more extension going downhill as well as greater lateral gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis activity in both directions. Twenty young adults of varying heights (below 155 cm to above 188 cm) walked at 1.25 m/s on a level treadmill as well as 6° and 12° up and downhill slopes while we collected kinematic and muscle activity data. Subsequently, we ran linear regressions for each of the variables with height, leg, thigh, and shank length. Despite our population having twice the anthropometric variability, the level and hill walking patterns matched closely with previous studies. While there were significant differences between level and hill walking, there were few hill walking variables that were correlated with segment length. In support of our hypothesis, taller individuals had greater knee and ankle flexion during uphill walking. However, the majority of the correlations were between tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius activities and shank length. Contrary to our hypothesis, relative step length and muscle activity decreased with segment length, specifically shank length. In summary, it appears that individuals with shorter segments require greater propulsion and toe clearance during uphill walking as well as greater braking and stability during downhill walking.
Walk-Startup of a Two-Legged Walking Mechanism
Babković, Kalman; Nagy, László; Krklješ, Damir; Borovac, Branislav
There is a growing interest towards humanoid robots. One of their most important characteristic is the two-legged motion - walk. Starting and stopping of humanoid robots introduce substantial delays. In this paper, the goal is to explore the possibility of using a short unbalanced state of the biped robot to quickly gain speed and achieve the steady state velocity during a period shorter than half of the single support phase. The proposed method is verified by simulation. Maintainig a steady state, balanced gait is not considered in this paper.
SOME APPLICATIONS OF PLANAR GRAPH IN KNOT THEORY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cheng Zhiyun; Gao Hongzhu
2012-01-01
The relationship between a link diagram and its corresponding planar graph is briefly reviewed.A necessary and sufficient condition is given to detect when a planar graph corresponds to a knot.The relationship between planar graph and almost planar Seifert surface is discussed.Using planar graph,we construct an alternating amphicheiral prime knot with crossing number n for any even number n ≥ 4.This gives an affirmative answer to problem 1.66(B) on Kirby's problem list.
System overview and walking dynamics of a passive dynamic walking robot with flat feet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinyu Liu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The concept of “passive dynamic walking robot” refers to the robot that can walk down a shallow slope stably without any actuation and control which shows a limit cycle during walking. By adding actuation at some joints, the passive dynamic walking robot can walk stably on level ground and exhibit more versatile gaits than fully passive robot, namely, the “limit cycle walker.” In this article, we present the mechanical structures and control system design for a passive dynamic walking robot with series elastic actuators at hip joint and ankle joints. We built a walking model that consisted of an upper body, knee joints, and flat feet and derived its walking dynamics that involve double stance phases in a walking cycle based on virtual power principle. The instant just before impact was chosen as the start of one step to reduce the number of independent state variables. A numerical simulation was implemented by using MATLAB, in which the proposed passive dynamic walking model could walk stably down a shallow slope, which proves that the derived walking dynamics are correct. A physical passive robot prototype was built finally, and the experiment results show that by only simple control scheme the passive dynamic robot could walk stably on level ground.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janneke Annegarn
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To date, detailed analyses of walking patterns using accelerometers during the 6-min walk test (6MWT have not been performed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Therefore, it remains unclear whether and to what extent COPD patients have an altered walking pattern during the 6MWT compared to healthy elderly subjects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 79 COPD patients and 24 healthy elderly subjects performed the 6MWT wearing an accelerometer attached to the trunk. The accelerometer features (walking intensity, cadence, and walking variability and subject characteristics were assessed and compared between groups. Moreover, associations were sought with 6-min walk distance (6MWD using multiple ordinary least squares (OLS regression models. COPD patients walked with a significantly lower walking intensity, lower cadence and increased walking variability compared to healthy subjects. Walking intensity and height were the only two significant determinants of 6MWD in healthy subjects, explaining 85% of the variance in 6MWD. In COPD patients also age, cadence, walking variability measures and their interactions were included were significant determinants of 6MWD (total variance in 6MWD explained: 88%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: COPD patients have an altered walking pattern during 6MWT compared to healthy subjects. These differences in walking pattern partially explain the lower 6MWD in patients with COPD.
Adaptive, fast walking in a biped robot under neuronal control and learning.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Poramate Manoonpong
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Human walking is a dynamic, partly self-stabilizing process relying on the interaction of the biomechanical design with its neuronal control. The coordination of this process is a very difficult problem, and it has been suggested that it involves a hierarchy of levels, where the lower ones, e.g., interactions between muscles and the spinal cord, are largely autonomous, and where higher level control (e.g., cortical arises only pointwise, as needed. This requires an architecture of several nested, sensori-motor loops where the walking process provides feedback signals to the walker's sensory systems, which can be used to coordinate its movements. To complicate the situation, at a maximal walking speed of more than four leg-lengths per second, the cycle period available to coordinate all these loops is rather short. In this study we present a planar biped robot, which uses the design principle of nested loops to combine the self-stabilizing properties of its biomechanical design with several levels of neuronal control. Specifically, we show how to adapt control by including online learning mechanisms based on simulated synaptic plasticity. This robot can walk with a high speed (>3.0 leg length/s, self-adapting to minor disturbances, and reacting in a robust way to abruptly induced gait changes. At the same time, it can learn walking on different terrains, requiring only few learning experiences. This study shows that the tight coupling of physical with neuronal control, guided by sensory feedback from the walking pattern itself, combined with synaptic learning may be a way forward to better understand and solve coordination problems in other complex motor tasks.
Full revivals in 2D quantum walks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stefanak, M; Jex, I [Department of Physics, FJFI CVUT v Praze, Brehova 7, 115 19 Praha 1-Stare Mesto (Czech Republic); Kollar, B; Kiss, T, E-mail: martin.stefanak@fjfi.cvut.c [Department of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly-Thege M. u. 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary)
2010-09-01
Recurrence of a random walk is described by the Polya number. For quantum walks, recurrence is understood as the return of the walker to the origin, rather than the full revival of its quantum state. Localization for two-dimensional quantum walks is known to exist in the sense of non-vanishing probability distribution in the asymptotic limit. We show, on the example of the 2D Grover walk, that one can exploit the effect of localization to construct stationary solutions. Moreover, we find full revivals of a quantum state with a period of two steps. We prove that there cannot be longer cycles for a four-state quantum walk. Stationary states and revivals result from interference, which has no counterpart in classical random walks.
Design and Stability Analysis of a 3D Rimless Wheel with Flat Feet and Ankle Springs
Narukawa, Terumasa; Takahashi, Masaki; Yoshida, Kazuo
A two-dimensional rimless wheel provides a simple model of bipedal walking. The motion of the rimless wheel is stable, and this particular property has clarified the fundamental role of a swing leg in planar bipedal walking that addresses the problem of falling forward. In this paper, a three-dimensional rimless wheel is investigated as a simple model of three-dimensional bipedal walking. The 3D rimless wheel model is useful in understanding the essential dynamics of 3D bipedal locomotion. The model consists of two rimless wheels connected by a link at the center of the wheels, and flat feet connected to the spokes with springs. The first numerical stability studies indicated that the motion of the 3D rimless wheel could be unstable; however, numerical simulations and experimental results showed that for a given slope and physical parameters, including the spring constant at the ankles, a stable motion is obtained. This indicates the usefulness of ankle springs in providing stable bipedal locomotion in three-dimensions.
Integration of planar transformer and/or planar inductor with power switches in power converter
Chen, Kanghua; Ahmed, Sayeed; Zhu, Lizhi
2007-10-30
A power converter integrates at least one planar transformer comprising a multi-layer transformer substrate and/or at least one planar inductor comprising a multi-layer inductor substrate with a number of power semiconductor switches physically and thermally coupled to a heat sink via one or more multi-layer switch substrates.
Quantum walks public key cryptographic system
Vlachou, C; Rodrigues, J.; Mateus, P.; Paunković, N.; Souto, A.
2016-01-01
Quantum Cryptography is a rapidly developing field of research that benefits from the properties of Quantum Mechanics in performing cryptographic tasks. Quantum walks are a powerful model for quantum computation and very promising for quantum information processing. In this paper, we present a quantum public-key cryptographic system based on quantum walks. In particular, in the proposed protocol the public key is given by a quantum state generated by performing a quantum walk. We show that th...
Quantum random walks - an introductory overview
Kempe, J
2003-01-01
This article aims to provide an introductory survey on quantum random walks. Starting from a physical effect to illustrate the main ideas we will introduce quantum random walks, review some of their properties and outline their striking differences to classical walks. We will touch upon both physical effects and computer science applications, introducing some of the main concepts and language of present day quantum information science in this context. We will mention recent developments in this new area and outline some open questions.
Random Walk Smooth Transition Autoregressive Models
2004-01-01
This paper extends the family of smooth transition autoregressive (STAR) models by proposing a specification in which the autoregressive parameters follow random walks. The random walks in the parameters can capture structural change within a regime switching framework, but in contrast to the time varying STAR (TV-STAR) speciifcation recently introduced by Lundbergh et al (2003), structural change in our random walk STAR (RW-STAR) setting follows a stochastic process rather than a determinist...
Numerical and experimental study of the virtual quadrupedal walking robot-semiquad
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aoustin, Yannick, E-mail: Yannick.Aoustin@irccyn.ec-nantes.fr; Chevallereau, Christine [Institut de Recherche en Communications et Cybernetique de Nantes U.M.R. 6597 1 rue de la Noe (France); Formal' sky, Alexander [Moscow Lomonosov State University, Institute of Mechanics (Russian Federation)
2006-08-15
SemiQuad is a prototyped walking robot with a platform and two double-link legs. Thus, it is a five-link mechanism. The front leg models identical motions of two quadruped's front legs, the back leg models identical motions of two quadruped's back legs. The legs have passive (uncontrolled) feet that extend in the frontal plane. Due to this the robot is stable in the frontal plane. This robot can be viewed as a 'virtual' quadruped. Four DC motors drive the mechanism. Its control system comprises a computer, hardware servo-systems and power amplifiers. The locomotion of the prototype is planar curvet gait. In the double support our prototype is statically stable and over actuated. In the single support it is unstable and under actuated system. There is no flight phase. We describe here the scheme of the mechanism, the characteristics of the drives and the control strategy. The dynamic model of the planar walking is recalled for the double, single support phases and for the impact instant. An intuitive control strategy is detailed. The designed control strategy overcomes the difficulties appeared due to unstable and under actuated motion in the single support. Due to the control algorithm the walking regime consists of the alternating different phases. The sequence of these phases is the following. A double support phase begins. A fast bend and unbend of the front leg allows a lift-off of the front leg. During the single support on the back leg the distance between the two leg tips increases. Then an impact occurs and a new double support phase begins. A fast bend and unbend of the back leg allows the lift-off of the back leg. During the single support on the front leg the distance between the two leg tips decreases to form a cyclic walking gait. The experiments give results that are close to those of the simulation.
Gaitography applied to prosthetic walking.
Roerdink, Melvyn; Cutti, Andrea G; Summa, Aurora; Monari, Davide; Veronesi, Davide; van Ooijen, Mariëlle W; Beek, Peter J
2014-11-01
During walking on an instrumented treadmill with an embedded force platform or grid of pressure sensors, center-of-pressure (COP) trajectories exhibit a characteristic butterfly-like shape, reflecting the medio-lateral and anterior-posterior weight shifts associated with alternating steps. We define "gaitography" as the analysis of such COP trajectories during walking (the "gaitograms"). It is currently unknown, however, if gaitography can be employed to characterize pathological gait, such as lateralized gait impairments. We therefore registered gaitograms for a heterogeneous sample of persons with a trans-femoral and trans-tibial amputation during treadmill walking at a self-selected comfortable speed. We found that gaitograms directly visualize between-person differences in prosthetic gait in terms of step width and the relative duration of prosthetic and non-prosthetic single-support stance phases. We further demonstrated that one should not only focus on the gaitogram's shape but also on the time evolution along that shape, given that the COP evolves much slower in the single-support phase than in the double-support phase. Finally, commonly used temporal and spatial prosthetic gait characteristics were derived, revealing both individual and systematic differences in prosthetic and non-prosthetic step lengths, step times, swing times, and double-support durations. Because gaitograms can be rapidly collected in an unobtrusive and markerless manner over multiple gait cycles without constraining foot placement, clinical application of gaitography seems both expedient and appealing. Studies examining the repeatability of gaitograms and evaluating gaitography-based gait characteristics against a gold standard with known validity and reliability are required before gaitography can be clinically applied.
Rotation planar extraction and rotation planar chromatography of oak (Quercus robur L.) bark.
Vovk, Irena; Simonovska, Breda; Andrensek, Samo; Vuorela, Heikki; Vuorela, Pia
2003-04-04
The versatile novel instrument for rotation planar extraction and rotation planar chromatography was exploited for the investigation of oak bark (Quercus robur L.). The same instrument enabled extraction of the bark, analytical proof of (+)-catechin directly in the crude extract and also its fractionation. Additionally, epimeric flavan-3-ols, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were separated by analytical ultra-micro rotation planar chromatography on cellulose plates with pure water as developing solvent. A comparison of the extraction of oak bark with 80% aqueous methanol by rotation planar extraction and medium pressure solid-liquid extraction was carried out and both techniques were shown to be suitable for the efficient extraction of oak bark. The raw extracts and fractions on thin-layer chromatography showed many compounds that possessed antioxidant activity after spraying with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Rotation planar fractionation of 840 mg of crude oak bark extract on silica gel gave 6.7 mg of pure (+)-catechin in one run.
Random Walks Estimate Land Value
Blanchard, Ph
2010-01-01
Expected urban population doubling calls for a compelling theory of the city. Random walks and diffusions defined on spatial city graphs spot hidden areas of geographical isolation in the urban landscape going downhill. First--passage time to a place correlates with assessed value of land in that. The method accounting the average number of random turns at junctions on the way to reach any particular place in the city from various starting points could be used to identify isolated neighborhoods in big cities with a complex web of roads, walkways and public transport systems.
Quantum Walks for Computer Scientists
Venegas-Andraca, Salvador
2008-01-01
Quantum computation, one of the latest joint ventures between physics and the theory of computation, is a scientific field whose main goals include the development of hardware and algorithms based on the quantum mechanical properties of those physical systems used to implement such algorithms. Solving difficult tasks (for example, the Satisfiability Problem and other NP-complete problems) requires the development of sophisticated algorithms, many of which employ stochastic processes as their mathematical basis. Discrete random walks are a popular choice among those stochastic processes. Inspir
Insights into Planar Magnetic Solar Wind Structures Using New Visualization Methods
Roberts, D. A.; Luckyanova, M.; Rezapkin, V.; Boller, R.
2004-12-01
We examine the structure of the solar wind using one to four spacecraft at a time, applying a kinematic projection of the data to create spatial pictures. The results are visualized using ViSBARD (Visual System for Browsing, Analysis, and Retrieval of Data) that presents the results in 3-D, allowing a variety of manipulations. Specifically, we examine the degree to which a set of ``Planar Magnetic Structures" previously examined with ISEE-3 data are actually planar. Those with very low ratios of the minimum to the intermediate variance eigenvalues do appear quite planar, but as the ratio approaches the typical cutoff of ~2.5, it becomes difficult to identify what might be the plane of variation. We use the Alfvénicity of the intervals to show that the smoothly regions around the PMSs (which often form a ``cone" of magnetic vectors, consistent with the idea of a random walk on a sphere) are much more Alfvénic than the PMS structures. We also find that frequently the PMS structures show systematic rotations that suggest a small magnetic cloud structure. The evidence thus supports the idea that a large fraction of the PMS structures are non-wavelike flux-tubes that are convected outward from the Sun. The rapid rotations of the field used to characterize the PMS regions are very frequently associated with magnetic holes, consistent with spiral magnetic fields associated with current sheets that have been seen in MHD simulations.
Effect of Body Composition on Walking Economy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maciejczyk Marcin
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate walking economy and physiological responses at two walking speeds in males with similar absolute body mass but different body composition. Methods. The study involved 22 young men with similar absolute body mass, BMI, aerobic performance, calf and thigh circumference. The participants differed in body composition: body fat (HBF group and lean body mass (HLBM group. In the graded test, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and maximal heart rate were measured. Walking economy was evaluated during two walks performed at two different speeds (4.8 and 6.0 km ‧ h-1. Results. The VO2max was similar in both groups, as were the physiological responses during slow walking. The absolute oxygen uptake or oxygen uptake relative to body mass did not significantly differentiate the studied groups. The only indicator significantly differentiating the two groups was oxygen uptake relative to LBM. Conclusions. Body composition does not significantly affect walking economy at low speed, while during brisk walking, the economy is better in the HLBM vs. HBF group, provided that walking economy is presented as oxygen uptake relative to LBM. For this reason, we recommend this manner of oxygen uptake normalization in the evaluation of walking economy.
Motor modules in robot-aided walking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gizzi Leonardo
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is hypothesized that locomotion is achieved by means of rhythm generating networks (central pattern generators and muscle activation generating networks. This modular organization can be partly identified from the analysis of the muscular activity by means of factorization algorithms. The activity of rhythm generating networks is described by activation signals whilst the muscle intervention generating network is represented by motor modules (muscle synergies. In this study, we extend the analysis of modular organization of walking to the case of robot-aided locomotion, at varying speed and body weight support level. Methods Non Negative Matrix Factorization was applied on surface electromyographic signals of 8 lower limb muscles of healthy subjects walking in gait robotic trainer at different walking velocities (1 to 3km/h and levels of body weight support (0 to 30%. Results The muscular activity of volunteers could be described by low dimensionality (4 modules, as for overground walking. Moreover, the activation signals during robot-aided walking were bursts of activation timed at specific phases of the gait cycle, underlying an impulsive controller, as also observed in overground walking. This modular organization was consistent across the investigated speeds, body weight support level, and subjects. Conclusions These results indicate that walking in a Lokomat robotic trainer is achieved by similar motor modules and activation signals as overground walking and thus supports the use of robotic training for re-establishing natural walking patterns.
Excited random walks: results, methods, open problems
Kosygina, Elena
2012-01-01
We consider a class of self-interacting random walks in deterministic or random environments, known as excited random walks or cookie walks, on the d-dimensional integer lattice. The main purpose of this paper is two-fold: to give a survey of known results and some of the methods and to present several new results. The latter include functional limit theorems for transient one-dimensional excited random walks in bounded i.i.d. cookie environments as well as some zero-one laws. Several open problems are stated.
Quantum walk with one variable absorbing boundary
Wang, Feiran; Zhang, Pei; Wang, Yunlong; Liu, Ruifeng; Gao, Hong; Li, Fuli
2017-01-01
Quantum walks constitute a promising ingredient in the research on quantum algorithms; consequently, exploring different types of quantum walks is of great significance for quantum information and quantum computation. In this study, we investigate the progress of quantum walks with a variable absorbing boundary and provide an analytical solution for the escape probability (the probability of a walker that is not absorbed by the boundary). We simulate the behavior of escape probability under different conditions, including the reflection coefficient, boundary location, and initial state. Moreover, it is also meaningful to extend our research to the situation of continuous-time and high-dimensional quantum walks.
Walking in Place Through Virtual Worlds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf
2016-01-01
Immersive virtual reality (IVR) is seemingly on the verge of entering the homes of consumers. Enabling users to walk through virtual worlds in a limited physical space presents a challenge. With an outset in a taxonomy of virtual travel techniques, we argue that Walking-in-Place (WIP) techniques...... constitute a promising approach to virtual walking in relation to consumer IVR. Subsequently we review existing approaches to WIP locomotion and highlight the need for a more explicit focus on the perceived naturalness of WIP techniques; i.e., the degree to which WIP locomotion feels like real walking...
Walk the line: station context, corridor type and bus rapid transit walk access in Jinan, China
Jiang, Yang; Mehndiratta, Shomik; Zegras, P. Christopher
2011-01-01
This paper examines BRT station walk access patterns in rapidly urbanizing China and the relationship between bus rapid transit (BRT) station context and corridor type and the distance people will walk to access the system (i.e., catchment area). We hypothesize that certain contextual built environment features and station and right-of-way configurations will increase the walk-access catchment area; that is, that urban design influences users’ willingness to walk to BRT. We base our analysis ...
IMU-based ambulatory walking speed estimation in constrained treadmill and overground walking.
Yang, Shuozhi; Li, Qingguo
2012-01-01
This study evaluated the performance of a walking speed estimation system based on using an inertial measurement unit (IMU), a combination of accelerometers and gyroscopes. The walking speed estimation algorithm segments the walking sequence into individual stride cycles (two steps) based on the inverted pendulum-like behaviour of the stance leg during walking and it integrates the angular velocity and linear accelerations of the shank to determine the displacement of each stride. The evaluation was performed in both treadmill and overground walking experiments with various constraints on walking speed, step length and step frequency to provide a relatively comprehensive assessment of the system. Promising results were obtained in providing accurate and consistent walking speed/step length estimation in different walking conditions. An overall percentage root mean squared error (%RMSE) of 4.2 and 4.0% was achieved in treadmill and overground walking experiments, respectively. With an increasing interest in understanding human walking biomechanics, the IMU-based ambulatory system could provide a useful walking speed/step length measurement/control tool for constrained walking studies.
Zang, Xizhe; Liu, Xinyu; Zhu, Yanhe; Zhao, Jie
2016-04-29
The study of human walking patterns mainly focuses on how control affects walking because control schemes are considered to be dominant in human walking. This study proposes that not only fine control schemes but also optimized body segment parameters are responsible for humans' low-energy walking. A passive dynamic walker provides the possibility of analyzing the effect of parameters on walking efficiency because of its ability to walk without any control. Thus, a passive dynamic walking model with a relatively human-like structure was built, and a parameter optimization process based on the gait sensitivity norm was implemented to determine the optimal mechanical parameters by numerical simulation. The results were close to human body parameters, thus indicating that humans can walk under a passive pattern based on their body segment parameters. A quasi-passive walking prototype was built on the basis of the optimization results. Experiments showed that a passive robot with optimized parameters could walk on level ground with only a simple hip actuation. This result implies that humans can walk under a passive pattern based on their body segment parameters with only simple control strategy implying that humans can opt to walk instinctively under a passive pattern.
Meyns, P.; Molenaers, G.; Desloovere, K.; Duysens, J.E.J.
2014-01-01
OBJECTIVE: Limb kinematics in backward walking (BW) are essentially those of forward walking (FW) in reverse. It has been argued that subcortical mechanisms could underlie both walking modes. METHODS: Therefore, we tested whether participants with supraspinal/cortical deficits (i.e. cerebral palsy)
Spatial search by quantum walk
Childs, A M; Childs, Andrew M.; Goldstone, Jeffrey
2003-01-01
Grover's quantum search algorithm provides a way to speed up combinatorial search, but is not directly applicable to searching a physical database. Nevertheless, Aaronson and Ambainis showed that a database of N items laid out in d spatial dimensions can be searched in time of order sqrt(N) for d>2, and in time of order sqrt(N) poly(log N) for d=2. We consider an alternative search algorithm based on a continuous time quantum walk on a graph. The case of the complete graph gives the continuous time search algorithm of Farhi and Gutmann, and other previously known results can be used to show that sqrt(N) speedup can also be achieved on the hypercube. We show that full sqrt(N) speedup can be achieved on a d-dimensional periodic lattice for d>4. In d=4, the quantum walk search algorithm takes time of order sqrt(N) poly(log N), and in d<4, the algorithm provides no speedup.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Franceschini
Full Text Available Walking ability, though important for quality of life and participation in social and economic activities, can be adversely affected by neurological disorders, such as Spinal Cord Injury, Stroke, Multiple Sclerosis or Traumatic Brain Injury. The aim of this study is to evaluate if the energy cost of walking (CW, in a mixed group of chronic patients with neurological diseases almost 6 months after discharge from rehabilitation wards, can predict the walking performance and any walking restriction on community activities, as indicated by Walking Handicap Scale categories (WHS. One hundred and seven subjects were included in the study, 31 suffering from Stroke, 26 from Spinal Cord Injury and 50 from Multiple Sclerosis. The multivariable binary logistical regression analysis has produced a statistical model with good characteristics of fit and good predictability. This model generated a cut-off value of.40, which enabled us to classify correctly the cases with a percentage of 85.0%. Our research reveal that, in our subjects, CW is the only predictor of the walking performance of in the community, to be compared with the score of WHS. We have been also identifying a cut-off value of CW cost, which makes a distinction between those who can walk in the community and those who cannot do it. In particular, these values could be used to predict the ability to walk in the community when discharged from the rehabilitation units, and to adjust the rehabilitative treatment to improve the performance.
The Feynman Identity for Planar Graphs
da Costa, G. A. T. F.
2016-08-01
The Feynman identity (FI) of a planar graph relates the Euler polynomial of the graph to an infinite product over the equivalence classes of closed nonperiodic signed cycles in the graph. The main objectives of this paper are to compute the number of equivalence classes of nonperiodic cycles of given length and sign in a planar graph and to interpret the data encoded by the FI in the context of free Lie superalgebras. This solves in the case of planar graphs a problem first raised by Sherman and sets the FI as the denominator identity of a free Lie superalgebra generated from a graph. Other results are obtained. For instance, in connection with zeta functions of graphs.
Planar bilayer membranes from photoactivable phospholipids.
Borle, F; Sänger, M; Sigrist, H
1991-07-22
Planar bilayer membranes formed from photoactivable phospholipids have been characterized by low frequency voltametry. Cyclic voltametric measurements were applied for simultaneous registration of planar membrane conductivity and capacitance. The procedure has been utilized to characterize the formation and stability of planar bilayer membranes. Bilayer membranes were formed from N'-(1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethyl)-N-((m-3- trifluoromethyldiazirine)phenyl)thiourea (C14-PED), a head-group photosensitive phospholipid. In situ photoactivation of C14-PED at wavelengths greater than or equal to 320 nm altered neither the mean conductivity nor the capacitance of the bilayer. Ionophore (valinomycin) and ion channel (gramicidin) activities were not impaired upon photoactivation. In contrast, bilayer membranes formed from 1,2-bis(hexadeca-2,4-dienoyl)-sn- glycero-3-phosphocholine (C16-DENPC) revealed short life times. In situ photopolymerization of the diene fatty acids significantly increased the membrane conductivity or led to membrane rupture.
Planar Zeros in Gauge Theories and Gravity
Jimenez, Diego Medrano; Vazquez-Mozo, Miguel A
2016-01-01
Planar zeros are studied in the context of the five-point scattering amplitude for gauge bosons and gravitons. In the case of gauge theories, it is found that planar zeros are determined by an algebraic curve in the projective plane spanned by the three stereographic coordinates labelling the direction of the outgoing momenta. This curve depends on the values of six independent color structures. Considering the gauge group SU(N) with N=2,3,5 and fixed color indices, the class of curves obtained gets broader by increasing the rank of the group. For the five-graviton scattering, on the other hand, we show that the amplitude vanishes whenever the process is planar, without imposing further kinematic conditions. A rationale for this result is provided using color-kinematics duality.
Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP)
Slater, John W.; Gruber, Christopher R.
2005-01-01
The Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP) is a collection of software tools that allow the efficient aerodynamic design and analysis of planar (two-dimensional and axisymmetric) inlets. The aerodynamic analysis is performed using the Wind-US computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. A major element in PINDAP is a Fortran 90 code named PINDAP that can establish the parametric design of the inlet and efficiently model the geometry and generate the grid for CFD analysis with design changes to those parameters. The use of PINDAP is demonstrated for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic inlets.
Planar dynamical systems selected classical problems
Liu, Yirong; Huang, Wentao
2014-01-01
This book presents in an elementary way the recent significant developments in the qualitative theory of planar dynamical systems. The subjects are covered as follows: the studies of center and isochronous center problems, multiple Hopf bifurcations and local and global bifurcations of the equivariant planar vector fields which concern with Hilbert's 16th problem. This book is intended for graduate students, post-doctors and researchers in the area of theories and applications of dynamical systems. For all engineers who are interested the theory of dynamical systems, it is also a reasona
Optical Planar Discrete Fourier and Wavelet Transforms
Cincotti, Gabriella; Moreolo, Michela Svaluto; Neri, Alessandro
2007-10-01
We present all-optical architectures to perform discrete wavelet transform (DWT), wavelet packet (WP) decomposition and discrete Fourier transform (DFT) using planar lightwave circuits (PLC) technology. Any compact-support wavelet filter can be implemented as an optical planar two-port lattice-form device, and different subband filtering schemes are possible to denoise, or multiplex optical signals. We consider both parallel and serial input cases. We design a multiport decoder/decoder that is able to generate/process optical codes simultaneously and a flexible logarithmic wavelength multiplexer, with flat top profile and reduced crosstalk.
Planar Tri-Band Antenna Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Pokorny
2008-04-01
Full Text Available The paper briefly uncovers techniques used for a design of compact planar antennas in order to achieve the wideband and the multi-band capability. The main topic is aimed to the multi-objective optimization using genetic algorithms. A quarter-wavelength planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA using a slot and shorted parasitic patches is chosen to cover GSM900, GSM1800 and ISM2400 bands. A global multi-objective optimization uses a binary genetic algorithm with a composite objective function to tune this antenna. The impedance match and the direction of maximum gain are desired parameters to improve.
On the Classification of Planar Contact Structures
Arikan, M Firat
2010-01-01
In this paper, we focus on contact structures supported by planar open book decompositions. We study right-veering diffeomorphisms to keep track of overtwistedness property of contact structures under some monodromy changes. We also develop some techniques to understand how certain monodromy changes affect the $EH-$invariant of planar contact structures. As an application we give infinitely many examples of overtwisted and tight contact structures supported by open books whose pages are the four-punctured sphere, and also we prove that a certain family is holomorphically fillable using lantern relation.
Optimal Polygonal Representation of Planar Graphs
Duncan, Christian A; Hu, Yifan; Kaufmann, Michael; Kobourov, Stephen G
2011-01-01
In this paper, we consider the problem of representing graphs by polygons whose sides touch. We show that at least six sides per polygon are necessary by constructing a class of planar graphs that cannot be represented by pentagons. We also show that the lower bound of six sides is matched by an upper bound of six sides with a linear-time algorithm for representing any planar graph by touching hexagons. Moreover, our algorithm produces convex polygons with edges having at most three slopes and with all vertices lying on an O(n)xO(n) grid.
Row Lazzarini, Brandi S; Kataras, Theodore J
2016-05-01
Treadmills are appealing for gait studies, but some gait mechanics are disrupted during treadmill walking. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of speed and treadmill walking on walking smoothness and rhythmicity of 40 men and women between the ages of 70-96 years. Gait smoothness was examined during overground (OG) and treadmill (TM) walking by calculating the harmonic ratio from linear accelerations measured at the level of the lumbar spine. Rhythmicity was quantified as the stride time standard deviation. TM walking was performed at two speeds: a speed matching the natural OG walk speed (TM-OG), and a preferred TM speed (PTM). A dual-task OG condition (OG-DT) was evaluated to determine if TM walking posed a similar cognitive challenge. Statistical analysis included a one-way Analysis of Variance with Bonferroni corrected post hoc comparisons and the Wilcoxon signed rank test for non-normally distributed variables. Average PTM speed was slower than OG. Compared to OG, those who could reach the TM-OG speed (74.3% of sample) exhibited improved ML smoothness and rhythmicity, and the slower PTM caused worsened vertical and AP smoothness, but did not affect rhythmicity. PTM disrupted smoothness and rhythmicity differently than the OG-DT condition, likely due to reduced speed. The use of treadmills for gait smoothness and rhythmicity studies in older adults is problematic; some participants will not achieve OG speed during TM walking, walking at the TM-OG speed artificially improves rhythmicity and ML smoothness, and walking at the slower PTM speed worsens vertical and AP gait smoothness.
Walking on high heels changes muscle activity and the dynamics of human walking significantly
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Simonsen, Erik B; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Nørreslet, Andreas;
2012-01-01
The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution of net joint moments in the lower extremities during walking on high-heeled shoes compared with barefooted walking at identical speed. Fourteen female subjects walked at 4 km/h across three force platforms while they were filmed by five...... digital video cameras operating at 50 frames/second. Both barefooted walking and walking on high-heeled shoes (heel height: 9 cm) were recorded. Net joint moments were calculated by 3D inverse dynamics. EMG was recorded from eight leg muscles. The knee extensor moment peak in the first half of the stance...
Realisation of an energy efficient walking robot
Dertien, Edwin; Oort, van Gijs; Stramigioli, Stefano
2006-01-01
In this video the walking robot ‘Dribbel’ is presented, which has been built at the Control Engineering group of the University of Twente, the Netherlands. This robot has been designed with a focus on minimal energy consumption, using a passive dynamic approach. It is a so-called four-legged 2D walk
Walking (Gait), Balance, and Coordination Problems
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Quantum random walks and decision making.
Shankar, Karthik H
2014-01-01
How realistic is it to adopt a quantum random walk model to account for decisions involving two choices? Here, we discuss the neural plausibility and the effect of initial state and boundary thresholds on such a model and contrast it with various features of the classical random walk model of decision making.
Nordic walking improves mobility in Parkinson's disease.
Eijkeren, FJ van; Reijmers, R.S.; Kleinveld, M.J.; Minten, A.; Bruggen, J.P.; Bloem, B.R.
2008-01-01
Nordic walking may improve mobility in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we examined whether the beneficial effects persist after the training period. We included 19 PD patients [14 men; mean age 67.0 years (range 58-76); Hoehn and Yahr stage range 1-3] who received a 6-week Nordic walking exercise pr
Nordic walking improves mobility in Parkinson's disease.
Eijkeren, FJ van; Reijmers, R.S.; Kleinveld, M.J.; Minten, A.; Bruggen, J.P.; Bloem, B.R.
2008-01-01
Nordic walking may improve mobility in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we examined whether the beneficial effects persist after the training period. We included 19 PD patients [14 men; mean age 67.0 years (range 58-76); Hoehn and Yahr stage range 1-3] who received a 6-week Nordic walking exercise
Locomotor sequence learning in visually guided walking.
Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo
2016-04-01
Voluntary limb modifications must be integrated with basic walking patterns during visually guided walking. In this study we tested whether voluntary gait modifications can become more automatic with practice. We challenged walking control by presenting visual stepping targets that instructed subjects to modify step length from one trial to the next. Our sequence learning paradigm is derived from the serial reaction-time (SRT) task that has been used in upper limb studies. Both random and ordered sequences of step lengths were used to measure sequence-specific and sequence-nonspecific learning during walking. In addition, we determined how age (i.e., healthy young adults vs. children) and biomechanical factors (i.e., walking speed) affected the rate and magnitude of locomotor sequence learning. The results showed that healthy young adults (age 24 ± 5 yr,n= 20) could learn a specific sequence of step lengths over 300 training steps. Younger children (age 6-10 yr,n= 8) had lower baseline performance, but their magnitude and rate of sequence learning were the same compared with those of older children (11-16 yr,n= 10) and healthy adults. In addition, learning capacity may be more limited at faster walking speeds. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that spatial sequence learning can be integrated with a highly automatic task such as walking. These findings suggest that adults and children use implicit knowledge about the sequence to plan and execute leg movement during visually guided walking.
Design Issues for Hexapod Walking Robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Franco Tedeschi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Hexapod walking robots have attracted considerable attention for several decades. Many studies have been carried out in research centers, universities and industries. However, only in the recent past have efficient walking machines been conceived, designed and built with performances that can be suitable for practical applications. This paper gives an overview of the state of the art on hexapod walking robots by referring both to the early design solutions and the most recent achievements. Careful attention is given to the main design issues and constraints that influence the technical feasibility and operation performance. A design procedure is outlined in order to systematically design a hexapod walking robot. In particular, the proposed design procedure takes into account the main features, such as mechanical structure and leg configuration, actuating and driving systems, payload, motion conditions, and walking gait. A case study is described in order to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed design procedure.
Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor
Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Wang, Jingbo B.; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.
2016-05-01
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor.
Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor.
Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Wang, Jingbo B; Matthews, Jonathan C F
2016-05-05
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor.
Getting mobile with a walking-help
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krummheuer, Antonia Lina; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa
Ethnomethodology has been one of the few fields were mundane experiences and social ordering such as walking have been a focus of interest (e.g. Ryave and Schenkein 1974). In the present paper we want to discuss how this mundane practice sometimes needs to be achieved through the help of technology...... people with acquired brain injury were introduced to a new walking help that should enable them to walk (better). Our multimodal interaction analysis (Goodwin 2000) of the data will show how the practice of walking with this specific technology is dependent on the interplay of the material affordances...... of the technology (e.g. Gaver 1996), the bodily affordances (e.g. Sheller 2011) of the user and, furthermore, the scaffolding by an accompanying helper. The paper will discuss how movement as an enabled experience can be analysed as an entanglement of these three aspects. To do that, the situations of walk...
Walk modularity and community structure in networks
Mehrle, David; Harkin, Anthony
2014-01-01
Modularity maximization has been one of the most widely used approaches in the last decade for discovering community structure in networks of practical interest in biology, computing, social science, statistical mechanics, and more. Modularity is a quality function that measures the difference between the number of edges found within clusters minus the number of edges one would statistically expect to find based on random chance. We present a natural generalization of modularity based on the difference between the actual and expected number of walks within clusters, which we call walk-modularity. Walk-modularity can be expressed in matrix form, and community detection can be performed by finding leading eigenvectors of the walk-modularity matrix. We demonstrate community detection on both synthetic and real-world networks and find that walk-modularity maximization returns significantly improved results compared to traditional modularity maximization.
Two- and 6-minute walk tests assess walking capability equally in neuromuscular diseases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Linda Kahr; Knak, Kirsten Lykke; Witting, Nanna;
2016-01-01
to participate on 2 test days, each consisting of 1 2MWT and 1 6MWT separated by a minimum 30-minute period of rest. The order of the walk tests was randomly assigned via sealed envelopes. A group of 38 healthy controls completed 1 6MWT. RESULTS: The mean walking distance for the 2MWT was 142.8 meters......OBJECTIVE: This methodologic study investigates if the 2-minute walk test (2MWT) can be a valid alternative to the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to describe walking capability in patients with neuromuscular diseases. METHODS: Patients (n = 115) with different neuromuscular diseases were invited...... and for the 6MWT 405.3 meters. The distance walked in the 2MWT was highly correlated to the distance walked in the 6MWT (r = 0.99, p minute in the 6MWT, both among patients and healthy controls, which was not evident in the 2MWT...
Snell's law and walking droplets
Bush, John; Pucci, Giuseppe; Aubin, Benjamin; Brun, Pierre-Thomas; Faria, Luiz
2016-11-01
Droplets walking on the surface of a vibrating bath have been shown to exhibit a number of quantum-like features. We here present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of such droplets crossing a linear step corresponding to a reduction in bath depth. When the step is sufficiently large, the walker reflects off the step; otherwise, it is refracted as it crosses the step. Particular attention is given to an examination of the regime in which the droplet obeys a form of Snell's Law, a behavior captured in accompanying simulations. Attempts to provide theoretical rationale for the dependence of the effective refractive index on the system parameters are described. Supported by NSF through CMMI-1333242.
Quantum walks and gravitational waves
Arnault, Pablo; Debbasch, Fabrice
2017-08-01
A new family of discrete-time quantum walks (DTQWs) propagating on a regular (1 + 2)D spacetime lattice is introduced. The continuum limit of these DTQWs is shown to coincide with the dynamics of a Dirac fermion coupled to an arbitrary relativistic gravitational field. This family is used to model the influence of arbitrary linear gravitational waves (GWs) on DTQWs. Pure shear GWs are studied in detail. We show that on large spatial scales, the spatial deformation generated by the wave induces a rescaling of the eigen-energies by a certain anisotropic factor which can be computed exactly. The effect of pure shear GWs on fermion interference patterns is also investigated, both on large scales and on scales comparable to the lattice spacing.
Random walks on reductive groups
Benoist, Yves
2016-01-01
The classical theory of Random Walks describes the asymptotic behavior of sums of independent identically distributed random real variables. This book explains the generalization of this theory to products of independent identically distributed random matrices with real coefficients. Under the assumption that the action of the matrices is semisimple – or, equivalently, that the Zariski closure of the group generated by these matrices is reductive - and under suitable moment assumptions, it is shown that the norm of the products of such random matrices satisfies a number of classical probabilistic laws. This book includes necessary background on the theory of reductive algebraic groups, probability theory and operator theory, thereby providing a modern introduction to the topic.
Walking droplets in confined geometries
Filoux, Boris; Mathieu, Olivier; Vandewalle, Nicolas
2014-11-01
When gently placing a droplet onto a vertically vibrated bath, coalescence may be avoided: the drop bounces permanently. Upon increasing forcing acceleration, a drop interacts with the wave it generates, and becomes a ``walker'' with a well defined velocity. In this work, we investigate the confinement of a walker in a mono-dimensional geometry. The system consists of linear submarine channels used as waveguides for a walker. By studying the dynamics of walkers in those channels, we discover some 1D-2D transition. We also propose a model based on an analogy with ``Quantum Wires.'' Finally, we consider the situation of a walker in a circular submarine channel, and examine the behavior of several walking droplets in this system. We show the quantization of the drop distances, and correlate it to their bouncing modes.
Recurrence in coined quantum walks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiss, T; Kecskes, L [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly-Thege M. u. 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Stefanak, M; Jex, I [Department of Physics, FJFI CVUT v Praze, Brehova 7, 115 19 Praha 1-Stare Mesto (Czech Republic)], E-mail: tkiss@szfki.hu
2009-07-15
Recurrence of quantum walks on lattices can be characterized by the generalized Polya number. Its value reflects the difference between a classical and a quantum system. The dimension of the lattice is not a unique parameter in the quantum case; both the coin operator and the initial quantum state of the coin influence the recurrence in a nontrivial way. In addition, the definition of the Polya number involves measurement of the system. Depending on how measurement is included in the definition, the recurrence properties vary. We show that in the limiting case of frequent, strong measurements, one can approach the classical dynamics. Comparing various cases, we have found numerical indication that our previous definition of the Polya number provides an upper limit.
Symbolic walk in regular networks
Ermann, Leonardo; Carlo, Gabriel G.
2015-01-01
We find that a symbolic walk (SW)—performed by a walker with memory given by a Bernoulli shift—is able to distinguish between the random or chaotic topology of a given network. We show this result by means of studying the undirected baker network, which is defined by following the Ulam approach for the baker transformation in order to introduce the effect of deterministic chaos into its structure. The chaotic topology is revealed through the central role played by the nodes associated with the positions corresponding to the shortest periodic orbits of the generating map. They are the overwhelmingly most visited nodes in the limit cycles at which the SW asymptotically arrives. Our findings contribute to linking deterministic chaotic dynamics with the properties of networks constructed using the Ulam approach.
Mechanical design and optimal control of humanoid robot (TPinokio)
Teck Chew Wee
2014-01-01
The mechanical structure and the control of the locomotion of bipedal humanoid is an important and challenging domain of research in bipedal robots. Accurate models of the kinematics and dynamics of the robot are essential to achieve bipedal locomotion. Toe-foot walking produces a more natural and faster walking speed and it is even possible to perform stretch knee walking. This study presents the mechanical design of a toe-feet bipedal, TPinokio and the implementation of some optimal walking...
Static Theory for Planar Ferromagnets and Antiferromagnets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Feng Bo HANG; Fang Hua LIN
2001-01-01
Here we generalize the "BBH"-asymptotic analysis to a simplified mathematical model for the planar ferromagnets and antiferromagncts. To develop such a static theory is a necessary step for a rigorous mathematical justification of dynamical laws for the magnetic vortices formally derived in [1] and [2].
Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt
2006-01-01
We obtain a characterization of ACC0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...
Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, K.A.
2004-01-01
We obtain a characterization of ACC 0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...
Image Alignment by Piecewise Planar Region Matching
Lou, Z.; Gevers, T.
2014-01-01
Robust image registration is a challenging problem, especially when dealing with severe changes in illumination and viewpoint. Previous methods assume a global geometric model (e.g., homography) and, hence, are only able to align images under predefined constraints (e.g., planar scenes and parallax-
Analyzing planar cell polarity during zebrafish gastrulation.
Jessen, Jason R
2012-01-01
Planar cell polarity was first described in invertebrates over 20 years ago and is defined as the polarity of cells (and cell structures) within the plane of a tissue, such as an epithelium. Studies in the last 10 years have identified critical roles for vertebrate homologs of these planar cell polarity proteins during gastrulation cell movements. In zebrafish, the terms convergence and extension are used to describe the collection of morphogenetic movements and cell behaviors that contribute to narrowing and elongation of the embryonic body plan. Disruption of planar cell polarity gene function causes profound defects in convergence and extension creating an embryo that has a shortened anterior-posterior axis and is broadened mediolaterally. The zebrafish gastrula-stage embryo is transparent and amenable to live imaging using both Nomarski/differential interference contrast and fluorescence microscopy. This chapter describes methods to analyze convergence and extension movements at the cellular level and thereby connect embryonic phenotypes with underlying planar cell polarity defects in migrating cells.
Planar elongation of soft polymeric networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Mette Krog; Hassager, Ole; Rasmussen, Henrik K.
2010-01-01
A new test fixture for the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks with application towards pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs). The concept of this new geometry is to elongate a tube-like sample by keeping the perimeter constant...
DWDM Devices Based on Planar Waveguide Technologies
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
A review is presented on some of our recent results for designs, simulations and fabrication of several photonic integrated devices, such as arrayed-waveguide gratings (AWGs) and etched diffraction gratings (EDGs), based on planar waveguide technologies. Some novel designs for flat-top AWGs and EDGs with flat-top spectral responses are presented.
Dynamics of the classical planar spin chain
Raedt, Bart De; Raedt, Hans De
1978-01-01
In this paper we pay attention to the classical one-dimensional planar spin system and, in particular, to the dynamics of such a model. We use the Monte Carlo method to calculate the static correlation functions, needed to determine the relaxation functions completely. We are then able to give the r
Development of planar detectors with active edge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Povoli, M., E-mail: povoli@disi.unitn.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Giacomini, G.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy)
2011-12-01
We report on the first batch of planar active edge sensors fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Trento, Italy) on the way to the development of full 3D detectors with active edges. The main design and technological aspects are reported, along with selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures.
Numerical Study of Planar GPR Antenna Measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meincke, Peter; Hansen, Thorkild
2004-01-01
The formulation of planar near-field measurements of GPR antennas determines the plane-wave spectra of the GPR antenna in terms of measurements obtained with a buried probe as the GPR antenna moves over a scan plane on the ground. A numerical study investigates how the formulation is affected by (1...
Planar microcoil-based microfluidic NMR probes.
Massin, C.; Vincent, F.; Homsy, A.; Ehrmann, K.; Boero, G.; Besse, P-A; Daridon, A.; Verpoorte, E.; de Rooij, N.F.; Popovic, R.S.
2003-01-01
Microfabricated small-volume NMR probes consisting of electroplated planar microcoils integrated on a glass substrate with etched microfluidic channels are fabricated and tested. 1H NMR spectra are acquired at 300 MHz with three different probes having observed sample volumes of respectively 30, 120
PLANAR OPTICAL WAVEGUIDES WITH PHOTONIC CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2003-01-01
Planar optical waveguide comprising a core region and a cladding region comprising a photonic crystal material, said photonic crystal material having a lattice of column elements, wherein at least a number of said column elements are elongated substantially in an axial direction for said core reg...
Planar antenna system for direction finding
Mardale, Iulia-Cezara; Cocias, Gabriela; Dumitrascu, Ana; Tamas, Razvan; Berescu, Serban
2015-02-01
Applications of direction finding techniques include detection and localization of pulsed electromagnetic sources. This paper presents the design and analysis of a planar antenna system for direction finding. Our proposed system includes 4 hybrid couplers that generate 900 shifted signals, 2 crossover couplers also known as 0dB couplers, two 450 phase shifters, two 00 phase shifters and 4 patch antennas.
Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Cu: Nanoscale Processes
Arthur, Michael; Fishbeck, Kelly; Muessig, Kara; McDonald, James; Williams, Christine; White, Daniel; Koeck, Deborah; Perry, Scott; Galloway, Heather
2002-10-01
Interconnect lines in state of the art integrated circuits are made of copper in a process that requires the repeated planarization of the copper layer. During this process the material is subjected to an aqueous slurry containing active chemicals, corrosion inhibitors and abrasive particles. A model slurry buffered to pH2, pH4 and pH6, contained nitric acid, silica particles and benzotriazole (BTA) as a corrosion inhibitor. The degree of copper planarization was investigated as a function of slurry composition and pH using atomic force microscopy. Chemical surface changes can be explained by the effect of slurry composition on the charge at the material surface. This surface charge controls the amount of friction between the abrasive and the surface which, in turn, effects the global planarization of the material. Experiments using a macroscopic polishing system with AFM characterization along with the microscopic interaction of the AFM tip and sample provide insights into the fundamental mechanisms of a planarization process.
Open string theory and planar algebras
Ceyhan, Ö.; Marcolli, M.
2010-01-01
In this paper, we show that abstract planar algebras are algebras over the topological operad of moduli spaces of stable maps with Lagrangian boundary conditions, which in the case of the projective line are described in terms of real rational functions. These moduli spaces appear naturally in the
A Planar Calculus for Infinite Index Subfactors
Penneys, David
2013-05-01
We develop an analog of Jones' planar calculus for II 1-factor bimodules with arbitrary left and right von Neumann dimension. We generalize to bimodules Burns' results on rotations and extremality for infinite index subfactors. These results are obtained without Jones' basic construction and the resulting Jones projections.
Lattice Planar QED in external magnetic field
Cea, Paolo; Giudice, Pietro; Papa, Alessandro
2011-01-01
We investigate planar Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED) with two degenerate staggered fermions in an external magnetic field on the lattice. Our preliminary results indicate that in external magnetic fields there is dynamical generation of mass for two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions in the weak coupling region. We comment on possible implications to the quantum Hall effect in graphene.
Planar microcoil-based microfluidic NMR probes.
Massin, C.; Vincent, F.; Homsy, A.; Ehrmann, K.; Boero, G.; Besse, P-A; Daridon, A.; Verpoorte, E.; de Rooij, N.F.; Popovic, R.S.
2003-01-01
Microfabricated small-volume NMR probes consisting of electroplated planar microcoils integrated on a glass substrate with etched microfluidic channels are fabricated and tested. 1H NMR spectra are acquired at 300 MHz with three different probes having observed sample volumes of respectively 30, 120
OPE in planar QCD from integrability
Ahn, Changrim; Nepomechie, Rafael I
2012-01-01
We consider the operator product expansion of local single-trace operators composed of the self-dual components of the field strength tensor in planar QCD. Using the integrability of the one-loop matrix of anomalous dimensions of such operators, we obtain a determinant expression for certain tree-level structure constants in the OPE.
Wideband Flat Radomes Using Inhomogeneous Planar Layers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Khalaj-Amirhosseini
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Inhomogeneous planar layers (IPLs are optimally designed as flat radomes in a desired frequency range. First, the electric permittivity function of the IPL is expanded in a truncated Fourier series. Then, the optimum values of the coefficients of the series are obtained through an optimization approach. The performance of the proposed structure is verified using some examples.
Renormalization of QED with planar binary trees
Brouder, Christian; Frabetti, Alessandra
2000-01-01
The renormalized photon and electron propagators are expanded over planar binary trees. Explicit recurrence solutions are given for the terms of these expansions. In the case of massless Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), the relation between renormalized and bare expansions is given in terms of a Hopf algebra structure. For massive quenched QED, the relation between renormalized and bare expansions is given explicitly.
Numerical Study of Planar GPR Antenna Measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meincke, Peter; Hansen, Thorkild
2004-01-01
The formulation of planar near-field measurements of GPR antennas determines the plane-wave spectra of the GPR antenna in terms of measurements obtained with a buried probe as the GPR antenna moves over a scan plane on the ground. A numerical study investigates how the formulation is affected by (1...
Piecewise-Planar Parabolic Reflectarray Antenna
Hodges, Richard; Zawadzki, Mark
2009-01-01
The figure shows a dual-beam, dualpolarization Ku-band antenna, the reflector of which comprises an assembly of small reflectarrays arranged in a piecewise- planar approximation of a parabolic reflector surface. The specific antenna design is intended to satisfy requirements for a wide-swath spaceborne radar altimeter, but the general principle of piecewise-planar reflectarray approximation of a parabolic reflector also offers advantages for other applications in which there are requirements for wideswath antennas that can be stowed compactly and that perform equally in both horizontal and vertical polarizations. The main advantages of using flat (e.g., reflectarray) antenna surfaces instead of paraboloidal or parabolic surfaces is that the flat ones can be fabricated at lower cost and can be stowed and deployed more easily. Heretofore, reflectarray antennas have typically been designed to reside on single planar surfaces and to emulate the focusing properties of, variously, paraboloidal (dish) or parabolic antennas. In the present case, one approximates the nominal parabolic shape by concatenating several flat pieces, while still exploiting the principles of the planar reflectarray for each piece. Prior to the conception of the present design, the use of a single large reflectarray was considered, but then abandoned when it was found that the directional and gain properties of the antenna would be noticeably different for the horizontal and vertical polarizations.
Counting Coloured Planar Maps: Differential Equations
Bernardi, Olivier; Bousquet-Mélou, Mireille
2017-08-01
We address the enumeration of q-coloured planar maps counted by the number of edges and the number of monochromatic edges. We prove that the associated generating function is differentially algebraic, that is, satisfies a non-trivial polynomial differential equation with respect to the edge variable. We give explicitly a differential system that characterizes this series. We then prove a similar result for planar triangulations, thus generalizing a result of Tutte dealing with their proper q-colourings. In statistical physics terms, we solve the q-state Potts model on random planar lattices. This work follows a first paper by the same authors, where the generating function was proved to be algebraic for certain values of q, including {q=1, 2} and 3. It is known to be transcendental in general. In contrast, our differential system holds for an indeterminate q. For certain special cases of combinatorial interest (four colours; proper q-colourings; maps equipped with a spanning forest), we derive from this system, in the case of triangulations, an explicit differential equation of order 2 defining the generating function. For general planar maps, we also obtain a differential equation of order 3 for the four-colour case and for the self-dual Potts model.
Concave diffraction gratings fabricated with planar lithography
Grabarnik, S.; Emadi, A.; Wu, H.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.
2008-01-01
This paper reports on the development and validation of a new technology for the fabrication of variable line-spacing non-planar diffraction gratings to be used in compact spectrometers. The technique is based on the standard lithographic process commonly used for pattern transfer onto a flat substr
Blindman-Walking Optimization Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chunming Li
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Optimization methods are all implemented with the hypothesis of unknowing the mathematic express of objective objection. Using the human analogy innovative method, the one-dimension blind-walking optimal method is proposed in this paper. The theory and the algorithm of this method includes halving, doubling, reversing probing step and verifying the applicability condition. Double-step is available to make current point moving to the extremum point. Half-step is available to accelerate convergence. In order to improve the optimization, the applicability condition decides whether update current point or not. The operation process, algorithmic flow chart and characteristic analysis of the method were given. Two optimization problems with unimodal or multimodal objective function were solved by the proposed method respectively. The simulation result shows that the proposed method is better than the ordinary method. The proposed method has the merit of rapid convergence, little calculation capacity, wide applicable range, etc. Taking the method as innovative kernel, the random research method, feasible direction method and complex shape method were improved. Taking the innovative content of this paper as innovative kernel, a monograph was published. The other innovations of the monograph are listed, such as applied algorithm of Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT qualifications on judging the restriction extremum point, the design step of computing software, the complementarity and derivation of Powell criterion, the method of keeping the complex shape not to deduce dimension and the analysis of gradual optimization characteristic, the reinforced wall of inner point punish function method, the analysis of problem with constrained monstrosity extremum point, the improvement of Newton method and the validation of optimization idea of blind walking repeatedly, the explanation of later-day optimization method, the conformity of seeking algorithm needing the
Kinematic strategies in newly walking toddlers stepping over different support surfaces.
Dominici, Nadia; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Cappellini, Germana; Zampagni, Maria Luisa; Lacquaniti, Francesco
2010-03-01
In adults, locomotor movements are accommodated to various support surface conditions by means of specific anticipatory locomotor adjustments and changes in the intersegmental coordination. Here we studied the kinematic strategies of toddlers at the onset of independent walking when negotiating various support surface conditions: stepping over an obstacle, walking on an inclined surface, and on a staircase. Generally, toddlers could perform these tasks only when supported by the arm. They exhibited strategies very different from those of the adults. Although adults maintained walking speed roughly constant, toddlers markedly accelerated when walking downhill or downstairs and decelerated when walking uphill or upstairs. Their coordination pattern of thigh-shank-foot elevation angles exhibited greater inter-trial variability than that in adults, but it did not undergo the systematic change as a function of task that was present in adults. Thus the intersegmental covariance plane rotated across tasks in adults, whereas its orientation remained roughly constant in toddlers. In contrast with the adults, the toddlers often tended to place the foot onto the obstacle or across the edges of the stairs. We interpret such foot placements as part of a haptic exploratory repertoire and we argue that the maintenance of a roughly constant planar covariance--irrespective of the surface inclination and height--may be functional to the exploratory behavior. The latter notion is consistent with the hypothesis proposed decades ago by Bernstein that, when humans start to learn a skill, they may restrict the number of degrees of freedom to reduce the size of the search space and simplify the coordination.
Inkjet-based adaptive planarization (Conference Presentation)
Singhal, Shrawan; Grigas, Michelle M.; Khusnatdinov, Niyaz; Sreenivasan, Srinivasan V.
2017-03-01
Planarization is a critical unit step in the lithography process because it enables patterning of surfaces with versatile pattern density without compromising on the stringent planarity and depth-of-focus requirements. In addition to nanoscale pattern density variation, parasitics such as pre-existing wafer topography, can corrupt the desired process output after planarization. The topography of any surface can be classified in three broad categories, depending upon the amplitude and spatial wavelength of the same [1], [2]: (i) nominal shape, (ii) nanotopography and (iii) roughness. The nominal shape is given by the largest spatial wavelengths, typically photo curable material and pre baked to remove residual solvent. An ultra-flat surface or an optical flat is pressed on the spin-coated wafer. The material is forced to reflow. Pressure is used to spread out material evenly and achieve global planarization. The substrate is then exposed to UV radiation to harden the photo curable material. Although attractive, this process is not adaptive as it does not account for differences in surface topography of the wafer and the optical flat, nor can it address all the parasitics that arise during the process itself. The optical flat leads to undesirable planarization of even the substrate nominal shape and nanotopography, which corrupts the final film thickness profile. Hence, it becomes extremely difficult to eliminate this signature to a desirable extent without introducing other parasitic signatures. An example of this is shown in Figure 1. In this paper, a novel adaptive planarization process has been presented that potentially addresses the problems associated with planarization of varying pattern density, even in the presence of pre-existing substrate topography [9]. This process is called Inkjet-enabled Adaptive Planarization (IAP). The IAP process uses an inverse optimization scheme, built around a validated fluid mechanics-based forward model [10], that takes the
Walking dreams in congenital and acquired paraplegia.
Saurat, Marie-Thérèse; Agbakou, Maité; Attigui, Patricia; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle
2011-12-01
To test if dreams contain remote or never-experienced motor skills, we collected during 6 weeks dream reports from 15 paraplegics and 15 healthy subjects. In 9/10 subjects with spinal cord injury and in 5/5 with congenital paraplegia, voluntary leg movements were reported during dream, including feelings of walking (46%), running (8.6%), dancing (8%), standing up (6.3%), bicycling (6.3%), and practicing sports (skiing, playing basketball, swimming). Paraplegia patients experienced walking dreams (38.2%) just as often as controls (28.7%). There was no correlation between the frequency of walking dreams and the duration of paraplegia. In contrast, patients were rarely paraplegic in dreams. Subjects who had never walked or stopped walking 4-64 years prior to this study still experience walking in their dreams, suggesting that a cerebral walking program, either genetic or more probably developed via mirror neurons (activated when observing others performing an action) is reactivated during sleep.
The work of walking: a calorimetric study.
Webb, P; Saris, W H; Schoffelen, P F; Van Ingen Schenau, G J; Ten Hoor, F
1988-08-01
Experiments were designed to test the traditional assumption that during level walking all of the energy from oxidation of fuel appears as heat and no work is done. Work is force expressed through distance, or energy transferred from a man to the environment, but not as heat. While wearing a suit calorimeter in a respiration chamber, five women and five men walked for 70 to 90 min on a level treadmill at 2.5, 4.6, and 6.7 km.h-1 and pedalled a cycle ergometer for 70 to 90 min against 53 and 92 W loads. They also walked with a weighted backpack and against a horizontal load. During cycling, energy from fuel matched heat loss plus the power measured by the ergometer. During walking, however, energy from fuel exceeded that which appeared as heat, meaning that work was done. The power increased with walking speed; values were 14, 29, and 63 W, which represented 11, 12, and 13% of the incremental cost of fuel above the resting level. Vertical and horizontal loads increased the fuel cost and heat loss of walking but did not alter the power output. This work energy did not re-appear as thermal energy during 18 h of recovery. The most likely explanation of the work done is in the inter-action between the foot and the ground, such as compressing the heel of the shoe and bending the sole. We conclude that work is done in level walking.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kenneth Joh
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Promoting walking travel is considered important for reducing automobile use and improving public health. Recent U.S. transportation policy has incentivized investments in alternative, more sustainable transportation modes such as walking, bicycling and transit in auto-oriented cities such as Los Angeles. Although many past studies have analyzed changes in walking travel across the U.S., there is little clarity on the drivers of change. We address this gap by conducting a longitudinal analysis of walking travel in the greater Los Angeles area from 2001 to 2009. We use travel diary and household data from regional and national surveys to analyze changes in walking trip shares and rates across our study area. Results show that walking has significantly increased across most of Los Angeles, and that increases in walking trips generally correspond with increases in population, employment, and transit service densities. Estimates from fixed-effects regression analysis generally suggest a positive association between population density and walking, and that higher increases in transit stop density are correlated with increased walking trips to and from transit stops. These findings illustrate how regional planning efforts to pursue a coordinated land use-transit planning strategy can help promote walking in auto-oriented or vehicle adopting cities.
Kim, MinKyu; Cho, KiHun; Lee, WanHee
2014-01-01
Stroke patients live with balance and walking dysfunction. Walking is the most important factor for independent community activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a community walking training program (CWTP) within the real environment on walking function and social participation in chronic stroke patients. Twenty-two stroke patients (13 male, 50.45 years old, post stroke duration 231.64 days) were randomly assigned to either the CWTP group or the control group. All subjects participated in the same standard rehabilitation program consisting of physical and occupational therapy for 60 min per day, five times a week, for four weeks. In addition, the CWTP group participated in CWTP for 30 min per day, five times a week, for four weeks. Walking function was assessed using the 10-m walk test (measurement for 10-meter walking speed), 6-min walk assessment (measurement of gait length for 6-minutes), and community gait assessment. Social participation was assessed using a social participation domain of stroke impact scale. In walking function, greater improvement was observed in the CWTP group compared with the control group (P participation improved more in the CWTP group compared with the control group (P participation in chronic stroke patients. Therefore, we suggest that CWTP within the real environment may be an effective method for improving walking function and social participation of chronic stroke patients when added to standard rehabilitation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Reuter
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD progress despite optimized medical treatment. The present study investigated the effects of a flexibility and relaxation programme, walking, and Nordic walking (NW on walking speed, stride length, stride length variability, Parkinson-specific disability (UPDRS, and health-related quality of life (PDQ 39. 90 PD patients were randomly allocated to the 3 treatment groups. Patients participated in a 6-month study with 3 exercise sessions per week, each lasting 70 min. Assessment after completion of the training showed that pain was reduced in all groups, and balance and health-related quality of life were improved. Furthermore, walking, and Nordic walking improved stride length, gait variability, maximal walking speed, exercise capacity at submaximal level, and PD disease-specific disability on the UPDRS in addition. Nordic walking was superior to the flexibility and relaxation programme and walking in improving postural stability, stride length, gait pattern and gait variability. No significant injuries occurred during the training. All patients of the Nordic walking group continued Nordic walking after completing the study.
Walking economy during cued versus non-cued treadmill walking in persons with Parkinson's disease.
Gallo, Paul M; McIsaac, Tara L; Garber, Carol Ewing
2013-01-01
Gait impairment is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and may result in greater energy expenditure, poorer walking economy, and fatigue during activities of daily living. Auditory cueing is an effective technique to improve gait; but the effects on energy expenditure are unknown. To determine whether energy expenditure differs in individuals with PD compared with healthy controls and if auditory cueing improves walking economy in PD. Twenty participants (10 PD and 10 controls) came to the laboratory for three sessions. Participants performed two, 6-minute bouts of treadmill walking at two speeds (1.12 m·sec-1 and 0.67 m·sec-1). One session used cueing and the other without cueing. A metabolic cart measured energy expenditure and walking economy was calculated (energy expenditure/power). PD had worse walking economy and higher energy expenditure than control participants during cued and non-cued walking at the 0.67 m·sec-1 speed and during non-cued walking at the 1.12 m·sec-1. With auditory cueing, energy expenditure and walking economy worsened in both participant groups. People with PD use more energy and have worse walking economy than adults without PD. Walking economy declines further with auditory cuing in persons with PD.
Infinitesimal nonrigidity of convex surfaces with planar boundary
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Chunhe; HONG Jiaxing
2005-01-01
In the present paper infinitesimal nonrigidity of a class of convex surfaces with planar boundary is given. This result shows that if the image of the Gauss map of an evolution convex surface with planar boundary covers some hemisphere, this surface may be of infinitesimal nonrigidity for the isometric deformation of planar boundary.
Quantum walk public-key cryptographic system
Vlachou, C.; Rodrigues, J.; Mateus, P.; Paunković, N.; Souto, A.
2015-12-01
Quantum Cryptography is a rapidly developing field of research that benefits from the properties of Quantum Mechanics in performing cryptographic tasks. Quantum walks are a powerful model for quantum computation and very promising for quantum information processing. In this paper, we present a quantum public-key cryptographic system based on quantum walks. In particular, in the proposed protocol the public-key is given by a quantum state generated by performing a quantum walk. We show that the protocol is secure and analyze the complexity of public key generation and encryption/decryption procedures.
An experimental analysis of human straight walking
Li, Tao; Ceccarelli, Marco
2013-03-01
In this paper, an experimental analysis of human straight walking has been presented. Experiments on human walking were carried out by using Cassino tracking system which is a passive cable-based measuring system. This system is adopted because it is capable of both pose and wrench measurements with fairly simple monitoring of operation. By using experimental results, trajectories of a human limb extremity and its posture have been analyzed; forces that are exerted against cables by the limb of a person under test have been measured by force sensors as well. Furthermore, by using experimental tests, modeling and characterization of the human straight walking gait have been proposed.
Elements of random walk and diffusion processes
Ibe, Oliver C
2013-01-01
Presents an important and unique introduction to random walk theory Random walk is a stochastic process that has proven to be a useful model in understanding discrete-state discrete-time processes across a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines. Elements of Random Walk and Diffusion Processes provides an interdisciplinary approach by including numerous practical examples and exercises with real-world applications in operations research, economics, engineering, and physics. Featuring an introduction to powerful and general techniques that are used in the application of physical and dynamic
Limit cycle walking on a regularized ground
Jacobs, Henry O
2012-01-01
The singular nature of contact problems, such as walking, makes them difficult to analyze mathematically. In this paper we will "regularize" the contact problem of walking by approximating the ground with a smooth repulsive potential energy and a smooth dissipative friction force. Using this model we are able to prove the existence of a limit cycle for a periodically perturbed system which consists of three masses connected by springs. In particular, this limit cycle exists in a symmetry reduced phase. In the unreduced phase space, the motion of the masses resembles walking.
[Walking assist robot and its clinical application].
Kakou, Hiroaki; Shitama, Hideo; Kimura, Yoshiko; Nakamoto, Yoko; Furuta, Nami; Honda, Kanae; Wada, Futoshi; Hachisuka, Kenji
2009-06-01
The walking assist robot was developed to improve gait disturbance in patients with severe disabilities. The robot had a trunk supporter, power generator and operating arms which held patient's lower extremities and simulated walking, a control unit, biofeedback system, and a treadmill. We applied the robot-aided gait training to three patients with severe gait disturbance induced by stroke, axonal Guillan-Barré syndrome or spinal cord injury, and the walking assist robot turned out to be effective in improving the gait disturbance.
Scaling of random walk betweenness in networks
Narayan, O
2016-01-01
The betweenness centrality of graphs using random walk paths instead of geodesics is studied. A scaling collapse with no adjustable parameters is obtained as the graph size $N$ is varied; the scaling curve depends on the graph model. A normalized random betweenness, that counts each walk passing through a node only once, is also defined. It is argued to be more useful and seen to have simpler scaling behavior. In particular, the probability for a random walk on a preferential attachment graph to pass through the root node is found to tend to unity as $N\\rightarrow\\infty.$
Exponential algorithmic speedup by quantum walk
Childs, A M; Deotto, E; Farhi, E; Gutmann, S; Spielman, D A; Childs, Andrew M.; Cleve, Richard; Deotto, Enrico; Farhi, Edward; Gutmann, Sam; Spielman, Daniel A.
2002-01-01
We construct an oracular problem that can be solved exponentially faster on a quantum computer than on a classical computer. The quantum algorithm is based on a continuous time quantum walk, and thus employs a different technique from previous quantum algorithms based on quantum Fourier transforms. We show how to implement the quantum walk efficiently in our oracular setting. We then show how this quantum walk can be used to solve our problem by rapidly traversing a graph. Finally, we prove that no classical algorithm can solve this problem with high probability in subexponential time.
Overview of Planar Magnetic Technology — Fundamental Properties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.
2014-01-01
The momentum towards high efficiency, high frequency, and high power density in power supplies limits wide use of conventional wire-wound magnetic components. This article gives an overview of planar magnetic technologies with respect to the development of modern power electronics. The major...... advantages and disadvantages in the use of planar magnetics for high frequency power converters are covered, and publications on planar magnetics are reviewed. A detailed survey of winding conduction loss, leakage inductance and winding capacitance for planar magnetics is presented so power electronics...... engineers and researchers can have a clear understanding of the intrinsic properties of planar magnetics....
Large Chiroptical Effects in Planar Chiral Metamaterials
Ye, Weimin; Yuan, Xiaodong; Guo, Chucai; Zhang, Jianfa; Yang, Biao; Zhang, Shuang
2017-05-01
Chiroptical effects characterized by different optical responses for left- (LCP) and right-handed circularly polarized light (RCP) are powerful and valuable tools in optics with wide applications in polarization-resolved imaging and sensing. Previously observed strong chiroptical effects are limited to metamaterials with complex three-dimensional chiral structures at the subwavelength scale. Although asymmetrical transmission of LCP and RCP have been investigated in planar chiral metasurfaces, the observed weak chiroptical effects result from anisotropic Ohmic dissipation of the metal constituents. Here, we demonstrate by theory and proof-of-concept experiments that a large difference in transmittances of LCP and RCP can be attained in a single-layer planar chiral metamaterial with a subwavelength thickness. Without violating the reciprocity and mirror symmetry, the strong chiroptical effect, independent of dielectric loss, arises from a mechanism of multimode interference. The described effect may lead to a gateway towards chiral manipulations of light and chiral optical devices.
Copper Planar Microcoils Applied to Magnetic Actuation
Moulin, J; Martincic, E; Dufour-Gergam, E
2008-01-01
Recent advances in microtechnology allow realization of planar microcoils. These components are integrated in MEMS as magnetic sensor or actuator. In the latter case, it is necessary to maximize the effective magnetic field which is proportional to the current passing through the copper track and depends on the distance to the generation microcoil. The aim of this work was to determine the optimal microcoil design configuration for magnetic field generation. The results were applied to magnetic actuation, taking into account technological constraints. In particular, we have considered different realistic configurations that involve a magnetically actuated device coupled to a microcoil. Calculations by a semi-analytical method using Matlab software were validated by experimental measurements. The copper planar microcoils are fabricated by U.V. micromoulding on different substrates: flexible polymer (Kapton) and silicate on silicon. They are constituted by a spiral-like continuous track. Their total surface is ...
Stable planar mesoscopic photonic crystal cavities
Magno, Giovanni; Grande, Marco; Lozes-Dupuy, Françoise; Gauthier-Lafaye, Olivier; Calò, Giovanna; Petruzzelli, Vincenzo
2014-01-01
Mesoscopic self-collimation in mesoscopic photonic crystals with high reflectivity is exploited to realize a novel high-Q factor cavity by means of mesoscopic PhC planar mirrors. These mirrors efficiently confine a mode inside a planar Fabry-Perot-like cavity, due to a beam focusing effect that stabilises the cavity even for small beam sizes, resembling the focusing behaviour of curved mirrors. Moreover, they show an improved reflectivity with respect to their standard distributed Bragg reflector counterparts that allows higher compactness. A Q factor higher than 10^4 has been achieved for an optimized 5-period-long mirror cavity. The optimization of the Q factor and the performances in terms of energy storage, field enhancement and confinement are detailed.
Planar cell polarity: one or two pathways?
Lawrence, Peter A; Struhl, Gary; Casal, José
2007-07-01
In multicellular organisms, cells are polarized in the plane of the epithelial sheet, revealed in some cell types by oriented hairs or cilia. Many of the underlying genes have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster and are conserved in vertebrates. Here we dissect the logic of planar cell polarity (PCP). We review studies of genetic mosaics in adult flies - marked cells of different genotypes help us to understand how polarizing information is generated and how it passes from one cell to another. We argue that the prevailing opinion that planar polarity depends on a single genetic pathway is wrong and conclude that there are (at least) two independently acting processes. This conclusion has major consequences for the PCP field.
Advances in Planar and Integrated Magnetics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ouyang, Ziwei
‐fashioned wire wound types, and thus planar magnetics, has in recent years, become increasingly popular in high frequency power converters. First, an overview of basic planar magnetics technology used in general dc‐dc converters is presented. PCB or flexible PCB windings as a main construction together...... and experimentally verified. • E‐I‐E core structure with integrated transformers and inductors is applied into the two recent developed dc‐dc topologies. • A new method to integrate the current balancing transformer with common input inductor for the primary‐parallel dc‐dc converter is proposed. • A low profile...... and low cost integrated inductors with stacked I‐cores for multiplephase interleaved dc‐dc converters is proposed. • Ultra‐thin coupled inductors design for flexible PV module is introduced. A 1.5‐ mm thickness integrated coupled inductor with sandwich core structure is under investigation. • A “four...
Planar nanophotonic devices and integration technologies
De La Rue, Richard M.; Sorel, Marc; Samarelli, Antonio; Velha, Philippe; Strain, Michael; Johnson, Nigel P.; Sharp, Graham; Rahman, Faiz; Khokhar, Ali Z.; Macintyre, Douglas S.; McMeekin, Scott G.; Lahiri, Basudev
2011-07-01
Planar devices that can be categorised as having a nanophotonic dimension constitute an increasingly important area of photonics research. Device structures that come under the headings of photonic crystals, photonic wires and metamaterials are all of interest - and devices based on combinations of these conceptual approaches may also play an important role. Planar micro-/nano-photonic devices seem likely to be exploited across a wide spectrum of applications in optoelectronics and photonics. This spectrum includes the domains of display devices, biomedical sensing and sensing more generally, advanced fibre-optical communications systems - and even communications down to the local area network (LAN) level. This article will review both device concepts and the applications possibilities of the various different devices.
Planar and spherical stick indices of knots
Adams, Colin; Hawkins, Katherine; Sia, Charmaine; Silversmith, Rob; Tshishiku, Bena; 10.1142/S0218216511008954
2011-01-01
The stick index of a knot is the least number of line segments required to build the knot in space. We define two analogous 2-dimensional invariants, the planar stick index, which is the least number of line segments in the plane to build a projection, and the spherical stick index, which is the least number of great circle arcs to build a projection on the sphere. We find bounds on these quantities in terms of other knot invariants, and give planar stick and spherical stick constructions for torus knots and for compositions of trefoils. In particular, unlike most knot invariants,we show that the spherical stick index distinguishes between the granny and square knots, and that composing a nontrivial knot with a second nontrivial knot need not increase its spherical stick index.
Planar growth generates scale free networks
Haslett, Garvin; Brede, Markus
2016-01-01
In this paper we introduce a model of spatial network growth in which nodes are placed at randomly selected locations on a unit square in $\\mathbb{R}^2$, forming new connections to old nodes subject to the constraint that edges do not cross. The resulting network has a power law degree distribution, high clustering and the small world property. We argue that these characteristics are a consequence of the two defining features of the network formation procedure; growth and planarity conservation. We demonstrate that the model can be understood as a variant of random Apollonian growth and further propose a one parameter family of models with the Random Apollonian Network and the Deterministic Apollonian Network as extreme cases and our model as a midpoint between them. We then relax the planarity constraint by allowing edge crossings with some probability and find a smooth crossover from power law to exponential degree distributions when this probability is increased.
Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Quenched Meson Spectrum
Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino; Rago, Antonio
2010-01-01
A numerical study of Orientifold Planar Equivalence is performed in SU(N) Yang-Mills theories for N=2,3,4,6. Quenched meson masses are extracted in the antisymmetric, symmetric and adjoint representations for the pseudoscalar and vector channels. An extrapolation of the vector mass as a function of the pseudoscalar mass to the large-N limit shows that the numerical results agree within errors for the three theories, as predicted by Orientifold Planar Equivalence. As a byproduct of the extrapolation, the size of the corrections up to O(1/N^3) are evaluated. A crucial prerequisite for the extrapolation is the determination of an analytical relationship between the corrections in the symmetric and in the antisymmetric representations, order by order in a 1/N expansion.
Isotropic-planar illumination for PIV experiments
Atkins, Michael D.; Kim, Tongbeum
2015-03-01
A new method for laser illumination in particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been introduced: internal "isotropic-planar" illumination that provides laser light to regions of the flow field that were previously cast into shadow using the conventional external (laser light sheet) illumination method. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the isotropic-planar illumination method, a comparison of the measured velocity field around five side-by-side circular cylinders that are immersed in uniform flow is made against the conventional external illumination method. The new method is effective at eliminating the shadow region, allowing the velocity field of the upstream, gap and downstream regions around the five side-by-side circular cylinders to be measured simultaneously. These PIV measurements provide new insight into the behavior of the gap flow that passes between the cylinders.
Planar multijunction high voltage solar cells
Evans, J. C., Jr.; Chai, A. T.; Goradia, C.
1980-01-01
Technical considerations, preliminary results, and fabrication details are discussed for a family of high-voltage planar multi-junction (PMJ) solar cells which combine the attractive features of planar cells with conventional or interdigitated back contacts and the vertical multijunction (VMJ) solar cell. The PMJ solar cell is internally divided into many voltage-generating regions, called unit cells, which are internally connected in series. The key to obtaining reasonable performance from this device was the separation of top surface field regions over each active unit cell. Using existing solar cell fabricating methods, output voltages in excess of 20 volts per linear centimeter are possible. Analysis of the new device is complex, and numerous geometries are being studied which should provide substantial benefits in both normal sunlight usage as well as with concentrators.
Whittaker, William; Dowling, Kevin
1994-01-01
Carnegie Mellon University's Autonomous Planetary Exploration Program (APEX) is currently building the Daedalus robot; a system capable of performing extended autonomous planetary exploration missions. Extended autonomy is an important capability because the continued exploration of the Moon, Mars and other solid bodies within the solar system will probably be carried out by autonomous robotic systems. There are a number of reasons for this - the most important of which are the high cost of placing a man in space, the high risk associated with human exploration and communication delays that make teleoperation infeasible. The Daedalus robot represents an evolutionary approach to robot mechanism design and software system architecture. Daedalus incorporates key features from a number of predecessor systems. Using previously proven technologies, the Apex project endeavors to encompass all of the capabilities necessary for robust planetary exploration. The Ambler, a six-legged walking machine was developed by CMU for demonstration of technologies required for planetary exploration. In its five years of life, the Ambler project brought major breakthroughs in various areas of robotic technology. Significant progress was made in: mechanism and control, by introducing a novel gait pattern (circulating gait) and use of orthogonal legs; perception, by developing sophisticated algorithms for map building; and planning, by developing and implementing the Task Control Architecture to coordinate tasks and control complex system functions. The APEX project is the successor of the Ambler project.
Holographic walking from tachyon DBI
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kutasov, David [EFI and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Av., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Lin, Jennifer, E-mail: jenlin@uchicago.edu [EFI and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Av., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Parnachev, Andrei [Institute Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden University, PO Box 9506, Leiden 2300RA (Netherlands)
2012-10-11
We use holography to study conformal phase transitions, which are believed to be realized in four dimensional QCD and play an important role in walking technicolor models of electroweak symmetry breaking. At strong coupling they can be modeled by the non-linear dynamics of a tachyonic scalar field with mass close to the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound in anti-de Sitter spacetime. Taking the action for this field to have a tachyon-Dirac-Born-Infeld form gives rise to models that resemble hard and soft wall AdS/QCD, with a dynamically generated wall. For hard wall models, the highly excited spectrum has the KK form m{sub n}{approx}n; in the soft wall case we exhibit potentials with m{sub n}{approx}n{sup {alpha}}, 0<{alpha} Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 1/2. We investigate the finite temperature phase structure and find first or second order symmetry restoration transitions, depending on the behavior of the potential near the origin of field space.
Community walking in people with Parkinson's disease.
Lamont, Robyn M; Morris, Meg E; Woollacott, Marjorie H; Brauer, Sandra G
2012-01-01
People with Parkinson's disease often have walking difficulty, and this is likely to be exacerbated while walking in places in the community, where people are likely to face greater and more varied challenges. This study aims to understand the facilitators and the barriers to walking in the community perceived by people with Parkinson's disease. This qualitative study involved 5 focus groups (n = 34) of people with Parkinson's disease and their partners residing in metropolitan and rural regions in Queensland, Australia. Results found that people with PD reported to use internal personal strategies as facilitators to community walking, but identified primarily external factors, particularly the environmental factors as barriers. The adoption of strategies or the use of facilitators allows people with Parkinson's disease to cope so that participants often did not report disability.
Locomotor sequence learning in visually guided walking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo
2016-01-01
walking. In addition, we determined how age (i.e., healthy young adults vs. children) and biomechanical factors (i.e., walking speed) affected the rate and magnitude of locomotor sequence learning. The results showed that healthy young adults (age 24 ± 5 years, N = 20) could learn a specific sequence...... of step lengths over 300 training steps. Younger children (age 6-10 years, N = 8) have lower baseline performance, but their magnitude and rate of sequence learning was the same compared to older children (11-16 years, N = 10) and healthy adults. In addition, learning capacity may be more limited...... at faster walking speeds. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that spatial sequence learning can be integrated with a highly automatic task like walking. These findings suggest that adults and children use implicit knowledge about the sequence to plan and execute leg movement during...
Database of Standardized Questionnaires About Walking & Bicycling
This database contains questionnaire items and a list of validation studies for standardized items related to walking and biking. The items come from multiple national and international physical activity questionnaires.
Second syzygies of monomial submodules from walks
Craw, Alastair
2011-01-01
We present an explicit and especially simple filtration on the module of syzygies of a monomial submodule. Our main tool is the description of generators of the module of second syzygies in terms of walks in a complete graph.
Levy random walks on multiplex networks
Guo, Quantong; Zheng, Zhiming; Moreno, Yamir
2016-01-01
Random walks constitute a fundamental mechanism for many dynamics taking place on complex networks. Besides, as a more realistic description of our society, multiplex networks have been receiving a growing interest, as well as the dynamical processes that occur on top of them. Here, inspired by one specific model of random walks that seems to be ubiquitous across many scientific fields, the Levy flight, we study a new navigation strategy on top of multiplex networks. Capitalizing on spectral graph and stochastic matrix theories, we derive analytical expressions for the mean first passage time and the average time to reach a node on these networks. Moreover, we also explore the efficiency of Levy random walks, which we found to be very different as compared to the single layer scenario, accounting for the structure and dynamics inherent to the multiplex network. Finally, by comparing with some other important random walk processes defined on multiplex networks, we find that in some region of the parameters, a ...
Simple expressions for the long walk distance
Chebotarev, Pavel; Balaji, R
2011-01-01
The walk distances in graphs are defined as the result of appropriate transformations of the $\\sum_{k=0}^\\infty(tA)^k$ proximity measures, where $A$ is the weighted adjacency matrix of a connected weighted graph and $t$ is a sufficiently small positive parameter. The walk distances are graph-geodetic, moreover, they converge to the shortest path distance and to the so-called long walk distance as the parameter $t$ approaches its limiting values. In this paper, simple expressions for the long walk distance are obtained. They involve the generalized inverse, minors, and inverses of submatrices of the symmetric irreducible singular M-matrix ${\\cal L}=\\rho I-A,$ where $\\rho$ is the Perron root of $A.$
Sensitivity Study of Stochastic Walking Load Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian
2010-01-01
On flexible structures such as footbridges and long-span floors, walking loads may generate excessive structural vibrations and serviceability problems. The problem is increasing because of the growing tendency to employ long spans in structural design. In many design codes, the vibration...... serviceability limit state is assessed using a walking load model in which the walking parameters are modelled deterministically. However, the walking parameters are stochastic (for instance the weight of the pedestrian is not likely to be the same for every footbridge crossing), and a natural way forward...... investigates whether statistical distributions of bridge response are sensitive to some of the decisions made by the engineer doing the analyses. For the paper a selected part of potential influences are examined and footbridge responses are extracted using Monte-Carlo simulations and focus is on estimating...
Phases of planar QCD on the torus
Narayanan, R; Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert
2005-01-01
At infinite N, continuum Euclidean SU(N) gauge theory defined on a symmetrical four torus has a rich phase structure with phases where the finite volume system behaves as if it had infinite extent in some or all of the directions. In addition, fermions are automatically quenched, so planar QCD should be cheaper to solve numerically that full QCD. Large N is a relatively unexplored and worthwhile direction of research in lattice field theory.
Modelling planar cell polarity in Drosophila melanogaster
2009-01-01
During development, polarity is a common feature of many cell types. One example is the polarisation of whole fields of epithelial cells within the plane of the epithelium, a phenomenon called planar cell polarity (PCP). It is widespread in nature and plays important roles in development and physiology. Prominent examples include the epithelial cells of external structures of insects like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, polarised tissue morphogenesis in vertebrates and sensory hair cel...
Macdonald formula for curves with planar singularities
Maulik, Davesh
2011-01-01
We generalize Macdonald's formula for the cohomology of Hilbert schemes of points on a curve from smooth curves to curves with planar singularities: we relate the cohomology of the Hilbert schemes to the cohomology of the compactified Jacobian of the curve. The new formula is a consequence of a stronger identity between certain perverse sheaves defined by a family of curves satisfying mild conditions, whose proof makes an essential use of Ng\\^o's support theorem for compactified Jacobians.
Planar doped barrier devices for subharmonic mixers
Lee, T. H.; East, J. R.; Haddad, G. I.
1991-01-01
An overview is given of planar doped barrier (PDB) devices for subharmonic mixer applications. A simplified description is given of PDB characteristics along with a more complete numerical analysis of the current versus voltage characteristics of typical structures. The analysis points out the tradeoffs between the device structure and the resulting characteristics that are important for mixer performance. Preliminary low-frequency characterization results are given for the device structures, and a computer analysis of subharmonic mixer parameters and performance is presented.
Planar graphical models which are easy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chernyak, Vladimir [WAYNE STATE UNIV
2009-01-01
We describe a rich family of binary variables statistical mechanics models on planar graphs which are equivalent to Gaussian Grassmann Graphical models (free fermions). Calculation of partition function (weighted counting) in the models is easy (of polynomial complexity) as reduced to evaluation of determinants of matrixes linear in the number of variables. In particular, this family of models covers Holographic Algorithms of Valiant and extends on the Gauge Transformations discussed in our previous works.
Generalized Lantern Relations and Planar Line Arrangements
Hironaka, Eriko
2011-01-01
In this paper we show that to each planar line arrangement defined over the real numbers, for which no two lines are parallel, one can write down a corresponding relation on Dehn twists that can be read off from the combinatorics and relative locations of intersections. This leads to an alternate proof of Wajnryb's generalized lantern relations, and of Endo, Mark and Horn-Morris' daisy relations.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
魏二玲; 刘颜佩
2004-01-01
For a graph G of size ε≥1 and its edge-induced subgraphs H1 and H2 of size γ(1 < γ < ε), H1 is said to be obtained from H2 by an edge jump if there exist four distinct vertices u, v, ω and x in G such that (u,v)∈E(H2), (ω,x)∈E(G) - E(H2) and H1=H2 - (u, v) + (ω, x). In this article, the γ-jump graphs(r≥3) are discussed. A graph H is said to be an γ-jump graph of G if its vertices correspond to the edge induced graph of size γ in G and two vertices are adjacent if and only if one of the two corresponding subgraphs can be obtained from the other by an edge jump. For k≥2, the k-th iterated γ-jump graph Jrk(G) is defined as Jγ(Jγk-1 (G)), where Jγ1 (G) = Jγ(G). An infinite sequence {Gi} of graphs is planar if every graph Gi is planar. It is shown that there does not exist a graph G for which the sequence {J3k(G)} is planar, where k is any positive integer. Meanwhile, lim gen(J3k(G)) =∞, where gen(G) denotes the genus of a graph G, if the sequence k→∞J3k(G) is defined for every positive integer k. As for the 4-jump graph of a graph G,{J4k(G)} is planar if and only if G = C5. For γ≥5, whether the fix graph of the sequence {Jγk(G))exists is determined.
Symmetricity of Distribution for One-Dimensional Hadamard Walk
Konno, N; Soshi, T; Konno, Norio; Namiki, Takao; Soshi, Takahiro
2002-01-01
In this paper we study a one-dimensional quantum random walk with the Hadamard transformation which is often called the Hadamard walk. We construct the Hadamard walk using a transition matrix on probability amplitude and give some results on symmetricity of probability distributions for the Hadamard walk.
Variability and stability analysis of walking of transfemoral amputees
Lamoth, Claudine C.; Ainsworth, Erik; Polomski, Wojtek; Houdijk, Han
2010-01-01
Variability and stability of walking of eight transfemoral amputees and eight healthy controls was studied under four conditions walking inside on a smooth terrain walking while performing a dual-task and walking outside on (ir)regular surfaces Trunk accelerations were recorded with a tri-axial acce
Urban Walking and the Pedagogies of the Street
Bairner, Alan
2011-01-01
Drawing upon the extensive literature on urban walking and also on almost 60 years' experience of walking the streets, this article argues that there is a pressing need to re-assert the educational value of going for a walk. After a brief discussion of the social significance of the "flaneur," the historic pioneer of urban walking, the article…
Does getting a dog increase recreational walking?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Knuiman Matthew W
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines changes in socio-demographic, environmental and intrapersonal factors associated with dog acquisition in non-dog owners at baseline to 12-months follow-up and the effect of dog acquisition on minutes per week of recreational walking. Methods RESIDE study participants completed self-administered questionnaires (baseline and 12-months follow-up measuring physical activity, dog ownership, dog walking behavior as well as environmental, intrapersonal and socio-demographic factors. Analysis was restricted to 'Continuing non-owners' (i.e., non-owners at both baseline and follow-up; n = 681 and 'New dog owners' (i.e., non-owners who acquired a dog by follow-up; n = 92. Results Overall, 12% of baseline non-owners had acquired a dog at follow-up. Dog acquisition was associated with working and having children at home. Those who changed from single to couple marital status were also more likely to acquire a dog. The increase in minutes of walking for recreation within the neighborhood from baseline to follow-up was 48 minutes/week for new dog owners compared with 12 minutes/week for continuing non-owners (p p p > 0.05 after further adjustment for change in baseline to follow-up variables. Increase in intention to walk was the main factor contributing to attenuation of the effect of dog acquisition on recreational walking. Conclusion This study used a large representative sample of non-owners to examine the relationship between dog acquisition and recreational walking and provides evidence to suggest that dog acquisition leads to an increase in walking. The most likely mechanism through which dog acquisition facilitates increased physical activity is through behavioral intention via the dog's positive effect on owner's cognitive beliefs about walking, and through the provision of motivation and social support for walking. The results suggest that behavioral intention mediates the relationship between dog acquisition