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Sample records for plan guntersville reservoir

  1. Master plan: Guntersville Reservoir Aquatic Plant Management. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1989, Congress provided funding to start a five-year comprehensive project to manage aquatic plants in Guntersville Reservoir, to be jointly implemented by the US Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). TVA serves as the overall project coordinator and is the lead agency for this project. Known as the Joint Agency Guntersville Project (JAGP), the project will test and demonstrate innovative management technologies, and incorporate the most effective technologies into a comprehensive aquatic plant management plan for Guntersville Reservoir. The JAGP is intended to serve as a National Demonstration Project for aquatic plant management. As part of this JAGP, the Master Plan for Aquatic Plant Management for the Guntersville Reservoir Project, Alabama-Tennessee is authorized by Corps Contract Number DACW62-90-C-0067.

  2. Two-dimensional water quality modeling of Town Creek embayment on Guntersville Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M.D.; Shiao, Ming C.; Hauser, G.E. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Norris, TN (USA). Engineering Lab.); Butkus, S.R. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Norris, TN (USA). Water Quality Dept.)

    1990-09-01

    TVA investigated water quality of Town Creek embayment using a branched two-dimensional model of Guntersville Reservoir. Simulation results were compared in terms of algal biomass, nutrient concentrations, and volume of embayment with depleted dissolved oxygen. Stratification and flushing play a significant role in the embayment water quality. Storms introduce large loadings of organics, nutrients, and suspended solids. Dissolved oxygen depletion is most severe after storms followed by low flow that fails to flush the embayment. Embayment water quality responses to potential animal waste and erosion controls were explored. Modeling indicated animal waste controls were much more cost-effective than erosion controls. Erosion controls will decrease embayment suspended solids and thereby increase algal biomass due to greater light penetration. 29 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. A reservoir management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allis, R.G.

    1989-06-16

    There are numerous documented cases of extraction of fluids from the ground causing surface subsidence. The cases include groundwater, oil and gas, as well as geothermal fluid withdrawal. A recent comprehensive review of all types of man-induced land subsidence was published by the Geological Survey of America. At the early stages of a geothermal power development project it is standard practice in most countries for an environmental impact report to be required. The possibility of geothermal subsidence has to be addressed, and usually it falls on the geophysicists and/or geologists to make some predictions. The advice given is vital for planning the power plant location and the borefield pipe and drain layout. It is not so much the vertical settlement that occurs with subsidence but the accompanying horizontal ground strains that can do the most damage to any man-made structure.

  4. Fishery management plan for the Dorris reservoir

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Fishery Management Plan for Dorris Reservoir at Modoc National Wildlife Refuge. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife service proposes to continue a public fishing program...

  5. Geothermal reservoir engineering management program plan (GREMP Plan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    A plan was formulated for development of the geothermal resources of the United States. Six major elements were identified to make up the research program structure. These are: properties of materials; definition of reservoir characteristics; description of example reservoirs; modeling the behavior of geothermal systems; exploitation strategies; and economics. The six elements yield twelve research categories and fifty research projects. These are discussed in detail in Appendix A and summarized in a table. (JGB)

  6. Evaluation of field development plans using 3-D reservoir modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, D.; Lewis, J.J.M. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Newbery, J.D.H. [Conoco, UK Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Three-dimensional reservoir modelling has become an accepted tool in reservoir description and is used for various purposes, such as reservoir performance prediction or integration and visualisation of data. In this case study, a small Northern North Sea turbiditic reservoir was to be developed with a line drive strategy utilising a series of horizontal producer and injector pairs, oriented north-south. This development plan was to be evaluated and the expected outcome of the wells was to be assessed and risked. Detailed analyses of core, well log and analogue data has led to the development of two geological {open_quotes}end member{close_quotes} scenarios. Both scenarios have been stochastically modelled using the Sequential Indicator Simulation method. The resulting equiprobable realisations have been subjected to detailed statistical well placement optimisation techniques. Based upon bivariate statistical evaluation of more than 1000 numerical well trajectories for each of the two scenarios, it was found that the wells inclinations and lengths had a great impact on the wells success, whereas the azimuth was found to have only a minor impact. After integration of the above results, the actual well paths were redesigned to meet external drilling constraints, resulting in substantial reductions in drilling time and costs.

  7. 60 FR 29708 - Travel Management Plan for Owyhee Reservoir, Owyhee Project, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-05

    ... Travel Management Plan for Owyhee Reservoir, Owyhee Project, Oregon agency: Bureau of Reclamation... Travel Management Plan for Reclamation lands in the vicinity of Owyhee Reservoir, Oregon. The purpose of... date: The effective date of the travel management plan is June 5, 1995. addresses: Copies of the...

  8. Evaluation of Planning for Fish and Wildlife at Corps of Engineers Reservoirs, Allegheny Reservoir Project, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    I *~ -* .t4 000 Uin.~, P~n 0* .5 0 05 ~ @ftft’~% MO 0.u I- a * - j *SSES -~ M -- - * 𔃺 0 .1 I A S 4% * Ag U .2 - ~SMU cnn ftS44% -o -. 𔃺ft 4%0𔃺 M0M...Longnead darter , A Pearl dace, A Blackside darter, A Slenderkeed dartw. A Catostomidae Malley*, A, R Qutll ck, A, R White sucker, A, 4 Cettid...reservoirs and incorporating data such as morpho- metry, water chemistry, and reservoir age , the Alle- gheny Reservoir should now have an annual sport fishing

  9. Least tern monitoring plan at Kirwin Reservoir [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monitoring plan was developed in accordance with the environmental commitment plan contained in the final environmental assessment (FEA) and Finding of No...

  10. Planning and Corrupting Water Resources Development: The Case of Small Reservoirs in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Venot

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural (water development is once again at the fore of the development agenda of sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, corruption is seen as a major obstacle to the sustainability of future investments in the sector but there is still little empirical evidence on the ways corruption pervades development projects. This paper documents the planning and implementation processes of two specific small reservoir programmes in the north of Ghana. We specifically delve into the dynamics of corruption and interrogate the ways they add to the inherent unpredictability of development planning. We argue that operational limitations of small reservoirs such as poor infrastructure, lack of managerial and organisational capacity at the community level and weak market integration and public support are the symptoms – rather than inherent problems – of wider lapses in the planning processes that govern the development of small reservoirs in Ghana and plausibly worldwide. A suite of petty misconduct and corrupt practices during the planning, tendering, supervision, and administration of contracts for the rehabilitation and construction of small reservoirs results in delays in implementation, poor construction, escalating costs, and ultimately failures of small reservoirs vis-à-vis their intended goals and a widely shared frustration among donor agencies, civil servants, contractors, and communities. Such practices hang on and can only be addressed through a better understanding of the complex web of formal decisions and informal rules that shape the understanding and actions of the state.

  11. Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mokhtar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Scarab field is an analog for the deep marine slope channels in Nile Delta of Egypt. It is one of the Pliocene reservoirs in West delta deep marine concession. Channel-1 and channel-2 are considered as main channels of Scarab field. FMI log is used for facies classification and description of the channel subsequences. Core data analysis is integrated with FMI to confirm the lithologic response and used as well for describing the reservoir with high resolution. A detailed description of four wells penetrated through both channels lead to define channel sequences. Some of these sequences are widely extended within the field under study exhibiting a good correlation between the wells. Other sequences were of local distribution. Lithologic sequences are characterized mainly by fining upward in Vshale logs. The repetition of these sequences reflects the stacking pattern and high heterogeneity of the sandstone reservoir. It also refers to the sea level fluctuation which has a direct influence to the facies change. In terms of integration of the previously described sequences with a high resolution seismic data a depositional model has been established. The model defines different stages of the channel using Scarab-2 well as an ideal analog.

  12. Wildlife Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement Planning Phase II, Dworshak Reservoir, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, H. Jerome; Martin, Robert C.

    1989-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 directed that measures be implemented to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by development and operation of hydropower projects on the Columbia River System. This Act created the Northwest Power Planning Council, which in turn developed the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This program established a four-part process: wildlife mitigation status reports; wildlife impact assessments; wildlife protection, mitigation, and enhancement plans; and implementation of protection, mitigation, and enhancement projects. This mitigation plan for the Dworshak Reservoir Hydroelectric Facility was developed to fulfill requirements of Sections 1003(b)(2) and (3) of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Specific objectives of wildlife protection, mitigation, and enhancement planning for Dworshak Reservoir included: quantify net impacts to target wildlife species affected by hydroelectric development and operation of Dworshak Dam and Reservoir; develop protection, mitigation, and enhancement goals and objectives for the target wildlife species; recommend protection, mitigation, and enhancement actions for the target wildlife species; and coordination of project activities. 46 refs., 4 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. Wildlife Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement Planning Phase I, Dworshak Reservoir, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, H. Jerome

    1988-02-01

    Under direction of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, and the subsequent Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, impacts to wildlife due to the development and operation of the US Army Corps of Engineers Dworshak Project have been examined. Using existing information, it has been determined that the project has resulted in the loss of 15,316 acres of elk habitat, 15,286 acres of white-tailed deer habitat, 16,986 acres of black bear habitat, 14,776 acres of ruffed grouse habitat, 13,616 acres of pileated woodpecker habitat, and 66 acres of yellow warbler habitat (scrub-shrub/red alder). Acreages of mallard, Canada goose, river otter, and beaver habitat could not be determined from existing information. The interagency work group has recommended that a HEP (Habitat Evaluation Procedure) be used to determine changes in the quantity and quality of target species habitat in the study area, due to the development and operation of Dworshak Reservoir. 60 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Statistical analysis and experiment planning in reservoir engineering; Analyse statistique et planification d'experience en ingenierie de reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabalza-Mezghani, I.

    2000-05-24

    The aim of this thesis first part is the prediction of simulated production responses, when controlled or uncontrolled parameters act on them. The specificity of our work was to study an uncontrolled parameter: the geostatistical seed, which leads to an hetero-scedastic response behavior. In this context, a joint modelling of both mean and variance of the response was essential to get an efficient prediction. We have proposed two prediction intervals of the response, which either resorted to bootstrap re-sampling or not, and which were very efficient to predict the response accounting for the hetero-scedastic framework. Another aim of this part was to use the available information on gradient response to improve prediction. We have suggested a Bayesian prediction, that involves both response and gradients, in order to highlight the significance of gradient information to reach safe predictions. In the second part, which deals. with history matching problem, the originality of our work was the resort to experimental designs. This problem, which consists in calibrating a reservoir model with respect to dynamic data, fits the description of an objective function minimization. As the objective function behavior is non-linear and therefore cannot fit a polynomial function, we suggest to combine the simplex method, which permits to select a domain where the objective function reveals simple behavior, and experimental design theory, which allows to build an analytical model of the objective function. A minimization of this analytical model makes it possible to reach the parameter values that ensure dynamic data respect. In this way, this methodology highlights the efficiency of experimental designs for history matching, particularly when optimization methods are inadequate because of non-differentiability, as for the calibration of geostatistical facies models. Several reservoir application cases illustrate the efficiency of the approaches we have proposed in this thesis

  15. THE LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AND PLANNING IN THE CONTROL WATERSHED BY RESERVOIR OF ERLONG MOUNTAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the theories of landscape ecology, landscape eco-environment in the control watershed by reservoir of Erlong Mountain in Heilongjiang Province was analyzed and assessed by using GIS technique and statistical model of Principal Component Analysis and Spatial Cluster Analysis. It is found that 100.08km2( 36% ) of the total area is in the state of kilter, 85.73km2( 31% ) of the total area is in the state of general, and 47.26km2( 17% ) and 15.48km2( 16% ) is in the relatively poor state and ideal state. According to landscape ecological structure, there are three landscape function areas being planned and designed. 1) Agricultural landscape function area: its developmental direction is tour agriculture and high-benefit agriculture. 2) Eco-environment protected function area:the direction of development and utilization of this region is to develop vigorously forest for soil and water conservation, and try to increase the rate of vegetation cover. 3) Forest landscape function area: rational cut and utilization of forest resources, space optimization disposal of category of forest, foster of forest and protection of wildwood will become the main development directions for this region. This study trys to provide scientific foundation for ecological restoration of the whole valley and its sustainable development.

  16. Development of a study design and implementation plan to estimate juvenile salmon survival in Lookout Point Reservoir and other reservoirs of the Willamette Project, western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.; Monzyk, Fred R.; Pope, Adam C.; Plumb, John M.

    2016-12-23

    Survival estimates for juvenile salmon and steelhead fry in reservoirs impounded by high head dams are coveted data by resource managers.  However, this information is difficult to obtain because these fish are too small for tagging using conventional methods such as passive-integrated transponders or radio or acoustic transmitters.  We developed a study design and implementation plan to conduct a pilot evaluation that would assess the performance of two models for estimating fry survival in a field setting.  The first model is a staggered-release recovery model that was described by Skalski and others (2009) and Skalski (2016).  The second model is a parentage-based tagging N-mixture model that was developed and described in this document.  Both models are conceptually and statistically sound, but neither has been evaluated in the field.  In this document we provide an overview of a proposed study for 2017 in Lookout Point Reservoir, Oregon, that will evaluate survival of Chinook salmon fry using both models.  This approach will allow us to test each model and compare survival estimates, to determine model performance and better understand these study designs using field-collected data.

  17. Evaluating the variability in surface water reservoir planning characteristics during climate change impacts assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundharajan, Bankaru-Swamy; Adeloye, Adebayo J.; Remesan, Renji

    2016-07-01

    This study employed a Monte-Carlo simulation approach to characterise the uncertainties in climate change induced variations in storage requirements and performance (reliability (time- and volume-based), resilience, vulnerability and sustainability) of surface water reservoirs. Using a calibrated rainfall-runoff (R-R) model, the baseline runoff scenario was first simulated. The R-R inputs (rainfall and temperature) were then perturbed using plausible delta-changes to produce simulated climate change runoff scenarios. Stochastic models of the runoff were developed and used to generate ensembles of both the current and climate-change-perturbed future runoff scenarios. The resulting runoff ensembles were used to force simulation models of the behaviour of the reservoir to produce 'populations' of required reservoir storage capacity to meet demands, and the performance. Comparing these parameters between the current and the perturbed provided the population of climate change effects which was then analysed to determine the variability in the impacts. The methodology was applied to the Pong reservoir on the Beas River in northern India. The reservoir serves irrigation and hydropower needs and the hydrology of the catchment is highly influenced by Himalayan seasonal snow and glaciers, and Monsoon rainfall, both of which are predicted to change due to climate change. The results show that required reservoir capacity is highly variable with a coefficient of variation (CV) as high as 0.3 as the future climate becomes drier. Of the performance indices, the vulnerability recorded the highest variability (CV up to 0.5) while the volume-based reliability was the least variable. Such variabilities or uncertainties will, no doubt, complicate the development of climate change adaptation measures; however, knowledge of their sheer magnitudes as obtained in this study will help in the formulation of appropriate policy and technical interventions for sustaining and possibly enhancing

  18. Reservoir Management using seasonal forecasts in Lake Kariba and Lake Kahora Bassa: Initial results and plans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muchuru, S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal forecasting as a tool to improve on reservoir management in Zimbabwe is presented. The focus of the talk is on predicting rainfall extremes over the Lake Kariba catchments. The forecast systems to do the predictions and the levels of skill...

  19. 1D HYDRAULIC MODEL IN RELATION WITH THE PLANNED TISZA RESERVOIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KOVÁCS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The floodwaves of 1998-2001 and the year 2006 reached never before measured heights on the river Tisza. The peak heights of the upper and middle reaches of the river exceeded the maximum values by 130-150 cm. Such an intense growth has never been experienced (the peak heights measured at the Tivadar gauging station exceeded the values of 1970 by 149 cm and at the Szolnok gauging station by 132 cm, not even after the river regulations in the XIX. century. The new, critical maximum water levels urged the reconsideration of the flood protection system’s development strategy alongside the river Tisza. Taking the present flood-conveyance capacity with its declining tendency and the possible reoccurrence of the latest (1998-2001 or earlier (1970, 1947/48, 1940, 1941, 1932, 1919, 1895, 1888 hydro-meteorological phenomena into consideration, the success of a flood protection procedure can only be guarantied by the improvement of the riverbed’s flood conveyance capacity and the concerted operation of several reservoirs. The concerted and effective operation of the reservoirs (6 to be built in the I. development phase and others to be constructed later have to be based on a complex and steering high-water operational model, a constantly updated data-base and a well functioning organization. The river Tisza demonstrated its power this year as well. The river exceeded the highest water levels on a 270 km long reach from Tiszaug (Tiszainoka down to the Danube influx. Experiencing the flood of spring 2006, the floodwave of 2000, called to be the floodwave of the millennium, is not exceptional anymore. It seems, that we have to prepare for water levels 100-150 cm higher than the maximum levels of the last, hydro-meteorologicaly similar period of 1960-1970. This statement is based on the following: considering the data of the period 1901-2006, the 1% water level calculated by traditional probability theory is 1059 cm, calculated by intercept method is 1058

  20. Mississippi River Headwaters Reservoirs. Minnesota Master Plan for Public Use Development and Resource Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-06

    single entrance to the site. The success of that plan is contingent upon upgrading the existing road over the dam. The Waterways Experiment Station has...Severe weather conditions during the winter months curtail much of the mineral extraction and harvesting work. During spring and fall, forestry and...Honeysuckle Mourning Dove Raspberry Woodpecker HERBS Crow Lily of the Valley Warblers Bracken Fern Wood Thrush Goldenrod REPTILES & AMPHIBIANS Frog

  1. THE LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL ,ASSESSMENT AND PLANNING IN THE CONTOL WATERSHED BY RESERVOIR OF ERLKONG MOUNTAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANGShu-ying; YUANHui; 等

    2002-01-01

    Based on the theories of landscape ecology,landscape eco-environment in the coutrol watershed by reser-voir of Erlong Mountain in Heilogjiang Province was analyzed and assessed by using GIS technique and statistical model of Principal Component Analysis and Spatial Cluster Analysis.It is found that 100.08km2(36%) of the total area is in the state of kilter,85.73km2(31%) of the total area is in the state of general,and 47.26km2(17%) and 15.48km2(16%) is in the relatively poor state and ideal state.According to landscape ecological structure,there are three land-scape function areas being planned and designed.1) Agricultural landscape function area:its developmental direction is tour agriculture and high-benefit agriculture.2)Eco-environment protected function area:the direction of development and utilization of this region is to develop vigorously forest for soil and water conservation ,and try to increase the rate of vegetation cover.3)Forest landscape function area:rational cut and utilization of forest resources,space optimization disposal of category of forest ,foster of forest and protection of wildwood will become the main development directions for this region.This study trys to provide scientific foundation for ecological restoration of the whole valley and its sustain-able development.

  2. The role of reservoir characterization in the reservoir management process (as reflected in the Department of Energy`s reservoir management demonstration program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.L. [BDM-Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P. [BDM-Oklahoma, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.

  3. CO2 is Dominant Greenhouse Gas Emitted from Six Hydropower Reservoirs in Southeastern United States during Peak Summer Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Bevelhimer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During August–September 2012, we sampled six hydropower reservoirs in southeastern United States for CO2 and CH4 emissions via three pathways: diffusive emissions from water surface; ebullition in the water column; and losses from dam tailwaters during power generation. Estimates of average areal emission rates of CO2 attributable to the six reservoirs (i.e., reservoir plus tailwater emissions ranged from 994 to 2760 mg·m−2·day−1, which is low to moderate compared to CO2 emissions rates reported for tropical hydropower reservoirs and boreal ponds and lakes, and similar to rates reported for other temperate reservoirs. Similar average rates for CH4 were also relatively low, ranging from 6 to 187 mg·m−2·day−1. On a whole-reservoir basis, estimates of total emissions of CO2 ranged 10-fold, from 42,740 kg per day for Fontana to 501,151 kg per day for Guntersville, and total emissions of CH4 ranged over 30-fold, from 251 kg per day for Fontana to 9153 kg per day for Allatoona. Emissions through the tailwater pathway varied among reservoirs, comprising from 19% to 65% of total CO2 emissions and 0% to 84% of CH4 emissions, depending on the reservoir. Emission rates were significantly correlated with several reservoir morphological and water quality characteristics, including metrics related to vertical stratification (e.g., minimum water column temperature and maximum dissolved oxygen and reservoir productivity (e.g., water transparency and chlorophyll a concentration.

  4. Reservoir Engineering Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.; Schwarz, W.J.

    1977-12-14

    The Reservoir Engineering Management Program being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory includes two major tasks: 1) the continuation of support to geothermal reservoir engineering related work, started under the NSF-RANN program and transferred to ERDA at the time of its formation; 2) the development and subsequent implementation of a broad plan for support of research in topics related to the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs. This plan is now known as the GREMP plan. Both the NSF-RANN legacies and GREMP are in direct support of the DOE/DGE mission in general and the goals of the Resource and Technology/Resource Exploitation and Assessment Branch in particular. These goals are to determine the magnitude and distribution of geothermal resources and reduce risk in their exploitation through improved understanding of generically different reservoir types. These goals are to be accomplished by: 1) the creation of a large data base about geothermal reservoirs, 2) improved tools and methods for gathering data on geothermal reservoirs, and 3) modeling of reservoirs and utilization options. The NSF legacies are more research and training oriented, and the GREMP is geared primarily to the practical development of the geothermal reservoirs. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  5. Preimpoundment hydrologic conditions in the Swatara Creek (1981- 84) and estimated postimpoundment water quality in and downstream from the planned Swatara State Park Reservoir, Lebanon and Schuylkill counties, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    The hydrology and water quality of Swatara Creek were studied by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, Bureau of State Parks, from July 1981 through September 1984. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of anthracite-coal mining and other point and nonpoint sources on the water quality of a planned 10,500 acre-foot reservoir. The Swatara State Park Reservoir is planned to be used for recreation and drinking-water supply for the city of Lebanon and surrounding communities. Annual precipitation during 1982, 1983, and 1984 was about 8 percent below, near normal, and 29 percent above the long-term average, respectively. The average annual precipitation during a year with near-normal precipitation, the 1983 water year, was 47 inches at Pine Grove. Mean streamflows during 1982, 1983, and 1984 were about 15 percent below, 4 percent above, and 50 percent above the long-term average, respectively. The average streamflow to the planned reservoir area during the 1983 water year was about 220 cubic feet per second. Inflows to, and downstream discharge from, the planned reservoir wer poorly buffered. Median alkalinity ranged from 4 to 7 mg/L (milligrams per liter) and median acidity ranged from 2 to 5 mg/L at the three sampling locations. Maximum total-recoverable iron, aluminum, and manganese concentrations were 100,000, 66,000, and 2,300 micrograms per liter, respectively. During 1983 the annual discharges of total-recoverable iron, aluminum, and manganese to the planned reservoir area were estimated to be 692, 300, and 95 tons, respectively. About 87 percent of the total-recoverable iron and 91 percent of total-recoverable sluminum measured was in the suspended phase. The data indicated that mine drainage affects the quality of Swatara Creek and will affect the quality of the planned reservoir. In addition to mine drainage, point-source nutrient and metal discharges will probably affect the

  6. Implication of climate change on urban drainage systems of Chicago and Mainstream and DesPlaines (MS/DP) Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, H.; Schmidt, A.; Garcia, M. H.; Oberg, N.

    2016-12-01

    The impact of changing climate patterns and rainfall extremes on sewer system and river basin has been brought to attention to the researchers worldwide. In 1972, the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC) adopted the Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP) to address combined sewer overflow (CSO) pollution and flooding problems in the Chicago land area. The hydrosystem laboratory in University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign developed a series of numerical models accordingly to analyze the complex hydraulic behavior of the as-built TARP system. Due to the interconnected nature of City of Chicago sewer network and MS/DP TARP system, a tightly coupled hydrological and hydraulic model MetroFlow was developed to facilitate such analysis by integrating previous developed models. This study utilized MetroFlow to predict the hydrologic/hydraulic response of the system for a set of pre-determined design and historical storm events. Accordingly, combined sewer overflows (CSO) of Chicago combined sewer system and MS/DP TARP system were evaluated under current and future weather scenarios. The total CSOs from TARP system can be considered as urban point pollution source to the surrounding receiving bodies, hence the potential impact of climate change on CSO fluxes is essential reference to wastewater infrastructure design and operations of the hydraulic regulating structures under storm events to mitigate predicted risks.

  7. The construction diversion plan of risk removal and reinforcement project in Wendeng Mishan Reservoir%文登市米山水库除险加固工程施工导流方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张扬; 苏刚; 白梅荣

    2016-01-01

    米山水库是一座以防洪、灌溉、城市及工业供水为主,兼顾发电和养殖等综合利用的多年调节大(2)型水库。在水库除险加固中,不但要保证工程施工安全顺利进行,还要尽可能减少水库放水损失。本文在充分考虑现场地形条件、主体工程布置特点和施工总进度安排等因素的条件下,综合设计施工导流方案,提出的导流措施既能保证工程安全施工,又能节省工程投资,同时还减少了水库的放水损失。%Mishan Reservoir is a large (2)carry-over storage reservoir which is based on flood control,irrigation,urban and industrial water supply,and gives equal consideration to comprehensive utilizations in power generation,aquaculture, etc.In reservoir risk removal and reinforcement,safe and smooth project construction should be ensured,and the water discharge loss of reservoir also should be reduced as far as possible.In the paper,construction diversion plan is comprehensively designed under the premise of fully considering various factors such as site terrain condition,main work layout characteristics,construction schedule arrangement,etc.The proposed diversion measures not only can ensure the safe construction of project,but also can save engineering investment.Meanwhile,the water discharge loss of reservoir can be reduced.

  8. Hydrogeology and groundwater quality at monitoring wells installed for the Tunnel and Reservoir Plan System and nearby water-supply wells, Cook County, Illinois, 1995–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robert T.

    2016-04-04

    Groundwater-quality data collected from 1995 through 2013 from 106 monitoring wells open to the base of the Silurian aquifer surrounding the Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP) System in Cook County, Illinois, were analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, to assess the efficacy of the monitoring network and the effects of water movement from the tunnel system to the surrounding aquifer. Groundwater from the Silurian aquifer typically drains to the tunnel system so that analyte concentrations in most of the samples from most of the monitoring wells primarily reflect the concentration of the analyte in the nearby Silurian aquifer. Water quality in the Silurian aquifer is spatially variable because of a variety of natural and non-TARP anthropogenic processes. Therefore, the trends in analyte values at a given well from 1995 through 2013 are primarily a reflection of the spatial variation in the value of the analyte in groundwater within that part of the Silurian aquifer draining to the tunnels. Intermittent drainage of combined sewer flow from the tunnel system to the Silurian aquifer when flow in the tunnel systemis greater than 80 million gallons per day may affect water quality in some nearby monitoring wells. Intermittent drainage of combined sewer flow from the tunnel system to the Silurian aquifer appears to affect the values of electrical conductivity, hardness, sulfate, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, ammonia, and fecal coliform in samples from many wells but typically during less than 5 percent of the sampling events. Drainage of combined sewer flow into the aquifer is most prevalent in the downstream parts of the tunnel systems because of the hydraulic pressures elevated above background values and long residence time of combined sewer flow in those areas. Elevated values of the analytes emplaced during intermittent migration of combined sewer flow into the Silurian aquifer

  9. 生态安全、微观规划与三峡库区发展的策略保障%Eco-safety, Micro-planning and Policy Insurance of the Development in Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏智勇; 王力

    2012-01-01

    The stability, prosperity and ecological-safety of Three Gorges Reservoir Region significantly influence the normal performance of the Three Gorges Engineer. Urbanization is a strategic choice to insure the development of district economy and improve the life of immigrant. At present times, the city Three Gorges Reservoir Region is de- veloping fast, and eco-cities construction is a inevitable way to maintain the environment-safety and sustainable de- velopment of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Setting out from the reality of Three Gorges Reservoir Region, centering on city planning, construction and management which directly and widely influence environment, to dis- cover a simple but useful way of eco-city construction for less-developed and eco-sensitive region.%三峡库区的稳定繁荣和生态安全对于三峡工程各项功能的正常发挥具有重大影响。城市化是发展三峡库区经济、提高移民生活质量的战略举措。现阶段库区城市处于高速发展时期,建设生态城市是确保库区生态安全、实现可持续发展的必然要求。应立足库区实际,从对环境影响最广泛、直接的城市规划、建设、管理等方面着手,探索简单、实用的生态化道路。

  10. Model for energy planning of degraded river basins based on hydrological evaluation of hydroelectric reservoirs in operation; Modelo de planejamento energetico de bacias hidrograficas degradadas baseado na avaliacao hidrica de reservatorios hidreletricos em operacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Ferreira, Aloisio Caetano; Ottoni, Arthur Benedicto; Nogueira Neto, Claudio; Silva, Denis de Souza

    2008-07-01

    The human occupation of the hydrographic basin, made in the past without plans, generated alteration of the hydrology characteristics, presenting as direct consequence modifications of its hydric availabilities. Or either, the floods in the rainy periods and the droughts in the ones of dryness currently tend to be more frequent and with bigger intensity. These conditions have affected the operation as well as the planning of the hydroelectric reservoirs, that have generated energy in conditions of different hydric availabilities (worse) of those foreseeing at the time of the project. These situations result in uncertainties and energy losses for the investor as well as in the system. Under such premises, the present article analyzes the energy-economic influences of the deterioration of the hydric regimen of some on exploitations in operation to the system, located in basins degrades in the South, Southeastern and Northeast regions; enhancing the importance of the studies of hydric economy of these units of management (degraded basins) as subsidy of taking of decision for gradual recovery of its hydric availabilities; taking in account the energy optimization of the hydroelectric reservoirs in located operation as well as the minimization of inherent the financial losses to the uncertainties of its hydric resources. (author)

  11. Chickamauga reservoir embayment study - 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.

  12. An integrated study of a Campeche Bay fractured carbonate reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampton, D.W.; Hernandez, J.G.; Vasques, G.A.V.; Aquino, E.V.; Barton, C.; Laude, L.; Lockhart, A.M.E.; Peebles, R.G.

    1994-12-31

    This paper provides a case study in the reservoir description of a fractured carbonate by a multi-disciplinary team. It illustrates how the synergistic interaction of team members during data analysis and model building resulted in: (1) the identification of previously unrecognized links between several reservoir characteristics; (2) produced a superior reservoir model; and (3) increased the likelihood of successful development. In summary, identification, characterization, and delineation of fractured intervals within the deepwater carbonate succession resulted in a preliminary 3-D model of both the static and dynamic properties for the Cretaceous reservoir of the Yum Field which, through reservoir simulation, will provide a predictive tool for development planning.

  13. Reservoir geochemistry. A reservoir engineering perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, W.A. [BP Exploration, Chertsey Road, Sunbury-on-Thames, Middlesex, TW16 7LN (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    This paper reviews the applications of reservoir geochemistry from a reservoir engineering point of view. Some of the main tasks of reservoir engineering are discussed with an emphasis on the importance of appraising reservoirs in the pre-development stage. A brief review of the principal methods and applications of reservoir geochemistry are given, in the context of applications to reservoir engineering problems. The importance of compositional differences in fluid samples from different depths or spatial locations is discussed in connection with the identification of internal flow barriers. The importance of understanding the magnitude and origin of vertical compositional gradients is emphasised because of possible confusion with purely lateral changes. The geochemical origin and rate of dissipation of compositional differences over geological time is discussed. Geochemical techniques suitable for bulk petroleum fluid samples include GC fingerprinting, GCMS, isotopic and PVT measurements. Core sample petroleum extracts may also be studied by standard geochemical methods but with the added complication of possible contamination by drilling mud. Aqueous phase residual salt extracts can be studied by strontium isotope analysis from core samples. Petroleum fluid inclusions allow the possibility of establishing the composition of paleo-accumulations. The problems in predicting flow barriers from geochemical measurements are discussed in terms of 'false positives' and 'false negatives'. Suggestions are made for areas that need further development in order to encourage the wider acceptance and application of reservoir geochemistry by the reservoir engineering community. The importance of integrating all available data is emphasised. Reservoir geochemistry may be applied to a range of practical engineering problems including production allocation, reservoir compartmentalisation, and the prediction of gravitational gradients. In this review

  14. Exploration on ecological regulation of the reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Qihua

    2009-01-01

    Reservoir regulation process in the Yangtze River basin is mainly divided into two types of flood regulation and initiating benefit regulation. The present reservoir management system and operation mode are mainly for dealing with or coordinating of flood control and benefit initiation as well as benefit distribution among various beneficial functions. From the view point of river ecosystem protection, the current regulation mode has two kinds of problems: firstly, most of the reservoir regulation plans do not consider ecosystem protection at downstream of dams and needs of environment protection in reservoir areas; secondly, integrated regulation or management of water resources is ignored. It is very necessary to improve reservoir regulation mode, bearing problems faced by regulation of the Three Gorges reservoir and issues related to cascade development and regulation in Tuojiang and Minjiang River basins in mind. In accordance with the concept of scientific development, and the philosophy of "ensuring a healthy Yangtze River and promoting the har-mony between human and water", taking flood control, benefit initiation and eco-system as a whole, this paper put for-ward the basic consideration to improve reservoir regulation as follows : on the basis of requirements of ecosystem protec-tion at downstream of dams and needs of environment protection in reservoir areas, we should bring the functions of res-ervoir such as flood control and benefit initiation into full play, control the negative influence to the ecosystem at down-stream of dams and the environment in reservoir areas in an endurable scope, and restore the ecosystem and the environ-ment step by step. This paper put forward the relevant regulation process aiming at the idiographic problems such as pro-tection of ecosystem at downstream of dams and environment in reservoir areas, protection of aquatic wildlife species and fish species, regulation of sediment and protection of wetland.

  15. Water resources review: Wheeler Reservoir, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallus, R.; Cox, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    Protection and enhancement of water quality is essential for attaining the full complement of beneficial uses of TVA reservoirs. The responsibility for improving and protecting TVA reservoir water quality is shared by various federal, state, and local agencies, as well as the thousands of corporations and property owners whose individual decisions affect water quality. TVA's role in this shared responsibility includes collecting and evaluating water resources data, disseminating water resources information, and acting as a catalyst to bring together agencies and individuals that have a responsibility or vested interest in correcting problems that have been identified. This report is one in a series of status reports that will be prepared for each of TVA's reservoirs. The purpose of this status report is to provide an up-to-date overview of the characteristics and conditions of Wheeler Reservoir, including: reservoir purposes and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and the watershed; water quality conditions: aquatic biological conditions: designated, actual, and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those uses; ongoing or planned reservoir management activities. Information and data presented here are form the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. 21 refs., 8 figs., 29 tabs.

  16. Petroleum reservoir engineering - a personal perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, J.S. [Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    This paper was invited as part of the Ad 1995 - NW Europe`s Hydrocarbon Industry Symposium to mark Aberdeen University`s 500th Anniversay. The author has been taken the opportunity to recall, from a highly personal and selective perspective, some of the events of the last 25 years in reservoir engineering, through his own experiences of North Sea fields. The first part of the paper sets the background to reservoir engineering through some of the key contributions to the literature. The second part recalls the early North Sea reservoir planning and the emergence of multidisciplinary approaches to reservoir characterization and asset management. The third part of the paper focuses on reservoir engineering research at Imperial College, and the final part poses a number of questions on the future of reservoir engineering in a UK North Sea context. The author does not intend to provide a critical appraisal of the reservoir engineering literature that has emerged in the last 25 years, therefore, the reservoir engineering with which the author has been most closely associated naturally receives the greatest prominence in a paper of this type. In no way should this be construed as a claim to invention. (author)

  17. Integrated reservoir characterization of a Posidonia Shale outcrop analogue: From serendipity to understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp, M.H.A.A.; Veen, J.H. ten; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Ventra, D.

    2014-01-01

    Shale gas reservoir stimulation procedures (e.g. hydraulic fracturing) require upfront prediction and planning that should be supported by a comprehensive reservoir characterization. Therefore, understanding shale depositional processes and associated vertical and lateral sedimentological variabilit

  18. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    Large impoundments, defined as those with surface area of 200 ha or greater, are relatively new aquatic ecosystems in the global landscape. They represent important economic and environmental resources that provide benefits such as flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, water supply, commercial and recreational fisheries, and various other recreational and esthetic values. Construction of large impoundments was initially driven by economic needs, and ecological consequences received little consideration. However, in recent decades environmental issues have come to the forefront. In the closing decades of the 20th century societal values began to shift, especially in the developed world. Society is no longer willing to accept environmental damage as an inevitable consequence of human development, and it is now recognized that continued environmental degradation is unsustainable. Consequently, construction of large reservoirs has virtually stopped in North America. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world construction of large reservoirs continues. The emergence of systematic reservoir management in the early 20th century was guided by concepts developed for natural lakes (Miranda 1996). However, we now recognize that reservoirs are different and that reservoirs are not independent aquatic systems inasmuch as they are connected to upstream rivers and streams, the downstream river, other reservoirs in the basin, and the watershed. Reservoir systems exhibit longitudinal patterns both within and among reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically arranged sequentially as elements of an interacting network, filter water collected throughout their watersheds, and form a mosaic of predictable patterns. Traditional approaches to fisheries management such as stocking, regulating harvest, and in-lake habitat management do not always produce desired effects in reservoirs. As a result, managers may expend resources with little benefit to either fish or fishing. Some locally

  19. Improved reservoir exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassen, P.R. [IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with reservoir exploitation and it highlights some ideas on how to improve exploitive skills to optimise the recovery of a field. The author looks closer at what needs to be done to optimise the reservoir data and the exploitation tools, and what are the needs of the reservoir production management. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Status of Cherokee Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    This is the first in a series of reports prepared by Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overviews of Cherokee Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports, publications, and data available, and interviews with water resource professionals in various Federal, state, and local agencies and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Status of Cherokee Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    This is the first in a series of reports prepared by Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overviews of Cherokee Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports, publications, and data available, and interviews with water resource professionals in various Federal, state, and local agencies and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1983-1985 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Bruce

    1985-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act passed in 1980 by Congress has provided a mechanism which integrates and provides for stable energy planning in the Pacific Northwest. The Act created the Northwest Power Planning Council and charged the Council with developing a comprehensive fish and wildlife program to protect and enhance fish and wildlife impacted by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Implementation of the plan is being carried out by the Bonneville Power Administration. The Hungry Horse Reservoir study is part of that Council's plan. This study proposes to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance principal gamefish species in Hungry Horse Reservoir. The specific study objects are listed below. (1) Quantify the amount of reservoir habitat available at different water level elevations; (2) Estimate recruitment of westslope cutthroat trout juveniles from important spawning and nursery tributaries; (3) Determine the abundance, growth, distribution and use of available habitat by major game species in the reservoir; (4) Determine the abundance and availability of fish food organisms in the reservoir; (5) Quantify the seasonal use of available food items by major fish species; (6) Develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat used by fish and fish food organisms; and (7) Estimate the impact of reservoir operation on major gamefish species.

  4. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1983-1985 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Bruce

    1985-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act passed in 1980 by Congress has provided a mechanism which integrates and provides for stable energy planning in the Pacific Northwest. The Act created the Northwest Power Planning Council and charged the Council with developing a comprehensive fish and wildlife program to protect and enhance fish and wildlife impacted by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Implementation of the plan is being carried out by the Bonneville Power Administration. The Hungry Horse Reservoir study is part of that Council's plan. This study proposes to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance principal gamefish species in Hungry Horse Reservoir. The specific study objects are listed below. (1) Quantify the amount of reservoir habitat available at different water level elevations; (2) Estimate recruitment of westslope cutthroat trout juveniles from important spawning and nursery tributaries; (3) Determine the abundance, growth, distribution and use of available habitat by major game species in the reservoir; (4) Determine the abundance and availability of fish food organisms in the reservoir; (5) Quantify the seasonal use of available food items by major fish species; (6) Develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat used by fish and fish food organisms; and (7) Estimate the impact of reservoir operation on major gamefish species.

  5. Assessment of reservoir system variable forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistenmacher, Martin; Georgakakos, Aris P.

    2015-05-01

    Forecast ensembles are a convenient means to model water resources uncertainties and to inform planning and management processes. For multipurpose reservoir systems, forecast types include (i) forecasts of upcoming inflows and (ii) forecasts of system variables and outputs such as reservoir levels, releases, flood damage risks, hydropower production, water supply withdrawals, water quality conditions, navigation opportunities, and environmental flows, among others. Forecasts of system variables and outputs are conditional on forecasted inflows as well as on specific management policies and can provide useful information for decision-making processes. Unlike inflow forecasts (in ensemble or other forms), which have been the subject of many previous studies, reservoir system variable and output forecasts are not formally assessed in water resources management theory or practice. This article addresses this gap and develops methods to rectify potential reservoir system forecast inconsistencies and improve the quality of management-relevant information provided to stakeholders and managers. The overarching conclusion is that system variable and output forecast consistency is critical for robust reservoir management and needs to be routinely assessed for any management model used to inform planning and management processes. The above are demonstrated through an application from the Sacramento-American-San Joaquin reservoir system in northern California.

  6. Geothermal Reservoir Technology Research Program: Abstracts of selected research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, M.J. (ed.)

    1993-03-01

    Research projects are described in the following areas: geothermal exploration, mapping reservoir properties and reservoir monitoring, and well testing, simulation, and predicting reservoir performance. The objectives, technical approach, and project status of each project are presented. The background, research results, and future plans for each project are discussed. The names, addresses, and telephone and telefax numbers are given for the DOE program manager and the principal investigators. (MHR)

  7. Petrophysical simulation in petroleum geology and reservoir engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buryakovsky, L.; Chilingar, G. [Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, USA Branch, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-10-21

    The simulation of multivariate petrophysical relationships between core and well-log derived parameters on the example of the South Caspian Basin is discussed. For developing the petrophysical relationships, a number of deterministic and stochastic calculating procedures are used by the authors. These relationships are widely used in petroleum geology and reservoir engineering for hydrocarbon reserves estimation, reservoir description and simulation, field development planning, and reservoir production management. (author)

  8. Remotely sensed monitoring of small reservoir dynamics: a Bayesian approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilander, D.M.; Annor, F.O.; Iannini, L.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    2014-01-01

    Multipurpose small reservoirs are important for livelihoods in rural semi-arid regions. To manage and plan these reservoirs and to assess their hydrological impact at a river basin scale, it is important to monitor their water storage dynamics. This paper introduces a Bayesian approach for monitorin

  9. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Bruce; Weaver, Tom (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Kalispell, MT)

    1987-06-01

    The Hungry Horse Reservoir study is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife plan. The plan is responsible for mitigating damages to the fish and wildlife resources caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The major goal of our study is to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance the reservoir fishery. This study began in May 1983 and is scheduled for completion in 1988. This report contains a summary of the limnological, food habits, fish abundance and fish distribution data collected primarily in 1986. A thorough statistical analysis of the data will be presented in the completion report in 1988. This study proposes to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance principal game fish species in Hungry Horse Reservoir. The specific study objectives are: (1) Estimate the impact of reservoir operation on major game fish species; (2) Develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat use by fish and fish food organisms; (3) Quantify the amount of reservoir habitat available at different water level elevations; (4) Estimate recruitment of westslope cutthroat trout juveniles from important spawning and nursery areas; (5) Determine the abundance, growth, distribution and use of available habitat by major game species in the reservoir; (6) Determine the abundance and availability of fish food organisms in the reservoir; and (7) Quantify the seasonal use of available food items by major fish species.

  10. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J.; Egg, Rebecca

    2001-08-07

    The Oxy operated Class 2 Project at West Welch Project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO2 injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir demonstration characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO2 flood design based on the reservoir characterization.

  11. A reservoir trap for antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, Christian; Franke, Kurt; Nagahama, Hiroki; Schneider, Georg; Higuchi, Takashi; Van Gorp, Simon; Blaum, Klaus; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Quint, Wolfgang; Walz, Jochen; Yamazaki, Yasunori; Ulmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We have developed techniques to extract arbitrary fractions of antiprotons from an accumulated reservoir, and to inject them into a Penning-trap system for high-precision measurements. In our trap-system antiproton storage times > 1.08 years are estimated. The device is fail-safe against power-cuts of up to 10 hours. This makes our planned comparisons of the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons independent from accelerator cycles, and will enable us to perform experiments during long accelerator shutdown periods when background magnetic noise is low. The demonstrated scheme has the potential to be applied in many other precision Penning trap experiments dealing with exotic particles.

  12. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....

  13. Integrated reservoir interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caamano, Ed; Dickerman, Ken; Thornton, Mick (Conoco Indonesia Inc., Jakarta (Indonesia)); Corbett, Chip; Douglas, David; Schultz, Phil (GeoQuest, Houston, TX (United States)); Gir, Roopa; Nicholson, Barry (GeoQuest, Jakarta (Indonesia)); Martono, Dwi; Padmono, Joko; Novias; Kiagus; Suroso, Sigit (Pertamina Sumbagut, Brandan, North Sumatra (Indonesia)); Mathieu, Gilles (Etudes et Productions Schlumberger, Clamart (France)); Yan, Zhao (China National Petroleum Company, Beijing (China))

    1994-07-01

    Improved reservoir management often relies on linking a variety of application software that helps geoscientists handle, visualize and interpret massive amounts of diverse data. The goal is to obtain the best possible reservoir model so its behavior can be understood and optimized. But diverse application software creates specialty niches and discourages integrated interpretation. A description is given of a new reservoir management package that covers all required functionalities and encourages the geologist, geophysicist, petrophysicist and reservoir engineer to embrace the integrated approach. Case studies are included in the article. 21 figs., 13 refs.

  14. Second workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, P.; Ramey, H.J. Jr. (eds.)

    1976-12-03

    The Arab oil embargo of 1973 focused national attention on energy problems. A national focus on development of energy sources alternative to consumption of hydrocarbons led to the initiation of research studies of reservoir engineering of geothermal systems, funded by the National Science Foundation. At that time it appeared that only two significant reservoir engineering studies of geothermal reservoirs had been completed. Many meetings concerning development of geothermal resources were held from 1973 through the date of the first Stanford Geothermal Reservoir Engineering workshop December 15-17, 1975. These meetings were similar in that many reports dealt with the objectives of planned research projects rather than with results. The first reservoir engineering workshop held under the Stanford Geothermal Program was singular in that for the first time most participants were reporting on progress inactive research programs rather than on work planned. This was true for both laboratory experimental studies and for field experiments in producing geothermal systems. The Proceedings of the December 1975 workshop (SGP-TR-12) is a remarkable document in that results of both field operations and laboratory studies were freely presented and exchanged by all participants. With this in mind the second reservoir engineering workshop was planned for December 1976. The objectives were again two-fold. First, the workshop was designed as a forum to bring together researchers active in various physical and mathematical branches of the developing field of geothermal reservoir engineering, to give participants a current and updated view of progress being made in the field. The second purpose was to prepare this Proceedings of Summaries documenting the state of the art as of December 1976. The proceedings will be distributed to all interested members of the geothermal community involved in the development and utilization of the geothermal resources in the world. Many notable

  15. When and how to activate large new hydropower reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geressu, Robel; Harou, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Water resources system planners are increasingly required to address multiple long and short-term management objectives and the trade-offs these imply. Expansion planning in hydropower reservoir systems, where assets either temporarily or permanently reduce each other's performance, is a complex and potentially conflictual task requiring attention to multiple impacts. This paper proposes a multi-criteria scheduling approach considering many objectives and their associated uncertainties. The method considers the coordination and flexibility of reservoir operation in different expansion stages. The impact of abstraction (i.e., during filling of new reservoirs) and regulation of inflows by upstream reservoirs, is represented by simultaneously optimizing the storage size of reservoirs. Sensitivity analysis of performance given financial uncertainty and hydrological variability reveals which expansion schedules are robust to a wide range of future conditions. This informs how alternative designs compare in multiple performance dimensions and can serve stakeholders with differing attitudes towards risk and opportunity. The method is applied to proposed Blue Nile hydropower reservoirs to find efficient new dam activation schedules considering energy revenues, downstream release requirements, and energy generation during reservoir filling periods. Results take the form of Pareto-optimal trade-offs where each point on the curve or surface represents asset choices, size, activation date, and filling period reservoir operating rules. The results help explore the complex planning and management issues involved in the Blue Nile and demonstrate a possible approach to negotiate the design, filling and coordinated use of hydropower reservoirs.

  16. Dynamic reservoir well interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, W.L.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Wolfswinkel, O. van; Peters, M.C.A.M.; Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop smart well control systems for unstable oil wells, realistic modeling of the dynamics of the well is essential. Most dynamic well models use a semi-steady state inflow model to describe the inflow of oil and gas from the reservoir. On the other hand, reservoir models use steady s

  17. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Bruce

    1986-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, passed in 1980 by Congress, has provided a mechanism which integrates and provides for stable energy planning in the Pacific Northwest. The Act created the Northwest Power Planning Council and charged the Council with developing a comprehensive fish and wildlife program to protect and enhance fish and wildlife impacted by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is one of the many agencies implementing the Council's program. The Hungry Horse Reservoir (HHR) study is part of the Council's program. This study proposes to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance principal gamefish species in Hungry Horse Reservoir. The specific study objectives are: (1) Quantify the amount of reservoir habitat available at different water level elevations; (2) Estimate recruitment of westslope cutthroat trout juveniles from important spawning and nursery areas; (3) Determine the abundance, growth, distribution and use of available habitat by major game species in the reservoir; (4) Determine the abundance and availability of fish food organisms in the reservoir; (5) Quantify the seasonal use of available food items by major fish species; (6) Develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat use by fish and fish food organisms; and (7) Estimate the impact of reservoir operation on major gamefish species.

  18. Geothermal reservoir engineering research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, H. J., Jr.; Kruger, P.; Brigham, W. E.; London, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    The Stanford University research program on the study of stimulation and reservoir engineering of geothermal resources commenced as an interdisciplinary program in September, 1972. The broad objectives of this program have been: (1) the development of experimental and computational data to evaluate the optimum performance of fracture-stimulated geothermal reservoirs; (2) the development of a geothermal reservoir model to evaluate important thermophysical, hydrodynamic, and chemical parameters based on fluid-energy-volume balances as part of standard reservoir engineering practice; and (3) the construction of a laboratory model of an explosion-produced chimney to obtain experimental data on the processes of in-place boiling, moving flash fronts, and two-phase flow in porous and fractured hydrothermal reservoirs.

  19. Modeling vapor dominated geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marconcini, R.; McEdwards, D.; Neri, G.; Ruffilli, C.; Schroeder, R.; Weres, O.; Witherspoon, P.

    1977-09-12

    The unresolved questions with regard to vapor-dominated reservoir production and longevity are reviewed. The simulation of reservoir behavior and the LBL computer program are discussed. The geology of Serrazzano geothermal field and its reservoir simulation are described. (MHR)

  20. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1988-1996 Methods and Data Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalbey, Steven Ray

    1998-03-01

    The Libby Reservoir study is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating for damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. This report summarizes the data collected from Libby Reservoir during 1988 through 1996.

  1. RESERVOIR CAPACITY DEPLETION ON ACCOUNT OF SEDIMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabhata K.SWAMEE

    2001-01-01

    Capacity depletion is an important information required for planning of multipurpose reservoirs. It is a complex phenomenon involving diverse fields like surface hydrology, sediment transport, varied flow hydraulics and soil consolidation. Proper assessment of capacity reduction is helpful in ascertaining the life of the reservoir and the project benefits for cost/benefit analysis. In this study dimensionally consistent equations for deposition volume and the trap efficiency have been obtained. Methods of obtaining the parameters involved these equations have also been indicated. It was found that there is good agreement with the field data. It is hoped that the equations are useful to design engineer.

  2. Production-induced changes in reservoir geomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoyedo, Sunday O.

    sensitivity of the reservoir and overburden shale of Forties Field, I observe that while pore pressure variations have not been significant in most parts of the field, a relatively higher decrease in pore pressure in a region of the reservoir has affected the geomechanical properties of both reservoir and overlying rock strata . I found that strain development in the field accounts, in part, for increased reservoir sand production and a negative velocity change in the overburden, which provides an indication of dilation. I use changes in the AVO intercept and gradient calibrated with laboratory measurements to decouple the time-lapse (4D) difference into saturation and pressure changes. Furthermore, I propose a new modification to time-lapse AVO inversion workflows to account for the effect of porosity change in measurements of time-lapse difference. This is particularly crucial in highly-compacting chalk and poorly consolidated clastic reservoirs. Rock-physics-driven inversion of 3D pre-stack seismic data plays a prominent role in the characterization of both reservoir and overburden rocks. Understanding the rock physics of the overburden rock is required for efficient production of the reservoir and to safeguard wellbore, down-hole assembly and supporting surface facilities. Taking Forties Field as a case study, I observe that while instability and subsequent failure of the overburden in the field can be linked to the rapid decrease of the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) at inclinations close to 45 degrees to the bedding plan, some zones in the overburden are characterized by extreme weakness regardless of the well angle through the rock. I use the correlation between unconfined compressive strength and elastic moduli (Young's and Bulk moduli), coupled with the results of simultaneous inversion to derive 3D elastic moduli, calibrated to laboratory measurements, to characterize the zones of extreme weakness. Time-lapse gravimetry continues to find increasing

  3. Well testing of tight gas reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahanbani, A.; Aguilera, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed methods of evaluating tight gas sand reservoirs. Conventional well testing is not used in tight gas reservoirs due to their low permeability. Tight gas well testing techniques include pressure-dependent permeability testing; the estimation of pseudo--time at the average pressure of the region of influence; and supercharge effect testing. Pre-frac test analysis techniques were also discussed. Pressure-transient test designs were reviewed along with instantaneous source response methods for calculating influence functions. Impulse-fracture tests were discussed, as well as perforation inflow diagnostic testing. Perforation inflow tests provided reasonable estimates of reservoir parameters. Methods of determining pressure-dependent permeability data were discussed. After closure analysis (ACA) was used to analyze formation permeability. It was concluded that ACA can be coupled with pre-closure analysis to optimize fracture stimulation plans. The 22 refs., 17 figs.

  4. Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments. Every municipal solid waste landfill has to be properly secured to protect the natural environment from possible leachate. Most often an artificial sealing is used, which is based on a soil liner from cohesive soils (clays, silts. Usability evaluation of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir for building these liners was presented in the paper. Sediments from dam reservoirs, gathered as a result of the siltation process, can be a valuable material for earthworks purposes. Determination of their possible ways of usage is important, especially before the planned dredging, because thanks to that this material will not be put on a heap. Based on the analysis of the geotechnical parameters of these sediments it was stated that this material can be preliminary allowed for using in liners.

  5. Reservoir rehabilitations: Seeking the Fountain of Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Powell, L.A.; Turek, Kelly C.; Spurgeon, Jonathan J.; Stewart, Nathaniel T.; Hogberg, Nick P.; Porath, Mark T.

    2017-01-01

    Aging of reservoirs alters the functions, and associated services, of these systems through time. The goal of habitat rehabilitation is often to alter the trajectory of the aging process such that the duration of the desired state is prolonged. There are two important characteristics in alteration of the trajectory—the amplitude relative to current state and the subsequent rate of change, or aging—that ultimately determine the duration of extension for the desired state. Rehabilitation processes largely fall into three main categories: fish community manipulation, water quality manipulation, and physical habitat manipulation. We can slow aging of reservoirs through carefully implemented management actions, perhaps even turning back the hands of time, but we cannot stop aging. We call for new, innovative perspectives that incorporate an understanding of aging processes in all steps of rehabilitation of reservoirs, especially in planning and assessing.

  6. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  7. MITIGATION OF SEDIMENTATION HAZARDS DOWNSTREAM FROM RESERVOIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ellen WOHL; Sara RATHBURN

    2003-01-01

    Many reservoirs currently in operation trap most or all of the sediment entering the reservoir,creating sediment-depleted conditions downstream. This may cause channel adjustment in the form of bank erosion, bed erosion, substrate coarsening, and channel planform change. Channel adjustment may also result from episodic sediment releases during reservoir operation, or from sediment evacuation following dam removal. Channel adjustment to increased sediment influx depends on the magnitude, frequency, duration and grain-size distribution of the sediment releases, and on the downstream channel characteristics. Channel adjustment may occur as a change in substrate sizedistribution, filling of pools, general bed aggradation, lateral instability, change in channel planform,and/or floodplain aggradation. The increased sediment availability may alter aquatic and riparian habitat, reduce water quality, distribute adsorbed contaminants along the river corridor, and provide germination sites for exotic vegetation. Mitigation of these sedimentation hazards requires: (1)mapping grain-size distribution within the reservoir and estimating the grain-size distributions of sediment that will be mobilized through time; (2) mapping shear stress and sediment transport capacity as a function of discharge on the basis of channel units for the length of the river likely to be affected; (3) mapping potential depositional zones, and aquatic habitat and "acceptable losses," along the downstream channel, and comparing these volumes to the total sediment volume stored in the reservoir as a means of estimating total transport capacity required to mobilize reservoir sediment delivered to the channel; (4) designing discharge and sediment release regime (magnitude, frequency,duration) to minimize adverse downstream impacts; and (5) developing plans to remove, treat, contain,or track contaminants, and to restrict establishment of exotic vegetation. The North Fork Poudre River in Colorado is used to

  8. Overspill avalanching in a dense reservoir network

    CERN Document Server

    Mamede, G L; Schneider, C M; de Araújo, J C; Herrmann, H J

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability of communities, agriculture, and industry is strongly dependent on an effective storage and supply of water resources. In some regions the economic growth has led to a level of water demand which can only be accomplished through efficient reservoir networks. Such infrastructures are not always planned at larger scale but rather made by farmers according to their local needs of irrigation during droughts. Based on extensive data from the upper Jaguaribe basin, one of the world's largest system of reservoirs, located in the Brazilian semiarid northeast, we reveal that surprisingly it self-organizes into a scale-free network exhibiting also a power-law in the distribution of the lakes and avalanches of discharges. With a new self-organized-criticality-type model we manage to explain the novel critical exponents. Implementing a flow model we are able to reproduce the measured overspill evolution providing a tool for catastrophe mitigation and future planning.

  9. Heat Extraction Project, geothermal reservoir engineering research at Stanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, P.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of the SGP Heat Extraction Project is to provide a means for estimating the thermal behavior of geothermal fluids produced from fractured hydrothermal resources. The methods are based on estimated thermal properties of the reservoir components, reservoir management planning of production and reinjection, and the mixing of reservoir fluids: geothermal, resource fluid cooled by drawdown and infiltrating groundwater, and reinjected recharge heated by sweep flow through the reservoir formation. Several reports and publications, listed in Appendix A, describe the development of the analytical methods which were part of five Engineer and PhD dissertations, and the results from many applications of the methods to achieve the project objectives. The Heat Extraction Project is to evaluate the thermal properties of fractured geothermal resource and forecasted effects of reinjection recharge into operating reservoirs.

  10. Quagga mussel monitoring plan : NDOW Eastern region 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective detailed in this plan is to intensively monitor Wildhorse Reservoir, South Fork Reservoir and the Ruby Lake NWR for the presence of quagga mussels....

  11. Session: Reservoir Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Joel L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Horne, Roland N.; Shook, G. Michael

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five papers: ''Reservoir Technology'' by Joel L. Renner; ''LBL Research on the Geysers: Conceptual Models, Simulation and Monitoring Studies'' by Gudmundur S. Bodvarsson; ''Geothermal Geophysical Research in Electrical Methods at UURI'' by Philip E. Wannamaker; ''Optimizing Reinjection Strategy at Palinpinon, Philippines Based on Chloride Data'' by Roland N. Horne; ''TETRAD Reservoir Simulation'' by G. Michael Shook

  12. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  13. Sweet spot identification and smart development -An integrated reservoir characterization study of a posidonia shale of a posidonia shale outcrop analogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, J.H. ten; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Ventra, D.; Zijp, M.H.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Shale gas reservoir stimulation procedures (e.g. hydraulic fracturing) require upfront prediction and planning that should be supported by a comprehensive reservoir characterization. Therefore, understanding shale depositional processes and associated vertical and lateral sedimentological variabilit

  14. SILTATION IN RESERVOIRS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    human resources. It is also intended to make known to the general public that ... port processes were not properly taken into account. ... Studies carried out on 19 reservoirs in Cen- tral Europe with storage capacity ranging be- tween 1.48 x ...

  15. Comparison of static and dynamic resilience for a multipurpose reservoir operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonovic, Slobodan P.; Arunkumar, R.

    2016-11-01

    dynamics simulation approach, a feedback-based object-oriented method, very effective for modeling complex systems. The results of dynamic resilience are compared with the traditional performance measures in order to identify advantages of the proposed measure. The results confirm that the dynamic resilience is a powerful tool for selecting proactive and reactive adaptive response of a multipurpose reservoir to a disturbing event that cannot be achieved using traditional measures. The generic quantification approach proposed in the paper allows for easy use of dynamic resilience for planning and operations of various civil infrastructure systems.

  16. Modeling Reservoir-River Networks in Support of Optimizing Seasonal-Scale Reservoir Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, D. L.; Lowry, T. S.; Bier, A.; Barco, J.; Sun, A.

    2011-12-01

    HydroSCOPE (Hydropower Seasonal Concurrent Optimization of Power and the Environment) is a seasonal time-scale tool for scenario analysis and optimization of reservoir-river networks. Developed in MATLAB, HydroSCOPE is an object-oriented model that simulates basin-scale dynamics with an objective of optimizing reservoir operations to maximize revenue from power generation, reliability in the water supply, environmental performance, and flood control. HydroSCOPE is part of a larger toolset that is being developed through a Department of Energy multi-laboratory project. This project's goal is to provide conventional hydropower decision makers with better information to execute their day-ahead and seasonal operations and planning activities by integrating water balance and operational dynamics across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. This presentation details the modeling approach and functionality of HydroSCOPE. HydroSCOPE consists of a river-reservoir network model and an optimization routine. The river-reservoir network model simulates the heat and water balance of river-reservoir networks for time-scales up to one year. The optimization routine software, DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications - dakota.sandia.gov), is seamlessly linked to the network model and is used to optimize daily volumetric releases from the reservoirs to best meet a set of user-defined constraints, such as maximizing revenue while minimizing environmental violations. The network model uses 1-D approximations for both the reservoirs and river reaches and is able to account for surface and sediment heat exchange as well as ice dynamics for both models. The reservoir model also accounts for inflow, density, and withdrawal zone mixing, and diffusive heat exchange. Routing for the river reaches is accomplished using a modified Muskingum-Cunge approach that automatically calculates the internal timestep and sub-reach lengths to match the conditions of

  17. Reservoir geochemistry: A link between reservoir geology and engineering?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larter, S.R.; Aplin, A.C. [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Corbett, P.; Ementon, N. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Geochemistry provides a natural but poorly exploited link between reservoir geology and engineering. The authors summarize some current applications of geochemistry to reservoir description and stress that because of their strong interactions with mineral surfaces and water, nitrogen and oxygen compounds in petroleum may exert an important influence on the PVT properties of petroleum, viscosity and wettability. The distribution of these compounds in reservoirs is heterogeneous on a sub-meter scale and is partly controlled by variations in reservoir quality. The implied variations in petroleum properties and wettability may account for some of the errors in reservoir simulations.

  18. Reservoir geochemistry: A link between reservoir geology and engineering?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larter, S.R.; Aplin, A.C.; Chen, M.; Taylor, P.N. [Univ. of Newcastle (Australia); Corbett, P.W.M.; Ementon, N. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1997-02-01

    Geochemistry provides a natural, but poorly exploited, link between reservoir geology and engineering. The authors summarize some current applications of geochemistry to reservoir description and stress that, because of their strong interactions with mineral surfaces and water, nitrogen and oxygen compounds in petroleum may exert an important influence on the pressure/volume/temperature (PVT) properties of petroleum, viscosity and wettability. The distribution of these compounds in reservoirs is heterogeneous on a submeter scale and is partly controlled by variations in reservoir quality. The implied variations in petroleum properties and wettability may account for some of the errors in reservoir simulations.

  19. 张峰水库(拟建)蓄水后水质污染预测%Water quality pollution prediction on Zhangfeng reservoir (planned construction) after water storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少璇; 冯民权

    2011-01-01

    Aim To know the variation trend of water quality in Zhangfeng Reservoir after it is built and give a reference to water resource protection, the reservoir water quality between 2010 and 2020 is studied. Methods The concentration of BOD5 about Qin River this study calculated was forecasted by using the steady one-dimensional water quality model of Streeter-Phelps and the well-mixed mass balance water quality model was used in the reservoir.At the same time, the concentration of TP about Zhangfeng reservoir was calculated with Dillon model. Results In the dry season of 2010 and 2020, the concentrations of BOD5 before the reservoir are 2. 271 mg/L and 2. 595 mg/L while they axe 1. 100 mg/L and 1. 047 mg/L in the reservoir. The results in the wet period are 1. 696 rog/L,1. 776 mg/L and 2. 821 mg/L, 2. 954 mg/L. The concentrations of TP about Zhangfeng reservoir of 2010 are 2020 were 0. 001 8 mg/L and 0. 002 8 mg/L. Conclusion It is shown that the water quality of Zhangfeng reservoir is good, and it will be on the poor nutrient state. The local government should take some measure to control the major sources of pollution of sewage for the long-term development.%目的 为了明确拟建张峰水库蓄水后水质变化趋势,对水源地水质保护提供参考依据.方法 预测了2010年和2020年水库的水质状况,选用一维稳态水质模型Streeter-Phelps模型对张峰水库主要入库河流(沁河)入库BOD5浓度进行预测,对库区BOD5浓度的预测采用完全均匀混合质量平衡水质模型,同时应用Dillon模型对张峰水库库区总磷浓度进行了计算.结果 2010年和2020年枯水期张峰水库BOD5入库背景浓度分别为2.271 mg/L和2.595 mg/L,库区BOD5浓度分别为1.100 mg/L和1.047 mg/L.平水期入库背景浓度为1.696 mg/L和1.776 mg/L,库区浓度为2.821 mg/L和2.954 mg/L.水库库区总磷浓度分别为0.001 8 mg/L和0.002 8 mg/L.结论 在可预见范围内张峰水库水质良好,将处于贫营养化状态,但

  20. Effects of water-supply reservoirs on streamflow in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.

    2016-10-06

    spillage under average pumping conditions from 2000 to 2004.For sites with insufficient data to simulate daily water balances, a proxy method to estimate the three spillage metrics was developed. A series of 4,000 Monte Carlo simulations of the reservoir water balance were run. In each simulation, streamflow, physical reservoir characteristics, and daily climate inputs were randomly varied. Tobit regression equations that quantify the relation between streamflow alteration and physical and operational characteristics of reservoirs were developed from the results of the Monte Carlo simulations and can be used to estimate each of the three spillage metrics using only the withdrawal ratio and the ratio of the surface area to the drainage area, which are available statewide for all reservoirs.A graphical user-interface for the Massachusetts Reservoir Simulation Tool was developed in a Microsoft Access environment. The simulation tool contains information for 70 reservoirs in Massachusetts and allows for simulation of additional scenarios than the ones considered in this report, including controlled releases, dam seepage and leakage, demand management plans, and alternative water withdrawal and transfer rules.

  1. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Runoff Simulation of Shitoukoumen Reservoir Basin Based on SWAT Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE; Miao; LI; Hong-yan; LIU; Tie-juan; RU; Shi-rong

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The study aimed to simulate the runoff of Shitoukoumen Reservoir basin by using SWAT model. [Method] Based on DEM elevation, land use type, soil type and hydrometeorological data, SWAT model, a distributed hydrological model was established to simulate the monthly runoff of Shitoukoumen Reservoir basin, and the years 2006 and 2010 were chosen as the calibration and validation period respectively. [Result] The simulation results indicated that SWAT model could be used to simulate the runoff of Shitoukoumen Reservoir basin, and the simulation effect was good. However, the response of the model to local rainstorm was not obvious, so that the actual runoff in June and July of 2010 was abnormally higher than the simulation value. [Conclusion] The research could provide theoretical references for the plan and management of water resources in Shitoukoumen Reservoir basin in future.

  3. EROSION RATE OF RESERVOIR DEPOSIT AS REVEALED BY LABORATORY EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Amar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of dams and reservoirs in a river can give significant impacts on its flow of water and sediment, and can cause long-term morphological changes on the river. Reservoir sedimentation can reduce a reservoir’s effective flood control volume, and in some severe cases can cause overtopping during floods. Sediment deposition against a dam can reduce its stability, and affect the operation of low-level outlet works, gates, and valves. The abrasive action of sediment particles can roughen the surface of release facilities and can cause cavitations and vibration. Sedimentation can also affect a reservoir’s water quality, and reduce its flood control, water supply, hydropower, and recreation benefits. Consequently, taking sedimentation into consideration not only in the planning and design, but also in the operation and maintenance of a dam and reservoir is important. Keywords: Erosion rate, reservoir deposit, shear stress.

  4. Second workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, P.; Ramey, H.J. Jr. (eds.)

    1976-12-03

    The Arab oil embargo of 1973 focused national attention on energy problems. A national focus on development of energy sources alternative to consumption of hydrocarbons led to the initiation of research studies of reservoir engineering of geothermal systems, funded by the National Science Foundation. At that time it appeared that only two significant reservoir engineering studies of geothermal reservoirs had been completed. Many meetings concerning development of geothermal resources were held from 1973 through the date of the first Stanford Geothermal Reservoir Engineering workshop December 15-17, 1975. These meetings were similar in that many reports dealt with the objectives of planned research projects rather than with results. The first reservoir engineering workshop held under the Stanford Geothermal Program was singular in that for the first time most participants were reporting on progress inactive research programs rather than on work planned. This was true for both laboratory experimental studies and for field experiments in producing geothermal systems. The Proceedings of the December 1975 workshop (SGP-TR-12) is a remarkable document in that results of both field operations and laboratory studies were freely presented and exchanged by all participants. With this in mind the second reservoir engineering workshop was planned for December 1976. The objectives were again two-fold. First, the workshop was designed as a forum to bring together researchers active in various physical and mathematical branches of the developing field of geothermal reservoir engineering, to give participants a current and updated view of progress being made in the field. The second purpose was to prepare this Proceedings of Summaries documenting the state of the art as of December 1976. The proceedings will be distributed to all interested members of the geothermal community involved in the development and utilization of the geothermal resources in the world. Many notable

  5. Reservoir geomechanics: new approach to reservoir engineering analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settari, A.; Walters, D.A.; Behie, G.A. [Duke Engineering and Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The rock mechanics aspects of reservoir behavior are reviewed, and a description is included of some recent trends in coupled reservoir and strata mechanics modelling. Case histories are summarized which are field applications of these new trends and tools. These case histories include: (1) high rate injection into an oil sand reservoir; (2) compaction modelling of a North Sea reservoir; and (3) brine disposal at a fracturing pressure. Coupled geomechanical modelling is feasible on a full field scale, and it provides flexibility in the degree of coupling and calculational efficiency. The scope of interest in data gathering and characterization must be extended beyond reservoir boundaries because of the coupled modelling approach. This modelling provides results that can be employed in integrated reservoir management that includes reservoir engineering, drilling and completions. Considering the three case histories, coupled modelling can be used for predicting fracture initiation and re-orientation, reservoir compaction and deformations, and enhancement of injectivity due to stress dependent formation properties. Coupled modelling has brought reservoir modelling to a new realistic level and produces significant economic gains. 15 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Geothermal reservoir management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, C.R.; Golabi, K.

    1978-02-01

    The optimal management of a hot water geothermal reservoir was considered. The physical system investigated includes a three-dimensional aquifer from which hot water is pumped and circulated through a heat exchanger. Heat removed from the geothermal fluid is transferred to a building complex or other facility for space heating. After passing through the heat exchanger, the (now cooled) geothermal fluid is reinjected into the aquifer. This cools the reservoir at a rate predicted by an expression relating pumping rate, time, and production hole temperature. The economic model proposed in the study maximizes discounted value of energy transferred across the heat exchanger minus the discounted cost of wells, equipment, and pumping energy. The real value of energy is assumed to increase at r percent per year. A major decision variable is the production or pumping rate (which is constant over the project life). Other decision variables in this optimization are production timing, reinjection temperature, and the economic life of the reservoir at the selected pumping rate. Results show that waiting time to production and production life increases as r increases and decreases as the discount rate increases. Production rate decreases as r increases and increases as the discount rate increases. The optimal injection temperature is very close to the temperature of the steam produced on the other side of the heat exchanger, and is virtually independent of r and the discount rate. Sensitivity of the decision variables to geohydrological parameters was also investigated. Initial aquifer temperature and permeability have a major influence on these variables, although aquifer porosity is of less importance. A penalty was considered for production delay after the lease is granted.

  7. Annual monitoring report for Dorris Reservoir Modoc National Wildlife Refuge water year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an annual water use report based on the Monitoring Plan for Dorris Reservoir. Table 1 provides monthly summaries of the information for the 1997 water year....

  8. Annual monitoring report for Dorris Reservoir Modoc National Wildlife Refuge water year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an annual water use report based on the Monitoring Plan for Dorris Reservoir. Table 1 provides monthly summaries of the information for the 1997 water year....

  9. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  10. Reservoir management cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article by Mohinder S. Gulati, Chief Engineer, Unocal Geothermal Operations, discusses cost cutting in geothermal reservoir management. The reservoir engineer or geoscientist can make a big difference in the economical outcome of a project by improving well performance and thus making geothermal energy more competitive in the energy marketplace. Bringing plants online in less time and proving resources to reduce the cycle time are some of the ways to reduce reservoir management costs discussed in this article.

  11. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  12. Reservoir Operation to Minimize Sedimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ari Wulandari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Wonogiri Reservoir capacity decreases rapidly, caused by serious sedimentation problems. In 2007, JICA was proposed a sediment storage reservoir with a new spillway for the purpose of sediment flushing / sluicing from The Keduang River. Due to the change of reservoir storage and change of reservoir system, it requires a sustainable reservoir operation technique. This technique is aimed to minimize the deviation between the input and output of sediments. The main objective of this study is to explore the optimal Wonogiri reservoir operation by minimizing the sediment trap. The CSUDP incremental dynamic programming procedure is used for the model optimization.  This new operating rules will also simulate a five years operation period, to show the effect of the implemented techniques. The result of the study are the newly developed reservoir operation system has many advantages when compared to the actual operation system and the disadvantage of this developed system is that the use is mainly designed for a wet hydrologic year, since its performance for the water supply is lower than the actual reservoir operations.Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.16-23 [How to cite this article:  Wulandari, D.A., Legono, D., and Darsono, S., 2014. Reservoir Operation to Minimize Sedimentation. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2,61-65. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.16-23] Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  13. All-optical reservoir computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duport, François; Schneider, Bendix; Smerieri, Anteo; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2012-09-24

    Reservoir Computing is a novel computing paradigm that uses a nonlinear recurrent dynamical system to carry out information processing. Recent electronic and optoelectronic Reservoir Computers based on an architecture with a single nonlinear node and a delay loop have shown performance on standardized tasks comparable to state-of-the-art digital implementations. Here we report an all-optical implementation of a Reservoir Computer, made of off-the-shelf components for optical telecommunications. It uses the saturation of a semiconductor optical amplifier as nonlinearity. The present work shows that, within the Reservoir Computing paradigm, all-optical computing with state-of-the-art performance is possible.

  14. Reservoir geochemistry; Geoquimica de reservatorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Joelma Pimentel; Rangel, Mario Duncan; Morais, Erica Tavares de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)], Emails: joelma.lopes@petrobras.com.br, mduncan@petrobras.com.br, ericat@petrobras.com.br; Aguiar, Helen G.M. de [Fundacao GORCEIX, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: helenaguiar.GORCEIX@petrobras.com.br

    2008-03-15

    Reservoir Geochemistry has many important practical applications during petroleum exploration, appraisal and development of oil fields. The most important uses are related to providing or disproving connectivity between reservoirs of a particular well or horizon. During exploration, reservoir geochemistry can indicate the direction of oil filling, suggesting the most appropriate places for drilling new wells. During production, studies of variations in composition with time and determination of proportions of commingled production from multiple zones, may also be carried out. The chemical constituents of petroleum in natural reservoirs frequently show measurable compositional variations, laterally and vertically. Due to the physical and chemical nature of petroleum changes with increasing maturity (or contribution of a second source during the filling process), lateral and vertical compositional variations exist in petroleum columns as reservoir filling is complete. Compositional variation can also be introduced by biodegradation or water washing. Once the reservoir is filled, density driven mixing and molecular diffusion tend to eliminate inherited compositional variations in an attempt to establish mechanical and chemical equilibrium in the petroleum column (England, 1990). Based on organic geochemical analysis it is possible to define these compositional variations among reservoirs, and use these data for developing of petroleum fields and for reservoir appraisal. Reservoir geochemistry offers rapid and low cost evaluation tools to aid in understanding development and production problems. Moreover, the applied methodology is relatively simple and gives reliable results, and can be performed routinely in any good geochemical laboratory at a relatively low cost. (author)

  15. Decision Support System for Reservoir Management and Operation in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navar, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Africa is currently experiencing a surge in dam construction for flood control, water supply and hydropower production, but ineffective reservoir management has caused problems in the region, such as water shortages, flooding and loss of potential hydropower generation. Our research aims to remedy ineffective reservoir management by developing a novel Decision Support System(DSS) to equip water managers with a technical planning tool based on the state of the art in hydrological sciences. The DSS incorporates a climate forecast model, a hydraulic model of the watershed, and an optimization model to effectively plan for the operation of a system of cascade large-scale reservoirs for hydropower production, while treating water supply and flood control as constraints. Our team will use the newly constructed hydropower plants in the Omo Gibe basin of Ethiopia as the test case. Using the basic HIDROTERM software developed in Brazil, the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) utilizes a combination of linear programing (LP) and non-linear programming (NLP) in conjunction with real time hydrologic and energy demand data to optimize the monthly and daily operations of the reservoir system. We compare the DSS model results with the current reservoir operating policy used by the water managers of that region. We also hope the DSS will eliminate the current dangers associated with the mismanagement of large scale water resources projects in Africa.

  16. 喇嘛甸油田三类油层三元复合驱注入方案优选研究%The Research on Optimizing the Plans of ASP Flooding Injection for Class Ⅲ Reservoir in Lamadian Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋国亮; 张承丽; 魏明国

    2012-01-01

    The core experiments of ASP flooding indoor are carried out firstly to evaluate the flooding efficiency of ASP flooding slug combination for class Ⅲ reservoir, then the facies controlling geological model is establishedby applying Petrel software. The numerical simulation research of ASP flooding injection type of different slug combination is carried out for class Ⅲ reservoir in Lamadian oil field by using STARS module of CMG software. The core flooding experimental research indoor for class Ⅲ reservoir shows that the ultimate recovery efficiency of water flooding on nature core is 45. 32% , and the ASP slug combination flooding has increased the ultimate recovery efficiency 12.48 points than water flooding. Class Ⅲ reservoir is more homogenous than Class I and Class II , which is more suitable for ASP flooding which makes improving flooding efficiency as its main mechanics. The numerical simulation results show that in the 4 plans of ASP flooding slug combination, the ultimate recovery efficiency of plan 5 is 52. 67% , which increased 13.94 points than water flooding of non-infilling pattern, and 9.79 points than water flooding of infilling pattern, the water cut decreased about 9 points. The plan 5 is determined as the best one.%首先进行三元复合驱室内岩心实验,对三类油层三元复合驱段塞组合驱油效果进行评价.然后用Petrel软件建立试验区相控地质模型,应用CMG软件中的STARS模块,对喇嘛甸油田三类油层三元复合驱不同段塞组合注入方案进行数值模拟研究.三类油层室内岩心驱油实验研究表明,天然岩心中水驱最终采收率为45.32%.进行三元段塞组合驱油最终采收率较水驱提高了12.48%.三类油层比一、二类油层更为均质,更适合以提高驱油效率为主要机理的三元复合驱.数值模拟结果表明,4种三元复合驱段塞组合方案中,方案5的最终采收率为52.67%,最终采收率比不加密井网水驱开发提高了13

  17. Operational resilience of reservoirs to climate change, agricultural demand, and tourism: A case study from Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereu, Simone; Sušnik, Janez; Trabucco, Antonio; Daccache, Andre; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia; Renoldi, Stefano; Virdis, Andrea; Savić, Dragan; Assimacopoulos, Dionysis

    2016-02-01

    Many (semi-) arid locations globally, and particularly islands, rely heavily on reservoirs for water supply. Some reservoirs are particularly vulnerable to climate and development changes (e.g. population change, tourist growth, hydropower demands). Irregularities and uncertainties in the fluvial regime associated with climate change and the continuous increase in water demand by different sectors will add new challenges to the management and to the resilience of these reservoirs. The resilience of vulnerable reservoirs must be studied in detail to prepare for and mitigate potential impacts of these changes. In this paper, a reservoir balance model is developed and presented for the Pedra e' Othoni reservoir in Sardinia, Italy, to assess resilience to climate and development changes. The model was first calibrated and validated, then forced with extensive ensemble climate data for representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5, agricultural data, and with four socio-economic development scenarios. Future projections show a reduction in annual reservoir inflow and an increase in demand, mainly in the agricultural sector. Under no scenario is reservoir resilience significantly affected, the reservoir always achieves refill. However, this occurs at the partial expenses of hydropower production with implications for the production of renewable energy. There is also the possibility of conflict between the agricultural sector and hydropower sector for diminishing water supply. Pedra e' Othoni reservoir shows good resilience to future change mostly because of the disproportionately large basin feeding it. However this is not the case of other Sardinian reservoirs and hence a detailed resilience assessment of all reservoirs is needed, where development plans should carefully account for the trade-offs and potential conflicts among sectors. For Sardinia, the option of physical connection between reservoirs is available, as are alternative water supply measures

  18. Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on mathematic

  19. Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on mathematic

  20. An improved reservoir oxide cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Liao, Xianheng; Luo, Jirun; Zhao, Qinglan

    2005-09-01

    A new type of reservoir oxide cathode has been developed in IECAS. The emission characteristics of the cathode are tested. The results show the new cathode has higher emission current density and better resistance to poisoning at same operating condition compared with those of conventional reservoir oxide cathode.

  1. Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on

  2. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plant that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration are being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the US.

  3. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  4. Chalk as a reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    , and the best reservoir properties are typically found in mudstone intervals. Chalk mudstones vary a lot though. The best mudstones are purely calcitic, well sorted and may have been redeposited by traction currents. Other mudstones are rich in very fine grained silica, which takes up pore space and thus...... stabilizes chemically by recrystallization. This process requires energy and is promoted by temperature. This recrystallization in principle does not influence porosity, but only specific surface, which decreases during recrystallization, causing permeability to increase. The central North Sea is a warm...... intervals are to some extent cemented and cannot compact mechanically at realistic effective stresses and only deform elastically. All chalk intervals though, may react by fracturing to changes in shear stress. So where natural fractures are not prevalent, fractures may be generated hydraulically. Fractures...

  5. Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawa, P.

    1981-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compile data on reservoirs that contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25/sup 0/ API gravity range, contain at least ten million barrels of oil currently in place, and are non-carbonate in lithology. The reservoirs within these constraints were then analyzed in light of applicable recovery technology, either steam-drive or in situ combustion, and then ranked hierarchically as candidate reservoirs. The study is presented in three volumes. Volume I presents the project background and approach, the screening analysis, ranking criteria, and listing of candidate reservoirs. The economic and environmental aspects of heavy oil recovery are included in appendices to this volume. This study provides an extensive basis for heavy oil development, but should be extended to include carbonate reservoirs and tar sands. It is imperative to look at heavy oil reservoirs and projects on an individual basis; it was discovered that operators, and industrial and government analysts will lump heavy oil reservoirs as poor producers, however, it was found that upon detailed analysis, a large number, so categorized, were producing very well. A study also should be conducted on abandoned reservoirs. To utilize heavy oil, refiners will have to add various unit operations to their processes, such as hydrotreaters and hydrodesulfurizers and will require, in most cases, a lighter blending stock. A big problem in producing heavy oil is that of regulation; specifically, it was found that the regulatory constraints are so fluid and changing that one cannot settle on a favorable recovery and production plan with enough confidence in the regulatory requirements to commit capital to the project.

  6. Reasons for reservoir effect variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater reservoir effects can be large and highly variable. I will present my investigations into the short-term variability of the freshwater reservoir effect in two Northern German rivers. The samples analysed in this study were collected between 2007 and 2012. Reservoir ages of water samples......, aquatic plants and fish from the rivers Alster and Trave range between zero and about 3,000 radiocarbon years. The reservoir age of water DIC depends to a large extent on the origin of the water and is for example correlated with precipitation amounts. These short-term variations are smoothed out in water...... plants. Their carbon should represent an average value of the entire growth season. However, there are large reservoir age variations in aquatic plants and animals as well. These can best be explained by the multitude of carbon sources which can be utilized by aquatic organisms, and which have...

  7. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebecca Egg

    2002-09-30

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the fifth and sixth annual reporting periods (8/3/98-8/2/00) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the cross well seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted, the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction was conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and ten wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  8. Gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glegola, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The

  9. Environmental impact assessments of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir on the most hyperconcentrated laden river, Yellow River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dongxian; Miao, Chiyuan; Wu, Jingwen; Borthwick, Alistair G L; Duan, Qingyun; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-02-01

    The Yellow River is the most hyperconcentrated sediment-laden river in the world. Throughout recorded history, the Lower Yellow River (LYR) experienced many catastrophic flood and drought events. To regulate the LYR, a reservoir was constructed at Xiaolangdi that became operational in the early 2000s. An annual water-sediment regulation scheme (WSRS) was then implemented, aimed at flood control, sediment reduction, regulated water supply, and power generation. This study examines the eco-environmental and socioenvironmental impacts of Xiaolangdi Reservoir. In retrospect, it is found that the reservoir construction phase incurred huge financial cost and required large-scale human resettlement. Subsequent reservoir operations affected the local geological environment, downstream riverbed erosion, evolution of the Yellow River delta, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity. Lessons from the impact assessment of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir are summarized as follows: (1) The construction of large reservoirs is not merely an engineering challenge but must also be viewed in terms of resource exploitation, environmental protection, and social development; (2) long-term systems for monitoring large reservoirs should be established, and decision makers involved at national policy and planning levels must be prepared to react quickly to the changing impact of large reservoirs; and (3) the key to solving sedimentation in the LYR is not Xiaolangdi Reservoir but instead soil conservation in the middle reaches of the Yellow River basin. Proper assessment of the impacts of large reservoirs will help promote development strategies that enhance the long-term sustainability of dam projects.

  10. Water resources review: Ocoee reservoirs, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, J.P.

    1990-08-01

    Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is preparing a series of reports to make technical information on individual TVA reservoirs readily accessible. These reports provide a summary of reservoir purpose and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and watershed; water quality conditions; aquatic biological conditions; and designated, actual and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those use. This reservoir status report addressed the three Ocoee Reservoirs in Polk County, Tennessee.

  11. Third workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P. (eds.)

    1977-12-15

    Workshop under the Stanford Geothermal Program was supported by a grant from DOE through a subcontract with the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory of the University of California. A second significant event was the first conference under the ERDA (DOE)-ENEL cooperative program where many of the results of well testing in both nations were discussed. The Proceedings of that conference should be an important contribution to the literature. These Proceedings of the Third Workshop should also make an important contribution to the literature on geothermal reservoir engineering. Much of the data presented at the Workshop were given for the first time, and full technical papers on these subjects will appear in the professional journals. The results of these studies will assist markedly in developing the research programs to be supported by the Federal agencies, and in reducing the costs of research for individual developers and utilities. It is expected that future workshops of the Stanford Geothermal Program will be as successful as this third one. Planning and execution of the Workshop... [see file; ljd, 10/3/2005] The Program Committee recommended two novel sessions for the Third Workshop, both of which were included in the program. The first was the three overviews given at the Workshop by George Pinder (Princeton) on the Academic aspect, James Bresee (DOE-DGE) on the Government aspect, and Charles Morris (Phillips Petroleum) on the Industry aspect. These constituted the invited slate of presentations from the several sectors of the geothermal community. The Program Committee acknowledges their contributions with gratitude. Recognition of the importance of reservoir assurance in opting for geothermal resources as an alternate energy source for electric energy generation resulted in a Panel Session on Various Definitions of Geothermal Reservoirs. Special acknowledgments are offered to Jack Howard and Werner Schwarz (LBL) and to Jack Howard as moderator; to the panelists: James Leigh

  12. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  13. Data requirements and acquisition for reservoir characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, S.; Chang, Ming Ming; Tham, Min.

    1993-03-01

    This report outlines the types of data, data sources and measurement tools required for effective reservoir characterization, the data required for specific enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, and a discussion on the determination of the optimum data density for reservoir characterization and reservoir modeling. The two basic sources of data for reservoir characterization are data from the specific reservoir and data from analog reservoirs, outcrops, and modern environments. Reservoir data can be divided into three broad categories: (1) rock properties (the container) and (2) fluid properties (the contents) and (3)interaction between reservoir rock and fluid. Both static and dynamic measurements are required.

  14. A reservoir simulation approach for modeling of naturally fractured reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mohammadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the Warren and Root model proposed for the simulation of naturally fractured reservoir was improved. A reservoir simulation approach was used to develop a 2D model of a synthetic oil reservoir. Main rock properties of each gridblock were defined for two different types of gridblocks called matrix and fracture gridblocks. These two gridblocks were different in porosity and permeability values which were higher for fracture gridblocks compared to the matrix gridblocks. This model was solved using the implicit finite difference method. Results showed an improvement in the Warren and Root model especially in region 2 of the semilog plot of pressure drop versus time, which indicated a linear transition zone with no inflection point as predicted by other investigators. Effects of fracture spacing, fracture permeability, fracture porosity, matrix permeability and matrix porosity on the behavior of a typical naturally fractured reservoir were also presented.

  15. THE SURDUC RESERVOIR (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Iulian TEODORESCU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Surduc reservoir was projected to ensure more water when water is scarce and to thus provide especially the city Timisoara, downstream of it with water.The accumulation is placed on the main affluent of the Bega river, Gladna in the upper part of its watercourse.The dam behind which this accumulation was created is of a frontal type made of enrochements with a masque made of armed concrete on the upstream part and protected/sustained by grass on the downstream. The dam is 130m long on its coping and a constructed height of 34 m. It is also endowed with spillway for high water and two bottom outlets formed of two conduits, at the end of which is the microplant. The second part of my paper deals with the hydrometric analysis of the Accumulation Surduc and its impact upon the flow, especially the maximum run-off. This influence is exemplified through the high flood from the 29th of July 1980, the most significant flood recorded in the basin with an apparition probability of 0.002%.

  16. 2010 Fresno Reservoir Sedimentation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Fresno Reservoir in June of 2010 to develop a topographic map and compute a storage-elevation relationship...

  17. 2011 Groundhog Reservoir Bathymetric Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey performed a bathymetric survey of Groundhog Reservoir using a man-operated boat-mounted multibeam echo sounder integrated with a global...

  18. Glendo Reservoir 2003 Sedimenation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Glendo Reservoir in May and July of 2003 and January 2005 to develop a new topographic map and compute a present...

  19. Understanding the True Strimulated Reservoir Volume in Shale Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Maaruf

    2017-06-06

    Successful exploitation of shale reservoirs largely depends on the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing stimulation program. Favorable results have been attributed to intersection and reactivation of pre-existing fractures by hydraulically-induced fractures that connect the wellbore to a larger fracture surface area within the reservoir rock volume. Thus, accurate estimation of the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) becomes critical for the reservoir performance simulation and production analysis. Micro-seismic events (MS) have been commonly used as a proxy to map out the SRV geometry, which could be erroneous because not all MS events are related to hydraulic fracture propagation. The case studies discussed here utilized a fully 3-D simulation approach to estimate the SRV. The simulation approach presented in this paper takes into account the real-time changes in the reservoir\\'s geomechanics as a function of fluid pressures. It is consisted of four separate coupled modules: geomechanics, hydrodynamics, a geomechanical joint model for interfacial resolution, and an adaptive re-meshing. Reservoir stress condition, rock mechanical properties, and injected fluid pressure dictate how fracture elements could open or slide. Critical stress intensity factor was used as a fracture criterion governing the generation of new fractures or propagation of existing fractures and their directions. Our simulations were run on a Cray XC-40 HPC system. The studies outcomes proved the approach of using MS data as a proxy for SRV to be significantly flawed. Many of the observed stimulated natural fractures are stress related and very few that are closer to the injection field are connected. The situation is worsened in a highly laminated shale reservoir as the hydraulic fracture propagation is significantly hampered. High contrast in the in-situ stresses related strike-slip developed thereby shortens the extent of SRV. However, far field nature fractures that were not connected to

  20. Understanding the Role of Reservoir Size on Probable Maximum Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldemichael, A. T.; Hossain, F.

    2011-12-01

    This study addresses the question 'Does surface area of an artificial reservoir matter in the estimation of probable maximum precipitation (PMP) for an impounded basin?' The motivation of the study was based on the notion that the stationarity assumption that is implicit in the PMP for dam design can be undermined in the post-dam era due to an enhancement of extreme precipitation patterns by an artificial reservoir. In addition, the study lays the foundation for use of regional atmospheric models as one way to perform life cycle assessment for planned or existing dams to formulate best management practices. The American River Watershed (ARW) with the Folsom dam at the confluence of the American River was selected as the study region and the Dec-Jan 1996-97 storm event was selected for the study period. The numerical atmospheric model used for the study was the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). First, the numerical modeling system, RAMS, was calibrated and validated with selected station and spatially interpolated precipitation data. Best combinations of parameterization schemes in RAMS were accordingly selected. Second, to mimic the standard method of PMP estimation by moisture maximization technique, relative humidity terms in the model were raised to 100% from ground up to the 500mb level. The obtained model-based maximum 72-hr precipitation values were named extreme precipitation (EP) as a distinction from the PMPs obtained by the standard methods. Third, six hypothetical reservoir size scenarios ranging from no-dam (all-dry) to the reservoir submerging half of basin were established to test the influence of reservoir size variation on EP. For the case of the ARW, our study clearly demonstrated that the assumption of stationarity that is implicit the traditional estimation of PMP can be rendered invalid to a large part due to the very presence of the artificial reservoir. Cloud tracking procedures performed on the basin also give indication of the

  1. Policy Considerations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Freshwater Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Mäkinen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging concern over greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from wetlands has prompted calls to address the climate impact of dams in climate policy frameworks. Existing studies indicate that reservoirs can be significant sources of emissions, particularly in tropical areas. However, knowledge on the role of dams in overall national emission levels and abatement targets is limited, which is often cited as a key reason for political inaction and delays in formulating appropriate policies. Against this backdrop, this paper discusses the current role of reservoir emissions in existing climate policy frameworks. The distance between a global impact on climate and a need for local mitigation measures creates a challenge for designing appropriate mechanisms to combat reservoir emissions. This paper presents a range of possible policy interventions at different scales that could help address the climate impact of reservoirs. Reservoir emissions need to be treated like other anthropogenic greenhouse gases. A rational treatment of the issue requires applying commonly accepted climate change policy principles as well as promoting participatory water management plans through integrated water resource management frameworks. An independent global body such as the UN system may be called upon to assess scientific information and develop GHG emissions policy at appropriate levels.

  2. Dam and spillway construction to remediate a failed reservoir rim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostaschuk, R.; Grover, P.; Wanner, C. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Lockhart, S. [Priddis Greens Golf and Country Club, Priddis, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Priddis Greens Golf and Country Club (PGGCC) is located in southern Alberta, about 25 kilometres southwest of Calgary. Lake Loon reservoir supplies water for irrigation of the 36-hole golf course and also supplies water to the water treatment plant that provides potable water to the golf course and the housing development. An earthen spillway channel on the reservoir rim failed by erosion at the PGGCC during an extreme flood event in June 2005. The failure resulted in loss of the reservoir for the water supply system servicing the golf course and its housing cooperative. Design and reconstruction of the reservoir rim were undertaken and a new concrete spillway structure was built. This paper provided background information on the June 2005 failure and provided an overview of the design concept for reservoir restoration. The Alberta Environment permitting process was also outlined. Hydrology, flood management and spillway design were explained in detail. A geotechnical design of earthworks was also provided. The paper concluded with a discussion of an emergency preparedness and response plan and operation, maintenance and surveillance manual that were developed for the project. 2 refs., 20 figs.

  3. Remotely Sensed Monitoring of Small Reservoir Dynamics: A Bayesian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Eilander

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multipurpose small reservoirs are important for livelihoods in rural semi-arid regions. To manage and plan these reservoirs and to assess their hydrological impact at a river basin scale, it is important to monitor their water storage dynamics. This paper introduces a Bayesian approach for monitoring small reservoirs with radar satellite images. The newly developed growing Bayesian classifier has a high degree of automation, can readily be extended with auxiliary information and reduces the confusion error to the land-water boundary pixels. A case study has been performed in the Upper East Region of Ghana, based on Radarsat-2 data from November 2012 until April 2013. Results show that the growing Bayesian classifier can deal with the spatial and temporal variability in synthetic aperture radar (SAR backscatter intensities from small reservoirs. Due to its ability to incorporate auxiliary information, the algorithm is able to delineate open water from SAR imagery with a low land-water contrast in the case of wind-induced Bragg scattering or limited vegetation on the land surrounding a small reservoir.

  4. Capacity sharing of water reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Norman J.; Musgrave, Warren F.

    1988-05-01

    The concept of a water use property right is developed which does not apply to water volumes as such but to a share of the capacity (not contents) of river storage reservoirs and their inflows. The shareholders can withdraw water from their share over time in accordance with their preferences for stability of water deliveries. The reservoir authority does not manage reservoir releases but keeps record of individual shareholder's withdrawals and net inflows to monitor the quantity of water in each shareholder's capacity share. A surplus of total reservoir contents over the sum of the contents of the individual shareholder's capacity shares will accrue over time. Two different criteria for its periodic distribution among shareholders are compared. A previous paper Dudley (this issue(b)) noted a loss of short-run economic efficiency as reservoir and farm management decision making become separated. This is largely overcome by capacity sharing which allows each user to integrate the management of their portion of the reservoir and their farming operations. The nonattenuated nature of the capacity sharing water rights also promotes long-run economic efficiency.

  5. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1992-09-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description and scale-up procedures; (ii) outcrop investigation; (iii) in-fill drilling potential. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be characterized, can be described in three dimensions, and can be scaled up with respect to its properties, appropriate for simulation purposes. The second section describes the progress on investigation of an outcrop. The outcrop is an analog of Bartlesville Sandstone. We have drilled ten wells behind the outcrop and collected extensive log and core data. The cores have been slabbed, photographed and the several plugs have been taken. In addition, minipermeameter is used to measure permeabilities on the core surface at six inch intervals. The plugs have been analyzed for the permeability and porosity values. The variations in property values will be tied to the geological descriptions as well as the subsurface data collected from the Glen Pool field. The third section discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to infer in-fill well locations. The geostatistical technique used is the simulated annealing technique because of its flexibility. One of the important reservoir data is the production data. Use of production data will allow us to define the reservoir continuities, which may in turn, determine the in-fill well locations. The proposed technique allows us to incorporate some of the production data as constraints in the reservoir descriptions. The technique has been validated by comparing the results with numerical simulations.

  6. Petroleum reservoir data for testing simulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, J.M.; Harrison, W.

    1980-09-01

    This report consists of reservoir pressure and production data for 25 petroleum reservoirs. Included are 5 data sets for single-phase (liquid) reservoirs, 1 data set for a single-phase (liquid) reservoir with pressure maintenance, 13 data sets for two-phase (liquid/gas) reservoirs and 6 for two-phase reservoirs with pressure maintenance. Also given are ancillary data for each reservoir that could be of value in the development and validation of simulation models. A bibliography is included that lists the publications from which the data were obtained.

  7. Internet plan and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahriman Emina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discuss specific features of internet plan as well as planning as management process in general in the contemporary environment. No need to stress out that marketing plan and marketing planning is core activity in approaching to market. At the same time, there are a lot specific c request in preparing marketing plan comparing to business planning due to marketing plan is an essential part. The importance of internet plan and planning rely on specific features of the internet network but as a part of general corporate as well as marketing strategy.

  8. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries; Methods and Data, 1983-1987 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Bruce; Michael, Gary; Wachsmuth, John (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Kalispell, MT)

    1988-06-01

    The Hungry Horse Reservoir study is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife plan. The plan is responsible for mitigating damages to the fish and wildlife resources caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The major goal of our study is to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance the reservoir fishery. This study began in May, 1983, and the initial phase will be completed July, 1988. This report summarizes limnological, fish abundance, fish distribution and fish food habits data collected from 1983 to 1988. The effect of reservoir operation upon fish habitat, fish food organisms and fish growth is discussed. 71 refs., 36 figs., 46 tabs.

  9. Optimization and risk analyses for rule curves of reservoir operation: application to Tien-Hua-Hu Reservoir in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, J T; Hsu, N S; Chiu, S K

    2006-01-01

    Tien-Hua-Hu Reservoir is currently under planning by the Water Resources Agency, Taiwan to meet the increasing water demands of central Taiwan arising from rapid growth of domestic water supply, and high-tech industrial parks. This study develops a simulation model for the ten-day period reservoir operation to calculate the ten-day water shortage index under varying rule curves. A genetic algorithm is coupled to the simulation model to find the optimal rule curves using the minimum ten-day water shortage index as an objective function. This study generates many sets of synthetic streamflows for risk, reliability, resiliency, and vulnerability analyses of reservoir operation. ARMA and disaggregation models are developed and applied to the synthetic streamflow generation. The optimal rule curves obtained from this study perform better in the ten-day shortage index when compared to the originally designed rule curves from a previous study. The optimal rule curves are also superior to the originally designed rule curves in terms of vulnerability. However, in terms of reliability and resiliency, the optimal rule curves are inferior to the those originally designed. Results from this study have provided in general a set of improved rule curves for operation of the Tien-Hua-Hu Reservoir. Furthermore, results from reliability, resiliency and vulnerability analyses offer much useful information for decision making in reservoir operation.

  10. Twentieth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-01-26

    PREFACE The Twentieth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, dedicated to the memory of Professor Hank Ramey, was held at Stanford University on January 24-26, 1995. There were ninety-five registered participants. Participants came from six foreign countries: Japan, Mexico, England, Italy, New Zealand and Iceland. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Thirty-two papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into eleven sessions concerning: field development, modeling, well tesubore, injection, geoscience, geochemistry and field operations. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bob Fournier, Mark Walters, John Counsil, Marcelo Lippmann, Keshav Goyal, Joel Renner and Mike Shook. In addition to the technical sessions, a panel discussion was held on ''What have we learned in 20 years?'' Panel speakers included Patrick Muffler, George Frye, Alfred Truesdell and John Pritchett. The subject was further discussed by Subir Sanyal, who gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager

  11. Assessing reservoir operations risk under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, L.D.; Maurer, E.P.; Anderson, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.; Townsley, E.S.; Harrison, A.; Pruitt, T.

    2009-01-01

    Risk-based planning offers a robust way to identify strategies that permit adaptive water resources management under climate change. This paper presents a flexible methodology for conducting climate change risk assessments involving reservoir operations. Decision makers can apply this methodology to their systems by selecting future periods and risk metrics relevant to their planning questions and by collectively evaluating system impacts relative to an ensemble of climate projection scenarios (weighted or not). This paper shows multiple applications of this methodology in a case study involving California's Central Valley Project and State Water Project systems. Multiple applications were conducted to show how choices made in conducting the risk assessment, choices known as analytical design decisions, can affect assessed risk. Specifically, risk was reanalyzed for every choice combination of two design decisions: (1) whether to assume climate change will influence flood-control constraints on water supply operations (and how), and (2) whether to weight climate change scenarios (and how). Results show that assessed risk would motivate different planning pathways depending on decision-maker attitudes toward risk (e.g., risk neutral versus risk averse). Results also show that assessed risk at a given risk attitude is sensitive to the analytical design choices listed above, with the choice of whether to adjust flood-control rules under climate change having considerably more influence than the choice on whether to weight climate scenarios. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

  13. 浅析水库保护区内的小城镇规划建设思路--以北京市密云县太师屯镇为例%Analysis of the Planning and Construction of the Small Town in Reservoir Protection Zone---A Case Study of Taishitun,Miyun County,Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,a small town,Taishitun,Miyun County,Beijing is as the case study.This paper mainly present the planning and construction of the small town in reservoir protection zone,including urban development strategies,rural spatial development patterns and spatial layout,village migration,functions and industry layout,the coordinated development of construction land,regional spatial control.%以北京市密云县太师屯镇为例,主要阐述在水库保护区内小城镇的规划建设思路,包括城镇发展策略、村镇空间发展模式与空间布局、迁村并点、村镇职能与产业布局、城乡建设用地协调发展、区域空间规划与管制等内容。

  14. basement reservoir geometry and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, bastien; Geraud, yves; Diraison, marc

    2017-04-01

    Basement reservoirs are nowadays frequently investigated for deep-seated fluid resources (e.g. geothermal energy, groundwater, hydrocarbons). The term 'basement' generally refers to crystalline and metamorphic formations, where matrix porosity is negligible in fresh basement rocks. Geothermal production of such unconventional reservoirs is controlled by brittle structures and altered rock matrix, resulting of a combination of different tectonic, hydrothermal or weathering phenomena. This work aims to characterize the petro-structural and petrophysical properties of two basement surface analogue case studies in geological extensive setting (the Albert Lake rift in Uganda; the Ifni proximal margin of the South West Morocco Atlantic coast). Different datasets, using field structural study, geophysical acquisition and laboratory petrophysical measurements, were integrated to describe the multi-scale geometry of the porous network of such fractured and weathered basement formations. This study points out the multi-scale distribution of all the features constituting the reservoir, over ten orders of magnitude from the pluri-kilometric scale of the major tectonics structures to the infra-millimetric scale of the secondary micro-porosity of fractured and weathered basements units. Major fault zones, with relatively thick and impermeable fault core structures, control the 'compartmentalization' of the reservoir by dividing it into several structural blocks. The analysis of these fault zones highlights the necessity for the basement reservoirs to be characterized by a highly connected fault and fracture system, where structure intersections represent the main fluid drainage areas between and within the reservoir's structural blocks. The suitable fluid storage areas in these reservoirs correspond to the damage zone of all the fault structures developed during the tectonic evolution of the basement and the weathered units of the basement roof developed during pre

  15. Fingerprinting Persistent Turbidity in Sheep Creek Reservoir, Owhyee, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, R. N.; Hooper, R. L.; Kerner, D.; Nicols, S.

    2007-12-01

    effective remediation plan that includes minimizing future loading of the reservoir with soils capable of producing extended turbidity.

  16. Application of Integrated Reservoir management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Pregger; D. Davies; D. Moore; G. Freeman; J. Callard; J.W. Nevans; L. Doublet; R. Vessell; T. Blasingame

    1997-08-31

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  17. Reservoir Protection Technology in China: Research & Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiangui; Wu Juan; Kang Yili

    2006-01-01

    @@ Great development of reservoir protection technology (RPT) has been achieved since 1996, including oil and gas reservoir protection for exploration wells, reservoir protection during underbalanced drilling, protection of fractured tight sandstone gas reservoir, and reservoir protection while increase production and reconstructing, development and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) etc. It has stepped into a new situation with special features and advantage. These technical advancements marked that China's RTP have realized leaps from porous reservoirs to fractured reservoirs,from conventional medium-to-low permeability reservoirs to unconventional reservoirs, from oil and gas producers to exploration wells, and from application mainly in drilling and completion processes to application in stimulation,development, production and EOR processes.

  18. Introduction to the special section: Recent advancement on integrated carbonate reservoirs prediction with complex secondary storage space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate reservoirs in Western China show tremendous exploration and development potential.These have become the key area for oil and gas reserves addition and sustainable resource development for China.Compared to conventional carbonate reservoirs,prediction of this kind of reservoir predominated by secondary storage is much more difficult and presents significant challenges.Seismic detection of dissolution pores and fractures always requires a high standard of technology,which puts further serious challenges on exploration and creates many technological issues for field development plans.The key geophysical problems are tackled based on a detailed analysis of exploration issues for such complex carbonate reservoirs.

  19. Climate change impacts on water supply: implications for reservoir management in upper Sabor, northeast Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho-Santos, Cláudia; Monteiro, António T.; Azevedo, João; Nunes, João Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Climate change scenarios project warmer temperatures and less precipitation in Mediterranean watersheds. This can aggravate drought conditions, with negative impacts on water supply. Here, reservoirs may play an important role to mitigate these impacts. However, the implications of climate change are not always considered in the reservoir planning and management. This study aimed to address this issue for the Upper Sabor watershed, northeast Portugal. This is a medium watershed...

  20. Characterization of oil and gas reservoirs and recovery technology deployment on Texas State Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, R.; Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Texas State Lands oil and gas resources are estimated at 1.6 BSTB of remaining mobile oil, 2.1 BSTB, or residual oil, and nearly 10 Tcf of remaining gas. An integrated, detailed geologic and engineering characterization of Texas State Lands has created quantitative descriptions of the oil and gas reservoirs, resulting in delineation of untapped, bypassed compartments and zones of remaining oil and gas. On Texas State Lands, the knowledge gained from such interpretative, quantitative reservoir descriptions has been the basis for designing optimized recovery strategies, including well deepening, recompletions, workovers, targeted infill drilling, injection profile modification, and waterflood optimization. The State of Texas Advanced Resource Recovery program is currently evaluating oil and gas fields along the Gulf Coast (South Copano Bay and Umbrella Point fields) and in the Permian Basin (Keystone East, Ozona, Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields). The program is grounded in advanced reservoir characterization techniques that define the residence of unrecovered oil and gas remaining in select State Land reservoirs. Integral to the program is collaboration with operators in order to deploy advanced reservoir exploitation and management plans. These plans are made on the basis of a thorough understanding of internal reservoir architecture and its controls on remaining oil and gas distribution. Continued accurate, detailed Texas State Lands reservoir description and characterization will ensure deployment of the most current and economically viable recovery technologies and strategies available.

  1. Multilevel techniques for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour

    The subject of this thesis is the development, application and study of novel multilevel methods for the acceleration and improvement of reservoir simulation techniques. The motivation for addressing this topic is a need for more accurate predictions of porous media flow and the ability to carry...... Full Approximation Scheme) • Variational (Galerkin) upscaling • Linear solvers and preconditioners First, a nonlinear multigrid scheme in the form of the Full Approximation Scheme (FAS) is implemented and studied for a 3D three-phase compressible rock/fluids immiscible reservoir simulator...... based on element-based Algebraic Multigrid (AMGe). In particular, an advanced AMGe technique with guaranteed approximation properties is used to construct a coarse multilevel hierarchy of Raviart-Thomas and L2 spaces for the Galerkin coarsening of a mixed formulation of the reservoir simulation...

  2. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Susilowati

    2015-04-01

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir's layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir's character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia.

  3. Smart Waterflooding in Carbonate Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel

    During the last decade, smart waterflooding has been developed into an emerging EOR technology both for carbonate and sandstone reservoirs that does not require toxic or expensive chemicals. Although it is widely accepted that different salinity brines may increase the oil recovery for carbonate...... reservoirs, understanding of the mechanism of this increase is still developing. To understand this smart waterflooding process, an extensive research has been carried out covering a broad range of disciplines within surface chemistry, thermodynamics of crude oil and brine, as well as their behavior...

  4. SIRIU RESERVOIR, BUZAU RIVER (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Constantin DIACONU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Siriu reservoir, owes it`s creation to the dam built on the river Buzau, in the town which bears the same name. The reservoir has a hydro energetic role, to diminish the maximum flow and to provide water to the localities below. The partial exploitation of the lake, began in 1984; Since that time, the initial bed of the river began to accumulate large quantities of alluvia, reducing the retention capacity of the lake, which had a volume of 125 million m3. The changes produced are determined by many topographic surveys at the bottom of the lake.

  5. Demand-Supply Optimization with Risk Management for a Multi-Connection Water Reservoir Network

    CERN Document Server

    Chatpatanasiri, Ratthachat

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a framework to solve a demand-supply optimization problem of long-term water resource allocation on a multi-connection reservoir network which, in two aspects, is different to the problem considered in previous works. First, while all previous works consider a problem where each reservoir can transfer water to only one fixed reservoir, we consider a multi-connection network being constructed in Thailand in which each reservoir can transfer water to many reservoirs in one period of time. Second, a demand-supply plan considered here is static, in contrast to a dynamic policy considered in previous works. Moreover, in order to efficiently develop a long-term static plan, a severe loss (a risk) is taken into account, i.e. a risk occurs if the real amount of water stored in each reservoir in each time period is less than what planned by the optimizer. The multi-connection function and the risk make the problem rather complex such that traditional stochastic dynamic programming and determi...

  6. Application of Remote Sensing Technologies in Planning Reservoir and Pond Wetland Parks in Xinjiang-A Case Study of Manasi National Wetland Park%遥感技术在新疆库塘型湿地公园规划中的应用--以玛纳斯国家湿地公园规划为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巍巍

    2014-01-01

    Protection and utilization of reservoir and pond wetlands are of great importance to Oasis stabilization and urban development in Xinjiang. Manas wetland is a typical representative of the reservoir and pond wetland Remote sensing technologies were used to interpret the multiple cycles of land cover and hydrological changes in Manasi wetland. Results indicated that the hydrological changes were mainly due to artificial interventions, the hydrological cycles were not conducive to the growth of vegetation, leading to continual degradation of the wetland vegetation and the soil salinization. Measures of water level regulation to promote vegetation growth and strategies of ecological control of soil salinization were proposed in the planning. Ecological-function zones of the wetland park were identified using the overlay analysis of wetland occurrence frequency.%新疆库塘型湿地的保护和利用对于稳定绿洲和城市转型发展具有重要意义。玛纳斯湿地是新疆库塘湿地的典型代表,通过遥感技术对玛纳斯湿地多期土地覆被及水文变化进行了解译。结果表明:湿地水文变化主要受人为调控影响,水文变化周期不利于自然植被生长,湿地植被逐年衰退,区域土壤存在盐碱化风险。规划提出了适宜湿地植被生长的水位调控方案和土壤盐碱化的生态防治策略;基于湿地出现频率的叠加分析,划定了湿地公园的生态功能区划和外围管控分区,为同类湿地的规划提供了有益借鉴。

  7. IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY IN MISSISSIPPIAN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS OF KANSAS - NEAR TERM - CLASS 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy R. Carr; Don W. Green; G. Paul Willhite

    2000-04-30

    This annual report describes progress during the final year of the project entitled ''Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs in Kansas''. This project funded under the Department of Energy's Class 2 program targets improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. The focus of the project was development and demonstration of cost-effective reservoir description and management technologies to extend the economic life of mature reservoirs in Kansas and the mid-continent. As part of the project, tools and techniques for reservoir description and management were developed, modified and demonstrated, including PfEFFER spreadsheet log analysis software. The world-wide-web was used to provide rapid and flexible dissemination of the project results through the Internet. A summary of demonstration phase at the Schaben and Ness City North sites demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed reservoir management strategies and technologies. At the Schaben Field, a total of 22 additional locations were evaluated based on the reservoir characterization and simulation studies and resulted in a significant incremental production increase. At Ness City North Field, a horizontal infill well (Mull Ummel No.4H) was planned and drilled based on the results of reservoir characterization and simulation studies to optimize the location and length. The well produced excellent and predicted oil rates for the first two months. Unexpected presence of vertical shale intervals in the lateral resulted in loss of the hole. While the horizontal well was not economically successful, the technology was demonstrated to have potential to recover significant additional reserves in Kansas and the Midcontinent. Several low-cost approaches were developed to evaluate candidate reservoirs for potential horizontal well applications at the field scale, lease level, and well level, and enable the small

  8. RUNOFF ESTIMATES INTO THE WEIJA RESERVOIR AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR WATER SUPPLY TO ACCRA, GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry S. Kuma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Accra has a population of about 2.3 million and is supplied with water from both the Kpong and Weija Water Works. Water from the Weija treatment plant is taken from the Weija Reservoir which is fed by Rivers in the Densu River Basin (DRB that flow into the Reservoir at Weija. With increasing annual population growth of Accra at 4.4% and inadequate water supply to it, this study has examined the hydrological data available on the Weija Reservoir from 1980 to 2007 in an attempt to estimate runoff into the Reservoir with the view of determining whether water is available to meet its present and future demands. Results show that even though water abstraction from the Reservoir has increased almost four times since 1980, to more than 67 million m3/year in 2007, and a maximum runoff of 7.97 ± 0.21 × 10-2 km3/year was estimated in 2005, this value is less than the true runoff into the Reservoir. It was also observed that potential evapotranspiration has increased by 0.14% while precipitation has decreased by 0.93% in the DRB, indicating that runoff from the Basin into the Reservoir is probably decreasing, albeit slowly. Additionally, fishing and waste disposal methods are poor; land use practices and other anthropogenic activities in the DRB pose a threat to the sustainability of the Reservoir. Serious educational programmes and enforcement measures need to be urgently adopted to safeguard continuous water flow into the Reservoir. Proper hydrological data collection and data management practices are recommended for the Reservoir and Densu River Basin if detailed planning of the water resources of the Reservoir are to be achieved.

  9. Geothermal reservoir engineering. Part 1. Reservoir assessment; Chinetsu choryuso kogaku. 1. Choryuso hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishido, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-03-15

    This paper is the introduction entitled `Reservoir Assessment` of a lecture on geothermal reservoir engineering. Geothermal resources are described first. The amount of heat released from the inner part of the earth to the surface is 4.2 billion watts. The present technology is able to develop up to 2 to 3 km from the surface. In the section of Geothermal Reservoirs, the concept models of geothermal systems are explained. The development of geothermal reservoirs is essentially to collect heat from the reservoirs. Basically, 2 processes are considered, viz. Cold Sweep and In Situ Boiling. The technical field that is closely related to the reservoir assessment is the geothermal reservoir engineering and this was born in 1970`s. The reservoir modeling is dealt with dividing into 3 headings, viz. Mathematical model and reservoir simulator, Making reservoir model and History of reservoir model at Wairakei. The production forecast and the post-production behavior are also described. 12 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Decommissioning strategy for liquid low-level radioactive waste surface storage water reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, S S; Linge, I I

    2016-11-22

    The Techa Cascade of water reservoirs (TCR) is one of the most environmentally challenging facilities resulted from FSUE "PA "Mayak" operations. Its reservoirs hold over 360 mln m(3) of liquid radioactive waste with a total activity of some 5 × 10(15) Bq. A set of actions implemented under a special State program involving the development of a strategic plan aimed at complete elimination of TCR challenges (Strategic Master-Plan for the Techa Cascade of water reservoirs) resulted in considerable reduction of potential hazards associated with this facility. The paper summarizes the key elements of this master-plan: defining TCR final state, feasibility study of the main strategies aimed at its attainment, evaluation of relevant long-term decommissioning strategy, development of computational tools enabling the long-term forecast of TCR behavior depending on various engineering solutions and different weather conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Unconventional Reservoirs: Ideas to Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    There is no shortage of coal, oil, and natural gas in the world. What are sometimes in short supply are fresh ideas. Scientific innovation combined with continued advances in drilling and completion technology revitalized the natural gas industry in North America by making production from shale economic. Similar advances are now happening in shale oil. The convergence of ideas and technology has created a commercial environment in which unconventional reservoirs could supply natural gas to the North American consumer for 50 years or more. And, although not as far along in terms of resource development, oil from the Eagle Ford and Bakken Shales and the oil sands in Alberta could have a similar impact. Without advanced horizontal drilling, geosteering, staged hydraulic-fracture stimulation, synthetic and natural proppants, evolution of hydraulic fluid chemistry, and high-end monitoring and simulation, many of these plays would not exist. Yet drilling and completion technology cannot stand alone. Also required for success are creative thinking, favorable economics, and a tolerance for risk by operators. Current understanding and completion practices will leave upwards of 80% of oil and natural gas in the shale reservoirs. The opportunity to enhance recovery through advanced reservoir understanding and imaging, as well as through recompletions and infill drilling, is considerable. The path from ideas to commercialization will continue to provide economic results in unconventional reservoirs.

  12. Prevention of Reservoir Interior Discoloration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, K.F.

    2001-04-03

    Contamination is anathema in reservoir production. Some of the contamination is a result of welding and some appears after welding but existed before. Oxygen was documented to be a major contributor to discoloration in welding. This study demonstrates that it can be controlled and that some of the informal cleaning processes contribute to contamination.

  13. Indiana continent catheterizable urinary reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, O A; Aranguren, G; Campos-Juanatey, F

    2014-01-01

    Radical pelvic surgery requires continent or incontinent urinary diversion. There are many techniques, but the orthotopic neobladder is the most used. A continent catheterizable urinary reservoir is sometimes a good alternative when this derivation is not possible or not indicated. This paper has aimed to present our experience with the Indiana pouch continent urinary reservoir. The series is made up of 85 patients, 66 women and 19 men, with a mean age of 56 years (31-77 years). Variables analyzed were operating time, estimated blood loss, transfusion rate, hospital stay and peri-operatory complications. The main indication in 49 cases was resolution of complications related to the treatment of cervical cancer. Average operation time was 110.5 minutes (range 80-130 minutes). Mean blood loss was 450 cc (100-1000 cc). Immediate postoperative complications, all of which were treated medically, occurred in 16 patients (18.85%). One patient suffered anastomotic leakage. Hospital stay was 19 days (range 5-60 days) and there was no mortality in the series. Late complications occurred in 26 patients (32%), these being ureteral anastomotic stenosis in 11 cases, cutaneous stoma stenosis in 9 cases and reservoir stones in 6 cases. The Indiana continent catheterizable urinary reservoir is a valid option for the treatment of both urological and gynecological malignancies as well as for the management of pelvic morbidity related to the treatment of pelvic cancers. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Data assimilation in reservoir management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommelse, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis aims at improving computer models that allow simulations of water, oil and gas flows in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This is done by integrating, or assimilating, measurements into physics-bases models. In recent years petroleum technology has developed

  15. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a reservoir cathode to improve performance in both ion and Hall-effect thrusters. We propose to adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this...

  16. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a hollow reservoir cathode to improve performance in ion and Hall thrusters. We will adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this purpose....

  17. RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION USING SEISMIC AND WELL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-06-19

    Jun 19, 2012 ... Key words: Reservoir sand, Well log, Water saturation, Linear and Steiber. Introduction. Reservoir ... During analysis, seismic data can quantitatively predict ..... Wireline and Testing, Houston Texas, pp. 21 –. 89. Wan Qin ...

  18. Oil exploration. Oil reservoir engineering; Sekiyu no kaihatsu. Choryuso kogaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, H. [Teikoku Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    This study is to estimate the amount of oil/gas economically producible and to discuss the increase of the amount. The reservoir rock is stuffed with rock particles, and there are impermeable and dense rocks called cap rock on the side wall and top board. Since the size of void of the reservoir is very small, the volume which oil can actually occupy largely decreases because of the existence of surface tension and water film (20-40% of the volume is occupied by water). The rate of the fluid occupying in reservoir space is called the fluid saturation rate. The primitive reserve is a static volume, but the minable reserve, which is related to economical efficiency, is a dynamic volume which changes according to conditions such as the technical progress. To predict a minable reserve is to predict a production amount under a developmental plan, estimate an income, and find out the time of disposal of the oil/gas field (economical limit). To ask for a certain level of accuracy, it is indispensable to simulate the reservoir. To add an element of time to the material balance, the equation of flow including the permeability rate is solved. The paper also described measures to increase minable reserves

  19. Preliminary Rock Physics Characterization of Mississippian Carbonate Reservoir in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Keehm, Y.; Kim, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Mississippian formations in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin are known to have large hydrocarbon resources. The Lodgepole formation is the most important reservoir for oil production in Daly and Virden fields. In this study, we performed preliminary reservoir characterization using rock physics modeling. We first delineated the Lodgepole formation by geological information, well-logs and core analysis data. Then, we conducted rock physics analyses such as GR-AI, DEM modeling, porosity-Vp, density-Vp, and porosity-permeability. We identified the Lodgepole formation has different porosity types, volume of shale, and the degree of fractures in difference intervals. In the upper part of the formation, we found that vuggy pores are well developed. Inter-particular porosity and fractures become significant as the depth increases. We found that the lower part can be divided into two groups by acoustic impedance. The prospective reservoir interval, one of the two groups, has higher fracture density, which can be identified by lower acoustic impedance. This result also implies that we could also use AVO analyses to delineate good reservoir intervals. In conclusion, rock physics modeling can be effectively applied to characterize the Lodgepole formation quantitatively with well-log and core analysis data. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Energy Resources R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 2009201030001A).

  20. High Energy Gas Fracturing in Deep Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiangde; Zhao Wanxiang; Wang Faxuan

    1994-01-01

    @@ Introduction The HEGF technology has many merits such as low cost, simple work conditions, treating the thin reservoir without layer dividing tools, no contamination to the reservoirs and connections with more natural fractures. So it is suitable to treat thin reservoirs,water and acid senstive reservoirs and the reserviors with natural fissures and also suitable to evaluate the production test of new wells, blocking removing treatment, increasing injection treatment and the treatment for the hydrofracturing well with some productivity.

  1. Reservoir resistivity characterization incorporating flow dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Arango, Santiago

    2016-04-07

    Systems and methods for reservoir resistivity characterization are provided, in various aspects, an integrated framework for the estimation of Archie\\'s parameters for a strongly heterogeneous reservoir utilizing the dynamics of the reservoir are provided. The framework can encompass a Bayesian estimation/inversion method for estimating the reservoir parameters, integrating production and time lapse formation conductivity data to achieve a better understanding of the subsurface rock conductivity properties and hence improve water saturation imaging.

  2. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B., E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4" t" hfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia); Susilowati, E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia.

  3. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reservoir areas. 211.81 Section... Lands in Reservoir Areas Under Jurisdiction of Department of the Army for Cottage Site Development and Use § 211.81 Reservoir areas. Delegations, rules and regulations in §§ 211.71 to 211.80 are...

  4. Tenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-22

    The workshop contains presentations in the following areas: (1) reservoir engineering research; (2) field development; (3) vapor-dominated systems; (4) the Geysers thermal area; (5) well test analysis; (6) production engineering; (7) reservoir evaluation; (8) geochemistry and injection; (9) numerical simulation; and (10) reservoir physics. (ACR)

  5. Gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glegola, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The ad

  6. Preliminary Testing of Mycoleptodiscus terrestris Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    submersed macrophyte , Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle (hydrilla). BACKGROUND: As herbicide resistance becomes an increasing problem worldwide...Mycoleptodiscus terrestris, as a biocontrol agent for the management of Myriophyllum spicatum in Lake Guntersville Reservoir . Technical Report A-96-4

  7. PDVSA Petrolera Sinovensa reservoir engineering project and optimization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, O. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Petrolera Sinovensa; Patino, J. [Kizer Energy Inc., Katy, TX (United States); Chalifoux, G.V. [Petrospec Engineering Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented a development plan for an extra-heavy oil field in Venezuela's Orinoco belt involving cold heavy oil production (CHOP) as well as a thermal follow-up process to increase the ultimate recovery factor. A reservoir simulation model was used to model various reservoir formations in order to assess their oil recovery potential. Several thermal recovery processes were considered, such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), horizontal alternate steam drive (HASD), cyclic steam stimulation (CSS), horizontal continuous steam drive, and combined drive drainage (CDD). A geological static model and dynamic reservoir model were coupled for the well optimization evaluation. Production data were used to identify trends related to specific geological conditions. The study also examined methods of improving slotted liner designs and evaluated the use of electric heating as a means of improving CHOP performance. Results of the study showed that CDD offered the highest recovery rates as a follow-up to CHOP. The CDD process allowed for the use of existing wells drilled in the field. New horizontal wells will be placed between the existing wells. It was concluded that a CDD pilot should be implemented in order to prepare for a commercial implementation plan. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  8. Eighteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Horne, R.J.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1993-01-28

    PREFACE The Eighteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 26-28, 1993. There were one hundred and seventeen registered participants which was greater than the attendance last year. Participants were from eight foreign countries: Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, Guatemala, and Iceland. Performance of many geothermal fields outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Dean Gary Ernst opened the meeting and welcomed the visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy was awarded to Dr. Mock who also spoke at the banquet. Thirty-nine papers were presented at the Workshop with two papers submitted for publication only. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: field operations, The Geysers, geoscience, hot-dry-rock, injection, modeling, slim hole wells, geochemistry, well test and wellbore. Session chairmen were major contributors to the program and we thank: John Counsil, Kathleen Enedy, Harry Olson, Eduardo Iglesias, Marcelo Lippmann, Paul Atkinson, Jim Lovekin, Marshall Reed, Antonio Correa, and David Faulder. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to John Hornbrook who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Roland N. Horne Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook

  9. 4. International reservoir characterization technical conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Fourth International Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference held March 2-4, 1997 in Houston, Texas. The theme for the conference was Advances in Reservoir Characterization for Effective Reservoir Management. On March 2, 1997, the DOE Class Workshop kicked off with tutorials by Dr. Steve Begg (BP Exploration) and Dr. Ganesh Thakur (Chevron). Tutorial presentations are not included in these Proceedings but may be available from the authors. The conference consisted of the following topics: data acquisition; reservoir modeling; scaling reservoir properties; and managing uncertainty. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  10. Determination of the Effect of Geological Reservoir Variability on Carbon Dioxide Storage Using Numerical Experiments Détermination de la variabilité des réservoirs géologiques sur le stockage du CO2 par la méthodologie des plans d’expériences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diedro F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The simulations of carbon dioxide storage in sedimentary reservoirs model the fluid and gas flow and the chemical reactions which occur between the minerals (calcite and dolomite and the injected CO2 [André et al. (2007 Energy Convers. Manage. 48, 17821797; Gunter et al. (1999 Appl. Geochem. 4, 1-111. However because of the lack of data, these reservoirs are always partially known and the fitted variograms of petrophysical and mineralogical quantities are approximate. The aim is to quantify the impact of uncertainties on reservoir characteristics on the storage predictions. We focus on two operational parameters: the quantity of the stored carbon dioxide and the mean variation of the porosity. Two sources of uncertainties are examined: the draw dispersion and the approximation on the variogram parameters. To study the influence of the draw dispersion, variogram parameters are kept fixed and different simulations are run; the associated variance on the operational parameters then has the meaning of a repeatability error. In the second case, a sensibility analysis is carried out to study the influence of variogram parameters variations (sill, range, nugget effect on the CO2 storage. The chosen methodology is the designs of experiments. The simulations are carried out using reactive transport software. The studied carbonated reservoir is built in reference to the Dogger formation of Paris Basin (France [Diedro (2009 Thèse, École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de St- Étienne. This reservoir is composed of several minerals, some of them being disposed in spots. The results show that the impact of the draw dispersion remains lower than the impact of the variogram parameters. The effect of the size of the dolomite spots within the rock on the stored carbon dioxide is to be noticed. Larger spots of the dolomite field with low concentration lead to a greater precipitation of carbonate and reduction of porosity than little ,spots with higher

  11. Nonlinear Multigrid for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour; Eskildsen, Klaus Langgren; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2016-01-01

    A feasibility study is presented on the effectiveness of applying nonlinear multigrid methods for efficient reservoir simulation of subsurface flow in porous media. A conventional strategy modeled after global linearization by means of Newton’s method is compared with an alternative strategy...... modeled after local linearization, leading to a nonlinear multigrid method in the form of the full-approximation scheme (FAS). It is demonstrated through numerical experiments that, without loss of robustness, the FAS method can outperform the conventional techniques in terms of algorithmic and numerical...... efficiency for a black-oil model. Furthermore, the use of the FAS method enables a significant reduction in memory usage compared with conventional techniques, which suggests new possibilities for improved large-scale reservoir simulation and numerical efficiency. Last, nonlinear multilevel preconditioning...

  12. Coalbed methane reservoir boundaries and sealing mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xianbo; LIN Xiaoying; LIU Shaobo; SONG Yan

    2005-01-01

    It is important to investigate the coalbed methane reservoir boundaries for the classification, exploration, and development of the coalbed methane reservoir.Based on the investigation of the typical coalbed methane reservoirs in the world, the boundaries can be divided into four types: hydrodynamic boundary, air altered boundary,permeability boundary, and fault boundary. Hydrodynamic and air altered boundaries are ubiquitous boundaries for every coalbed methane reservoir. The four types of the fault sealing mechanism in the petroleum geological investigation (diagen- esis, clay smear, juxtaposition and cataclasis) are applied to the fault boundary of the coalbed methane reservoir. The sealing mechanism of the open fault boundary is the same with that of the hydrodynamic sealing boundary.The sealing mechanism of the permeability boundary is firstly classified into capillary pressure sealing and hydrocarbon concentration sealing. There are different controlling boundaries in coalbed methane reservoirs that are in different geological backgrounds. Therefore, the coalbed methane reservoir is diversiform.

  13. Reservoir compartmentalization assessment by using FTIR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Permanyer, A. [Dept. Geoquimica, Petrologia i Prospeccio Geologica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028 - Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Rebufa, C.; Kister, J. [Universite d' Aix - Marseille III, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques de St. Jerome, CNRS UMR 6171, Laboratoire de Geochimie Organique Analytique et Environnement (GOAE), Case 561, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2007-09-15

    Reservoir geochemistry has traditionally used the gas chromatographic fingerprinting method and star diagrams to provide evidence of petroleum reservoir compartmentalization. Recently alternative techniques such as Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy have been postulated to aid the evaluation of reservoir compartmentalization, and to characterize the geochemical evolution of oils from individual reservoirs. FTIR spectroscopy was applied successfully in the Tarragona Basin, Offshore N.E. Spain, validating the method to identify oils from different reservoirs. Moreover the method was successfully applied to provide evidence of compositional differences in oils from a faulted reservoir (El Furrial field, Venezuela), in which GC fingerprints failed to differentiate the oils. FTIR spectroscopy therefore, proves to be a complementary tool for reservoir compartmentalization studies. (author)

  14. Assessment of nutrient loadings of a large multipurpose prairie reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Marín, L. A.; Wheater, H. S.; Lindenschmidt, K. E.

    2017-07-01

    The relatively low water flow velocities in reservoirs cause them to have high capacities for retaining sediments and pollutants, which can lead to a reduction in downstream nutrient loading. Hence, nutrients can progressively accumulate in reservoirs, resulting in the deterioration of aquatic ecosystems and water quality. Lake Diefenbaker (LD) is a large multipurpose reservoir, located on the South Saskatchewan River (SSR), that serves as a major source of freshwater in Saskatchewan, Canada. Over the past several years, changes in land use (e.g. expansion of urban areas and industrial developments) in the reservoir's catchment have heightened concerns about future water quality in the catchment and in the reservoir. Intensification of agricultural activities has led to an increase in augmented the application of manure and fertilizer for crops and pasture. Although previous research has attempted to quantify nutrient retention in LD, there is a knowledge gap related to the identification of major nutrient sources and quantification of nutrient export from the catchment at different spatial scales. Using the SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed (SPARROW) model, this gap has been addressed by assessing water quality regionally, and identifying spatial patterns of factors and processes that affect water quality in the LD catchment. Model results indicate that LD retains about 70% of the inflowing total nitrogen (TN) and 90% of the inflowing total phosphorus (TP) loads, of which fertilizer and manure applied to agricultural fields contribute the greatest proportion. The SPARROW model will be useful as a tool to guide the optimal implementation of nutrient management plans to reduce nutrient inputs to LD.

  15. Reservoir characterisation of western Nuussuaq, central West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soenderholm, Martin; Gregers, Dam

    1998-08-01

    The primary objective of the project was to provide the framework for initial quantitative reservoir models from those parts of the Nuussuaq Basin (West Greenland) which, based on present stratigraphic and structural data, seem to have the best exploration potential. Both existing and newly acquired data from geophysical, sedimentological, petrographical, petrophysical, geochemical and diagenesis studies have been used to characterise potential sandstone reservoirs on western Nuussuaq. It is anticipated that the results of the study will contribute to the planning of future exploration and GEUS activities in the region. The main part of the project has focused on data and material from wells drilled by groenArctic Inc. as part of their exploration commitments. These wells are mainly located in a volcanic terrain characterised by abundant oil seeps and where little or nothing was known about the subsurface geology prior to drilling. The volcanic terrain separates major sedimentary outcrop areas of Nuussuaq showing very different depositional environments. Sedimentological, geochemical and palynostratigraphical analyses of the sediments penetrated in the wells have therefore been essential in basin analysis. Main emphasis has been laid on the evaluation of diagenetic alterations with respect to reservoir properties of the GANT-1 core and on palynostratigraphical, lithological and petrophysical analyses of the GRO-3 well which encountered the so far thickest Cretaceous-Tertiary described section in the basin. This final report on the EFP-96 project `Reservoir modelling of western Nuussuaq` summarises the collection of all studies related to reservoir modelling of the Nuussuaq Basin. The combined results from the geophysical surveys, the organic geochemical and diagenesis studies and from the evaluation of GRO-3 have profound implications for future petroleum exploration activities in the Nuussuaq Basin. The geophysical data indicate that large, rotated fault blocks

  16. MIKROMITSETY- MIGRANTS IN MINGECHEVIR RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Salmanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. It is hardly possible to predict the continued stability of the watercourse ecosystems without the study of biological characteristics and composition of organisms inhabiting them. In the last 35-40 years, environmental conditions of the Mingachevir reservoir are determined by the stationary anthropogenic pressure. It was found that such components of plankton as algae, bacteria and fungi play a leading role in the transformation and migration of pollutants. The role of the three groups of organisms is very important in maintaining the water quality by elimination of pollutants. Among the organisms inhabiting the Mingachevir Reservoir, micromycetes have not yet been studied. Therefore, the study of the species composition and seasonal dynamics, peculiarities of their growth and development in the environment with the presence of some of the pollutants should be considered to date.Methods. In order to determine the role of micromycetes-migrants in the mineralization of organic substrates, as an active participant of self-purification process, we used water samples from the bottom sediments as well as decaying and skeletonized stalks of cane, reeds, algae, macrophytes, exuvia of insects and fish remains submerged in water.Findings. For the first time, we obtained the data on the quality and quantity of microscopic mycelial fungi in freshwater bodies on the example of the Mingachevir water reservoir; we also studied the possibilities for oxygenating the autochthonous organic matter of allochthonous origin with micromycetes-migrants.Conclusions. It was found that the seasonal development of micromycetes-migrants within the Mingachevir reservoir is characterized by an increase in the number of species in the summer and a gradual reduction in species diversity in the fall. 

  17. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  18. Geology, reservoir engineering and methane hydrate potential of the Walakpa Gas Field, North Slope, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, R.K.; Allen, W.W.

    1992-12-01

    The Walakpa Gas Field, located near the city of Barrow on Alaska's North Slope, has been proven to be methane-bearing at depths of 2000--2550 feet below sea level. The producing formation is a laterally continuous, south-dipping, Lower Cretaceous shelf sandstone. The updip extent of the reservoir has not been determined by drilling, but probably extends to at least 1900 feet below sea level. Reservoir temperatures in the updip portion of the reservoir may be low enough to allow the presence of in situ methane hydrates. Reservoir net pay however, decreases to the north. Depths to the base of permafrost in the area average 940 feet. Drilling techniques and production configuration in the Walakpa field were designed to minimize formation damage to the reservoir sandstone and to eliminate methane hydrates formed during production. Drilling development of the Walakpa field was a sequential updip and lateral stepout from a previously drilled, structurally lower confirmation well. Reservoir temperature, pressure, and gas chemistry data from the development wells confirm that they have been drilled in the free-methane portion of the reservoir. Future studies in the Walakpa field are planned to determine whether or not a component of the methane production is due to the dissociation of updip in situ hydrates.

  19. CALIBRATION OF SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Pennington

    2001-04-01

    The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is on schedule and making unplanned discoveries in addition to those intended when the project commenced. The discoveries, planned and unplanned, can be grouped into four classes: pitfalls to avoid in interpretation of seismic attributes; suggested workflows to follow in working with seismic attributes; new methods of calculating certain new attributes which we feel to be useful; and new theoretical approaches to certain petrophysical properties. We are using data from Wyoming, North Texas, South Texas, and the Gulf of Mexico offshore of Louisiana. These environments provide a diverse array of physical conditions and rock types, and a variety of interpretation methods to be applied to them. The Wyoming field is a very difficult one, including alternating layers of thin beds of coals, shales, and hard sandstones, and there may be an observable effect due to hydrocarbon production; we are using this field as the ''test'' of those techniques and methods we have developed or that we prefer based on our work on the other fields. Work on this field is still underway, although progressing nicely. The work on the public domain data sets in Texas, Boonsville and Stratton, is complete except for some minor additional processing steps, and final write-ups are underway. The work on the Gulf of Mexico field has been completed to the extent originally planned, but it has led us to such important new observations and discoveries that we have expanded our original scope to include time-lapse studies and petrophysical aspects of pressure changes; work on this expanded scope is continuing. Presentations have been made at professional-society meetings, company offices, consortium workshops, and university settings. Papers, including one review paper on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' have been published. Several Master's theses, which will spin off

  20. Fluid flow in a reservoir drained by a multiple fractured horizontal well

    CERN Document Server

    Golovin, S V

    2016-01-01

    A mathematical model for computation of the fluid pressure in a reservoir drained by a horizontal multiple fractured well is proposed. The model is applicable for an arbitrary network of fractures with different finite conductivities of each segment, for variable in space and time physical parameters of the reservoir and for different field development plans. The variational formulation of the model allows effective numerical simulation using the finite element method. Case studies demonstrate how the main flow characteristics (well productivity, pressure distribution) depend on the geometrical and physical characteristics of the reservoir and of the fracture network. The presented model is suitable for estimation of the productivity of a multiple fractured well and as an optimization tool for efficient reservoir development.

  1. Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Research. Fourth annual report, October 1, 1983-September 30, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Miller, F.G.

    1984-09-01

    Reservoir definition research consisted of well test analysis and bench-scale experiments. Well testing included both single-well pressure drawdown and buildup testing, and multiple-well interference testing. The development of new well testing methods continued to receive major emphasis during the year. Work included a project on multiphase compressibility, including the thermal content of the rock. Several projects on double-porosity systems were completed, and work was done on relative-permeability. Heat extraction from rock will determine the long-term response of geothermal reservoirs to development. The work in this task area involved a combination of physical and mathematical modeling of heat extraction from fractured geothermal reservoirs. International cooperative research dealt with adsorption of water on reservoir cores, the planning of tracer surveys, and an injection and tracer test in the Los Azufres fields. 32 refs.

  2. Water storage reservoirs and their role in the development, utilization and protection of catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Branislav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reasons why water storage reservoirs are necessary in accordance with the sustainable development strategy are described in the paper. The main positive and negative impacts of reservoirs on the environment are analyzed. The most important are: the improvement of hydrological regimes (decreasing maximal and increasing minimal flows, the creation of optimal water management, utilization and protection of water, and the creation of better conditions for river and coastal ecosystems. Negative impacts and measures for its mitigation or elimination are also analyzed. The conclusion is that water storage reservoirs can be harmoniously incorporated into the environment. Serbia has a limited number of locations suitable for the construction of reservoirs, therefore it is necessary to retain these areas for storage in regional development plans and other legal acts.

  3. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Beebe

    2003-05-05

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the seventh annual reporting period (8/3/00-8/2/01) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the interwell seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted and the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction were conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and six wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  4. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2002-01-09

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the fifth and sixth annual reporting periods (8/3/98-8/2/00) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the cross well seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted, the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction was conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and ten wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  5. Multiphase control volume finite element simulations of fractured reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yao

    With rapid evolution of hardware and software techniques in energy sector, reservoir simulation has become a powerful tool for field development planning and reservoir management. Many of the widely used commercial simulators were originally designed for structured grids and implemented with finite difference method (FDM). In recent years, technical advances in griding, fluid modeling, linear solver, reservoir and geological modeling, etc. have created new opportunities. At the same time, new reservoir simulation technology is required for solving large-scale heterogeneous problems. A three-dimensional, three-phase black-oil reservoir simulator has been developed using the control volume finite element (CVFE) formulation. Flux-based upstream weighting is employed to ensure flux continuity. The CVFE method is embedded in a fully-implicit formulation. State-of-the-art parallel, linear solvers are used. The implementation takes the advantages of object-oriented programming capabilities of C++ to provide maximum reuse and extensibility for future students. The results from the simulator have excellent agreement with those from commercial simulators. The convergence properties of the new simulator are verified using the method of manufactured solutions. The pressure and saturation solutions are verified to be first-order convergent as expected. The efficiency of the simulators and their capability to handle real large-scale field models are improved by implementing the models in parallel. Another aspect of the work dealt with multiphase flow of fractured reservoirs was performed. The discrete-fracture model is implemented in the simulator. Fractures and faults are represented by lines and planes in two- and three-dimensional spaces, respectively. The difficult task of generating an unstructured mesh for complex domains with fractures and faults is accomplished in this study. Applications of this model for two-phase and three-phase simulations in a variety of fractured

  6. Estimated cumulative sediment trapping in future hydropower reservoirs in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucía, Ana; Berlekamp, Jürgen; Zarfl, Christiane

    2017-04-01

    Despite a rapid economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa, almost 70% of the human population in this area remain disconnected from electricity access (International Energy Agency 2011). Mitigating climate change and a search for renewable, "climate neutral" electricity resources are additional reasons why Africa will be one key centre for future hydropower dam building, with only 8% of the technically feasible hydropower potential actually exploited. About 300 major hydropower dams with a total capacity of 140 GW are currently under construction (11.4%) or planned (88.6%) (Zarfl et al. 2015). Despite the benefits of hydropower dams, fragmentation of the rivers changes the natural flow, temperature and sediment regime. This has consequences for a high number of people that directly depend on the primary sector linked to rivers and floodplains. But sediment trapping in the reservoir also affects dam operation and decreases its life span. Thus, the objective of this work is to quantify the dimension of sediment trapping by future hydropower dams in African river basins. Soil erosion is described with the universal soil loss equation (Wischmeier & Smith 1978) and combined with the connectivity index (Cavalli et al. 2013) to estimate the amount of eroded soil that reaches the fluvial network and finally ends up in the existing (Lehner et al. 2011) and future reservoirs (Zarfl et al. 2015) per year. Different scenarios assuming parameter values from the literature are developed to include model uncertainty. Estimations for existing dams will be compared with literature data to evaluate the applied estimation method and scenario assumptions. Based on estimations for the reservoir volume of the future dams we calculated the potential time-laps of the future reservoirs due to soil erosion and depending on their planned location. This approach could support sustainable decision making for the location of future hydropower dams. References Cavalli, M., Trevisani, S., Comiti

  7. A groundwater-planning toolkit for the main Karoo basin:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides an overview of groundwater-planning tools that were ... concept used in surface-water resource assessments and dam or reservoir design were adapted and applied to groundwater. ..... treatment facilities and bulk storage.

  8. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. Annual report, October 1994--October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, D.; Thompson, L.; Shenoi, S.

    1996-01-01

    The basis of this research is to apply novel techniques from Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in capturing, integrating and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. The ultimate goal is to design and implement a single powerful expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs. The main challenge of the proposed research is to automate the generation of detailed reservoir descriptions honoring all the available soft and hard data that ranges from qualitative and semi-quantitative geological interpretations to numeric data obtained from cores, well tests, well logs and production statistics. Additional challenges are the verification and validation of the expert system, since much of the interpretation of the experts is based on extended experience in reservoir characterization. The overall project plan to design the system to create integrated reservoir descriptions begins by initially developing an AI-based methodology for producing large-scale reservoir descriptions generated interactively from geology and well test data. Parallel to this task is a second task that develops an AI-based methodology that uses facies-biased information to generate small-scale descriptions of reservoir properties such as permeability and porosity. The third task involves consolidation and integration of the large-scale and small-scale methodologies to produce reservoir descriptions honoring all the available data. The final task will be technology transfer. With this plan, the authors have carefully allocated and sequenced the activities involved in each of the tasks to promote concurrent progress towards the research objectives. Moreover, the project duties are divided among the faculty member participants. Graduate students will work in terms with faculty members.

  9. Sedimentation and sustainability of western American reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, William L.; Wohl, Ellen; Sinha, Tushar; Sabo, John L.

    2010-12-01

    Reservoirs are sustainable only as long as they offer sufficient water storage space to achieve their design objectives. Life expectancy related to sedimentation is a measure of reservoir sustainability. We used data from the Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, and U.S. Geological Survey (Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Information System II (RESIS II)) to explore the sustainability of American reservoirs. Sustainability varied by region, with the longest life expectancies in New England and the Tennessee Valley and the shortest in the interior west. In the Missouri and Colorado River basins, sedimentation and rates of loss of reservoir storage capacity were highly variable in time and space. In the Missouri River Basin, the larger reservoirs had the longest life expectancies, with some exceeding 1000 years, while smaller reservoirs in the basin had the shortest life expectancies. In the Colorado River Basin at the site of Glen Canyon Dam, sediment inflow varied with time, declining by half beginning in 1942 because of hydroclimate and upstream geomorphic changes. Because of these changes, the estimated life expectancy of Lake Powell increased from 300 to 700 years. Future surprise changes in sedimentation delivery and reservoir filling area are expected. Even though large western reservoirs were built within a limited period, their demise will not be synchronous because of varying sedimentation rates. Popular literature has incorrectly emphasized the possibility of rapid, synchronous loss of reservoir storage capacity and underestimated the sustainability of the water control infrastructure.

  10. Seismic Imaging of Reservoir Structure at The Geysers Geothermal Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritto, R.; Yoo, S.; Jarpe, S.

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional Vp/Vs-ratio structure is presented for The Geysers geothermal field using seismic travel-time data. The data were recorded by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) using a 34-station seismic network. The results are based on 32,000 events recorded in 2011 and represent the highest resolution seismic imaging campaign at The Geysers to date. The results indicate low Vp/Vs-ratios in the central section of The Geysers within and below the current reservoir. The extent of the Vp/Vs anomaly deceases with increasing depth. Spatial correlation with micro-seismicity, used as a proxy for subsurface water flow, indicates the following. Swarms of seismicity correlate well with areas of high and intermediate Vp/Vs estimates, while regions of low Vp/Vs estimates appear almost aseismic. This result supports past observations that high and low Vp/Vs-ratios are related to water and gas saturated zones, respectively. In addition, the correlation of seismicity to intermediate Vp/Vs-ratios is supportive of the fact that the process of water flashing to steam requires four times more energy than the initial heating of the injected water to the flashing point. Because this energy is dawn from the reservoir rock, the associated cooling of the rock generates more contraction and thus seismic events than water being heated towards the flashing point. The consequences are the presence of some events in regions saturated with water, most events in regions of water flashing to steam (low steam saturation) and the absence of seismicity in regions of high steam concentrations where the water has already been converted to steam. Furthermore, it is observed that Vp/Vs is inversely correlated to Vs but uncorrelated to Vp, leading support to laboratory measurements on rock samples from The Geysers that observe an increase in shear modulus while the core samples are dried out. As a consequence, traditional poroelastic theory is no applicable at The Geysers geothermal

  11. Longitudinal gradients along a reservoir cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.; Habrat, M.D.; Miyazono, S.

    2008-01-01

    Reservoirs have traditionally been regarded as spatially independent entities rather than as longitudinal segments of a river system that are connected upstream and downstream to the river and other reservoirs. This view has frustrated advancement in reservoir science by impeding adequate organization of available information and by hindering interchanges with allied disciplines that often consider impounded rivers at the basin scale. We analyzed reservoir morphology, water quality, and fish assemblage data collected in 24 reservoirs of the Tennessee River; we wanted to describe longitudinal changes occurring at the scale of the entire reservoir series (i.e., cascade) and to test the hypothesis that fish communities and environmental factors display predictable gradients like those recognized for unimpounded rivers. We used a data set collected over a 7-year period; over 3 million fish representing 94 species were included in the data set. Characteristics such as reservoir mean depth, relative size of the limnetic zone, water retention time, oxygen stratification, thermal stratification, substrate size, and water level fluctuations increased in upstream reservoirs. Conversely, reservoir area, extent of riverine and littoral zones, access to floodplains and associated wetlands, habitat diversity, and nutrient and sediment inputs increased in downstream reservoirs. Upstream reservoirs included few, largely lacustrine, ubiquitous fish taxa that were characteristic of the lentic upper reaches of the basin. Fish species richness increased in a downstream direction from 12 to 67 species/ reservoir as riverine species became more common. Considering impoundments at a basin scale by viewing them as sections in a river or links in a chain may generate insight that is not always available when the impoundments are viewed as isolated entities. Basin-scale variables are rarely controllable but constrain the expression of processes at smaller scales and can facilitate the

  12. On the evaluation of steam assisted gravity drainage in naturally fractured oil reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Tohidi Hosseini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD as a successful enhanced oil recovery (EOR process has been applied to extract heavy and extra heavy oils. Huge amount of global heavy oil resources exists in carbonate reservoirs which are mostly naturally fractured reservoirs. Unlike clastic reservoirs, few studies were carried out to determine the performance of SAGD in carbonate reservoirs. Even though SAGD is a highly promising technique, several uncertainties and unanswered questions still exist and they should be clarified for expansion of SAGD methods to world wide applications especially in naturally fractured reservoirs. In this communication, the effects of some operational and reservoir parameters on SAGD processes were investigated in a naturally fractured reservoir with oil wet rock using CMG-STARS thermal simulator. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of fracture properties including fracture orientation, fracture spacing and fracture permeability on the SAGD performance in naturally fractured reservoirs. Moreover, one operational parameter was also studied; one new well configuration, staggered well pair was evaluated. Results indicated that fracture orientation influences steam expansion and oil production from the horizontal well pairs. It was also found that horizontal fractures have unfavorable effects on oil production, while vertical fractures increase the production rate for the horizontal well. Moreover, an increase in fracture spacing results in more oil production, because in higher fracture spacing model, steam will have more time to diffuse into matrices and heat up the entire reservoir. Furthermore, an increase in fracture permeability results in process enhancement and ultimate recovery improvement. Besides, diagonal change in the location of injection wells (staggered model increases the recovery efficiency in long-term production plan.

  13. Heat Extraction Project, geothermal reservoir engineering research at Stanford. Fourth annual report, January 1, 1988--December 1, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, P.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of the SGP Heat Extraction Project is to provide a means for estimating the thermal behavior of geothermal fluids produced from fractured hydrothermal resources. The methods are based on estimated thermal properties of the reservoir components, reservoir management planning of production and reinjection, and the mixing of reservoir fluids: geothermal, resource fluid cooled by drawdown and infiltrating groundwater, and reinjected recharge heated by sweep flow through the reservoir formation. Several reports and publications, listed in Appendix A, describe the development of the analytical methods which were part of five Engineer and PhD dissertations, and the results from many applications of the methods to achieve the project objectives. The Heat Extraction Project is to evaluate the thermal properties of fractured geothermal resource and forecasted effects of reinjection recharge into operating reservoirs.

  14. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    of magnitude and degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants, and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 14C years can occur within one river. The freshwater reservoir effect has also implications...... for radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from inland sites of the Ertebølle culture in Northern Germany. The surprisingly old ages of the earliest pottery most probably are caused by a freshwater reservoir effect. In a sediment core from the Limfjord, northern Denmark, the impact of the freshwater reservoir...... effect on radiocarbon dating in an estuarine environment is examined. Here, freshwater influence causes reservoir ages to vary between 250 and 700 14C years during the period 5400 BC - AD 700. The examples in this study show clearly that the freshwater reservoir effect can seriously corrupt radiocarbon...

  15. Data Compression of Hydrocarbon Reservoir Simulation Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Chavez, Gustavo Ivan

    2015-05-28

    A dense volumetric grid coming from an oil/gas reservoir simulation output is translated into a compact representation that supports desired features such as interactive visualization, geometric continuity, color mapping and quad representation. A set of four control curves per layer results from processing the grid data, and a complete set of these 3-dimensional surfaces represents the complete volume data and can map reservoir properties of interest to analysts. The processing results yield a representation of reservoir simulation results which has reduced data storage requirements and permits quick performance interaction between reservoir analysts and the simulation data. The degree of reservoir grid compression can be selected according to the quality required, by adjusting for different thresholds, such as approximation error and level of detail. The processions results are of potential benefit in applications such as interactive rendering, data compression, and in-situ visualization of large-scale oil/gas reservoir simulations.

  16. The research and practice of boosting oil production by duplicated horizontal wells in thick super heavy oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiwu, Li; Yang Jing, Wangping; Ping, Yuan [Exploration and Development Research Institute of Liaohe Oilfield Company, PetroChina, P.R.China , 124010 (China)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil industry, the extraction of heavy oil and super heavy oil from reservoirs is difficult and production decline and sand production are some of the numerous challenges it faces. The aim of this paper is to show how secondary development can address these issues. A preliminary study was conducted and then a plan of secondary development was applied to M6 Block which is a massive extra-ultra heavy oil reservoir. The plan included 154 wells with 30 new horizontal wells. Results proved SAGD to be a good technique for high oil recovery results with improved production from M6 Block. After the implementation of the secondary development, oil recovery improved by 36.3%. This technique also solved the sand production problem. This study showed that secondary development can be a solution to obtain a better performance from heavy oil reservoirs and provides guidance to other similar reservoir.

  17. Gas reservoir evaluation for underbalanced horizontal drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of surface equipment for monitoring the parameters of fluid and pressure while drilling was developed, and mathematical models for gas reservoir seepage and wellbore two-phase flow were established. Based on drilling operation parameters, well structure and monitored parameters, the wellbore pressure and the gas reservoir permeability could be predicted theoretically for underbalanced horizontal drilling. Based on the monitored gas production along the well depth, the gas reservoir type could be identified.

  18. Ecological assessment of a southeastern Brazil reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Martins,Isabela; Sanches,Barbara; Kaufmann,Philip Robert; Hughes,Robert M.; Santos,Gilmar Bastos; Molozzi,Joseline; Callisto, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Reservoirs are artificial ecosystems with multiple functions having direct and indirect benefits to humans; however, they also cause ecological changes and influence the composition and structure of aquatic biota. Our objectives were to: (1) assess the environmental condition of Nova Ponte Reservoir, Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil; and (2) determine how the aquatic biota respond to disturbances. A total of 40 sites in the littoral zone of the reservoir were sampled to characterize ph...

  19. Time-lapse seismic within reservoir engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Oldenziel, T.

    2003-01-01

    Time-lapse 3D seismic is a fairly new technology allowing dynamic reservoir characterisation in a true volumetric sense. By investigating the differences between multiple seismic surveys, valuable information about changes in the oil/gas reservoir state can be captured. Its interpretation involves different disciplines, of which the main three are: reservoir management, rock physics, and seismics. The main challenge is expressed as "How to optimally benefit from time-lapse seismic". The chall...

  20. Multiscale ensemble filtering for reservoir engineering applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lawniczak, W.; Hanea, R.G.; Heemink, A.; Mclaughlin, D.

    2009-01-01

    Reservoir management requires periodic updates of the simulation models using the production data available over time. Traditionally, validation of reservoir models with production data is done using a history matching process. Uncertainties in the data, as well as in the model, lead to a nonunique history matching inverse problem. It has been shown that the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is an adequate method for predicting the dynamics of the reservoir. The EnKF is a sequential Monte-Carlo a...

  1. Efficient Operation of a Multi-purpose Reservoir in Chile: Integration of Economic Water Value for Irrigation and Hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, M. A.; Gonzalez Cabrera, J. M., Sr.; Moreno, R.

    2016-12-01

    Operation of hydropower reservoirs in Chile is prescribed by an Independent Power System Operator. This study proposes a methodology that integrates power grid operations planning with basin-scale multi-use reservoir operations planning. The aim is to efficiently manage a multi-purpose reservoir, in which hydroelectric generation is competing with other water uses, most notably irrigation. Hydropower and irrigation are competing water uses due to a seasonality mismatch. Currently, the operation of multi-purpose reservoirs with substantial power capacity is prescribed as the result of a grid-wide cost-minimization model which takes irrigation requirements as constraints. We propose advancing in the economic co-optimization of reservoir water use for irrigation and hydropower at the basin level, by explicitly introducing the economic value of water for irrigation represented by a demand function for irrigation water. The proposed methodology uses the solution of a long-term grid-wide operations planning model, a stochastic dual dynamic program (SDDP), to obtain the marginal benefit function for water use in hydropower. This marginal benefit corresponds to the energy price in the power grid as a function of the water availability in the reservoir and the hydrologic scenarios. This function allows capture technical and economic aspects to the operation of hydropower reservoir in the power grid and is generated with the dual variable of the power-balance constraint, the optimal reservoir operation and the hydrologic scenarios used in SDDP. The economic value of water for irrigation and hydropower are then integrated into a basin scale stochastic dynamic program, from which stored water value functions are derived. These value functions are then used to re-optimize reservoir operations under several inflow scenarios.

  2. Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    In the study of gas reservoir development, the first year topics are restricted on reservoir characterization. There are two types of reservoir characterization. One is the reservoir formation characterization and the other is the reservoir fluid characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. The results of conditional simulation has higher confidence level than the unconditional simulation because conditional simulation considers the sample location as well as distance correlation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. From the liquid volume fraction with pressure drop, the phase behavior of reservoir fluid can be estimated. The calculation results of fluid recombination, constant composition expansion, and constant volume depletion are matched very well with the experimental data. In swelling test of the reservoir fluid with lean gas, the accuracy of dew point pressure forecast depends on the component characterization. (author). 28 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Slimholes for geothermal reservoir evaluation - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickox, C.E.

    1996-08-01

    The topics covered in this session include: slimhole testing and data acquisition, theoretical and numerical models for slimholes, and an overview of the analysis of slimhole data acquired by the Japanese. The fundamental issues discussed are concerned with assessing the efficacy of slimhole testing for the evaluation of geothermal reservoirs. the term reservoir evaluation is here taken to mean the assessment of the potential of the geothermal reservoir for the profitable production of electrical power. As an introduction to the subsequent presentations and discussions, a brief summary of the more important aspects of the use of slimholes in reservoir evaluation is given.

  4. Stretch due to Penile Prosthesis Reservoir Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baten

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year old patient presented to the emergency department with stretch, due to impossible deflation of the penile prosthesis, 4 years after successful implant. A CT-scan showed migration of the reservoir to the left rectus abdominis muscle. Refilling of the reservoir was inhibited by muscular compression, causing stretch. Removal and replacement of the reservoir was performed, after which the prosthesis was well-functioning again. Migration of the penile prosthesis reservoir is extremely rare but can cause several complications, such as stretch.

  5. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, B.; Heinemeier, J.

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fish bones, shells, human bones, or food crusts on pottery from sites near rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in hardwater rivers can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. Accurate 14C dating...... of freshwater-based samples requires knowing the order of magnitude of the reservoir effect and its degree of variability. Measurements on modern riverine materials may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they show the order of magnitude and variability...

  6. Multipurpose Water Reservoir Management: An Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís A. Scola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reservoirs that feed large hydropower plants should be managed in order to provide other uses for the water resources. Those uses include, for instance, flood control and avoidance, irrigation, navigability in the rivers, and other ones. This work presents an evolutionary multiobjective optimization approach for the study of multiple water usages in multiple interlinked reservoirs, including both power generation objectives and other objectives not related to energy generation. The classical evolutionary algorithm NSGA-II is employed as the basic multiobjective optimization machinery, being modified in order to cope with specific problem features. The case studies, which include the analysis of a problem which involves an objective of navigability on the river, are tailored in order to illustrate the usefulness of the data generated by the proposed methodology for decision-making on the problem of operation planning of multiple reservoirs with multiple usages. It is shown that it is even possible to use the generated data in order to determine the cost of any new usage of the water, in terms of the opportunity cost that can be measured on the revenues related to electric energy sales.

  7. Geological study of Guafita field reservoirs, Apure basin, southwestern Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, E.; Abud, J.; Hernandez, J.

    1989-03-01

    The medium-grade oil reservoirs of the Guafita field, Apure basin, southwestern Venezuela, represent the northeastern extension of the La Yuca-Cano Limon fields of Colombia. A detailed integrated reservoir study is being carried out in Guafita in order to define the geological model and to improve its development plan. The stratigraphic sequence of interest in the southern block of the Guafita field contains approximately 600 ft of sediments of Cretaceous and Oligocene-Miocene ages (Quevedo Member of the Navay and Guafita Formations, respectively). Fifteen prospective intervals, with approximately 150 ft of net oil sand, have been defined within this sequence by detailed correlation in the Colombian fields and four have been defined in the Quevedo Member. Lower delta-plain and delta-front depositional environments have been recognized from core studies in the Tertiary sediments. A combination of both structural and stratigraphic traps controls the hydrocarbon accumulations in the Guafita field, and at least two sealing shale regional markers have been defined. As a preliminary result of the approach of defining reservoir geometry and mapping each major sand body separately, the proven reserves of the Guafita field will decrease by approximately 12%. The possibility of fluid communication with the Colombian fields through the small-displacement riddle faults was established by means of juxtaposition of sand bodies.

  8. Spatial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Nikola; Koteski, Cane

    2016-01-01

    The professional book ,, Space planning "processed chapters on: space, concept and definition of space, space as a system, spatial economics, economic essence of space, space planning, social determinants of spatial planning, spatial planning as a process, factors development and elements in spatial planning, methodology, components and content of spatial planning stages and types of preparation of spatial planning, spatial planning and industrialization, industrialization, urbanization and s...

  9. Spatial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Nikola; Koteski, Cane

    2016-01-01

    The professional book ,, Space planning "processed chapters on: space, concept and definition of space, space as a system, spatial economics, economic essence of space, space planning, social determinants of spatial planning, spatial planning as a process, factors development and elements in spatial planning, methodology, components and content of spatial planning stages and types of preparation of spatial planning, spatial planning and industrialization, industrialization, urbanization and s...

  10. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott

    1999-11-09

    The objectives of this quarterly report was to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period April - June 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  11. Reservoir Engineering for Unconventional Gas Reservoirs: What Do We Have to Consider?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarkson, Christopher R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The reservoir engineer involved in the development of unconventional gas reservoirs (UGRs) is required to integrate a vast amount of data from disparate sources, and to be familiar with the data collection and assessment. There has been a rapid evolution of technology used to characterize UGR reservoir and hydraulic fracture properties, and there currently are few standardized procedures to be used as guidance. Therefore, more than ever, the reservoir engineer is required to question data sources and have an intimate knowledge of evaluation procedures. We propose a workflow for the optimization of UGR field development to guide discussion of the reservoir engineer's role in the process. Critical issues related to reservoir sample and log analysis, rate-transient and production data analysis, hydraulic and reservoir modeling and economic analysis are raised. Further, we have provided illustrations of each step of the workflow using tight gas examples. Our intent is to provide some guidance for best practices. In addition to reviewing existing methods for reservoir characterization, we introduce new methods for measuring pore size distribution (small-angle neutron scattering), evaluating core-scale heterogeneity, log-core calibration, evaluating core/log data trends to assist with scale-up of core data, and modeling flow-back of reservoir fluids immediately after well stimulation. Our focus in this manuscript is on tight and shale gas reservoirs; reservoir characterization methods for coalbed methane reservoirs have recently been discussed.

  12. Estimation of Bank Erosion Due To Reservoir Operation in Cascade (Case Study: Citarum Cascade Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Legowo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is such a crucial issue to be noted once the accumulated sediment begins to fill the reservoir dead storage, this will then influence the long-term reservoir operation. The sediment accumulated requires a serious attention for it may influence the storage capacity and other reservoir management of activities. The continuous inflow of sediment to the reservoir will decrease the capacity of reservoir storage, the reservoir value in use, and the useful age of reservoir. Because of that, the rate of the sediment needs to be delayed as possible. In this research, the delay of the sediment rate is considered based on the rate of flow of landslide of the reservoir slope. The rate of flow of the sliding slope can be minimized by way of each reservoir autonomous efforts. This effort can be performed through; the regulation of fluctuating rate of reservoir surface current that does not cause suddenly drawdown and upraising as well. The research model is compiled using the searching technique of Non Linear Programming (NLP.The rate of bank erosion for the reservoir variates from 0.0009 to 0.0048 MCM/year, which is no sigrificant value to threaten the life time of reservoir.Mean while the rate of watershed sediment has a significant value, i.e: 3,02 MCM/year for Saguling that causes to fullfill the storage capacity in 40 next years (from years 2008.

  13. Worldwide Experience of Sediment Flushing Through Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asif Chaudhry

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Globally there are about 25,500 storage reservoirs with total storage volume of about 6,464 Bcm. The maximum number of reservoirs are in North America, i.e. 7205 with the total storage volume of about 1,844 Bcm, whereas minimum number of reservoirs are in Central Asia, i.e. 44, with the total storage volume of about 148 Bcm. Over the globe, average annual reservoir storage loss due to sedimentation varies from 0.1-2.3%, however, average annual world storage loss is about 1.0%. In order to combat the storage loss, the techniques used globally are: watershed management, dredging of deposited sediments, sediment routing/sluicing, sediment bypassing, density current venting and sediment flushing through reservoir, separately and also in combination. Each approach has its own limitations, depending on the site conditions. Sediment flushing technique is used by two ways i.e. Drawdown flushing and Emptying and Flushing. In Emptying and Flushing, the reservoir is emptied before the flood season, resulting in the creation of river-like flow conditions in the reservoir. The flow velocities in the reservoir are increased to such an extent that deposited sediments are remobilized and transported through the low level outlets provided slightly above the original riverbed level with sufficient flow capacity. Flushing is not a new technique and has been experienced for the last 6 decades on several reservoirs of the world. The results of the study reveal that there are about 50 reservoirs which are flushed, out of which flushing data is available for about 22 reservoirs only. However 6 reservoirs have been found with successful application of flushing operation and all other are flushed with low flushing efficiency. Flushing has been successfully implemented at Baira-India, Gebidem-Switzerland, Gmund-Austria, Hengshan-China, Palagnedraswitzerland, Santo-Domingo-Venezuela Reservoirs, while the unsuccessfully flushed reservoirs are: Chinese reservoirs, Gaunting

  14. 77 FR 12227 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is hosting a public meeting on April 24, 2012, concerning information that may inform the regulatory review of the uncovered finished water reservoir requirement in the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2 rule). At this meeting, EPA will provide background information on the LT2 rule's uncovered finished water reservoir requirement and the agency's Six Year Review process. EPA also plans to discuss and solicit public input on data and information related to microbial occurrence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, viruses, and other pathogens/indicators in uncovered finished water reservoirs; public health risks; strategies to control or remove contaminants in uncovered finished water reservoirs; and potential assessment approaches to determine the effectiveness of these control and/or removal strategies. The primary focus of this meeting is to have a scientific and technical discussion related to uncovered finished water reservoirs. EPA will consider the data and/or information discussed at this meeting during the agency's review of the LT2 rule, which the agency announced as part of EPA's Retrospective Review Plan under Executive Order (E.O.) 13563 in August 2011.

  15. Technology for the Utilization of Deep Geothermal Reservoirs in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Geothermal Technology Program at GFZ identify suitable geological structures and horizons for extracting energy and develop new methods to increase the productivity of deep geothermal reservoirs. In this context, the former gas exploration well Groß Schönebeck EGrSk3/90 (50 km northeast of Berlin was reopened and deepened to the 4309 m depth to serve as a geothermal in situ laboratory for testing stimulation concepts. The objective of these stimulation operations was to create secondary flow paths and to improve the inflow performance of the well.In addition, Groß Schönebeck is the only test site of the EU-project I-GET (Integrated Geophysical Exploration Technologies for deep fractured geothermal systems, where new, cost-effective and reliable geothermal exploration techniques are developed to increase the success rate of drilling.Based on the data of deep neighbouring wells and the industry seismic measurements, a model was generated to visualise the geological setting and to plan the course of the second well. The well encounters a typical sequence of various geological formations, known in the North German Basin. A series of 2370 m of Quaternary to Triassic sediments is underlain by 1492 m of Zechstein salts, and the following section of this well, which was foreseen for testing, comprises 400 m of Rotliegend formation (siltstones, sandstones, conglomerates and 60 m of underlying volcanic rocks down to the final depth of 4309 m.The well Groß Schönebeck makes the deep sedimentary Rotliegend reservoir accessible, which is characterized by water bearing porous and fractured rocks. The Rotliegend reservoir consists of a sequence of sandstones, conglomerates, and volcanic rocks with formation fluids of 150 °C at porosities of up to 10 %. Experiments in this in-situ geothermal laboratory should lead to a reliable technology for a sufficient production of deep fluids in such reservoirs.

  16. Reservoirs on the mountain rivers and their safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ts.Z. Basilashvili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water resource issues and problems in the world's developing countries, present special challenges, as development of these countries significantly depends on the utilization of water resources. Georgia nestled between the Black Sea, Russia, and Turkey, and surrounded by the Caucasus Mountains, occupies a unique geographic space, which gives it strategic importance far beyond its size. Though blessed by its rich hydro resources, Georgia due to its uneven distribution, experiences some problems as the demand on water frequently doesn't coincide with water provision. As a result it causes acute deficit situation. Due to the global warming of the climate, it is expected that the fresh water amount will decrease in Georgia. This is why it is necessary to approach the use of water resources in a complex way by means of water reservoirs, which will enable attaining of a large economic effect. In the mountainous conditions filling of reservoirs take place in spring time, when snow and glaciers melt. In Georgia as in mountainous country, abundant rains take place, thus causing catastrophic flooding on rivers. In summer and winter water amount decreases 10 times and irrigation, water provision and energy production is impeded. Thus, the lack of water just like the excess amount of water causes damage. This is why it is needed to forecast water amount in water reservoirs for different periods of the year. But in a complex, mountainous terrain operative data of hydrometeorology is not sufficient for application of modern mathematical methods. We have elaborated multiple-factor statistical model for a forecast, which by means of different mathematical criteria and methods can simultaneously research the increase of the timeliness of forecasts and the level of their precision. We have obtained methodologies for short and long term forecasts of inflowing water properties in Georgia's main water reservoirs to further plan optimally and regulate water resources

  17. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassemi, Ahmad [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2017-08-11

    The objective of this is to develop a 3-D numerical model for simulating mode I, II, and III (tensile, shear, and out-of-plane) propagation of multiple fractures and fracture clusters to accurately predict geothermal reservoir stimulation using the virtual multi-dimensional internal bond (VMIB). Effective development of enhanced geothermal systems can significantly benefit from improved modeling of hydraulic fracturing. In geothermal reservoirs, where the temperature can reach or exceed 350oC, thermal and poro-mechanical processes play an important role in fracture initiation and propagation. In this project hydraulic fracturing of hot subsurface rock mass will be numerically modeled by extending the virtual multiple internal bond theory and implementing it in a finite element code, WARP3D, a three-dimensional finite element code for solid mechanics. The new constitutive model along with the poro-thermoelastic computational algorithms will allow modeling the initiation and propagation of clusters of fractures, and extension of pre-existing fractures. The work will enable the industry to realistically model stimulation of geothermal reservoirs. The project addresses the Geothermal Technologies Office objective of accurately predicting geothermal reservoir stimulation (GTO technology priority item). The project goal will be attained by: (i) development of the VMIB method for application to 3D analysis of fracture clusters; (ii) development of poro- and thermoelastic material sub-routines for use in 3D finite element code WARP3D; (iii) implementation of VMIB and the new material routines in WARP3D to enable simulation of clusters of fractures while accounting for the effects of the pore pressure, thermal stress and inelastic deformation; (iv) simulation of 3D fracture propagation and coalescence and formation of clusters, and comparison with laboratory compression tests; and (v) application of the model to interpretation of injection experiments (planned by our

  18. Climate Impacts on Reservoir Operations for Fish Sustainability on the Sacramento River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, L.; Caldwell, R. J.; Rajagopalan, B.

    2011-12-01

    The propagation of the endangered winter-run Chinook salmon fishery on the Sacramento River in California is an ongoing concern that may be exacerbated by climate change. The construction of numerous dams on the river (most notably, Shasta Dam and Reservoir in 1945) prevented the salmon from reaching their native cold-water spawning habitat, causing populations to decline. Since 1989, operations at Shasta Dam have attempted to provide cold-water habitat downstream of the dam to promote salmon spawning. We have partnered stochastic weather generation with two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling of reservoir operations to examine the feasibility of meeting downstream temperature targets for the salmon fishery. Stochastically generated climate and inflow scenarios created with historical data from 1994 to 2007 are input into a CE-QUAL-W2 model of the reservoir that can simulate reservoir operations, including selective withdrawal from multiple gates to meet water delivery and temperature targets. Results of these simulations will be presented. Ultimately, simulated outflows and release temperatures from the reservoir will be used with statistical models of stream temperature to examine the feasibility of meeting Sacramento River temperature targets at Balls Ferry under different future climate scenarios. We also plan to partner reservoir simulation results with bioenergetics scope for growth models to assess impacts of climate and reservoir operations on upstream and downstream fisheries. The goal of the integrated modeling system is to provide seasonal and longer time-scale planning tools to operators on the river that will assist in the maintenance of cold-water supply for salmon. Once complete, the framework will allow testing of alternative operating criteria to meet the thermal requirements on the river.

  19. Hydroeconomic optimization of reservoir management under downstream water quality constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    A hydroeconomic optimization approach is used to guide water management in a Chinese river basin with the objectives of meeting water quantity and water quality constraints, in line with the China 2011 No. 1 Policy Document and 2015 Ten-point Water Plan. The proposed modeling framework couples...... water quantity and water quality management and minimizes the total costs over a planning period assuming stochastic future runoff. The outcome includes cost-optimal reservoir releases, groundwater pumping, water allocation, wastewater treatments and water curtailments. The optimization model uses...... a variant of stochastic dynamic programming known as the water value method. Nonlinearity arising from the water quality constraints is handled with an effective hybrid method combining genetic algorithms and linear programming. Untreated pollutant loads are represented by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD...

  20. Time-lapse seismic within reservoir engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenziel, T.

    2003-01-01

    Time-lapse 3D seismic is a fairly new technology allowing dynamic reservoir characterisation in a true volumetric sense. By investigating the differences between multiple seismic surveys, valuable information about changes in the oil/gas reservoir state can be captured. Its interpretation involves d

  1. Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore

    2014-09-01

    Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

  2. Time-lapse seismic within reservoir engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenziel, T.

    2003-01-01

    Time-lapse 3D seismic is a fairly new technology allowing dynamic reservoir characterisation in a true volumetric sense. By investigating the differences between multiple seismic surveys, valuable information about changes in the oil/gas reservoir state can be captured. Its interpretation involves d

  3. Seismic determination of saturation in fractured reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.L.; Wiggins, M.L.; Gupta, A.

    2002-01-01

    Detecting the saturation of a fractured reservoir using shear waves is possible when the fractures have a geometry that induces a component of movement perpendicular to the fractures. When such geometry is present, vertically traveling shear waves can be used to examine the saturation of the fractured reservoir. Tilted, corrugated, and saw-tooth fracture models are potential examples.

  4. Geothermal reservoir insurance study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-09

    The principal goal of this study was to provide analysis of and recommendations on the need for and feasibility of a geothermal reservoir insurance program. Five major tasks are reported: perception of risk by major market sectors, status of private sector insurance programs, analysis of reservoir risks, alternative government roles, and recommendations.

  5. Time-lapse seismic within reservoir engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenziel, T.

    2003-01-01

    Time-lapse 3D seismic is a fairly new technology allowing dynamic reservoir characterisation in a true volumetric sense. By investigating the differences between multiple seismic surveys, valuable information about changes in the oil/gas reservoir state can be captured. Its interpretation involves

  6. Identifying and Evaluating of Oil Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haixia

    2002-01-01

    The identification and evaluation of oil reservoir with logging data are one of most important ways in geologic logging services. For the last decades, with the further development of the oil & gas exploration, great advances have been achieved in techniques on the acquisition, processing and interpretative evaluation of logging data. How to identify fluid characteristics and evaluate the productivity in light oil reservoir (the crude density being between 0.74g/cm3 and 0.82g/cm3)has become one of the difficulties.With the establishment of the regional interpretation criterion of the study blocks, the optimized logging parameters that reflect the reservoir characteristics have been used to establish the chart for the interpretation of oil-water reservoir combining with well logging parameters. Then, to begin with geologic reserves of crude in single well, we establish evaluation criterion for productivity in oil reservoir with determining lower limit value of the reservoir and applying the relationship between chart parameters. The techniques are verified in production and get better effect.On the basis of the reservoir characteristics analysis of both basin A and B, We established the evaluation method of static productivity on light oil reservoir with getting quantitative evaluation parameters after quantitatively evaluating the date of core, pyrolysis chromatogram and gas chromatogram. It provides new technique 7 for new well interpretation and old well review, as well as evidence for project.design of well testing.

  7. Advances in carbonate exploration and reservoir analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J.; Neilson, J.E.; Laubach, S.E.; Whidden, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Carbonate reservoirs contain an increasingly important percentage of the world’s hydrocarbon reserves. This volume presents key recent advances in carbonate exploration and reservoir analysis. As well as a comprehensive overview of the trends in carbonate over the years, the volume focuses on four key areas:

  8. Zooplankton of the Zaporiz’ke Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Mykolaichuk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to zooplankton species composition in the Zaporiz’ke Reservoir. The greatest species diversity was found in the macrophyte communities of the upper reservoir’s littoral, but the least zooplankton diversity – in the pelagic zone of the lower reservoir.

  9. Ichthyofauna of the reservoirs of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stolbunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution and abundance of fish in the pelagic and littoral zone of four reservoirs of Central Vietnam (Suoi Chau, Kam Lam, Da Ban and Suoi Dau were studied first. According to the research data the fish community of the reservoirs is represented by 43 species of 19 fish families.

  10. Reservoir optimization for the synthetic brugge field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, E.; Leeuwenburgh, O.; Egberts, P.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing availability of data and tools for history matching and optimisation brings the long-term goal of closed loop reservoir management closer. However, still many issues are not solved. An example is the interaction between the history match of the reservoir model and the optimisation. How im

  11. Multiscale ensemble filtering for reservoir engineering applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawniczak, W.; Hanea, R.G.; Heemink, A.; McLaughlin, D.

    2009-01-01

    Reservoir management requires periodic updates of the simulation models using the production data available over time. Traditionally, validation of reservoir models with production data is done using a history matching process. Uncertainties in the data, as well as in the model, lead to a nonunique

  12. Advances in China's Oil Reservoir Description Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Longxin; Huang Shiyan; Jia Ailin; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ Oil reservoir description in China has undergone rapid development in recent years. Extensive research carried out at various oilfields and petroleum universities has resulted in the formulation of comprehensive oil reservoir description techniques and methods uniquely suited to the various development phases of China's continental facies. The new techniques have the following characteristics:

  13. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1997-04-10

    This project is intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  14. Production Optimization of Oil Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten

    with emphasis on optimal control of water ooding with the use of smartwell technology. We have implemented immiscible ow of water and oil in isothermal reservoirs with isotropic heterogenous permeability elds. We use the method of lines for solution of the partial differential equation (PDE) system that governs...... the uid ow. We discretize the the two-phase ow model spatially using the nite volume method (FVM), and we use the two point ux approximation (TPFA) and the single-point upstream (SPU) scheme for computing the uxes. We propose a new formulation of the differential equation system that arise...... as a consequence of the spatial discretization of the two-phase ow model. Upon discretization in time, the proposed equation system ensures the mass conserving property of the two-phase ow model. For the solution of the spatially discretized two-phase ow model, we develop mass conserving explicit singly diagonally...

  15. Bottomwater drive in tarmat reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kaabi, A.A.; Menouar, H.; Al-Marhoun, M.A.; Al-Hashim, H.S.

    1988-05-01

    This paper addresses the class of tarmat reservoirs subject to bottomwater drive. Different shapes of tar layers are simulated physically and numerically to study the behavior of WOR and oil recovery. Four different cases were studied: a square barrier beneath the well, a disk beneath the well, a hollow square or disk beneath the well, and a half plane. The results showed that breakthrough time occurs earlier in the case of hollow tarmat barriers, while it is delayed considerably in the case of tarmat barriers shaped in the form of a disk beneath the well. Paradoxically, in this last case, the WOR increases more rapidly and becomes higher toward the end of the depletion than in any other case. Among all the cases studied, the no-barrier case gives the highest recovery, while the hollow-tarmat-barrier case leads to the lowest recovery.

  16. Rodent reservoirs of future zoonotic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Barbara A; Schmidt, John Paul; Bowden, Sarah E; Drake, John M

    2015-06-02

    The increasing frequency of zoonotic disease events underscores a need to develop forecasting tools toward a more preemptive approach to outbreak investigation. We apply machine learning to data describing the traits and zoonotic pathogen diversity of the most speciose group of mammals, the rodents, which also comprise a disproportionate number of zoonotic disease reservoirs. Our models predict reservoir status in this group with over 90% accuracy, identifying species with high probabilities of harboring undiscovered zoonotic pathogens based on trait profiles that may serve as rules of thumb to distinguish reservoirs from nonreservoir species. Key predictors of zoonotic reservoirs include biogeographical properties, such as range size, as well as intrinsic host traits associated with lifetime reproductive output. Predicted hotspots of novel rodent reservoir diversity occur in the Middle East and Central Asia and the Midwestern United States.

  17. Reservoir management under geological uncertainty using fast model update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanea, R.; Evensen, G.; Hustoft, L.; Ek, T.; Chitu, A.; Wilschut, F.

    2015-01-01

    Statoil is implementing "Fast Model Update (FMU)," an integrated and automated workflow for reservoir modeling and characterization. FMU connects all steps and disciplines from seismic depth conversion to prediction and reservoir management taking into account relevant reservoir uncertainty. FMU del

  18. A new case of reservoir triggered seismicity: Govind Ballav Pant reservoir (Rihand dam), central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahalaut, Kalpna; Gahalaut, V. K.; Pandey, M. R.

    2007-07-01

    We report here that seismicity near Govind Ballav Pant reservoir is strongly influenced by the reservoir operations. It is the second largest reservoir in India, which is built on Rihand river in the failed rift region of central India. Most of the earthquakes occurred during the high water stand in the reservoir with a time lag of about 1 month. We use the concept of coulomb stress change and use Green's function based approach to estimate stresses and pore pressure due to the reservoir load. We find that the reservoir increases coulomb stress on the nearby faults of the region that are favourably oriented for failure in predominantly reverse slip manner under the NNE-SSW compression and thus promotes failure. The above two factors make it an obvious, yet so far unreported case of reservoir triggered seismicity.

  19. Dynamic dam-reservoir interaction analysis including effect of reservoir boundary absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; Gao; DU; JianGuo; HU; ZhiQiang

    2007-01-01

    Based on the scaled boundary finite-element method,the governing equations for the analysis of dam-reservoir interaction including the reservoir boundary absorption are developed.Coupling with the equation of dam-unbounded foundation interaction,it can effectively carry out the earthquake response analysis of dam-reservoir-foundation system.The proposed approach has the advantages that the effect of compressibility of reservoir water as well as the energy absorption of reservoir boundary on the earthquake response of arch dams and gravity dams can be efficiently evaluated and higher accuracy can be achieved.In comparison with the methods available in the literature,the computational cost can be reduced to a great extent.It facilitates the application of earthquake response analysis of dam-reservoir-foundation system including reservoir boundary absorption to the engineering practice.

  20. Future changes in Mekong River hydrology: impact of climate change and reservoir operation on discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lauri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The transboundary Mekong River is facing two ongoing changes that are expected to significantly impact its hydrology and the characteristics of its exceptional flood pulse. The rapid economic development of the riparian countries has led to massive plans for hydropower construction, and projected climate change is expected to alter the monsoon patterns and increase temperature in the basin. The aim of this study is to assess the cumulative impact of these factors on the hydrology of the Mekong within next 20–30 yr. We downscaled the output of five general circulation models (GCMs that were found to perform well in the Mekong region. For the simulation of reservoir operation, we used an optimisation approach to estimate the operation of multiple reservoirs, including both existing and planned hydropower reservoirs. For the hydrological assessment, we used a distributed hydrological model, VMod, with a grid resolution of 5 km × 5 km. In terms of climate change's impact on hydrology, we found a high variation in the discharge results depending on which of the GCMs is used as input. The simulated change in discharge at Kratie (Cambodia between the baseline (1982–1992 and projected time period (2032–2042 ranges from −11% to +15% for the wet season and −10% to +13% for the dry season. Our analysis also shows that the changes in discharge due to planned reservoir operations are clearly larger than those simulated due to climate change: 25–160% higher dry season flows and 5–24% lower flood peaks in Kratie. The projected cumulative impacts follow rather closely the reservoir operation impacts, with an envelope around them induced by the different GCMs. Our results thus indicate that within the coming 20–30 yr, the operation of planned hydropower reservoirs is likely to have a larger impact on the Mekong hydrograph than the impacts of climate change, particularly during the dry season. On the other hand, climate change will

  1. Future changes in Mekong River hydrology: impact of climate change and reservoir operation on discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauri, H.; de Moel, H.; Ward, P. J.; Räsänen, T. A.; Keskinen, M.; Kummu, M.

    2012-12-01

    The transboundary Mekong River is facing two ongoing changes that are expected to significantly impact its hydrology and the characteristics of its exceptional flood pulse. The rapid economic development of the riparian countries has led to massive plans for hydropower construction, and projected climate change is expected to alter the monsoon patterns and increase temperature in the basin. The aim of this study is to assess the cumulative impact of these factors on the hydrology of the Mekong within next 20-30 yr. We downscaled the output of five general circulation models (GCMs) that were found to perform well in the Mekong region. For the simulation of reservoir operation, we used an optimisation approach to estimate the operation of multiple reservoirs, including both existing and planned hydropower reservoirs. For the hydrological assessment, we used a distributed hydrological model, VMod, with a grid resolution of 5 km × 5 km. In terms of climate change's impact on hydrology, we found a high variation in the discharge results depending on which of the GCMs is used as input. The simulated change in discharge at Kratie (Cambodia) between the baseline (1982-1992) and projected time period (2032-2042) ranges from -11% to +15% for the wet season and -10% to +13% for the dry season. Our analysis also shows that the changes in discharge due to planned reservoir operations are clearly larger than those simulated due to climate change: 25-160% higher dry season flows and 5-24% lower flood peaks in Kratie. The projected cumulative impacts follow rather closely the reservoir operation impacts, with an envelope around them induced by the different GCMs. Our results thus indicate that within the coming 20-30 yr, the operation of planned hydropower reservoirs is likely to have a larger impact on the Mekong hydrograph than the impacts of climate change, particularly during the dry season. On the other hand, climate change will increase the uncertainty of the

  2. Planning Lessons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda Jensen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Jensen's "Lesson Planning"article serves aS a guide fOr novice teachers who need to create formalized lesson plans.The article covers why,when,and how teachers plan lessons,as well aS basic lesson plan principles and a lesson plan template.

  3. Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) dynamics in small surface reservoirs in semiarid Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Christine; Foerster, Saskia; Heim, Birgit; de Araujo, Jose Carlos

    2016-04-01

    spectral absorption seem consistent and, among other possible factors, its dynamics were affected by high evaporation and low precipitation, typical conditions for semiarid regions in the tropics. The results show also evidence of the hysteresis phenomenon related to humic substance properties. However, it is important to consider also other water quality parameters in order to assess the whole interaction occurring in the reservoirs under eutrophic conditions. This is a first study of the application of spectral absorption and spectral slope of CDOM for small reservoirs in semiarid Brazil providing additional information to the traditional water quality measurements. In the future, we plan to relate the in-situ measurements to satellite imagery to study spatio-temporal water quality dynamics and relate them to land use changes.

  4. Improving Reservoir Simulation using Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsa, Amir

    The principal premise of this thesis is that the ambiguities of reservoir simulation can be and should be reduced by using time-lapse seismic data. Such data can be considered as a sort of reservoir dynamic data, with distinctive features compared to the typical reservoir production data. While well production data are sparse in space and dense in time, 4D timelapse seismic can be utilized to fill the spatial data gaps between wells. This provides an opportunity to constrain reservoir dynamic behaviour not only at well locations but also between them by honoring time lapse response of the reservoir. This means that seismic assisted history matching should involve a simultaneous minimization of the mismatch between all types of measured and simulated data including seismic data. This thesis is an effort to discuss critical aspects of integrating 4D time-lapse data in reservoir simulation and history matching. I have illustrated a detailed scheme of seismic assisted history matching with implications on real data, to emphasize the extra value that seismic data can bring into the conventional reservoir history matching. This goal was followed by developing a software application to assess the feasibility of the theory at industrial scales. In addition to the conventional oils, a significant effort has been devoted to extend the scope of the work to viscoelastic heavy oils and their fluid substitution models in thermal cases. I also studied the production/injection induced stresses impacts on anisotropic velocity variations, using coupled geomechanical-flow simulations. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  5. Stochastic Reservoir Characterization Constrained by Seismic Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, Alfhild Lien

    1999-07-01

    In order to predict future production of oil and gas from a petroleum reservoir, it is important to have a good description of the reservoir in terms of geometry and physical parameters. This description is used as input to large numerical models for the fluid flow in the reservoir. With increased quality of seismic data, it is becoming possible to extend their use from the study of large geologic structures such as seismic horizons to characterization of the properties of the reservoir between the horizons. Uncertainties because of the low resolution of seismic data can be successfully handled by means of stochastic modeling, and spatial statistics can provide tools for interpolation and simulation of reservoir properties not completely resolved by seismic data. This thesis deals with stochastic reservoir modeling conditioned to seismic data and well data. Part I presents a new model for stochastic reservoir characterization conditioned to seismic traces. Part II deals with stochastic simulation of high resolution impedance conditioned to measured impedance. Part III develops a new stochastic model for calcite cemented objects in a sandstone background; it is a superposition of a marked point model for the calcites and a continuous model for the background.

  6. The Tanggu geothermal reservoir (Tianjin, China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelsson, Gudni [Virkir-Orkint Consulting Group and National Energy Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland); Zhilin Dong [Tanggu Geothermal Office, Tianjin (China)

    1998-06-01

    The Tanggu geothermal system is an extensive, highly permeable, horizontal sandstone reservoir, situated within the North China Sedimentary Basin. Twenty-three successful production wells, yielding water with an average temperature of about 70degC, have been drilled into this reservoir since 1987, distributed over an area of some 330 km{sup 2}. The hot water is mostly used for space heating. In 1995 the annual production exceeded 5 million tons. Hot water extraction has caused the water level to drop to a depth of 80 m in the production wells, and it continues to decline at a rate of 3-4 m per year. This has raised the question as to whether the reservoir may be overexploited. The main objective of a reservoir evaluation carried out in 1996 was to estimate the long-term production potential of the Tanggu reservoir. Two simple models were developed for this purpose. The potential is determined by specifying a maximum allowable pump setting depth of 150 m . On this basis the potential of the Tanggu reservoir is estimated to be about 10 million tons per year, for the next ten years. A comprehensive reservoir management program must be implemented in Tanggu. The first priority of such a program should be to improve the energy efficiency of space heating in the district, which should result in about 50% reduction in hot water consumption. Another management option is reinjection, which would counteract the water level draw-down. (Author)

  7. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-30

    The work plan for October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998 consisted of investigation of a number of topical areas. These topical areas were reported in four quarterly status reports, which were submitted to DOE earlier. These topical areas are reviewed in this volume. The topical areas covered during the year were: (1) Development of preliminary tests of a production method for determining areas of natural fracturing. Advanced Resources has demonstrated that such a relationship exists in the southern Piceance basin tight gas play. Natural fracture clusters are genetically related to stress concentrations (also called stress perturbations) associated with local deformation such a faulting. The mechanical explanation of this phenomenon is that deformation generally initiates at regions where the local stress field is elevated beyond the regional. (2) Regional structural and geologic analysis of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). Application of techniques developed and demonstrated during earlier phases of the project for sweet-spot delineation were demonstrated in a relatively new and underexplored play: tight gas from continuous-typeUpper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). The effort included data acquisition/processing, base map generation, geophysical and remote sensing analysis and the integration of these data and analyses. (3) Examination of the Table Rock field area in the northern Washakie Basin of the Greater Green River Basin. This effort was performed in support of Union Pacific Resources- and DOE-planned horizontal drilling efforts. The effort comprised acquisition of necessary seismic data and depth-conversion, mapping of major fault geometry, and analysis of displacement vectors, and the development of the natural fracture prediction. (4) Greater Green River Basin Partitioning. Building on fundamental fracture characterization work and prior work performed under this contract, namely structural analysis using satellite and

  8. Reservoir stimulation techniques to minimize skin factor of Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Jianchun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm carbonatite gas reservoirs in the Leshan-Longnüsi Paleouplift in the Sichuan Basin feature strong heterogeneity, well-developed fractures and caverns, and a high content of H2S, so these reservoirs are prone to reservoir damages caused by the invasion of drilling fluid or the improper well completion, so to minimize the reservoir skin factor is key to achieving high yield of oil and gas in this study area. Therefore, based on the geological characteristics of the Longwangmiao reservoirs, the binomial productivity equation was applied to demonstrate the possibility and scientificity of minimizing the skin factor. According to the current status of reservoir stimulation, the overall skin factors of reservoir damage caused by drilling fluid invasion, improper drilling and completion modes etc were analyzed, which shows there is still potential for skin factor reduction. Analysis of reservoir damage factors indicates that the main skin factor of Longwangmiao Fm reservoirs consists of that caused by drilling fluid and by improper completion modes. Along with the minimization of skin factor caused by drilling and improper completion, a fracture-network acidizing process to achieve “non-radial & network-fracture” plug-removal by making good use of natural fractures was proposed according to the characteristics of Longwangmiao Fm carbonatite reservoirs.

  9. Ecological operation for Three Gorges reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xian GUO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional operation rule of Three Gorges reservoir has mainly focused on water for flood control, power generation, navigation, water supply and recreation and given less attention to the negative impacts of reservoir operation on river ecosystem. In order to reduce the negative influence of reservoir operation, ecological operation of the reservoir should be studied to maintain healthy river ecosystem. The study considered the ecological operation targets, including maintaining river environmental flow and protecting the spawning and reproduction of Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps. Based on the flow data from 1900 to 2006 of Yichang gauge as the control station of the Yangtze River, the minimal and optimal river environmental flows were analyzed, and eco-hydrological targets of Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps in the Yangtze River were calculated. The paper proposed a reservoir ecological operation model of comprehensively considering flood control, power generation, navigation and ecological environment. Three typical periods including wet, normal and dry year were selected and particle swarm optimization was applied to analyze the model. The results show that there are different influences of ecological operation rules on economic benefit of hydropower station and reservoir ecological operation model can simulate the flood pulse for requirement of spawning of Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps. Finally, ecological operation measures of Three Gorges reservoir were proposed. According to the results, by adopting a suitable re-operation scheme, the hydropower benefit of the reservoir will not decrease dramatically while the ecological demand can be met. The results provide the reference for making the reasonable operation schemes for Three Gorges reservoir.

  10. Language Planning: Corpus Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on the historical and sociolinguistic studies that illuminate corpus planning processes. These processes are broken down and discussed under two categories: those related to the establishment of norms, referred to as codification, and those related to the extension of the linguistic functions of language, referred to as elaboration. (60…

  11. Improving reservoir history matching of EM heated heavy oil reservoirs via cross-well seismic tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced recovery methods have become significant in the industry\\'s drive to increase recovery rates from oil and gas reservoirs. For heavy oil reservoirs, the immobility of the oil at reservoir temperatures, caused by its high viscosity, limits the recovery rates and strains the economic viability of these fields. While thermal recovery methods, such as steam injection or THAI, have extensively been applied in the field, their success has so far been limited due to prohibitive heat losses and the difficulty in controlling the combustion process. Electromagnetic (EM) heating via high-frequency EM radiation has attracted attention due to its wide applicability in different environments, its efficiency, and the improved controllability of the heating process. While becoming a promising technology for heavy oil recovery, its effect on overall reservoir production and fluid displacements are poorly understood. Reservoir history matching has become a vital tool for the oil & gas industry to increase recovery rates. Limited research has been undertaken so far to capture the nonlinear reservoir dynamics and significantly varying flow rates for thermally heated heavy oil reservoir that may notably change production rates and render conventional history matching frameworks more challenging. We present a new history matching framework for EM heated heavy oil reservoirs incorporating cross-well seismic imaging. Interfacing an EM heating solver to a reservoir simulator via Andrade’s equation, we couple the system to an ensemble Kalman filter based history matching framework incorporating a cross-well seismic survey module. With increasing power levels and heating applied to the heavy oil reservoirs, reservoir dynamics change considerably and may lead to widely differing production forecasts and increased uncertainty. We have shown that the incorporation of seismic observations into the EnKF framework can significantly enhance reservoir simulations, decrease forecasting

  12. Screening reservoir systems by considering the efficient trade-offs—informing infrastructure investment decisions on the Blue Nile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geressu, Robel T.; Harou, Julien J.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-reservoir system planners should consider how new dams impact downstream reservoirs and the potential contribution of each component to coordinated management. We propose an optimized multi-criteria screening approach to identify best performing designs, i.e., the selection, size and operating rules of new reservoirs within multi-reservoir systems. Reservoir release operating rules and storage sizes are optimized concurrently for each separate infrastructure design under consideration. Outputs reveal system trade-offs using multi-dimensional scatter plots where each point represents an approximately Pareto-optimal design. The method is applied to proposed Blue Nile River reservoirs in Ethiopia, where trade-offs between total and firm energy output, aggregate storage and downstream irrigation and energy provision for the best performing designs are evaluated. This proof-of concept study shows that recommended Blue Nile system designs would depend on whether monthly firm energy or annual energy is prioritized. 39 TWh/yr of energy potential is available from the proposed Blue Nile reservoirs. The results show that depending on the amount of energy deemed sufficient, the current maximum capacities of the planned reservoirs could be larger than they need to be. The method can also be used to inform which of the proposed reservoir type and their storage sizes would allow for the highest downstream benefits to Sudan in different objectives of upstream operating objectives (i.e., operated to maximize either average annual energy or firm energy). The proposed approach identifies the most promising system designs, reveals how they imply different trade-offs between metrics of system performance, and helps system planners asses the sensitivity of overall performance to the design parameters of component reservoirs.

  13. Outer boundary effects in a petroleum reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Rhodri; Crowdy, Darren; Kropf, Everett; Zuo, Lihua; Weijermars, Ruud

    2016-11-01

    A new toolkit for potential theory based on the Schottky-Klein prime function is first introduced. This potential theory toolkit is then applied to study the fluid flow structures in bounded 2D petroleum reservoirs. In the model, reservoirs are assumed to be heterogeneous and isotropic porous medium and can thus be modelled using Darcy's equation. First, computations of flow contours are carried out on some 'test' domains and benchmarked against results from the ECLIPSE reservoir simulator. Following this, a case study of the Quitman oil field in Texas is presented.

  14. TRANSFER RESERVOIR AS A RAINWATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Malmur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensive rainfalls and snow melting often cause floods in protected areas and overflow the existing sewage systems. Such cases are particularly burdensome for the inhabitants and cause considerable physical losses. One of the possible constructional solutions to ensure the effective outflow of stormwater are transfer reservoirs located between the draining system and a receiver set discussed in this paper. If gravity outflow of sewage is impossible, the initial part of sewage volume is accumulated in the transfer reservoir and then it is transferred into the water receiver set. However, gravity discharge of sewage to the water receiver set occurs through transfer chambers in the transfer reservoir.

  15. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    case studies will show the degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 years can occur within one river. In the Limfjord, freshwater influence...... caused reservoir ages to vary between 250 and 700 years during the period 5400 BC - AD 700. Finally, I will discuss the implications of the freshwater reservoir effect for radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from inland sites of the Ertebølle culture in Northern Germany....

  16. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fishbones, shells, human bones or food crusts on pottery from sites next to rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in rivers containing considerable amounts of dissolved 14C-free carbonates can be up to several thousand...... years and may be highly variable. For accurate radiocarbon dating of freshwater-based samples, the order of magnitude of the reservoir effect as well as the degree of variability has to be known. The initial problem in this case was the accurate dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites...

  17. Surveys for Pathogens of Monoecious Hydrilla in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    2013, monoecious hydrilla was collected in the field from Strom Thurmond Reservoir in South Carolina/ Georgia , Lake Guntersville in Alabama, and Lake...Gainesville, Florida where monoecious hydrilla plants collected in Missouri, Kansas, South Carolina/ Georgia (Strom Thurmond Reservoir), and North...species” was plated onto Potato Carrot Agar (PCA; Dhingra and Sinclair 1995) and PDA and incubated at 25 oC under a grow light (plant aquarium wide

  18. Fracturing tests on reservoir rocks: Analysis of AE events and radial strain evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, S; Fjær, E; Stenebråten, J; Lund, H K; Sønstebø, E F; Roy, S

    2015-01-01

    Fracturing in reservoir rocks is an important issue for the petroleum industry - as productivity can be enhanced by a controlled fracturing operation. Fracturing also has a big impact on CO2 storage, geothermal installation and gas production at and from the reservoir rocks. Therefore, understanding the fracturing behavior of different types of reservoir rocks is a basic need for planning field operations towards these activities. In our study, the fracturing of rock sample is monitored by Acoustic Emission (AE) and post-experiment Computer Tomography (CT) scans. The fracturing experiments have been performed on hollow cylinder cores of different rocks - sandstones and chalks. Our analysis show that the amplitudes and energies of acoustic events clearly indicate initiation and propagation of the main fractures. The amplitudes of AE events follow an exponential distribution while the energies follow a power law distribution. Time-evolution of the radial strain measured in the fracturing-test will later be comp...

  19. DIVERSITY OF THE TSI INDICATORS OF THE MIDDLE-FOREST SMALL RETENTION RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Szczykowska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Article describes studies on the trophic status which were carried out using the water samples from the small retention reservoir Topiło located in especially valuable natural forests of Puszcza Białowieska. In order to assess the degree of Topiło reservoir contamination, three measurement and control points were selected for testing, which were situated near the inflow (point No. 1 and outflow (point No. 3 of river Perebel, as well as in the middle part of the reservoir (point No. 2. The selection and placement of measurement and control points on the reservoir was dictated by the ability to capture changes in the study object. Tests of water samples collected from the surface layer of the coastal zone, were carried out once a month during the period from April 2007 to March 2014. The following determinations in collected water samples were performed: total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll “a”, and turbidity. The trophic level of Topiło reservoir was also assessed according to the concentration criteria and based on the trophic status indices (TSI calculated after Carlson’s as well as Kratzer and Brezonik’s. Given the annual average value of overall trophic level (Trophic Status Index, the dominant role of the TSI (TP during all years of research attracts some attention. The TSI index values ranged within 78.3–80.26, which allowed to classify the water of Topiło reservoir as hypertrophic. The research indicates an advanced and constantly progressive degradation of water quality in Topiło reservoir. Values of TSI (Chl were in the range of 49.2–77.35 and therefore water status in winter can be defined as eutrophic indicating the hypertrophy in remaining periods under study. Additional investments planned for advance reclamation treatments should be necessarily taken into consideration at the stage of planning and design of new small water retention reservoirs. Topiło reservoir requires modernization and reclamation, it

  20. Evaluation of an Empirical Reservoir Shape Function to Define Sediment Distributions in Small Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Bogusław Michalec

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and defining the spatial distribution of sediment deposited in reservoirs is essential not only at the design stage but also during the operation. The majority of research concerns the distribution of sediment deposition in medium and large water reservoirs. Most empirical methods do not provide satisfactory results when applied to the determination of sediment deposition in small reservoirs. Small reservoir’s volumes do not exceed 5 × 106 m3 and their capacity-inflow ratio is l...

  1. Lower Palaeozoic reservoirs of North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossley, R.; McDougall, N. [Robertson Research International Ltd., Llandudno, Conwy (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of features considered significant in the exploration and development of Lower Palaeozoic reservoirs of North Africa. Information is derived from a review of literature on the Lower Palaeozoic successions of North Africa, combined with outcrop observations from the Anti Atlas mountains of Morocco. The focus of the exploration-oriented part of the review is on identification of potential traps other than two-way structural dip closure. Stratigraphic elements described include depositional models of reservoir facies, tectonic unconformities and possible eustatic unconformities. Cases of established or potential trapping by post-depositional faulting by diagenesis and by hydrodynamic flow are examined. Development-related topics highlighted include the impact on reservoir matrix quality of burial diagenesis and of palaeo-weathering at the Hercynian unconformity. Other issues discussed which additionally affect producibility from the reservoir matrix include tectonic fracturing, palaeotopography and unloading fracturing at the Hercynian unconformity, and induced fracturing within the present stress regimes. (author)

  2. Reservoir Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Russian HPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, M. P.; Elistratov, V. V.; Maslikov, V. I.; Sidorenko, G. I.; Chusov, A. N.; Atrashenok, V. P.; Molodtsov, D. V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Savvichev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, S. N. Vinogradskii Institute of Microbiology (Russian Federation); Zinchenko, A. V. [A. I. Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    Studies of greenhouse-gas emissions from the surfaces of the world’s reservoirs, which has demonstrated ambiguity of assessments of the effect of reservoirs on greenhouse-gas emissions to the atmosphere, is analyzed. It is recommended that greenhouse- gas emissions from various reservoirs be assessed by the procedure “GHG Measurement Guidelines for Fresh Water Reservoirs” (2010) for the purpose of creating a data base with results of standardized measurements. Aprogram for research into greenhouse-gas emissions is being developed at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University in conformity with the IHA procedure at the reservoirs impounded by the Sayano-Shushenskaya and Mainskaya HPP operated by the RusHydro Co.

  3. The glaciogenic reservoir analogue studies project (GRASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moscariello, A.; Moreau, Julien; Vegt, P. van der

    Tunnel galleys are common features in Palaeozoic glacigenic succession in North Afrcica and Middle East and they are amongst the most challenging target for hydrocarbon exploration and developing drilling in these regions. Similarly, these buried valleys form important groundwater reservoirs...

  4. Overdamped stochastic thermodynamics with multiple reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashita, Yûto; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2016-12-01

    After establishing stochastic thermodynamics for underdamped Langevin systems in contact with multiple reservoirs, we derive its overdamped limit using timescale separation techniques. The overdamped theory is different from the naive theory that one obtains when starting from overdamped Langevin or Fokker-Planck dynamics and only coincides with it in the presence of a single reservoir. The reason is that the coarse-grained fast momentum dynamics reaches a nonequilibrium state, which conducts heat in the presence of multiple reservoirs. The underdamped and overdamped theory are both shown to satisfy fundamental fluctuation theorems. Their predictions for the heat statistics are derived analytically for a Brownian particle on a ring in contact with two reservoirs and subjected to a nonconservative force and are shown to coincide in the long-time limit.

  5. NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12) GIS layer was derived from the 12-Digit National Watershed Boundary Database (WBD) at 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and...

  6. Geothermal energy from the Main Karoo Basin (South Africa): An outcrop analogue study of Permian sandstone reservoir formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart A.; Lenhardt, Nils; Dippenaar, Matthys A.; Götz, Annette E.

    2016-04-01

    The geothermal potential of the South African Main Karoo Basin has not been addressed in the past, although thick siliciclastic successions in geothermal prone depths are promising target reservoir formations. A first assessment of the geothermal potential of the Karoo Basin is based on petro- and thermophysical data gained from an outcrop analogue study of Permian sandstones in the Eastern Cape Province, and evaluation of groundwater temperature and heat flow values from literature. A volumetric approach of the sandstones' reservoir potential leads to a first estimation of 2240 TWh (8.0 EJ) of power generation within the central and southern part of the basin. Comparison with data from other sedimentary basins where deep geothermal reservoirs are identified shows the high potential of the Karoo for future geothermal resource exploration, development and production. The mainly low permeability lithotypes may be operated as stimulated systems, depending on the fracture porosity in the deeper subsurface. In some areas auto-convective thermal water circulation might be expected and direct heat use becomes reasonable. The data presented here serve to identify exploration areas and are valuable attributes for reservoir modeling, contributing to (1) a reliable reservoir prognosis, (2) the decision of potential reservoir stimulation, and (3) the planning of long-term efficient reservoir utilization.

  7. Geology, reservoir engineering and methane hydrate potential of the Walakpa Gas Field, North Slope, Alaska. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, R.K.; Allen, W.W.

    1992-12-01

    The Walakpa Gas Field, located near the city of Barrow on Alaska`s North Slope, has been proven to be methane-bearing at depths of 2000--2550 feet below sea level. The producing formation is a laterally continuous, south-dipping, Lower Cretaceous shelf sandstone. The updip extent of the reservoir has not been determined by drilling, but probably extends to at least 1900 feet below sea level. Reservoir temperatures in the updip portion of the reservoir may be low enough to allow the presence of in situ methane hydrates. Reservoir net pay however, decreases to the north. Depths to the base of permafrost in the area average 940 feet. Drilling techniques and production configuration in the Walakpa field were designed to minimize formation damage to the reservoir sandstone and to eliminate methane hydrates formed during production. Drilling development of the Walakpa field was a sequential updip and lateral stepout from a previously drilled, structurally lower confirmation well. Reservoir temperature, pressure, and gas chemistry data from the development wells confirm that they have been drilled in the free-methane portion of the reservoir. Future studies in the Walakpa field are planned to determine whether or not a component of the methane production is due to the dissociation of updip in situ hydrates.

  8. Understanding the Climatology of Thermodynamic Signatures and their Role in Modification of Extreme Precipitation around Artificial Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degu, A. M.; Hossain, F.

    2010-12-01

    Very little is known about how dams and reservoirs modify rainfall and flood frequency in their vicinity. This is because conventional dam design and reservoir planning over the last century have been “one-way,” without acknowledging the possible feedback mechanisms on precipitation recycling due to local evaporation and systematic change in land use and land cover. In this study, using the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) database, the climatology of important thermodynamic signatures, such as CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy), Convective Inhibition, Temperature, Latent Heat, Humidity, Precipitation and Wind are analyzed as a function of proximity to large artificial reservoirs in the United States. The analysis is cast in the context of the chronology of extreme precipitation trends around dams for the pre-dam and post-dam period. To understand how storms may have been intensified by reservoirs, the climatology was analyzed for a set of about 100 large dams for three specific scenarios: 1) right over the reservoir 2) right over land adjacent to the reservoir and 3) over land far away from the reservoir by at least 100 km. Precipitation records from the Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN) were used to correlate the temporal and spatial trends in extreme precipitation to the climatology of the thermodynamic signatures. Several hypotheses on the physical mechanism of storm intensification are proposed and tested using the analysis presented herein. Location of large dams with their climatic classification

  9. Future changes in Mekong River hydrology: impact of climate change and reservoir operation on discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lauri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The transboundary Mekong River is facing two on-going changes that are estimated to significantly impact its hydrology and the characteristics of its exceptional flood pulse. The rapid economic development of the riparian countries has led to massive plans for hydropower construction, and the projected climate change is expected to alter the monsoon patterns and increase temperature in the basin. The aim of this study is to assess the cumulative impact of these factors on the hydrology of the Mekong within next 20–30 yr. We downscaled output of five General Circulation Models (GCMs that were found to perform well in the Mekong region. For the simulation of reservoir operation, we used an optimisation approach to estimate the operation of multiple reservoirs, including both existing and planned hydropower reservoirs. For hydrological assessment, we used a distributed hydrological model, VMod, with a grid resolution of 5 km × 5 km. In terms of climate change's impact to hydrology, we found a high variation in the discharge results depending on which of the GCMs is used as input. The simulated change in discharge at Kratie (Cambodia between the baseline (1982–1992 and projected time period (2032–2042 ranges from −11% to +15% for the wet season and −10% to +13% for the dry season. Our analysis also shows that the changes in discharge due to planned reservoir operations are clearly larger than those simulated due to climate change: 25–160% higher dry season flows and 5–24% lower flood peaks in Kratie. The projected cumulative impacts follow rather closely the reservoir operation impacts, with an envelope around them induced by the different GCMs. Our results thus indicate that within the coming 20–30 yr, the operation of planned hydropower reservoirs is likely to have a larger impact on the Mekong hydrograph than the impacts of climate change, particularly during the dry season. On the other hand, climate change will increase the

  10. Analysis of Seismicity Risk Increase Triggered by Longtan Reservoir, China, Using a Fully Coupled Poroelastic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, K.; Zhang, S.; Guo, Y.; Zhou, S.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Impoundment of reservoirs can lead to increase in crustal pore pressure and Coulomb stress, and promotes nearby faults to fail. Abnormal seismicity increase around reservoir is often thought to be triggered by the water impounded behind the dam. In this study, we analyze the impact of Longtan reservoir in Guangxi province, southwest China, on local seismicity, which has increased significantly since the initial impoundment in October, 2006. Most of the earthquakes cluster around the reservoir according to local seismic network and CEA reports, and the greatest earthquake is of magnitude 4.2. We introduce an improved Bayesian method to show that the temporal variation of b-value is inversely correlated with the seasonal fluctuation of reservoir water level. Upon extracting background seismicity using the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model, we show that background seismicity variation is highly related to the filling rate and volume We further investigate the mechanism of seismicity increase and reservoir impoundment by performing a fully coupled 3-D poroelastic model with the reservoir loading history as a dynamic boundary condition. An optimally oriented fault plane is chosen according to the regional stress field and GPS deformation data when calculating the induced Coulomb stress. Our results demonstrate that most earthquakes occurred within positive Coulomb stress regime, and the seismicity rate is highly related to the rate of pore pressure increase. In the next step we plan to apply the coupled poroelastic model to understand hydraulic fracturing induced earthquakes in shale gas exploration, such as the recent Fox Creek event cluster, in the western Canada sedimentary basin.

  11. Computer-based technology for elaboration of morphometric characteristics of Volga reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikunova, E.

    2009-04-01

    There are nine biggest Russian reservoirs in Volga basin. Total capacity is about 168 km3, effective capacity - 80 km3, total square is equal 24 000 km2 and total length - 3 500 km. Water resources are used in hydroenergetic, navigation, water supply, fishing industry, etc. It is important to know current morphometric characteristics of all reservoirs. For getting all morphometric characteristics we need bottom and coastal zone digital elevation model (DEM) for each reservoir. In 2008 in State Oceanographic Institute methodology and computer-based technology of creating DEM were developed and evaluated on Uglichsky reservoir. The information base includes field survey data, remote sensing data and large-scale maps. Bathymetric survey was made by crosslines with intervals 500 m or 250 m. Expedition team of State Oceanographic Institute made survey using special complex of echo sounder, GPS and specialized computer. This complex allows to determine X, Y, Z coordinates in a moment and display this information. 370 crosslines were measured and they included 416 000 survey data. Large-scale maps were used for vectorization of coastline and relief data. For elaboration coastline in the most difficult zones were used remote sensing data. All received polygonal and line objects were transformed into point's data type with point's frequency 2.5-3 m. The total amount of points was 1 400 000. Water area was breaked up on small zones including 4 crosslines. For each zone grid was created (cell 5x5m) using method Natural Neighbor. Anisotropy depends on channel orientation. Further middle part of grid was clipped. DEM is the result of mosaic of small grids. This technology allows to create bottom and coastline DEM for evaluation of actual morphometric characteristics of reservoirs that is useful for effective water management. Next year State Oceanographic Institute plans to continue works on Gorkovsky, Volgogradsky reservoirs and several reservoirs of Moscow region.

  12. Reservoir system expansion scheduling under conflicting interests - A Blue Nile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geressu, Robel; Harou, Julien

    2017-04-01

    New water resource developments are facing increasing resistance due to their real and perceived potential to affect existing systems' performance negatively. Hence, scheduling new dams in multi-reservoir systems requires considering conflicting performance objectives to minimize impacts, create consensus among wider stakeholder groups and avoid conflict. However, because of the large number of alternative expansion schedules, planning approaches often rely on simplifying assumptions such as the appropriate gap between expansion stages or less flexibility in reservoir release rules than what is possible. In this study, we investigate the extent to which these assumptions could limit our ability to find better performing alternatives. We apply a many-objective sequencing approach to the proposed Blue Nile hydropower reservoir system in Ethiopia to find best investment schedules and operating rules that maximize long-term discounted net benefits, downstream releases and energy generation during reservoir filling periods. The system is optimized using 30 realizations of stochastically generated streamflow data, statistically resembling the historical flow. Results take the form of Pareto-optimal trade-offs where each point on the curve or surface represents a combination of new reservoirs, their implementation dates and operating rules. Results show a significant relationship between detail in operating rule design (i.e., changing operating rules as the multi-reservoir expansion progresses) and the system performance. For the Blue Nile, failure to optimize operating rules in sufficient detail could result in underestimation of the net worth of the proposed investments by up to 6 billion USD if a development option with low downstream impact (slow filling of the reservoirs) is to be implemented.

  13. Assessment of the caesium-137 flux adsorbed to suspended sediment in a reservoir in the contaminated Fukushima region in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Goro; Golosov, Valentin; Shiiba, Michiharu; Hori, Tomoharu

    2014-04-01

    We estimated the flux of caesium-137 adsorbed to suspended sediment in the Kusaki Dam reservoir in the Fukushima region of eastern Japan, which was contaminated by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident. The amount and rate of reservoir sedimentation and the caesium-137 concentration were validated based on the mixed-particle distribution and a sediment transport equation. The caesium-137 and sediment flux data suggested that wash load, suspended load sediment, and caesium-137 were deposited and the discharge and transport processes generated acute pollution, especially during extreme rainfall-runoff events. Additionally, we qualitatively assessed future changes in caesium-137 and sediment fluxes in the reservoir. The higher deposition and discharge at the start of the projection compared to the 2090s are most likely explained by the radioactive decay of caesium-137 and the effects of reservoir sedimentation. Predictions of the impacts of future climate on sediment and caesium-137 fluxes are crucial for environmental planning and management.

  14. Origins of acid fluids in geothermal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, Alfred

    1991-01-01

    Acid fluids in geothermal reservoirs are rare. Their occurrence in geothermal systems associated with recent volcanism (Tatun, Sumikawa, Miravalles) probably indicates that the geothermal reservoir fluid was derived from volcanic fluid incompletely neutralized by reaction with feldspars and micas. Superheated steam containing HCl (Larderello, The Geysers) forms acid where it condenses or mixes with liquid at moderate temperatures (325??C). Cryptoacidity occurs at Los Humeros where HCl acidity is formed and neutralized without reaching the surface.

  15. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  16. Finite temperature reservoir engineering and entanglement dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Fedortchenko, S.; Keller, A.; Coudreau, T.; Milman, P.

    2014-01-01

    We propose experimental methods to engineer reservoirs at arbitrary temperature which are feasible with current technology. Our results generalize to mixed states the possibility of quantum state engineering through controlled decoherence. Finite temperature engineered reservoirs can lead to the experimental observation of thermal entanglement --the appearance and increase of entanglement with temperature-- to the study of the dependence of finite time disentanglement and revival with tempera...

  17. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This project has used a multi-disciplinary approach employing geology, geophysics, and engineering to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and management activities to design and implement an optimized infill drilling program at the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit in Gaines County, Texas. The activities during the first Budget Period consisted of developing an integrated reservoir description from geological, engineering, and geostatistical studies, and using this description for reservoir flow simulation. Specific reservoir management activities were identified and tested. The geologically targeted infill drilling program currently being implemented is a result of this work. A significant contribution of this project is to demonstrate the use of cost-effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability shallow-shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. The techniques that are outlined for the formulation of an integrated reservoir description apply to all oil and gas reservoirs, but are specifically tailored for use in the heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs of West Texas.

  18. Massachusetts reservoir simulation tool—User’s manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.

    2016-10-06

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey developed the Massachusetts Reservoir Simulation Tool to examine the effects of reservoirs on natural streamflows in Massachusetts by simulating the daily water balance of reservoirs. The simulation tool was developed to assist environmental managers to better manage water withdrawals in reservoirs and to preserve downstream aquatic habitats.

  19. Hydropower Reservoir Operation using Standard Operating and Standard Hedging Policies

    OpenAIRE

    T.R. Neelakantan; K. Sasireka

    2013-01-01

    Standard operating policy and hedging policies are commonly used for reservoir operation for municipal or irrigation water supply. Application of these policies to hydropower reservoir operation is complex. In this paper, new standard operating policies and standard hedging policy are proposed for hydropower reservoir operation. The newly proposed policies were applied to the operation of Indira Sagar reservoir in India and demonstrated.

  20. Numerical Studies of Radioactive Sediment Deposition on Reservoirs in Fukushima Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Susumu; Itakura, Mitsuhiro; Okumura, Masahiko; Machida, Masahiko; Kitamura, Akihiro

    2014-05-01

    The transportation of radioactive Cs is mainly brought about by movement of silt- and clay-sized particles in rivers. Therefore, predicting such a fine sediment flow and deposition in rivers has been one of central issues toward environmental recovery after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. For the purpose of the Cs transport prediction, we concentrate on a few reservoirs in Fukushima costal area, since they are temporal destinations for contaminated silt and clay transported by rivers. We numerically study how the river water together with floating silt and clays penetrate into the reservoirs and where the sediments settle on the bottom surface of the reservoirs by using 2D river simulation framework named iRIC developed by Shimizu et al. In this presentation, we reveal the typical deposition pattern in the target reservoirs and compare the results with direct sampling data for the sediments on the reservoir bottom surfaces. We believe that the obtained information is useful in planning the water supply and treatment for highly-contaminated districts in Fukushima costal area.

  1. Towards an optimal integrated reservoir system management for the Awash River Basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ruben; Gebretsadik, Henok Y.; Schütze, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the Kessem-Tendaho project is completed to bring about socioeconomic development and growth in the Awash River Basin, Ethiopia. To support reservoir Koka, two new reservoirs where built together with extensive infrastructure for new irrigation projects. For best possible socioeconomic benefits under conflicting management goals, like energy production at three hydropower stations and basin wide water supply at various sites, an integrated reservoir system management is required. To satisfy the multi-purpose nature of the reservoir system, multi-objective parameterization-simulation-optimization model is applied. Different Pareto-optimal trade-off solutions between water supply and hydro-power generation are provided for two scenarios (i) recent conditions and (ii) future planned increases for Tendaho and Upper Awash Irrigation projects. Reservoir performance is further assessed under (i) rule curves with a high degree of freedom - this allows for best performance, but may result in rules curves to variable for real word operation and (ii) smooth rule curves, obtained by artificial neuronal networks. The results show no performance penalty for smooth rule curves under future conditions but a notable penalty under recent conditions.

  2. The stress regime in a Rotliegend reservoir of the Northeast German Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, Inga; Schandelmeier, Heinz; Holl, Heinz-Gerd

    2009-10-01

    In-situ stresses have significant impact, either positive or negative, on the short and long term behaviour of fractured reservoirs. The knowledge of the stress conditions are therefore important for planning and utilization of man-made geothermal reservoirs. The geothermal field Groß Schönebeck (40 km north of Berlin/Germany) belongs to the key sites in the northeastern German Basin. We present a stress state determination for this Lower Permian (Rotliegend) reservoir by an integrated approach of 3D structural modelling, 3D fault mapping, stress ratio definition based on frictional constraints, and slip-tendency analysis. The results indicate stress ratios of the minimum horizontal stress S hmin being equal or increasing 0.55 times the amount of the vertical stress S V ( S hmin ≥ 0.55 S V ) and of the maximum horizontal stress S Hmax ≤ 0.78-1.00 S V in stress regimes from normal to strike slip faulting. Thus, acting stresses in the 4,100-m deep reservoir are S V = 100 MPa, S hmin = 55 MPa and S Hmax = 78-100 MPa. Values from hydraulic fracturing support these results. Various fault sets of the reservoir are characterized in terms of their potential to conduct geothermal fluids based on their slip and dilatation tendency. This combined approach can be adopted to any other geothermal site investigation.

  3. Reliability, sensitivity, and uncertainty of reservoir performance under climate variability in basins with different hydrogeologic settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mateus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how reservoir performance varied across different hydrogeologic settings and under plausible future climate scenarios. The study was conducted in the Santiam River basin, OR, USA, comparing the North Santiam basin (NSB, with high permeability and extensive groundwater storage, and the South Santiam basin (SSB, with low permeability, little groundwater storage, and rapid runoff response. We applied projections of future temperature and precipitation from global climate models to a rainfall-runoff model, coupled with a formal Bayesian uncertainty analysis, to project future inflow hydrographs as inputs to a reservoir operations model. The performance of reservoir operations was evaluated as the reliability in meeting flood management, spring and summer environmental flows, and hydropower generation objectives. Despite projected increases in winter flows and decreases in summer flows, results suggested little evidence of a response in reservoir operation performance to a warming climate, with the exception of summer flow targets in the SSB. Independent of climate impacts, historical prioritization of reservoir operations appeared to impact reliability, suggesting areas where operation performance may be improved. Results also highlighted how hydrologic uncertainty is likely to complicate planning for climate change in basins with substantial groundwater interactions.

  4. Reservoir assessment of The Geysers Geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.P.; Chapman, R.H.; Dykstra, H.

    1981-01-01

    Big Sulphur Creek fault zone, in The Geysers Geothermal field, may be part of a deep-seated, wrench-style fault system. Hydrothermal fluid in the field reservoir may rise through conduits beneath the five main anomalies associated with the Big Sulphur Creek wrench trend. Some geophysical anomalies (electrical resistivity and audio-magnetotelluric) evidently are caused by the hot water geothermal field or zones of altered rocks; others (gravity, P-wave delays, and possibly electrical resistivity) probably respresent the underlying heat source, a possible magma chamber; and others (microearthquake activity) may be related to the steam reservoir. A large negative gravity anomaly and a few low-resistivity anomalies suggest areas generally favorable for the presence of steam zones, but these anomalies apparently do not directly indicate the known steam reservoir. At the current generating capacity of 930 MWe, the estimated life of The Geysers Geothermal field reservoir is 129 years. The estimated reservoir life is 60 years for the anticipated maximum generating capacity of 2000 MWe as of 1990. Wells at The Geysers are drilled with conventional drilling fluid (mud) until the top of the steam reservoir is reached; then, they are drilled with air. Usually, mud, temperature, caliper, dual induction, and cement bond logs are run on the wells.

  5. Reservoir Thermal Recover Simulation on Parallel Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoyan; Ma, Yuanle

    The rapid development of parallel computers has provided a hardware background for massive refine reservoir simulation. However, the lack of parallel reservoir simulation software has blocked the application of parallel computers on reservoir simulation. Although a variety of parallel methods have been studied and applied to black oil, compositional, and chemical model numerical simulations, there has been limited parallel software available for reservoir simulation. Especially, the parallelization study of reservoir thermal recovery simulation has not been fully carried out, because of the complexity of its models and algorithms. The authors make use of the message passing interface (MPI) standard communication library, the domain decomposition method, the block Jacobi iteration algorithm, and the dynamic memory allocation technique to parallelize their serial thermal recovery simulation software NUMSIP, which is being used in petroleum industry in China. The parallel software PNUMSIP was tested on both IBM SP2 and Dawn 1000A distributed-memory parallel computers. The experiment results show that the parallelization of I/O has great effects on the efficiency of parallel software PNUMSIP; the data communication bandwidth is also an important factor, which has an influence on software efficiency. Keywords: domain decomposition method, block Jacobi iteration algorithm, reservoir thermal recovery simulation, distributed-memory parallel computer

  6. Parallel reservoir computing using optical amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoorne, Kristof; Dambre, Joni; Verstraeten, David; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Bienstman, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Reservoir computing (RC), a computational paradigm inspired on neural systems, has become increasingly popular in recent years for solving a variety of complex recognition and classification problems. Thus far, most implementations have been software-based, limiting their speed and power efficiency. Integrated photonics offers the potential for a fast, power efficient and massively parallel hardware implementation. We have previously proposed a network of coupled semiconductor optical amplifiers as an interesting test case for such a hardware implementation. In this paper, we investigate the important design parameters and the consequences of process variations through simulations. We use an isolated word recognition task with babble noise to evaluate the performance of the photonic reservoirs with respect to traditional software reservoir implementations, which are based on leaky hyperbolic tangent functions. Our results show that the use of coherent light in a well-tuned reservoir architecture offers significant performance benefits. The most important design parameters are the delay and the phase shift in the system's physical connections. With optimized values for these parameters, coherent semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) reservoirs can achieve better results than traditional simulated reservoirs. We also show that process variations hardly degrade the performance, but amplifier noise can be detrimental. This effect must therefore be taken into account when designing SOA-based RC implementations.

  7. Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-01-26

    PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

  8. Assessing water reservoir management and development in Northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianosi, F.; Quach, X.; Castelletti, A.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2012-04-01

    In many developing countries water is a key renewable resource to complement carbon-emitting energy production and support food security in the face of demand pressure from fast-growing industrial production and urbanization. To cope with undergoing changes, water resources development and management have to be reconsidered by enlarging their scope across sectors and adopting effective tools to analyze current and projected infrastructure potential and operation strategies. In this work we use multi-objective deterministic and stochastic optimization to assess the current reservoir operation and planned capacity expansion in the Red River Basin (Northern Vietnam), focusing on the major controllable infrastructure in the basin, the HoaBinh reservoir on the Da River. We first provide a general and mathematical description of the socio economic and physical system of the Red River Basin, including the three main objectives of hydropower production, flood control, and water supply, and using conceptual and data-driven modeling tools. Then, we analyze the historical operation of the HoaBinh reservoir and explore re-operation options corresponding to different tradeoffs among the three main objectives, using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm. Results show that there exist several operating policies that prove Pareto-dominant over the historical one, that is, they can improve all three management objectives simultaneously. However, while the improvement is rather significant with respect to hydropower production and water supply, it is much more limited in terms of flood control. To understand whether this is due to structural constraints (insufficient storing capacity) or to the imperfect information system (uncertainty in forecasting future flows and thus anticipate floods), we assessed the infrastructural system potential by application of Deterministic Dynamic Programming. Results show that the current operation can only be relatively improved by advanced optimization

  9. Potential methane reservoirs beneath Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadham, J L; Arndt, S; Tulaczyk, S; Stibal, M; Tranter, M; Telling, J; Lis, G P; Lawson, E; Ridgwell, A; Dubnick, A; Sharp, M J; Anesio, A M; Butler, C E H

    2012-08-30

    Once thought to be devoid of life, the ice-covered parts of Antarctica are now known to be a reservoir of metabolically active microbial cells and organic carbon. The potential for methanogenic archaea to support the degradation of organic carbon to methane beneath the ice, however, has not yet been evaluated. Large sedimentary basins containing marine sequences up to 14 kilometres thick and an estimated 21,000 petagrams (1 Pg equals 10(15) g) of organic carbon are buried beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. No data exist for rates of methanogenesis in sub-Antarctic marine sediments. Here we present experimental data from other subglacial environments that demonstrate the potential for overridden organic matter beneath glacial systems to produce methane. We also numerically simulate the accumulation of methane in Antarctic sedimentary basins using an established one-dimensional hydrate model and show that pressure/temperature conditions favour methane hydrate formation down to sediment depths of about 300 metres in West Antarctica and 700 metres in East Antarctica. Our results demonstrate the potential for methane hydrate accumulation in Antarctic sedimentary basins, where the total inventory depends on rates of organic carbon degradation and conditions at the ice-sheet bed. We calculate that the sub-Antarctic hydrate inventory could be of the same order of magnitude as that of recent estimates made for Arctic permafrost. Our findings suggest that the Antarctic Ice Sheet may be a neglected but important component of the global methane budget, with the potential to act as a positive feedback on climate warming during ice-sheet wastage.

  10. A finite element simulation system in reservoir engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Xiaozhong [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Reservoir engineering is performed to predict the future performance of a reservoir based on its current state and past performance and to explore other methods for increasing the recovery of hydrocarbons from a reservoir. Reservoir simulations are routinely used for these purposes. A reservoir simulator is a sophisticated computer program which solves a system of partial differential equations describing multiphase fluid flow (oil, water, and gas) in a porous reservoir rock. This document describes the use of a reservoir simulator version of BOAST which was developed by the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research in July, 1991.

  11. Seasonal use of shallow water habitat in the Lower Snake River reservoirs by juvenile fall Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) is preparing a long term management plan for sediments that affect the authorized project purposes of the Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and Ice Harbor reservoirs (hereafter, the lower Snake River reservoirs), and the area from the mouth of the Snake River to Ice Harbor Dam. We conducted a study from spring 2010 through winter 2011 to describe the habitat use by juvenile Chinook salmon within a selected group of shallow water habitat complexes (areas increased. Reservoir-type juveniles (or fish likely destined to become reservoir-type juveniles) were present in the lower Snake River reservoirs from fall 2010 through winter 2011; however, use of shallow water habitat by reservoir-type juveniles was limited during our study. We only collected 38 reservoir-type juveniles in shallow water habitat sites in beach and lampara seines during the fall. Radiotelemetry data revealed that though many tagged fish passed shallow water habitat sites, relatively few fish entered them and the median time fish spent within a given site was less than 1.4 h. Fish located by mobile tracking away from study sites were pelagically oriented, and generally not found over shallow water or close to shore. The findings in this report: (1) support the selection of natural fall Chinook subyearlings as the indicator group for determining the potential benefits of using dredge spoils to create shallow water habitat, (2) provide evidence for shallow water habitat use by natural subyearlings, (3) provide evidence against large-scale use of shallow water habitat by reservoir-type juveniles, (4) suggest that the depth criterion for defining shallow water habitat (i.e., competition would help to better inform the long-term management plan.

  12. Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blunt, Martin J.; Orr, Franklin M.

    1999-05-17

    This report describes research carried out in the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Stanford University from September 1997 - September 1998 under the second year of a three-year grant from the Department of Energy on the "Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs." The research effort is an integrated study of the factors affecting gas injection, from the pore scale to the field scale, and involves theoretical analysis, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulation. The original proposal described research in four areas: (1) Pore scale modeling of three phase flow in porous media; (2) Laboratory experiments and analysis of factors influencing gas injection performance at the core scale with an emphasis on the fundamentals of three phase flow; (3) Benchmark simulations of gas injection at the field scale; and (4) Development of streamline-based reservoir simulator. Each state of the research is planned to provide input and insight into the next stage, such that at the end we should have an integrated understanding of the key factors affecting field scale displacements.

  13. Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blunt, Michael J.; Orr, Franklin M.

    1999-05-26

    This report describes research carried out in the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Stanford University from September 1996 - September 1997 under the first year of a three-year Department of Energy grant on the Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs. The research effort is an integrated study of the factors affecting gas injection, from the pore scale to the field scale, and involves theoretical analysis, laboratory experiments and numerical simulation. The original proposal described research in four main areas; (1) Pore scale modeling of three phase flow in porous media; (2) Laboratory experiments and analysis of factors influencing gas injection performance at the core scale with an emphasis on the fundamentals of three phase flow; (3) Benchmark simulations of gas injection at the field scale; and (4) Development of streamline-based reservoir simulator. Each stage of the research is planned to provide input and insight into the next stage, such that at the end we should have an integrated understanding of the key factors affecting field scale displacements.

  14. Assessing water reservoirs management and development in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Castelletti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries water is a key renewable resource to complement carbon-emitting energy production and support food security in the face of demand pressure from fast-growing industrial production and urbanization. To cope with undergoing changes, water resources development and management have to be reconsidered by enlarging their scope across sectors and adopting effective tools to analyze current and projected infrastructure potential and operation strategies. In this paper we use multi-objective deterministic and stochastic optimization to assess the current reservoir operation and planned capacity expansion in the Red River Basin (Northern Vietnam, and to evaluate the potential improvement by the adoption of a more sophisticated information system. To reach this goal we analyze the historical operation of the major controllable infrastructure in the basin, the HoaBinh reservoir on the Da River, explore re-operation options corresponding to different tradeoffs among the three main objectives (hydropower production, flood control and water supply, using multi-objective optimization techniques, namely Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm. Finally, we assess the structural system potential and the need for capacity expansion by application of Deterministic Dynamic Programming. Results show that the current operation can only be relatively improved by advanced optimization techniques, while investment should be put into enlarging the system storage capacity and exploiting additional information to inform the operation.

  15. Assessing water reservoirs management and development in Northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Pianosi, F.; Quach, X.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2012-01-01

    In many developing countries water is a key renewable resource to complement carbon-emitting energy production and support food security in the face of demand pressure from fast-growing industrial production and urbanization. To cope with undergoing changes, water resources development and management have to be reconsidered by enlarging their scope across sectors and adopting effective tools to analyze current and projected infrastructure potential and operation strategies. In this paper we use multi-objective deterministic and stochastic optimization to assess the current reservoir operation and planned capacity expansion in the Red River Basin (Northern Vietnam), and to evaluate the potential improvement by the adoption of a more sophisticated information system. To reach this goal we analyze the historical operation of the major controllable infrastructure in the basin, the HoaBinh reservoir on the Da River, explore re-operation options corresponding to different tradeoffs among the three main objectives (hydropower production, flood control and water supply), using multi-objective optimization techniques, namely Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm. Finally, we assess the structural system potential and the need for capacity expansion by application of Deterministic Dynamic Programming. Results show that the current operation can only be relatively improved by advanced optimization techniques, while investment should be put into enlarging the system storage capacity and exploiting additional information to inform the operation.

  16. Current Challenges in Geothermal Reservoir Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driesner, T.

    2016-12-01

    Geothermal reservoir simulation has long been introduced as a valuable tool for geothermal reservoir management and research. Yet, the current generation of simulation tools faces a number of severe challenges, in particular in the application for novel types of geothermal resources such as supercritical reservoirs or hydraulic stimulation. This contribution reviews a number of key problems: Representing the magmatic heat source of high enthalpy resources in simulations. Current practice is representing the deeper parts of a high enthalpy reservoir by a heat flux or temperature boundary condition. While this is sufficient for many reservoir management purposes it precludes exploring the chances of very high enthalpy resources in the deepest parts of such systems as well as the development of reliable conceptual models. Recent 2D simulations with the CSMP++ simulation platform demonstrate the potential of explicitly including the heat source, namely for understanding supercritical resources. Geometrically realistic incorporation of discrete fracture networks in simulation. A growing number of simulation tools can, in principle, handle flow and heat transport in discrete fracture networks. However, solving the governing equations and representing the physical properties are often biased by introducing strongly simplifying assumptions. Including proper fracture mechanics in complex fracture network simulations remains an open challenge. Improvements of the simulating chemical fluid-rock interaction in geothermal reservoirs. Major improvements have been made towards more stable and faster numerical solvers for multicomponent chemical fluid rock interaction. However, the underlying thermodynamic models and databases are unable to correctly address a number of important regions in temperature-pressure-composition parameter space. Namely, there is currently no thermodynamic formalism to describe relevant chemical reactions in supercritical reservoirs. Overcoming this

  17. Thirteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Miller, F.G.; Cook, J.W. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1988-01-21

    PREFACE The Thirteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 19-21, 1988. Although 1987 continued to be difficult for the domestic geothermal industry, world-wide activities continued to expand. Two invited presentations on mature geothermal systems were a keynote of the meeting. Malcolm Grant presented a detailed review of Wairakei, New Zealand and highlighted plans for new development. G. Neri summarized experience on flow rate decline and well test analysis in Larderello, Italy. Attendance continued to be high with 128 registered participants. Eight foreign countries were represented: England, France, Iceland, Italy, New Zealand, Japan, Mexico and The Philippines. A discussion of future workshops produced a strong recommendation that the Stanford Workshop program continue for the future. There were forty-one technical presentations at the Workshop. All of these are published as papers in this Proceedings volume. Four technical papers not presented at the Workshop are also published. In addition to these forty five technical presentations or papers, the introductory address was given by Henry J. Ramey, Jr. from the Stanford Geothermal Program. The Workshop Banquet speaker was Gustavo Calderon from the Inter-American Development Bank. We thank him for sharing with the Workshop participants a description of the Bank???s operations in Costa Rica developing alternative energy resources, specifically Geothermal, to improve the country???s economic basis. His talk appears as a paper in the back of this volume. The chairmen of the technical sessions made an important contribution to the workshop. Other than Stanford faculty members they included: J. Combs, G. T. Cole, J. Counsil, A. Drenick, H. Dykstra, K. Goyal, P. Muffler, K. Pruess, and S. K. Sanyal. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff and students. We would like to thank Marilyn King, Pat Oto, Terri Ramey, Bronwyn Jones

  18. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Jack; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill; Bezant, Bryce

    2000-03-16

    The major purpose of this project was to demonstrate the use of cost effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs such as the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit.

  19. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Frauk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2001-08-15

    Research continues on characterizing and modeling the behavior of naturally fractured reservoir systems. Work has progressed on developing techniques for estimating fracture properties from seismic and well log data, developing naturally fractured wellbore models, and developing a model to characterize the transfer of fluid from the matrix to the fracture system for use in the naturally fractured reservoir simulator.

  20. PLANET TOPERS: Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehant, V; Asael, D; Baland, R M; Baludikay, B K; Beghin, J; Belza, J; Beuthe, M; Breuer, D; Chernonozhkin, S; Claeys, Ph; Cornet, Y; Cornet, L; Coyette, A; Debaille, V; Delvigne, C; Deproost, M H; De WInter, N; Duchemin, C; El Atrassi, F; François, C; De Keyser, J; Gillmann, C; Gloesener, E; Goderis, S; Hidaka, Y; Höning, D; Huber, M; Hublet, G; Javaux, E J; Karatekin, Ö; Kodolanyi, J; Revilla, L Lobo; Maes, L; Maggiolo, R; Mattielli, N; Maurice, M; McKibbin, S; Morschhauser, A; Neumann, W; Noack, L; Pham, L B S; Pittarello, L; Plesa, A C; Rivoldini, A; Robert, S; Rosenblatt, P; Spohn, T; Storme, J -Y; Tosi, N; Trinh, A; Valdes, M; Vandaele, A C; Vanhaecke, F; Van Hoolst, T; Van Roosbroek, N; Wilquet, V; Yseboodt, M

    2016-11-01

    The Interuniversity Attraction Pole (IAP) 'PLANET TOPERS' (Planets: Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their Reservoirs) addresses the fundamental understanding of the thermal and compositional evolution of the different reservoirs of planetary bodies (core, mantle, crust, atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and space) considering interactions and feedback mechanisms. Here we present the first results after 2 years of project work.

  1. Multi-data reservoir history matching for enhanced reservoir forecasting and uncertainty quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-04-01

    Reservoir simulations and history matching are critical for fine-tuning reservoir production strategies, improving understanding of the subsurface formation, and forecasting remaining reserves. Production data have long been incorporated for adjusting reservoir parameters. However, the sparse spatial sampling of this data set has posed a significant challenge for efficiently reducing uncertainty of reservoir parameters. Seismic, electromagnetic, gravity and InSAR techniques have found widespread applications in enhancing exploration for oil and gas and monitoring reservoirs. These data have however been interpreted and analyzed mostly separately, rarely exploiting the synergy effects that could result from combining them. We present a multi-data ensemble Kalman filter-based history matching framework for the simultaneous incorporation of various reservoir data such as seismic, electromagnetics, gravimetry and InSAR for best possible characterization of the reservoir formation. We apply an ensemble-based sensitivity method to evaluate the impact of each observation on the estimated reservoir parameters. Numerical experiments for different test cases demonstrate considerable matching enhancements when integrating all data sets in the history matching process. Results from the sensitivity analysis further suggest that electromagnetic data exhibit the strongest impact on the matching enhancements due to their strong differentiation between water fronts and hydrocarbons in the test cases.

  2. Upstream-downstream cooperation approach in Guanting Reservoir watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhi-feng; ZHANG Wen-guo

    2005-01-01

    A case study is introduced and discussed concerning water dispute of misuse and pollution between up- and down-stream parts.The relations between water usage and local industrial structures are analyzed. Results show it is important to change industrial structures of the target region along with controlling water pollution by technical and engineering methods. Three manners of upstream-downstream cooperation are presented and discussed based on the actual conditions of Guangting Reservoir watershed, Two typical scenarios are supposed and studied along with the local plan on water resources development. The best solution for this cooperation presents a good way to help the upstream developing in a new pattern of eco-economy.

  3. Socio-environmental actions on the Itaipu Binacional reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghetti, J.R.; Perez Chena, D. (Itaipu Binacional, Foz do Iguaca, PR (Brazil))

    1994-07-01

    The Itaipu Hydroelectric Power complex exploits the potential of a stretch of the Paran river which runs between Brazil and Paraguay. Forested areas bordering the reservoir have been established and are dedicated to environmental protection. Itaipu Binacional, together with the municipal councils, plans and defines appropriate use and occupation of the land so that various socio-environmental-economic activities can be developed and contribute to the integration of the new region. Concessions have been granted for a variety of communal and private projects which are in harmony with conservationist principles. The conservation units in the area are described and aquatic environmental studies, micro-climate analysis, soil conservation programmes, and environmental education and research are outlined. (UK)

  4. May through July 2015 storm event effects on suspended-sediment loads, sediment trapping efficiency, and storage capacity of John Redmond Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Guy M.; King, Lindsey R.

    2016-06-20

    The Neosho River and its primary tributary, the Cottonwood River, are the main sources of inflow to John Redmond Reservoir in east-central Kansas. Storm events during May through July 2015 caused large inflows of water and sediment into the reservoir. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Water Office, and funded in part through the Kansas State Water Plan Fund, computed the suspended-sediment inflows to, and trapping efficiency of, John Redmond Reservoir during May through July 2015. This fact sheet summarizes the quantification of suspended-sediment loads to and from the reservoir during May through July 2015 storm events and describes reservoir sediment trapping efficiency and effects on water-storage capacity.

  5. Geothermal reservoir engineering. 6. Reservoir simulation (2) performance prediction; Chinetsu choryuso kogaku. 6. Choryuso simulation (2) seisan yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishido, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1998-06-15

    A production estimating simulation is conducted when determining a power generation scale, by using a reservoir model in natural state as an initial condition. In order to establish plans for production and injection and estimate additional well drilling in the future, an estimating simulation by each well is effective, where different scenarios are compared and discussed by using sensitivity analysis. The production estimating simulation calculates reservoir behavior after liquid production using the natural state model as an initial condition. Suppose a case of continuing necessary steam production for 30 years assuming the power generation amount as 20 MWe. Three production wells may be used, a casing program and production indexes are given to each well, and the relationship between flow rate and pressure at well opening is derived by varying pressure and enthalpy of the feed point in a conceivable range prior to performing the estimating calculation. In determining a production scale, the production estimating simulation is performed on each well regarding different production and injection scenarios in addition to the sensitivity analysis on uncertain parameters. 4 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.; Young, M.A.

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.

  7. Reservoir engineering technology used for geothermal reservoir assessment studies in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, H. [ISTec, Inst. fuer Sicherheitstechnologie, Koeln (Germany); Pusch, G. [Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgastechnik, TU Clausthal (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The development of the geothermal reservoirs needs and uses the know-how and technology of petroleum reservoir engineering. The interaction of both disciplines is due to the similarities of underground geothermal systems to the oil and gas reservoirs. Because of the its earlier development, petroleum engineering concepts and technologies play an important role in geothermal field developments worldwide since many years. In Germany good examples of this interaction is also seen in the last years especially in exploration and development stages. The assessment of the defined heat reserves needs also to profit from the reservoir assessment and management techniques and technologies of petroleum engineering. Especially modelling of all production stages, from the near wellbore in the reservoir, to the surface could be examined based on the know-how and developed tools of the petroleum industry.

  8. Seismic imaging of reservoir flow properties: Resolving waterinflux and reservoir permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.; Keers, Henk

    2006-11-27

    Methods for geophysical model assessment, in particuale thecomputation of model parameter resolution, indicate the value and thelimitations of time-lapse data in estimating reservoir flow properties. Atrajectory-based method for computing sensitivities provides an effectivemeans to compute model parameter resolutions. We examine the commonsituation in which water encroaches into a resrvoir from below, as due tothe upward movement of an oil-water contact. Using straight-forwardtechniques we find that, by inclusing reflections off the top and bottomof a reservoir tens of meters thick, we can infer reservoir permeabilitybased upon time-lapse data. We find that, for the caseof water influxfrom below, using multiple time-lapse 'snapshots' does not necessarilyimprove the resolution of reservoir permeability. An application totime-lapse data from the Norne field illustrates that we can resolve thepermeability near a producing well using reflections from threeinterfaces associated with the reservoir.

  9. Valuing hydrological alteration in Multi-Objective reservoir management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzi, S.; Pianosi, F.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2012-04-01

    Water management through dams and reservoirs is worldwide necessary to support key human-related activities ranging from hydropower production to water allocation for agricultural production, and flood risk mitigation. Advances in multi-objectives (MO) optimization techniques and ever growing computing power make it possible to design reservoir operating policies that represent Pareto-optimal tradeoffs between the multiple interests analysed. These progresses if on one hand are likely to enhance performances of commonly targeted objectives (such as hydropower production or water supply), on the other risk to strongly penalize all the interests not directly (i.e. mathematically) optimized within the MO algorithm. Alteration of hydrological regime, although is a well established cause of ecological degradation and its evaluation and rehabilitation are commonly required by recent legislation (as the Water Framework Directive in Europe), is rarely embedded as an objective in MO planning of optimal releases from reservoirs. Moreover, even when it is explicitly considered, the criteria adopted for its evaluation are doubted and not commonly trusted, undermining the possibility of real implementation of environmentally friendly policies. The main challenges in defining and assessing hydrological alterations are: how to define a reference state (referencing); how to define criteria upon which to build mathematical indicators of alteration (measuring); and finally how to aggregate the indicators in a single evaluation index that can be embedded in a MO optimization problem (valuing). This paper aims to address these issues by: i) discussing benefits and constrains of different approaches to referencing, measuring and valuing hydrological alteration; ii) testing two alternative indices of hydrological alteration in the context of MO problems, one based on the established framework of Indices of Hydrological Alteration (IHA, Richter et al., 1996), and a novel satisfying the

  10. Connectivity of channelized reservoirs: a modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, David K. [ChevronTexaco, Bakersfield, CA (United States); Hovadik, Joseph [ChevronTexaco, San Ramon, CA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Connectivity represents one of the fundamental properties of a reservoir that directly affects recovery. If a portion of the reservoir is not connected to a well, it cannot be drained. Geobody or sandbody connectivity is defined as the percentage of the reservoir that is connected, and reservoir connectivity is defined as the percentage of the reservoir that is connected to wells. Previous studies have mostly considered mathematical, physical and engineering aspects of connectivity. In the current study, the stratigraphy of connectivity is characterized using simple, 3D geostatistical models. Based on these modelling studies, stratigraphic connectivity is good, usually greater than 90%, if the net: gross ratio, or sand fraction, is greater than about 30%. At net: gross values less than 30%, there is a rapid diminishment of connectivity as a function of net: gross. This behaviour between net: gross and connectivity defines a characteristic 'S-curve', in which the connectivity is high for net: gross values above 30%, then diminishes rapidly and approaches 0. Well configuration factors that can influence reservoir connectivity are well density, well orientation (vertical or horizontal; horizontal parallel to channels or perpendicular) and length of completion zones. Reservoir connectivity as a function of net: gross can be improved by several factors: presence of overbank sandy facies, deposition of channels in a channel belt, deposition of channels with high width/thickness ratios, and deposition of channels during variable floodplain aggradation rates. Connectivity can be reduced substantially in two-dimensional reservoirs, in map view or in cross-section, by volume support effects and by stratigraphic heterogeneities. It is well known that in two dimensions, the cascade zone for the 'S-curve' of net: gross plotted against connectivity occurs at about 60% net: gross. Generalizing this knowledge, any time that a reservoir can be regarded as &apos

  11. Evaluation of suspended sediment concentrations in a hydropower reservoir by using a Laser In-Situ Scattering and Transmissometry instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizano, Laura; Haun, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Sediment transported by rivers start to settle when they enter a reservoir due to reduced flow velocities and turbulences. Reservoir sedimentation is a common problem today and eliminates about 1% of the worldwide existing storage capacity annually. However, depending on the climate conditions and the geology in the catchment area this value can increase up to 5% and higher. Among the results of reservoir deposition is the loss of the storage capacity, a loss of flood control benefits or even blockage of intakes due to sediment accumulation in front of the structure. As a consequence, management tasks have to be planned and conducted to guarantee a safe and economical reservoir operation. A major part of the sediment particles entering the reservoir is transported as suspended sediment load. Hence, accurate knowledge of the transport processes of these particles in the reservoir is advantageous for planning and predicting a sustainable reservoir operation. Of special interest is the spatial distribution of the grain sizes in the reservoir, for example, which grain sizes can be expected to enter the waterway and have a major contribution in turbine abrasion. The suspended sediment concentrations and the grain size distribution along the Sandillal reservoir in Costa Rica were measured in this study by using a Laser In-Situ Scattering and Transmissometry instrument (LISST-SL). The instrument measures sediment concentrations as well as the grain size distributions instantaneously (32 grain sizes in the range between 2.1 and 350 μm) with a frequency of 0.5 Hertz. The measurements were applied at different pre-specified transects along the reservoir, in order to assess the spatial distribution of the suspended sediment concentrations. The measurements were performed in vertical lines, at different depths and for a period of 60 seconds. Additionally, the mean grain size distribution was calculated from the data for each measured point. The measurements showed that the

  12. Physical modelling of the Akkajaure reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sahlberg

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the seasonal temperature development in the Akkajaure reservoir, one of the largest Swedish reservoirs. It lies in the headwaters of the river Lulealven in northern Sweden; it is 60 km long and 5 km wide with a maximum depth of 92 m. The maximum allowed variation in surface water level is 30 m. The temperature field in the reservoir is important for many biochemical processes. A one-dimensional lake model of the Akkajaure reservoir is developed from a lake model by Sahlberg (1983 and 1988. The dynamic eddy viscosity is calculated by a two equation turbulence model, a k–ε model and the hypolimnic eddy diffusivity formulation which is a function of the stability frequency (Hondzo et al., 1993. A comparison between calculated and measured temperature profiles showed a maximum discrepancy of 0.5–1.0°C over the period 1999-2002. Except for a few days in summer, the water temperature is vertically homogeneous. Over that period of years, a weak stratification of temperature occurred on only one to two weeks a year on different dates in July and August. This will have biological consequences. Keywords: temperature profile,reservoir, 1-D lake model, stratification, Sweden

  13. Mechanisms of HIV persistence in HIV reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzingwane, Mayibongwe L; Tiemessen, Caroline T

    2017-03-01

    The establishment and maintenance of HIV reservoirs that lead to persistent viremia in patients on antiretroviral drugs remains the greatest challenge of the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Cellular reservoirs include resting memory CD4+ T lymphocytes, implicated as the major HIV reservoir, having a half-life of approximately 44 months while this is less than 6 hours for HIV in plasma. In some individuals, persistent viremia consists of invariant HIV clones not detected in circulating resting CD4+ T lymphocytes suggesting other possible sources of residual viremia. Some anatomical reservoirs that may harbor such cells include the brain and the central nervous system, the gastrointestinal tract and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and other lymphoid organs, and the genital tract. The presence of immune cells and other HIV susceptible cells, occurring in differing compositions in anatomical reservoirs, coupled with variable and poor drug penetration that results in suboptimal drug concentrations in some sites, are all likely factors that fuel the continued low-level replication and persistent viremia during treatment. Latently, HIV-infected CD4+ T cells harboring replication-competent virus, HIV cell-to-cell spread, and HIV-infected T cell homeostatic proliferation due to chronic immune activation represent further drivers of this persistent HIV viremia during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Mercury and methylmercury in reservoirs in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Fredericksen, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an element that occurs naturally, but evidence suggests that human activities have resulted in increased amounts being released to the atmosphere and land surface. When Hg is converted to methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic ecosystems, MeHg accumulates and increases in the food web so that some fish contain levels which pose a health risk to humans and wildlife that consume these fish. Reservoirs unlike natural lakes, are a part of river systems that are managed for flood control. Data compiled and interpreted for six flood-control reservoirs in Indiana showed a relation between Hg transport, MeHg formation in water, and MeHg in fish that was influenced by physical, chemical, and biological differences among the reservoirs. Existing information precludes a uniform comparison of Hg and MeHg in all reservoirs in the State, but factors and conditions were identified that can indicate where and when Hg and MeHg levels in reservoirs could be highest.

  15. Tracing fluid flow in geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, P.E.; Adams, M.C. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A family of fluorescent compounds, the polycyclic aromatic sulfonates, were evaluated for application in intermediate- and high-temperature geothermal reservoirs. Whereas the naphthalene sulfonates were found to be very thermally stable and reasonably detectable, the amino-substituted naphthalene sulfonates were found to be somewhat less thermally stable, but much more detectable. A tracer test was conducted at the Dixie Valley, Nevada, geothermal reservoir using one of the substituted naphthalene sulfonates, amino G, and fluorescein. Four of 9 production wells showed tracer breakthrough during the first 200 days of the test. Reconstructed tracer return curves are presented that correct for the thermal decay of tracer assuming an average reservoir temperature of 227{degrees}C. In order to examine the feasibility of using numerical simulation to model tracer flow, we developed simple, two-dimensional models of the geothermal reservoir using the numerical simulation programs TETRAD and TOUGH2. By fitting model outputs to measured return curves, we show that numerical reservoir simulations can be calibrated with the tracer data. Both models predict the same order of elution, approximate tracer concentrations, and return curve shapes. Using these results, we propose a method for using numerical models to design a tracer test.

  16. Optimized recovery through cooperative geology and reservoir engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, F.F. Jr.; Willcox, P.J.; Ballard, J.R.; Nation, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    Reservoir engineers have always used geological descriptions in their performance calculations. At first, the only information that could be utilized consisted of gross factors such as structure, thickness, fault and boundary locations, and the like, and average values for permeability, porosity, and fluid saturations. The advent of easy-to-use, relatively inexpensive mathematical models provided a new and powerful tool to the reservoir engineer for predicting performance. However, this tool required for its optimum use a more detailed reservoir description than geologists were accustomed to providing. Today's reservoir engineer utilizes the most detailed geological information along with a reservoir performance simulator to synthesize a detailed reservoir description capable of matching actual field performance data. Use of such a reservoir description permits the design of operating programs to obtain optimized recovery from hydrocarbon reservoirs. Two examples of the use of this combined geology-reservoir engineering technique are taken from the international arena of operations.

  17. Planning ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquharson, B. [Gemcom Software International (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The paper explains how Colombian coal producer and exporter, Carbones del Cerrejon, has increased recovered coal with an end-to-end mine planning solution. It was Gemcon's Minex software for geology and mine planning. 4 photos.

  18. Safety Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to identify...

  19. Planning Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Medard

    1984-01-01

    To solve societal problems, both local and global, a global approach is needed. Serious diseases that are crippling present-day problem solving and planning are discussed, and the characteristics of a healthy, effective planning approach are described. (RM)

  20. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wier, Don R. Chimanhusky, John S.; Czirr, Kirk L.; Hallenbeck, Larry; Gerard, Matthew G.; Dollens, Kim B.; Owen, Rex; Gaddis, Maurice; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-11-18

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO2) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO2 horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields.

  1. Transmissibility scale-up in reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Gupta, A. [Oklahoma Univ., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    1999-11-01

    A study was conducted to develop efficient methods for scaling of petrophysical properties from high resolution geological models to the resolution of reservoir simulation. Data from the Gypsy Field located in northeastern Oklahoma near Lake Keystone was used to evaluate the proposed method. The petrophysical property which was scaled in this study was the transmissibility between two grid blocks. A linear flow scale-up of the transmissibility between two grid blocks was conducted. It was determined that the scale-up of the productivity index is both important and necessary for determining the radial flow around the wellbore. Special consideration was needed for the pinch-out grid blocks in the system. Fine-scale and coarse-scale reservoir models were used to evaluate the feasibility of this proposed method. Performance predictions were compared with various reservoir flow case studies. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 20 figs.

  2. Acid gas injection : reservoir engineering considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pooladi-Darvish, M. [Fekete Associates Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This study discussed reservoir engineering considerations related to acid gas injection, including the effects of pressure. A map of acid gas injection sites in Alberta was presented. The WASP Nisku acid gas project is a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration project located in a dolomitized aquifer close to coal-fired power plants. Analytical solutions developed at the site include a multi-well injectivity procedure for infinite reservoirs. Analytical considerations at the site included low water compressibility, strong interference, and a lack of flow boundaries. Chromatographic separation techniques were used to address the compositional effects of the reservoir in relation to the injection wells. Techniques developed at the CO{sub 2} sequestration sites are being used to develop procedures for acid gas storage in depleted gas pools and beneath the ocean floor. tabs., figs.

  3. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  4. Mechanical Testing Development for Reservoir Forgings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenski, E.G.

    2000-05-22

    The goal of this project was to determine the machining techniques and testing capabilities required for mechanical property evaluation of commercially procured reservoir forgings. Due to the small size of these specific forgings, specialized methods are required to adequately machine and test these sub-miniature samples in accordance with the requirements of ASTM-E8 and ASTM-E9. At the time of project initiation, no capability existed at Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) to verify the physical properties of these reservoirs as required on the drawing specifications. The project determined the sample definitions, machining processes, and testing procedures to verify the physical properties of the reservoir forgings; specifically, tensile strength, yield strength, reduction of area, and elongation. In addition, a compression test method was also developed to minimize sample preparation time and provide a more easily machined test sample while maintaining the physical validation of the forging.

  5. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF RESERVOIR SEDIMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jinchi

    2001-01-01

    Reliable quantitative estimation of bed aggradation or degradation is important for river-training and water management projects. With the development of water resources, sediment problems associated with a dam are becoming more severe. This paper describes some special problems in mathematical model for calculation of degradation and aggradation in a reservoir. The main efforts of this study are on the treatment of some physical processes of fine sediment transport (<0.05 mm). Problems in a reservoir are obviously different from a natural stream, such as the turbid current flow, orifice sediment flushing;and the initiation and consolidation of cohesive sediment deposition. The case of Liujiaxia Reservoir,which is located in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, is employed to verify the model. The results show that the model is applicable in the evaluation of an engineering planing with plenty of fine sediment movement.

  6. Fire Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, June

    2011-01-01

    Many libraries have disaster recovery plans, but not all have prevention and action plans to prepare for an emergency in advance. This article presents the author's review of the prevention and action plans of several libraries: (1) Evergreen State College; (2) Interlochen Public Library; (3) University of Maryland, Baltimore-Marshall Law Library;…

  7. Fire Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, June

    2011-01-01

    Many libraries have disaster recovery plans, but not all have prevention and action plans to prepare for an emergency in advance. This article presents the author's review of the prevention and action plans of several libraries: (1) Evergreen State College; (2) Interlochen Public Library; (3) University of Maryland, Baltimore-Marshall Law Library;…

  8. 太湖东部地区利用太湖规划建设备用水库的关键问题探讨%Discussion on Some Key Issues of Using Taihu Lake to Plan and Construct Spare Reservoir in Eastern Region of Taihu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟

    2011-01-01

    围绕太湖备用水库的选址、建设、运行及维护全过程中需要关注并亟待解决的问题出发,从技术、经济及生态保护等多角度阐述了备用水库规模确定、水库水体流动、水质的维护及联合调度等关键问题的工程设计思路,以尽量降低或减免建设对太湖水质的影响.%Several key issues on spare reservoir location, construction, operation and maintenance were expounded in this paper, which should be paid great attention and must be solved. Meanwhile, from the technical, economic, and ecological protection angles, some design ideas on the critical problems of project design were put forward such as spare reservoir scale determination, water flowing, water quality maintenance and combined scheduling, so as to decrease or avoid the influence of construction to Taihu Lake.

  9. Sensitivity of reservoir storage and outflow to climate change in a water-limited river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G.; Gao, H.; Naz, B. S.; Kao, S. C.; Voisin, N.

    2015-12-01

    During the past several decades, numerous reservoirs have been built across the world for a variety of purposes such as flood control, irrigation, municipal water supplies, and hydropower. Consequently, streamflow timing and magnitude are altered significantly by reservoir operations. In addition, the hydrological cycle can be modified substantially by a changing climate. Therefore, a distributed hydrological model which has an embedded reservoir component is essential for representing these effects in future water management planning strategies. In this study, a multi-purpose reservoir module was integrated into the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM). The DHSVM model was selected because of its high spatial and temporal resolution and because of its explicit representation of the physical processes. Prescribed operating rules, which are designed to reduce flood risk and enhance water supply reliability, were adopted in this module. The integrated model was tested over a water-limited basin (i.e. the central Brazos River Basin, Texas). Both the calibration and validation results suggest that the model performed robustly at daily, weekly, and monthly levels. Subsequently, the effect of climate sensitivity on reservoir storage and outflow was assessed by perturbing precipitation within a range from -30% to 30% and temperature from -2 °C to 2 °C. Results suggest that both variables are more sensitive to precipitation than temperature. However, there are more uncertainties associated with future precipitation than temperature. It was also found that the sensitivities vary significantly by season. Enabled with the new reservoir component, the DHSVM model provides a platform for projecting future water availability estimations under flow regulation, climate change, and land cover/land use changes. We expect this integrated model to be beneficial for sustainable water resources management.

  10. Monitoring of magnetic EOR fluids in reservoir under production by using the electromagnetic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, S.; Min, D. J.; Moon, S.; Kim, W. K.; Shin, Y.

    2014-12-01

    To increase the amount of oil and gas extracted during production, some techniques like EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) are applied by injecting some materials such as water and CO2. Recently, there are some researches for injecting magnetic nanoparticles with fluids during EOR. The size of particle is nano-scale, which can prevent particles from adhering to the pores of reservoir. The main purpose of injecting magnetic nanoparticles is to monitor movement or distribution of EOR fluids. To monitor the injected magnetic EOR fluids in the reservoir, CSEM (controlled source electromagnetic method) can be the most optimized geophysical method among various geophysical monitoring methods. Depending on the reservoir circumstances, we can control the electric or magnetic sources to monitor reservoir during oil or gas production. In this study, we perform numerical simulation of CSEM for 3D horizontal-layered models assuming a reservoir under production. We suppose that there are two wells: one is for the controlled source; the other is for the receiver. By changing the distribution, movement and magnetization of EOR fluids, we compare the electric or magnetic fields recorded at the receiver. Maxwell's equations are the governing equation of CSEM and are approximated by using the edge-based finite-element method. Direct solver is applied to solve the linear equations. Because injected magnetic nanoparticle changes the conductivity of EOR fluid, there is high contrast of conductivity of reservoir. This high contrast of conductivity induces secondary electric or magnetic fields that are recorded at the receiver well. We compare these recorded secondary fields generated by various movement or distribution of magnetic EOR fluid. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the "Development of Technology for CO2 Marine Geological Storage" grant funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries of Korea, by the "Civil Military Technology Cooperation Center", and by the International

  11. The role of petroleum engineering on geothermal reservoir assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, H. [ISTec, Koeln (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    Reservoir assessment is the most critical issue of the risk analysis on the use of a geothermal energy source and requires a multi disciplinary survey of the underground objective. Petroleum reservoir engineering with its methodology and its actual technology level fits well with the needs of geothermal reservoir assessments. In this study similarities and differences of the hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs are discussed briefly in terms of exploration and production. Furthermore the petroleum reservoir engineering techniques which are currently used and which can be used in geothermal reservoir assessments are summarized. (orig.)

  12. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  13. On the simulation of heterogeneous petroleum reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daripa, P.; Glimm, J.; Lindquist, B.; Maesumi, M.; McBryan, O.

    1987-04-01

    The authors and coworkers have proposed the front tracking method as useful in applications to petroleum reservoir simulation. A variety of tests of a numerical analysis nature were performed for the method, verifying convergence under mesh refinement and absence of mesh orientation effects. The ability to handle complex interface bifurcation, fingering instabilities and polymer injection (as an example of tertiary oil recovery) indicates a level of robustness in this method. The main purpose of this paper is to report on two features which will allow further series of tests by enabling a more realistic description of reservoir heterogeneities. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  14. NMPC for Oil Reservoir Production Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we use nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) to maximize secondary oil recovery from an oil reservoir by controlling two-phase subsurface porous flow using adjustable down-hole control valves. The resulting optimal control problem is nonlinear and large-scale. We solve this pro......In this paper, we use nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) to maximize secondary oil recovery from an oil reservoir by controlling two-phase subsurface porous flow using adjustable down-hole control valves. The resulting optimal control problem is nonlinear and large-scale. We solve...

  15. Reservoir characteristics and genesis of high-porosity and high-permeability reservoirs in Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on detailed studies, this paper proposes that in the Tarim Basin, hydrocarbon reservoirs widespread either in vertical sequences or in plane and high-porosity and high-permeability reservoirs are developed all over the basin. However, obvious difference and heterogeneity exist among different kinds of reservoirs. The lithologic characteristics, reservoir space types and reservoir properties in various strata have been probed. The result indicates that although the Paleozoic carbonates have been deeply buried for a long period, high-quality reservoirs with the porosity of up to 5%-8% (12% as the maximum) and the permeability of 10×10?3-100×10?3 ?m2 (1000×10?3 ?m2 as the maximum) can be found in certain areas. These include the area with the development of reefs and carbonate beaches, the weathered-crust buried-hill belts that have undergone the long-term exposure, weathering and leaching, the area with the development of dolomitization, and those areas that have experienced the resolution of carbonic acid and organic acid generated by the maturity of the organic matter. Finally, the genesis of the high-porosity and high-permeability reservoirs in deep-buried conditions (with the depth more than 3500 m) have been investigated thoroughly.

  16. Simulation of Reservoir Sediment Flushing of the Three Gorges Reservoir Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir sedimentation and its effect on the environment are the most serious world-wide problems in water resources development and utilization today. As one of the largest water conservancy projects, the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR has been controversial since its demonstration period, and sedimentation is the major concern. Due to the complex physical mechanisms of water and sediment transport, this study adopts the Error Back Propagation Training Artificial Neural Network (BP-ANN to analyze the relationship between the sediment flushing efficiency of the TGR and its influencing factors. The factors are determined by the analysis on 1D unsteady flow and sediment mathematical model, mainly including reservoir inflow, incoming sediment concentration, reservoir water level, and reservoir release. Considering the distinguishing features of reservoir sediment delivery in different seasons, the monthly average data from 2003, when the TGR was put into operation, to 2011 are used to train, validate, and test the BP-ANN model. The results indicate that, although the sample space is quite limited, the whole sediment delivery process can be schematized by the established BP-ANN model, which can be used to help sediment flushing and thus decrease the reservoir sedimentation.

  17. Hydrogeological characterization of the Heletz Sands Reservoir, Heletz (Israel) as a preliminary step towards CO2 injection experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensabat, Jacob; Niemi, Auli; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Sharma, Prabhakar; Carrera, Jesus; Sauter, Martin; Tatomir, Alexandru; Ghergut, Julia; Pezard, Philippe; Edlman, Katriona; Brauchler, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogeological characterization of the Heletz Sands Reservoir, Heletz (Israel) as a preliminary step towards CO2 injection experiments One the major components of the EU-FP7 funded MUSTANG project is to conduct a highly controlled series of CO2 injection experiments, aimed at determining field values of key CO2 trapping mechanisms such as dissolution and residual trapping and to establish a comprehensive and consistent dataset for model validation. Prior to injecting CO2 there is a need to achieve a sufficient degree of hydrogeological characterization of the reservoir. In what follows we present a sequence of hydrologic tests to be conducted at Heletz and their expected contribution to the understanding relevant hydrogeology. These include: 1) Chemical characterization of the formation fluid; 2) Flowing Fluid Electrical Conductivity log, aimed at determining the vertical variability of the reservoir permeability in the near well vicinity; 3) Water pulse and pumping tests, aimed at determining the reservoir scale hydraulic properties; 4) Thermal test, aimed at determining the value of the heat transfer coefficient from the reservoir to the borehole fluid, which is responsible for the heating of injected fluid in the borehole; 5) two-well injection and pumping of water and tracers test, in order to determine the impact of heterogeneity on the hydraulic parameters and to identify preferential flow paths in the reservoir. This paper presents the design and planning of the experiments, the results obtained in field and a preliminary interpretation.

  18. Key seismic exploration technology for the Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoir in Gaoshiti–Moxi area, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangrong Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The dolomite reservoirs of the Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm in the Gaoshiti–Moxi area, Sichuan Basin, are deeply buried (generally 4400–4900 m, with high heterogeneity, making reservoir prediction difficult. In this regard, key seismic exploration technologies were developed through researches. Firstly, through in-depth analysis on the existing geologic, drilling, seismic data and available research findings, basic surface and subsurface structures and geologic conditions within the study area were clarified. Secondly, digital seismic data acquisition technologies with wide azimuth, wide frequency band and minor bins were adopted to ensure even distribution of coverage of target formations through optimization of the 3D seismic geometry. In this way, high-accuracy 3D seismic data can be acquired through shallow, middle and deep formations. Thirdly, well-control seismic data processing technologies were applied to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of seismic data for deep formations. Fourthly, a seismic response model was established specifically for the Longwangmiao Fm reservoir. Quantitative prediction of the reservoir was performed through pre-stack geo-statistics. In this way, plan distribution of reservoir thicknesses was mapped. Fifthly, core tests and logging data analysis were conducted to determine gas-sensitive elastic parameters, which were then used in pre-stack hydrocarbon detection to eliminate the multiple solutions in seismic data interpretation. It is concluded that application of the above-mentioned key technologies effectively promote the discovery of largescale marine carbonate gas reservoirs of the Longwangmiao Fm.

  19. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K. [David K. Davies & Associates, Kingwood, TX (United States); Doublet, L.E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  20. Reservoir-forming age and its exploration significance to stratigraphic reservoirs in southern Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Despite many studies concerning the forming age, evolution characteristics and the age of petroleum charging in the Fuxin upheaval of southern Songliao Basin, no consensus has been reached so far. This paper presents the first K-Ar dating of autogenetic illite from stratigraphic petroleum reservoirs in the Fuyu oil layer of the Fuxin upheaval belt. Isotopic test and age calculation were carried out based on the separation and purification of illite mineral, X-diffraction analysis and the detection of scanning electron microscopy. The evolution characteristics of structure, sedimentation, reservoir-forming about the Fuxin upheaval belt were interpreted in terms of the synthetical analysis of "six-type geological history" evolution in southern Songliao Basin. The geologic background of petroleum evolution and reservoir formation are similar in the entire central depression region of southern Songliao Basin. The Changling sag and the Fuxin upheaval belt brought about obvious upheaval-sag separation after the hydrocarbon-generation peak of K2qn1 and the main reservoir-forming period of the Fuyu oil layer, namely reservoir-forming happened before the Fuxin upheaval belt extensively raised. The reservoirs have three characteristics: the hydrocarbon source rock above the reservoir, the oil source in the locality, and the vertical migration. The geological cognition is corrected, that is, oil source came from the Changling sag and migrated from the side direction. The bulk process of petroleum charging in the stratigraphic hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Fuxin upheaval belt of southern Songliao Basin is determined according to the isotopic age of autogenetic illite in combination with the method of fluid inclusions. The cognition is helpful to exactly evaluate the resource potential and exploration direction in the Fuxin upheaval belt, Changling sag and their peripheral areas. The present results indicate that the combination of the two methods (the K-Ar dating of

  1. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES AND PRODUCTION MODELS FOR EXPLOITING NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Wiggins; Raymon L. Brown; Faruk Civan; Richard G. Hughes

    2002-12-31

    For many years, geoscientists and engineers have undertaken research to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. Geoscientists have focused on understanding the process of fracturing and the subsequent measurement and description of fracture characteristics. Engineers have concentrated on the fluid flow behavior in the fracture-porous media system and the development of models to predict the hydrocarbon production from these complex systems. This research attempts to integrate these two complementary views to develop a quantitative reservoir characterization methodology and flow performance model for naturally fractured reservoirs. The research has focused on estimating naturally fractured reservoir properties from seismic data, predicting fracture characteristics from well logs, and developing a naturally fractured reservoir simulator. It is important to develop techniques that can be applied to estimate the important parameters in predicting the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. This project proposes a method to relate seismic properties to the elastic compliance and permeability of the reservoir based upon a sugar cube model. In addition, methods are presented to use conventional well logs to estimate localized fracture information for reservoir characterization purposes. The ability to estimate fracture information from conventional well logs is very important in older wells where data are often limited. Finally, a desktop naturally fractured reservoir simulator has been developed for the purpose of predicting the performance of these complex reservoirs. The simulator incorporates vertical and horizontal wellbore models, methods to handle matrix to fracture fluid transfer, and fracture permeability tensors. This research project has developed methods to characterize and study the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs that integrate geoscience and engineering data. This is an important step in developing exploitation strategies for

  3. SEISMIC DETERMINATION OF RESERVOIR HETEROGENEITY; APPLICATION TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias G. Imhof; James W. Castle

    2003-11-01

    The objective of the project is to examine how seismic and geologic data can be used to improve characterization of small-scale heterogeneity and their parameterization in reservoir models. The study is performed at West Coalinga Field in California. We continued our investigation on the nature of seismic reactions from heterogeneous reservoirs. We began testing our algorithm to infer parameters of object-based reservoir models from seismic data. We began integration of seismic and geologic data to determine the deterministic limits of conventional seismic data interpretation. Lastly, we began integration of seismic and geologic heterogeneity using stochastic models conditioned both on wireline and seismic data.

  4. Studies of Reservoir Hosts for Marburg virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swanepoel, Robert; Smit, Sheilagh B; Rollin, Pierre E

    2007-01-01

    To determine reservoir hosts for Marburg virus (MARV), we examined the fauna of a mine in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The mine was associated with a protracted outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever during 1998-2000. We found MARV nucleic acid in 12 bats, comprising 3.0%-3.6% of 2...

  5. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-12-31

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  6. Borehole radar modeling for reservoir monitoring applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of down-hole sensors and remotely controlled valves in wells provide enormous benefits to reservoir management and oil production. We suggest borehole radar measurements as a promising technique capable of monitoring the arrival of undesired fluids in the proximity of production wells. The h

  7. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  8. Borehole radar modeling for reservoir monitoring applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of down-hole sensors and remotely controlled valves in wells provide enormous benefits to reservoir management and oil production. We suggest borehole radar measurements as a promising technique capable of monitoring the arrival of undesired fluids in the proximity of production wells. The

  9. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, L.

    1996-12-31

    The present work is a study on the wettability of hydrocarbon bearing chalk reservoirs. Wettability is a major factor that influences flow, location and distribution of oil and water in the reservoir. The wettability of the hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. Organic compounds such as carboxylic acids are found in formation waters from various hydrocarbon reservoirs and in crude oils. In the present investigation the wetting behaviour of chalk is studied by the adsorption of the carboxylic acids onto synthetic calcite, kaolinite, quartz, {alpha}-alumina, and chalk dispersed in an aqueous phase and an organic phase. In the aqueous phase the results clearly demonstrate the differences between the adsorption behaviour of benzoic acid and hexanoic acid onto the surfaces of oxide minerals and carbonates. With NaCl concentration of 0.1 M and with pH {approx_equal} 6 the maximum adsorption of benzoic acid decreases in the order: quartz, {alpha}-alumina, kaolinite. For synthetic calcite and chalk no detectable adsorption was obtaind. In the organic phase the order is reversed. The maximum adsorption of benzoic acid onto the different surfaces decreases in the order: synthetic calcite, chalk, kaolinite and quartz. Also a marked difference in adsorption behaviour between probes with different functional groups onto synthetic calcite from organic phase is observed. The maximum adsorption decreases in the order: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine. (au) 54 refs.

  10. Geothermal Reservoirs: Products of Cooling Plutons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis L. Norton

    2002-09-24

    The goals of this project were to develop an in depth understanding of how geothermal reservoirs form and elucidate those features that could potentially be useful in exploration and development of additional energy reserves. Collaboration with Jeff Hulen, EGI helped closely coordinate theoretical concepts and computational experiments with geologic reality in fulfillment of the tasks for this project. Initial reconnaissance computations with Tom Brikowski, University of Texas were critical in realizing the final products of this project. The products of this work contribute basic understanding of the dynamical conditions attendant to the formation of reservoirs in general and the Geysers reservoir in particular. The most exciting of the discoveries were a combination of mineralogical, computational, and geothermometric data sets that revealed a chaotic-like behavior of the processes is critical in the formation of reservoirs near cooling plutions. This discovery provides a fundamental basis for improving resource assessment and exploration methods for geothermal energy associated with very young magmas. Some of the main results are documented in scientific publications, and DOE progress reports. An additional publication is in preparation on the overall significance of fracture propagation and microseismic activity around young magmas.

  11. Fifteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Fifteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 23--25, 1990. Major topics included: DOE's geothermal research and development program, well testing, field studies, geosciences, geysers, reinjection, tracers, geochemistry, and modeling.

  12. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kayhude at the river Alster and Schlamersdorf at the river Trave, both in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Measurements on modern materials from these rivers may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they will show the order of magnitude...

  13. Modeling Transport of Flushed Reservoir Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinski, I. M.

    2014-12-01

    Drawdown flushing of a reservoir is often part of a reservoir sediment management program. Flushing can deliver higher than normal sediment loads to the river channel located downstream of a reservoir. The flushed sediment may contain a higher proportion of finer sediment than what was delivered to a channel prior to the presence of the reservoir. The extent of long-term impacts caused by the flushed sediment on the channel morphology and habitat will in part depend on the residence time of the sediment within the channel. In this study we used MIKE 21C to model the fate of flushed sediment through a river channel where the bed material consists of an armoring layer of gravels overlying finer sediment. MIKE 21C is a two-dimensional curvilinear morphological model for rivers developed by DHI. Curvilinear means that the model grid may curve to better follow the channel and flow direction, for example in a meandering channel. Multiple bed material layers are included in the model to represent the armoring and underlying layers existing in the bed separately from the overlying flushed sediment. These layers may also mix. The nature of the interactions between these two layers helps regulate transport and deposition of the flushed sediment, thus are critical to assessing the fate of the flushed sediment and associated potential impacts.

  14. Geodetic imaging: Reservoir monitoring using satellite interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasco, D.W.; Wicks, C.; Karasaki, K.; Marques, O.

    2002-01-01

    Fluid fluxes within subsurface reservoirs give rise to surface displacements, particularly over periods of a year or more. Observations of such deformation provide a powerful tool for mapping fluid migration within the Earth, providing new insights into reservoir dynamics. In this paper we use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) range changes to infer subsurface fluid volume strain at the Coso geothermal field. Furthermore, we conduct a complete model assessment, using an iterative approach to compute model parameter resolution and covariance matrices. The method is a generalization of a Lanczos-based technique which allows us to include fairly general regularization, such as roughness penalties. We find that we can resolve quite detailed lateral variations in volume strain both within the reservoir depth range (0.4-2.5 km) and below the geothermal production zone (2.5-5.0 km). The fractional volume change in all three layers of the model exceeds the estimated model parameter uncertainly by a factor of two or more. In the reservoir depth interval (0.4-2.5 km), the predominant volume change is associated with northerly and westerly oriented faults and their intersections. However, below the geothermal production zone proper [the depth range 2.5-5.0 km], there is the suggestion that both north- and northeast-trending faults may act as conduits for fluid flow.

  15. Dissolved methane in Indian freshwater reservoirs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvenkar, G.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Kurian, S.; Shenoy, D.M.; Pratihary, A.K.; Naik, H.; Patil, S.; Sarkar, A.; Gauns, M.

    of the central part of the Indo- Gangetic Plain just north of the Tropic of Cancer. The eighth – the Bhakra-Nangal Dam is built over the Sutlej River at the foothills of the Himalayas. The reservoirs of these dams vary greatly in size from very small systems...

  16. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used as a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. In the U.S., research approaches include: 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane em

  17. Assessment of Climate Change Effects on Shahcheraghi Reservoir Inflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Banihabib

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Forecasting the inflow to the reservoir is important issues due to the limited water resources and the importance of optimal utilization of reservoirs to meet the need for drinking, industry and agriculture in future time periods. In the meantime, ignoring the effects of climate change on meteorological and hydrological parameters and water resources in long-term planning of water resources cause inaccuracy. It is essential to assess the impact of climate change on reservoir operation in arid regions. In this research, climate change impact on hydrological and meteorological variables of the Shahcheragh dam basin, in Semnan Province, was studied using an integrated model of climate change assessment. Materials and Methods: The case study area of this study was located in Damghan Township, Semnan Province, Iran. It is an arid zone. The case study area is a part of the Iran Central Desert. The basin is in 12 km north of the Damghan City and between 53° E to 54° 30’ E longitude and 36° N to 36° 30’ N latitude. The area of the basin is 1,373 km2 with average annual inflow around 17.9 MCM. Total actual evaporation and average annual rainfall are 1,986 mm and 137 mm, respectively. This case study is chosen to test proposed framework for assessment of climate change impact hydrological and meteorological variables of the basin. In the proposed model, LARS-WG and ANN sub-models (7 sub models with a combination of different inputs such as temperature, precipitation and also solar radiation were used for downscaling daily outputs of CGCM3 model under 3 emission scenarios, A2, B1 and A1B and reservoir inflow simulation, respectively. LARS-WG was tested in 99% confidence level before using it as downscaling model and feed-forward neural network was used as raifall-runoff model. Moreover, the base period data (BPD, 1990-2008, were used for calibration. Finally, reservoir inflow was simulated for future period data (FPD of 2015-2044 and

  18. Quantitative Prediction of Structural Fractures in Low Permeability Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Lianbo; Tian Chonglu

    1996-01-01

    @@ Low -permeability fractured reservoirs will become increasingly prominent along with the enhanced exploration extent and the emerging moderate-high water content in most of the moderate-high permeability reservoirs of the oil fields in eastern China.

  19. 2007 Hydrologic and Sedimentation Survey of Altus Reservoir

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — Reclamation surveyed Altus Reservoir in November 2006, June 2007, and February 2008 to develop updated reservoir topography and compute the present storage-elevation...

  20. Analysis of Sedimentation in Wonogiri Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko Inti Budi Santosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wonogiri reservoir which has 730 million cubic meters of total storage, 90 square kilometers of water area, and 1260 square kilometers of catchment area, is located in the Wonogiri Regency, Central Java Province. It was first established in 1981 and began its operation in 1982 with the expectation that it would last for about 100 years. Today (2002 the reservoir has got a serious problem of sedimentation. The sedimentation is so large that it would decrease the capacity storage of the reservoir and would shorten the length of operation. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the sediment that comes into the reservoir. This research would be based on the total sediment calculation of the sedimentation, through some methods, such as echo sounding measured data, land erosion (USLE, the calculation of the sediment in rivers. This research calculates the sediment capacities based on the water flow data and the sediment rating curves in rivers of Keduang, Tirtomoyo, Temon, upstream reach of Bengawan Solo, Alang, and Wuryantoro. The suspended load was calculated based on the sediment rating curves, whereas the bed load was computed as the percentage of the suspended load. The sum of both calculation results would be the total sediment. The calculation result showed that the total sediment which has come into the reservoir is 6.68 million cubic meters per year. As a comparison, the writer noted that the former researcher using echo sounding method done by the Faculty of Geography of the Universitas Gadjah Mada in 1985, it found that the total sediment capacity which came into the reservoir was 6.60 million cubic meters per year or 5.40 mm per year of sheet erosion. The other research using echo sounding method done by JICA in 2000 found that the total sediment which had come into the reservoir was 4.50 million cubic meters per year or 3.50 mm per year of sheet erosion. By knowing the results of calculation of the total sediment, we can learn that

  1. Numerical Simulation for Natural State of Two-Phase Liquid Dominated Geothermal Reservoir with Steam Cap Underlying Brine Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Heru Berian; Miryani Saptadji, Nenny

    2016-09-01

    Hydrothermal reservoir which liquid-dominated hydrothermal reservoir is a type of geothermal reservoir that most widely used for power plant. The exploitation of mass and heat from the geothermal fluid will decrease the pressure in the reservoir over time. Therefore the pressure drop in the reservoir will have an impact on the formation of boiling zones or boiling will increase. The impacts are an increase in the fraction of steam, dryness, in the reservoir and with good vertical permeability will form a steam cap underlying the brine reservoir. The two- phase liquid dominated reservoir is sensitive to the porosity and difficult to assign average properties of the entire reservoir when there is boiling zone in some area of the reservoir. These paper showed successful development of two-phase liquid dominated geothermal reservoir and discussed the formation of steam cap above brine reservoir through numerical simulation for state natural conditions. The natural state modeling in steam cap shows a match with the conceptual model of the vapor-dominated developed. These paper also proofed the presence of transition zone, boiling zone, between steam cap and brine reservoir.

  2. An Assessment of Reservoir Filling Policies under a Changing Climate for Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A.; Block, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate variability and change cause unsteady hydrologic response, commonly experienced through varying river flows. These variations affect the performance and reliability of water resources dependent systems, including domestic, agriculture, energy, and the environment, with economic implications. Long-term design and operation of these systems is therefore inherently uncertain, producing copious risks at time-scales of months to decades. Yet evaluation of system performance under non-stationary climate conditions is typically ignored. Here we demonstrate the potential performance of Ethiopia's forthcoming Grand Renaissance hydropower dam on the Blue Nile River, subject to coincident climate change and reservoir filling policies. Presently, no agreed-upon reservoir retention policy exists between Ethiopia and downstream countries, even though construction has already begun. We will present a tool designed to allow users to select expected future climate conditions and reservoir filling rates, from a stochastic perspective. Additionally, the maximum reservoir volume may also be varied. Major outputs include hydropower generation and downstream flow for use by policy-makers. Ethiopia's desire to rapidly expand hydropower dams on the Nile constitutes an enormous financial investment and latent risk, with further implications on streamflow reduction to Sudan and Egypt, and a need for multi-national energy contracts, necessitating proper advanced planning.

  3. Application of PSO algorithm in short-term optimization of reservoir operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SaberChenari, Kazem; Abghari, Hirad; Tabari, Hossein

    2016-12-01

    The optimization of the operation of existing water systems such as dams is very important for water resource planning and management especially in arid and semi-arid lands. Due to budget and operational water resource limitations and environmental problems, the operation optimization is gradually replaced by new systems. The operation optimization of water systems is a complex, nonlinear, multi-constraint, and multidimensional problem that needs robust techniques. In this article, the practical swarm optimization (PSO) was adopted for solving the operation problem of multipurpose Mahabad reservoir dam in the northwest of Iran. The desired result or target function is to minimize the difference between downstream monthly demand and release. The method was applied with considering the reduction probabilities of inflow for the four scenarios of normal and drought conditions. The results showed that in most of the scenarios for normal and drought conditions, released water obtained by the PSO model was equal to downstream demand and also, the reservoir volume was reducing for the probabilities of inflow. The PSO model revealed a good performance to minimize the reservoir water loss, and this operation policy can be an appropriate policy in the drought condition for the reservoir.

  4. Geomechanical reservoir models. A case study from the Sirte Basin / Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henk, Andreas [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften; Frischbutter, Andreas [Wintershall Holding AG, Kassel (Germany); Tawengi, Khaeri Segayer [National Oil Company, Tripoli (Libya)

    2010-03-15

    Geomechanical reservoir models on the basis of numerical simulation techniques provide a tool for the prediction of tectonic stresses and fractures. The workflow to set up and calibrate a geomechanical reservoir model includes import of the subsurface geometry as well as assignment of mechanical properties and boundary conditions. If well data are available, calculated stresses and fractures can be calibrated against observed data. Modeling results are relevant for a variety of tasks ranging from borehole stability and fault slip analysis to planning of hydraulic fracs. Application to a data set from a reservoir in the Eastern Sirte basin of Libya illustrates the practical potential of the modelling approach. The case study shows that stress orientations including local perturbations can be predicted with considerable accuracy even if the reservoir and fault geometries are primarily derived from seismic data, i.e. if well data is sparse. By nature, fracture prediction is less robust as it has to build on several poorly constrained input parameters like magnitude and orientation of paleo-stresses, paleo-pore pressures and former rock mechanical properties. Consequently, sufficient well data with fracture orientations observed on borehole image logs are required to calibrate the geomechanical model and provide a reliable base for fracture prognoses in the inter-well space. (orig.)

  5. Monitoring pharmaceuticals and personal care products in reservoir water used for drinking water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal-Ciro, Carolina; Botero-Coy, Ana María; López, Francisco J; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2017-03-01

    In this work, the presence of selected emerging contaminants has been investigated in two reservoirs, La Fe (LF) and Rio Grande (RG), which supply water to two drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) of Medellin, one of the most populated cities of Colombia. An analytical method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) of the sample followed by measurement by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for this purpose. Five monitoring campaigns were performed in each reservoir, collecting samples from 7 sites (LF) and 10 sites (RG) at 3 different depths of the water column. In addition, water samples entering in the DWTPs and treated water samples from these plans were also analysed for the selected compounds. Data from this work showed that parabens, UV filters and the pharmaceutical ibuprofen were commonly present in most of the reservoir samples. Thus, methyl paraben was detected in around 90% of the samples collected, while ibuprofen was found in around 60% of the samples. Water samples feeding the DWTPs also contained these two compounds, as well as benzophenone at low concentrations, which was in general agreement with the results from the reservoir samples. After treatment in the DWTPs, these three compounds were still present in the samples although at low concentrations (water are still unknown. Further research is needed to evaluate the effect of chronic exposure to these compounds via consumption of drinking water.

  6. Reservoir Simulation on the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field: A Continuing Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, M.; Marquez, R.; Arellano, V.; Esquer, C.A.

    1983-12-15

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal field is a liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir of complex geological and hydrological structure. It is located at the southern end of the Salton-Mexicali trough which includes other geothermal anomalies as Heber and East Mesa. Although in 1973, the initial power plant installed capacity was 75 MW of electrical power, this amount increased to 180 MW in 1981 as field development continued. It is expected to have a generating capacity of 620 MW by the end of 1985, when two new plants will be completely in operation. Questions about field deliverability, reservoir life and ultimate recovery related to planned installations are being presently asked. Numerical modeling studies can give very valuable answers to these questions, even at the early stages in the development of a field. An effort to simulate the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir has been undergoing for almost two years. A joint project among Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and Intercomp of Houstin, Texas, was created to perform reservoir engineering and simulation studies on this field. The final project objective is tosimulate the behavior of the old field region when production from additional wells located in the undeveloped field zones will be used for feeding the new power plants.

  7. Numerical modeling of time-lapse monitoring of CO2 sequestration in a layered basalt reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, M.; Van Wijk, K.; Clement, W.P.; Haney, M.

    2008-01-01

    As part of preparations in plans by The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) to inject CO2 in layered basalt, we numerically investigate seismic methods as a noninvasive monitoring technique. Basalt seems to have geochemical advantages as a reservoir for CO2 storage (CO2 mineralizes quite rapidly while exposed to basalt), but poses a considerable challenge in term of seismic monitoring: strong scattering from the layering of the basalt complicates surface seismic imaging. We perform numerical tests using the Spectral Element Method (SEM) to identify possibilities and limitations of seismic monitoring of CO2 sequestration in a basalt reservoir. While surface seismic is unlikely to detect small physical changes in the reservoir due to the injection of CO2, the results from Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) simulations are encouraging. As a perturbation, we make a 5%; change in wave velocity, which produces significant changes in VSP images of pre-injection and post-injection conditions. Finally, we perform an analysis using Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI), to quantify these changes in the reservoir properties due to CO2 injection.

  8. Impact of Sedimentation hazard at Jor Reservoir, Batang Padang Hydroelectric Scheme in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Jansen; Mohd Sidek, Lariyah; Jajarmizadeh, Milad

    2016-03-01

    Sedimentation in reservoir can be treated as a hazard because it affects the overall safety of the dam. It is a growing concern for reservoir operators throughout the world as it impacts the operability of the hydropower plant and its function as flood control. The objective of the study is to carry out reservoir bathymetric survey to determine the storage volume available at Jor reservoir. The paper intends to discuss the results of two successive surveys carried out in year 2007 and 2010 and comparison with historical data in1968 owing to analyse of sedimentation trend. The result showed that the total storage loss is approximately 43% with an estimated deposited sediment volume of 1.4 million m3 in year 2010. The sedimentation rate is estimated at 3.3% for the years surveyed which is greater than the world average of 0.93%. The findings from the survey are used to develop a revised elevation-storage curve which could be used by the operator and engineers to carry out future power generation planning and flood study predictions. The findings are also expected to be used to determine the optimum method for sediment management and hydro-mechanical protection.

  9. Hydroeconomic optimization of reservoir management under downstream water quality constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo; Holm, Peter E.; Trapp, Stefan; Rosbjerg, Dan; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2015-10-01

    A hydroeconomic optimization approach is used to guide water management in a Chinese river basin with the objectives of meeting water quantity and water quality constraints, in line with the China 2011 No. 1 Policy Document and 2015 Ten-point Water Plan. The proposed modeling framework couples water quantity and water quality management and minimizes the total costs over a planning period assuming stochastic future runoff. The outcome includes cost-optimal reservoir releases, groundwater pumping, water allocation, wastewater treatments and water curtailments. The optimization model uses a variant of stochastic dynamic programming known as the water value method. Nonlinearity arising from the water quality constraints is handled with an effective hybrid method combining genetic algorithms and linear programming. Untreated pollutant loads are represented by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and the resulting minimum dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is computed with the Streeter-Phelps equation and constrained to match Chinese water quality targets. The baseline water scarcity and operational costs are estimated to 15.6 billion CNY/year. Compliance to water quality grade III causes a relatively low increase to 16.4 billion CNY/year. Dilution plays an important role and increases the share of surface water allocations to users situated furthest downstream in the system. The modeling framework generates decision rules that result in the economically efficient strategy for complying with both water quantity and water quality constraints.

  10. Reservoir-induced seismicity associated with the Itoiz Reservoir, Spain: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá-Gómez, Inmaculada; Talwani, Pradeep

    2010-04-01

    Reservoir-induced seismicity was observed in 2004 after the impoundment of the Itoiz Reservoir in the central-western Pyrenees, Spain. Subsequent annual filling cycles were accompanied by large epicentral growth in the northern part of the Jaca-Pamplona basin. Based on the evaluation of the available geohydrologic data, we suggest that the seismicity is associated with the diffusion of increased pore pressures along the carbonate megabreccia systems of the Early to Middle Eocene age Hecho Group. Assuming 1-D pore-pressure diffusion from the Itoiz Reservoir, we estimate that excess pore pressures of ~100-500 kPa are adequate to induce M >= 3.0 earthquakes in this geological terrane. The results of this study have potential applicability in regions where reservoirs are built over karst terranes.

  11. Reservoir management -- as conceived and applied on the Palinpinon reservoir, Phillipines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmiento, Zosimo F.; Amistoso, Arthur E.

    1988-01-01

    The present exploitation of Palinpinon reservoir has revealed valuable information on the subsurface characteristics of the reservoir under large scale production. The initial behavior of the field has given signals that there is a need to implement appropriate strategies to optimise its capacity without jeopardizing the supply of adequate steam to the power plant. Some of the problems encountered such as reinjection returns, mineral deposition, ingress of acid fluid and other phenomena indicated the need to pursue an aggressive monitoring capability and timely appraisal of the field response to design an approach which will best suit the optimum management of the reservoir. The results of reservoir monitoring are discussed as well as the policies applied in operating the field.

  12. Reservoir pressure evolution model during exploration drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotaev B. A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of laboratory studies and literature data the method for estimating reservoir pressure in exploratory drilling has been proposed, it allows identify zones of abnormal reservoir pressure in the presence of seismic data on reservoir location depths. This method of assessment is based on developed at the end of the XX century methods using d- and σ-exponentials taking into account the mechanical drilling speed, rotor speed, bit load and its diameter, lithological constant and degree of rocks' compaction, mud density and "regional density". It is known that in exploratory drilling pulsation of pressure at the wellhead is observed. Such pulsation is a consequence of transferring reservoir pressure through clay. In the paper the mechanism for transferring pressure to the bottomhole as well as the behaviour of the clay layer during transmission of excess pressure has been described. A laboratory installation has been built, it has been used for modelling pressure propagation to the bottomhole of the well through a layer of clay. The bulge of the clay layer is established for 215.9 mm bottomhole diameter. Functional correlation of pressure propagation through the layer of clay has been determined and a reaction of the top clay layer has been shown to have bulge with a height of 25 mm. A pressure distribution scheme (balance has been developed, which takes into account the distance from layers with abnormal pressure to the bottomhole. A balance equation for reservoir pressure evaluation has been derived including well depth, distance from bottomhole to the top of the formation with abnormal pressure and density of clay.

  13. Enhancement of seismic monitoring in hydrocarbon reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Götz

    2017-04-01

    Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) is widely considered as one of the most significant enablers of the successful exploitation of hydrocarbons in North America. Massive usage of HF is currently adopted to increase the permeability in shale and tight-sand deep reservoirs, despite the economical downturn. The exploitation success is less due to the subsurface geology, but in technology that improves exploration, production, and decision-making. This includes monitoring of the reservoir, which is vital. Indeed, the general mindset in the industry is to keep enhancing seismic monitoring. It allows understanding and tracking processes in hydrocarbon reservoirs, which serves two purposes, a) to optimize recovery, and b) to help minimize environmental impact. This raises the question of how monitoring, and especially seismic techniques could be more efficient. There is a pressing demand from seismic service industry to evolve quickly and to meet the oil-gas industry's changing needs. Nonetheless, the innovative monitoring techniques, to achieve the purpose, must enhance the characterization or the visualization of a superior-quality images of the reservoir. We discuss recent applications of seismic monitoring in hydrocarbon reservoirs, detailing potential enhancement and eventual limitations. The aim is to test the validity of these seismic monitoring techniques, qualitatively discuss their potential application to energy fields that are not only limited to HF. Outcomes from our investigation may benefit operators and regulators in case of future massive HF applications in Europe, as well. This work is part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu), funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, whose aims is to help minimize the environmental footprint of the shale-gas exploration and exploitation.

  14. Application of Carbonate Reservoir using waveform inversion and reverse-time migration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W.; Kim, H.; Min, D.; Keehm, Y.

    2011-12-01

    inversion results are quite reliable. Different thicknesses of reservoir models were also described and the results revealed that the lower boundary of the reservoir was not delineated because of energy loss. From these results, it was noted that carbonate reservoirs can be properly imaged and interpreted by waveform inversion and reverse-time migration methods. This work was supported by the Energy Resources R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 2009201030001A, No. 2010T100200133) and the Brain Korea 21 project of Energy System Engineering.

  15. Requirements on catchment modelling for an optimized reservoir operation in water deficient regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froebrich, J.; Kirkby, M. J.; Reder, C.

    2002-12-01

    To provide long term water security in water deficient regions, the interaction of erosion, pollutant emission, the impact of irrigation areas, the characteristics of ephemeral streams and resulting water quality in reservoirs must be considered in water management plans. In many semiarid regions, reservoirs are the only source of water, the indispensable element required for human existence. By the year 2000 the world had built many small and > 45,000 large dams. In these reservoirs, water quality and quantity are affected both by climate change and catchment land use. Results of past projects indicate that the specific control of reservoirs can lead to a significant improvement of water quality, but reservoirs have already transformed the quantity and quality of surface waters in a remarkable manner. Reservoirs with their distinct behaviour as reactors could therefore be considered as key elements in semiarid and arid catchments, linking and transforming rivers and channels. Effective practical operation schemes require a thorough knowledge of spatial and temporal variation in water quality and quantity, and simulation models can be used to support the identification of most effective management potentials at catchment scale. We discuss here the particular requirements for water quality modelling at catchment scale in semiarid and arid regions. Results of reservoir water quality modelling are presented. The potential of catchment models like the PESERA model is demonstrated. Knowledge gaps, such as the consideration of ephemeral streams in catchment models, are addressed and fresh problem solving strategies are introduced. Erosion models like PESERA can provide important information on sediment transport and hence describing the carrier potentials for organic matter, heavy metals and pesticides from terrestrial areas into the water courses. The new EU-research project tempQsim will improve understanding of how the organic matter is transformed in river beds

  16. Authorized and Operating Purposes of Corps of Engineers Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Puerto Rico CERRILLOS DAM AND RESERVOIR Jacksonville E-9O PORTUGUES DAM AND RESERVOIR Jacksonville E-92 South Carolina HARTWELL DAM AND LAKE Savannah E...LAKE Missouri Kansas City E-12 POMONA LAKE Kansas Kansas City E-12 PORTUGUES DAM AND RESERVOIR Puerto Rico Jacksonville E-92 PRADO DAM (SANTA ANA...PROJECT Florida Jacksonville E-92 PORTUGUES DAM AND RESERVOIR Puerto Rico Jacksonville E-92 RODMAN LOCK AND DAM (CROSS FLORIDA BARGE CANAL Florida

  17. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, D.; Koerner, R.; Moos D.; Nguyen, J.; Phillips, C.; Tagbor, K.; Walker, S.

    1999-04-05

    This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate.

  18. A grey multi-objective programming approach for sustainable land-use in the Miyun Reservoir Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Huai-cheng; ZHANG Zhen-xing; YU Yong

    2004-01-01

    Miyun Reservoir is the most important water source to Beijing City. Land-use of the basin plays a great role in the protection of water resources. Hence a sustainable land-use planning is required to optimize land-use structure and protect water resources in the basin. Based on the complete land-use system analysis in Miyun, a grey multi-objective programming to basin land-use(GMOPBLU)model was developed and applied to land-use planning. Two alternatives were produced and analyzed by means of interactive adjustment and scenario analysis. The results showed the GMOPBLU model is a valuable approach for basin land-use planning.

  19. Altering Reservoir Wettability to Improve Production from Single Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. W. Weiss

    2006-09-30

    tests were conducted in an area of the field that has not met production expectations. The dataset on the 23 Phosphoria well surfactant soaks was updated. An analysis of the oil decline curves indicted that 4.5 lb of chemical produced a barrel of incremental oil. The AI analysis supports the adage 'good wells are the best candidates.' The generally better performance of surfactant in the high permeability core laboratory tests supports this observation. AI correlations were developed to predict the response to water-frac stimulations in a tight San Andres reservoir. The correlations maybe useful in the design of Cedar Creek Anticline surfactant soak treatments planned for next year. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance scans of dolomite cores to measure porosity and saturation during the high temperature laboratory work were acquired. The scans could not be correlated with physical measurement using either conventional or AI methods.

  20. Reservoir assessment of the Nubian sandstone reservoir in South Central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Nader; Barakat, Moataz; Abdallah, Hamed

    2017-05-01

    The Gulf of Suez is considered as one of the most important petroleum provinces in Egypt and contains the Saqqara and Edfu oil fields located in the South Central portion of the Gulf of Suez. The Nubian sandstone reservoir in the Gulf of Suez basin is well known for its great capability to store and produce large volumes of hydrocarbons. The Nubian sandstone overlies basement rocks throughout most of the Gulf of Suez region. It consists of a sequence of sandstones and shales of Paleozoic to Cretaceous age. The Nubian sandstone intersected in most wells has excellent reservoir characteristics. Its porosity is controlled by sedimentation style and diagenesis. The cementation materials are mainly kaolinite and quartz overgrowths. The permeability of the Nubian sandstone is mainly controlled by grain size, sorting, porosity and clay content especially kaolinite and decreases with increase of kaolinite. The permeability of the Nubian Sandstone is evaluated using the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR technology) and formation pressure data in addition to the conventional logs and the results were calibrated using core data. In this work, the Nubian sandstone was investigated and evaluated using complete suites of conventional and advanced logging techniques to understand its reservoir characteristics which have impact on economics of oil recovery. The Nubian reservoir has a complicated wettability nature which affects the petrophysical evaluation and reservoir productivity. So, understanding the reservoir wettability is very important for managing well performance, productivity and oil recovery.

  1. Sudden water pollution accidents and reservoir emergency operations: impact analysis at Danjiangkou Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hezhen; Lei, Xiaohui; Shang, Yizi; Duan, Yang; Kong, Lingzhong; Jiang, Yunzhong; Wang, Hao

    2017-05-03

    Danjiangkou Reservoir is the source reservoir of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (MRP). Any sudden water pollution accident in the reservoir would threaten the water supply of the MRP. We established a 3-D hydrodynamic and water quality model for the Danjiangkou Reservoir, and proposed scientific suggestions on the prevention and emergency management for sudden water pollution accidents based on simulated results. Simulations were performed on 20 hypothetical pollutant discharge locations and 3 assumed amounts, in order to model the effect of pollutant spreading under different reservoir operation types. The results showed that both the location and mass of pollution affected water quality; however, different reservoir operation types had little effect. Five joint regulation scenarios, which altered the hydrodynamic processes of water conveyance for the Danjiangkou and Taocha dams, were considered for controlling pollution dispersion. The results showed that the spread of a pollutant could be effectively controlled through the joint regulation of the two dams and that the collaborative operation of the Danjiangkou and Taocha dams is critical for ensuring the security of water quality along the MRP.

  2. Daily reservoir sedimentation model: Case study from the Fena Valley Reservoir, Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marineau, Mathieu D.; Wright, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    A model to compute reservoir sedimentation rates at daily timescales is presented. The model uses streamflow and sediment load data from nearby stream gauges to obtain an initial estimate of sediment yield for the reservoir’s watershed; it is then calibrated to the total deposition calculated from repeat bathymetric surveys. Long-term changes to reservoir trapping efficiency are also taken into account. The model was applied to the Fena Valley Reservoir, a water supply reservoir on the island of Guam. This reservoir became operational in 1951 and was recently surveyed in 2014. The model results show that the highest rate of deposition occurred during two typhoons (Typhoon Alice in 1953 and Typhoon Tingting in 2004); each storm decreased reservoir capacity by approximately 2–3% in only a few days. The presented model can be used to evaluate the impact of an extreme event, or it can be coupled with a watershed runoff model to evaluate potential impacts to storage capacity as a result of climate change or other hydrologic modifications.

  3. Relation between facies, diagenesis, and reservoir quality of Rotliegende reservoirs in north Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, F.; Gast, R.; Kraft, T. (BEB Erdgas Erdol GmbH, Hannover (Germany))

    1993-09-01

    In north Germany, the majority of Rotliegende gas fields is confined to an approximately 50 km-wide east-west-orientated belt, which is situated on the gently north-dipping flank of the southern Permian basin. Approximately 400 billion m[sup 3] of natural gas has been found in Rotliegende reservoir sandstones with average porosities of depths ranging from 3500 to 5000 m. Rotliegende deposition was controlled by the Autunian paleo-relief, and arid climate and cyclic transgressions of the desert lake. In general, wadis and large dunefields occur in the hinterland, sebkhas with small isolate dunes and shorelines define the coastal area, and a desert lake occurs to the north. The sandstones deposited in large dunefields contain only minor amounts of illite, anhydrite, and calcite and form good reservoirs. In contrast, the small dunes formed in the sebkha areas were affected by fluctuations of the desert lake groundwaters, causing the infiltration of detrital clay and precipitation of gypsum and calcite. These cements were transformed to illite, anhydrite, and calcite-II during later diagenesis, leading to a significant reduction of the reservoir quality. The best reservoirs occur in the shoreline sandstones because porosity and permeability were preserved by early magnesium-chlorite diagenesis. Since facies controls diagenesis and consequently reservoir quality, mapping of facies also indicates the distribution of reservoir and nonreservoir rocks. This information is used to identify play area and to interpret and calibrate three-dimensional seismic data.

  4. Ordovician Basement Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in the Tarim Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiangbin; LI Tiejun; ZHANG Tao

    2004-01-01

    Ordovician marine carbonate basement traps are widely developed in the paleo-highs and paleo-slopes in the Tarim Basin. Reservoirs are mainly altered pore-cavity-fissure reservoirs. Oil sources are marine carbonate rocks of the Lower Paleozoic. Thus, the paleo-highs and paleo-slopes have good reservoiring conditions and they are the main areas to explore giant and large-scale oil reservoirs. The main factors for their reservoiring are: (1) Effective combination of fenestral pore-cavity-fracture reservoirs, resulting from multi-stage, multi-cyclic karstification (paleo-hypergene and deep buried) and fracturing, with effective overlying seals, especially mudstone and gypsum mudstone in the Carboniferous Bachu Formation, is essential to hydrocarbon reservoiring and high and stable production; (2) Long-term inherited large rises and multi-stage fracture systems confine the development range of karst reservoirs and control hydrocarbon migration, accumulation and reservoiring; (3) Long-term multi-source hydrocarbon supply, early reservoiring alteration and late charging adjustment are important reservoiring mechanisms and determine the resource structure and oil and gas properties. Favorable areas for exploration of Ordovician carbonate basement hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Tarim Basin are the Akekule rise, Katahe uplift, Hetianhe paleo-high and Yakela faulted rise.

  5. ‘A reservoir within a reservoir’ – An unusual complication associated with a defunctioned inflatable penile prosthesis reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Abboudi

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: It is our belief that a defunctionalized reservoir serves no purpose; rather it can only cause trouble in the future. Consequently, at our institution we do not leave defunctionalized reservoirs in situ.

  6. Hydrologic characterization of Bushy Park Reservoir, South Carolina, 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Falls, W. Fred; Lanier, Timothy H.

    2017-06-14

    profilers were deployed at six locations over different periods. The deployment period for the velocity profiler ranged from 2 weeks to 4 months. During the investigation, tidal cycle (13-hour) streamflow measurements were made at 30-minute intervals at five locations.The Williams Station is a coal-fired powerplant that withdraws water from Bushy Park Reservoir for cooling purposes. The magnitude of the withdrawal (approximately 550 million gallons per day) is the major factor controlling the circulation in the reservoir. The net flow in Durham Canal to the reservoir is comparable to the withdrawal rates of the powerplant. When the Williams Station is not withdrawing water, the net flow in Durham Canal quickly goes to zero or reverses with a net flow away from the reservoir and to the Cooper River. Plan views of the velocity vectors for the tidal cycle streamflow measurements and rose diagram of the velocity profilers created with the Williams Station withdrawing and not withdrawing water show substantial effects of the distribution of magnitude and direction of the water velocities.

  7. Effects of water-supply reservoirs on streamflow in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.

    2016-10-06

    State and local water-resource managers need modeling tools to help them manage and protect water-supply resources for both human consumption and ecological needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, has developed a decision-support tool to estimate the effects of reservoirs on natural streamflow. The Massachusetts Reservoir Simulation Tool is a model that simulates the daily water balance of a reservoir. The reservoir simulation tool provides estimates of daily outflows from reservoirs and compares the frequency, duration, and magnitude of the volume of outflows from reservoirs with estimates of the unaltered streamflow that would occur if no dam were present. This tool will help environmental managers understand the complex interactions and tradeoffs between water withdrawals, reservoir operational practices, and reservoir outflows needed for aquatic habitats.A sensitivity analysis of the daily water balance equation was performed to identify physical and operational features of reservoirs that could have the greatest effect on reservoir outflows. For the purpose of this report, uncontrolled releases of water (spills or spillage) over the reservoir spillway were considered to be a proxy for reservoir outflows directly below the dam. The ratio of average withdrawals to the average inflows had the largest effect on spillage patterns, with the highest withdrawals leading to the lowest spillage. The size of the surface area relative to the drainage area of the reservoir also had an effect on spillage; reservoirs with large surface areas have high evaporation rates during the summer, which can contribute to frequent and long periods without spillage, even in the absence of water withdrawals. Other reservoir characteristics, such as variability of inflows, groundwater interactions, and seasonal demand patterns, had low to moderate effects on the frequency, duration, and magnitude of spillage. The

  8. Fate of Organic Carbon Deposited in Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, T. G.; Rhoton, F. E.; Bennett, S. J.; Hudnall, W. H.

    2002-05-01

    Sedimentation of soil organic carbon (SOC) eroded from uplands and deposited in reservoirs could be an important mechanism for carbon sequestration provided that it is conserved during transport and burial and that uplands are not experiencing net loss. There are uncertainties in both these assumptions and gaining a better understanding of these processes is a key objective of ongoing carbon-cycle investigations. The U.S. Geological Survey, the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and Louisiana State University Agricultural Center are collaborating on an investigation of soils and sediments in the Yalobusha River Basin in Mississippi. Sediment cores were collected from upland soils and from Grenada Lake, a flood control reservoir, in the basin. Suspended sediments have been collected from the Yalobusha River and one of its tributaries upstream of the lake. We are measuring carbon mineralization potential in conjunction with carbon and nitrogen concentrations, 13C, mineralogy, and texture on sediments and upland soils to determine whether eroding SOC is conserved or oxidized during transport and burial. Differences in mineralization potential and other chemical and physical properties are used to infer net changes in the original eroding SOC. Autochthonous production of SOC within reservoirs could replace labile SOC oxidized during transport and burial thereby masking losses due to oxidation. Autochthonous sources can be evaluated by chemical and physical characterization of the sediments. Stable carbon isotope (13C) geochemistry provides a tool for distinguishing the two primary sources of organic carbon incorporated in lake sediments because allochthonous SOC from the surrounding watershed is, in general, less depleted in stable 13C than autochthonous SOC produced in the lake by aquatic organisms such as macrophytes and phytoplankton. The integration of the 13C signature recorded in the organic fraction of the lake sediments with total organic carbon, C/N ratio

  9. An Intelligent Systems Approach to Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Jaime Toro; Thomas H. Wilson; Emre Artun; Alejandro Sanchez; Sandeep Pyakurel

    2005-08-01

    Today, the major challenge in reservoir characterization is integrating data coming from different sources in varying scales, in order to obtain an accurate and high-resolution reservoir model. The role of seismic data in this integration is often limited to providing a structural model for the reservoir. Its relatively low resolution usually limits its further use. However, its areal coverage and availability suggest that it has the potential of providing valuable data for more detailed reservoir characterization studies through the process of seismic inversion. In this paper, a novel intelligent seismic inversion methodology is presented to achieve a desirable correlation between relatively low-frequency seismic signals, and the much higher frequency wireline-log data. Vertical seismic profile (VSP) is used as an intermediate step between the well logs and the surface seismic. A synthetic seismic model is developed by using real data and seismic interpretation. In the example presented here, the model represents the Atoka and Morrow formations, and the overlying Pennsylvanian sequence of the Buffalo Valley Field in New Mexico. Generalized regression neural network (GRNN) is used to build two independent correlation models between; (1) Surface seismic and VSP, (2) VSP and well logs. After generating virtual VSP's from the surface seismic, well logs are predicted by using the correlation between VSP and well logs. The values of the density log, which is a surrogate for reservoir porosity, are predicted for each seismic trace through the seismic line with a classification approach having a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The same methodology is then applied to real data taken from the Buffalo Valley Field, to predict inter-well gamma ray and neutron porosity logs through the seismic line of interest. The same procedure can be applied to a complete 3D seismic block to obtain 3D distributions of reservoir properties with less uncertainty than the geostatistical

  10. Game theory and fuzzy programming approaches for bi-objective optimization of reservoir watershed management: a case study in Namazgah reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üçler, N; Engin, G Onkal; Köçken, H G; Öncel, M S

    2015-05-01

    In this study, game theory and fuzzy programming approaches were used to balance economic and environmental impacts in the Namazgah reservoir, Turkey. The main goals identified were to maximize economic benefits of land use and to protect water quality of reservoir and land resources. Total phosphorous load (kg ha(-1) year(-1)) and economic income (USD ha(-1) year(-1)) from land use were determined as environmental value and economic value, respectively. The surface area of existing land use types, which are grouped under 10 headings according to the investigations on the watershed area, and the constraint values for the watershed were calculated using aerial photos, master plans, and basin slope map. The results of fuzzy programming approach were found to be very close to the results of the game theory model. It was concluded that the amount of fertilizer used in the current situation presents a danger to the reservoir and, therefore, unnecessary fertilizer use should be prevented. Additionally, nuts, fruit, and vegetable cultivation, instead of wheat and corn cultivation, was found to be more suitable due to their high economic income and low total phosphorus (TP) load. Apart from agricultural activities, livestock farming should also be considered in the area as a second source of income. It is believed that the results obtained in this study will help decision makers to identify possible problems of the watershed.

  11. Steel Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China releases a new plan for the iron and steel industry centered on industrial upgrades The new 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-15) for China’s iron and steel industry, recently released on the website of the Ministry of Industry and Information

  12. Test plan :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-05-01

    This test plan is a document that provides a systematic approach to the planned testing of rooftop structures to determine their actual load carrying capacity. This document identifies typical tests to be performed, the responsible parties for testing, the general feature of the tests, the testing approach, test deliverables, testing schedule, monitoring requirements, and environmental and safety compliance.

  13. Modeling reservoir geomechanics using discrete element method : Application to reservoir monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alassi, Haitham Tayseer

    2008-09-15

    Understanding reservoir geomechanical behavior is becoming more and more important for the petroleum industry. Reservoir compaction, which may result in surface subsidence and fault reactivation, occurs during reservoir depletion. Stress changes and possible fracture development inside and outside a depleting reservoir can be monitored using time-lapse (so-called '4D') seismic and/or passive seismic, and this can give valuable information about the conditions of a given reservoir during production. In this study we will focus on using the (particle-based) Discrete Element Method (DEM) to model reservoir geomechanical behavior during depletion and fluid injection. We show in this study that DEM can be used in modeling reservoir geomechanical behavior by comparing results obtained from DEM to those obtained from analytical solutions. The match of the displacement field between DEM and the analytical solution is good, however there is mismatch of the stress field which is related to the way stress is measured in DEM. A good match is however obtained by measuring the stress field carefully. We also use DEM to model reservoir geomechanical behavior beyond the elasticity limit where fractures can develop and faults can reactivate. A general technique has been developed to relate DEM parameters to rock properties. This is necessary in order to use correct reservoir geomechanical properties during modeling. For any type of particle packing there is a limitation that the maximum ratio between P- and S-wave velocity Vp/Vs that can be modeled is 3 . The static behavior for a loose packing is different from the dynamic behavior. Empirical relations are needed for the static behavior based on numerical test observations. The dynamic behavior for both dense and loose packing can be given by analytical relations. Cosserat continuum theory is needed to derive relations for Vp and Vs. It is shown that by constraining the particle rotation, the S-wave velocity can be

  14. The Application of 3-D Visible Technology to Reservoir Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Long; LIU Tao

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with the application of 3 -D visible technology to reservoir management. Making use of this method for expanding - spread data point in reservoir management, can discard the false and retain the true during data recording. As a result, The quality of data recording is ensured. In reservoir description, the reservoir characteristics, such as space distribution,physical change and fluid distribution may be identified by restoring palaeostructures, building - up 3-D facics tract model and 3-D fracture system model. Seismic interpretation, geologic modeling and numerical simulation are well integrated so that they can be promote reservoir performance management to develop into the intensive management pattern.

  15. Method of extracting heat from dry geothermal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, R.M.; Robinson, E.S.; Smith, M.C.

    1974-01-22

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to interconnect two or more holes that penetrate a previously dry geothermal reservoir, and to produce within the reservoir a sufficiently large heat-transfer surface so that heat can be extracted from the reservoir at a usefully high rate by a fluid entering it through one hole and leaving it through another. Introduction of a fluid into the reservoir to remove heat from it and establishment of natural (unpumped) convective circulation through the reservoir to accomplish continuous heat removal are important and novel features of the method. (auth)

  16. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering......, business and other fields, and it is useful for all professionals, across a wide range of employment areas, who share an interest in renewing planning practice. Such an endeavour is seen as both important and timely, recognising that many complex planning tasks necessitate organisations – be they public...... or private – to engage in planning to prepare proactive decision-making....

  17. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering......, business and other fields, and it is useful for all professionals, across a wide range of employment areas, who share an interest in renewing planning practice. Such an endeavour is seen as both important and timely, recognising that many complex planning tasks necessitate organisations – be they public...... or private – to engage in planning to prepare proactive decision-making....

  18. Optimizing Reservoir-Stream-Aquifer Interactions for Conjunctive Use and Hydropower Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Fayad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctive management of water resources involves coordinating use of surface water and groundwater resources. Very few simulation/optimization (S-O models for stream-aquifer system management have included detailed interactions between groundwater, streams, and reservoir storage. This paper presents an S-O model doing that via artificial neural network simulators and genetic algorithm optimizer for multiobjective conjunctive water use problems. The model simultaneously addresses all significant flows including reservoir-stream-diversion-aquifer interactions in a more detailed manner than previous models. The model simultaneously maximizes total water provided and hydropower production. A penalty function implicitly poses constraints on state variables. The model effectively finds feasible optimal solutions and the Pareto optimum. Illustrated is application for planning water resource and minihydropower system development.

  19. Reservoir simulation with MUFITS code: Extension for double porosity reservoirs and flows in horizontal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, Andrey

    2017-04-01

    Numerical modelling of multiphase flows in porous medium is necessary in many applications concerning subsurface utilization. An incomplete list of those applications includes oil and gas fields exploration, underground carbon dioxide storage and geothermal energy production. The numerical simulations are conducted using complicated computer programs called reservoir simulators. A robust simulator should include a wide range of modelling options covering various exploration techniques, rock and fluid properties, and geological settings. In this work we present a recent development of new options in MUFITS code [1]. The first option concerns modelling of multiphase flows in double-porosity double-permeability reservoirs. We describe internal representation of reservoir models in MUFITS, which are constructed as a 3D graph of grid blocks, pipe segments, interfaces, etc. In case of double porosity reservoir, two linked nodes of the graph correspond to a grid cell. We simulate the 6th SPE comparative problem [2] and a five-spot geothermal production problem to validate the option. The second option concerns modelling of flows in porous medium coupled with flows in horizontal wells that are represented in the 3D graph as a sequence of pipe segments linked with pipe junctions. The well completions link the pipe segments with reservoir. The hydraulics in the wellbore, i.e. the frictional pressure drop, is calculated in accordance with Haaland's formula. We validate the option against the 7th SPE comparative problem [3]. We acknowledge financial support by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No RFBR-15-31-20585). References [1] Afanasyev, A. MUFITS Reservoir Simulation Software (www.mufits.imec.msu.ru). [2] Firoozabadi A. et al. Sixth SPE Comparative Solution Project: Dual-Porosity Simulators // J. Petrol. Tech. 1990. V.42. N.6. P.710-715. [3] Nghiem L., et al. Seventh SPE Comparative Solution Project: Modelling of Horizontal Wells in Reservoir Simulation

  20. The Classification and Model of Coalbed Methane Reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xianbo; LIN Xiaoying; SONG Yah; ZHAO Mengjun

    2004-01-01

    Coalbed methane has been explored in many basins worldwide for 30 years, and has been developed commercially in some of the basins. Many researchers have described the characteristics of coalbed methane geology and technology systematically. According to these investigations, a coalbed methane reservoir can be defined: "a coal seam that contains some coalbed methane and is isolated from other fluid units is called a coalbed methane reservoir".On the basis of anatomizafion, analysis, and comparison of the typical coalbed methane reservoirs, coalbed methane reservoirs can be divided into two classes: the hydrodynamic sealing coalbed methane reservoirs and the self-sealing coalbed methane reservoirs. The former can be further divided into two sub-classes: the hydrodynamic capping coalbed methane reservoirs, which can be divided into five types and the hydrodynamic driving coalbed methane reservoirs,which can be divided into three types. The latter can be divided into three types. Currently, hydrodynamic sealing reservoirs are the main target for coalbed methane exploration and development; self-sealing reservoirs are unsuitable for coalbed methane exploration and development, but they are closely related with coal mine gas hazards. Finally, a model for hydrodynamic sealing coalbed methane reservoirs is established.

  1. Simulation of California's Major Reservoirs Outflow Using Data Mining Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.

    2014-12-01

    The reservoir's outflow is controlled by reservoir operators, which is different from the upstream inflow. The outflow is more important than the reservoir's inflow for the downstream water users. In order to simulate the complicated reservoir operation and extract the outflow decision making patterns for California's 12 major reservoirs, we build a data-driven, computer-based ("artificial intelligent") reservoir decision making tool, using decision regression and classification tree approach. This is a well-developed statistical and graphical modeling methodology in the field of data mining. A shuffled cross validation approach is also employed to extract the outflow decision making patterns and rules based on the selected decision variables (inflow amount, precipitation, timing, water type year etc.). To show the accuracy of the model, a verification study is carried out comparing the model-generated outflow decisions ("artificial intelligent" decisions) with that made by reservoir operators (human decisions). The simulation results show that the machine-generated outflow decisions are very similar to the real reservoir operators' decisions. This conclusion is based on statistical evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe test. The proposed model is able to detect the most influential variables and their weights when the reservoir operators make an outflow decision. While the proposed approach was firstly applied and tested on California's 12 major reservoirs, the method is universally adaptable to other reservoir systems.

  2. Mathematical simulation of oil reservoir properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (SEPI-ESQIE-UPALM-IPN), Unidad Profesional Zacatenco, Laboratorio de Analisis Met., Edif. ' Z' y Edif. 6 planta baja., Mexico City c.p. 07300 (Mexico)], E-mail: adalop123@mailbanamex.com; Romero, A.; Chavez, F. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (SEPI-ESQIE-UPALM-IPN), Unidad Profesional Zacatenco, Laboratorio de Analisis Met., Edif. ' Z' y Edif. 6 planta baja., Mexico City c.p. 07300 (Mexico); Carrillo, F. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (CICATA-IPN, Altamira Tamaulipas) (Mexico); Lopez, S. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo - Molecular Engineering Researcher (Mexico)

    2008-11-15

    The study and computational representation of porous media properties are very important for many industries where problems of fluid flow, percolation phenomena and liquid movement and stagnation are involved, for example, in building constructions, ore processing, chemical industries, mining, corrosion sciences, etc. Nevertheless, these kinds of processes present a noneasy behavior to be predicted and mathematical models must include statistical analysis, fractal and/or stochastic procedures to do it. This work shows the characterization of sandstone berea core samples which can be found as a porous media (PM) in natural oil reservoirs, rock formations, etc. and the development of a mathematical algorithm for simulating the anisotropic characteristics of a PM based on a stochastic distribution of some of their most important properties like porosity, permeability, pressure and saturation. Finally a stochastic process is used again to simulated the topography of an oil reservoir.

  3. Integration of production data into reservoir models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, D.S.; Reynolds, A.C.; Abacioglu, Y. [Tulsa Univ., Dept. of Petroleum Engineering, Tulsa, OK (United States); Bi, Z. [Duke Univ., Mathematics Dept., Durham, NC (United States)

    2001-05-01

    The problem of mapping reservoir properties, such as porosity and permeability, and of assessing the uncertainty in the mapping has been largely approached probabilistically, i.e. uncertainty is estimated based on the properties of an ensemble of random realizations of the reservoir properties all of which satisfy constraints provided by data and prior geological knowledge. When the constraints include observations of production characteristics, the problem of generating a representative ensemble of realizations can be quite difficult partly because the connection between a measurement of water-cut or GOR at a well and the permeability at some other location is by no means obvious. In this paper, the progress towards incorporation of production data and remaining challenges are reviewed. (Author)

  4. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. O. Hitzman; A. K. Stepp; D. M. Dennis; L. R. Graumann

    2003-03-31

    This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work is underway. Microbial cultures have been isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters with cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Field pilot studies are underway.

  5. Analysis of production decline in geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zais, Elliot J.; Bodvarsson, Gunnar

    1980-09-01

    The major objectives of the Decline Curve project were to: (1) test the decline analysis methods used in the petroleum industry on geothermal production data; (2) examine and/or develop new analysis methods; and (3) develop a standard operating procedure for analyzing geothermal production data. Various analysis methods have long been available but they have not been tested on geothermal data because of the lack of publicly available data. The recent release to publication of substantial data sets from Wairakei, New Zealand, Cerro Prieto, Mexico and The Geysers, USA has made this study possible. Geothermal reservoirs are quite different from petroleum reservoirs in many ways so the analysis methods must be tested using geothermal data.

  6. New proposed method for prediction of reservoir sedimentation distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Hosseinjanzadeh; K. Hosseini; K. Kaveh; S.F. Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    abstract Prediction of sediment distribution in reservoirs is an important issue for dam designers to determine the reservoir active storage capacity. Methods proposed to calculate sediment distribution are varied, and mainly empirical. Among all the methods currently available, only area-reduction and area-increment methods are considered as the principal methods for prediction of sediment distribution. In this paper, data of 16 reservoirs in the United States are used to propose a new empirical method for prediction of sediment distribution in reservoirs. In the proposed method, reservoir sediment distribu-tion is related to sediment volume and original reservoir characteristics. To validate the accuracy of the new proposed method, obtained results are compared with survey data for two reservoirs. The results of this investigation showed that the proposed method has an acceptable accuracy.

  7. Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawa, P.

    1981-02-01

    This volume contains reservoir, production, and project data for target reservoirs which contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25/sup 0/ API gravity range and are susceptible to recovery by in situ combustion and steam drive. The reservoirs for steam recovery are less than 2500 feet deep to comply with state-of-the-art technology. In cases where one reservoir would be a target for in situ combustion or steam drive, that reservoir is reported in both sections. Data were collectd from three source types: hands-on (A), once-removed (B), and twice-removed (C). In all cases, data were sought depicting and characterizing individual reservoirs as opposed to data covering an entire field with more than one producing interval or reservoir. The data sources are listed at the end of each case. This volume also contains a complete listing of operators and projects, as well as a bibliography of source material.

  8. Optimized recovery through cooperative geology and reservoir engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, F.F. Jr.; Willcox, P.J.; Ballard, J.R.; Nation, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    Two examples of the use of this combined geology-reservoir engineering technique are taken from the international arena of operations. The first involves a gas reservoir in the U.K.-North Sea waters and the second an oil reservoir in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. The improved reservoir description obtained for each of these reservoirs is permitting a better assessment of future performance as influenced by various operating alternatives. Waterflooding is relatively tolerant of reservoir nonuniformities. However, the need for additional reserves leads to increased utilization of improved recovery techniques, beyond waterflooding, for secondary as well as tertiary application. The development of better reservoir descriptions will provide guidance on the need for special sweep improvement techniques and ultimately lead to both maximum oil production and reduced risk in application of improved recovery processes.

  9. Reservoir sediments: a sink or source of chemicals at the surface water-groundwater interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Rawaa; Kazpard, Véronique; Wazne, Mahmoud; El Samrani, Antoine G; Amacha, Nabil; Saad, Zeinab; Chou, Lei

    2015-09-01

    This study delineates the physical, chemical, and biological effects resulting from anthropogenic and endogenic activities in a sensitive dammed reservoir situated in a semi-arid region. The reservoir is characterized by two major flow regimes: a wet fill hydrologic regime and a dry spill one. A seasonal sampling campaign was carried out over a period of 2 years (2011-2013) where water samples were collected across the water column and from piezometers just outside the perimeter of the reservoir. Similarly, sediments were collected from the corresponding areas beneath the water column. The water samples were analyzed for environmental isotopic ratios, elemental composition, and physical, biological and chemical parameters, whereas the sediment and algal samples were subjected to physical, mineralogical, spectroscopic, and microscopic analyses. This investigation indicated that the dam had resulted in the alteration of the biogeochemical cycle of nutrients as well as the degradation of the sediment and water quality. The hydrological and biogeochemical processes were found to induce vertical downward transport of chemicals towards the fine grained calcareous sediments during the fill mode, whereas the sediments acted as a source of a chemical flux upward through the water column and downward towards the groundwater during the spill mode. The geomorphological characteristics of the reservoir enhanced the strong hydrological connectivity between the surface water and the groundwater where the reservoir responded quickly to natural and anthropogenic changes in the upper watershed. The water and sediments in the sensitive spill mode were of poor quality and should receive more attention due to the potential hazard for the associated hydro-project and the sustainability of the agricultural soil in the long term. Thus, a safe water and sediment management plan should be implemented in order to improve the dam functionality and to safeguard the precious water resources.

  10. Enhanced output entanglement with reservoir engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiao-Bo

    2017-01-01

    We study the output entanglement in a three-mode optomechanical system via reservoir engineering by shifting the center frequency of filter function away from resonant frequency. We find the bandwidth of the filter function can suppress the entanglement in the vicinity of resonant frequency of the system, while the entanglement will become prosperous if the center frequency departs from the resonant frequency. We obtain the approximate analytical expressions of the output entanglement, and fr...

  11. Reservoir engineering with ultracold Rydberg atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Schönleber, David W.; Bentley, Christopher D. B.; Eisfeld, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We apply reservoir engineering to construct a thermal environment with controllable temperature in an ultracold atomic Rydberg system. A Boltzmann distribution of the system's eigenstates is produced by optically driving a small environment of ultracold atoms, which is coupled to a photonic continuum through spontaneous emission. This technique provides a useful tool for quantum simulation of dynamics coupled to a thermal environment. Additionally, we demonstrate that pure eigenstates, such a...

  12. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Bailey, S.A.; Stepp, A.K.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

  13. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.

  14. Study of Dieldrin in Coralville Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy Smith

    2013-01-01

    Using existing experimental data taken over a period of roughly 12 years that documents the concentrations of dieldrin levels in the environment and fatty tissue of the fish, we construct a model of the total dieldrin concentration decline. Comparisons between the experimental data and speculative data can be made using calculus and elements of statistics in order to better understand the movement of dieldrin in the reservoir. Because of the potentially harmful exposure effects of dieldrin to...

  15. Model Development to Establish Integrated Operational Rule Curves for Hungry Horse and Libby Reservoirs - Montana, 1996 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marotz, Brian; Althen, Craig; Gustafson, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    Hungry Horse and Libby dams have profoundly affected the aquatic ecosystems in two major tributaries of the Columbia River by altering habitat and water quality, and by imposing barriers to fish migration. In 1980, the U.S. Congress passed the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, designed in part to balance hydropower development with other natural resources in the Columbia System. The Act formed the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) who developed a program to protect, mitigate and enhance fish and wildlife on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Pursuant to the Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program for the Columbia River System (1987), we constructed computer models to simulate the trophic dynamics of the reservoir biota as related to dam operation. Results were used to develop strategies to minimize impacts and enhance the reservoir and riverine fisheries, following program measures 903(a)(1-4) and 903(b)(1-5). Two FORTRAN simulation models were developed for Hungry Horse and Libby reservoirs located in northwestern Montana. The models were designed to generate accurate, short-term predictions specific to two reservoirs and are not directly applicable to other waters. The modeling strategy, however, is portable to other reservoir systems where sufficient data are available. Reservoir operation guidelines were developed to balance fisheries concerns in the headwaters with anadromous species recovery actions in the lower Columbia (Biological Rule Curves). These BRCs were then integrated with power production and flood control to reduce the economic impact of basin-wide fisheries recovery actions. These Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) were developed simultaneously in the Columbia Basin System Operation Review (SOR), the Council`s phase IV amendment process and recovery actions associated with endangered Columbia Basin fish species.

  16. Short-term hydropower production planning by stochastic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Kristoffersen, Trine

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of multi-stage mixed-integer linear stochastic programming we develop a short-term production plan for a price-taking hydropower plant operating under uncertainty. Current production must comply with the day-ahead commitments of the previous day which makes short......-term production planning a matter of spatial distribution among the reservoirs of the plant. Day-ahead market prices and reservoir inflows are, however, uncertain beyond the current operation day and water must be allocated among the reservoirs in order to strike a balance between current profits and expected...... future profits. A demonstration is presented with data from a Norwegian hydropower producer and the Nordic power market at Nord Pool....

  17. Geomechanical Properties of Unconventional Shale Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad O. Eshkalak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production from unconventional reservoirs has gained an increased attention among operators in North America during past years and is believed to secure the energy demand for next decades. Economic production from unconventional reservoirs is mainly attributed to realizing the complexities and key fundamentals of reservoir formation properties. Geomechanical well logs (including well logs such as total minimum horizontal stress, Poisson’s ratio, and Young, shear, and bulk modulus are secured source to obtain these substantial shale rock properties. However, running these geomechanical well logs for the entire asset is not a common practice that is associated with the cost of obtaining these well logs. In this study, synthetic geomechanical well logs for a Marcellus shale asset located in southern Pennsylvania are generated using data-driven modeling. Full-field geomechanical distributions (map and volumes of this asset for five geomechanical properties are also created using general geostatistical methods coupled with data-driven modeling. The results showed that synthetic geomechanical well logs and real field logs fall into each other when the input dataset has not seen the real field well logs. Geomechanical distributions of the Marcellus shale improved significantly when full-field data is incorporated in the geostatistical calculations.

  18. Oil Reservoir Production Optimization using Optimal Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    Practical oil reservoir management involves solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. In this paper we present a numerical method for solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. The method is a single-shooting method that computes the gradients using the adjo......Practical oil reservoir management involves solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. In this paper we present a numerical method for solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. The method is a single-shooting method that computes the gradients using...... the adjoint method. We use an Explicit Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK) method for the integration and a quasi-Newton Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) algorithm for the constrained optimization. We use this algorithm in a numerical case study to optimize the production of oil from an oil...... reservoir using water ooding and smart well technology. Compared to the uncontrolled case, the optimal operation increases the Net Present Value of the oil field by 10%....

  19. ARTIFICIAL FISH PROPAGATION IN KANEV RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Gurbik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the dynamics of structural parameters of fish fauna of the Kanev reservoir, we determined the major measures for artificial fish propagation (stocking, which would allow increasing their commercial stocks and maintain biological diversity. It was found that main biological factors, which defined the conditions of existence of fish at different stages of their life cycle in the Kanev reservoir was as a whole favorable for providing sufficient efficiency of measures for stocking it with juveniles of commercially and environmentally valuable fishes. With current state of fish fauna and possibilities of fish hatcheries, the priority in the part of artificial maintenance of fish populations should be given to pike-perch, wels, and tench. An increase of amounts of commercial catches should be based first of all on full-scale stocking with silver and bighead carps, the created stock of which will be available for effective exploitation at a regime, which is protective for native fish fauna. The current bioproductive potential allows increasing the indices of the stock of commercially valuable species up to 120 kg/ha that is twice more than the actual indices for 2012-2013. Key words: fish fauna, artificial propagation, commercial stock, Kanev reservoir.

  20. Seismic imaging capabilities optimize reservoir management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristiansen, P. [Geco-Prakla, Oslo (Norway); Currie, M.T. [BP Exploration, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-01

    Despite the fact that seismic is the only known method for illuminating the subsurface at any distance from a well, little has been done to use seismic as a tool for monitoring changes in the reservoir over time. This will change as 4-D, or time-lapse, seismic becomes more common. A permanent 4-D system has been installed at the Foinaven field, West of Shetlands in the North Sea. Tracking fluid or gas movements through seismic reservoir monitoring is the primary objective of 4-D seismic technology. Areas that do not show significant changes in the seismic response over time may indicate pools of bypassed oil that could be drilled and drained. This in itself could contribute an increased recovery by several percent. Unexpected changes in reservoir contacts could be used to identify hydraulic barriers and high permeability zones not interpreted on the original seismic or identified through well testing. Another application of monitoring the fluid or gas front would be to anticipate and possibly avoid early breakthrough in time to mitigate loss of flow rate and ultimate recovery.

  1. Optimizing withdrawal from drinking water reservoirs to reduce downstream temperature pollution and reservoir hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M; Rinke, K; Hipsey, M R; Boehrer, B

    2017-03-20

    Sustainable management of drinking water reservoirs requires balancing the demands of water supply whilst minimizing environmental impact. This study numerically simulates the effect of an improved withdrawal scheme designed to alleviate the temperature pollution downstream of a reservoir. The aim was to identify an optimal withdrawal strategy such that water of a desirable discharge temperature can be supplied downstream without leading to unacceptably low oxygen concentrations within the reservoir. First, we calibrated a one-dimensional numerical model for hydrodynamics and oxygen dynamics (GLM-AED2), verifying that the model reproduced water temperatures and hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen concentrations accurately over a 5 year period. Second, the model was extended to include an adaptive withdrawal functionality, allowing for a prescribed withdrawal temperature to be found, with the potential constraint of hypolimnetic oxygen concentration. Scenario simulations on epi-/metalimnetic withdrawal demonstrate that the model is able to autonomously determine the best withdrawal height depending on the thermal structure and the hypolimnetic oxygen concentration thereby optimizing the ability to supply a desirable discharge temperature to the downstream river during summer. This new withdrawal strategy also increased the hypolimnetic raw water volume to be used for drinking water supply, but reduced the dissolved oxygen concentrations in the deep and cold water layers (hypolimnion). Implications of the results for reservoir management are discussed and the numerical model is provided for operators as a simple and efficient tool for optimizing the withdrawal strategy within different reservoir contexts.

  2. Reservoir-on-a-chip (ROC): a new paradigm in reservoir engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, Naga Siva Kumar; Bera, Bijoyendra; Karadimitriou, Nikolaos K; Mitra, Sushanta K; Hassanizadeh, S Majid

    2011-11-21

    In this study, we design a microfluidic chip, which represents the pore structure of a naturally occurring oil-bearing reservoir rock. The pore-network has been etched in a silicon substrate and bonded with a glass covering layer to make a complete microfluidic chip, which is termed as 'Reservoir-on-a-chip' (ROC). Here we report, for the first time, the ability to perform traditional waterflooding experiments in a ROC. Oil is kept as the resident phase in the ROC, and waterflooding is performed to displace the oil phase from the network. The flow visualization provides specific information about the presence of the trapped oil phase and the movement of the oil/water interface/meniscus in the network. The recovery curve is extracted based on the measured volume of oil at the outlet of the ROC. We also provide the first indication that this oil-recovery trend realized at chip-level can be correlated to the flooding experiments related to actual reservoir cores. Hence, we have successfully demonstrated that the conceptualized 'Reservoir-on-a-Chip' has the features of a realistic pore-network and in principle is able to perform the necessary flooding experiments that are routinely done in reservoir engineering.

  3. Integrated reservoir and decision modeling to optimize spacing in unconventional gas reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkarslan, G.; McVay, D.A.; Ortiz, R.R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Bickel, J.E.; Montiel, L.V. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Unconventional gas plays are risky and operators must balance the need to conserve capital and protect the environment by avoiding over drilling with the desire to increase profitability. The purpose of this study was to develop technology and tools to help operators determine optimal well spacing in highly uncertain and risky unconventional gas reservoirs as quickly as possible. The paper presented a study that developed an integrated reservoir and decision modeling system that incorporated uncertainty. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to match and predict production performance in unconventional gas reservoirs. Simulation results were integrated with a Bayesian decision model that accounted for the risk facing operators. In order to determine optimal development strategies, these integrated tools were applied to a hypothetical case based on data from Deep Basin tight gas sands in Alberta. The paper provided background information on the Deep Basin Sands and the reservoir model. The Monte Carlo simulation and geostatistical analysis were presented. It was concluded that it is important to incorporate the lessons learned between development stages in unconventional gas reservoirs. 23 refs., 9 tabs., 16 figs.

  4. Soil erosion and sediment fluxes analysis: a watershed study of the Ni Reservoir, Spotsylvania County, VA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Ian C; Odhiambo, Ben K

    2014-03-01

    Anthropogenic forces that alter the physical landscape are known to cause significant soil erosion, which has negative impact on surface water bodies, such as rivers, lakes/reservoirs, and coastal zones, and thus sediment control has become one of the central aspects of catchment management planning. The revised universal soil loss equation empirical model, erosion pins, and isotopic sediment core analyses were used to evaluate watershed erosion, stream bank erosion, and reservoir sediment accumulation rates for Ni Reservoir, in central Virginia. Land-use and land cover seems to be dominant control in watershed soil erosion, with barren land and human-disturbed areas contributing the most sediment, and forest and herbaceous areas contributing the least. Results show a 7 % increase in human development from 2001 (14 %) to 2009 (21.6 %), corresponding to an increase in soil loss of 0.82 Mg ha(-1) year(-1) in the same time period. (210)Pb-based sediment accumulation rates at three locations in Ni Reservoir were 1.020, 0.364, and 0.543 g cm(-2) year(-1) respectively, indicating that sediment accumulation and distribution in the reservoir is influenced by reservoir configuration and significant contributions from bedload. All three locations indicate an increase in modern sediment accumulation rates. Erosion pin results show variability in stream bank erosion with values ranging from 4.7 to 11.3 cm year(-1). These results indicate that urban growth and the decline in vegetative cover has increased sediment fluxes from the watershed and poses a significant threat to the long-term sustainability of the Ni Reservoir as urbanization continues to increase.

  5. Simulation study to determine the feasibility of injecting hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas injection to improve gas and oil recovery oil-rim reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mohamed El Gohary

    This study is combining two important and complicated processes; Enhanced Oil Recovery, EOR, from the oil rim and Enhanced Gas Recovery, EGR from the gas cap using nonhydrocarbon injection gases. EOR is proven technology that is continuously evolving to meet increased demand and oil production and desire to augment oil reserves. On the other hand, the rapid growth of the industrial and urban development has generated an unprecedented power demand, particularly during summer months. The required gas supplies to meet this demand are being stretched. To free up gas supply, alternative injectants to hydrocarbon gas are being reviewed to support reservoir pressure and maximize oil and gas recovery in oil rim reservoirs. In this study, a multi layered heterogeneous gas reservoir with an oil rim was selected to identify the most optimized development plan for maximum oil and gas recovery. The integrated reservoir characterization model and the pertinent transformed reservoir simulation history matched model were quality assured and quality checked. The development scheme is identified, in which the pattern and completion of the wells are optimized to best adapt to the heterogeneity of the reservoir. Lateral and maximum block contact holes will be investigated. The non-hydrocarbon gases considered for this study are hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, utilized to investigate miscible and immiscible EOR processes. In November 2010, re-vaporization study, was completed successfully, the first in the UAE, with an ultimate objective is to examine the gas and condensate production in gas reservoir using non hydrocarbon gases. Field development options and proces schemes as well as reservoir management and long term business plans including phases of implementation will be identified and assured. The development option that maximizes the ultimate recovery factor will be evaluated and selected. The study achieved satisfactory results in integrating gas and oil

  6. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1983-1987 Methods and Data Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, Ian

    1989-12-01

    Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin. The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power, flood control, and navigation and other benefits. Research began in May 1983 to determine how operations of Libby dam impact the reservoir fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these impacts. This study is unique in that it was designed to accomplish its goal through detailed information gathering on every trophic level in the reservoir system and integration of this information into a quantitative computer model. The specific study objectives are to: quantify available reservoir habitat, determine abundance, growth and distribution of fish within the reservoir and potential recruitment of salmonids from Libby Reservoir tributaries within the United States, determine abundance and availability of food organisms for fish in the reservoir, quantify fish use of available food items, develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat for fish and fish food organisms, and estimate impacts of reservoir operation on the reservoir fishery. 115 refs., 22 figs., 51 tabs.

  7. GRIPS Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-31

    The GRIPS (Geothermal Resources Impact Projection Study) Commission was established by a Joint Powers Agreement between the California Counties of Lake, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma. The objectives of GRIPS are primarily to develop and use a cooperative environmental data collection and use system including natural, social, and economic considerations to facilitate their independent decisions and those of State and Federal agencies related to the environmental effects of geothermal development. This GRIPS Plan was prepared from a wide range of studies, workshops, and staff analyses. The plan is presented in four parts: summary and introduction; environmental data status report; planned programs; and budget. (MHR)

  8. Marketing plan

    OpenAIRE

    Jantunen, Essi; Hellman, Annika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to draw up an efficient marketing plan for Pohjolan Vihreä Polku Oy, which offers meeting and nature activity services. The company was in a process of conversion and needed a structured marketing plan. The objectives of the company were perceived through severe research. The main purposes of the marketing plan were to raise the visibility of the company and increase its clientele. The proposed marketing actions are also to be used to improve the company’...

  9. IMPORTANCE OF SHALLOW AREAS OF THE UPPER PART OF THE KANIV RESERVOIR IN THE MAINTENANCE OF ITS ICHTHYOFAUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gurbyk

    2014-09-01

    used during development of a program of enhancement works on spawning grounds of the Kaniv reservoir and development of nature conservation measures when planning hydroenhancement works in littoral zone of the reservoir.

  10. Geological modeling for methane hydrate reservoir characterization in the eastern Nankai Trough, offshore Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Takayama, T.; Fujii, T.

    2012-12-01

    The eastern Nankai trough, which is located offshore of central Japan, is considered as an attractive potential resource field of methane hydrates. Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation is planning to conduct a production test in early 2013 at the AT1 site in the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough. The depositional environment of methane hydrate-bearing sediments around the production test site is a deep submarine-fan turbidite system, and it is considered that the reservoir properties should show lateral as well as vertical heterogeneity. Since the variations in the reservoir heterogeneity have an impact on the methane hydrate dissociation and gas production performance, precise geological models describing reservoir heterogeneity would be required for the evaluation of reservoir potentials. In preparation for the production test, 3 wells; two monitoring boreholes (AT1-MC and AT1-MT1) and a coring well (AT1-C), were newly acquired in 2012. In addition to a geotechnical hole drilling survey in 2011 (AT1-GT), totally log data from 2 wells and core data from 2 wells were obtained around the production test site. In this study, we conducted well correlations between AT1 and A1 wells drilled in 2003 and then, 3D geological models were updated including AT1 well data in order to refine hydrate reservoir characterization around the production test site. The results of the well correlations show that turbidite sand layers are characterized by good lateral continuity, and give significant information for the distribution morphology of sand-rich channel fills. We also reviewed previously conducted 3D geological models which consist of facies distributions and petrophysical properties distributions constructed from integration of 3D seismic data and a well data (A1 site) adopting a geostatistical approach. In order to test the practical validity of the previously generated models, cross-validation was conducted using AT1 well data. The

  11. The Mitigation Potential of Buffer Strips for Reservoir Sediment Yields: The Itumbiara Hydroelectric Power Plant in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta P. Luz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion and deposition mechanisms play a crucial role in the sustainability of both existing reservoirs and newly planned projects. Soil erosion is one of the most important factors influencing sediment transport yields, and, in the context of existing reservoirs, the surrounding watersheds supply both runoff and sediment yield to the receiving water body. Therefore, appropriate land management strategies are needed to minimize the influence of sediment yields on reservoir volume and, hence, the capacity of power generation. In this context, soil erosion control measures such as buffer strips may provide a practical and low-cost option for large reservoirs, but need to be tested at the catchment scale. This paper represents a study case for the Itumbiara hydroelectric power plant (HPP in Brazil. Four different scenarios considering radially planted buffer strips of Vetivergrass with widths of 20 m, 40 m, 100 m and 200 m are analyzed. A semi-distributed hydrological model, SWAT, was used to perform the simulations. Results indicate a reduction of sediments transported to the reservoir of between 0.2% and 1.0% per year is possible with buffer strip provision, and that this reduction, over the life of Itumbiara HPP, may prove important for lengthening the productivity of the plant.

  12. Application of TDS technique to developed reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, Freddy H.; Montealegre, Matilde [Petroleum Engineering Department, Universidad Surcolombiana, Av. Pastrana - Cra 1, Neiva (Huila-Colombia) (Colombia)

    2007-02-15

    Well test interpretation methods for a single well in infinite reservoirs may not be suitable for those wells when their pressure is affected by other wells operating in the same reservoir. This effect becomes more significant as both the flow rate and the test duration increase. It is observed in drawdown tests when the well experiences an additional pressure decline due to production from other wells and, also, when the well produces under pseudosteady state before shut-in it for a buildup test. When pressure data are interpreted as recorded, estimation of reservoir parameters may not be accurate. Slider1-3 introduced a technique for analyzing a pressure test that takes into account the effect of nearby active wells. Corrected or extrapolated pressures are obtained by applying the superposition principle to include the pressure decline contribution from the neighboring wells. Traditional semilog plots are then constructed and permeability and skin factor can be estimated, respectively, from the slope and intercept of their linear trend. A new technique, called TDS (Tiab's Direct Synthesis), was designed to analyze pressure and pressure derivative data without using type-curve matching. It uses characteristic features found on the derivative plot, so reservoir parameters are directly estimated. It depends upon how well the pressure derivative is calculated. If derivative is taken to the recorded pressure data the resulting curve will not be properly defined and the estimated parameters may be erroneous. Application of the TDS technique to wells in depleted reservoirs is presented here. The recorded pressure is extrapolated to include the contribution from other wells as suggested by Slider. Once the pressure derivative of the extrapolated data is taken, the TDS technique as discussed by Tiab [Tiab, D. 1993. Analysis of Pressure and Pressure Derivative without Type-Curve Matching: 1- Factor de dano and Wellbore Storage. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 12 (1995), 171

  13. Assessment of water management tools for the geothermal reservoir Waiwera (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Michael; Altmannsberger, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    Water management tools are essential to ensure the conservation of natural resources. The geothermal hot water reservoir below the village of Waiwera, on the Northern Island of New Zealand is used commercially since 1863. The continuous production of 50 °C hot geothermal water, to supply hotels and spas, has a negative impact on the reservoir. Until the year 1969 from all wells drilled the warm water flow was artesian. Due to overproduction the water needs to be pumped up nowadays. Further, within the years 1975 to 1976 the warm water seeps on the beach of Waiwera ran dry. In order to protect the reservoir and the historical and tourist site in the early 1980s a Water Management Plan was deployed. The "Auckland Regional Water Board" today "Auckland Regional Council" established guidelines to enable a sustainable management [1]. The management plan demands that the water level in the official and appropriate observation well of the council is 0.5 m above sea level throughout the year in average. Almost four decades of data (since 1978 until today) are now available [2]. The minimum water level was observed beginning of the 1980s with -1.25 m and the maximum recently with 1.6 m. The higher the production rates from the field, the lower the water level in the observation well. Highest abstraction rates reached almost 1,500 m3/day and lowest were just above 500 m3/day. Several models of varying complexity where used from purely data driven statistical to fully coupled process simulation models. In all cases the available data were used for calibration and the models were then applied for predictive purposes. We used the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index to quantify their predictive ability. The recommendation for the full implementation of the water management plan is the regular revision of an existing multivariate regression model which is based on the Theis well equation. Further, we suggest improving the underlying geological model of the process simulations to

  14. Hydrodynamic influence on reservoir sustainability in semi-arid climate: A physicochemical and environmental isotopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Rawaa; Kazpard, Véronique; El Samrani, Antoine G; Amacha, Nabil; Saad, Zeinab; Chou, Lei

    2017-07-15

    Water scarcity and increasing water demand require the development of water management plans such as establishing artificial lakes and dams. Plans to meet water needs are faced by uprising challenges to improve water quality and to ensure the sustainability of hydro-projects. Environmental isotopes coupled to water physicochemical characteristics were investigated over a biennial cycle to assess both geomorphological and environmental impacts on the water quality of a reservoir situated in an intensively used agricultural watershed under a Mediterranean semi-arid climate. The particularity of the semi-arid climate and the diverse topography generate a continental and orographic rain effect on the isotopic composition of precipitation and the water recharged sources. The studied reservoir responds quickly to land-use activities and climatic changes as reflected by temporal and spatial variations of water chemistry and isotopic composition. Increasing changes in precipitation rate and dry periods significantly modified the water isotopic composition in the reservoir. During the first year, hydrogen (δD) and oxygen (δ(18)O) isotopes are depleted by 6 and 2‰ between dry and wet season, respectively. While a shift of -2‰ for δD and -1‰ for δ(18)O was detected during the second annual cycle. Environmental isotopic compositions demonstrate for the first time the occurrence of groundwater inflow to the central (Cz) and dam (Dz) zones of the Qaraaoun reservoir. The Cz and Dz can be considered as open water bodies subjected to dilution by groundwater inflow, which induces vertical mixing and reverse isotopic stratification of the water column. In the contrary, the river mouth zone acts as a closed system without groundwater intrusion, where heavy water accumulates and may act as a sink for contaminants during dry season. Groundwater influx acts as a dilution factor that renews the hypolimnion, and minimizes the perturbations induced by both internal

  15. Characteristics of volcanic reservoirs and distribution rules of effective reservoirs in the Changling fault depression, Songliao Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujun Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Songliao Basin, volcanic oil and gas reservoirs are important exploration domains. Based on drilling, logging, and 3D seismic (1495 km2 data, 546 sets of measured physical properties and gas testing productivity of 66 wells in the Changling fault depression, Songliao Basin, eruptive cycles and sub-lithofacies were distinguished after lithologic correction of the 19,384 m volcanic well intervals, so that a quantitative analysis was conducted on the relation between the eruptive cycles, lithologies and lithofacies and the distribution of effective reservoirs. After the relationship was established between lithologies, lithofacies & cycles and reservoir physical properties & oil and gas bearing situations, an analysis was conducted on the characteristics of volcanic reservoirs and the distribution rules of effective reservoirs. It is indicated that 10 eruptive cycles of 3 sections are totally developed in this area, and the effective reservoirs are mainly distributed at the top cycles of eruptive sequences, with those of the 1st and 3rd Members of Yingcheng Formation presenting the best reservoir properties. In this area, there are mainly 11 types of volcanic rocks, among which rhyolite, rhyolitic tuff, rhyolitic tuffo lava and rhyolitic volcanic breccia are the dominant lithologies of effective reservoirs. In the target area are mainly developed 4 volcanic lithofacies (11 sub-lithofacies, among which upper sub-lithofacies of effusive facies and thermal clastic sub-lithofacies of explosion lithofacies are predominant in effective reservoirs. There is an obvious corresponding relationship between the physical properties of volcanic reservoirs and the development degree of effective reservoirs. The distribution of effective reservoirs is controlled by reservoir physical properties, and the formation of effective reservoirs is influenced more by porosity than by permeability. It is concluded that deep volcanic gas exploration presents a good

  16. Sign Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is...

  17. Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for administration of hunting activity and for development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Tamarac...

  18. SEISMIC DETERMINATION OF RESERVOIR HETEROGENEITY: APPLICATION TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias G. Imhof; James W. Castle

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project was to examine how seismic and geologic data can be used to improve characterization of small-scale heterogeneity and their parameterization in reservoir models. The study focused on West Coalinga Field in California. The project initially attempted to build reservoir models based on different geologic and geophysical data independently using different tools, then to compare the results, and ultimately to integrate them all. We learned, however, that this strategy was impractical. The different data and tools need to be integrated from the beginning because they are all interrelated. This report describes a new approach to geostatistical modeling and presents an integration of geology and geophysics to explain the formation of the complex Coalinga reservoir.

  19. Geothermal reservoir engineering. 7. Reservoir simulator; Chinetsu choryuso kogaku. 7. Choryuso simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishido, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1998-09-15

    In modeling for actual geothermal reservoirs, the following basic functions are required for general-purpose numerical reservoir simulators: (1) Applicability to all hydrothermal single phase flow, steam single phase flow and hydrothermal-steam two phase flow, (2) Consideration of the effect of temperature and pressure on fluid physical properties such as coefficient of viscosity, (3) Assumption of Darcy`s law for flow every phase, (4) Assumption of heterogeneous properties of rocks, (5) Applicability to both transfer and convection of heat flow, and (6) Consideration of both mass and energy conservation laws. On the reservoir simulators, this paper outlines a dominant equation and its digitizing method and digitized solution, evaluation of the simulators, optional functions, and others. Numerical dispersion unavoidable for an advection diffusion problem is also explained. In addition, the basic equation and applications of a bore hole two-phase flow simulator are presented. 21 refs., 9 figs.

  20. SEISMIC DETERMINATION OF RESERVOIR HETEROGENEITY: APPLICATION TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias G. Imhof; James W. Castle

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project was to examine how seismic and geologic data can be used to improve characterization of small-scale heterogeneity and their parameterization in reservoir models. The study focused on West Coalinga Field in California. The project initially attempted to build reservoir models based on different geologic and geophysical data independently using different tools, then to compare the results, and ultimately to integrate them all. Throughout the project, however, we learned that this strategy was impractical because the different data and model are complementary instead of competitive. For the complex Coalinga field, we found that a thorough understanding of the reservoir evolution through geologic times provides the necessary framework which ultimately allows integration of the different data and techniques.

  1. Business Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Radošinská, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Diploma thesis deals with the processing of a business plan to establish a tour operator, which will offer tours to Puerto Rico. Thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part explains what is business and related terms. Defines the tourism business and the procedure for the establishment of tour operators. There are also theoretically explained individual chapters of a business plan. The practical part is dedicated to the establishment of tour operator, where is ...

  2. Oxygenation of Stratified Reservoir Using Air Bubble Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schladow, S. G.

    2006-12-01

    Excess nutrients loading from urban area and watershed into lakes and reservoirs increases the content of organic matter, which, through decomposition, needs increased dissolve oxygen (DO). Many eutrophic reservoirs and lakes cannot meet the DO requirement during stratified season and suffers from the hypolimnetic anoxia. As a result, benthic sediment produces anoxic products such as methane, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, iron, manganese, and phosphorus. In order to address the hypolimnetic anoxia, oxygen is artificially supplied into reservoir using an aeration system (i.e., bubbler). The most common result of lake/reservoir aeration is to destratify the reservoir so that the water body may completely mix under natural phenomena and remain well oxygenated throughout. Other advantages of destratification are: (1) allows warm- water fish to inhabit the entire reservoir, (2) suppress the nutrient release from sediment, and (3) decreases the algal growth by sending them to the darker zone. A one-dimensional reservoir-bubbler model is developed and applied to examine the effects of an aeration system on mixing and dissolved oxygen dynamics in the Upper Peirce Reservoir, Singapore. After introduction of the aeration system in the reservoir, it was found that the hypolimnetic DO increased significantly, and the concentration of algae, soluble manganese and iron substantially reduced. It is found that the reservoir-bubbler model predicts the mixing (temperature as mixing parameter) and dissolved oxygen concentration in the reservoir with acceptable accuracy. It is shown in terms of bubbler mechanical efficiency (i.e., operating cost) and total DO contribution from the aeration system into the reservoir that the selections of airflow rate per diffuser, air bubble radius, and total number of diffusers are important design criteria of a bubbler system. However, the overall bubbler design also depends on the reservoir size and stratified area of interest, ambient climate, and

  3. River and Reservoir Operations Model, Truckee River basin, California and Nevada, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berris, Steven N.; Hess, Glen W.; Bohman, Larry R.

    2001-01-01

    The demand for all uses of water in the Truckee River Basin, California and Nevada, commonly is greater than can be supplied. Storage reservoirs in the system have a maximum effective total capacity equivalent to less than two years of average river flows, so longer-term droughts can result in substantial water-supply shortages for irrigation and municipal users and may stress fish and wildlife ecosystems. Title II of Public Law (P.L.) 101-618, the Truckee?Carson?Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990, provides a foundation for negotiating and developing operating criteria, known as the Truckee River Operating Agreement (TROA), to balance interstate and interbasin allocation of water rights among the many interests competing for water from the Truckee River. In addition to TROA, the Truckee River Water Quality Settlement Agreement (WQSA), signed in 1996, provides for acquisition of water rights to resolve water-quality problems during low flows along the Truckee River in Nevada. Efficient execution of many of the planning, management, or environmental assessment requirements of TROA and WQSA will require detailed water-resources data coupled with sound analytical tools. Analytical modeling tools constructed and evaluated with such data could help assess effects of alternative operational scenarios related to reservoir and river operations, water-rights transfers, and changes in irrigation practices. The Truckee?Carson Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, to support U.S. Department of the Interior implementation of P.L. 101-618, is developing a modeling system to support efficient water-resources planning, management, and allocation. The daily operations model documented herein is a part of the modeling system that includes a database management program, a graphical user interface program, and a program with modules that simulate river/reservoir operations and a variety of hydrologic processes. The operations module is capable of simulating lake

  4. Sediment trapping analysis of flood control reservoirs in Upstream Ciliwung River using SWAT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofiq Ginanjar, Mirwan; Putra, Santosa Sandy

    2017-06-01

    The plans of Sukamahi dam and Ciawi dam construction for Jakarta flood risk reduction purpose had been proposed as feasible solutions to be implemented. However, the risk of the dam outlets clogging, caused by the sediment, is important to be anticipated. The prediction of the max sediment concentration in the reservoir is crucial for the dam operation planning. It is important to avoid the flood outlet tunnel clogging. This paper present a hydrologic sediment budget model of The Upstream Ciliwung River Basin, with flood control dam existence scenarios. The model was constructed within SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tools) plugin and run inside the QGIS framework. The free hydrological data from CFSR, soil data from FAO, and topographical data from CGIAR-CSI were implemented as the model input. The model resulted the sediment concentration dynamics of the Sukamahi and Ciawi reservoirs, on some suspended sediment parameter ranges. The sediment trapping efficiency was also computed by different possible dam capacity alternatives. The research findings will give a scientific decision making base for the river authority, in term of flood control dam planning, especially in The Upstream Ciliwung River Basin.

  5. Scenario planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R; Beauchamp, Norman J; Norbash, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    In facing future developments in health care, scenario planning offers a complementary approach to traditional strategic planning. Whereas traditional strategic planning typically consists of predicting the future at a single point on a chosen time horizon and mapping the preferred plans to address such a future, scenario planning creates stories about multiple likely potential futures on a given time horizon and maps the preferred plans to address the multiple described potential futures. Each scenario is purposefully different and specifically not a consensus worst-case, average, or best-case forecast; nor is scenario planning a process in probabilistic prediction. Scenario planning focuses on high-impact, uncertain driving forces that in the authors' example affect the field of radiology. Uncertainty is the key concept as these forces are mapped onto axes of uncertainty, the poles of which have opposed effects on radiology. One chosen axis was "market focus," with poles of centralized health care (government control) vs a decentralized private market. Another axis was "radiology's business model," with one pole being a unified, single specialty vs a splintered, disaggregated subspecialty. The third axis was "technology and science," with one pole representing technology enabling to radiology vs technology threatening to radiology. Selected poles of these axes were then combined to create 3 scenarios. One scenario, termed "entrepreneurialism," consisted of a decentralized private market, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. A second scenario, termed "socialized medicine," had a centralized market focus, a unified specialty business model, and enabling technology and science. A third scenario, termed "freefall," had a centralized market focus, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. These scenarios provide a range of futures that ultimately allow the identification of defined "signposts" that can

  6. Stratum energy of coal-bed gas reservoir and their control on the coal-bed gas reservoir formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Stratum energy of coal-bed gas reservoir, including coal-radix flexibility energy, groundwater flexibility energy and gas flexibility energy (hereinafter "three energy"), depends on the energy homeostasis system, the core process of which is the effective transfer of energy and the geological selective process. Combining with the mechanics experimentations of coal samples, different flexibility energy has been analyzed and researched quantificationally, and a profound discussion to their controls on the coal-bed gas reservoir formation has been made. It is shown that when gas reservoir is surrounded by edge water and bottom water, the deposited energy in the early phase of forming gas reservoir is mostly coal-radix and gas flexibility energy, but the effect of groundwater flexibility energy increases while water-body increases. The deposited energy in the middle and later phase of forming gas reservoir is mostly gas flexibility energy, which is greater than 80% of all deposited energy. In the whole process, larger groundwater body exerts greater influences on gas accumulation. The paper indicated that higher stratum energy is more propitious to forming coal-bed gas reservoir. And higher coal-radix flexibility energy and gas flexibility energy are more propitious to higher yield of gas reservoirs, while higher groundwater flexibility energy is more propitious to stable yield of gas reservoirs. Therefore, the key to evaluating the coal-bed gas reservoir formation is the stratum energy of coal-bed gas reservoir.

  7. Gypsy Field Project in Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Castagna; William J. Lamb; Carlos Moreno; Roger Young; Lynn Soreghan

    2000-09-19

    The objective of the Gypsy Project was to properly calculate seismic attributes and integrate these into a reservoir characterization project. Significant progress was made on the project in four areas. (1) Attenuation: In order for seismic inversion for rock properties or calculation of seismic attributes used to estimate rock properties to be performed validly, it is necessary to deal with seismic data that has had true amplitude and frequency content restored to account for earth filtering effects that are generally not included in seismic reservoir characterization methodologies. This requires the accurate measurement of seismic attenuation, something that is rarely achieved in practice. It is hoped that such measurements may also provide additional independent seismic attributes for use in reservoir characterization studies. In 2000, we were concerned with the ground truthing of attenuation measurements in the vicinity of wells. Our approach to the problem is one of extracting as time varying wavelet and relating temporal variations in the wavelet to an attenuation model of the earth. This method has the advantage of correcting for temporal variations in the reflectivity spectrum of the earth which confound the spectral ratio methodology which is the most commonly applied means of measuring attenuation from surface seismic data. Part I of the report describes our efforts in seismic attenuation as applied to the Gypsy data. (2) Optimal Attributes: A bewildering array of seismic attributes is available to the reservoir geoscientist to try to establish correlations to rock properties. Ultimately, the use of such a large number of degrees of freedom in the search for correlations with limited well control leads to common misapplication of statistically insignificant results which yields invalid predictions. Cross-validation against unused wells can be used to recognize such problems, but does not offer a solution to the question of which attributes should be used

  8. Estimation of rainfall-runoff using curve number: a GIS based development of Sathanur reservoir catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Pareek, Ashutosh; Gupta, Apurba

    2006-10-01

    A GIS based algorithm has been developed to estimate the rainfall-runoff relationship of Sathanur reservoir catchment based on Soil Conservation Service (SCS) model. The landuse and soil maps were prepared in Arc/Info 9.0 and an arc macro language (AML) programme was developed to assign curve number based on landuse and soil classification including hydrological condition of the area. The algorithm was executed successfully by rainfall data for computation of runoff depth in all the sub watersheds. The study is important for a watershed, which does not have runoff records and can be used for planning of various water conservation measures.

  9. Green Methodologies to Test Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Verga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The definition and the economic viability of the best development strategy of a hydrocarbon reservoir mainly depend on the quantity and type of fluids and on the well productivity. Well testing, consisting in producing hydrocarbon to the surface while measuring the pressure variations induced in the reservoir, has been used for decades to determine the fluid nature and well potential. In exploration and appraisal scenarios the hydrocarbons produced during a test are flared, contributing to the emissions of greenhouse gases. Approach: Due to more stringent environmental regulations and a general need for reduced operating expenses, the current industry drivers in today’s formation evaluation methodologies demand short, safe, cost-effective and environmentally friendly test procedures, especially when conventional tests are prohibitively expensive, logistically not feasible or no surface emissions are allowed. Different methods have been proposed or resuscitated in the last years, such as wireline formation tests, closed chamber tests, production/reinjection tests and injection tests, as viable alternatives to conventional well testing. Results: While various short-term tests, test procedures and interpretation methods are apparently available for conducting successful tests without hydrocarbon production at the surface, clarity is lacking for specific applications of these techniques. An attempt to clarify advantages and limitations of each methodology, particularly with respect to the main testing target is pursued in this study. Specific insight is provided on injection testing, which is one of the most promising methodology to replace traditional well testing in reservoir characterization, except for the possibility to sample the formation fluids. Conclusion/Recommendations: Not a single one method but a combination of more methodologies, in particular injection testing and wireline formation testing, is the most promising

  10. The mechanics of shallow magma reservoir outgassing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmigiani, A.; Degruyter, W.; Leclaire, S.; Huber, C.; Bachmann, O.

    2017-08-01

    Magma degassing fundamentally controls the Earth's volatile cycles. The large amount of gas expelled into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions (i.e., volcanic outgassing) is the most obvious display of magmatic volatile release. However, owing to the large intrusive:extrusive ratio, and considering the paucity of volatiles left in intrusive rocks after final solidification, volcanic outgassing likely constitutes only a small fraction of the overall mass of magmatic volatiles released to the Earth's surface. Therefore, as most magmas stall on their way to the surface, outgassing of uneruptible, crystal-rich magma storage regions will play a dominant role in closing the balance of volatile element cycling between the mantle and the surface. We use a numerical approach to study the migration of a magmatic volatile phase (MVP) in crystal-rich magma bodies ("mush zones") at the pore scale. Our results suggest that buoyancy-driven outgassing is efficient over crystal volume fractions between 0.4 and 0.7 (for mm-sized crystals). We parameterize our pore-scale results for MVP migration in a thermomechanical magma reservoir model to study outgassing under dynamical conditions where cooling controls the evolution of the proportion of crystal, gas, and melt phases and to investigate the role of the reservoir size and the temperature-dependent viscoelastic response of the crust on outgassing efficiency. We find that buoyancy-driven outgassing allows for a maximum of 40-50% volatiles to leave the reservoir over the 0.4-0.7 crystal volume fractions, implying that a significant amount of outgassing must occur at high crystal content (>0.7) through veining and/or capillary fracturing.

  11. Petroleum geochemical proxies for reservoir engineering parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, B. [Petroleum Reservoir Group (PRG), Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Lager, A. [NRG: School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Drummond Building, The University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Potter, D.K.; Buckman, J.O. [Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Larter, S.R. [Petroleum Reservoir Group (PRG), Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); NRG: School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Drummond Building, The University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    The prediction of fluid flow behaviour in petroleum reservoirs is influenced by the physical and chemical processes active in interacting crude oil/brine/rock systems. It is usually not possible to assess these complex systems directly so proxies for molecular scale behaviour are needed. By their very nature, polar non-hydrocarbons are sensitive to fluid-rock interactions, and if properly exploited they may be utilised as proxies for describing reservoir engineering properties (e.g. wettability) that are also sensitive to fluid-rock interactions. We have identified a group of aromatic oxygen (alkylphenols and alkylfluorenones) and aromatic nitrogen (alkylcarbazoles) compounds present in petroleum that appear to respond to variations in fluid-rock properties. Here we describe the chemical and physical changes in a series of core samples obtained from North Sea reservoirs. A number of petrophysical parameters displayed strong correlations with polar non-hydrocarbon occurrence. For example, deflections in gamma ray logs in response to clay content in a coarsening upwards sandstone unit also showed similar deflections from a number of geochemical logs. A core-flood experiment was designed to monitor the chemical and physical changes during oil migration in a siltstone core. Following completion of the core-flood experiment, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) analysis of core samples indicated hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface tendencies grading throughout the core. The distributions of polar non-hydrocarbons (e.g. C{sub 0}-C{sub 3}-phenols) appear to correspond closely to the observed wettability alteration. The results confirm the potential for developing proxies for fluid-rock interactions through monitoring the surface active compounds present in the polar non-hydrocarbon fraction of petroleum. (author)

  12. Biofouling on Reservoir in Sea Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, H.; Eom, C.; Kong, M.; Park, Y.; Chung, K.; Kim, B.

    2011-12-01

    The organisms which take part in marine biofouling are primarily the attached or sessile forms occurring naturally in the shallower water along the coast [1]. This is mainly because only those organisms with the ability to adapt to the new situations created by man can adhere firmly enough to avoid being washed off. Chemical and microbiological characteristics of the fouling biofilms developed on various surfaces in contact with the seawater were made. The microbial compositions of the biofilm communities formed on the reservoir polymer surfaces were tested for. The quantities of the diverse microorganisms in the biofilm samples developed on the prohibiting polymer reservoir surface were larger when there was no concern about materials for special selection for fouling. To confirm microbial and formation of biofilm on adsorbents was done CLSM (Multi-photon Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope system) analysis. Microbial identified using 16S rRNA. Experiment results, five species which are Vibrio sp., Pseudoalteromonas, Marinomonas, Sulfitobacter, and Alteromonas discovered to reservoir formed biofouling. There are some microorganism cause fouling and there are the others control fouling. The experimental results offered new specific information, concerning the problems in the application of new material as well as surface coating such as anti-fouling coatings. They showed the important role microbial activity in fouling and corrosion of the surfaces in contact with the any seawater. Acknowledgement : This research was supported by the national research project titled "The Development of Technology for Extraction of Resources Dissolved in Seawater" of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) funded by the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs. References [1] M. Y. Diego, K. Soren, and D. J. Kim. Prog. Org. Coat. 50, (2004) p.75-104.

  13. Perchlorate reduction by microbes inhabiting oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebensteiner, Martin; Stams, Alfons; Lomans, Bart

    2014-05-01

    Microbial perchlorate and chlorate reduction is a unique type of anaerobic respiration as during reduction of (per)chlorate chlorite is formed, which is then split into chloride and molecular oxygen. In recent years it was demonstrated that (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria may employ oxygenase-dependent pathways for the degradation of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. These findings suggested that (per)chlorate may be used as oxygen-releasing compound in anoxic environments that contain hydrocarbons, such as polluted soil sites and oil reservoirs. We started to study perchlorate reduction by microbes possibly inhabiting oil reservoirs. One of the organisms studied was Archaeoglobus fulgidus. This extremely thermophilic archaeon is known as a major contributor to souring in hot oil reservoirs. A. fulgidus turned out to be able to use perchlorate as terminal electron acceptor for growth with lactate (Liebensteiner et al 2013). Genome based physiological experiments indicated that A. fulgidus possesses a novel perchlorate reduction pathway. Perchlorate is first reduced to chlorite, but chlorite is not split into chloride and molecular oxygen as occurs in bacteria. Rather, chlorite reacts chemically with sulfide, forming oxidized sulfur compounds, which are reduced to sulfide in the electron transport chain by the archaeon. The dependence of perchlorate reduction on sulfur compounds could be shown. The implications of our findings as novel strategy for microbiological enhanced oil recovery and for souring mitigation are discussed. Liebensteiner MG, Pinkse MWH, Schaap PJ, Stams AJM and Lomans BP (2013) Archaeal (per)chlorate reduction at high temperature, a matter of abiotic-biotic reactions. Science 340: 85-87

  14. Seventeenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1992-01-31

    PREFACE The Seventeenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 29-31, 1992. There were one hundred sixteen registered participants which equaled the attendance last year. Participants were from seven foreign countries: Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Mexico and New Zealand. Performance of many geothermal fields outside the United States was described in the papers. The Workshop Banquet Speaker was Dr. Raffaele Cataldi. Dr. Cataldi gave a talk on the highlights of his geothermal career. The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy was awarded to Dr. Cataldi. Dr. Frank Miller presented the award at the banquet. Thirty-eight papers were presented at the Workshop with two papers submitted for publication only. Dr. Roland Horne opened the meeting and the key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who discussed the DOE Geothermal R. & D. Program. The talk focused on aiding long-term, cost effective private resource development. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: geochemistry, hot dry rock, injection, geysers, modeling, and reservoir mechanics. Session chairmen were major contributors to the program and we thank: Sabodh Garg., Jim Lovekin, Jim Combs, Ben Barker, Marcel Lippmann, Glenn Horton, Steve Enedy, and John Counsil. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to Francois Groff who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Roland N. Horne Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook -vii

  15. Dams, reservoirs, and withdrawals for water supply; historic trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from time to time has published an inventory of major reservoirs and controlled natural lakes. The latest available USGS report indicated that as of 1963, usable capacity in major reservoirs (those having 5 ,000 acre-ft of usable capacity) totaled 359 million acre-ft. The growth rate for total capacity averaged about 80%/decade until the early 1960's. Since then, reservoir capacity has increased at a markedly slower rate, the effects of approaching an asymptotic limit on capacity in some areas, compounded, by increasing public aversion toward reservoir construction. The trend toward non-structural measures places greater dependence on management skill and on better forecasts. At some point, the potentials of conservation and better management will become less effective than reservoirs and there will again be an upward trend in reservoir capacity. (Lantz-PTT)

  16. Application of a Delumping Procedure to Compositional Reservoir Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Christensen, Jes Reimer; Knudsen, K.

    1996-01-01

    Characterization and lumping are always performed when dealing with reservoir fluids. The number of pseudocomponents in a compositional reservoir simulation is normally between three and eight. In order to optimize the reservoir performance, it is necessary to know a detailed composition...... of the product stream from the reservoir. This paper deals with the problems of how to come from the lumped system (for which the reservoir simulation was performed) to a description of the full system (which is important in order to optimize the down-stream facilities). The equations of the delumping procedure...... are shown and the application of the method is illustrated through examples, including a constant volume depletion experiment and the fifth SPE Comparative example with a fluid description from a North Sea reservoir (with the calculated composition after a lumping, an experiment and a delumping...

  17. Application of multi-agent simulation to evaluate the influence of reservoir operation strategies on the distribution of water availability in the semi-arid Jaguaribe basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oel, P.R.; Krol, Martinus S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2012-01-01

    Studying the processes responsible for the distribution of water resources in a river basin over space and time is of great importance for spatial planning. In this study a multi-agent simulation approach is applied for exploring the influence of alternative reservoir operation strategies on water

  18. Reservoirs of non-baumannii Acinetobacter species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad eAl Atrouni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter spp are ubiquitous gram negative and non fermenting coccobacilli that have the ability to occupy several ecological niches including environment, animals and human. Among the different species, Acinetobacter baumannii has evolved as global pathogen causing wide range of infection. Since the implementation of molecular techniques, the habitat and the role of non baumannii Acinetobacter in human infection have been elucidated. In addition, several new species have been described. In the present review, we summarize the recent data about the natural reservoir of non-baumannii Acinetobacter including the novel species that have been described for the first time from environmental sources and reported during the last years.

  19. Transient pressure analysis in composite reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, R.W.K.; Brigham, W.E.

    1982-08-01

    The problem of fluid flow in a radially composite reservoir is discussed. Recently published was the most general analytic solution available thus far. That analytic solution is analyzed, and the results are presented. The solution is dependent upon the following dimensionless parameters (if well-bore storage and skin effect are neglected): (1) dimensionless time based on the discontinuity radius, (2) the dimensionless discontinuity radius, (3) the mobility ratio, and (4) the diffusivity ratio. The range of parameters used in generating the results include dimensionless radius time of 0.01 t

  20. Studies of reservoir hosts for Marburg virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Robert; Smit, Sheilagh B; Rollin, Pierre E; Formenty, Pierre; Leman, Patricia A; Kemp, Alan; Burt, Felicity J; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A; Croft, Janice; Bausch, Daniel G; Zeller, Hervé; Leirs, Herwig; Braack, L E O; Libande, Modeste L; Zaki, Sherif; Nichol, Stuart T; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Paweska, Janusz T

    2007-12-01

    To determine reservoir hosts for Marburg virus (MARV), we examined the fauna of a mine in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The mine was associated with a protracted outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever during 1998-2000. We found MARV nucleic acid in 12 bats, comprising 3.0%-3.6% of 2 species of insectivorous bat and 1 species of fruit bat. We found antibody to the virus in the serum of 9.7% of 1 of the insectivorous species and in 20.5% of the fruit bat species, but attempts to isolate virus were unsuccessful.

  1. Reservoir-engineered entanglement in optomechanical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Dan; Clerk, Aashish A

    2013-06-21

    We show how strong steady-state entanglement can be achieved in a three-mode optomechanical system (or other parametrically coupled bosonic system) by effectively laser cooling a delocalized Bogoliubov mode. This approach allows one to surpass the bound on the maximum stationary intracavity entanglement possible with a coherent two-mode squeezing interaction. In particular, we find that optimizing the relative ratio of optomechanical couplings, rather than simply increasing their magnitudes, is essential for achieving strong entanglement. Unlike typical dissipative entanglement schemes, our results cannot be described by treating the effects of the entangling reservoir via a Linblad master equation.

  2. Secure information transfer based on computing reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmoski, R. M.; Ferrari, F. A. S.; de S. Pinto, S. E.; Baptista, M. S.; Viana, R. L.

    2013-04-01

    There is a broad area of research to ensure that information is transmitted securely. Within this scope, chaos-based cryptography takes a prominent role due to its nonlinear properties. Using these properties, we propose a secure mechanism for transmitting data that relies on chaotic networks. We use a nonlinear on-off device to cipher the message, and the transfer entropy to retrieve it. We analyze the system capability for sending messages, and we obtain expressions for the operating time. We demonstrate the system efficiency for a wide range of parameters. We find similarities between our method and the reservoir computing.

  3. Reservoirs of Non-baumannii Acinetobacter Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Atrouni, Ahmad; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Hamze, Monzer; Kempf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter spp. are ubiquitous gram negative and non-fermenting coccobacilli that have the ability to occupy several ecological niches including environment, animals and human. Among the different species, Acinetobacter baumannii has evolved as global pathogen causing wide range of infection. Since the implementation of molecular techniques, the habitat and the role of non-baumannii Acinetobacter in human infection have been elucidated. In addition, several new species have been described. In the present review, we summarize the recent data about the natural reservoir of non-baumannii Acinetobacter including the novel species that have been described for the first time from environmental sources and reported during the last years.

  4. Minimum Reservoir Water Level in Hydropower Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkardeh, Hamed

    2017-07-01

    Vortex formation over the intakes is an undesirable phenomenon within the water withdrawal process from a dam reservoir. Calculating the minimum operating water level in power intakes by empirical equations is not a safe way and sometimes contains some errors. Therefore, current method to calculate the critical submergence of a power intake is construction of a scaled physical model in parallel with numerical model. In this research some proposed empirical relations for prediction of submergence depth in power intakes were validated with experimental data of different physical and numerical models of power intakes. Results showed that, equations which involved the geometry of intake have better correspondence with the experimental and numerical data.

  5. Studies of Reservoir Hosts for Marburg virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swanepoel, Robert; Smit, Sheilagh B; Rollin, Pierre E

    2007-01-01

    To determine reservoir hosts for Marburg virus (MARV), we examined the fauna of a mine in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The mine was associated with a protracted outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever during 1998-2000. We found MARV nucleic acid in 12 bats, comprising 3.0%-3.6% of 2...... species of insectivorous bat and 1 species of fruit bat. We found antibody to the virus in the serum of 9.7% of 1 of the insectivorous species and in 20.5% of the fruit bat species, but attempts to isolate virus were unsuccessful. ...

  6. Zooplankton assemblage of Oyun Reservoir, Offa, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshood K Mustapha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of physico-chemical properties of Oyun Reservoir, Offa, Nigeria (a shallow tropical African reservoir on its zooplankton composition and abundance were investigated at three stations for two years between January 2002 and December 2003. Diversity is not high: only three groups of zooplankton were found: Rotifera with eight genera; and Cladocera and Copepoda with three genera each. Rotifera dominated numerically (71.02%, followed by Cladocera (16.45% and Copepoda (12.53%. The zooplankton was more prevalent during the rainy season, and there were variations in the composition and abundance along the reservoir continuum. Factors such as temperature, nutrients, food availability, shape and hydrodynamics of the reservoir, as well as reproductive strategies of the organisms, strongly influence the generic composition and population density of zooplankton. Prevention of ecological deterioration of the water body would greatly should result in a more productive water body, rich in zooplankton and with better fisheries. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1027-1047. Epub 2009 December 01.La influencia de las propiedades fisicoquímicas del Reservorio Oyun, Offa, Nigeria (un embalse tropical somero sobre la composición y abundancia del zooplancton fue investigada en tres estaciones entre enero de 2002 y diciembre de 2003. La diversidad no resultó muy alta con tres grupos de zooplancton: Rotifera con ocho géneros, y Cladocera y Copepoda con tres géneros cada uno. Rotifera dominó (71.02%, seguido de Cladocera (16.45% y Copepoda (12.53%. El zooplancton fue más común durante la temporada de lluvias, y hubo variaciones en su composición y abundancia a lo largo del embalse. Factores tales como la temperatura, los nutrientes, la disponibilidad de alimentos, la forma y la hidrodinámica del embalse, así como las estrategias reproductivas de los organismos, influyen fuertemente en la composición genérica y la densidad poblacional del zooplancton. La

  7. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

  8. Study of Dieldrin in Coralville Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Smith

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using existing experimental data taken over a period of roughly 12 years that documents the concentrations of dieldrin levels in the environment and fatty tissue of the fish, we construct a model of the total dieldrin concentration decline. Comparisons between the experimental data and speculative data can be made using calculus and elements of statistics in order to better understand the movement of dieldrin in the reservoir. Because of the potentially harmful exposure effects of dieldrin to humans as well as the environment, it is important to be able to predict when stability has been restored to the ecosystem.

  9. Work producing reservoirs: Stochastic thermodynamics with generalized Gibbs ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Jordan M.; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2016-08-01

    We develop a consistent stochastic thermodynamics for environments composed of thermodynamic reservoirs in an external conservative force field, that is, environments described by the generalized or Gibbs canonical ensemble. We demonstrate that small systems weakly coupled to such reservoirs exchange both heat and work by verifying a local detailed balance relation for the induced stochastic dynamics. Based on this analysis, we help to rationalize the observation that nonthermal reservoirs can increase the efficiency of thermodynamic heat engines.

  10. Approximate solutions for fractured wells producing layered reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.O.; Reynolds, A.C.; Raghavan, R.

    1983-01-01

    New analytical solutions for the response at a well intercepting a layered reservoir are derived. The well is assumed to produce at a constant rate or at a constant pressure. Reservoir systems with and without interlayer communication were examined. The utility of these solutions is documented. An increased physical understanding of fractured wells in layered reservoirs was obtained from these solutions. The influence of vertical variations in fracture conductivity is considered also. 15 references.

  11. Approximate solutions for fractured wells producing layered reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.O.; Camacho-V., R; Raghavan, R.; Reynolds, A.C.

    1985-10-01

    New analytical solutions for the response at a well intercepting a layered reservoir are derived. The well is assumed to produce at a constant rate or a constant pressure. We examine reservoir systems without interlayer communication and document the usefulness of these solutions, which enable us to obtain increased physical understanding of the performance of fractured wells in layered reservoirs. The influence of vertical variations in fracture conductivity is also considered. Example applications of the approximations derived here are also presented.

  12. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF RIVER BED CHANGE DOWNSTREAM OF XIAOLANGDI RESERVOIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A mathematical model of river bed change downstream of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir was developed based on the most recent achievement of sediment theory in the Yellow River. The model was verified by the comparison of computed results and measured data from 1986 to 1996. Numerical prediction of the erosion and deposition downstream of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir in its first operation year was carried out, and a series of suggestions were given for reservoir operation mode in its early operation period.

  13. Numerical study of reservoir cooling by means of peltier effect

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, Rodrigo Martins; Santos, Elizaldo Domingues dos; Isoldi, Liércio André; Rocha, Luiz Alberto Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    The present work studies numerically and experimentally the water cooling process by means of natural convection inside a closed reservoir. The cooling process is performed by Peltier or Thermoelectric effect. The purpose here is to obtain the thermal gradient inside the reservoir and to search for the best point where the coldest water can be extracted from the reservoir, which can be considered a geometric optimization of the device thermal design. The analyzed flow is incompressible, lamin...

  14. Water quality in hydroelectric projects: considerations for planning in tropical forest regions. Technical paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    This paper identifies and describes the studies necessary to predict water-quality changes, at an early state of planning, in large tropical reservoirs with long retention times. Emphasis is placed on both the reservoir area and the region downstream. The need for defining the baseline environment is presented as a requirement for conducting studies associated with the flooding and operating stages. These studies are classified according to the stage of project development. In the reservoir area, aspects such as biomass quantification, reservoir thermal stratification, water circulation, dissolved oxygen consumption, and reservoir recovery are of major importance. Downstream from the project, the stress is placed on river recovery capacity, water uses and conflicts, and flow requirements.

  15. Phytoplankton and water quality in a Mediterranean drinking-water reservoir (Marathonas Reservoir, Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiapi, Matina; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria; Michaloudi, Evangelia; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar

    2011-10-01

    Phytoplankton and water quality of Marathonas drinking-water Reservoir were examined for the first time. During the study period (July-September 2007), phytoplankton composition was indicative of eutrophic conditions although phytoplankton biovolume was low (max. 2.7 mm³ l⁻¹). Phytoplankton was dominated by cyanobacteria and diatoms, whereas desmids and dinoflagellates contributed with lower biovolume values. Changing flushing rate in the reservoir (up to 0.7% of reservoir's water volume per day) driven by water withdrawal and occurring in pulses for a period of 15-25 days was associated with phytoplankton dynamics. Under flushing pulses: (1) biovolume was low and (2) both 'good' quality species and the tolerant to flushing 'nuisance' cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa dominated. According to the Water Framework Directive, the metrics of phytoplankton biovolume and cyanobacterial percentage (%) contribution indicated a moderate ecological water quality. In addition, the total biovolume of cyanobacteria as well as the dominance of the known toxin-producing M. aeruginosa in the reservoir's phytoplankton indicated a potential hazard for human health according to the World Health Organization.

  16. Quantifying the robustness of optimal reservoir operation for the Xinanjiang-Fuchunjiang Reservoir Cascade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, E.; Xu, YuePing; Booij, Martijn J.; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this research we investigate the robustness of the common implicit stochastic optimization (ISO) method for dam reoperation. As a case study, we focus on the Xinanjiang-Fuchunjiang reservoir cascade in eastern China, for which adapted operating rules were proposed as a means to reduce the impact

  17. Reservoir-on-a-Chip (ROC): A new paradigm in reservoir engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar Gunda, N.S.; Bera, B.; Karadimitriou, N.K.; Mitra, S.K.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we design a microfluidic chip, which represents the pore structure of a naturally occurring oil-bearing reservoir rock. The pore-network has been etched in a silicon substrate and bonded with a glass covering layer to make a complete microfluidic chip, which is termed as

  18. Quantifying the robustness of optimal reservoir operation for the Xinanjiang-Fuchunjiang Reservoir Cascade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, E.; Xu, Y.P.; Booij, M.J.; Augustijn, D.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this research we investigate the robustness of the common implicit stochastic optimization (ISO) method for dam reoperation. As a case study, we focus on the Xinanjiang-Fuchunjiang reservoir cascade in eastern China, for which adapted operating rules were proposed as a means to reduce the impact

  19. A Method to Recover Useful Geothermal-Reservoir Parameters from Production Characteristic Curves (1) Steam Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, E.; Arellano, V.; Garfias, A.; Miranda, C.; Hernandez, J.; Gonzalez, J.

    1983-12-15

    In this paper we develop and demonstrate a method to estimate the reservoir pressure and a productivity index for vertical steam wells, from its production characteristic (also called output) curves. In addition, the method allows to estimate the radius of influence of the well, provided that a value of the reservoir transmisivity is available. The basic structure of the present method is: first, the measured well head mass flowrates and pressures are transformed to downhole conditions by means of a numerical simulator; then, the computed downhole variables are fitted to a simple radial model that predicts the sandface flowrate in terms of the flowing pressure. For demonstration, the method was applied to several steam wells from the Los Azufres Geothermal field. We found excellent agreement of the model with this ample set of field data. As a bonus, the processed data allowed several inferences about the steam producing zone of the reservoir: that the wells considered produce from relatively isolated pockets of steam, which are probably fed by near-by inmobile water; and that these feed zones are in poor hydraulic communication with the field surface waters. our method are that it provides a way to retrieve important reservoir information from usually available production characteristic curves, and that the method works from easily and accurately taken wellhead measurements.

  20. Development of a framework for optimization of reservoir simulation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiang; Delshad, Mojdeh; Sepehrnoori, Kamy [The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    2007-10-15

    We have developed a framework that distributes multiple reservoir simulations on a cluster of CPUs for fast and efficient process optimization studies. This platform utilizes several commercial reservoir simulators for flow simulations, an experimental design and a Monte Carlo algorithm with a global optimization search engine to identify the optimum combination of reservoir decision factors under uncertainty. This approach is applied to a well placement design for a field-scale development exercise. The uncertainties considered are in the fault structure, porosity and permeability, PVT, and relative permeabilities. The results indicate that the approach is practical and efficient for performing reservoir optimization studies. (author)

  1. Reservoir engineering. 1995 SPE annual technical conference and exhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document contains the proceedings of the Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers which was held on October 22-25, 1995 in Dallas, Texas. This volume contains the presentations regarding Reservoir Engineering. The topics covered in these presentations include: resource management and reservoir engineering of oil, natural gas and gas condensate fields, mathematical models and computerized simulation of fluid flow in reservoir rock, geochemistry of reservoir fluids, and enhanced recovery of oil and natural gas using waterflooding and other secondary recovery methods.

  2. Reservoir Engineering Studies of Geopressured Geothermal Energy Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kun Sang [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea)

    1998-04-30

    Transient pressure analysis techniques were used to evaluate the performance of the Gladys McCall geopressured-geothermal reservoir which has been monitored and tested under U.S. Department of Energy geopressured -geothermal research program. Analysis of transient pressure data furnished a reservoir description such as the formation parameters, pore volume and shape of the reservoir, and average reservoir pressure. Results of pressure tests suggest that the Gladys McCall reservoir probably has a long narrow shape with the well located off-center. During both production and shut-in periods, pressure buildup tests indicated some degree of external pressure support. Aquifer recharging was believed to be the main source. An aquifer influx model was derived from a conceptual model of water leakage through a partially sealing fault into the reservoir under steady-state conditions. Moreover, a match of the pressure history required that the conductivity of the fault be a function of the pressure difference between the supporting aquifer and the reservoir. Results of analyses provided a quantitative evaluation of the reservoir and a better understanding of the reservoir energy drive mechanism. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  3. Improved seismic inversion for mapping pre-chalk reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerch Pedersen, J.

    1999-08-01

    The project has demonstrated the use of an integrated reservoir characterisation technique on data from the West Lulu Middle Jurassic reservoir. It has been demonstrated how impedance derived from seismic data through seismic inversion can improve the reservoir characterisation. In this case with a modest well database so the introduction of the seismic impedance narrows the possible solutions with respect to reservoir architecture. The seismic inversion method has furthermore been improved with the implementation of time variable wavelet, an important new feature for cases where the target is below the deepest well or when large time window is inverted. (au)

  4. The Upper Limit Size of Reservoir-Induced Earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Fuqiong; Zhang Yan; Wu Zhongliang; Ma Lijie

    2008-01-01

    We showed the relation between the magnitude of induced earthquake and the reservoir storage and dam height based on the global catalog from 1967 to 1989 compiled by Ding Yuanzhang (1989). By multiplying reservoir storage with dam height, we introduced a new parameter named EE. We found that the cases with specific EE and magnitude do not exceed a limit. Based on the discussion of its physics, we called EE the equivalent energy. We considered this limit as the upper limit of magnitude for reservoir-induced earthquakes. The result was proved by the recent cases occurring in China. This size limitation can be used as a helpful consideration for reservoir design.

  5. Overtopping of Rubble Mound Breakwaters with Front Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2007-01-01

    The design and performance of breakwaters with front reservoir are discussed on the basis of physical 2-D model tests with a number of cross sections, in which vertopping discharge and spatial distribution, wave forces on inner parapet walls, and stability of reservoir armour were studied....... The sensitivity of these quantities to the width of the reservoir is discussed. It is demonstrated that front reservoir solutions are more economical than conventional cross section solutions, such as bermed structures and mild slope structures, in cases where low crests and small overtopping discharges...

  6. CO2 emissions from German drinking water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Helmi; Koschorreck, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    Globally, reservoirs are a significant source of atmospheric CO2. However, precise quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from drinking water reservoirs on the regional or national scale is still challenging. We calculated CO2 fluxes for 39 German drinking water reservoirs during a period of 22years (1991-2013) using routine monitoring data in order to quantify total emission of CO2 from drinking water reservoirs in Germany and to identify major drivers. All reservoirs were a net CO2 source with a median flux of 167gCm(-2)y(-1), which makes gaseous emissions a relevant process for the carbon budget of each reservoir. Fluxes varied seasonally with median fluxes of 13, 48, and 201gCm(-2)y(-1) in spring, summer, and autumn respectively. Differences between reservoirs appeared to be primarily caused by the concentration of CO2 in the surface water rather than by the physical gas transfer coefficient. Consideration of short term fluctuations of the gas transfer coefficient due to varying wind speed had only a minor effect on the annual budgets. High CO2 emissions only occurred in reservoirs with pHCO2 emissions correlated exponentially with pH but not with dissolved organic carbon (DOC). There was significant correlation between land use in the catchment and CO2 emissions. In total, German drinking water reservoirs emit 44000t of CO2 annually, which makes them a negligible CO2 source (CO2 emissions) in Germany.

  7. Entanglement trapping in a non-stationary structured reservoir

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarou, C; Maniscalco, S; Piilo, J; Garraway, B M

    2012-01-01

    We study a single two-level atom interacting with a reservoir of modes defined by a reservoir structure function with a frequency gap. Using the pseudomodes technique, we derive the main features of a trapping state formed in the weak coupling regime. Utilising different entanglement measures we show that strong correlations and entanglement between the atom and the modes are in existence when this state is formed. Furthermore, an unexpected feature for the reservoir is revealed. In the long time limit and for weak coupling the reservoir spectrum is not constant in time.

  8. Trophic State and Toxic Cyanobacteria Density in Optimization Modeling of Multi-Reservoir Water Resource Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sulis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The definition of a synthetic index for classifying the quality of water bodies is a key aspect in integrated planning and management of water resource systems. In previous works [1,2], a water system optimization modeling approach that requires a single quality index for stored water in reservoirs has been applied to a complex multi-reservoir system. Considering the same modeling field, this paper presents an improved quality index estimated both on the basis of the overall trophic state of the water body and on the basis of the density values of the most potentially toxic Cyanobacteria. The implementation of the index into the optimization model makes it possible to reproduce the conditions limiting water use due to excessive nutrient enrichment in the water body and to the health hazard linked to toxic blooms. The analysis of an extended limnological database (1996–2012 in four reservoirs of the Flumendosa-Campidano system (Sardinia, Italy provides useful insights into the strengths and limitations of the proposed synthetic index.

  9. Stability and design criteria studies for compressed air energy storage reservoirs. Progress report, FY 1977.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.C.; Stottlemyre, J.A.; Wiles, L.E.; Loscutoff, W.V.; Pincus, H.J.

    1978-03-01

    Progress made during FY-1977 in establishing design criteria to ensure the successful operation and long-term stability of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) reservoirs in underground porous media, such as aquifers is summarized. The formulation of pertinent criteria is important since the long-term stability of air storage reservoirs is probably the item of greatest risk to the successful demonstration and commercialization of the CAES concept. The study has been divided into four phases: (1) state-of-the-art survey, (2) analytical modeling studies, (3) laboratory studies, and (4) field testing. The first of these phases, the state-of-the-art survey for air storage in porous reservoirs, has been completed on schedule and is reported in Section 2. Sections 3 and 4 are progress reports on Phases 2 and 3. No work has been done on Phase 4. It is planned that the field testing phase of this study will be carried out in conjunction with the Department of Energy/Electric Power Research Institute (DOE/EPRI) CAES Demonstration Program. This phase is not scheduled to begin until FY-1979.

  10. Experimental research on reservoir sensitivity to stress and impacts on productivity in Kela 2 Gas Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Longde; SONG; Wenjie; JIANG; Tongwen

    2004-01-01

    Kela 2 Gas Field, with high formation pressure (74.35MPa), high pressure coefficient (2.022) and difficulty of potential test and evaluation, is the largest integrated proved dry gas reservoir in China so far and the principal source for West-East Gas Development Project. In order to correctly evaluate the elastic-plastic deformation of rocks caused by the pressure decline during production, some researches, as the experiment on reservoir sensitivity to stress of gas filed with abnormal high pressure, are made. By testing the rock mechanic properties, porosities and permeabilities at different temperature and pressure of 342 core samples from 5 wells in this area, the variations of petro-physical properties at changing pressure are analyzed, and the applicable inspection relationship is concluded. The average productivity curve with the reservoir sensitivity to stress is plotted on the basis of the research, integrated with the field-wide productivity equation. The knowledge lays a foundation for the gas well productivity evaluation in the field and the gas field development plan, and provides effective techniques and measures for basic research on the development of similar gas fields.

  11. Microbial potential for carbon and nutrient cycling in a geogenic supercritical carbon dioxide reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Adam J E; Tan, BoonFei; Thompson, Janelle R

    2017-06-01

    Microorganisms catalyze carbon cycling and biogeochemical reactions in the deep subsurface and thus may be expected to influence the fate of injected supercritical (sc) CO2 following geological carbon sequestration (GCS). We hypothesized that natural subsurface scCO2 reservoirs, which serve as analogs for the long-term fate of sequestered scCO2 , harbor a 'deep carbonated biosphere' with carbon cycling potential. We sampled subsurface fluids from scCO2 -water separators at a natural scCO2 reservoir at McElmo Dome, Colorado for analysis of 16S rRNA gene diversity and metagenome content. Sequence annotations indicated dominance of Sulfurospirillum, Rhizobium, Desulfovibrio and four members of the Clostridiales family. Genomes extracted from metagenomes using homology and compositional approaches revealed diverse mechanisms for growth and nutrient cycling, including pathways for CO2 and N2 fixation, anaerobic respiration, sulfur oxidation, fermentation and potential for metabolic syntrophy. Differences in biogeochemical potential between two production well communities were consistent with differences in fluid chemical profiles, suggesting a potential link between microbial activity and geochemistry. The existence of a microbial ecosystem associated with the McElmo Dome scCO2 reservoir indicates that potential impacts of the deep biosphere on CO2 fate and transport should be taken into consideration as a component of GCS planning and modelling. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Spatial Stochastic Point Models for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syversveen, Anne Randi

    1997-12-31

    The main part of this thesis discusses stochastic modelling of geology in petroleum reservoirs. A marked point model is defined for objects against a background in a two-dimensional vertical cross section of the reservoir. The model handles conditioning on observations from more than one well for each object and contains interaction between objects, and the objects have the correct length distribution when penetrated by wells. The model is developed in a Bayesian setting. The model and the simulation algorithm are demonstrated by means of an example with simulated data. The thesis also deals with object recognition in image analysis, in a Bayesian framework, and with a special type of spatial Cox processes called log-Gaussian Cox processes. In these processes, the logarithm of the intensity function is a Gaussian process. The class of log-Gaussian Cox processes provides flexible models for clustering. The distribution of such a process is completely characterized by the intensity and the pair correlation function of the Cox process. 170 refs., 37 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, Wayne D.; Acevedo, Horacio; Green, Aaron; Len, Shawn; Minavea, Anastasia; Wood, James; Xie, Deyi

    2002-01-29

    This project has completed the initially scheduled third year of the contract, and is beginning a fourth year, designed to expand upon the tech transfer aspects of the project. From the Stratton data set, demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along `phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the Boonsville data set , developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Teal South data set provided a surprising set of data, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines.

  14. Radiographic markers - A reservoir for bacteria?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tugwell, Jenna, E-mail: jenna.tugwell@googlemail.co [Department of Radiology, Ysbyty Gwynedd Hospital, Bangor, North Wales (United Kingdom); Maddison, Adele [Nuffield Health, Shrewsbury Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    Introduction: Amongst the most frequently handled objects in the radiology department are radiographic markers. They are personal accessories used with every patient, and are kept in the radiographers pockets when not utilised. Upon enquiry it was discovered that many radiographers disregarded the potential of these accessories to become a vector for cross-contamination thus never or rarely clean them. The aims of this study were therefore to identify if radiographic markers are a reservoir for bacteria and to establish an effective cleaning method for decontaminating them. Methodology: 25 radiographers/student radiographers were selected for this study. Swabbing of their markers prior and post cleaning took place. The microbiology laboratory subsequently analyzed the results by quantifying and identifying the bacteria present. The participants also completed a closed questionnaire regarding their markers (e.g. frequency of cleaning and type of marker) to help specify the results gained from the swabbing procedure. Results: From the sample swabbed, 92% were contaminated with various organisms including Staphylococcus and Bacillus species, the amount of bacteria present ranged from 0 to >50 CFU. There were no significant differences between disinfectant wipes and alcohol gel in decontaminating the markers. Both successfully reduced their bacterial load, with 80% of the markers post cleaning having 0 CFU. Conclusion: The results indicated that radiographic markers can become highly contaminated with various organisms thus serve as a reservoir for bacteria. In addition, the markers need to be cleaned on a regular basis, with either disinfectant wipes or alcohol gel to reduce their bacterial load.

  15. Environmental impact analysis of mine tailing reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Under certain conditions landscape topography which utilizes mine tailing reservoir construction using is likely to increase lateral recharge source regions, resulting in dramatic changes to the local hydrological dynamic field and recharge of downstream areas initiated by runoff, excretion state, elevated groundwater depth, shallow groundwater, rainfall direct communication, and thinning of the vadose zone. Corrosive leaching of topsoil over many years of exposure to chemical fertilizers and pesticides may result in their dissolution into the groundwater system, which may lead to excessive amounts of many harmful chemicals, therby affecting the physical and mental health of human residents and increase environmental vulnerability and risk associated with the water and soil. According to field survey data from Yujiakan, Qian'an City, and Hebei provinces, this paper analyzes the hydrogeological environmental mechanisms of areas adjacent to mine tailing reservoirs and establishes a conceptual model of the local groundwater system and the concentration-response function between NO3 - content in groundwater and the incidence of cancer in local residents.

  16. INNOVATIVE MIOR PROCESS UTILIZING INDIGENOUS RESERVOIR CONSTITUENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.O. Hitzman; A.K. Stepp; D.M. Dennis; L.R. Graumann

    2003-09-01

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions and technologies for improving oil production. The goal was to identify and utilize indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work in model sandpack cores was conducted using microbial cultures isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters using cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Increased oil recovery in multiple model sandpack systems was achieved and the technology and results were verified by successful field studies. Direct application of the research results has lead to the development of a feasible, practical, successful, and cost-effective technology which increases oil recovery. This technology is now being commercialized and applied in numerous field projects to increase oil recovery. Two field applications of the developed technology reported production increases of 21% and 24% in oil recovery.

  17. Evaluation of Management of Water Releases for Painted Rocks Reservoir, Bitterroot River, Montana, 1983-1986, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoon, Ronald L. (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Missoula, MT)

    1987-06-01

    This study was initiated in July, 1983 to develop a water management plan for the release of water purchased from Painted Rocks Reservoir. Releases were designed to provide optimum benefits to the Bitterroot River fishery. Fisheries, habitat, and stream flow information was gathered to evaluate the effectiveness of these supplemental releases in improving trout populations in the Bitterroot River. The study was part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program and was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration. This report presents data collected from 1983 through 1986.

  18. Sixth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P. (eds.)

    1980-12-18

    INTRODUCTION TO THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTH GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING WORKSHOP, STANFORD GEOTHERMAL PROGRAM Henry J. Ramey, Jr., and Paul Kruger Co-Principal Investigators Ian G. Donaldson Program Manager Stanford Geothermal Program The Sixth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering convened at Stanford University on December 16, 1980. As with previous Workshops the attendance was around 100 with a significant participation from countries other than the United States (18 attendees from 6 countries). In addition, there were a number of papers from foreign contributors not able to attend. Because of the success of all the earlier workshops there was only one format change, a new scheduling of Tuesday to Thursday rather than the earlier Wednesday through Friday. This change was in general considered for the better and will be retained for the Seventh Workshop. Papers were presented on two and a half of the three days, the panel session, this year on the numerical modeling intercomparison study sponsored by the Department of Energy, being held on the second afternoon. This panel discussion is described in a separate Stanford Geothermal Program Report (SGP-TR42). This year there was a shift in subject of the papers. There was a reduction in the number of papers offered on pressure transients and well testing and an introduction of several new subjects. After overviews by Bob Gray of the Department of Energy and Jack Howard of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, we had papers on field development, geopressured systems, production engineering, well testing, modeling, reservoir physics, reservoir chemistry, and risk analysis. A total of 51 papers were contributed and are printed in these Proceedings. It was, however, necessary to restrict the presentations and not all papers printed were presented. Although the content of the Workshop has changed over the years, the format to date has proved to be satisfactory. The objectives of the Workshop, the bringing together of

  19. Natural Family Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex and Birth Control Birth Control Natural Family Planning Natural Family Planning Birth ControlPrevention and WellnessSex and Birth Control Share Natural Family Planning Natural Family PlanningWhat is natural family planning?Natural ...

  20. Reservoir technology - geothermal reservoir engineering research at Stanford. Fifth annual report, October 1, 1984-September 30, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.

    1985-09-01

    The objective is to carry out research on geothermal reservoir engineering techniques useful to the geothermal industry. A parallel objective is the training of geothermal engineers and scientists. The research is focused toward accelerated development of hydrothermal resources through the evaluation of fluid reserves, and the forecasting of field behavior with time. Injection technology is a research area receiving special attention. The program is divided into reservoir definition research, modeling of heat extraction from fractured reservoirs, application and testing of new and proven reservoir engineering technology, and technology transfer. (ACR)