WorldWideScience

Sample records for plan execution language

  1. Rewriting Logic Semantics of a Plan Execution Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowek, Gilles; Munoz, Cesar A.; Rocha, Camilo

    2009-01-01

    The Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL) is a synchronous language developed by NASA to support autonomous spacecraft operations. In this paper, we propose a rewriting logic semantics of PLEXIL in Maude, a high-performance logical engine. The rewriting logic semantics is by itself a formal interpreter of the language and can be used as a semantic benchmark for the implementation of PLEXIL executives. The implementation in Maude has the additional benefit of making available to PLEXIL designers and developers all the formal analysis and verification tools provided by Maude. The formalization of the PLEXIL semantics in rewriting logic poses an interesting challenge due to the synchronous nature of the language and the prioritized rules defining its semantics. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a general procedure for simulating synchronous set relations in rewriting logic that is sound and, for deterministic relations, complete. We also report on the finding of two issues at the design level of the original PLEXIL semantics that were identified with the help of the executable specification in Maude.

  2. Integrating Multi-Purpose Natural Language Understanding, Robot's Memory, and Symbolic Planning for Task Execution in Humanoid Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wächter, Mirko; Ovchinnikova, Ekaterina; Wittenbeck, Valerij

    2017-01-01

    We propose an approach for instructing a robot using natural language to solve complex tasks in a dynamic environment. In this study, we elaborate on a framework that allows a humanoid robot to understand natural language, derive symbolic representations of its sensorimotor experience, generate....... The framework is implemented within the robot development environment ArmarX. We evaluate the framework on the humanoid robot ARMAR-III in the context of two experiments: a demonstration of the real execution of a complex task in the kitchen environment on ARMAR-III and an experiment with untrained users...

  3. Language Planning: Corpus Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on the historical and sociolinguistic studies that illuminate corpus planning processes. These processes are broken down and discussed under two categories: those related to the establishment of norms, referred to as codification, and those related to the extension of the linguistic functions of language, referred to as elaboration. (60…

  4. Language Policy and Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Sauli; Sajavaara, Kari

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on foreign language planning, or the planned changes in foreign language instructional systems and in uses of languages in different social contexts with special reference to the Nordic and Baltic countries. Special attention is given to the relationship between language planning and evaluation. (Author/VWL)

  5. Executive Summary - Future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    this purpose. However, we are fully aware of the difficulty of introducing cutting-edge medical technology to the Polish national health care system, in view of the immediate needs of this seriously undercapitalized service of our 40-million community. We need to devote special attention to further training our personnel. The present potential of the Institute allows our research group to participate in the most ambitious projects and collaborations. Availability of such highly educated and experienced technical staff is absolutely essential for performing this type of work. Such personnel is not usually available at universities, where the potential is spread-out to a much larger extent. We would like to maintain our group of engineers specialized in the development and construction of detectors, dedicated electronics and software needed for experimental physics. One of the principal goals of the Institute is to promote professional careers of young researchers in Poland. We would like to increase the participation of undergraduate and graduate (Ph.D.) students and short-term postdoctoral researchers, originating from Europe and outside, in activities of the research groups in the Institute. We plan to strengthen our cooperation with universities and technical universities in southern Poland (Cracow, Rzeszow, Kielce, Katowice and others) by teaching students and providing our laboratories and expertise to help them complete their theses. Further development of our International Post-Graduate Study Course, in collaboration with other institutions in the European Research Area, will be strongly supported

  6. Language Planning and Planned Languages: How Can Planned Languages Inform Language Planning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Tonkin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of language planning (LP has largely ignored planned languages. Of classic descriptions of LP processes, only Tauli (preceded by Wüster suggests that planned languages (what Wüster calls Plansprache might bear on LP theory and practice. If LP aims "to modify the linguistic behaviour of some community for some reason," as Kaplan and Baldauf put it, creating a language de novo is little different. Language policy and planning are increasingly seen as more local and less official, and occasionally more international and cosmopolitan. Zamenhof's work on Esperanto provides extensive material, little studied, documenting the formation of the language and linking it particularly to issues of supranational LP. Defining LP decision-making, Kaplan & Baldauf begin with context and target population. Zamenhof's Esperanto came shortly before Ben-Yehuda's revived Hebrew. His target community was (mostly the world's educated elite; Ben-Yehuda's was worldwide Jewry. Both planners were driven not by linguistic interest but by sociopolitical ideology rooted in reaction to anti-Semitism and imbued with the idea of progress. Their territories had no boundaries, but were not imaginary. Function mattered as much as form (Haugen's terms, status as much as corpus. For Zamenhof, status planning involved emphasis on Esperanto's ownership by its community - a collective planning process embracing all speakers (cf. Hebrew. Corpus planning included a standardized European semantics, lexical selectivity based not simply on standardization but on representation, and the development of written, and literary, style. Esperanto was successful as linguistic system and community language, less as generally accepted lingua franca. Its terminology development and language cultivation offers a model for language revival, but Zamenhof's somewhat limited analysis of language economy left him unprepared to deal with language as power.

  7. Planning and monitoring the execution of web service requests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazovik, Alexander; Aiello, Marco; Papazoglou, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Interaction with web services enabled marketplaces would be greatly facilitated if users were given a high level service request language to express their goals in complex business domains. This could be achieved by using a planning framework which monitors the execution of planned goals against

  8. Project Execution Plan, Rev. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas

    2002-01-01

    This plan addresses project activities encompassed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Division and conforms to the requirements contained in the Life-Cycle Asset Management, DOE Order 430.1A; The Joint Program Office Policy on Project Management in Support of DOE Order 430.1; Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, DOE Order 413.3; the Project Execution and Engineering Management Planning Guide, GPG-FM-010; and other applicable Good Practice Guides; and the FY 2001 Integrated Planning, Accountability, and Budgeting System Policy Guidance. The plan also reflects the milestone philosophies of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, as agreed to by the State of Nevada, the DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense; and traditional project management philosophies such as the development of life-cycle costs, schedules, and work scope; identification o f roles and responsibilities; and baseline management and controls

  9. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the “Grand Challenge” for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  10. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the 'Grand Challenge' for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  11. Warhead Monitoring Planning and Execution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakae, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-12-05

    The Warhead Measurement Campaign is a multi-laboratory project lead by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The project will measure several items of the US nuclear weapons stockpile with a wide range of radiation detection systems. This report provides a brief summary of those LLNL executed activities for the Warhead Measurement Campaign from FY11 through FY16. A more detailed description of all of LLNL’s activiites for the WMC will be presented in the final report of a follow-on project, , LA17-V-Wx.

  12. Language and executive functioning in children with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parigger, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines language abilities of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and compares these abilities to those of children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing children. Executive functioning, an umbrella term for various higher order

  13. HANDI 2000 project execution plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENNION, S.I.

    1999-01-01

    The HANDI 2000 project will meet some of the major objectives and goals of the PHMC Management and Integration Plan, HNF-MP-00/Rev. 11, by integrating the major Hanford business processes and their supporting information systems

  14. Language and executive functioning in the context of specific language impairment and bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laloi, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present thesis has investigated how French-speaking monolingual and bilingual children with SLI (specific language impairment) performed on various tasks examining language and executive functioning (EF) abilities, in comparison to monolingual and bilingual peers without SLI. Language was

  15. Fusion Simulation Program Execution Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The overall science goal of the FSP is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in research related to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. [1]. Initial FSP research will focus on two critical areas: 1) the plasma edge and 2) whole device modeling including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model (WDM) will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical impediment to successful operation of machines like ITER. If disruptions prove unable to be avoided, their associated dynamics and effects will be addressed in the next phase of the FSP. The FSP plan targets the needed modeling capabilities by developing Integrated Science Applications (ISAs) specific to their needs. The Pedestal-Boundary model will include boundary magnetic topology, cross-field transport of multi-species plasmas, parallel plasma transport, neutral transport, atomic physics and interactions with the plasma wall

  16. Executive functions in mono- and bilingual children with language impairment - issues for speech-language pathology.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandgren, Olof; Holmström, Ketty

    2015-01-01

    The clinical assessment of language impairment (LI) in bilingual children imposes challenges for speech-language pathology services. Assessment tools standardized for monolingual populations increase the risk of misinterpreting bilingualism as language impairment. This Perspective article summarizes recent studies on the assessment of bilingual LI and presents new results on including nonlinguistic measures of executive functions in the diagnostic assessment. Executive functions shows clinica...

  17. Language Planning and Intellectualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    The development of the national language of the Philippines is sketched from the initial selection of Tagalog to its standardization and propagation as national language and its renaming as Pilipino, subsequently Filipino. The intellectualization phase is examined as process and product and according to its psychological and sociological…

  18. Programming real-time executives in higher order language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudriat, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods by which real-time executive programs can be implemented in a higher order language are discussed, using HAL/S and Path Pascal languages as program examples. Techniques are presented by which noncyclic tasks can readily be incorporated into the executive system. Situations are shown where the executive system can fail to meet its task scheduling and yet be able to recover either by rephasing the clock or stacking the information for later processing. The concept of deadline processing is shown to enable more effective mixing of time and information synchronized systems.

  19. Phraseology in Planned Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Sabine

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive phraseological study of Esperanto, based on detailed test analyses, participant observation and surveys, reveals both similarities and differences in comparison to ethnic or national languages. Relatively high level of metalinguistic consciousness and creativity were observed, coupled with widely differing attitudes towards the…

  20. Executive functioning in pre-school children with autism spectrum disorders: The relationship between executive functioning and language

    OpenAIRE

    Linnerud, Ida Cathrine Wang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Executive function difficulties are prevalent in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and there are several indications of a modifying relationship between executive functions and language in children. However, there is limited research on the relationship between executive functioning and language in young children with ASD. The current study compared real-world executive functioning between groups of children with ASD, language disorders (LD), and typical development (T...

  1. Project Execution Plan,Rev. 3; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas

    2002-01-01

    This plan addresses project activities encompassed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Division and conforms to the requirements contained in the Life-Cycle Asset Management, DOE Order 430.1A; The Joint Program Office Policy on Project Management in Support of DOE Order 430.1; Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, DOE Order 413.3; the Project Execution and Engineering Management Planning Guide, GPG-FM-010; and other applicable Good Practice Guides; and the FY 2001 Integrated Planning, Accountability, and Budgeting System Policy Guidance. The plan also reflects the milestone philosophies of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, as agreed to by the State of Nevada, the DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense; and traditional project management philosophies such as the development of life-cycle costs, schedules, and work scope; identification o f roles and responsibilities; and baseline management and controls

  2. Pu-238 Supply Program Project Execution Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wham, Robert M.; Martin, Sherman

    2012-01-01

    This Pu-238 Supply Program Project Execution Plan (PEP) summarizes critical information and processes necessary to manage the program. The PEP is the primary agreement regarding planning and objectives between The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE NE-75), Oak Ridge National Laboratory Site Office (OSO) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The acquisition executive (AE) will approve the PEP. The PEP is a living document that will be reviewed and revised periodically until the project is complete. The purpose of the project is to reestablish the capability to produce plutonium-238 (Pu-238) domestically. This capability consists primarily of procedures, processes, and design information, not capital assets. As such, the project is not subject to the requirements of DOE O 413.3B, but it will be managed using the project management principles and best practices defined there. It is likely that some capital asset will need to be acquired to complete tasks within the project. As these are identified, project controls and related processes will be updated as necessary. Because the project at its initiation was envisioned to require significant capital assets, Critical Decision 0 (CD-0) was conducted in accordance with DOE O 413.3B, and the mission need was approved on December 9, 2003, by William Magwood IV, director of the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Science and Technology, DOE. No date was provided for project start-up at that time. This PEP is consistent with the strategy described in the June 2010 report to Congress, Start-up Plan for Plutonium-238 Production for Radioisotope Power Systems.

  3. Executive and Phonological Processes in Second-Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a latent variable study exploring the specific links among executive processes of working memory, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, and proficiency in first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) languages in 8- to 9-year-olds experiencing multilingual education. Children completed multiple L1-measures of…

  4. Syracuse University English Language Institute: Business Communication for Executives

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Berly, Geraldine; McGraw, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The Syracuse University English Language Institute (ELI), housed within University College, has been offering noncredit executive English courses on a contract basis for the past 12 years. Despite its small size and limited resources, the ELI, whose main mission is to prepare international students for academic study, also manages a successful…

  5. Executive function behaviours in children with specific language impairment (SLI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, J.M.; Vugs, B.A.M.; Scheper, A.R.; Hendriks, M.P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence that linguistic and non-linguistic factors may contribute to the problems associated with specific language impairment (SLI). One factor that has been implicated is executive functioning (EF). Most studies investigating EF in children with SLI use performance

  6. Executive Functioning and Figurative Language Comprehension in Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, Saied; Kaplan, Shani

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the research was to examine executive functioning and figurative language comprehension among students with learning disabilities as compared to students without learning disabilities. As part of the research, we examined 20 students with learning disabilities and 21 students with no learning disabilities, both groups of students…

  7. Executive functions in mono- and bilingual children with language impairment - issues for speech-language pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandgren, Olof; Holmström, Ketty

    2015-01-01

    The clinical assessment of language impairment (LI) in bilingual children imposes challenges for speech-language pathology services. Assessment tools standardized for monolingual populations increase the risk of misinterpreting bilingualism as LI. This Perspective article summarizes recent studies on the assessment of bilingual LI and presents new results on including non-linguistic measures of executive functions in the diagnostic assessment. Executive functions shows clinical utility as less subjected to language use and exposure than linguistic measures. A possible bilingual advantage, and consequences for speech-language pathology practices and future research are discussed.

  8. Executive and Language Control in the Multilingual Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pak-Hin Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies suggest that the neural network involved in language control may not be specific to bi-/multilingualism but is part of a domain-general executive control system. We report a trilingual case of a Cantonese (L1, English (L2, and Mandarin (L3 speaker, Dr. T, who sustained a brain injury at the age of 77 causing lesions in the left frontal lobe and in the left temporo-parietal areas resulting in fluent aphasia. Dr. T’s executive functions were impaired according to a modified version of the Stroop color-word test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance was characterized by frequent perseveration errors. Dr. T demonstrated pathological language switching and mixing across her three languages. Code switching in Cantonese was more prominent in discourse production than confrontation naming. Our case suggests that voluntary control of spoken word production in trilingual speakers shares neural substrata in the frontobasal ganglia system with domain-general executive control mechanisms. One prediction is that lesions to such a system would give rise to both pathological switching and impairments of executive functions in trilingual speakers.

  9. Executive and language control in the multilingual brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Abutalebi, Jubin; Lam, Karen Sze-Yan; Weekes, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest that the neural network involved in language control may not be specific to bi-/multilingualism but is part of a domain-general executive control system. We report a trilingual case of a Cantonese (L1), English (L2), and Mandarin (L3) speaker, Dr. T, who sustained a brain injury at the age of 77 causing lesions in the left frontal lobe and in the left temporo-parietal areas resulting in fluent aphasia. Dr. T's executive functions were impaired according to a modified version of the Stroop color-word test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance was characterized by frequent perseveration errors. Dr. T demonstrated pathological language switching and mixing across her three languages. Code switching in Cantonese was more prominent in discourse production than confrontation naming. Our case suggests that voluntary control of spoken word production in trilingual speakers shares neural substrata in the frontobasal ganglia system with domain-general executive control mechanisms. One prediction is that lesions to such a system would give rise to both pathological switching and impairments of executive functions in trilingual speakers.

  10. Language Planning, English Language Education and Development Aid in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erling, Elizabeth J.

    2017-01-01

    The increased status of English as the language of international communication and business has meant that development aid has increasingly been used to finance language planning initiatives aimed at improving and/or expanding English language education. The intended outcome of this aid is often to provide expanded economic returns and…

  11. SPAWAR Strategic Plan Execution Year 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-11

    Transitioned financial reporting capability into SPAWAR’s business intelligence environment reducing the number of siloed business intelligence solutions...level forums, we are highlighting it here for visibility within the 2017 Strategic Execution Guidance. We will continue to report progress via...and savings • Number of analytic users MILESTONES Deliver Enterprise Business Intelligence Reports - Workforce Management Report Build #2 (January

  12. When words lead to solutions: executive function deficits in preschool children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roello, Mara; Ferretti, Maria Letizia; Colonnello, Valentina; Levi, Gabriel

    2015-02-01

    Several studies indicate that school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulties with tasks that rely on executive functions. Whether executive function deficits in children with SLI emerge during preschool age remains unclear. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating executive function performances in two age groups of preschoolers with and without SLI. Children with SLI (N=60; young: 53.6±5.3 months; old: 65.4±3.8 months) and age-matched control children (N=58) were tested for problem-representation ability, using the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST), rule-use skills, using a Stroop-like Day-Night test (D/N), and planning skills, using the Tower of London test (TOL). Older children performed better than younger children did across tasks. Children with SLI had poorer performance, compared to typically developing children, on measures of problem representation, planning skills, and use of rules. Our results clearly indicate that executive function impairment is evident during the preschool period. Although old children with SLI performed better than young children with SLI, their performances were still poor, compared to those of control peers. These findings suggest that children with SLI have altered executive functioning at 53.6 months. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Hybrid parallel execution model for logic-based specification languages

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Jeffrey J P

    2001-01-01

    Parallel processing is a very important technique for improving the performance of various software development and maintenance activities. The purpose of this book is to introduce important techniques for parallel executation of high-level specifications of software systems. These techniques are very useful for the construction, analysis, and transformation of reliable large-scale and complex software systems. Contents: Current Approaches; Overview of the New Approach; FRORL Requirements Specification Language and Its Decomposition; Rewriting and Data Dependency, Control Flow Analysis of a Lo

  14. Executive summary, Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    A pollution prevention plan is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce waste generation. The Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan is designed to eliminate or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all aspects of Site operations. These efforts offer increased protection of public health and the environment. This plan reflects the goals and policies for pollution prevention at the Hanford Site and represents an ongoing effort to make pollution prevention part of the Site operating philosophy. The plan encompasses hazardous waste only and excludes radioactive waste and radioactive mixed waste

  15. Ethnography of Language Planning and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.; Tapia, Aldo Anzures; Hanks, David H.; Dueñas, Frances Kvietok

    2018-01-01

    A decade ago, Hornberger & Johnson proposed that the ethnography of language planning and policy (ELPP) offers a useful way to understand how people create, interpret, and at times resist language policy and planning (LPP). They envisioned ethnographic investigation of layered LPP ideological and implementational spaces, taking up Hornberger's…

  16. HTI retrieval demonstration project execution plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This plan describes the process for demonstrating the retrieval of difficult Hanford tank waste forms utilizing commercial technologies and the private sector to conduct the operations. The demonstration is to be conducted in Tank 241-C-106

  17. Language and Language-in-Education Planning in Multilingual India: A Minoritized Language Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    This article explores India's linguistic diversity from a language policy perspective, emphasizing policies relevant to linguistic minorities. The Kumaun region of Utterakhand provides a local, minority-language perspective on national-level language planning. A look at the complexity of counting India's languages reveals language planning…

  18. Developing and executing a strategic plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Glenn

    2010-02-01

    Because of the historic economic crisis, the past 18 months--2008 and the first half of 2009--have been challenging for many plastic surgery practices. Prior to the economic crisis in 2008, many practices enjoyed success with little synchronization between financial and productivity results, practice goals, and strategic planning. Now, suddenly, there is a great deal of interest in the alignment of budgets and financial reporting, marketing return on investment (ROI), staff accountability, and overhead management. The process of developing a business plan can serve to bring clarity and objectivity to the assessment of practice goals and market dynamics. The business planning process also provides assurance of more efficient use of the practice's human and capital resources. Ultimately, the process will bring order, discipline, and focus to practice stakeholders, thus increasing the likelihood of meeting or exceeding practice goals. The process: (1) defining the mission of the practice; (2) completing a competitive analysis for your market; (3) completing an assessment of your current environment; (4) completing an assessment of the financial health of your practice; (5) preparation of a SWOT (strengths, weakness, opportunity, threat) analysis; and (6) a translation of your mission statement into specific long-term goals and short-term performance objectives. The outcome of completing these tasks should be an actionable plan that will serve as a guide or road map for the practice. A well-articulated plan will solidify staff confidence, continue the advancement of a strong business foundation, and provide clear navigation through this new economic landscape in a way that preserves your ability to provide the care you have devoted yourselves to deliver. Today's needs, and yesterday's lessons, dictate that a well-documented strategic action plan be undertaken. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  19. Language processing and executive functions in early treated adults with phenylketonuria (PKU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Sara; Romani, Cristina; Geberhiwot, Tarekegn; MacDonald, Anita; Palermo, Liana

    We provide an in-depth analysis of language functions in early-treated adults with phenylketonuria (AwPKUs, N = 15-33), as compared to age- and education-matched controls (N = 24-32; N varying across tasks), through: a. narrative production (the Cinderella story), b. language pragmatics comprehension (humour, metaphors, inferred meaning), c. prosody discrimination d. lexical inhibitory control and planning (Blocked Cyclic Naming; Hayling Sentence Completion Test, Burgess & Shallice, 1997). AwPKUs exhibited intact basic language processing (lexical retrieval, phonology/articulation, sentence construction). Instead, deficits emerged in planning and reasoning abilities. Compared to controls, AwPKUs were: less informative in narrative production (lower rate of Correct Information Units); slower in metaphorical understanding and inferred meaning; less accurate in focused lexical-search (Hayling test). These results suggest that i) executive deficits in PKU cannot be explained by an accumulation of lower-order deficits and/or general speed impairments, ii) executive functions engage dedicated neurophysiological resources, rather than simply being an emergent property of lower-level systems.

  20. Language and status: On the limits of language planning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-1994 language planning: the rise of a new policy discourse. 'Language .... was post-1945 'nation building' (Fishman 1968:54) and the emergence of new nationalist movements ..... professional scholars in Africa played in the production of "'inventory' descriptions of ... appropriate conceptualization of its subject matter.

  1. Succession planning: a call to action for nurse executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanier, Sylvain; Crenshaw, Jeannette T

    2013-10-01

    To discuss the organisational benefits of strategic succession planning in acute care hospital settings as a responsibility of chief nurse executives. A formal succession planning process is crucial to the financial and operational viability and sustainability of acute care hospitals. A succession plan is an essential business strategy that promotes effective leadership transition and continuity while maintaining productivity. Nursing and business literature were reviewed; reports contrasting institutions with and without succession plans were examined; and, operational implications were considered. It is imperative that chief nurse executives respond to the business benefits of an effective succession planning programme, identify common barriers and solutions, and implement best practices for a successful strategic succession planning programme. A strategic succession planning programme may offer many benefits to an acute care hospital, including improved retention rates, increased staff engagement and enhanced financial performance. Considering the ageing nursing workforce and the potential increase in demand for nursing services in the near future, nurse executives and other nurse leaders must actively engage in a formal succession planning process. A formal succession planning programme will help to provide strategic leadership continuity, operational effectiveness and improved quality of care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Dynamics in self-regulation : Plan execution self-efficacy and mastery of action plans

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Urte; Sniehotta, Falco F.; Schüz, Benjamin; Oeberst, Andries

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether an individual's plan execution self-efficacy precedes mastery of the respective action plan or vice versa. Study participants were 122 cardiac rehabilitation patients. Plan execution self-efficacy and mastery of a personal action plan on physical activity were assessed each week for 6 weeks after discharge from rehabilitation. Physical exercise was assessed 2 months after discharge. Multilevel cross-lagged panel analyses resulted in a positive effect of mastery...

  3. 2014 Zero Waste Strategic Plan Executive Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrons, Ralph J.

    2016-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico is located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, primarily on Department of Energy (DOE) permitted land on approximately 2,800 acres of Kirtland Air Force Base. There are approximately 5.5 million square feet of buildings, with a workforce of approximately 9200 personnel. Sandia National Laboratories Materials Sustainability and Pollution Prevention (MSP2) program adopted in 2008 an internal team goal for New Mexico site operations for Zero Waste to Landfill by 2025. Sandia solicited a consultant to assist in the development of a Zero Waste Strategic Plan. The Zero Waste Consultant Team selected is a partnership of SBM Management Services and Gary Liss & Associates. The scope of this Plan is non-hazardous solid waste and covers the life cycle of material purchases to the use and final disposal of the items at the end of their life cycle.

  4. Convergence of logistics planning and execution in outsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela A. D’amato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Logistics service providers (LSPs are becoming increasingly involved in their clients’ businesses. Beyond just providing vehicles and buildings, LSPs are now becoming involved with knowledge-related work that is connected to the traditional services provided. Objectives: To investigate the likelihood and potential value of LSPs extending their range of services to their clients by means of a convergence of planning and execution activities. Method: In the research through a literature review and empirical study presented here, attention is given to the practical impact that convergence planning and execution functions have on business success, as well as how selected clients of an LSP (referred to in this article as logistics company A or LCA perceive the impact of increased integration of LCA within its businesses. The results should assist LCA and other LSPs considering the same objective to ascertain the opportunities and key requirements associated with a strategy to converge planning and execution activities for their clients. Results: The study found that the vast majority of respondents see value in the convergence of planning and execution activities. Conclusion: Such convergence will be challenging, owing to the importance of the planning function for clients, as well as key collaborative and measurement requirements that will have to be put in place for successful business integration.

  5. Issues for a Model of Language Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgbose, Ayo

    1989-01-01

    Examines the following issues as they relate to a model of language planning: (1) types of decisions (policy or implemental, higher- or lower-level, rational or arbitrary); (2) the planning mechanism; (3) the role of fact finding (prepolicy, preimplementation, and intraimplementation); (4) levels of planning; and (5) the nature of status versus…

  6. Feminist Language Planning in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milles, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The international literature has often described linguistic authorities as being opposed to the idea of changing language in the name of feminism. However, in Sweden, many linguistic authorities have been active agents in adopting feminist language reforms. This is probably due to Sweden's long tradition of political feminist efforts and to the…

  7. Resource Planning for SPARQL Query Execution on Data Sharing Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Stefan; Hose, Katja; Sattler, Kai-Uwe

    2014-01-01

    To increase performance, data sharing platforms often make use of clusters of nodes where certain tasks can be executed in parallel. Resource planning and especially deciding how many processors should be chosen to exploit parallel processing is complex in such a setup as increasing the number...

  8. Specific Language Impairment and Executive Functioning: Parent and Teacher Ratings of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittke, Kacie; Spaulding, Tammie J.; Schechtman, Calli J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The current study used the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function--Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; Gioia, Espy, & Isquith, 2003), a rating scale designed to investigate executive behaviors in everyday activities, to examine the executive functioning of preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) relative to their…

  9. Milestones in Language Planning and Development Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Hywel

    2017-01-01

    This paper tracks the changing relationships between language planning and development aid over a period of 70 years from the end of the Second World War to the present day. Drawing on documentary resources--in particular, the published proceedings of the Language and Development Conferences (LDCs)--the paper identifies a number of significant…

  10. The relationship between executive functioning and language: Examining vocabulary, syntax, and language learning in preschoolers attending Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lisa J; Alexander, Alexandra; Greenfield, Daryl B

    2017-12-01

    Early childhood marks a time of dynamic development within language and cognitive domains. Specifically, a body of research focuses on the development of language as related to executive functions, which are foundational cognitive skills that relate to both academic achievement and social-emotional development during early childhood and beyond. Although there is evidence to support the relationship between language and executive functions, existing studies focus mostly on vocabulary and fail to examine other components of language such as syntax and language learning skills. To address this gap, this study examined the relationship between executive functioning (EF) and three aspects of language: syntax, vocabulary, and language learning. A diverse sample of 182 children (67% Latino and 33% African American) attending Head Start were assessed on both EF and language ability. Findings demonstrated that EF related to a comprehensive latent construct of language composed of vocabulary, syntax, and language learning. EF also related to each individual component of language. This study furthers our understanding of the complex relationship between language and cognitive development by measuring EF as it relates to various components of language in a sample of preschoolers from low-income backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Executive functions and language in children with different subtypes of specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta Rodríguez, V; Ramírez Santana, G M; Hernández Expósito, S

    The marked heterogeneity among children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI) highlights the importance of studying and describing cases based on the distinction between the expressive and receptive-expressive SLI subtypes. The main objective of this study was to examine neuropsychological, linguistic, and narrative behaviours in children with different SLI subtypes. A comprehensive battery of language and neuropsychological tests was administered to a total of 58 children (29 with SLI and 29 normal controls) between 5.60 and 11.20 years old. Both SLI subtypes performed more poorly than the control group in language skills, narrative, and executive function. Furthermore, the expressive SLI group demonstrated substantial ungrammaticality, as well as problems with verbal fluency and both verbal and spatial working memory, while the receptive-expressive SLI subtype displayed poorer neuropsychological performance in general. Our findings showed that children with either SLI subtype displayed executive dysfunctions that were not limited to verbal tasks but rather extended to nonverbal measures. This could reflect a global cognitive difficulty which, along with declining linguistic and narrative skills, illustrates the complex profile of this impairment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Seeing conflict and engaging control: Experience with contrastive language benefits executive function in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebel, Sabine; Zelazo, Philip David

    2016-12-01

    Engaging executive function often requires overriding a prepotent response in favor of a conflicting but adaptive one. Language may play a key role in this ability by supporting integrated representations of conflicting rules. We tested whether experience with contrastive language that could support such representations benefits executive function in 3-year-old children. Children who received brief experience with language highlighting contrast between objects, attributes, and actions showed greater executive function on two of three 'conflict' executive function tasks than children who received experience with contrasting stimuli only and children who read storybooks with the experimenter, controlling for baseline executive function. Experience with contrasting stimuli did not benefit executive function relative to reading books with the experimenter, indicating experience with contrastive language, rather than experience with contrast generally, was key. Experience with contrastive language also boosted spontaneous attention to contrast, consistent with improvements in representing contrast. These findings indicate a role for language in executive function that is consistent with the Cognitive Complexity and Control theory's key claim that coordinating conflicting rules is critical to overcoming perseveration, and suggest new ideas for testing theories of executive function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Development of Executive Function and Language Skills in the Early School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Debbie; Thompson, Paul; Nash, Hannah M.; Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background: The developmental relationships between executive functions (EF) and early language skills are unclear. This study explores the longitudinal relationships between children's early EF and language skills in a sample of children with a wide range of language abilities including children at risk of dyslexia. In addition, we investigated…

  14. Executive and intellectual functioning in school-aged children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusisto, Marika A; Nieminen, Pirkko E; Helminen, Mika T; Kleemola, Leenamaija

    2017-03-01

    Earlier research and clinical practice show that specific language impairment (SLI) is often associated with nonverbal cognitive deficits and weakened skills in executive functions (EFs). Executive deficits may have a remarkable influence on a child's everyday activities in the home and school environments. However, research information is still limited on EFs in school-aged children with SLI, mostly conducted among English- and Dutch-speaking children. To study whether there are differences in EFs between Finnish-speaking children with SLI and typically developing (TD) peers at school age. EFs are compared between the groups with and without controlling for nonverbal intelligence. Parents and teachers of children with SLI (n = 22) and age- and gender-matched TD peers (n = 22) completed The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF). The mean age of the children was 8,2 years. BRIEF ratings of parents and teachers were compared between the children with SLI and with TD peers by paired analysis using conditional logistic regression models with and without controlling for nonverbal IQ. Intellectual functioning was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Children with SLI had weaker scores in all parent and teacher BRIEF scales compared with TD peers. Statistically significant differences between the groups were found in BRIEF scales Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize and Monitor. Differences between the groups were statistically significant also in intellectual functioning. On BRIEF scales some group differences remained statistically significant after controlling for nonverbal IQ. This study provides additional evidence that also Finnish-speaking school-aged children with SLI are at risk of having deficits in EFs in daily life. EFs have been proposed to have an impact on developmental outcomes later in life. In clinical practice it is important to pay attention to EFs in school-aged children with SLI

  15. Using Planning, Scheduling and Execution for Autonomous Mars Rover Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estlin, Tara A.; Gaines, Daniel M.; Chouinard, Caroline M.; Fisher, Forest W.; Castano, Rebecca; Judd, Michele J.; Nesnas, Issa A.

    2006-01-01

    With each new rover mission to Mars, rovers are traveling significantly longer distances. This distance increase raises not only the opportunities for science data collection, but also amplifies the amount of environment and rover state uncertainty that must be handled in rover operations. This paper describes how planning, scheduling and execution techniques can be used onboard a rover to autonomously generate and execute rover activities and in particular to handle new science opportunities that have been identified dynamically. We also discuss some of the particular challenges we face in supporting autonomous rover decision-making. These include interaction with rover navigation and path-planning software and handling large amounts of uncertainty in state and resource estimations. Finally, we describe our experiences in testing this work using several Mars rover prototypes in a realistic environment.

  16. Task planning systems with natural language interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambayashi, Shaw; Uenaka, Junji

    1989-12-01

    In this report, a natural language analyzer and two different task planning systems are described. In 1988, we have introduced a Japanese language analyzer named CS-PARSER for the input interface of the task planning system in the Human Acts Simulation Program (HASP). For the purpose of a high speed analysis, we have modified a dictionary system of the CS-PARSER by using C language description. It is found that the new dictionary system is very useful for a high speed analysis and an efficient maintenance of the dictionary. For the study of the task planning problem, we have modified a story generating system named Micro TALE-SPIN to generate a story written in Japanese sentences. We have also constructed a planning system with natural language interface by using the CS-PARSER. Task planning processes and related knowledge bases of these systems are explained. A concept design for a new task planning system will be also discussed from evaluations of above mentioned systems. (author)

  17. Executive Function Predicts Artificial Language Learning in Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapa, Leah Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has established an executive function advantage among bilinguals as compared to monolingual peers. These non-linguistic cognitive advantages are largely assumed to result from the experience of managing two linguistic systems. However, the possibility remains that the relationship between bilingualism and executive function is…

  18. Authenticity and Unification in Quechua Language Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.; King, Kendall

    1998-01-01

    Examines the potentially problematic tension between the goals of authenticity and unification in Quechua-language planning. One case study examines the orthographic debate that arose in Peru, and the second case study concerns two indigenous communities in Saraguro in the Southern Ecuadorian highlands where Spanish predominates but two Quichua…

  19. Nonverbal Executive Function Is Mediated by Language: A Study of Deaf and Hearing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botting, Nicola; Jones, Anna; Marshall, Chloe; Denmark, Tanya; Atkinson, Joanna; Morgan, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Studies have suggested that language and executive function (EF) are strongly associated. Indeed, the two are difficult to separate, and it is particularly difficult to determine whether one skill is more dependent on the other. Deafness provides a unique opportunity to disentangle these skills because in this case, language difficulties have a…

  20. Independent effects of bilingualism and socioeconomic status on language ability and executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-03-01

    One hundred and seventy-five children who were 6-years old were assigned to one of four groups that differed in socioeconomic status (SES; working class or middle class) and language background (monolingual or bilingual). The children completed tests of nonverbal intelligence, language tests assessing receptive vocabulary and attention based on picture naming, and two tests of executive functioning. All children performed equivalently on the basic intelligence tests, but performance on the language and executive functioning tasks was influenced by both SES and bilingualism. Middle-class children outperformed working-class children on all measures, and bilingual children obtained lower scores than monolingual children on language tests but higher scores than monolingual children on the executive functioning tasks. There were no interactions with either group factors or task factors. Thus, each of SES and bilingualism contribute significantly and independently to children's development irrespective of the child's level on the other factor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Generating and Executing Complex Natural Language Queries across Linked Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, Thierry; Mougin, Fleur; Grabar, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    With the recent and intensive research in the biomedical area, the knowledge accumulated is disseminated through various knowledge bases. Links between these knowledge bases are needed in order to use them jointly. Linked Data, SPARQL language, and interfaces in Natural Language question-answering provide interesting solutions for querying such knowledge bases. We propose a method for translating natural language questions in SPARQL queries. We use Natural Language Processing tools, semantic resources, and the RDF triples description. The method is designed on 50 questions over 3 biomedical knowledge bases, and evaluated on 27 questions. It achieves 0.78 F-measure on the test set. The method for translating natural language questions into SPARQL queries is implemented as Perl module available at http://search.cpan.org/ thhamon/RDF-NLP-SPARQLQuery.

  2. South Korea: Language Policy and Planning in the Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae Jung

    2012-01-01

    This monograph discusses South Korea's language situation in a language policy and planning context. This monograph consists of four parts. Part 1 presents a genetic, typological and sociolinguistic description of South Korea's national language, and an overview of minority languages, including English as well as other languages, recently…

  3. Language control in bilinguals: Intention to speak vs. execution of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverberi, Carlo; Kuhlen, Anna; Abutalebi, Jubin; Greulich, R Stefan; Costa, Albert; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2015-05-01

    Bilinguals require a high degree of cognitive control to select the language intended for speaking and inhibit the unintended. Previous neuroimaging studies have not teased apart brain regions for generating the intention to use a given language, and those for speaking in that language. Separating these two phases can clarify at what stage competition between languages occurs. In this fMRI study German-English bilinguals were first cued to use German or English. After a delay, they named a picture in the cued language. During the intention phase, the precuneus, right superior lateral parietal lobule, and middle temporal gyrus were more activated when participants had to update the currently active language. During language execution activation was higher for English compared to German in brain areas associated with cognitive control, most notably the anterior cingulate and the caudate. Our results suggest two different systems enabling cognitive control during bilingual language production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Unified Approach to Model-Based Planning and Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Dorais, Gregory A.; Fry, Chuck; Levinson, Richard; Plaunt, Christian; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Writing autonomous software is complex, requiring the coordination of functionally and technologically diverse software modules. System and mission engineers must rely on specialists familiar with the different software modules to translate requirements into application software. Also, each module often encodes the same requirement in different forms. The results are high costs and reduced reliability due to the difficulty of tracking discrepancies in these encodings. In this paper we describe a unified approach to planning and execution that we believe provides a unified representational and computational framework for an autonomous agent. We identify the four main components whose interplay provides the basis for the agent's autonomous behavior: the domain model, the plan database, the plan running module, and the planner modules. This representational and problem solving approach can be applied at all levels of the architecture of a complex agent, such as Remote Agent. In the rest of the paper we briefly describe the Remote Agent architecture. The new agent architecture proposed here aims at achieving the full Remote Agent functionality. We then give the fundamental ideas behind the new agent architecture and point out some implication of the structure of the architecture, mainly in the area of reactivity and interaction between reactive and deliberative decision making. We conclude with related work and current status.

  5. Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution Segments Increment 2A (DCAPES Inc 2A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution Segments Increment 2A (DCAPES Inc 2A...Program Name Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution Segments Increment 2A (DCAPES Inc 2A) DoD Component Air Force Responsible Office Program...APB) dated March 9, 2015 DCAPES Inc 2A 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 4 Program Description Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution Segments

  6. Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution Segments Increment 2B (DCAPES Inc 2B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution Segments Increment 2B (DCAPES Inc 2B...Information Program Name Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution Segments Increment 2B (DCAPES Inc 2B) DoD Component Air Force Responsible Office...been established. DCAPES Inc 2B 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 4 Program Description Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution Segments (DCAPES) is

  7. Lexical quality and executive control predict children's first and second language reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudszus, Henriette; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2018-01-01

    This study compared how lexical quality (vocabulary and decoding) and executive control (working memory and inhibition) predict reading comprehension directly as well as indirectly, via syntactic integration, in monolingual and bilingual fourth grade children. The participants were 76 monolingual and 102 bilingual children (mean age 10 years, SD  = 5 months) learning to read Dutch in the Netherlands. Bilingual children showed lower Dutch vocabulary, syntactic integration and reading comprehension skills, but better decoding skills than their monolingual peers. There were no differences in working memory or inhibition. Multigroup path analysis showed relatively invariant connections between predictors and reading comprehension for monolingual and bilingual readers. For both groups, there was a direct effect of lexical quality on reading comprehension. In addition, lexical quality and executive control indirectly influenced reading comprehension via syntactic integration. The groups differed in that inhibition more strongly predicted syntactic integration for bilingual than for monolingual children. For a subgroup of bilingual children, for whom home language vocabulary data were available ( n  = 56), there was an additional positive effect of home language vocabulary on second language reading comprehension. Together, the results suggest that similar processes underlie reading comprehension in first and second language readers, but that syntactic integration requires more executive control in second language reading. Moreover, bilingual readers additionally benefit from first language vocabulary to arrive at second language reading comprehension.

  8. The development of executive function and language skills in the early school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Debbie; Thompson, Paul; Nash, Hannah M; Snowling, Margaret J; Hulme, Charles

    2016-02-01

    The developmental relationships between executive functions (EF) and early language skills are unclear. This study explores the longitudinal relationships between children's early EF and language skills in a sample of children with a wide range of language abilities including children at risk of dyslexia. In addition, we investigated whether these skills independently predict children's attention/behaviour skills. Data are presented from 243 children at four time points. Children were selected for being at risk of reading difficulties either because of a family history of dyslexia (FR; N = 90) or because of concerns regarding their language development (LI; N = 79) or as typically developing controls (TD; N = 74). The children completed tasks to assess their executive function and language skills at ages 4, 5 and 6 years. At 6 (T4) and 7 years (T5) parents and teachers rated the children's attention/behaviour skills. There was a strong concurrent relationship between language and EF at each assessment. Longitudinal analyses indicated a considerable degree of stability in children's language and EF skills: the influence of language on later EF skills (and vice versa) was weak and not significant in the current sample. Children's EF, but not language, skills at T3 predicted attention/behaviour ratings at T4/T5. There is a strong concurrent association between language and EF skills during the preschool and early school years, when children with language impairment show persistent EF deficits. Latent variables measuring language and EF show high longitudinal stability with little evidence of significant or strong reciprocal influences between these constructs. EF, but not language, skills predict later ratings of children's attention and behaviour. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  9. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  10. Corpus Planning for the Southern Peruvian Quechua Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Molina, Serafin M.

    1997-01-01

    The discussion of corpus planning for the Southern Quechua language variety of Peru examines issues of graphization, standardization, modernization, and renovation of Quechua in the face of increasing domination by the Spanish language. The efforts of three major groups of linguists and other scholars working on language planning in Peru, and the…

  11. Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

  12. Language-Planning in the Creole-Speaking Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonish, Hubert

    1984-01-01

    As a result of anticolonial movements in the Caribbean, Creole languages are becoming major languages of communication. Language planning has begun to focus on them. These languages must be taught to non-native speakers who want to participate fully in Caribbean culture. This is clearly demonstrated in the area of cinema. (VM)

  13. Language Policy and Language Planning: A Comparative Perspective of Economics and Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Weiguo; Liu, Guohui

    2009-01-01

    Language planning refers to a kind of humanly-conscious intervention within certain limits in the process of language selection. It has not only something to do with the language itself, but is far more involved in such issues as the adjustments of the relations among people or between people and society through language problems. The traditional analysis on language planning is mainly based on sociolinguistic theories, which tends to emphasize the basic concepts and categories in this area s...

  14. The Relationship between Executive Functions and Language Abilities in Children: A Latent Variables Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Park, Ji Sook; Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to outline the latent variables approach for measuring nonverbal executive function (EF) skills in school-age children, and to examine the relationship between nonverbal EF skills and language performance in this age group. Method: Seventy-one typically developing children, ages 8 through 11, participated in the study. Three EF…

  15. Language Policy and Planning: The Case of Italian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Italian Sign Language (LIS) is the name of the language used by the Italian Deaf community. The acronym LIS derives from Lingua italiana dei segni ("Italian language of signs"), although nowadays Italians refers to LIS as Lingua dei segni italiana, reflecting the more appropriate phrasing "Italian sign language." Historically,…

  16. Prestige Planning and the Welsh Language: Marketing, the Consumer-Citizen and Language Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriost, Diarmait Mac Giolla

    2006-01-01

    This paper comprises a brief examination of the approach taken by the Welsh Language Board, as the principal language policy and planning body in Wales, with regard to aspects of prestige planning and the Welsh language. It describes how devolution and the recent, and first ever, national review by the Welsh Assembly Government of Welsh language…

  17. Language Planning and Development Aid: The (In)Visibility of Language in Development Aid Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry; Benson, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Despite the essential role of local, regional, national and international languages in human development, there is little reference to language planning in development aid discourse. Beginning with definitions of development aid and language planning, the paper examines how the two were linked in pre- and post-colonial times, showing how language…

  18. Applying an Integrative Framework of Executive Function to Preschoolers With Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapa, Leah L; Plante, Elena; Doubleday, Kevin

    2017-08-16

    The first goal of this research was to compare verbal and nonverbal executive function abilities between preschoolers with and without specific language impairment (SLI). The second goal was to assess the group differences on 4 executive function components in order to determine if the components may be hierarchically related as suggested within a developmental integrative framework of executive function. This study included 26 4- and 5-year-olds diagnosed with SLI and 26 typically developing age- and sex-matched peers. Participants were tested on verbal and nonverbal measures of sustained selective attention, working memory, inhibition, and shifting. The SLI group performed worse compared with typically developing children on both verbal and nonverbal measures of sustained selective attention and working memory, the verbal inhibition task, and the nonverbal shifting task. Comparisons of standardized group differences between executive function measures revealed a linear increase with the following order: working memory, inhibition, shifting, and sustained selective attention. The pattern of results suggests that preschoolers with SLI have deficits in executive functioning compared with typical peers, and deficits are not limited to verbal tasks. A significant linear relationship between group differences across executive function components supports the possibility of a hierarchical relationship between executive function skills.

  19. Applying an Integrative Framework of Executive Function to Preschoolers With Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Doubleday, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The first goal of this research was to compare verbal and nonverbal executive function abilities between preschoolers with and without specific language impairment (SLI). The second goal was to assess the group differences on 4 executive function components in order to determine if the components may be hierarchically related as suggested within a developmental integrative framework of executive function. Method This study included 26 4- and 5-year-olds diagnosed with SLI and 26 typically developing age- and sex-matched peers. Participants were tested on verbal and nonverbal measures of sustained selective attention, working memory, inhibition, and shifting. Results The SLI group performed worse compared with typically developing children on both verbal and nonverbal measures of sustained selective attention and working memory, the verbal inhibition task, and the nonverbal shifting task. Comparisons of standardized group differences between executive function measures revealed a linear increase with the following order: working memory, inhibition, shifting, and sustained selective attention. Conclusion The pattern of results suggests that preschoolers with SLI have deficits in executive functioning compared with typical peers, and deficits are not limited to verbal tasks. A significant linear relationship between group differences across executive function components supports the possibility of a hierarchical relationship between executive function skills. PMID:28724132

  20. Tank waste remediation system privatization Phase 1 infrastructure, project W-519, project execution plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This Project Execution Plan (PEP) defines the overall strategy, objectives, and contractor management requirements for the execution phase of Project W-519 (98-D403), Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Support, whose mission is to effect the required Hanford site infrastructure physical changes to accommodate the Privatization Contractor facilities. This plan provides the project scope, project objectives and method of performing the work scope and achieving objectives. The plan establishes the work definitions, the cost goals, schedule constraints and roles and responsibilities for project execution. The plan also defines how the project will be controlled and documented

  1. Language Policy: Status Planning for the Quechua Language in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Molina, Serafin

    1997-01-01

    The status of Quechua in Peruvian society is discussed, noting specific social and political factors contributing to the dying out of the Quechua language, functional domains the language serves, and possible measures to improve its status. The relationship of those functional domains to Peruvian language policies is also explored. An introductory…

  2. Planning Sign Languages: Promoting Hearing Hegemony? Conceptualizing Sign Language Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    In light of the absence of a codified standard variety in British Sign Language and German Sign Language ("Deutsche Gebardensprache") there have been repeated calls for the standardization of both languages primarily from outside the Deaf community. The paper is based on a recent grounded theory study which explored perspectives on sign…

  3. Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: the roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsour, Khaled; Sheridan, Margaret; Jutte, Douglas; Nuru-Jeter, Amani; Hinshaw, Stephen; Boyce, W Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and child executive functions is well-documented. However, few studies have examined the role of potential mediators and moderators. We studied the independent and interactive associations between family SES and single parenthood to predict child executive functions of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and working memory and examined child expressive language abilities and family home environment as potential mediators of these associations. Sixty families from diverse SES backgrounds with a school-age target child (mean [SD] age = 9.9 [0.96] years) were evaluated. Child executive functioning was measured using a brief battery. The quality of the home environment was evaluated using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment inventory. Family SES predicted the three child executive functions under study. Single parent and family SES were interactively associated with children's inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility; such that children from low SES families who were living with one parent performed less well on executive function tests than children from similarly low SES who were living with two parents. Parental responsivity, enrichment activities and family companionship mediated the association between family SES and child inhibitory control and working memory. This study demonstrates that family SES inequalities are associated with inequalities in home environments and with inequalities in child executive functions. The impact of these disparities as they unfold in the lives of typically developing children merits further investigation and understanding.

  4. Ways of looking ahead: hierarchical planning in language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyung; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Watson, Duane G

    2013-12-01

    It is generally assumed that language production proceeds incrementally, with chunks of linguistic structure planned ahead of speech. Extensive research has examined the scope of language production and suggests that the size of planned chunks varies across contexts (Ferreira & Swets, 2002; Wagner & Jescheniak, 2010). By contrast, relatively little is known about the structure of advance planning, specifically whether planning proceeds incrementally according to the surface structure of the utterance, or whether speakers plan according to the hierarchical relationships between utterance elements. In two experiments, we examine the structure and scope of lexical planning in language production using a picture description task. Analyses of speech onset times and word durations show that speakers engage in hierarchical planning such that structurally dependent lexical items are planned together and that hierarchical planning occurs for both direct and indirect dependencies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Organizational Strategic Planning and Execution: Should Governmental Organizations Rely on Strategic Planning for the Success of the Organization?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Lester; Reynolds, Thomas E; Harris, II, Thomas L

    2007-01-01

    .... The utilization of this tool can yield positive results for many companies and organizations. On the other hand, if the strategic plan is not utilized, it becomes a costly paperweight on a table in the executive suite...

  6. Executive Functions, Oral Language and Writing in Preschool Children: Development and Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Pazeto, Talita de Cassia Batista; Seabra, Alessandra Gotuzo; Dias, Natália Martins

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) and oral language (OL) are important for learning reading and writing (RW) and for the development of other skills in preschool. The study investigated the progression and the relationships between the performances in these competences in pre-schoolers. Participants were 90 children, mean age 4.91 years, students from Kindergarten years I and II of a private school in SP, assessed, individually, with a battery with nine instruments for EF, OL, and RW. There was increa...

  7. Colonialism and Language Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Key factors that account for European languages and Christianity being transplanted worldwide are identified. The privileged position of excolonial languages has been consolidated through Western influence on educational policies and linguistic imperialism. The existence of alternative language...... policies that create greater social justice shows that much-needed change is possible....

  8. A Test of Motor (Not Executive) Planning in Developmental Coordination Disorder and Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Swieten, Lisa M.; van Bergen, Elsje; Williams, Justin H G; Wilson, Andrew D.; Plumb, Mandy S.; Kent, Samuel W.; Mon-Williams, Mark A.

    Grip selection tasks have been used to test "planning" in both autism and developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We differentiate between motor and executive planning and present a modified motor planning task. Participants grasped a cylinder in 1 of 2 orientations before turning it clockwise or

  9. A test of motor (not executive) planning in developmental coordination disorder and autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Swieten, L.M.; van Bergen, E.; Williams, J.H.G.; Wilson, A.D.; Plumb, M.S.; Kent, S.W.; Mon-Williams, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Grip selection tasks have been used to test "planning" in both autism and developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We differentiate between motor and executive planning and present a modified motor planning task. Participants grasped a cylinder in 1 of 2 orientations before turning it clockwise or

  10. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language…

  11. Training Effectiveness Assessment of Red Cape: Crisis Action Planning and Execution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schaefer, Peter S; Shadrick, Scott B; Beaubien, Jeff; Crabb, Brian T

    2008-01-01

    The crisis response training program Red Cape: Crisis Action Planning and Execution uses theme-based training and multimedia scenarios to instill expert thinking patterns in crisis response personnel...

  12. The Representation and Execution of Articulatory Timing in First and Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Melissa A; Oh, Grace E

    2017-07-01

    The early acquisition of language-specific temporal patterns relative to the late development of speech motor control suggests a dissociation between the representation and execution of articulatory timing. The current study tested for such a dissociation in first and second language acquisition. American English-speaking children (5- and 8-year-olds) and Korean-speaking adult learners of English repeatedly produced real English words in a simple carrier sentence. The words were designed to elicit different language-specific vowel length contrasts. Measures of absolute duration and variability in single vowel productions were extracted to evaluate the realization of contrasts (representation) and to index speech motor abilities (execution). Results were mostly consistent with a dissociation. Native English-speaking children produced the same language-specific temporal patterns as native English-speaking adults, but their productions were more variable than the adults'. In contrast, Korean-speaking adult learners of English typically produced different temporal patterns than native English-speaking adults, but their productions were as stable as the native speakers'. Implications of the results are discussed with reference to different models of speech production.

  13. The Influence of Texting Language on Grammar and Executive Functions in Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Chantal N; van Witteloostuijn, Merel; Vasić, Nada; Avrutin, Sergey; Blom, Elma

    2016-01-01

    When sending text messages on their mobile phone to friends, children often use a special type of register, which is called textese. This register allows the omission of words and the use of textisms: instances of non-standard written language such as 4ever (forever). Previous studies have shown that textese has a positive effect on children's literacy abilities. In addition, it is possible that children's grammar system is affected by textese as well, as grammar rules are often transgressed in this register. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of textese influences children's grammar performance, and whether this effect is specific to grammar or language in general. Additionally, studies have not yet investigated the influence of textese on children's cognitive abilities. Consequently, the secondary aim of this study was to find out whether textese affects children's executive functions. To investigate this, 55 children between 10 and 13 years old were tested on a receptive vocabulary and grammar performance (sentence repetition) task and various tasks measuring executive functioning. In addition, text messages were elicited and the number of omissions and textisms in children's messages were calculated. Regression analyses showed that omissions were a significant predictor of children's grammar performance after various other variables were controlled for: the more words children omitted in their text messages, the better their performance on the grammar task. Although textisms correlated (marginally) significantly with vocabulary, grammar and selective attention scores and omissions marginally significantly with vocabulary scores, no other significant effects were obtained for measures of textese in the regression analyses: neither for the language outcomes, nor for the executive function tasks. Hence, our results show that textese is positively related to children's grammar performance. On the other hand, use of textese does

  14. The Influence of Texting Language on Grammar and Executive Functions in Primary School Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal N van Dijk

    Full Text Available When sending text messages on their mobile phone to friends, children often use a special type of register, which is called textese. This register allows the omission of words and the use of textisms: instances of non-standard written language such as 4ever (forever. Previous studies have shown that textese has a positive effect on children's literacy abilities. In addition, it is possible that children's grammar system is affected by textese as well, as grammar rules are often transgressed in this register. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of textese influences children's grammar performance, and whether this effect is specific to grammar or language in general. Additionally, studies have not yet investigated the influence of textese on children's cognitive abilities. Consequently, the secondary aim of this study was to find out whether textese affects children's executive functions. To investigate this, 55 children between 10 and 13 years old were tested on a receptive vocabulary and grammar performance (sentence repetition task and various tasks measuring executive functioning. In addition, text messages were elicited and the number of omissions and textisms in children's messages were calculated. Regression analyses showed that omissions were a significant predictor of children's grammar performance after various other variables were controlled for: the more words children omitted in their text messages, the better their performance on the grammar task. Although textisms correlated (marginally significantly with vocabulary, grammar and selective attention scores and omissions marginally significantly with vocabulary scores, no other significant effects were obtained for measures of textese in the regression analyses: neither for the language outcomes, nor for the executive function tasks. Hence, our results show that textese is positively related to children's grammar performance. On the other hand

  15. Storytelling, behavior planning, and language evolution in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Glen

    2014-01-01

    An attempt is made to specify the structure of the hominin bands that began steps to language. Storytelling could evolve without need for language yet be strongly subject to natural selection and could provide a major feedback process in evolving language. A storytelling model is examined, including its effects on the evolution of consciousness and the possible timing of language evolution. Behavior planning is presented as a model of language evolution from storytelling. The behavior programming mechanism in both directions provide a model of creating and understanding behavior and language. Culture began with societies, then family evolution, family life in troops, but storytelling created a culture of experiences, a final step in the long process of achieving experienced adults by natural selection. Most language evolution occurred in conversations where evolving non-verbal feedback ensured mutual agreements on understanding. Natural language evolved in conversations with feedback providing understanding of changes.

  16. Strategic Planning at a Small College--Executive Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In 1994, Baldwin-Wallace College produced a Strategic Plan for Information Technology. This plan mandated changes in the influx of technology, the structure of IT, and technology committees. The published plan included the organizational structure of the College, a SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats), ten proposed…

  17. Early stage second-language learning improves executive control: evidence from ERP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Margot D; Janus, Monika; Moreno, Sylvain; Astheimer, Lori; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of research has reported a bilingual advantage in performance on executive control tasks, but it is not known at what point in emerging bilingualism these advantages first appear. The present study investigated the effect of early stage second-language training on executive control. Monolingual English-speaking students were tested on a go-nogo task, sentence judgment task, and verbal fluency, before and after 6 months of Spanish instruction. The training group (n = 25) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Spanish and the control group (n = 30) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Psychology. After training, the Spanish group showed larger P3 amplitude on the go-nogo task and smaller P600 amplitude on the judgment task, indicating enhanced performance, with no changes for the control group and no differences between groups on behavioral measures. Results are discussed in terms of neural changes underlying executive control after brief second-language learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. LANGUAGE PLANNING IN DIASPORA: THE CASE OF KURDISH KURMANJI DIALECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Akin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a particular case of language planning in Diaspora through the activities of the Committee for Standardization of Kurdish Kurmanji dialect spoken by the majority of Kurds living in Turkey, in Syria and by part of the Kurds living in Iran and in Iraq. Despite its sizeable speaker community,Kurmanji is not officially recognized and public education is not provided in this dialect in the countries where it is spoken. The absence of official recognition and structural variation within Kurmanji led Kurdish intellectuals and researchers living in exile to form the Committee in 1987. Holding two meetings per year in a European city, the Committee tries to standardize and to revitalize the Kurmanji dialect without relying on government support. We examine the activities of the committee in the light of its research in the field of language policy and planning. The activities will be assessed by three typologies of language planning: 1 Haugen’s classical model of language planning (1991 [1983]; 2 Hornberger’s integrative framework of language planning (1988; 3 Nahir’s Language Planning Goals (2000. Our contribution focuses on two aspects of the activities: corpus planning and dissemination of results in exile. We study the practices of collection of vocabulary and neology in different scientific domains as well as the influences of these activities on the development of Kurmanji.

  19. Language Use, and Language Policy and Planning in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Anita Y. K.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in Hong Kong from a historical perspective. Hong Kong has evolved in the past 167 years from a small fishing port to an international financial centre which forms part of a financial network hailed by "Time Magazine" as Ny.Lon.Kong (i.e. New York-London-Hong Kong). Hong Kong…

  20. Literary Translation as a Tool for Critical Language Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooneeram, Roshni

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that Dev Virahsawmy, an author who manipulates literary translation for the purposes of linguistic prestige formation and re-negotiation, is a critical language-policy practitioner, as his work fills an important gap in language planning scholarship. A micro-analysis of the translation of a Shakespearean sonnet into Mauritian…

  1. Language Policy and Planning: Challenges for Latin American Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Rainer Enrique; Álvarez López, Elisa; Carvalhal, Tatiana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    This article starts with an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Latin America as a context for language policy and planning (LPP) decisions in the academic field. Then it gives a brief overview of the language policy challenges faced by universities to cope with neoliberal internationalisation. A conceptualisation of the domain as a…

  2. Principles and challenges of programme planning at a language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Principles and challenges of programme planning at a language centre serving two Swiss universities. Sabina Schaffner. The UZH and ETH Zurich Language Center, Switzerland. E-mail: sabina.schaffner@sprachen.uzh.ch. 1. Introduction. In this contribution, I would like to share some of the professional challenges that I ...

  3. Communicative, Educational, Pedagogical Objectives and Planning in Russian Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtyugina, Alla A.; Hasanova, Irina I.; Kotova, Svetlana S.; Sokolova, Anastasia N.; Svetkina, Irina A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem stems from the necessity to distinctly plan educational process and set the goals for successful mastering of Russian language by foreign students in Russian higher educational institutions. The article is aimed at defining the foreign students' objectives for Russian language training, allowing them to get involved…

  4. Sign Language Planning in the Netherlands between 1980 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Trude

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses several aspects of language planning with respect to Sign Language of the Netherlands, or Nederlandse Gebarentaal (NGT). For nearly thirty years members of the Deaf community, the Dutch Deaf Council (Dovenschap) have been working together with researchers, several organizations in deaf education, and the organization of…

  5. WCST and NEUPSILIN: relationships among executive functions, attention, memory and language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Balem Yates

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between measures of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST and a brief battery of cognitive functions (NEUPSILIN with the goal of providing a better understanding of the association between executive processes and other functions. The sample included 39 people, from 14 to 61 years old, with an average education of 12.38 (SD = 3.65 years of study. The hypothesis that correlations would be moderate to strong between the measures of executive function, working memory, attention and prospective memory from NEUPSILIN and WCST scores was partially corroborated because the intensity of the correlations was below than the expected. Other correlations were also found between the WCST scores and tasks that assess semantic-episodic memory, oral language (inference processing and writing (reading components.

  6. Business Plan for the Southwest Regional Spaceport: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A proposal for a commercial, full-service launch, tracking, and recovery complex for Reusable Launch Vehicles in New Mexico is presented. Vision, mission, business definition, competitive advantages, and business approach are formulated. Management plan and team structure are detailed, and anticipated market is described. Finance and marketing plans are presented. Financial analysis is performed.

  7. Strategic planning as used by chief executive officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissoneau, R; Belton, P; Schwahn, B

    1992-01-01

    In summary, the interviews obtained from this study suggest that CEO's in a variety of industries are attempting to "fit" their strategic planning process to their perceived environmental conditions. Indeed, management thinkers believe the biggest challenge in strategic planning will be turning CEO's into true strategic thinkers. The most successful companies, ultimately, will make strategic planning a high priority and involve all levels of management in the process. Planning becomes the unifying force that directs company actions. Hospital CEO's are obviously becoming more aware of this point as they strive to include all relevant parties (boards, physicians, etc.) in the process. Further, they seem to view planning in the classical sense, that is, as a dynamic, ever-evolving cyclical process more so than their general industry and academic contemporaries. Those hospitals that do develop strategic planning and strategic management have a definite advantage over competitors. Priorities are set and objectives are validated. This, in turn, improves productivity and creates the necessary framework for controlled growth. In addition, planning promotes teamwork and heightens motivation, bringing managers and employees together not only to meet but to exceed company goals.

  8. Disruption management - operations research between planning and execution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Larsen, Jesper; Larsen, Allan

    2001-01-01

    For a large number of applications Operations Research has a proven track record: it can deliver high quality solutions for planning problems. Important examples can be found in the airline industry, logistics and production management. This report will describe real-world examples of a novel way...... of applying Operations Research: As plans have to be adjusted to take last minute changes into consideration, OR can play an active role in such a situation by producing, maybe even in a pro-actively role, alternative plans. This type of activity is called Disruption Management....

  9. Educational language planning and linguistic identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Peter

    1991-03-01

    There are cases in which a "high" form of a language is taught and used in formal situations, but linguistic variation is also caused by geography, ethnicity and socioeconomic class. Certain variants are regarded as inferior and restricted in expressive capacity, and are disadvantageous. The paper suggests that it is possible to map each person's linguistic identity in two dimensions: the number of languages spoken, and the situation-specific variants of each language. Further, it is argued that the distance between a "low" variant and a "high" standard form of a language may present to the "low" learner of a standardized mother tongue a barrier just as great as that posed by the learning of a related foreign language to a speaker of the high variant. It is proposed that greater tolerance be exercised in acceptance of variation and in recognition of linguistic identity, so that this can be built on in the necessary and desirable expansion of linguistic competence, rather than being devalued. The relevance of the communicative approach to language teaching is touched on.

  10. Five years program execution outcome; Bilan d'execution du plan quinquenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-07-01

    This document presents realized activities during five years program in mine field and petroleum (1979-1983). It involves mining and petroleum researches and mining productions. [French] Le document presente les activites realisees dans le domaine des mines et du petrole pendant les 5 annees du plan quinquenal (1979-1983). Il s'agit des recherches minieres et petrolieres et des productions minieres.

  11. Is there a relationship between language switching and executive functions in bilingualism? Introducing a within-group analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eSoveri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have suggested a bilingual advantage in executive functions, presumably due to bilinguals’ massive practice with language switching that requires executive resources, but the results are still somewhat controversial. Previous studies are also plagued by the inherent limitations of a natural groups design where the participant groups are bound to differ in many ways in addition to the variable used to classify them. In an attempt to introduce a complementary analysis approach, we employed multiple regression to study whether the performance of 30-75-year-old Finnish-Swedish bilinguals (n= 38 on tasks measuring different executive functions (inhibition, updating, and set shifting could be predicted by the frequency of language switches in everyday life (as measured by a language switching questionnaire, L2 age of acquisition, or by the self-estimated degree of use of both languages in everyday life. Most consistent effects were found for the set shifting task where a higher rate of everyday language switches was related to a smaller mixing cost in errors. Mixing cost is thought to reflect top-down management of competing task sets, thus resembling the bilingual situation where decisions of which language to use has to be made in each conversation. These findings provide additional support to the idea that some executive functions in bilinguals are affected by a lifelong experience in language switching and, perhaps even more importantly, suggest a complementary approach to the study of this issue.

  12. The benefits of executive control training and the implications for language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika K. Hussey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent psycholinguistics research suggests that the executive function (EF skill known as conflict resolution—the ability to adjust behavior in the service of resolving among incompatible representations—is important for several language processing tasks such as lexical and syntactic ambiguity resolution, verbal fluency, and common-ground assessment. Here, we discuss work showing that various EF skills can be enhanced through consistent practice with working memory tasks that tap these EFs, and, moreover, that improvements on the training tasks transfer across domains to novel tasks that may rely on shared underlying EFs. These findings have implications for language processing and could launch new research exploring if EF training, within a process-specific framework, could be used as a remediation tool for improving general language use. Indeed, work in our lab demonstrates that EF training that increases conflict-resolution processes has selective benefits on an untrained sentence-processing task requiring syntactic ambiguity resolution, which relies on shared conflict-resolution functions. Given claims that conflict-resolution abilities contribute to a range of linguistic skills, EF training targeting this process could theoretically yield wider performance gains beyond garden-path recovery. We offer some hypotheses on the potential benefits of EF training as a component of interventions to mitigate general difficulties in language processing. However, there are caveats to consider as well, which we also address.

  13. Language Management Theory as One Approach in Language Policy and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekvapil, Jirí

    2016-01-01

    Language Policy and Planning is currently a significantly diversified research area and thus it is not easy to find common denominators that help to define basic approaches within it. Richard B. Baldauf attempted to do so by differentiating between four basic approaches: (1) the classical approach, (2) the language management approach (Language…

  14. Speech-language pathology telehealth in rural and remote schools: the experience of school executive and therapy assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather, Glenn C; Lincoln, Michelle A; Ramsden, Robyn

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in accessing allied health services, especially in rural and remote areas, appear to be driving the use of telehealth services to children in schools. The objectives of this study were to investigate the experiences and views of school executive staff and therapy assistants regarding the feasibility and acceptability of a speech-language pathology telehealth program for children attending schools in rural and remote New South Wales, Australia. The program, called Come N See, provided therapy interventions remotely via low-bandwidth videoconferencing, with email follow-up. Over a 12-week period, children were offered therapy blocks of six fortnightly sessions, each lasting a maximum of 30 minutes. School executives (n=5) and therapy assistants (n=6) described factors that promoted or threatened the program's feasibility and acceptability, during semistructured interviews. Thematic content analysis with constant comparison was applied to the transcribed interviews to identify relationships in the data. Emergent themes related to (a) unmet speech pathology needs, (b) building relationships, (c) telehealth's advantages, (d) telehealth's disadvantages, (e) anxiety replaced by joy and confidence in growing skills, and (f) supports. School executive staff and therapy assistants verified that the delivery of the school-based telehealth service was feasible and acceptable. However, the participants saw significant opportunities to enhance this acceptability through building into the program stronger working relationships and supports for stakeholders. These findings are important for the future development of allied health telehealth programs that are sustainable as well as effective and fit the needs of all crucial stakeholders. The results have significant implications for speech pathology clinical practice relating to technology, program planning and teamwork within telehealth programs.

  15. South Dakota ITS/CVO business plan : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-19

    This report defines an ITS/CVO program for the State of South Dakota. It is a Business Plan to guide the deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) technology for improving commercial vehicle operations (CVO) in South Dakota. This ITS/CVO...

  16. Restandardisation defined as democratising language planning1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dignity. Furthermore, globalisation gave rise to a worldwide ethnic renaissance with a focus on ... Given this democratisation of the world, the relevance of standard ...... extinction. The harmonisation and standardisation of African languages. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press. pp. 157-164. Mantho, E. 2009.

  17. Language And Planning National Integration: The Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In multilingual settings, language which can be used as an effective instrument for national development and the promotion of national consciousness and unity can also be used as a weapon for marginalization, separation and exclusion. The latter trend can distabilize the nation as it is bound to set the different linguistic ...

  18. The Problems with Language Policy and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    This article begins with a critique of dominant approaches to language policy in education that are based on the notion of "rights" and "peoples." It makes the case for an approach that is based on the tripartite view of social justice, as articulated by Nancy Fraser. This view of social justice sees a complementary…

  19. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., safety, and health into work planning and execution. 970.5223-1 Section 970.5223-1 Federal Acquisition... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning and...

  20. Ten-Year Network Development Plan - 2015 edition, executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Complying with the European and French laws, each year, RTE prepares and publicizes a Ten-Year Network Development Plan (NDP) to meet the expectations of its stakeholders and customers. The NDP lists the network development projects that RTE plans to complete and commission over a 3-year period and presents the main power transmission infrastructure work envisaged for the next Ten-years. Beyond, it outlines the possible network adaptation needs for a variety of energy transition scenarios. Over the next 10 years, the network investments will make it possible to: - Meet the goals of the Regional Climate Air Energy Plans, - Create 4 GW of extra offshore wind generation integration capacity and 10 GW of additional interconnection capacity, 2/3 more than the current capacity, - Enable the development of economically and demographically dynamic areas, with safe and high-standard electricity supply. In the coming decade, RTE plans: - 1,200 km of new underground and sub-sea DC links, along with their associated converter stations; - 600 km of existing equipment upgrades or new overhead 400 kV AC circuits substituting existing power lines. - and, at the same time, nearly 900 km of underground lines and just over 400 km of overhead 225 kV AC lines should be built. 400 projects are listed in this NDP: - 21% of the operations are on overhead lines (for 3/4 new lines or upgrade and for 1/4 dismantling of existing assets) - 27% concern new underground lines; - 52% on substation adaptations (about 20 new RTE substations and 100 new customer substations connected). Globally, nearly 80% of the network is developed underground or sub-sea. This edition of the Network Development plan is further enriched. In particular, it explains more thoroughly the link between the integration of renewable energy and the entailed development of the transmission network. It also provides a focus on smart grids. This edition relies on mid and long term scenarios describing the evolution of the

  1. Master plan: Guntersville Reservoir Aquatic Plant Management. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1989, Congress provided funding to start a five-year comprehensive project to manage aquatic plants in Guntersville Reservoir, to be jointly implemented by the US Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). TVA serves as the overall project coordinator and is the lead agency for this project. Known as the Joint Agency Guntersville Project (JAGP), the project will test and demonstrate innovative management technologies, and incorporate the most effective technologies into a comprehensive aquatic plant management plan for Guntersville Reservoir. The JAGP is intended to serve as a National Demonstration Project for aquatic plant management. As part of this JAGP, the Master Plan for Aquatic Plant Management for the Guntersville Reservoir Project, Alabama-Tennessee is authorized by Corps Contract Number DACW62-90-C-0067.

  2. Biofuels Program Plan, FY 1992--FY 1996. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    This five-year program plan describes the goals and philosophy of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) program and the BSD`s major research and development (R&D) activities for fiscal years (FY) 1992 through 1996. The plan represents a consensus among government and university researchers, fuel and automotive manufacturers, and current and potential users of alternative fuels and fuel additives produced from biomass. It defines the activities that are necessary to produce versatile, domestic, economical, renewable liquid fuels from biomass feedstocks. The BSD program focuses on the production of alternative liquid fuels for transportation-fuels such as ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, and fuel additives for reformulated gasoline. These fuels can be produced from many plant materials and from a significant portion of the wastes generated by municipalities and industry. Together these raw materials and wastes, or feedstocks, are called biomass.

  3. Qualitative differences between bilingual language control and executive control: evidence from task switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eCalabria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that highly-proficient bilinguals have comparable switch costs in both directions when they switch between languages (L1 and L2, the so called ‘symmetrical switch cost’ effect. Interestingly, the same symmetry is also present when they switch between L1 and a much weaker L3. These findings suggest that highly proficient bilinguals develop a language control system that seems to be insensitive to language proficiency. In the present study, we explore whether the pattern of symmetrical switch costs in language switching tasks generalizes to a non-linguistic switching task in the same group of highly-proficient bilinguals. The end goal of this is to assess whether bilingual language control (bLC can be considered as subsidiary to domain-general executive control (EC. We tested highly-proficient Catalan-Spanish bilinguals both in a linguistic switching task and in a non-linguistic switching task. In the linguistic task, participants named pictures in L1 and L2 (Experiment 1 or L3 (Experiment 2 depending on a cue presented with the picture (a flag. In the non-linguistic task, the same participants had to switch between two card sorting rule-sets (colour and shape. Overall, participants showed symmetrical switch costs in the linguistic switching task, but not in the non-linguistic switching task. In a further analysis, we observed that in the linguistic switching task the asymmetry of the switch costs changed across blocks, while in the non-linguistic switching task an asymmetrical switch cost was observed throughout the task. The observation of different patterns of switch costs in the linguistic and the non-linguistic switching tasks suggest that the bLC system is not completely subsidiary to the domain-general EC system.

  4. Planning and Executing the Neurosurgery Boot Camp: The Bolivia Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Jared D; Kim, Timothy; Gold-Markel, Judah; Germano, Isabelle M; Dempsey, Robert; Weaver, John P; DiPatri, Arthur J; Andrews, Russell J; Sanchez, Mary; Hinojosa, Juan; Moser, Richard P; Glick, Roberta

    2017-08-01

    The neurosurgical boot camp has been fully incorporated into U.S. postgraduate education. This is the first implementation of the neurosurgical boot in a developing country. To advance neurosurgical education, we developed a similar boot camp program, in collaboration with Bolivian neurosurgeons, to determine its feasibility and effectiveness in an international setting. In a collective effort, the Bolivian Society for Neurosurgery, Foundation for International Education in Neurological Surgery, Solidarity Bridge, and University of Massachusetts organized and executed the first South American neurosurgical boot camp in Bolivia in 2015. Both U.S. and Bolivian faculty led didactic lectures followed by a practicum day using mannequins and simulators. South American residents and faculty were surveyed after the course to determine levels of enthusiasm and their perceived improvement in fund of knowledge and course effectiveness. Twenty-four neurosurgery residents from 5 South American countries participated. Average survey scores ranged between 4.2 and 4.9 out of 5. Five Bolivian neurosurgeons completed the survey with average scores of 4.5-5. This event allowed for Bolivian leaders in the field to unify around education, resulting in the formation of an institute to continue similar initiatives. Total cost was estimated at $40 000 USD; however, significant faculty, industry, and donor support helped offset this amount. The first South American neurosurgical boot camp had significant value and was well received in Bolivia. This humanitarian model provides a sustainable solution to education needs and should be expanded to other regions as a means for standardizing the core competencies in neurosurgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Positive Emotional Language in the Final Words Spoken Directly Before Execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmüller, Sarah; Egloff, Boris

    2015-01-01

    How do individuals emotionally cope with the imminent real-world salience of mortality? DeWall and Baumeister as well as Kashdan and colleagues previously provided support that an increased use of positive emotion words serves as a way to protect and defend against mortality salience of one's own contemplated death. Although these studies provide important insights into the psychological dynamics of mortality salience, it remains an open question how individuals cope with the immense threat of mortality prior to their imminent actual death. In the present research, we therefore analyzed positivity in the final words spoken immediately before execution by 407 death row inmates in Texas. By using computerized quantitative text analysis as an objective measure of emotional language use, our results showed that the final words contained a significantly higher proportion of positive than negative emotion words. This emotional positivity was significantly higher than (a) positive emotion word usage base rates in spoken and written materials and (b) positive emotional language use with regard to contemplated death and attempted or actual suicide. Additional analyses showed that emotional positivity in final statements was associated with a greater frequency of language use that was indicative of self-references, social orientation, and present-oriented time focus as well as with fewer instances of cognitive-processing, past-oriented, and death-related word use. Taken together, our findings offer new insights into how individuals cope with the imminent real-world salience of mortality.

  6. Media, Information Technology, and Language Planning: What Can Endangered Language Communities Learn from Created Language Communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The languages of Klingon and Na'vi, both created for media, are also languages that have garnered much media attention throughout the course of their existence. Speakers of these languages also utilize social media and information technologies, specifically websites, in order to learn the languages and then put them into practice. While teaching a…

  7. Community-level Language Planning for Chinese Heritage Language Maintenance in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Chung Cheng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the development of Chinese heritage language in the United States from the perspective of language policy and planning. The case study examines the Chinese heritage language maintenance through community-based Chinese schools (CHS, and CHS’s relationships with Chinese American community, as well as governments and non-government organizations in China, Taiwan, and the United States. The paper starts with a theoretical discussion on the definition of language policy and planning, and then describes the history and heritage language education of Chinese Americans in the United States. The paper also presents micro-level planning activities initiated by CHSs in the Chinese American community and non-government organizations. Special focus is placed on the interaction between non-government organizations in the US and governmental bodies in Taiwan and mainland China and in the United States. This paper suggests that micro planning of heritage language maintenance is beneficial when initiated in the community, but it can only be developed and sustained within the wider scope of macro-level planning from governments

  8. Executive functions and inhibitory control in multilingual children: evidence from second-language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-12-01

    In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals performed the Simon task and the Attentional Networks Task (ANT). Language proficiencies and socioeconomic status were controlled. We found that the Simon effect advantage, reported in earlier research for bilingual children and adults over monolinguals, differed across groups, with bilinguals and trilinguals showing enhanced conflict resolution over monolinguals and marginally so over second-language learners. In the ANT, bilinguals and trilinguals displayed enhanced conflict resolution over second-language learners. This extends earlier research to child second-language learners and trilinguals, who were in the process of becoming proficient in an additional language, while corroborating earlier findings demonstrating enhanced executive control in bilinguals assumed to be caused by continuous inhibitory control processes necessary in competition resolution between two (or possibly more) languages. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children, both for early second-language learners and for early bilinguals and trilinguals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. POTENTIAL MARKETING PLAN FOR EF, REGARDING LANGUAGE COURSES IN CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Saarni, Helena

    2017-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis was conducted as a potential marketing plan for EF. The aim and purpose of the project was to create a marketing plan for a company called EF regarding their Chinese language courses in China, where they offer these courses to young adults already. These courses however are not marketed in Finland as much as the other language courses. The theoretical part was gathered by collecting information and theories from various sources including books and e-books about mark...

  10. Economic Security Environment and Implementation of Planning, Programming, Budgeting, Execution (PPBE) System in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Roy J. What Determines Economic Growth? Economic Review – Second Quarter 1993 [References: Barro (1991); Mankiw , Romer, and Well (1992); De Long...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release: distribution unlimited ECONOMIC SECURITY...DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Economic Security Environment and Implementation of Planning, Programming, Budgeting, Execution

  11. Counting, enumerating and sampling of execution plans in a cost-based query optimizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Waas; C.A. Galindo-Legaria

    1999-01-01

    textabstractTesting an SQL database system by running large sets of deterministic or stochastic SQL statements is common practice in commercial database development. However, code defects often remain undetected as the query optimizer's choice of an execution plan is not only depending on

  12. Counting, Enumerating and Sampling of Execution Plans in a Cost-Based Query Optimizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Waas; C.A. Galindo-Legaria

    2000-01-01

    textabstractTesting an SQL database system by running large sets of deterministic or stochastic SQL statements is common practice in commercial database development. However, code defects often remain undetected as the query optimizer's choice of an execution plan is not only depending on the query

  13. A Critical Examination of Senior Executive Leadership Succession Planning and Management with Implications for Underrepresented Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, LeKeisha D.

    2017-01-01

    Guided by the research questions, this study utilized a sequential explanatory mixed methods research design to examine senior executive leadership succession planning at four-year, predominately white, doctoral universities in the state of Georgia. Utilizing the Representative Bureaucracy theory and the Mateso SPM conceptual model, this study…

  14. SNF sludge treatment system preliminary project execution plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) Project Director for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project has requested Numatec Hanford Company (NHC) to define how Hanford would manage a new subproject to provide a process system to receive and chemically treat radioactive sludge currently stored in the 100 K Area fuel retention basins. The subproject, named the Sludge Treatment System (STS) Subproject, provides and operates facilities and equipment to chemically process K Basin sludge to meet Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) requirements. This document sets forth the NHC management approach for the STS Subproject and will comply with the requirements of the SNF Project Management Plan (HNF-SD-SNFPMP-011). This version of this document is intended to apply to the initial phase of the subproject and to evolve through subsequent revision to include all design, fabrication, and construction conducted on the project and the necessary management and engineering functions within the scope of the subproject. As Project Manager, NHC will perform those activities necessary to complete the STS Subproject within approved cost and schedule baselines and turn over to FDH facilities, systems, and documentation necessary for operation of the STS

  15. THE EXECUTION OF PLANNED DETOURS BY SPIDER-EATING PREDATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Fiona R.; Jackson, Robert R.

    2016-01-01

    Many spiders from the salticid subfamily Spartaeinae specialize at preying on other spiders and they adopt complex strategies when targeting these dangerous prey. We tested 15 of these spider-eating spartaeine species for the capacity to plan detours ahead of time. Each trial began with the test subject on top of a tower from which it could view two boxes: one containing prey and the other not containing prey. The distance between the tower and the boxes was too far to reach by leaping and the tower sat on a platform surrounded by water. As the species studied are known to avoid water, the only way they could reach the prey without getting wet was by taking one of two circuitous walkways from the platform: one leading to the prey (‘correct’) and one not leading to the prey (‘incorrect’). After leaving the tower, the test subject could not see the prey and sometimes it had to walk past the incorrect walkway before reaching the correct walkway. Yet all 15 species chose the correct walkway significantly more often than the incorrect walkway. We propose that these findings exemplify genuine cognition based on representation. PMID:26781057

  16. Storytelling, behavior planning and language evolution in context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen eMcbride

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is made to specify the structure of the hominin bands that began steps to language. 8 Storytelling could evolve without need for language yet be strongly subject to natural selection 9 and could provide a major feedback process in evolving language. A storytelling model is 10 examined, including its effects on the evolution of consciousness and the possible timing of 11 language evolution. Behavior planning is presented as a model of language evolution from 12 storytelling. The behavior programming mechanism in both directions provide a model of 13 creating and understanding behavior and language. Culture began with societies, then family 14 evolution, family life in troops, but storytelling created a culture of experiences, a final step in 15 the long process of achieving experienced adults by natural selection. Most language evolution 16 occurred in conversations where evolving non-verbal feedback ensured mutual agreements on 17 understanding. Natural language evolved in conversations with feedback providing 18 understanding of changes.

  17. Systems autonomy technology: Executive summary and program plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, John S (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The National Space Strategy approved by the President and Congress in 1984 sets for NASA a major goal of conducting effective and productive space applications and technology programs which contribute materially toward United States leadership and security. To contribute to this goal, OAST supports the Nation's civil and defense space programs and overall economic growth. OAST objectives are to ensure timely provision of new concepts and advanced technologies, to support both the development of NASA missions in space and the space activities of industry and other organizations, to utilize the strengths of universities in conducting the NASA space research and technology program, and to maintain the NASA centers in positions of strength in critical space technology areas. In line with these objectives, NASA has established a new program in space automation and robotics that will result in the development and transfer and automation technology to increase the capabilities, productivity, and safety of NASA space programs including the Space Station, automated space platforms, lunar bases, Mars missions, and other deep space ventures. The NASA/OAST Automation and Robotics program is divided into two parts. Ames Research Center has the lead role in developing and demonstrating System Autonomy capabilities for space systems that need to make their own decisions and do their own planning. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has the lead role for Telerobotics (that portion of the program that has a strong human operator component in the control loop and some remote handling requirement in space). This program is intended to be a working document for NASA Headquarters, Program Offices, and implementing Project Management.

  18. Taking your own path: Individual differences in executive function and language processing skills in child learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Kristina; Pozzan, Lucia; Trueswell, John C

    2016-01-01

    Children as old as 5 or 6 years display selective difficulties in revising initial interpretive commitments, as indicated by both online and offline measures of sentence comprehension. It is likely, however, that individual children differ in how well they can recover from misinterpretations and in the age at which they become adult-like in these abilities. To better understand the cognitive functions that support sentence processing and revision, the current work investigated how individual differences in children's ability to interpret temporarily ambiguous sentences relate to individual differences in other linguistic and domain-general cognitive abilities. Children were tested over 2 days on a battery of executive function, working memory, and language comprehension tasks. Performance on these tasks was then used to predict online and offline measures of children's ability to revise initial misinterpretations of temporarily ambiguous sentences. We found two measures of children's cognitive flexibility to be related to their ambiguity resolution abilities. These results provide converging evidence for the hypothesis that the ability to revise initial interpretive commitments is supported by domain-general executive function abilities, which are highly variable and not fully developed in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Planning and Execution: The Spirit of Opportunity for Robust Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscettola, Nicola

    2004-01-01

    One of the most exciting endeavors pursued by human kind is the search for life in the Solar System and the Universe at large. NASA is leading this effort by designing, deploying and operating robotic systems that will reach planets, planet moons, asteroids and comets searching for water, organic building blocks and signs of past or present microbial life. None of these missions will be achievable without substantial advances in.the design, implementation and validation of autonomous control agents. These agents must be capable of robustly controlling a robotic explorer in a hostile environment with very limited or no communication with Earth. The talk focuses on work pursued at the NASA Ames Research center ranging from basic research on algorithm to deployed mission support systems. We will start by discussing how planning and scheduling technology derived from the Remote Agent experiment is being used daily in the operations of the Spirit and Opportunity rovers. Planning and scheduling is also used as the fundamental paradigm at the core of our research in real-time autonomous agents. In particular, we will describe our efforts in the Intelligent Distributed Execution Architecture (IDEA), a multi-agent real-time architecture that exploits artificial intelligence planning as the core reasoning engine of an autonomous agent. We will also describe how the issue of plan robustness at execution can be addressed by novel constraint propagation algorithms capable of giving the tightest exact bounds on resource consumption or all possible executions of a flexible plan.

  20. Modern Shale Gas Horizontal Drilling: Review of Best Practices for Exploration Phase Planning and Execution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nathaniel Harding; Stephen Smith; John Shelton; Mike D. Bumaman

    2009-01-01

    The challenging characteristics of shale formations often require horizontal drilling to economically develop their potential. While every shale gas play is unique, there are several best practices for the proper planning and execution of a horizontal well. In planning a horizontal well, the optimal method and technology for building inclination and extending the lateral section must be determined. Properly specified logging-while-drilling tools are essential to keep the wellbore within the target formation. Planning must also focus on casing design. Doing so will help ensure stability and enable reliable and productive completions. Shales pose a challenge for these elements of well planning due to their thin strata and potentially low mechanical competence when foreign fluids are introduced. Once a plan is developed, executing it is even more important to prove a viable exploration program. Fast, efficient drilling with wellbore control and minimal torque and drag should be the priority. This may be achieved by focusing on fluid hydraulics and rheology and bottom hole assembly. Managed pressure drilling (MPD) will help fast drilling, well control and stability. If MPD can be combined with new generation rotary steerable systems that allow the drill string to maintain rotation, impressive efficiencies are possible. Modern drilling parameter analysis represents the newest opportunity for executing shale gas horizontal wells. A method for ROP analysis to improve operational parameters and equipment selection is also proposed.

  1. Preliminary Project Execution Plan for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, David

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary project execution plan (PEP) defines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project objectives, roles and responsibilities of project participants, project organization, and controls to effectively manage acquisition of capital funds for construction of a proposed remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The plan addresses the policies, requirements, and critical decision (CD) responsibilities identified in DOE Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.' This plan is intended to be a 'living document' that will be periodically updated as the project progresses through the CD process to construction and turnover for operation.

  2. English language-in-education: A lesson planning model for subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    English language-in-education: A lesson planning model for subject teachers. ... lack of critical academic language skills in English as the Language of Learning and ... process of lesson design and the 'forward' process of lesson presentation.

  3. Stimulation of Executive Functions as Part of the Language Intervention Process in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ingrid Ya I; Varanda, Cristina Andrade; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux

    2017-01-01

    Identifying effective methods for stimulating language and communication of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is fundamental to the effective use of available resources to support these children. This pilot study was designed to explore the potential benefits of a program of stimulation of executive functions (SEF) on the functional aspects of language and communication through the assessment of the functional communicative profile and social-cognitive performance. Twenty children, aged 5-12 years, with a diagnosis of ASD participated in the study. Two stimulation programs were offered over a 10- to 12-week period as part of the regular services offered to these children through a University's speech and language therapy outpatient clinic in São Paulo, Brazil. Children either received SEF intervention in their home implemented by their parent/s, with close monitoring by the speech-language pathologist (SLP) (group 1), or they received SEF by the SLP during regular speech-language therapy individual sessions (group 2). The findings suggested that there were differences between the children's pre- and posttest performance. Significantly different performances were observed in the areas of occupation of communication space, proportion of communicative interactivity, and social-cognitive performance. The inclusion of activities to stimulate executive function abilities in language intervention for children with ASD warrants further investigation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Quality planning and executive force of program files in quality management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Danyu

    2008-01-01

    This paper discussed the quality planning in quality management. In the quality planning, the quality objectives, the quality liabilities and the procedures shall be developed, grading supervise shall be exercised, quality assurance program shall be established, and requirements on resource and documents shall be defined. At the same time, we shall also intensify and enhance the execute force of program documentation, supervise and inspect the implementation result, establish detailed check indicators, and bring up the requirement on how to improve the quality of products. (author)

  5. Executive functions, oral language and writing in preschool children: Development and correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita de Cassia Batista Pazeto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EF and oral language (OL are important for learning reading and writing (RW and for the development of other skills in preschool. The study investigated the progression and the relationships between the performances in these competences in pre-schoolers. Participants were 90 children, mean age 4.91 years, students from Kindergarten years I and II of a private school in SP, assessed, individually, with a battery with nine instruments for EF, OL, and RW. There was increase of the performances as a result of educational level for all OL and RW measures, but only for attention in the field of EF. Significant correlations were found between the measurements assessing the same cognitive domain, as well as inter-domain, although portraying a different pattern. The results indicate that OL and RW seem to develop rapidly in the course of preschool, while the EF have slower development. The fields of OL and RW, EF and RW are more interdependent, and EF and OL are relatively independent.

  6. Effects of short-term music and second-language training on executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Monika; Lee, Yunjo; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    Separate lines of research have identified enhanced performance on nonverbal executive control (EC) tasks for bilinguals and those with music training, but little is known about the relation between them in terms of the specificity of the effects of each experience or the degree of exposure necessary to induce these changes. Using an intervention design, the current study pseudorandomly assigned 57 4- to 6-year-old children (matched on age, maternal education, and cognitive scores) to a 20-day training program offering instruction in either music or conversational French. The test battery consisted of verbal and nonverbal tasks requiring EC. All children improved on these tasks following training with some training-specific differences. No changes were observed on background or working memory measures after either training, ruling out simple practice effects. Children in both groups had better scores on the most challenging condition of a grammaticality sentence judgment task in which it was necessary to ignore conflict introduced through misleading semantic content. Children in both training groups also showed better accuracy on the easier condition of a nonverbal visual search task at post-test, but children in the French training group also showed significant improvement on the more challenging condition of this task. These results are discussed in terms of emergent EC benefits of language and music training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Short Term Music and Second Language Training on Executive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Monika; Lee, Yunjo; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Separate lines of research have identified enhanced performance on non-verbal executive control (EC) tasks for bilinguals (Bialystok, Craik, Green, & Gollan, 2009) and those with music training (Moreno et al., 2011), but little is known about the relation between them in terms of the specificity of the effects of each experience or the degree of exposure necessary to induce these changes. Using an intervention design, the present study pseudo-randomly assigned 57 4- to 6-year-old children (matched on age, maternal education, and cognitive scores) to a 20-day training program offering instruction in either music or conversational French. The test battery consisted of verbal and non-verbal tasks requiring EC. All children improved on these tasks following training with some training-specific differences. No changes were observed on background or working memory measures after either training, ruling out simple practice effects. Children in both groups had better scores on the most challenging condition of a grammaticality sentence judgment task in which it was necessary to ignore conflict introduced through misleading semantic content. Children in both training groups also showed better accuracy on the easier condition of a non-verbal visual search task at post-test, but children in the French training group also showed significant improvement on the more challenging condition of this task. These results are discussed in terms of emergent EC benefits of language and music training. PMID:26709746

  8. Preliminary Project Execution Plan for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-05-01

    This preliminary project execution plan (PEP) defines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project objectives, roles and responsibilities of project participants, project organization, and controls to effectively manage acquisition of capital funds for construction of a proposed remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The plan addresses the policies, requirements, and critical decision (CD) responsibilities identified in DOE Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.' This plan is intended to be a 'living document' that will be periodically updated as the project progresses through the CD process to construction and turnover for operation.

  9. EEG signatures of arm isometric exertions in preparation, planning and execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseroleslami, Bahman; Lakany, Heba; Conway, Bernard A

    2014-04-15

    The electroencephalographic (EEG) activity patterns in humans during motor behaviour provide insight into normal motor control processes and for diagnostic and rehabilitation applications. While the patterns preceding brisk voluntary movements, and especially movement execution, are well described, there are few EEG studies that address the cortical activation patterns seen in isometric exertions and their planning. In this paper, we report on time and time-frequency EEG signatures in experiments in normal subjects (n=8), using multichannel EEG during motor preparation, planning and execution of directional centre-out arm isometric exertions performed at the wrist in the horizontal plane, in response to instruction-delay visual cues. Our observations suggest that isometric force exertions are accompanied by transient and sustained event-related potentials (ERP) and event-related (de-)synchronisations (ERD/ERS), comparable to those of a movement task. Furthermore, the ERPs and ERD/ERS are also observed during preparation and planning of the isometric task. Comparison of ear-lobe-referenced and surface Laplacian ERPs indicates the contribution of superficial sources in supplementary and pre-motor (FC(z)), parietal (CP(z)) and primary motor cortical areas (C₁ and FC₁) to ERPs (primarily negative peaks in frontal and positive peaks in parietal areas), but contribution of deep sources to sustained time-domain potentials (negativity in planning and positivity in execution). Transient and sustained ERD patterns in μ and β frequency bands of ear-lobe-referenced and surface Laplacian EEG indicate the contribution of both superficial and deep sources to ERD/ERS. As no physical displacement happens during the task, we can infer that the underlying mechanisms of motor-related ERPs and ERD/ERS patterns do not only depend on change in limb coordinate or muscle-length-dependent ascending sensory information and are primary generated by motor preparation, direction

  10. Balanced bilingualism and early age of second language acquisition as the underlying mechanisms of a bilingual executive control advantage: Why variations in bilingual experiences matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Quin eYow

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-year-old English-Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number-letter switching and n-back task that measure the executive function components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages on the Stroop and number-letter task (mixing cost only, indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related executive functions such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global

  11. Proceedings of the executive dialogue on resource planning and investment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, K.

    1992-01-01

    At the invitation of the Secretary of the US Department of Energy (DOE), more than sixty electric utility executives met with twenty state regulators and twenty senior executives of major intervenor groups to discuss the issues that define the future of integrated resource planning (IRP). During the last decade, the concept of IRP (or least-cost planning as it was known earlier) emerged as an important utility and energy planning tool. Since 1986, IRP has been utilized, to some degree, in as many as 27 states. DOE participated in the rapid expansion of IRP through modest investments in pivotal programs and projects. The primary purpose of this meeting was to assess the status of IRP and to discuss the steps needed to strengthen its role in state and national energy policy. The one-and-one-half-day meeting began with a brief plenary session consisting of three presentations to set the context for the workshop and raise critical IRP issues by three acknowledged leaders from utilities, regulators, and intervenors. This was followed by discussions in small groups for the balance of the day. The meeting concluded with a two-part plenary session that (1) summarized the findings of the discussion groups and (2) presented conclusions and recommendations representing the collective views of each sector (utility, regulatory, and intervenor) expressed during the workshop

  12. 76 FR 32133 - FAR Council's Plan for Retrospective Review Under Executive Order 13563-Preliminary Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... business subcontracting plans; 7. Restructuring rules addressing conflicts of interest; and 8. Clarifying... regulatory objectives.'' To comply with E.O. 13563, the FAR Council invites interested members of the public....regulations.gov , including any personal and/or business confidential information provided. FOR FURTHER...

  13. Medical Signbank as a Model for Sign Language Planning? A Review of Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Jemina; Major, George; Ferrara, Lindsay; Johnston, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews a sign language planning project conducted in Australia with deaf Auslan users. The Medical Signbank project utilised a cooperative language planning process to engage with the Deaf community and sign language interpreters to develop an online interactive resource of health-related signs, in order to address a gap in the health…

  14. Language Trends 2013/14: The State of Language Learning in Primary and Secondary Schools in England. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Kathryn; Tinsley, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The Language Trends survey 2013/4 is the 12th in a series of annual research exercises charting the health of language teaching and learning in English schools. The findings are based on an online survey completed by teachers in a large sample of secondary schools across the country from both the state and independent sectors. In 2012, and again…

  15. Regional coordination in medical emergencies and major incidents; plan, execute and teach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedelin Annika

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although disasters and major incidents are difficult to predict, the results can be mitigated through planning, training and coordinated management of available resources. Following a fire in a disco in Gothenburg, causing 63 deaths and over 200 casualties, a medical disaster response centre was created. The center was given the task to coordinate risk assessments, disaster planning and training of staff within the region and on an executive level, to be the point of contact (POC with authority to act as "gold control," i.e. to take immediate strategic command over all medical resources within the region if needed. The aim of this study was to find out if the centre had achieved its tasks by analyzing its activities. Methods All details concerning alerts of the regional POC was entered a web-based log by the duty officer. The data registered in this database was analyzed during a 3-year period. Results There was an increase in number of alerts between 2006 and 2008, which resulted in 6293 activities including risk assessments and 4473 contacts with major institutions or key persons to coordinate or initiate actions. Eighty five percent of the missions were completed within 24 h. Twenty eight exercises were performed of which 4 lasted more than 24 h. The centre also offered 145 courses in disaster and emergency medicine and crisis communication. Conclusion The data presented in this study indicates that the center had achieved its primary tasks. Such regional organization with executive, planning, teaching and training responsibilities offers possibilities for planning, teaching and training disaster medicine by giving immediate feed-back based on real incidents.

  16. Body iron is associated with cognitive executive planning function in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Cynthia A; Green, Michael W; Kretsch, Mary J

    2013-03-14

    Evidence of the relationship between altered cognitive function and depleted Fe status is accumulating in women of reproductive age but the degree of Fe deficiency associated with negative neuropsychological outcomes needs to be delineated. Data are limited regarding this relationship in university women in whom optimal cognitive function is critical to academic success. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between body Fe, in the absence of Fe-deficiency anaemia, and neuropsychological function in young college women. Healthy, non-anaemic undergraduate women (n 42) provided a blood sample and completed a standardised cognitive test battery consisting of one manual (Tower of London (TOL), a measure of central executive function) and five computerised (Bakan vigilance task, mental rotation, simple reaction time, immediate word recall and two-finger tapping) tasks. Women's body Fe ranged from - 4·2 to 8·1 mg/kg. General linear model ANOVA revealed a significant effect of body Fe on TOL planning time (P= 0·002). Spearman's correlation coefficients showed a significant inverse relationship between body Fe and TOL planning time for move categories 4 (r - 0·39, P= 0·01) and 5 (r - 0·47, P= 0·002). Performance on the computerised cognitive tasks was not affected by body Fe level. These findings suggest that Fe status in the absence of anaemia is positively associated with central executive function in otherwise healthy college women.

  17. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and... safety and health standards applicable to the work conditions of contractor and subcontractor employees...

  18. ERGONOMIC ASPECTS IN THE PLANNING AND EXECUTION OF PROJECTS: A TEXTILE PRODUCTS DISTRIBUTION CENTER PROJECT CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Lourenço da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The planning and execution phases of a distribution center project of a large textile industry was made, evaluating the ergonomic aspects related to the operations to be performed in the facility and staff anthropometric data. The ergonomic collaborative analysis of the tasks associated with the method of movement plotting, guided the planning of the picking, manual induction and order consolidation areas from the distribution center. Using this methodology, it was possible to obtain a proper ergonomically project planning and execution of the three studied areas.

  19. Relationships of Attention and Executive Functions to Oral Language, Reading, and Writing Skills and Systems in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert; Cook, Clayton R.; Nagy, William

    2017-01-01

    Relationships between attention/executive functions and language learning were investigated in students in Grades 4 to 9 (N = 88) with and without specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in multiword syntax in oral and written language (OWL LD), word reading and spelling (dyslexia), and subword letter writing (dysgraphia). Prior…

  20. Project Execution Plan for Project W-211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAN BEEK, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    This Project Execution Plan documents the methodology for managing Project W-211. Project W-211, Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS), is a fiscal year 1994 Major Systems Acquisition that will provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes from selected double-shell tanks (DST). The contents of these tanks are a combination of supernatant liquids and settled solids. To retrieve waste from the tanks, it is first necessary to mix the liquid and solids prior to transferring the slurry to alternative storage or treatment facilities. The ITRS will provide systems to mobilize the settled solids and transfer the wastes out of the tanks. In so doing, ITRS provides feed for the future waste treatment plant, allows for consolidation of tank solids to manage space within existing DST storage capacity, and supports continued safe storage of tank waste. The ITRS scope has been revised to include waste retrieval systems for tanks AP-102, AP-104, AN-102, AN-103, AN-104, AN-105, AY-102, AZ-102, and SY-102. This current tank selection and sequence provides retrieval systems supporting the River Protection Project (RF'P) Waste Treatment Facility and sustains the ability to provide final remediation of several watch list DSTs via treatment. The ITRS is configured to support changing program needs, as constrained by available budget, by maintaining the flexibility for exchanging tanks requiring mixer pump-based retrieval systems and shifting the retrieval sequence. Preliminary design was configured such that an adequate basis exists for initiating Title II design of a mixer pump-based retrieval system for any DST. This Project Execution Plan (PEP), derived from the predecessor Project Management Plan, documents the methodology for managing the ITRS, formalizes organizational responsibilities and interfaces, and identifies project requirements such as change control, design verification, systems engineering, and human factors engineering

  1. Balanced bilingualism and early age of second language acquisition as the underlying mechanisms of a bilingual executive control advantage: why variations in bilingual experiences matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, W. Quin; Li, Xiaoqian

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition) on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-years-old English–Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function (EF) tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number–letter switching, and n-back task) that measure the EF components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages) on the Stroop and number–letter task (mixing cost only), indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related EFs such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global set-shifting. PMID:25767451

  2. Balanced bilingualism and early age of second language acquisition as the underlying mechanisms of a bilingual executive control advantage: why variations in bilingual experiences matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, W Quin; Li, Xiaoqian

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition) on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-years-old English-Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function (EF) tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number-letter switching, and n-back task) that measure the EF components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages) on the Stroop and number-letter task (mixing cost only), indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related EFs such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global set-shifting.

  3. Lexical quality and executive control predict children's first and second language reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raudszus, H.; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2018-01-01

    This study compared how lexical quality (vocabulary and decoding) and executive control (working memory and inhibition) predict reading comprehension directly as well as indirectly, via syntactic integration, in monolingual and bilingual fourth grade children. The participants were 76 monolingual

  4. Can formal language planning link to grassroots cultural initiatives? An informal investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright, Laurence

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Formal language planning is inevitably a top-down, highly technical process. Success for such planning would seem to depend on engaging productively with existing or readily developed social motivation within the society. This article reports on an informal investigation into how ordinary language practitioners and cultural workers in South Africa view the possibilities of contributing to the country's emerging language dispensation, what they regard as their most useful possible contributions, and what they expect from the language planners and 'government' in support of South Africa's Language Policy and Plan.

  5. Execution Model of Three Parallel Languages: OpenMP, UPC and CAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Marowka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a qualitative evaluation of three state-of-the-art parallel languages: OpenMP, Unified Parallel C (UPC and Co-Array Fortran (CAF. OpenMP and UPC are explicit parallel programming languages based on the ANSI standard. CAF is an implicit programming language. On the one hand, OpenMP designs for shared-memory architectures and extends the base-language by using compiler directives that annotate the original source-code. On the other hand, UPC and CAF designs for distribute-shared memory architectures and extends the base-language by new parallel constructs. We deconstruct each language into its basic components, show examples, make a detailed analysis, compare them, and finally draw some conclusions.

  6. Micro Language Planning and Cultural Renaissance in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Modupe M.

    2016-01-01

    Many African countries exhibit complex patterns of language use because of linguistic pluralism. The situation is often compounded by the presence of at least one foreign language that is either the official or second language. The language situation in Botswana depicts this complex pattern. Out of the 26 languages spoken in the country, including…

  7. SymexTRON: Symbolic Execution of High-Level Transformation Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sibahi, Ahmad Salim; Dimovski, Aleksandar; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Transformations form an important part of developing domain specific languages, where they are used to provide semantics for typing and evaluation. Yet, few solutions exist for verifying transformations written in expressive high-level transformation languages. We take a step towards that goal, b...

  8. Assessment of Scheduling and Plan Execution of Apollo 14 Lunar Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.

    2010-01-01

    Although over forty years have passed since first landing on the Moon, there is not yet a comprehensive, quantitative assessment of Apollo extravehicular activities (EVAs). Quantitatively evaluating lunar EVAs will provide a better understanding of the challenges involved with surface operations. This first evaluation of a surface EVA centers on comparing the planned and the as-ran timeline, specifically collecting data on discrepancies between durations that were estimated versus executed. Differences were summarized by task categories in order to gain insight as to the type of surface operation activities that were most challenging. One Apollo 14 EVA was assessed utilizing the described methodology. Selected metrics and task categorizations were effective, and limitations to this process were identified.

  9. Integrated Project Teams - An Essential Element of Project Management during Project Planning and Execution - 12155

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burritt, James G.; Berkey, Edgar [Longenecker and Associates, Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Managing complex projects requires a capable, effective project manager to be in place, who is assisted by a team of competent assistants in various relevant disciplines. This team of assistants is known as the Integrated Project Team (IPT). he IPT is composed of a multidisciplinary group of people who are collectively responsible for delivering a defined project outcome and who plan, execute, and implement over the entire life-cycle of a project, which can be a facility being constructed or a system being acquired. An ideal IPT includes empowered representatives from all functional areas involved with a project-such as engineering design, technology, manufacturing, test and evaluation, contracts, legal, logistics, and especially, the customer. Effective IPTs are an essential element of scope, cost, and schedule control for any complex, large construction project, whether funded by DOE or another organization. By recently assessing a number of major, on-going DOE waste management projects, the characteristics of high performing IPTs have been defined as well as the reasons for potential IPT failure. Project managers should use IPTs to plan and execute projects, but the IPTs must be properly constituted and the members capable and empowered. For them to be effective, the project manager must select the right team, and provide them with the training and guidance for them to be effective. IPT members must treat their IPT assignment as a primary duty, not some ancillary function. All team members must have an understanding of the factors associated with successful IPTs, and the reasons that some IPTs fail. Integrated Project Teams should be used by both government and industry. (authors)

  10. Brain and Behavioral Assessment of Executive Functions for Self-Regulating Levels of Language in Reading Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W; Richards, Todd L; Abbott, Robert D

    2017-11-01

    This brief research report examines brain-behavioral relationships specific to levels of language in the complex reading brain. The first specific aim was to examine prior findings for significant fMRI connectivity from four seeds (left precuneus, left occipital temporal, left supramarginal, left inferior frontal) for each of four levels of language-subword, word (word-specific spelling or affixed words), syntax (with and without homonym foils or affix foils), and multi-sentence text to identify significant fMRI connectivity (a) unique to the lower level of language when compared to the immediately higher adjacent level of language across subword-word, word-syntax, and syntax-text comparisons; and (b) involving a brain region associated with executive functions. The second specific aim was to correlate the magnitude of that connectivity with standard scores on tests of Focused Attention (D-K EFS Color Word Form Inhibition) and Switching Attention (Wolf & Denckla Rapid Automatic Switching). Seven correlations were significant. Focused Attention was significantly correlated with the word level (word-specific spellings of real words) fMRI task in left cingulum from left inferior frontal seed. Switching Attention was significantly correlated with the (a) subword level (grapheme-phoneme correspondence) fMRI task in left and right Cerebellum V from left supramarginal seed; (b) the word level (word-specific spelling) fMRI task in right Cerebellum V from left precuneus seed; (c) the syntax level (with and without homonym foils) fMRI task in right Cerebellum V from left precuneus seed and from left supramarginal seed; and (d) syntax level (with and without affix foils) fMRI task in right Cerebellum V from left precuneus seed. Results are discussed in reference to neuropsychological assessment of supervisory attention (focused and switching) for specific levels of language related to reading acquisition in students with and without language-related specific learning

  11. Executive Order 13693: Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade; Guidance for Federal Agencies on Executive Order 13693 -- Federal Fleet Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) are issuing comprehensive guidance on the federal fleet requirements of Executive Order (E.O.) 13693, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade (E.O. 13693), to help federal agencies subject to the executive order develop an overall approach for reducing total fleet greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fleet-wide per-mile GHG emissions, and ensure the approach helps these agencies meet their requirements. Three key GHG emissions reduction strategies - right-sizing fleets to mission, increasing fleet fuel efficiency, and displacing petroleum with alternative fuel use - are essential to meeting the requirements and are discussed further in this document. This guidance document is intended to help agency Chief Sustainability Officers (CSOs) and headquarters fleet managers craft tailored executable plans that achieve the purpose of E.O. 13693. The guidance will assist agencies in completing the first phase of a comprehensive fleet management framework by identifying the strategies each agency will then implement to meet or exceed its requirements.

  12. Evaluation of Crew-Centric Onboard Mission Operations Planning and Execution Tool: Year 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenius, S.; Marquez, J.; Korth, D.; Rosenbaum, M.; Deliz, Ivy; Kanefsky, Bob; Zheng, Jimin

    2018-01-01

    Currently, mission planning for the International Space Station (ISS) is largely affected by ground operators in mission control. The task of creating a week-long mission plan for ISS crew takes dozens of people multiple days to complete, and is often created far in advance of its execution. As such, re-planning or adapting to changing real-time constraints or emergent issues is similarly taxing. As we design for future mission operations concepts to other planets or areas with limited connectivity to Earth, more of these ground-based tasks will need to be handled autonomously by the crew onboard.There is a need for a highly usable (including low training time) tool that enables efficient self-scheduling and execution within a single package. The ISS Program has identified Playbook as a potential option. It already has high crew acceptance as a plan viewer from previous analogs and can now support a crew self-scheduling assessment on ISS or on another mission. The goals of this work, a collaboration between the Human Research Program and the ISS Program, are to inform the design of systems for more autonomous crew operations and provide a platform for research on crew autonomy for future deep space missions. Our second year of the research effort have included new insights on the crew self-scheduling sessions performed by the crew through use on the HERA (Human Exploration Research Analog) and NEEMO (NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations) analogs. Use on the NEEMO analog involved two self-scheduling strategies where the crew planned and executed two days of EVAs (Extra-Vehicular Activities). On HERA year two represented the first HERA campaign where we were able to perform research tasks. This involved selected flexible activities that the crew could schedule, mock timelines where the crew completed more complex planning exercises, usability evaluation of the crew self-scheduling features, and more insights into the limit of plan complexity that the crew

  13. Cardiac vagal regulation in infancy predicts executive function and social competence in preschool: Indirect effects through language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whedon, Margaret; Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha A

    2018-05-21

    Parasympathetic nervous system functioning in infancy may serve a foundational role in the development of cognitive and socioemotional skills (Calkins, 2007). In this study (N = 297), we investigated the potential indirect effects of cardiac vagal regulation in infancy on children's executive functioning and social competence in preschool via expressive and receptive language in toddlerhood. Vagal regulation was assessed at 10 months during two attention conditions (social, nonsocial) via task-related changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). A path analysis revealed that decreased RSA from baseline in the nonsocial condition and increased RSA in the social condition were related to larger vocabularies in toddlerhood. Additionally, children's vocabulary sizes were positively related to their executive function and social competence in preschool. Indirect effects from vagal regulation in both contexts to both 4-year outcomes were significant, suggesting that early advances in language may represent a mechanism through which biological functioning in infancy impacts social and cognitive functioning in childhood. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Language and executive functioning skills of students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and in reading comprehension difficulties (RCD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda Casas, Ana; Fernández Andrés, María Inmaculada; García Castellar, Rosa; Roselló Miranda, Belén; Colomer Diago, Carla

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the specificity of deficits in linguistic and executive functioning of students with ADHD and with RCD and to determine the profile of deficits in the comorbid group (ADHD+RCD). Participants in the study were 84 students, ages 12-16 years divided into four groups with an equal number of subjects (N= 21): ADHD, RCD, ADHD+RCD and comparison group (without ADHD and without RCD). We measured vocabulary, oral comprehension, lexical access, verbal and visual working memory, inhibition and attention. The results show that the ADHD+RCD group presents the most important linguistic deficits, followed by the RCD group. On the other hand, the three clinical groups (ADHD, RCD and ADHD+RCD) display greater performance problems in working memory than the comparison group, whereas the two groups with ADHD had more problems in attention and inhibition. These results suggest the dissociation of linguistic and executive deficits that affect the RCD group and ADHD group to a greater extent, respectively. Lastly, the comorbid group showed deficits both in language and in executive skills. We discuss the implications of these findings for designing interventions.

  15. Enhancing English Language Planning Strategy Using a WebQuest Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayed, Rania Kamal Muhammad; Abdel-Haq, Eman Muhammad; El-Deeb, Mervat Abou-Bakr; Ali, Mahsoub Abdel-Sadeq

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at developing English language planning strategy of second year distinguished governmental language preparatory school pupils using the a WebQuest model. Fifty participants from second year at Hassan Abu-Bakr Distinguished Governmental Language School at Al-Qanater Al-Khairia (Qalubia Governorate) were randomly assigned…

  16. Lexical Quality and Executive Control Predict Children's First and Second Language Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudszus, Henriette; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2018-01-01

    This study compared how lexical quality (vocabulary and decoding) and executive control (working memory and inhibition) predict reading comprehension directly as well as indirectly, via syntactic integration, in monolingual and bilingual fourth grade children. The participants were 76 monolingual and 102 bilingual children (mean age 10 years,…

  17. Language Implications for Advertising in International Markets: A Model for Message Content and Message Execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, John; Yaprak, Attila

    A content analysis model for assessing advertising themes and messages generated primarily for United States markets to overcome barriers in the cultural environment of international markets was developed and tested. The model is based on three primary categories for generating, evaluating, and executing advertisements: rational, emotional, and…

  18. Computer network that assists in the planning, execution and evaluation of in-reactor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, T.H.; Froehle, P.H.; August, C.; Baldwin, R.D.; Johanson, E.W.; Kraimer, M.R.; Simms, R.; Klickman, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    For over 20 years complex, in-reactor experiments have been performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to investigate the performance of nuclear reactor fuel and to support the development of large computer codes that address questions of reactor safety in full-scale plants. Not only are computer codes an important end-product of the research, but computer analysis is also involved intimately at most stages of experiment planning, data reduction, and evaluation. For instance, many experiments are of sufficiently long duration or, if they are of brief duration, occur in such a purposeful sequence that need for speedy availability of on-line data is paramount. This is made possible most efficiently by computer assisted displays and evaluation. A purposeful linking of main-frame, mini, and micro computers has been effected over the past eight years which greatly enhances the speed with which experimental data are reduced to useful forms and applied to the relevant technological issues. This greater efficiency in data management led also to improvements in the planning and execution of subsequent experiments. Raw data from experiments performed at INEL is stored directly on disk and tape with the aid of minicomputers. Either during or shortly after an experiment, data may be transferred, via a direct link, to the Illinois offices of ANL where the data base is stored on a minicomputer system. This Idaho-to-Illinois link has both enhanced experiment performance and allowed rapid dissemination of results

  19. System of Budget Planning, Programming, Development and Execution and the Defence Resources Management Model (DRMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Čutić

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The system of budget planning, programming, development and execution of the Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Croatia (henceforth: the Croatian acronym SPPIIP is the basic system for the strategic management of defence resources through which an effective and rational distribution of available resources is conducted, based on the goals of national security of the Republic of Croatia. This system sets the principles of transparency and democratic management of defence resources while respecting the specificities of the defence system. The SPPIIP allows for decision making based on complete information about alternatives and the choice of the most economical and most efficient way to reach the goal. It unites the strategic plan, program and budget. It consists of four continuous, independent and interconnected phases: planning, programming, development and the execution of the budget. The processes of the phases are dynamic and cyclic. In addition to the SPPIIP, the Defence Resources Management Model (DRMM, Croatian acronym: MURO has also been developed. This is an analytic tool which serves as a decision support system in the SPPIIP. The DRMM is a complex computer model showing graph and tabular overviews in a multi-year period. The model examines three areas: the strength of the forces, expenses and defence programs. The purpose of the model is cost and strength analysis and the analysis of compromise and feasibility, i.e. how sensitive the programs are to fiscal movements in the sphere of the MoD budget in the course of a multiyear cycle, until a certain project ends. The analysis results are an easily understandable basis for decision making. The SPPIIP and the DRMM are mutually independent systems, but they complement each other well. The SPPIIP uses the DRMM in designing and resource allocation based on the goals set. The quality of the DRMM depends on the amount and quality of data in its database. The DRMM can be used as a basis for

  20. Investigating What Second Language Learners Do and Monitor under Careful Online Planning Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mohammad Javad; Tavakoli, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    This study used quantitative analyses complemented by the retrospective data obtained through a stimulated recall procedure to address three interrelated issues: (a) whether second language learners use online planning opportunities to carefully plan their speech to enhance the quality of the language they produce, (b) what kinds of self-repair…

  1. Considering a Lexicographic Plan for Gabon within the Gabonese Language Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Steve Ndinga-Koumba-Binza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This article raises a number of questions that should be dealt with in drawing up a lexicographic plan for Gabon. For which of the Gabonese languages should lexicographic units be established? This question entrains the issue of inventorying the Gabonese languages and their standardization as well as the issue of language planning for Gabon. What is the status of those foreign languages widely spoken in Gabon? What about French? Should Gabon keep importing its French dictionaries from France, or should the Gabonese compile their own French dictionaries, including French words and expressions exclusively used in Gabon? Finally, after trying to answer these questions, a number of suggestions are made for the establishment of a lexicographic plan for Gabon.

    Keywords: GABONESE LANGUAGE LANDSCAPE (GLL, LEXICOGRAPHIC PLAN FOR GABON, LANGUAGE DIVERSITY, LANGUAGE POLICY, LANGUAGE STANDARDIZATION, GABONESE LEXICOGRAPHY, NATIONAL LANGUAGE, NATIVE LANGUAGES, FOREIGN LANGUAGES

    *****

    OPSOMMING: Die oorweging van 'n leksikografiese plan vir Gaboen binne die Gaboenese taallandskap. Hierdie artikel bring 'n aantal vrae ter sprake waaraan aan-dag gegee moet word by die opstel van 'n leksikografiese plan vir Gaboen. Vir watter Gaboenese tale moet leksikografiese eenhede gestig word? Hierdie vraag bring die kwessie van die inventari-sering van die Gaboenese tale en hul standaardisering ter sprake, asook die kwessie van taalbe-planning vir Gaboen. Wat is die status van daardie vreemde tale wat algemeen in Gaboen gepraat word? Wat van Frans? Moet Gaboen voortgaan om sy Franse woordeboeke uit Frankryk in te voer, of moet hy sy eie Franse woordeboeke saamstel, met insluiting van Franse woorde en uitdrukkings wat uitsluitlik in Gaboen gebruik word? Ten slotte, nadat geprobeer is om hierdie vrae te beant-woord, word 'n aantal voorstelle gemaak vir die totstandbrenging van 'n leksikografiese plan vir Gaboen.

    Sleutelwoorde: GABOENESE

  2. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan Executive Summary : A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-02-01

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the Draft Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan. The comprehensive plan can be viewed on the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) website at: www.umatilla.nsn.us or requested in hard copy from the CTUIR at the address below. The wildlife area was established in September 1998 when the CTUIR purchased the Rainwater Ranch through Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for purposes of fish and wildlife mitigation for the McNary and John Day dams. The Management Plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by BPA for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus management actions and prioritize funding during the 2002-2006 planning period. Since acquisition of the property in late 1998, the CTUIR has conducted an extensive baseline resource assessment in preparation for the management plan, initiated habitat restoration in the Griffin Fork drainage to address road-related resource damage caused by roads constructed for forest practices and an extensive flood event in 1996, and initiated infrastructure developments associated with the Access and Travel Management Plan (i.e., installed parking areas, gates, and public information signs). In addition to these efforts, the CTUIR has worked to set up a long-term funding mechanism with BPA through the NPPC Fish and Wildlife Program. The CTUIR has also continued to coordinate closely with local and state government organizations to ensure consistency with local land use laws and maintain open lines of communication regarding important issues such as big game hunting, tribal member exercise of treaty rights, and public

  3. Effects of Short Term Music and Second Language Training on Executive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Janus, Monika; Lee, Yunjo; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Separate lines of research have identified enhanced performance on non-verbal executive control (EC) tasks for bilinguals (Bialystok, Craik, Green, & Gollan, 2009) and those with music training (Moreno et al., 2011), but little is known about the relation between them in terms of the specificity of the effects of each experience or the degree of exposure necessary to induce these changes. Using an intervention design, the present study pseudo-randomly assigned 57 4- to 6-year-old children (ma...

  4. Planning for a Global Lingua Franca: Challenges for Feminist Language Planning in English(es) around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I outline the challenges for feminist language planning in the context of a global lingua franca--English. Drawing upon the views of speakers of "World Englishes" I discuss their reactions as well as reported practices in relation to gender-inclusive language use. This reveals the complexities of managing the tension between the…

  5. Language Planning in the Spanish-Speaking World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Aquilino; Duenas, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Reviews diffusion and promotion of the Spanish language from the first Spanish colonizers in the Americas to the present. Describes the situation of Spanish within Spain as a form of internal colonialization and reviews language policies. Analyzes present-day institutional efforts at maintaining language co-existence within different autonomous…

  6. Language Planning for Venezuela: The Role of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Irving; Serrano, Jose

    A rationale for teaching foreign languages in Venezuelan schools is discussed. An included sociolinguistic profile of Venezuela indicates that Spanish is the sole language of internal communication needs. Other languages spoken in Venezuela serve primarily a group function among the immigrant and indigenous communities. However, the teaching of…

  7. The Influence of Texting Language on Grammar and Executive Functions in Primary School Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, C.N.; van Witteloostuijn, M.; Vasić, N.; Avrutin, S.; Blom, E.

    2016-01-01

    When sending text messages on their mobile phone to friends, children often use a special type of register, which is called textese. This register allows the omission of words and the use of textisms: instances of non-standard written language such as 4ever (forever). Previous studies have shown

  8. The Critical Role of the Research Community in Space Weather Planning and Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Robert M.; Behnke, Richard A.; Moretto, Therese

    2018-03-01

    The explosion of interest in space weather in the last 25 years has been due to a confluence of efforts all over the globe, motivated by the recognition that events on the Sun and the consequent conditions in interplanetary space and Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere can have serious impacts on vital technological systems. The fundamental research conducted at universities, government laboratories, and in the private sector has led to tremendous improvements in the ability to forecast space weather events and predict their impacts on human technology and health. The mobilization of the research community that made this progress possible was the result of a series of actions taken by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to build a national program aimed at space weather. The path forward for space weather is to build on those successes through continued involvement of the research community and support for programs aimed at strengthening basic research and education in academia, the private sector, and government laboratories. Investments in space weather are most effective when applied at the intersection of research and applications. Thus, to achieve the goals set forth originally by the National Space Weather Program, the research community must be fully engaged in the planning, implementation, and execution of space weather activities, currently being coordinated by the Space Weather Operations, Research, and Mitigation Subcommittee under the National Science and Technology Council.

  9. CAL--ERDA users manual. [Building Design Language; LOADS, SYSTEMS, PLANT, ECONOMICS, REPORT, EXECUTIVE, CAL-ERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graven, R. M.; Hirsch, P. R.

    1977-10-30

    A new set of computer programs capable of rapid and detailed analysis of energy consumption in buildings is described. The Building Design Language (BDL) has been written to allow simplified manipulation of the many variables used to describe a building and its operation. Programs presented in this manual include: (1) a Building Design Language program to analyze the input instructions, execute computer system control commands, perform data assignments and data retrieval, and control the operation of the LOADS, SYSTEMS, PLANT, ECONOMICS, and REPORT programs; (2) a LOADS analysis program which calculates peak (design) loads and hourly space loads due to ambient weather conditions and the internal occupancy, lighting, and equipment within the building, as well as variations in the size, location, orientation, construction, walls, roofs, floors, fenestrations, attachments (awnings, balconies), and shape of a building; (3) a HEATING, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) SYSTEMS program capable of modeling the operation of HVAC components, including fans, coils, economizers, and humidifiers; (4) a PLANT equipment program which models the operation of boilers, chillers, electrical-generation equipment (e.g., diesel engines or turbines), heat-storage apparatus (e.g., chilled or heated water) and solar heating and/or cooling systems; (5) an ECONOMICS analysis program which calculates life-cycle costs; (6) a REPORT program which produces tables of user-selected variables and arranges them according to user-selected formats; and (7) an EXECUTIVE processor to create computer-system control commands. Libraries of weather data, typical schedule data, and data on the properties of walls, roofs, and floors are available.

  10. CAL--ERDA program manual. [Building Design Language; LOADS, SYSTEMS, PLANT, ECONOMICS, REPORT, EXECUTIVE, CAL-ERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, B. D.; Diamond, S. C.; Bennett, G. A.; Tucker, E. F.; Roschke, M. A.

    1977-10-01

    A set of computer programs, called Cal-ERDA, is described that is capable of rapid and detailed analysis of energy consumption in buildings. A new user-oriented input language, named the Building Design Language (BDL), has been written to allow simplified manipulation of the many variables used to describe a building and its operation. This manual provides the user with information necessary to understand in detail the Cal-ERDA set of computer programs. The new computer programs described include: an EXECUTIVE Processor to create computer system control commands; a BDL Processor to analyze input instructions, execute computer system control commands, perform assignments and data retrieval, and control the operation of the LOADS, SYSTEMS, PLANT, ECONOMICS, and REPORT programs; a LOADS analysis program that calculates peak (design) zone and hourly loads and the effect of the ambient weather conditions, the internal occupancy, lighting, and equipment within the building, as well as variations in the size, location, orientation, construction, walls, roofs, floors, fenestrations, attachments (awnings, balconies), and shape of a building; a Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) SYSTEMS analysis program capable of modeling the operation of HVAC components including fans, coils, economizers, humidifiers, etc.; 16 standard configurations and operated according to various temperature and humidity control schedules. A plant equipment program models the operation of boilers, chillers, electrical generation equipment (diesel or turbines), heat storage apparatus (chilled or heated water), and solar heating and/or cooling systems. An ECONOMIC analysis program calculates life-cycle costs. A REPORT program produces tables of user-selected variables and arranges them according to user-specified formats. A set of WEATHER ANALYSIS programs manipulates, summarizes and plots weather data. Libraries of weather data, schedule data, and building data were prepared.

  11. Diagnosing and Resolving Conflict Created by Strategic Plans: Where Outreach Strategies and Execution Meet at an Academic Health Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Robert L; Wollner, Samuel B; Weddle, Jessica; Zembrodt, James W; Birdwhistell, Mark D

    2017-01-01

    The imperative for strategic change at academic health centers has never been stronger. Underpinning the success of strategic change is an effective process to implement a strategy. Healthcare organizations, however, often fail to execute on strategy because they do not activate the requisite capabilities and management processes. The University of Kentucky HealthCare recently defined its 2020 strategic plan to adapt to emerging market conditions. The authors outline the strategic importance of strengthening partnership networks and the initial challenges faced in executing their strategy. The findings are a case study in how one academic health center has approached strategy implementation.

  12. Initial Language Status and Achievement Trajectories Among Hispanic Students: Mediation Through Executive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation systematically estimated the differences in academic achievement trajectories based on children’s initial language status at kindergarten entry among Hispanic students. The dissertation also thoroughly tested the hypothesis that the academic advantage of bilingualism is operating through a cognitive channel using mediational analysis in a latent growth model framework. The major findings of this dissertation are as follows: 1. bilingual students with limited English proficie...

  13. Scheduling language and algorithm development study. Volume 2, phase 2: Introduction to plans programming. [user guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, D. R.; Ishikawa, M. K.; Paulson, R. E.; Ramsey, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    A user guide for the Programming Language for Allocation and Network Scheduling (PLANS) is presented. Information is included for the construction of PLANS programs. The basic philosophy of PLANS is discussed, and access and update reference techniques are described along with the use of tree structures.

  14. Developing a Markup Language for Encoding Graphic Content in Plan Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinghuan

    2009-01-01

    While deliberating and making decisions, participants in urban development processes need easy access to the pertinent content scattered among different plans. A Planning Markup Language (PML) has been proposed to represent the underlying structure of plans in an XML-compliant way. However, PML currently covers only textual information and lacks…

  15. Geological considerations and constraints in planning and executing horizontal well prospects : two case studies from the Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwabor, D. [Schlumberger Oilfield Services (Saudi Arabia); Al-Fawwaz, A.; Hassani, S. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2006-07-01

    This paper discussed the challenges facing horizontal well drilling with particular reference to the limited success rates of 2 wells that were initially planned and drilled geometrically according to integrated geological and seismic data. The limited success was due partly to drilling to target without considering the key subsurface risks and uncertainties at the execution stages of the wells. Two case studies from these fields were presented in an effort to highlight important geological issues that must be considered when planning and executing horizontal wells. While the wells were being drilled, geological decisions were taken based on seismic data, geological modelling and assessing offset well log responses. The continuous use of real-time data during well drilling contributed to the achievement of the wells' objectives. This approach eliminated all the initial assumptions from seismic data. During the planning stages, many target surfaces such as faults, horizons and unconformities were created from a 3 dimensional grid. Each well was geologically steered in the execution stages by comparing what was seen while drilling with what was initially proposed at the planning stages. As drilling progressed, geological issues such as structural, stratigraphic, reservoir fluid contact and surveying uncertainties were considered. In most instances, the geological objectives of the studied wells were met, thereby improving production, increasing net pay and return on investment. It was concluded that the experience from this work can be applied to oilfields anywhere in the world.

  16. Early language and executive skills predict variations in number and arithmetic skills in children at family-risk of dyslexia and typically developing controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Snowling, Margaret J.; Göbel, Silke M.; Hulme, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Two important foundations for learning are language and executive skills. Data from a longitudinal study tracking the development of 93 children at family-risk of dyslexia and 76 controls was used to investigate the influence of these skills on the development of arithmetic. A two-group longitudinal path model assessed the relationships between language and executive skills at 3–4 years, verbal number skills (counting and number knowledge) and phonological processing skills at 4–5 years, and written arithmetic in primary school. The same cognitive processes accounted for variability in arithmetic skills in both groups. Early language and executive skills predicted variations in preschool verbal number skills, which in turn, predicted arithmetic skills in school. In contrast, phonological awareness was not a predictor of later arithmetic skills. These results suggest that verbal and executive processes provide the foundation for verbal number skills, which in turn influence the development of formal arithmetic skills. Problems in early language development may explain the comorbidity between reading and mathematics disorder. PMID:26412946

  17. Early language and executive skills predict variations in number and arithmetic skills in children at family-risk of dyslexia and typically developing controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Snowling, Margaret J; Göbel, Silke M; Hulme, Charles

    2015-08-01

    Two important foundations for learning are language and executive skills. Data from a longitudinal study tracking the development of 93 children at family-risk of dyslexia and 76 controls was used to investigate the influence of these skills on the development of arithmetic. A two-group longitudinal path model assessed the relationships between language and executive skills at 3-4 years, verbal number skills (counting and number knowledge) and phonological processing skills at 4-5 years, and written arithmetic in primary school. The same cognitive processes accounted for variability in arithmetic skills in both groups. Early language and executive skills predicted variations in preschool verbal number skills, which in turn, predicted arithmetic skills in school. In contrast, phonological awareness was not a predictor of later arithmetic skills. These results suggest that verbal and executive processes provide the foundation for verbal number skills, which in turn influence the development of formal arithmetic skills. Problems in early language development may explain the comorbidity between reading and mathematics disorder.

  18. Exceptional Lexical Skills but Executive Language Deficits in School Starters and Young Adults with Turners Syndrome: Implications for X Chromosome Effects on Brain Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Christine M.; Shephard, Elizabeth E.

    2012-01-01

    TS school starters had enhanced receptive and expressive language on standardised assessment (CELF-P) and enhanced rhyme judgements, spoonerisms, and lexical decision, indicating enhanced phonological skills and word representations. There was marginal but consistent advantage across lexico-semantic tasks. On executive tasks, speeded naming of…

  19. An Early Years Toolbox for Assessing Early Executive Function, Language, Self-Regulation, and Social Development: Validity, Reliability, and Preliminary Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Steven J.; Melhuish, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Several methods of assessing executive function (EF), self-regulation, language development, and social development in young children have been developed over previous decades. Yet new technologies make available methods of assessment not previously considered. In resolving conceptual and pragmatic limitations of existing tools, the Early Years…

  20. The Minimal and Short-Lived Effects of Minority Language Exposure on the Executive Functions of Frisian-Dutch Bilingual Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, E.; Hoekstra, E.; Versloot, A.; Blom, E.

    Various studies have shown that bilingual children need a certain degree of proficiency in both languages before their bilingual experiences enhance their executive functioning (EF). In the current study, we investigated if degree of bilingualism in Frisian-Dutch children influenced EF and if this

  1. A Study of the Extent and Effect of English Language Training for Refugees. Phase One: Results of a Comprehensive Mail Survey. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR. Office of Research and Evaluation Services.

    Results of a national survey of regional, state, and local agencies administering English language training programs for refugees, the first phase of a larger study of the training programs, are reported. The executive summary outlines the responses from 8 regional, 36 state, and 232 local agencies on four topics: (1) the nature and extent of…

  2. Language Planning and Student Experiences: Intention, Rhetoric and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Bianco, Joseph; Aliani, Renata

    2013-01-01

    This book is a timely comparison of the divergent worlds of policy implementation and policy ambition, the messy, often contradictory here-and-now reality of languages in schools and the sharp-edged, shiny, future-oriented representation of languages in policy. Two deep rooted tendencies in Australian political and social life, multiculturalism…

  3. Theory and Praxis in Community Based Language Development: preliminary findings from applications of the Guide for Planning the Future of Our Language

    OpenAIRE

    Eberhard David M.

    2017-01-01

    This study will provide a critique of preliminary results obtained from the application of the ‘Guide for Planning the Future of Our Language’ (Hanawalt, Varenkamp, Lahn, & Eberhard 2015) in minority speech communities. This recent methodological tool was developed to enable and empower minoritized language groups to do their own language planning and to control their own language development. The tool is based on a theoretical approach to community based language development known as the ‘Su...

  4. Language Planning and the Programs in Filipino of Higher Education Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Jaine Z. Tarun

    2016-01-01

    This study was focused on the language planning and the programs in Filipino of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Region 02, Philippines. It aimed to evaluate the extent of contributions in the implementation of national and institutional academic language policies and programs on Filipino in the General Education Curriculum (GEC), Bilingual / Multilingual Education, translation of books and articles, instructional materials development using Filipino and other languages in ...

  5. Workshop on using natural language processing applications for enhancing clinical decision making: an executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Vinay M; Rodgers, Mary; Conroy, Richard; Luo, James; Zhou, Ruixia; Seto, Belinda

    2014-02-01

    In April 2012, the National Institutes of Health organized a two-day workshop entitled 'Natural Language Processing: State of the Art, Future Directions and Applications for Enhancing Clinical Decision-Making' (NLP-CDS). This report is a summary of the discussions during the second day of the workshop. Collectively, the workshop presenters and participants emphasized the need for unstructured clinical notes to be included in the decision making workflow and the need for individualized longitudinal data tracking. The workshop also discussed the need to: (1) combine evidence-based literature and patient records with machine-learning and prediction models; (2) provide trusted and reproducible clinical advice; (3) prioritize evidence and test results; and (4) engage healthcare professionals, caregivers, and patients. The overall consensus of the NLP-CDS workshop was that there are promising opportunities for NLP and CDS to deliver cognitive support for healthcare professionals, caregivers, and patients.

  6. Youth Engaging Language Policy and Planning: Ideologies and Transformations from Within

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyak, Prem; Bui, Thuy Thi Ngoc

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores language policy and planning from the perspectives of global ideologies, national agendas, and local transformation in two Asian countries, Vietnam and Nepal. Through engaged ethnography, we not only unravel complex ideological contestations of neoliberal and nationalistic agendas, but also portray language policy resistance…

  7. Critical Issues in Language and Education Planning in Twenty First Century in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook Napier, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Language and education planning issues and democratic policy implementation in the post-apartheid era in South Africa encompass a range of language-related issues and dilemmas that have counterparts in many countries, within the emerging global education system. The issues in South Africa were and continue to be shaped by the historical legacy of…

  8. Language Planning and the British Empire: Comparing Pakistan, Malaysia, and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Provides historical context for discussions of language planning in postcolonial societies by focusing on policies that have influenced language in three former British colonies. Suggests British colonialism, along with the emergence of America in the 20th century, is the main reason for the global role played by English today and an indispensable…

  9. Predicting Participation in Dual Language Immersion Using Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Andrea; Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie M.; Vázquez, Alejandro L.; Corralejo, Samantha M.

    2018-01-01

    Dual language immersion programs are increasing in popularity. Yet little is known about what motivates parents to enroll their children in dual language immersion. The theory of planned behavior posits that behavior is based on attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. The current study was an exploratory evaluation of the…

  10. Leveraging Literacies through Collaborative, Source-Based Planning and Teaching in Social Studies and Language Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Nancy; Weaver, Joanna; Fletcher, Jamie; Connor, Bryce; Thomas, Angela; Ross, Cindy

    2018-01-01

    The value of preparing students for college, careers, and civic life is a shared outcome of social studies and language arts teachers. This study explores how developing content and civic literacy to these ends can be fortified through language arts and social studies teacher collaboration in source-based planning and teaching. Although numerous…

  11. Greening the Department of Energy through waste prevention, recycling, and Federal acquisition. Strategic plan to implement Executive Order 13101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-11-01

    This Plan provides strategies and milestones to implement Executive Order 13101, Greening the Government Through Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Federal Acquisition, and to achieve the new Secretarial goals for 2005 and 2010. It serves as the principal Secretarial guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Field Offices, and laboratory and contractor staff to improve sanitary waste prevention, recycling, and the purchase and use of recycled content and environmentally preferable products and services in the DOE.

  12. An investigation of the neural circuits underlying reaching and reach-to-grasp movements: from planning to execution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eBegliomini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence suggests the existence of a sophisticated brain circuit specifically dedicated to reach-to-grasp planning and execution, both in human and non human primates (Castiello, 2005. Studies accomplished by means of neuroimaging techniques suggest the hypothesis of a dichotomy between a reach-to-grasp circuit, involving the intraparietal area (AIP, the dorsal and ventral premotor cortices (PMd and PMv - Castiello and Begliomini, 2008; Filimon, 2010 and a reaching circuit involving the medial intraparietal area (mIP and the Superior Parieto-Occipital Cortex (SPOC (Culham et al., 2006. However, the time course characterizing the involvement of these regions during the planning and execution of these two types of movements has yet to be delineated. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study has been conducted, including reach-to grasp and reaching only movements, performed towards either a small or a large stimulus, and Finite Impulse Response model (FIR - Henson, 2003 was adopted to monitor activation patterns from stimulus onset for a time window of 10 seconds duration. Data analysis focused on brain regions belonging either to the reaching or to the grasping network, as suggested by Castiello & Begliomini (2008.Results suggest that reaching and grasping movements planning and execution might share a common brain network, providing further confirmation to the idea that the neural underpinnings of reaching and grasping may overlap in both spatial and temporal terms (Verhagen et al., 2013.

  13. Using Spoken Language to Facilitate Military Transportation Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bates, Madeleine; Ellard, Dan; Peterson, Pat; Shaked, Varda

    1991-01-01

    .... In an effort to demonstrate the relevance of SIS technology to real-world military applications, BBN has undertaken the task of providing a spoken language interface to DART, a system for military...

  14. Variation in prosodic planning among individuals and across languages

    OpenAIRE

    Swets, Benjamin; Petrone, Caterina; Fuchs, Susanne; Krivokapić, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Previous research (Swets et al., 2007) found that working memory (WM) was associated with the manner in which silent readers in multiple languages package linguistic material together. Specifically, those with high WM were more likely to create larger linguistic packages than those with low WM, which in turn influenced the manner in which they interpreted syntactic ambiguities. One possibility that gained support in subsequent research on language production (Petrone e...

  15. The Islamic State Battle Plan: Press Release Natural Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Institute for the Study of Violent Groups NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NLP Natural Language Processing PCorpus Permanent Corpus PDF...approaches, we apply Natural Language Processing ( NLP ) tools to a unique database of text documents collected by Whiteside (2014). His collection...from Arabic to English. Compared to other terrorism databases, Whiteside’s collection methodology limits the scope of the database and avoids coding

  16. Laredo District Coahuila/Nuevo Leon/Tamaulipas border master plan : executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Border Master Plans, as defined and supported by the U.S./Mexico Joint Working : Committee on Transportation Planning and Programming, the Federal Highway Administration, : and the U.S. Department of State, are comprehensive long range plans to inven...

  17. Competing Roles of the National Language and English in Malaysia and the Philippines: Planning, Policy and Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Perlas Dumanig

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of language planning and language policy in the competing roles of the national language and English in the educational system of Malaysia and the Philippines. These countries have emphasised the national language (i.e. Malay in Malaysia and Filipino in the Philippines to foster national unity, and the international language-English for global communication. Educational expansion as documented with globalisation has also repositioned the role of the English language. While English has become a necessary tool to increase competitiveness in the global market, calls to 'switch back' or 'retain' the national language to instil a sense of national unity has also been equally advocated. Although planning and policy may have specific objectives, these may not be reflected in actual language use. The findings of this study reveal the social reality of contrasting language planning and policy initiatives in Malaysia and the Philippines and the actual use of these languages.

  18. Developing a Maori Language Mathematics Lexicon: Challenges for Corpus Planning in Indigenous Language Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinick, Tony; May, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, there has been significant modernisation and elaboration of the Maori language mathematics lexicon and register to support the teaching of (Western) mathematics as a component of Maori-medium schooling. These developments are situated within the wider Maori language revitalisation movement in Aotearoa/New Zealand, of which…

  19. Gender Representation in a Hong Kong Primary English Textbook Series: The Relationship between Language Planning and Social Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi Cheung Ruby

    2011-01-01

    Language-in-education planning in the form of materials planning has an important role to play in achieving a society's social goals. Gender stereotyping has been found in previous language textbook studies. Although gender bias has declined, some recent studies suggest that it still exists. This study analysed the content and language of a…

  20. Exploring links between language and cognition in autism spectrum disorders: Complement sentences, false belief, and executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie, Durrleman; Julie, Franck

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of work indicates a close relation between complement clause sentences and Theory of Mind (ToM) in children with autism (e.g., Tager-Flusberg, & Joseph (2005). In Astington, & Baird (Eds.), Why language matters for theory of mind (pp. 298-318). New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press, Lind, & Bowler (2009). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(6), 929). However, this link is based primarily on success at a specific complement clause task and a verbal false-belief (FB) task. One cannot exclude that the link found between these tasks may be a by-product of their both presupposing similar levels of language skills. It is also an open question if the role of complementation in ToM success is a privileged one as compared to that of other abilities which have been claimed to be an important factor for ToM understanding in autism, namely executive functioning (EF) (Pellicano (2007). Developmental Psychology 43, 974). Indeed the role played by complementation may be conceived of as an indirect one, mediated by some more general cognitive function related to EF. This study is the first to examine the relation between theory of mind assessed both verbally and non-verbally and various types of complement clause sentences as well as executive functions in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our participants included 17 children and adolescents with ASD (aged 6 to 16) and a younger TD control group matched on non-verbal IQ (aged 4 to 9 years). Three tasks assessing complements of verbs of cognition, verbs of communication and verbs of perception were conducted. ToM tasks involved a verbal ToM task (Sally-Anne, Baron-Cohen et al. (1985). Cognition, 21(1), 37) as well as a non-verbal one (Colle et al. (2007). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(4), 716). Indexes of executive functions were collected via a computerized version of the Dimensional Change Card-Sorting task (Frye et al., 1995). Standardized measures of vocabulary

  1. The Minimal and Short-Lived Effects of Minority Language Exposure on the Executive Functions of Frisian-Dutch Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Evelyn; Hoekstra, Eric; Versloot, Arjen; Blom, Elma

    2017-01-01

    Various studies have shown that bilingual children need a certain degree of proficiency in both languages before their bilingual experiences enhance their executive functioning (EF). In the current study, we investigated if degree of bilingualism in Frisian-Dutch children influenced EF and if this effect was sustained over a 3-year period. To this end, longitudinal data were analyzed from 120 Frisian-Dutch bilingual children who were 5- or 6-years-old at the first time of testing. EF was measured with two attention and two working memory tasks. Degree of bilingualism was defined as language balance based on receptive vocabulary and expressive morphology scores in both languages. In a context with a minority and a majority language, such as the Frisian-Dutch context, chances for becoming proficient in both languages are best for children who speak the minority language at home. Therefore, in a subsequent analysis, we examined whether minority language exposure predicted language balance and whether there was a relationship between minority language exposure and EF, mediated by language balance. The results showed that intensity of exposure to Frisian at home, mediated by language balance, had an impact on one of the attention tasks only. It predicted performance on this task at time 1, but not at time 2 and 3. This partially confirms previous evidence that the cognitive effects of bilingualism are moderated by degree of bilingualism and furthermore reveals that substantial minority language exposure at home indirectly affects bilingual children's cognitive development, namely through mediation with degree of bilingualism. However, the findings also demonstrate that the effect of bilingualism on EF is limited and unstable.

  2. The Minimal and Short-Lived Effects of Minority Language Exposure on the Executive Functions of Frisian-Dutch Bilingual Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Bosma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have shown that bilingual children need a certain degree of proficiency in both languages before their bilingual experiences enhance their executive functioning (EF. In the current study, we investigated if degree of bilingualism in Frisian-Dutch children influenced EF and if this effect was sustained over a 3-year period. To this end, longitudinal data were analyzed from 120 Frisian-Dutch bilingual children who were 5- or 6-years-old at the first time of testing. EF was measured with two attention and two working memory tasks. Degree of bilingualism was defined as language balance based on receptive vocabulary and expressive morphology scores in both languages. In a context with a minority and a majority language, such as the Frisian-Dutch context, chances for becoming proficient in both languages are best for children who speak the minority language at home. Therefore, in a subsequent analysis, we examined whether minority language exposure predicted language balance and whether there was a relationship between minority language exposure and EF, mediated by language balance. The results showed that intensity of exposure to Frisian at home, mediated by language balance, had an impact on one of the attention tasks only. It predicted performance on this task at time 1, but not at time 2 and 3. This partially confirms previous evidence that the cognitive effects of bilingualism are moderated by degree of bilingualism and furthermore reveals that substantial minority language exposure at home indirectly affects bilingual children’s cognitive development, namely through mediation with degree of bilingualism. However, the findings also demonstrate that the effect of bilingualism on EF is limited and unstable.

  3. The Minimal and Short-Lived Effects of Minority Language Exposure on the Executive Functions of Frisian-Dutch Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Evelyn; Hoekstra, Eric; Versloot, Arjen; Blom, Elma

    2017-01-01

    Various studies have shown that bilingual children need a certain degree of proficiency in both languages before their bilingual experiences enhance their executive functioning (EF). In the current study, we investigated if degree of bilingualism in Frisian-Dutch children influenced EF and if this effect was sustained over a 3-year period. To this end, longitudinal data were analyzed from 120 Frisian-Dutch bilingual children who were 5- or 6-years-old at the first time of testing. EF was measured with two attention and two working memory tasks. Degree of bilingualism was defined as language balance based on receptive vocabulary and expressive morphology scores in both languages. In a context with a minority and a majority language, such as the Frisian-Dutch context, chances for becoming proficient in both languages are best for children who speak the minority language at home. Therefore, in a subsequent analysis, we examined whether minority language exposure predicted language balance and whether there was a relationship between minority language exposure and EF, mediated by language balance. The results showed that intensity of exposure to Frisian at home, mediated by language balance, had an impact on one of the attention tasks only. It predicted performance on this task at time 1, but not at time 2 and 3. This partially confirms previous evidence that the cognitive effects of bilingualism are moderated by degree of bilingualism and furthermore reveals that substantial minority language exposure at home indirectly affects bilingual children’s cognitive development, namely through mediation with degree of bilingualism. However, the findings also demonstrate that the effect of bilingualism on EF is limited and unstable. PMID:28900405

  4. Review and Analysis of the Colombian Foreign Language Bilingualism Policies and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Sará, Mary Mily

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the background of the foreign language bilingualism in Colombia, as well as the Colombian bilingualism plans and the policy launched between 2004 and 2016. Then, these plans and policy are analyzed taking into account the most common criticisms from the academic community. In this sense, aspects such as the lack of continuity,…

  5. Facebook Marketing Plan : Company: Language Alive! English School

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Phuong

    2017-01-01

    Language Alive! is a start-up in language education with good methodology, which can create a new way of learning English in Vietnam. However, the fees to run marketing ac-tivities are high, the cost per lead is very expensive according to the statistic numbers given by the school. Besides, the current marketing strategy does not seem to be effec-tive; not many people know anything about the school or realize the benefit from the new methodology; therefore, they do not have any intention to p...

  6. Critical perspectives on language planning and policy in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa, except for South Africa. However, even in South Africa there has been a pre- occupation with the mother tongue debate, rather than with establishing how African languages can be harnessed into an integrated multilingual teaching programme. As regards the former (i.e. speakers' mother tongues), an African child is ...

  7. Etimologia in una lingua pianificata (Etymology in a Planned Language).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnaja, Carlo

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the fifth volume of the "Etimologia Vortaro de Esperanto" (Etymological Dictionary of Esperanto). The dictionary provides not only the etynom of each Esperanto term, but also the etymology of the ethnic language words from which the editor derived the terms in question. (Author/VWL)

  8. The Diagnostic Conference Planning Questionnaire for Speech-Language Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Gail Ruppert

    1990-01-01

    The article describes a tool to increase professional effectiveness in supervisory conferencing in speech-language pathology based on the dual areas of role expectations for clinicians and personal needs as derived from Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The conferencing questionnaire aids in recognizing the needs of the supervisee, stating problems,…

  9. Project Execution Plan, Waste Management Division, Nevada Operations Office, U.S. Department of Energy, April 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This plan addresses project activities encompassed by the U.S. Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office Waste Management Division and conforms to the requirements contained in the ''Life Cycle Asset Management,'' U.S. Department of Energy Order O430.1A; the Joint Program Office Policy on Project Management in Support of DOE Order O430.1, and the Project Execution and Engineering Management Planning Guide. The plan also reflects the milestone philosophies of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, as agreed to by the state of Nevada; and traditional project management philosophies such as the development of life cycle costs, schedules, and work scope; identification of roles and responsibilities; and baseline management and controls

  10. Stethoscope: A platform for interactive visual analysis of query execution plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Gawade (Mrunal); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSearching for the performance bottleneck in an execution trace is an error prone and time consuming activity. Existing tools oer some comfort by providing a visual representation of trace for analysis. In this paper we present the Stethoscope, an interactive visual tool to inspect and

  11. Stethoscope: a platform for interactive visual analysis of query execution plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gawade, M.; Kersten, M.

    2012-01-01

    Searching for the performance bottleneck in an execution trace is an error prone and time consuming activity. Existing tools offer some comfort by providing a visual representation of trace for analysis. In this paper we present the Stethoscope, an interactive visual tool to inspect and ana- lyze

  12. Planning and Execution of Knowledge Management Assist Missions for Nuclear Organizations (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    As a result of the widening knowledge gap in the nuclear industry and related organizations, the IAEA is developing a series of guidance documents on knowledge management. This publication represents one such activity and provides general guidance as to the nature of the knowledge management mission and the means by which its goals are to be achieved and executed.

  13. Designing Lesson Plan Based on Critical Thinking for Language Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Norwanto, Norwanto

    2011-01-01

    Critical thinking includes a process of reasoning in thinking as stated by some scholars. In the process, there is universal standard to follow: clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, logic, and fairness. In language classes, critical thinking creates active classes. To bring critical thinking to classes, Bloom’s Taxonomy and critical thinking strategies can be working definition in order critical thinking to be applied to pedagogical materials in a practical way. Steps for ...

  14. Engineering and Implementing an Executive-Level Communication Plan in a Global Professional Environment: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridgette Lipman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication within organisations in a global environment requires effective internal and strategic planning at the executive level. Previous studies indicate that measurement is a key factor in assessing the needs and success of global communication within an organisation. Survey questions were used to measure satisfaction responses from 650 local and 110 global employees in a technology division of a large manufacturing company. In this case study, employees expressed the need to connect team members through face-to-face meetings, employee webcast meetings, web chat forums, and an updated employee networking site. The findings formed the foundations for recommendations for strategy, objectives, and tactics within the organisation.

  15. Executive functions and inhibitory control in multilingual children: Evidence from second-language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poarch, G.J.; Hell, J.G. van

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German–English bilinguals, German–English–Language

  16. Executive Functions and Inhibitory Control in Multilingual Children: Evidence from Second-Language Learners, Bilinguals, and Trilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and 6- to 8-year-old German…

  17. Planning manual for energy resource development on Indian lands. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    This report is the Executive Summary for the other 5 volumes of the Study Report--see TID-28526/1-5. Information is provided here that the tribes can use to make energy-development decisions. The report is particularly concerned with management responsibilities and financial commitments that development will require on the part of the tribes and with the types of information and skilled personnel the tribes will need in the future to make informed decisions.

  18. Illinois statewide gas utility plan, 1993-2002. Volume 1. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The second Illinois Statewide Natural Gas Utility Plan is a continuation of the Least-Cost Planning effort introduced by the Public Utilities Act of 1986. The purpose of the Plan, like its predecessor, is to provide a framework and a set of policies which will allow and encourage local distribution companies to develop least-cost plans consistent with the goals of the Act: to provide efficient, environmentally sound, reliable, and equitable public utility service at the least possible cost. The Plan assesses natural gas demand and supply under five scenarios for the period 1993-2002. Key issues related to the development of least-cost natural gas plans are identified, and policies for addressing the issues are developed. The rationale and potential for natural gas demand side management (DSM) programs and policies are explored, and recommendations made with respect to utility DSM capability-building and DSM cost-recovery

  19. Energy future Santa Cruz. A citizens plan for energy self-reliance: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, J.; Stayton, R.

    A grassroots energy conservation project which involved more than 3100 residents of Santa Cruz, California, is discussed. Citizens attended forums and town meetings to suggest ideas for solving the community's energy problems. These ideas were then evaluated by the Energy Future Advisory Board and compiled into the Energy Future Plan. The plan covers such topics as new residences, residential retrofit, automobile efficiency, farm efficiency, commercial greenhouses, local food production, commercial efficiency, land use planning, energy eduction and financing, and solar, wind, and ocean energy. If the plan is successfully implemented, the energy that the community is projected to use in 1991 can be lowered by 24 to 35 percent.

  20. Language Planning for the 21st Century: Revisiting Bilingual Language Policy for Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoors, Harry; Marschark, Marc

    2012-01-01

    For over 25 years in some countries and more recently in others, bilingual education involving sign language and the written/spoken vernacular has been considered an essential educational intervention for deaf children. With the recent growth in universal newborn hearing screening and technological advances such as digital hearing aids and…

  1. Language Planning for the 21st Century: Revisiting Bilingual Language Policy for Deaf Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoors, H.E.T.; Marschark, M.

    2012-01-01

    For over 25 years in some countries and more recently in others, bilingual education involving sign language and the written/spoken vernacular has been considered an essential educational intervention for deaf children. With the recent growth in universal newborn hearing screening and technological

  2. Executive Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovici, Gil D.; Stephens, Melanie L.; Possin, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: Executive functions represent a constellation of cognitive abilities that drive goal-oriented behavior and are critical to the ability to adapt to an ever-changing world. This article provides a clinically oriented approach to classifying, localizing, diagnosing, and treating disorders of executive function, which are pervasive in clinical practice. Recent Findings: Executive functions can be split into four distinct components: working memory, inhibition, set shifting, and fluency. These components may be differentially affected in individual patients and act together to guide higher-order cognitive constructs such as planning and organization. Specific bedside and neuropsychological tests can be applied to evaluate components of executive function. While dysexecutive syndromes were first described in patients with frontal lesions, intact executive functioning relies on distributed neural networks that include not only the prefrontal cortex, but also the parietal cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum. Executive dysfunction arises from injury to any of these regions, their white matter connections, or neurotransmitter systems. Dysexecutive symptoms therefore occur in most neurodegenerative diseases and in many other neurologic, psychiatric, and systemic illnesses. Management approaches are patient specific and should focus on treatment of the underlying cause in parallel with maximizing patient function and safety via occupational therapy and rehabilitation. Summary: Executive dysfunction is extremely common in patients with neurologic disorders. Diagnosis and treatment hinge on familiarity with the clinical components and neuroanatomic correlates of these complex, high-order cognitive processes. PMID:26039846

  3. Not single brain areas but a network is involved in language: Applications in presurgical planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, Razieh; Batouli, Seyed Amir Hossein; Behzad, Ebrahim; Ebrahimpoor, Mitra; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali

    2018-02-01

    Language is an important human function, and is a determinant of the quality of life. In conditions such as brain lesions, disruption of the language function may occur, and lesion resection is a solution for that. Presurgical planning to determine the language-related brain areas would enhance the chances of language preservation after the operation; however, availability of a normative language template is essential. In this study, using data from 60 young individuals who were meticulously checked for mental and physical health, and using fMRI and robust imaging and data analysis methods, functional brain maps for the language production, perception and semantic were produced. The obtained templates showed that the language function should be considered as the product of the collaboration of a network of brain regions, instead of considering only few brain areas to be involved in that. This study has important clinical applications, and extends our knowledge on the neuroanatomy of the language function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hazardous Waste Development, Demonstration, and Disposal (HAZWDDD) program plan: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Eisenhower, B.M.; Reeves, M.E.; DePaoli, S.M.; Stinton, L.H.; Harrington, E.H.

    1989-02-01

    The Hazardous Waste Development, Demonstration, and Disposal (HAZWDDD) Program Plan provides a strategy for management of hazardous and mixed wastes generated by the five Department of Energy (DOE) installations managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems). This integrated corporate plan is based on the individual installation plans, which identify waste streams, facility capabilities, problem wastes, future needs, and funding needs. Using this information, the corporate plan identifies common concerns and technology/facility needs over the next 10 years. The overall objective of this corporate plan is to ensure that treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) needs for all hazardous and mixed wastes generated by Energy Systems installations have been identified and planned for. Specific objectives of the program plan are to (1) identify all hazardous and mixed waste streams; (2) identify hazardous and mixed waste TSD requirements; (3) identify any unresolved technical issues preventing implementation of the strategy; (4) develop schedules for studies, demonstrations, and facilities to resolve the issues; and (5) define the interfaces with the Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration (LLWDDD) Program. 10 refs., 7 figs

  5. Planning, development and experiences obtained with the execution of the Project Surata River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreno, Erwin Wolff

    2004-01-01

    From May 1997 is executed the Project, Reduction of the Contamination to the small mining in the basin of the Surata River (known and abbreviated as project Surata River), which has been developed inside the mark of the technical cooperation between the governments from Colombia and Germany. The German support will culminate September 30 the 2004. After many trips for reasons of public order and for those originated in the administrative processes, it could diagnose himself the mining of Vetas and California region, it stops later on to execute works in the different facilities of benefit of minerals in dispersed form and finally to find the most significant route as contribution of the contamination reduction: to develop integral measures in each one of the units that benefit the mineral in the area. The efforts so much institutional as personnel they have been very big and the strong investments; it memorized of the lessons, and it is aspired to continue with the programming of the activities beyond October - 2004, with the support of the involved Colombian institutions. Now they know each other and they have been applied in the region, technologies environmentally clean in prosecution of gold minerals, those that in opposition of that thought of a principle, they also rebound in increment of the economic revenues of the miners

  6. Federal Facility Compliance Act, Proposed Site Treatment Plan: Background Volume. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This Federal Facility Compliance Act Site Treatment Plan discusses the options of radioactive waste management for Ames Laboratory. This is the background volume which discusses: site history and mission; framework for developing site treatment plans; proposed plan organization and related activities; characterization of mixed waste and waste minimization; low level mixed waste streams and the proposed treatment approach; future generation of TRU and mixed wastes; the adequacy of mixed waste storage facilities; and a summary of the overall DOE activity in the area of disposal of mixed waste treatment residuals

  7. Workplace Disruption following Psychological Trauma: Influence of Incident Severity Level on Organizations' Post-Incident Response Planning and Execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFraia, G S

    2016-04-01

    Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents), which occur globally, are increasing in prevalence within the USA. Assisting employers in their response is a growing practice area for occupational medicine, occupational social work, industrial psychology and other occupational health professions. Traumatic workplace events vary greatly in their level of organizational disruption. To explore whether extent of workplace disruption influences organizations' decisions for post-incident response planning and plan execution. Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring extent of workplace disruption associated with organizational decisions regarding post-incident response. The more severe and disruptive the incident, the more likely organizations planned for and followed through to deliver on-site interventions. Following more severe incidents, organizations were also more likely to deliver group sessions and to complete follow-up consultations to ensure ongoing worker recovery. Increasing occupational health practitioners' knowledge of varying levels of organizational disruption and familiarity with a range of organizational response strategies improves incident assessment, consultation and planning, and ensures interventions delivered are consistent with the level of assistance needed on both worker and organizational levels.

  8. Workplace Disruption following Psychological Trauma: Influence of Incident Severity Level on Organizations' Post-Incident Response Planning and Execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS DeFraia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents, which occur globally, are increasing in prevalence within the USA. Assisting employers in their response is a growing practice area for occupational medicine, occupational social work, industrial psychology and other occupational health professions. Traumatic workplace events vary greatly in their level of organizational disruption. Objective: To explore whether extent of workplace disruption influences organizations' decisions for post-incident response planning and plan execution. Methods: Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring extent of workplace disruption associated with organizational decisions regarding post-incident response. Results: The more severe and disruptive the incident, the more likely organizations planned for and followed through to deliver on-site interventions. Following more severe incidents, organizations were also more likely to deliver group sessions and to complete follow-up consultations to ensure ongoing worker recovery. Conclusion: Increasing occupational health practitioners' knowledge of varying levels of organizational disruption and familiarity with a range of organizational response strategies improves incident assessment, consultation and planning, and ensures interventions delivered are consistent with the level of assistance needed on both worker and organizational levels.

  9. Company Performance at the National Training Center: Battle Planning and Execution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hallmark, Bryan

    1997-01-01

    ...). This study analyzes possible problems with company-level direct fire control, terrain and enemy analysis, and command and control planning and preparation, explores how these problems affect combat...

  10. Company Performance at the National Training Center Battle: Planning and Execution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hallmark, Bryan

    1997-01-01

    ...). This study analyzes possible problems with company-level direct fire control, terrain and enemy analysis, and command and control planning and preparation, explores how these problems affect combat...

  11. The electric energy demand-side planning: necessity and possibilities of execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sposito, E.S.

    1991-05-01

    Aiming at reducing the level of investments, is presented a demand-side planning approach, divided into two parts. The first part is an analysis on the actual need of our demand-side approaching. In view of this, is showed a set of data and comments both on economic and technological aspects concerning the electric network and sector, as well as evaluation of the social, ecological and financial aspects which could act against the full expansion of the electric system. In the second part, a demand-side planning methodology is introduced, as well as its main concepts, its variables and its instruments of affecting the demand: energy conservation, replacement of sources, reduction of losses and electric power decentralized generation. Each of them is fully detailed in a set of planning policies and actions. Concluding is presented the basic elements of a National Electric Energy Substitution and Conservation Plan - PLANSCON. (author)

  12. COMPOEX Technology to Assist Leaders in Planning and Executing Campaigns in Complex Operational Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kott, Alexander; Corpac, Peter S

    2007-01-01

    ... in a complex operational environment. Leaders must understand the operational environment, develop campaign plans that include multiple lines of effort such as security, governance, political-economic development, rule of law and employ...

  13. Execution and executability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Robert W.; Harrison, Denise

    2015-09-01

    "We have a new strategy to grow our organization." Developing the plan is just the start. Implementing it in the organization is the real challenge. Many organizations don't fail due to lack of strategy; they struggle because it isn't effectively implemented. After working with hundreds of companies on strategy development, Denise and Robert have distilled the critical areas where organizations need to focus in order to enhance profitability through superior execution. If these questions are important to your organization, you'll find useful answers in the following articles: Do you find yourself overwhelmed by too many competing priorities? How do you limit how many strategic initiatives/projects your organization is working on at one time? How do you balance your resource requirements (time and money) with the availability of these resources? How do you balance your strategic initiative requirements with the day-to-day requirements of your organization?

  14. The Unified Language Testing Plan: Speaking Proficiency Test. Spanish and English Pilot Validation Studies. Report Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Julie A.

    This report describes one segment of the Federal Language Testing Board's Unified Language Testing Plan (ULTP), the validation of speaking proficiency tests in Spanish and English. The ULTP is a project to increase standardization of foreign language proficiency measurement and promote sharing of resources among testing programs in the federal…

  15. Evaluation of the factors influencing brain language laterality in presurgical planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batouli, Seyed Amir Hossein; Hasani, Nafiseh; Gheisari, Sara; Behzad, Ebrahim; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali

    2016-10-01

    Brain lesions cause functional deficits, and one treatment for this condition is lesion resection. In most cases, presurgical planning (PSP) and the information from laterality indices are necessary for maximum preservation of the critical functions after surgery. Language laterality index (LI) is reliably estimated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); however, this measure is under the influence of some external factors. In this study, we investigated the influence of a number of factors on language LI, using data from 120 patients (mean age=35.65 (±13.4) years) who underwent fMRI for PSP. Using two proposed language tasks from our previous works, brain left hemisphere was showed to be dominant for the language function, although a higher LI was obtained using the "Word Generation" task, compared to the "Reverse Word Reading". In addition, decline of LIs with age, and lower LI when the lesion invaded brain language area were observed. Meanwhile, gender, lesion side (affected hemisphere), LI calculation strategy, and fMRI analysis Z-values did not statistically show any influences on the LIs. Although fMRI is widely used to estimate language LI, it is shown here that in order to present a reliable language LI and to correctly select the dominant hemisphere of the brain, the influence of external factors should be carefully considered. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulating and Negotiating Linguistic Diversity: Top-Down and Bottom-Up Language Planning in the Moroccan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassa, Samira

    2012-01-01

    This study examines language planning as displayed in street names, advertising posters, billboards, and supermarket product displays in three Moroccan cities: Casablanca, Fes, and Rabat. The study reveals somewhat confusing language planning stemming from on-going political, economic, and social transformation in Morocco. More than 50 years after…

  17. Investigating executive functions in children with severe speech and movement disorders using structured tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadskleiv, K.; Tetzchner, S. von; Batorowicz, B.; Balkom, L.J.M. van; Dahlgren-Sandberg, A.; Renner, G.

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions are the basis for goal-directed activity and include planning, monitoring, and inhibition, and language seems to play a role in the development of these functions. There is a tradition of studying executive function in both typical and atypical populations, and the present study

  18. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  19. Upgrading Planning and Executive Strategy for Reactor Protection System and Relative Equipment in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zuyue

    2010-01-01

    Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP) is the first nuclear power plant in China which completed the reactor protection system (RPS) upgrading with new digital safety instrumentation and control (I and C) platform instead of original analog system. At the same time,the nuclear instrumentation system (NIS) was upgraded with the same digital I and C platform. For adapting QNPP's actual engineering situation,the upgrading planning was taken by comprehensively investigating current development and application of digital safety I and C platform in the worldwide scope and by reviewing plant's original systems operation history. The project executive strategy-QNPP's leading role with necessary overseas cooperation and internal technical supports as great as possible, was determined. Some significant factors might influence and restrict the RPS and relative equipment upgrading executive actions in an operating NPP were analyzed.Finally, the engineering feasibility was briefly assessed to recognize the anticipated issues and difficulties and to prepare the relative solutions in advance for the purpose of ensuring the RPS upgrading objectives completely realized. (authors)

  20. Phonological and Executive Working Memory in L2 Task-Based Speech Planning and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhisheng

    2016-01-01

    The present study sets out to explore the distinctive roles played by two working memory (WM) components in various aspects of L2 task-based speech planning and performance. A group of 40 post-intermediate proficiency level Chinese EFL learners took part in the empirical study. Following the tenets and basic principles of the…

  1. Operator-assisted planning and execution of proximity operations subject to operational constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    Future multi-vehicle operations will involve multiple scenarios that will require a planning tool for the rapid, interactive creation of fuel-efficient trajectories. The planning process must deal with higher-order, non-linear processes involving dynamics that are often counter-intuitive. The optimization of resulting trajectories can be difficult to envision. An interaction proximity operations planning system is being developed to provide the operator with easily interpreted visual feedback of trajectories and constraints. This system is hosted on an IRIS 4D graphics platform and utilizes the Clohessy-Wiltshire equations. An inverse dynamics algorithm is used to remove non-linearities while the trajectory maneuvers are decoupled and separated in a geometric spreadsheet. The operator has direct control of the position and time of trajectory waypoints to achieve the desired end conditions. Graphics provide the operator with visualization of satisfying operational constraints such as structural clearance, plume impingement, approach velocity limits, and arrival or departure corridors. Primer vector theory is combined with graphical presentation to improve operator understanding of suggested automated system solutions and to allow the operator to review, edit, or provide corrective action to the trajectory plan.

  2. Incorporation of training and skills development in the execution of the South African National Infrastructure Plan

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlungwana, Wilkin S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available an introduction to the Plan, the paper offers a CSIR view of the "skills development problem". The paper then describes a desktop study which the CSIR conducted to evaluate and compare South Africa's contractor skills development framework with the frameworks...

  3. Education Strategic Plan 2015-2035: Advancing NOAA's Mission through Education. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Education Strategic Plan provides a framework to guide collaboration across the NOAA education community and a structure in which to track and report progress. Congress recognized the importance of NOAA's education programs with the passage of the America COMPETES Act. The America COMPETES…

  4. Building oceanographic and atmospheric observation networks by composition: unmanned vehicles, communication networks, and planning and execution control frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, J. T.; Pinto, J.; Martins, R.; Costa, M.; Ferreira, F.; Gomes, R.

    2014-12-01

    The problem of developing mobile oceanographic and atmospheric observation networks (MOAO) with coordinated air and ocean vehicles is discussed in the framework of the communications and control software tool chain developed at Underwater Systems and Technologies Laboratory (LSTS) from Porto University. This is done with reference to field experiments to illustrate key capabilities and to assess future MOAO operations. First, the motivation for building MOAO by "composition" of air and ocean vehicles, communication networks, and planning and execution control frameworks is discussed - in networked vehicle systems information and commands are exchanged among multiple vehicles and operators, and the roles, relative positions, and dependencies of these vehicles and operators change during operations. Second, the planning and execution control framework developed at LSTS for multi-vehicle systems is discussed with reference to key concepts such as autonomy, mixed-initiative interactions, and layered organization. Third, the LSTS tool software tool chain is presented to show how to develop MOAO by composition. The tool chain comprises the Neptus command and control framework for mixed initiative interactions, the underlying IMC messaging protocol, and the DUNE on-board software. Fourth, selected LSTS operational deployments illustrate MOAO capability building. In 2012 we demonstrated the use of UAS to "ferry" data from UUVs located beyond line of sight (BLOS). In 2013 we demonstrated coordinated observations of coastal fronts with small UAS and UUVs, "bent" BLOS through the use of UAS as communication relays, and UAS tracking of juvenile hammer-head sharks. In 2014 we demonstrated UUV adaptive sampling with the closed loop controller of the UUV residing on a UAS; this was done with the help of a Wave Glider ASV with a communications gateway. The results from these experiments provide a background for assessing potential future UAS operations in a compositional MOAO.

  5. An Interprofessional Approach to Continuing Education With Mass Casualty Simulation: Planning and Execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Deborah A; Strout, Kelley; Caruso, Lisa Swanson; Ingwell-Spolan, Charlene; Koplovsky, Aiden

    2017-10-01

    Many natural and man-made disasters require the assistance from teams of health care professionals. Knowing that continuing education about disaster simulation training is essential to nursing students, nurses, and emergency first responders (e.g., emergency medical technicians, firefighters, police officers), a university in the northeastern United States planned and implemented an interprofessional mass casualty incident (MCI) disaster simulation using the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) management framework. The school of nursing and University Volunteer Ambulance Corps (UVAC) worked together to simulate a bus crash with disaster victim actors to provide continued education for community first responders and train nursing students on the MCI process. This article explains the simulation activity, planning process, and achieved outcomes. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(10):447-453. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. An Early Years Toolbox for Assessing Early Executive Function, Language, Self-Regulation, and Social Development: Validity, Reliability, and Preliminary Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Steven J; Melhuish, Edward

    2017-06-01

    Several methods of assessing executive function (EF), self-regulation, language development, and social development in young children have been developed over previous decades. Yet new technologies make available methods of assessment not previously considered. In resolving conceptual and pragmatic limitations of existing tools, the Early Years Toolbox (EYT) offers substantial advantages for early assessment of language, EF, self-regulation, and social development. In the current study, results of our large-scale administration of this toolbox to 1,764 preschool and early primary school students indicated very good reliability, convergent validity with existing measures, and developmental sensitivity. Results were also suggestive of better capture of children's emerging abilities relative to comparison measures. Preliminary norms are presented, showing a clear developmental trajectory across half-year age groups. The accessibility of the EYT, as well as its advantages over existing measures, offers considerably enhanced opportunities for objective measurement of young children's abilities to enable research and educational applications.

  7. An innovative approach for planning and execution of pre-experimental runs for Design of Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arsalan Farooq

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the study of the pre-experimental planning phase of the Design of Experiments (DoE in order to improve the final product quality. The pre-experimental planning phase includes a clear identification of the problem statement, selection of control factors and their respective levels and ranges. To improve production quality based on the DoE a new approach for the pre-experimental planning phase, called Non-Conformity Matrix (NCM, is presented. This article also addresses the key steps of the pre-experimental runs considering a consumer goods manufacturing process. Results of the application for an industrial case show that this methodology can support a clear definition of the problem and also a correct identification of the factor ranges in particular situations. The proposed new approach allows modeling the entire manufacturing system holistically and correctly defining the factor ranges and respective levels for a more effective application of DoE. This new approach can be a useful resource for both research and industrial practitioners who are dedicated to large DoE projects with unknown factor interactions, when the operational levels and ranges are not completely defined.

  8. A Paradigm for Investigating Executive Control Mechanisms in Word Retrieval in Language-Impaired and Neurotypical Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L. Middleton

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An unresolved question in research on executive control in language production is whether the processes responsible for inhibiting a dominant, prepotent response in order to comply with task goals is the same or different from control processes that bias intrinsic competition during lexical selection. Heretofore, these processes have been studied with different paradigms, such as the Stroop task and semantic blocking paradigm [1], respectively. The present study introduces a new paradigm to study both mechanisms as they impact word retrieval in neuropsychological and neurotypical populations. The task included several blocks of trials, where within a block two pictures were named repeatedly in random order. Two manipulated factors were: (1 relatedness of the pair of names, which bore either a semantic (duck/pig or phonological relationship (ball/bag; or were unrelated (map/gun; (2 canonicity, where participants named each picture either with the canonical name (e.g., say “pig” for pig, “duck” for duck or reversed the labels (e.g., say “duck” for pig, “pig” for duck. The names were closely matched for length, frequency, and other variables. Crossing the factors created six conditions (semantic-canonical, semantic-reverse, phonological-canonical, phonological-reverse, unrelated-canonical, unrelated-reverse, with each condition administered in one block of 16 trials (8 trials per picture. The task was administered to 12 participants with aphasia (PWA with mild to severe naming impairment and 25 neurotypical controls. The dependent variables were naming latency (calculated for correct naming trials only and naming accuracy, defined as a binary variable (correct versus error, which were analyzed with mixed linear and logistic regression analysis, respectively. For each dependent variable in each participant group, contrasting each related condition with the unrelated condition permitted measurement of three effects--a main effect of

  9. Joomla! Start to Finish How to Plan, Execute, and Maintain Your Web Site

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Jen

    2010-01-01

    There is much more to building a great web site than just downloading and installing Joomla!. This book provides crucial content on planning the website, before launching into the technology steps. It will show the reader how to analyze the client company's strategy and how to find out how the organization wants itself reflected and supported by the web site. Then it will cover the right technological solutions to the problems and getting the site structure organized via a site map.  All of this is done before you establish hosting or install Joomla!. Once the technology steps are established,

  10. TMI-2 accident evaluation program sample acquisition and examination plan. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.L.; McCardell, R.K.; Broughton, J.M.

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Program Sample Acquisition and Examination (TMI-2 AEP SA and E) program is to develop and implement a test and inspection plan that completes the current-condition characterization of (a) the TMI-2 equipment that may have been damaged by the core damage events and (b) the TMI-2 core fission product inventory. The characterization program includes both sample acquisitions and examinations and in-situ measurements. Fission product characterization involves locating the fission products as well as determining their chemical form and determining material association

  11. The Moses Mabhida Medical Plan: medical care planning and execution at a FIFA2010 stadium; the Durban experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C Hardcastle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Timothy C Hardcastle1,2, Mergan Naidoo3,4, Sanjay Samlal5,6, Morgambery Naidoo5,6, Timothy Larsen5,6, Muzi Mabasu5,6,7, Sibongiseni Ngema6,81Inkosi Albert Luthuli Hospital, Mayville, South Africa; 2Department of Surgery, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; 3Wentworth Hospital, Durban, South Africa; 4Department of Family Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; 5Emergency Medical Rescue Service, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; 6Department of Health, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; 7EMRS 2010 Planning Committee, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; 8School of Public Administration and Development Management, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South AfricaAim: This paper aims to outline the medical services provided at the Moses Mabhida Stadium, Durban, South Africa for the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA 2010 Soccer World Cup and audit the clinical services delivered to persons seeking medical assistance.Methods: Descriptive report of the medical facilities at the Moses Mabhida Stadium including the staff deployment. Retrospective data review of medical incident reports from the Stadium Medical Team.Results: Medical staffing exceeded the local norms and was satisfactory to provide rapid intervention for all incoming patients. Senior medical presence decreased the transport to hospital rate (TTHR. A total of 316 spectators or support staff were treated during the seven matches played at the stadium. The majority of patients were male (60%, mostly of local origin, with mostly minor complaints that were treated and discharged (88.2% Green codes. The most common complaints were headache, abdominal disorders, and soft-tissue injuries. One fatality was recorded. The patient presentation rate (PPR was 0.66/10,000 and the TTHR was overall 4.1% of all treated patients (0.027/10,000 spectators.Conclusion: There was little evidence to guide medical planning for staffing from the FIFA governing body. Most

  12. Revised draft Hanford remedial action environmental impact statement and comprehensive land-use plan: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report evaluates the potential environmental impacts associated with implementing a comprehensive land-use plan for the Hanford Site for at least the next 50 years. With the exception of the required No-Action Alternative, each of the six alternatives presented represents a Tribal, Federal, state, or local agency's Preferred Alternative. Each alternative is presented separately. The DOE's Preferred Alternative anticipates multiple uses of the Hanford Site, including: consolidating waste management operations in the Central Plateau, allowing industrial development in the eastern and southern portions of the site, increasing recreational access to the Columbia River, and expanding the Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge to include all of the Wahluke Slope (managed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service). The Hanford Site occupies 1,517 square kilometers (km 2 ) (586 square miles [mi 2 ]) in southeastern Washington. Today, the Hanford Site has diverse missions associated with environmental restoration, waste management, and science and technology. These missions have resulted in the growing need for a comprehensive, long-term approach to planning and development for the Site

  13. The interplay of ultrasound and computed tomography in the planning and execution of interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, S.; Mueller, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Even in large academic and private settings, where subspecialists abound and diagnostic and interventional radiologists are divided, both physically and philosophically, the interventionalist has emerged from the fluoroscopic suite to participate in the imaging workup of patients referred for precutaneous procedures. This expanded imaging role for the interventionalist is a natural outgrowth of several developments in radiology training. Computed tomography and ultrasound no longer are obscure techniques, understood only by an elite group of academic radiologists in large centers with access to equipment. All residents receive extensive education in these modalities, as imaging is a major part of general radiology. In addition, fellowship programs have been expanded to emphasize organ system training as opposed to ''modality'' training alone. Armed with imaging skills, the interventionalist is able to evaluate the cross-sectional diagnostic images better and to address specific findings and issues with respect to the planned procedure. These specific issues, elucidated by cross-sectional imaging, impact on the planning of interventional procedures addressed in this chapter

  14. The Moses Mabhida Medical Plan: medical care planning and execution at a FIFA2010 stadium; the Durban experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Timothy C; Naidoo, Mergan; Samlal, Sanjay; Naidoo, Morgambery; Larsen, Timothy; Mabasu, Muzi; Ngema, Sibongiseni

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to outline the medical services provided at the Moses Mabhida Stadium, Durban, South Africa for the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 2010 Soccer World Cup and audit the clinical services delivered to persons seeking medical assistance. Descriptive report of the medical facilities at the Moses Mabhida Stadium including the staff deployment. Retrospective data review of medical incident reports from the Stadium Medical Team. Medical staffing exceeded the local norms and was satisfactory to provide rapid intervention for all incoming patients. Senior medical presence decreased the transport to hospital rate (TTHR). A total of 316 spectators or support staff were treated during the seven matches played at the stadium. The majority of patients were male (60%), mostly of local origin, with mostly minor complaints that were treated and discharged (88.2% Green codes). The most common complaints were headache, abdominal disorders, and soft-tissue injuries. One fatality was recorded. The patient presentation rate (PPR) was 0.66/10,000 and the TTHR was overall 4.1% of all treated patients (0.027/10,000 spectators). There was little evidence to guide medical planning for staffing from the FIFA governing body. Most patients are treated and released in accordance with international literature, leading to low TTHR rates, while PPR was in line with international experience. Headache was the most common medical complaint. The blowing of Vuvuzelas(®) may have influenced the high headache rate.

  15. The multi-annual Energy Plan - Executive summary. The energy transition for the green growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The multi-annual energy plan aims at completing the transition towards an energy system which is more efficient, less wasteful, more diverse and therefore more resilient. It reaffirms our commitment to reducing energy consumption, particularly energy from fossil fuels. The future of France's energy sector lies in striking a harmonious balance between different energy sources. These strategic decisions will help us to meet our objectives to keep greenhouse gas emissions to a minimum in line with our commitments to the EU and to the Paris Climate Agreement, to protect human health and the environment and to ensure access to energy at a reasonable cost whilst stimulating economic activity and employment in France

  16. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  17. Achieving aesthetic results in facial reconstructive microsurgery: planning and executing secondary refinements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Nicholas T; Saadeh, Pierre B; Siebert, John W

    2012-12-01

    Free tissue transfer to improve bulk and contour in facial deformities has been proven useful, yet refinements that turn an acceptable result into an excellent result are essential to reconstruction. The authors reviewed their experience and described these refinements. The charts of 371 free tissue transfer cases (1989 to 2010) performed by the senior author (J.W.S.) were reviewed. Free tissue transfer of a circumflex scapular variant flap or superficial inferior epigastric was performed to treat deformities arising from hemifacial atrophy (n = 126), hemifacial microsomia (n = 89), radiation therapy (n = 40), bilateral malformations including lupus and polymyositis (n = 50), other congenital anomalies (n = 25), facial palsy (n = 17), and burns and trauma (n = 24). Revision surgery planning began at initial flap operation where the flap was stretched maximally and interdigitated with recipient tissue. More tissue was required in the malar region. Revision refinement was indicated in all cases (after 6 months). Flap revision involved liposuction, debulking, reelevation, and release of tethering, followed by tissue rearrangement by means of advancement, rotation, transposition, and/or turnover flaps of subcutaneous tissues from the previous free flap. The jawline frequently required more debulking. Periorbital reconstruction was combined with lower lid support with or without canthal repositioning. Conventional face-lift techniques with the flap as superficial musculoaponeurotic system augmented the result. Autologous fat injection to the alar rim, medial canthus, upper eyelid, and lip was a useful adjunct. Severe lip deficiencies were addressed with local flaps. The keys to improving results were continual critical reassessment, open-mindedness to new approaches, and maintaining high expectations. Therapeutic, V.

  18. Planning and execution of knowledge management assist missions for nuclear organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-05-01

    problems. The IAEA is implementing a special subprogram on Nuclear Knowledge Management with a focus on the development of guidance for KM, on networking nuclear education and training and on the preservation of nuclear knowledge. Knowledge management consists of three fundamental components: people, processes and technology. Knowledge management focuses on people and organizational culture to stimulate and nurture the sharing and use of knowledge; on processes or methods to find, create, capture and share knowledge; and on technology to store and make knowledge accessible which will allow people to work together without being located together. People are the most important component. Managing knowledge depends upon people's willingness to share and reuse knowledge. In 2005, the IAEA introduced the concept of KM missions. The missions were established to: Facilitate the transfer of pragmatic KM methodologies and tools; Assist Member States considering implementation of nuclear power programmes to integrate KM in their management system from the very beginning; Provide specific consultancy services to address emergent problems and long term issues related to KM and associated issues; Assist organizations formulate detailed requirements and action plans related to KM; Help organizations identify, by self-assessment, their own KM maturity levels against a set of pre-defined criteria. This document is written to provide a common framework for KM missions and to provide general guidance for all mission participants. This document has been prepared to provide a basic structure and common reference for KM missions. As such, it is addressed, principally, to the team members of KM missions and also to the Counterpart requesting a mission. Although not mandatory, the guidelines provided in this document should be used as the basis for all future KM missions

  19. Project Execution Plan for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danny Anderson

    2014-07-01

    As part of ongoing cleanup activities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is proceeding under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (42 USC 9601 et seq. 1980). INL-generated radioactive waste has been disposed of at RWMC since 1952. The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at RWMC accepted the bulk of INL’s contact and remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) for disposal. Disposal of contact-handled LLW and remote-handled LLW ion-exchange resins from the Advanced Test Reactor in the open pit of the SDA ceased September 30, 2008. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at RWMC will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the SDA (approximately at the end of fiscal year FY 2017). The continuing nuclear mission of INL, associated ongoing and planned operations, and Naval spent fuel activities at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) require continued capability to appropriately dispose of contact and remote handled LLW. A programmatic analysis of disposal alternatives for contact and remote-handled LLW generated at INL was conducted by the INL contractor in Fiscal Year 2006; subsequent evaluations were completed in Fiscal Year 2007. The result of these analyses was a recommendation to the Department of Energy (DOE) that all contact-handled LLW generated after September 30, 2008, be disposed offsite, and that DOE proceed with a capital project to establish replacement remote-handled LLW disposal capability. An analysis of the alternatives for providing replacement remote-handled LLW disposal capability has been performed to support Critical Decision-1. The highest ranked alternative to provide this required capability has been determined to be the development of a new onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility to replace the existing remote-handled LLW disposal vaults at the SDA. Several offsite DOE

  20. Is Sauce for the Goose Sauce for the Gander? Some Comparative Reflections on Minority Language Planning in North and South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Clinton D. W.

    1994-01-01

    Compares efforts to support minority languages in the developed, industrialized countries of the north and the developing countries of the southern hemisphere. The article examines whether comparable principles are being applied to minority language planning, and if not, what the underlying reasons for the differences are. (33 references)…

  1. Critical human-factors issues in nuclear-power regulation and a recommended comprehensive human-factors long-range plan. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, C.O.; Snyder, H.L.; Price, H.E.; Hornick, R.J.; Mackie, R.R.; Smillie, R.J.; Sugarman, R.C.

    1982-08-01

    This comprehensive long-range human factors plan for nuclear reactor regulation was developed by a Study Group of the Human Factors Society, Inc. This Study Group was selected by the Executive Council of the Society to provide a balanced, experienced human factors perspective to the applications of human factors scientific and engineering knowledge to nuclear power generation. The report is presented in three volumes. Volume 1 contains an Executive Summary of the 18-month effort and its conclusions. Volume 2 summarizes all known nuclear-related human factors activities, evaluates these activities wherever adequate information is available, and describes the recommended long-range (10-year) plan for human factors in regulation. Volume 3 elaborates upon each of the human factors issues and areas of recommended human factors involvement contained in the plan, and discusses the logic that led to the recommendations

  2. Project Execution Plan Project 98L-EWW-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling DOE No. 98-D-453

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOLSTEIN, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    This Project Execution Plan (PEP) describes the management methods and responsibilities of the project participants. Project W-460 is sufficiently large to warrant a stand alone PEP. This project specific PEP describes the relationships and responsibilities of the project team and identifies the technical, schedule, and cost baselines that have been established for the project. The Department of Energy (DOE), Hanford Works (Hanford), at Richland, WA., currently does not have a system capable of stabilizing or packaging large quantities of plutonium-bearing solids to meet DOE technical standard DOE-STD-3013-96. This project will allow Hanford to meet this standard by installing stabilization and packaging equipment (SPE). The SPE is capable of stabilizing and packaging the current inventory of greater than 50 percent plutonium-bearing materials currently stored in the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) vaults into 3013 storage containers. The scope of this project is to procure and install the SPE via a Hanford contract and coordination with the Savannah River Site. In addition, the project will modify PFP vaults and upgrade the PFP Laboratory measurement systems. The Facility infrastructure will be modified to support the new SPE system and the new standardized storage container configuration. Use of this document is described in the Project Hanford Policy and Procedure System under HNF-PRO-1999, Construction Program Conceptual Phase

  3. Project Execution Plan Project 98L-EWW-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling DOE 98-D-453

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCGRATH, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    This Project Execution Plan (PEP) describes the management methods and responsibilities of the project participants. Project W-460 is sufficiently large to warrant a stand alone PEP. This project specific PEP describes the relationships and responsibilities of the project team and identifies the technical, schedule, and cost baselines that have been established for the project. The Department of Energy (DOE), Hanford Works (Hanford), at Richland, Wa. currently does not have a system capable of stabilizing or packaging large quantities of plutonium-bearing solids to meet DOE technical standard DOE-STD-3013-99. This project will allow Hanford to meet this standard by installing stabilization and packaging equipment (SPE). The SPE is capable of stabilizing and packaging the current inventory of greater than 30 percent plutonium-bearing materials currently stored in the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) vaults into 3013 storage containers. The scope of this project is to procure and install the SPE via a Hanford contract and coordination with the Savannah River Site. In addition, the project will modify PFP vaults and upgrade the PFP Laboratory measurement systems. The Facility infrastructure will be modified to support the new SPE system and the new standardized storage container configuration

  4. Project Execution Plan Project 98L-EWW-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling DOE 98-D-453

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLSTEIN, W.A.

    1999-08-01

    This Project Execution Plan (PEP) describes the management methods and responsibilities of the project participants. Project W-460 is sufficiently large to warrant a stand alone PEP. This project specific PEP describes the relationships and responsibilities of the project team and identifies the technical, schedule, and cost baselines that have been established for the project. The Department of Energy (DOE), Hanford Works (Hanford), at Richland Wa. currently does not have a system capable of stabilizing or packaging large quantities of plutonium-bearing solids to meet DOE technical standard DOE-STD-3013-96. This project will allow Hanford to meet this standard by installing stabilization and packaging equipment (SPE). The SPE is capable of stabilizing and packaging the current inventory of greater than 50 percent plutonium-bearing materials currently stored in the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) vaults into 3013 storage containers. The scope of this project is to procure and install the SPE via a Hanford contract and coordination with the Savannah River Site. In addition, the project will modify PFP vaults and upgrade the PFP Laboratory measurement systems. The Facility infrastructure will be modified to support the new SPE system and the new standardized storage container configuration.

  5. Project Execution Plan Project 98L-EWW-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling DOE 98-D-453

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCGRATH, G.M.

    2000-06-21

    This Project Execution Plan (PEP) describes the management methods and responsibilities of the project participants. Project W-460 is sufficiently large to warrant a stand alone PEP. This project specific PEP describes the relationships and responsibilities of the project team and identifies the technical, schedule, and cost baselines that have been established for the project. The Department of Energy (DOE), Hanford Works (Hanford), at Richland, Wa. currently does not have a system capable of stabilizing or packaging large quantities of plutonium-bearing solids to meet DOE technical standard DOE-STD-3013-99. This project will allow Hanford to meet this standard by installing stabilization and packaging equipment (SPE). The SPE is capable of stabilizing and packaging the current inventory of greater than 30 percent plutonium-bearing materials currently stored in the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) vaults into 3013 storage containers. The scope of this project is to procure and install the SPE via a Hanford contract and coordination with the Savannah River Site. In addition, the project will modify PFP vaults and upgrade the PFP Laboratory measurement systems. The Facility infrastructure will be modified to support the new SPE system and the new standardized storage container configuration.

  6. Project Execution Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Created in 1989 to address over 50 years of environmental liabilities arising out of nuclear weapons production and testing in the United States since World War II, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Management (EM) Programs decade-long effort to reduce the costs of those environmental liabilities, collectively known as DOE's ''environmental mortgage,'' includes past as well as future cleanup costs associated with environmental contamination, hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes, contaminated buildings and facilities, and their associated risks. Tasked with the bulk of these cleanup efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's), Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP) is attempting to complete applicable corrective actions at inactive contaminated sites and facilities managed by DOE/NV, while at the same time protecting human health and the environment. Regulated under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the objectives of the NV ERP are to identify the nature and extent of the contamination, determine its potential risk to the public and the environment, and to perform the necessary corrective actions in compliance with this and other state and federal regulations, guidelines, and requirements. Associated with this vast effort are approximately 2,000 sites both on and off of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that were used primarily for nuclear testing and are addressed in the NV ERP. This includes sites that were underground areas where tests were actually conducted, contaminated surface soils resulting from aboveground testing activities, and sites that supported other related testing hardware paraphenalia and/or NTS real estate properties (e.g., underground storage tanks, leachfields, landfills, contaminated waste areas, injection wells, muckpiles, and ponds). To assist in this effort, a NV ERP Team was assembled which is composed of organizations from both the public and private sectors. The strategy to be employed for environmental restoration is based on commonality of work and the DOE EM Program's vision to remediate the contaminated sites on a project-specific, site-by-site basis over an approximate ten-year period to be completed by the year 2006

  7. The Influence of Deaf People's Dual Category Status on Sign Language Planning: The British Sign Language (Scotland) Act (2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2017-01-01

    Through the British Sign Language (Scotland) Act, British Sign Language (BSL) was given legal status in Scotland. The main motives for the Act were a desire to put BSL on a similar footing with Gaelic and the fact that in Scotland, BSL signers are the only group whose first language is not English who must rely on disability discrimination…

  8. Developing a Spanish-language consumer report for CAHPS health plan surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Kanouse, David E; Weidmer, Beverly; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; García, Rosa Elena; Hays, Ron D

    2007-11-01

    A Spanish-language consumer report on health plan quality was developed for the Consumer Assessments of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) project. Multiple translations, a committee review, and a readability assessment were performed to produce a draft Spanish report. The report was revised on the basis of a series of cognitive interviews with 24 Latinos. The median age of participants was 41 years, and the median number of years in the United States was 9; 67% were female, and 63% had less than a high school education. In general, participants understood the report and said they would use it to choose a health plan. Less-educated respondents had difficulty understanding the segmented bar graphs that showed the proportion of health plan members' responses. A summary chart comparing all health plans on all dimensions was easier to comprehend when differences were represented by word icons rather than by stars. Concepts and terms about health care quality translated well from English to Spanish. Simplifying graphical information involves losing some detail but makes information more usable. Summary charts facilitate comparisons across plans, but differences relative to a mean are difficult for both Spanish- and English-speaking consumers to understand.

  9. Language Planning and the Programs in Filipino of Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaine Z. Tarun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on the language planning and the programs in Filipino of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs in Region 02, Philippines. It aimed to evaluate the extent of contributions in the implementation of national and institutional academic language policies and programs on Filipino in the General Education Curriculum (GEC, Bilingual / Multilingual Education, translation of books and articles, instructional materials development using Filipino and other languages in the region, having published books, scholarly articles and theses in other disciplines and journals written in Filipino and the attitudes of administrators, faculty and students. This evaluative study applied both the quantitative analysis of data using the survey method and qualitative analysis using the multi-method approach or triangulation. A total of 216 respondents from other disciplines, except Filipino, randomly selected among the administrators, faculty and students were utilized. The results confirmed that the minimum required GEC courses in Filipino as stipulated in CHED Memorandum Order No. 59 s. 1996 were implemented in their curricular programs while as a medium of instruction in Humanities, Social Sciences and Communications (HUSOCOM courses, Filipino was not used. Result substantiated that Filipino aided instruction in classroom discourses both in HUSOCOM and Non – HUSOCOM courses was commonly practiced. Result also vouched the non-existence of institutional policies and programs in Filipino. However, there were no significant differences in the positive attitudes among administrators, faculty and students of Higher Education Institutions.

  10. 78 FR 28243 - Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board; Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board; Members AGENCY: National Capital Planning Commission. ACTION: Notice of Members of Senior Executive Service... Senior Executive Service. The PRB established for the National Capital Planning Commission also makes...

  11. 76 FR 29013 - Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board; Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board; Members AGENCY: National Capital Planning Commission. ACTION: Notice of Members of Senior Executive Service... Senior Executive Service. The PRB established for the National Capital Planning Commission also makes...

  12. Is Afrikaans a suitable model in planning the development of African Languages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley G M Ridge

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The repeated claim that Afrikaans provides a useful model for planning the development of theAfrican languages is examined critically in this article with a view to elucidating importantissues in South African language planning. The first part acknowledges the fascination of alanguage which has developed sofast for all domains of use, before examining thefactors whichdrove that development, identifying particularly its affinity to Dutch and its tempestuous politicaland social history as making it a deceptive model for African languages. The second partexplores some aspects of its history which do suggest valuable perspectives for other languagesat this stage of our history. The examples discussed are language medium in schooling, thedangers of loss of confidence in a language considered with the possibilities of effective statusinterventions, and the complex issues surrounding language standards. The third part brieflyexamines the history of Afrikaans's ambiguous relation to English. It notes the persistence of theEnglish 'enemy' metaphor along with a practical demand for English, considers the racialpolitics of the statutory equality debate at the time of Union, and analyses three distortionsoccasioned by an ambiguous attitude to English in a contemporary discussion of the role of Afrikaans. Finally, the notion of a model or example is itself questioned. The article proposesdeveloping a deeper understanding of actual needs and attitudes in an ongoing process oflanguage planning as the most likely way of doingjustice to all South Africa's languages.Die herhaalde aanspraak dat Afrikaans 'n bruikbare model bied waarvolgens die ontwikkelingvan Afrika-tale beplan kan word, word in hierdie artikel krities ondersoek met die oog daaropom belangrike vraagstukke in die Suid-Afrikaanse taalbeplanning toe te lig. Die eerste deel geeerkenning aan die bekoring van 'n taal wat op aile gebruiksterreine baie vinnig ontwikkel het,voordat die faktore wat aan

  13. Zur Rolle von Plansprachen im terminologiewissenschaftlichen Werk von Eugen Wuster (The Role of Planned Languages in Eugen Wuster's Work on Terminology Science).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Detlev

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between planned languages and specialized technical languages, with particular reference to Esperanto, and analyzes its significance for several aspects of Eugen Wuster's (the founder of terminology science) work. (Author/VWL)

  14. Thalamus and language: interface with attention, memory and executive functions Tálamo e linguagem: interface com atenção, memória e funções executivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Radanovic

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Subcortical structures are in a strategic functional position within the cognitive networks. Their lesion can interfere with a great number of functions. We studied six patients with thalamic vascular lesions (three left sided, two right sided and one bilateral, to characterize their repercussion in the communicative abilities and the interface between language alterations and other cognitive abilities, as attention, memory and frontal executive. All patients were evaluated through a functional interview (discourse analysis, and the following batteries: Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, Boston Naming Test, Token Test, Benton Visual Retention Test, Trail Making, Wisconsin Card Sorting and frontal scripts. All patients performed MRI and five underwent SPECT. Results show that these patients present impairment in several cognitive domains, especially attention and executive functions (working memory, planning and self-monitoring; those with right lesions have an additional visuospatial impairment. Such alterations interfere with language abilities, and this fact must be considered in the rehabilitation efforts.As estruturas subcorticais ocupam posições funcionais estratégicas nas redes cognitivas. Sua lesão pode interferir com grande número de funções. Estudamos seis pacientes com lesão vascular talâmica (três à esqueda, dois à direita e um bilateral, para caracterizar a repercussão da lesão nas suas habilidades comunicativas e a interface entre alterações de linguagem e outras habilidades cognitivas, como atenção, memória e executivas frontais. Os pacientes foram avaliados através de entrevista funcional (análise do discurso, testes de Boston para Diagnóstico da Afasia, Nomeação Boston, Token, Múltipla Escolha de Benton, Trail Making, Wisconsin Card Sorting e scripts frontais. Todos os pacientes realizaram ressonância magnética encefálica (RM e cinco realizaram SPECT. Os resultados mostram que os pacientes

  15. Executive Functioning Differences between Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Initiation, Planning and Strategy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramham, Jessica; Ambery, Fiona; Young, Susan; Morris, Robin; Russell, Ailsa; Xenitidis, Kiriakos; Asherson, Philip; Murphy, Declan

    2009-01-01

    Executive functioning deficits characterize the neuropsychological profiles of the childhood neurodevelopmental disorders of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). This study sought to determine whether similar impairments exist in adults with ADHD (N = 53) and ASD (N = 45) in comparison with a…

  16. Development and refinement of computer-assisted planning and execution system for use in face-jaw-teeth transplantation to improve skeletal and dento-occlusal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Sepehr; Armand, Mehran; Gordon, Chad R

    2016-10-01

    To describe the development and refinement of the computer-assisted planning and execution (CAPE) system for use in face-jaw-teeth transplants (FJTTs). Although successful, some maxillofacial transplants result in suboptimal hybrid occlusion and may require subsequent surgical orthognathic revisions. Unfortunately, the use of traditional dental casts and splints pose several compromising shortcomings in the context of FJTT and hybrid occlusion. Computer-assisted surgery may overcome these challenges. Therefore, the use of computer-assisted orthognathic techniques and functional planning may prevent the need for such revisions and improve facial-skeletal outcomes. A comprehensive CAPE system for use in FJTT was developed through a multicenter collaboration and refined using plastic models, live miniature swine surgery, and human cadaver models. The system marries preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative execution by allowing on-table navigation of the donor fragment relative to recipient cranium, and real-time reporting of patient's cephalometric measurements relative to a desired dental-skeletal outcome. FJTTs using live-animal and cadaveric models demonstrate the CAPE system to be accurate in navigation and beneficial in improving hybrid occlusion and other craniofacial outcomes. Future refinement of the CAPE system includes integration of more commonly performed orthognathic/maxillofacial procedures.

  17. Language Planning and Education of Adult Immigrants in Canada: Contrasting the Provinces of Quebec and British Columbia, and the Cities of Montreal and Vancouver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellyson, Catherine; Andrew, Caroline; Clément, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Combining policy analysis with language policy and planning analysis, our article comparatively assesses two models of adult immigrants' language education in two very different provinces of the same federal country. In order to do so, we focus specifically on two questions: "'Why' do governments provide language education to adults?"…

  18. Serving English as a Second Language Communities: A Literary Review and an In-Service Plan To Assist Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorf, David; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    This paper presents a literature review and describes an inservice plan for aspiring and current elementary administrators in schools serving English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) communities. The literature review examines habits and guidelines for effective leaders to use in educational settings, discusses laws regarding bilingual/ESL education,…

  19. A Changing Paradigm in Language Planning: English-Medium Instruction Policy at the Tertiary Level in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nor Liza

    2013-01-01

    The literature shows that English-medium instruction (EMI) programmes at the tertiary level in various parts of the world have positioned EMI as a language-planning tool to promote students' mastery of English. English proficiency is believed to be intertwined with the overall economic development of a country. In addition to internationalising…

  20. Exploiting Semantic Web Technologies to Develop OWL-Based Clinical Practice Guideline Execution Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpour, Borna; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2016-01-01

    Computerizing paper-based CPG and then executing them can provide evidence-informed decision support to physicians at the point of care. Semantic web technologies especially web ontology language (OWL) ontologies have been profusely used to represent computerized CPG. Using semantic web reasoning capabilities to execute OWL-based computerized CPG unties them from a specific custom-built CPG execution engine and increases their shareability as any OWL reasoner and triple store can be utilized for CPG execution. However, existing semantic web reasoning-based CPG execution engines suffer from lack of ability to execute CPG with high levels of expressivity, high cognitive load of computerization of paper-based CPG and updating their computerized versions. In order to address these limitations, we have developed three CPG execution engines based on OWL 1 DL, OWL 2 DL and OWL 2 DL + semantic web rule language (SWRL). OWL 1 DL serves as the base execution engine capable of executing a wide range of CPG constructs, however for executing highly complex CPG the OWL 2 DL and OWL 2 DL + SWRL offer additional executional capabilities. We evaluated the technical performance and medical correctness of our execution engines using a range of CPG. Technical evaluations show the efficiency of our CPG execution engines in terms of CPU time and validity of the generated recommendation in comparison to existing CPG execution engines. Medical evaluations by domain experts show the validity of the CPG-mediated therapy plans in terms of relevance, safety, and ordering for a wide range of patient scenarios.

  1. Walking execution is not affected by divided attention in patients with multiple sclerosis with no disability, but there is a motor planning impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Leandro Alberto Calazans; Santos, Luciano Teixeira Dos; Sabino, Pollyane Galinari; Alvarenga, Regina Maria Papais; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos

    2013-08-01

    We analysed the cognitive influence on walking in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, in the absence of clinical disability. A case-control study was conducted with 12 MS patients with no disability and 12 matched healthy controls. Subjects were referred for completion a timed walk test of 10 m and a 3D-kinematic analysis. Participants were instructed to walk at a comfortable speed in a dual-task (arithmetic task) condition, and motor planning was measured by mental chronometry. Scores of walking speed and cadence showed no statistically significant differences between the groups in the three conditions. The dual-task condition showed an increase in the double support duration in both groups. Motor imagery analysis showed statistically significant differences between real and imagined walking in patients. MS patients with no disability did not show any influence of divided attention on walking execution. However, motor planning was overestimated as compared with real walking.

  2. Globalisation, Language Planning and Language Rights: The Recent Script Policy Measures Adopted by Japan and the People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaratne, Dilhara D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, two significant script policy measures were adopted by Japan and the People's Republic of China (China hereafter), both as a response to national language needs triggered by globalisation. However, the measures chosen by the two countries were very different, Japan choosing to increase and China choosing to standardise the Chinese…

  3. Investigating executive functions in children with severe speech and movement disorders using structured tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine eStadskleiv

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions are the basis for goal-directed activity and include planning, monitoring, and inhibition, and language seems to play a role in the development of these functions. There is a tradition of studying executive function in both typical and atypical populations, and the present study investigates executive functions in children with severe speech and motor impairments who are communicating using communication aids with graphic symbols, letters and/or words. There are few neuropsychological studies of children in this group and little is known about their cognitive functioning, including executive functions. It was hypothesized that aided communication would tax executive functions more than speech. 29 children using communication aids and 27 naturally speaking children participated. Structured tasks resembling everyday activities, where the action goals had to be reached through communication with a partner, were used to get information about executive functions. The children a directed the partner to perform actions like building a Lego tower from a model the partner could not see and b gave information about an object without naming it to a person who had to guess what object it was. The executive functions of planning, monitoring and impulse control were coded from the children’s on-task behavior. Both groups solved most of the tasks correctly, indicating that aided communicators are able to use language to direct another person to do a complex set of actions. Planning and lack of impulsivity was positively related to task success in both groups. The aided group completed significantly fewer tasks, spent longer time and showed more variation in performance than the comparison group. The aided communicators scored lower on planning and showed more impulsivity than the comparison group, while both groups showed an equal degree of monitoring of the work progress. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that aided language

  4. Hand Specific Representations in Language Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMoody-Triantis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Theories of embodied cognition argue that language comprehension involves sensory-motor re-enactments of the actions described. However, the degree of specificity of these re-enactments as well as the relationship between action and language remains a matter of debate. Here we investigate these issues by examining how hand-specific information (left or right hand is recruited in language comprehension and action execution. An fMRI study tested right-handed participants in two separate tasks that were designed to be as similar as possible to increase sensitivity of the comparison across task: an action execution go/no-go task where participants performed right or left hand actions, and a language task where participants read sentences describing the same left or right handed actions as in the execution task. We found that language-induced activity did not match the hand-specific patterns of activity found for action execution in primary somatosensory and motor cortex, but it overlapped with pre-motor and parietal regions associated with action planning. Within these pre-motor regions, both right hand actions and sentences elicited stronger activity than left hand actions and sentences - a dominant hand effect -. Importantly, both dorsal and ventral sections of the left pre-central gyrus were recruited by both tasks, suggesting different action features being recruited. These results suggest that (a language comprehension elicits motor representations that are hand-specific and akin to multimodal action plans, rather than full action re-enactments; and (b language comprehension and action execution share schematic hand-specific representations that are richer for the dominant hand, and thus linked to previous motor experience.

  5. Hand specific representations in language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody-Triantis, Claire; Humphreys, Gina F; Gennari, Silvia P

    2014-01-01

    Theories of embodied cognition argue that language comprehension involves sensory-motor re-enactments of the actions described. However, the degree of specificity of these re-enactments as well as the relationship between action and language remains a matter of debate. Here we investigate these issues by examining how hand-specific information (left or right hand) is recruited in language comprehension and action execution. An fMRI study tested self-reported right-handed participants in two separate tasks that were designed to be as similar as possible to increase sensitivity of the comparison across task: an action execution go/no-go task where participants performed right or left hand actions, and a language task where participants read sentences describing the same left or right handed actions as in the execution task. We found that language-induced activity did not match the hand-specific patterns of activity found for action execution in primary somatosensory and motor cortex, but it overlapped with pre-motor and parietal regions associated with action planning. Within these pre-motor regions, both right hand actions and sentences elicited stronger activity than left hand actions and sentences-a dominant hand effect. Importantly, both dorsal and ventral sections of the left pre-central gyrus were recruited by both tasks, suggesting different action features being recruited. These results suggest that (a) language comprehension elicits motor representations that are hand-specific and akin to multimodal action plans, rather than full action re-enactments; and (b) language comprehension and action execution share schematic hand-specific representations that are richer for the dominant hand, and thus linked to previous motor experience.

  6. Decommissioning Programme Management: reducing risk and cost while accelerating schedules through improved planning, Earned Value Management and safe work execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    CH2M HILL experience includes more than two decades of managing nuclear facilities and providing clean-up and operations support for commercial and government facilities worldwide. Our expertise ranges from decommissioning and defence sector businesses to nuclear technology development and innovation. Our approach places top priority on the safe execution of work while reducing both risk and cost. Our nuclear services include: programme management, nuclear safety analysis, radiological protection, radioactive waste management, nuclear remediation, nuclear materials and waste transportation management, nuclear safeguards and security services, and nuclear decontamination and decommissioning. This paper will discuss our approach which has resulted in a strong track record of accelerating schedules and reducing costs of major nuclear programmes, including Rocky Flats, Idaho, and our work at UKAEA sites. (author)

  7. Comparative assessment of national bioenergy strategies and biomass action plans in 12 EU countries. European Best Practice Report. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report is a key output of the EU project 'BAP Driver', an initiative of energy agencies from 8 European key bioenergy nations and the European Biomass Association (AEBIOM). The BAP Driver project aims at identifying ways for improvement of current national policy frameworks for bioenergy in Europe, and at leveraging the process of developing country-specific Biomass Action Plans (BAP). From a strategic perspective, the general approach of this report focuses on four stages, required for setting up national biomass strategies and action plans: Assessment of national biomass resources; Formulation of national bioenergy strategies and biomass action plans; Implementation of national bioenergy policies; Monitoring of national bioenergy markets and policies. Overall the analysis is split into three chapters corresponding to the following logical steps: Chapter B: Country analysis (12 individual country profiles); Chapter C: Benchmark analysis (comparative assessment of 12 countries); Chapter D: Best practice analysis (transnational conclusions across national boundaries)

  8. Planning and delivering high doses to targets surrounding the spinal cord at the lower neck and upper mediastinal levels: static beam-segmentation technique executed with a multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neve, W. de; Wagter, C. de; Jaeger, K. de; Thienpont, M.; Colle, C.; Derycke, S.; Schelfhout, J.

    1996-01-01

    Background and purpose. It remains a technical challenge to limit the dose to the spinal cord below tolerance if, in head and neck or thyroid cancer, the planning target volume reaches to a level below the shoulders. In order to avoid these dose limitations, we developed a standard plan involving Beam Intensity Modulation (BIM) executed by a static technique of beam segmentation. In this standard plan, many machine parameters (gantry angles, couch position, relative beam and segment weights) as well as the beam segmentation rules were identical for all patients. Materials and methods. The standard plan involved: the use of static beams with a single isocenter; BIM by field segmentation executable with a standard Philips multileaf collimator; virtual simulation and dose computation on a general 3D-planning system (Sherouse's GRATIS[reg]); heuristic computation of segment intensities and optimization (improving the dose distribution and reducing the execution time) by human intelligence. The standard plan used 20 segments spread over 8 gantry angles plus 2 non-segmented wedged beams (2 gantry angles). Results. The dose that could be achieved at the lowest target voxel, without exceeding tolerance of the spinal cord (50 Gy at highest voxel) was 70-80 Gy. The in-target 3D dose-inhomogeneity was ∼25%. The shortest time of execution of a treatment (22 segments) on a patient (unpublished) was 25 min. Conclusions. A heuristic model has been developed and investigated to obtain a 3D concave dose distribution applicable to irradiate targets in the lower neck and upper mediastinal regions. The technique spares efficiently the spinal cord and allows the delivery of higher target doses than with conventional techniques. It can be planned as a standard plan using conventional 3D-planning technology. The routine clinical implementation is performed with commercially available equipment, however, at the expense of extended execution times

  9. Language Planning at the International Level. Report of the Annual Conference of the Center for Research and Documentation on World Language Problems (3rd, New York, New York, December 14, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Humphrey, Ed.; Johnson-Weiner, Karen, Ed.

    The proceedings of the conference include the opening address (Francoise Cestac) and these papers: "False Friendship in International Language Planning" (Joseph L. Malone); "Guidelines for Terminology Standardization at the United Nations" (Marie-Josee Jastrab); "Language Policy at the Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et…

  10. The effect of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on executive functions: impaired verbal fluency and intact updating, planning and conflict resolution in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, Gyula; Valálik, István; Pajkossy, Péter; Szőllősi, Ágnes; Lukács, Ágnes; Kemény, Ferenc; Racsmány, Mihály

    2017-04-24

    Although the improvement of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) after deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is well documented, there are open questions regarding its impact on cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bilateral DBS of the STN on executive functions in PD patients using a DBS wait-listed PD control group. Ten PD patients with DBS implantation (DBS group) and ten PD wait-listed patients (Clinical control group) participated in the study. Neuropsychological tasks were used to assess general mental ability and various executive functions. Each task was administered twice to each participant: before and after surgery (with the stimulators on) in the DBS group and with a matched delay between the two task administration points in the control group. There was no significant difference between the DBS and the control groups' performance in tasks measuring the updating of verbal, spatial or visual information (Digit span, Corsi and N-back tasks), planning and shifting (Trail Making B), and conflict resolution (Stroop task). However, the DBS group showed a significant decline on the semantic verbal fluency task after surgery compared to the control group, which is in line with findings of previous studies. Our results provide support for the relative cognitive safety of the STN DBS using a wait-listed PD control group. Differential effects of the STN DBS on frontostriatal networks are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Speech Planning Happens before Speech Execution: Online Reaction Time Methods in the Study of Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Edwin; Mailend, Marja-Liisa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present an argument for the use of online reaction time (RT) methods to the study of apraxia of speech (AOS) and to review the existing small literature in this area and the contributions it has made to our fundamental understanding of speech planning (deficits) in AOS. Method: Following a brief…

  12. Development of Design Technology on Thermal-Hydraulic Performance in Tight-Lattice Rod Bundles: I-Master Plan and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Akira; Kureta, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Tamai, Hidesada; Liu, Wei; Misawa, Takeharu; Takase, Kazuyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    R&D project to investigate thermal-hydraulic performance in tight-lattice rod bundles for Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible Fuel Cycle has been progressed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency in collaboration with power utilities, reactor vendors and universities since 2002. In this series-study, we will summarize the R&D achievements using large-scale test facility (37-rod bundle with full-height and full-pressure), model experiments and advanced numerical simulation technology. This first paper described the master plan for the development of design technology and showed an executive summary for this project up to FY2005. The thermal-hydraulic characteristics in the tight-lattice configuration were investigated and the feasibility was confirmed based on the experiments. We have developed the design technology including 3-D numerical simulation one to evaluate the effects of geometry/scale on the thermal-hydraulic behaviors.

  13. Functional Domains of the Quechua Language in Peru: Issues of Status Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Molina, Serafin M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the status of Quechua in Peru and how it has affected language maintenance efforts; discusses the functional domains served by Quechua, relating them to Peruvian language policies; notes the lack of grassroots efforts by indigenous people in Peru; and suggests possible measures to improve its status, noting predictions of the future of…

  14. "Una Nacion Acorralada": Southern Peruvian Quechua Language Planning and Politics in Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Bruce

    1984-01-01

    Outlines history of Spanish colonial policies toward Southern Peruvian Quechua and points out those issues under debate concerning the indigenous languages. The central issue of the "Andean language debate" continues to be whether or not the Quechua have a right to exist as a separate community. (SL)

  15. Sports Management for Sports Massification Planned and Executed by Social Organizations. Critics to Models, Experiences and Proposal Methodological Accompaniment

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenza Antonia Reyes de Duran

    2016-01-01

    The proposal analysis, interpretation, disassembly, self-criticism and guidance is born and comes from work experience planned mass sports and social organizations opposed-not in the conventional sense comparative-private business models and sport, state and management. The contribution made by the sports management experience from positions of power, either state or business are undeniable and its impact is difficult to express in numbers for its humanistic value, which is incalculable. Howe...

  16. Integrated High-Level Waste System Planning - Utilizing an Integrated Systems Planning Approach to Ensure End-State Definitions are Met and Executed - 13244

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Lawrence T. [URS-Savannah River Remediation, Savannah River Site, Building 766-H Room 2205, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Chew, David P. [URS-Savannah River Remediation, Savannah River Site, Building 766-H Room 2426, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy site which has produced nuclear materials for national defense, research, space, and medical programs since the 1950's. As a by-product of this activity, approximately 37 million gallons of high-level liquid waste containing approximately 292 million curies of radioactivity is stored on an interim basis in 45 underground storage tanks. Originally, 51 tanks were constructed and utilized to support the mission. Four tanks have been closed and taken out of service and two are currently undergoing the closure process. The Liquid Waste System is a highly integrated operation involving safely storing liquid waste in underground storage tanks; removing, treating, and dispositioning the low-level waste fraction in grout; vitrifying the higher activity waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility; and storing the vitrified waste in stainless steel canisters until permanent disposition. After waste removal and processing, the storage and processing facilities are decontaminated and closed. A Liquid Waste System Plan (hereinafter referred to as the Plan) was developed to integrate and document the activities required to disposition legacy and future High-Level Waste and to remove from service radioactive liquid waste tanks and facilities. It establishes and records a planning basis for waste processing in the liquid waste system through the end of the program mission. The integrated Plan which recognizes the challenges of constrained funding provides a path forward to complete the liquid waste mission within all regulatory and legal requirements. The overarching objective of the Plan is to meet all Federal Facility Agreement and Site Treatment Plan regulatory commitments on or ahead of schedule while preserving as much life cycle acceleration as possible through incorporation of numerous cost savings initiatives, elimination of non-essential scope, and deferral of other scope not on the critical path to compliance

  17. Integrated High-Level Waste System Planning - Utilizing an Integrated Systems Planning Approach to Ensure End-State Definitions are Met and Executed - 13244

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Lawrence T.; Chew, David P.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy site which has produced nuclear materials for national defense, research, space, and medical programs since the 1950's. As a by-product of this activity, approximately 37 million gallons of high-level liquid waste containing approximately 292 million curies of radioactivity is stored on an interim basis in 45 underground storage tanks. Originally, 51 tanks were constructed and utilized to support the mission. Four tanks have been closed and taken out of service and two are currently undergoing the closure process. The Liquid Waste System is a highly integrated operation involving safely storing liquid waste in underground storage tanks; removing, treating, and dispositioning the low-level waste fraction in grout; vitrifying the higher activity waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility; and storing the vitrified waste in stainless steel canisters until permanent disposition. After waste removal and processing, the storage and processing facilities are decontaminated and closed. A Liquid Waste System Plan (hereinafter referred to as the Plan) was developed to integrate and document the activities required to disposition legacy and future High-Level Waste and to remove from service radioactive liquid waste tanks and facilities. It establishes and records a planning basis for waste processing in the liquid waste system through the end of the program mission. The integrated Plan which recognizes the challenges of constrained funding provides a path forward to complete the liquid waste mission within all regulatory and legal requirements. The overarching objective of the Plan is to meet all Federal Facility Agreement and Site Treatment Plan regulatory commitments on or ahead of schedule while preserving as much life cycle acceleration as possible through incorporation of numerous cost savings initiatives, elimination of non-essential scope, and deferral of other scope not on the critical path to compliance

  18. A protocol for a three-arm cluster randomized controlled superiority trial investigating the effects of two pedagogical methodologies in Swedish preschool settings on language and communication, executive functions, auditive selective attention, socioemotional skills and early maths skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerholm, Tove; Hörberg, Thomas; Tonér, Signe; Kallioinen, Petter; Frankenberg, Sofia; Kjällander, Susanne; Palmer, Anna; Taguchi, Hillevi Lenz

    2018-06-19

    During the preschool years, children develop abilities and skills in areas crucial for later success in life. These abilities include language, executive functions, attention, and socioemotional skills. The pedagogical methods used in preschools hold the potential to enhance these abilities, but our knowledge of which pedagogical practices aid which abilities, and for which children, is limited. The aim of this paper is to describe an intervention study designed to evaluate and compare two pedagogical methodologies in terms of their effect on the above-mentioned skills in Swedish preschool children. The study is a randomized control trial (RCT) where two pedagogical methodologies were tested to evaluate how they enhanced children's language, executive functions and attention, socioemotional skills, and early maths skills during an intensive 6-week intervention. Eighteen preschools including 28 units and 432 children were enrolled in a municipality close to Stockholm, Sweden. The children were between 4;0 and 6;0 years old and each preschool unit was randomly assigned to either of the interventions or to the control group. Background information on all children was collected via questionnaires completed by parents and preschools. Pre- and post-intervention testing consisted of a test battery including tests on language, executive functions, selective auditive attention, socioemotional skills and early maths skills. The interventions consisted of 6 weeks of intensive practice of either a socioemotional and material learning paradigm (SEMLA), for which group-based activities and interactional structures were the main focus, or an individual, digitally implemented attention and math training paradigm, which also included a set of self-regulation practices (DIL). All preschools were evaluated with the ECERS-3. If this intervention study shows evidence of a difference between group-based learning paradigms and individual training of specific skills in terms of

  19. Evaluation and analysis of emergency maintenance due by third party action's, formulation and execution of contingency plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Vega, Raul; Nunez Ribera, Gary [TRANSIERRA S.A., Santa Cruz (Bolivia)

    2009-07-01

    In September 2008, in the Yacuiba - Rio Grande Gas Pipeline (GASYRG) located in the south of Bolivia, atypical situations took place. Due to the political events and the social mobilizations in which the country was, a series of third party actions developed putting in risk the facilities of the gas pipeline. These actions resulted in the rupture of a 1 inch instrumentation pipe, causing a leak witch some time caught fire and caused an interruption of the transportation service in that section of the pipeline, later on, another action derived in safety valve shut down causing a total pipeline shut down. In addition to these events we experience a fuel shortage, road blocks and a telephone communication system failure. In spite of these obstacles the maintenance activities were realized and emergency repairs put back in operating conditions the gas pipeline, task that was accomplished in a very short time, taking in account the situation. Later analysis, including all the adverse elements of the situation, result in the adoption of a series of measures and plans directed to mitigate the risk associated to this type of events, such as Mutual Aid Plans with fellow companies and institutions, fortification of the patrimonial security, stock material handling for emergency repairs, etc. (author)

  20. Planning, Anticipatory Systems, and Kinds of Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorna, René; van Wezel, Wout

    2002-09-01

    Anticipation and planning have much in common. Anticipation means being ahead of things. Planning means not only anticipating on things to come, but also trying to determine a course of action to reach a goal. Planning is investigated in many domains, for example, in economy, biology, and in the cognitive sciences. Each of these domains uses its own research methodologies, languages, ontologies, and models. Although there are many differences between the various approaches and models, there must of course also be similarities, since they all deal with establishing a future course of actions to reach a goal. We will compare several planning approaches on a number of aspects, e.g., the kind of entity that makes the plan (natural or artificial), whether the plan is executed by the planner or by another entity, representational issues, and the domain that the plan is executed in. Our article focuses on analytical dimensions in the extended field of planning. We do not discuss empirical results.

  1. Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 1. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    Nuclear byproducts are a major national resource that has yet to be incorporated into the economy. The current Defense Byproducts Program is designed to match specific military and commercial needs with the availability of valuable products which are currently treated as waste at considerable expense in waste management costs. This program plan focuses on a few specific areas with the greatest potential for near-term development and application. It also recognizes the need for a continuing effort to develop new applications for byproducts and to continue to assess the impacts on waste management. The entire program has been, and will continue to be structured so as to ensure the safety of the public and maintain the purity of the environment. Social and institutional concerns have been recognized and will be handled appropriately. A significant effort will be undertaken to inform the public of the benefits of byproduct use and of the care being taken to ensure safe, efficient operation

  2. Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-08-01

    Nuclear byproducts are a major national resource that has yet to be incorporated into the economy. The current Defense Byproducts Program is designed to match specific military and commercial needs with the availability of valuable products which are currently treated as waste at considerable expense in waste management costs. This program plan focuses on a few specific areas with the greatest potential for near-term development and application. It also recognizes the need for a continuing effort to develop new applications for byproducts and to continue to assess the impacts on waste management. The entire program has been, and will continue to be structured so as to ensure the safety of the public and maintain the purity of the environment. Social and institutional concerns have been recognized and will be handled appropriately. A significant effort will be undertaken to inform the public of the benefits of byproduct use and of the care being taken to ensure safe, efficient operation.

  3. Similar and/or Different Writing Processes? A Study of Spanish Foreign Language and Heritage Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elola, Idoia; Mikulski, Ariana M.

    2016-01-01

    Following a cognitively-oriented framework, this study builds upon the authors' previous work (Elola and Mikulski 2013; Mikulski and Elola 2011), which analyzed writing processes (planning time, execution time, revision time), fluency, and accuracy of Spanish heritage language (SHL) learners when composing in English and in Spanish. By analyzing…

  4. Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Language Preoperative Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Paulo; Seixas, Daniela; Deprez, Sabine; Kovacs, Silvia; Peeters, Ronald; Castro, São L.; Sunaert, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a well-known non-invasive technique for the study of brain function. One of its most common clinical applications is preoperative language mapping, essential for the preservation of function in neurosurgical patients. Typically, fMRI is used to track task-related activity, but poor task performance and movement artifacts can be critical limitations in clinical settings. Recent advances in resting-state protocols open new possibilities for pre-surgical mapping of language potentially overcoming these limitations. To test the feasibility of using resting-state fMRI instead of conventional active task-based protocols, we compared results from fifteen patients with brain lesions while performing a verb-to-noun generation task and while at rest. Task-activity was measured using a general linear model analysis and independent component analysis (ICA). Resting-state networks were extracted using ICA and further classified in two ways: manually by an expert and by using an automated template matching procedure. The results revealed that the automated classification procedure correctly identified language networks as compared to the expert manual classification. We found a good overlay between task-related activity and resting-state language maps, particularly within the language regions of interest. Furthermore, resting-state language maps were as sensitive as task-related maps, and had higher specificity. Our findings suggest that resting-state protocols may be suitable to map language networks in a quick and clinically efficient way. PMID:26869899

  5. Sports Management for Sports Massification Planned and Executed by Social Organizations. Critics to Models, Experiences and Proposal Methodological Accompaniment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Antonia Reyes de Duran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The proposal analysis, interpretation, disassembly, self-criticism and guidance is born and comes from work experience planned mass sports and social organizations opposed-not in the conventional sense comparative-private business models and sport, state and management. The contribution made by the sports management experience from positions of power, either state or business are undeniable and its impact is difficult to express in numbers for its humanistic value, which is incalculable. However, it is urgent to emphasize the products and results achieved by some social organizations related to sport; as are the reference cases in Higuerón and the municipality Independence of Yaracuy state. From a dialectical analysis of reality, we try to understand the complex system that involves high-level sports management and performance, we introduce in the praxical notions of sporting activity and associated approach applied to social and community work. As opening and closing action research processes, we will make a proposal to accompany sports management concerning overcrowding by and from social organizations. This proposal is constructed from an innovative, flexible, open, inclusive and social, community and organizational curriculum relevance.

  6. Literature-based recommendations for treatment planning and execution in high-dose radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senan, Suresh; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Giraud, Philippe; Mirimanoff, Rene; Budach, Volker

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: To review the literature on techniques used in high-dose radiotherapy of lung cancer in order to develop recommendations for clinical practice and for use in research protocols. Patients and methods: A literature search was performed for articles and abstracts that were considered both clinically relevant and practical to use. The relevant information was arbitrarily categorized under the following headings: patient positioning, CT scanning, incorporating tumour mobility, definition of target volumes, radiotherapy planning, treatment delivery, and scoring of response and toxicity. Results: Recommendations were made for each of the above steps from the published literature. Although most of the recommended techniques have yet to be evaluated in multicenter clinical trials, their use in high-dose radiotherapy to the thorax appears to be rational on the basis of current evidence. Conclusions: Recommendations for the clinical implementation of high-dose conformal radiotherapy for lung tumours were identified in the literature. Procedures that are still considered to be investigational were also highlighted

  7. Local Environmental Action Plan in Republic of Macedonia. Executive summaries of municipalities of Centar, Zrnovci, Veles and Gevgelija

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The report aims at assessing the progress in adopting comprehensive environmental protection strategies at the local level. The whole project was carried out by the Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC) in collaboration with the Ministry for Urban Planning, Construction and Environmental of Republic of Macedonia (MUPCE). The REC and MUPCE identified four different municipalities to develop different modules of LEAPs with using the same methodology approach, which can be used as a pilot projects for other, more than hundred municipalities in Macedonia. These municipalities are: 1) Centar - one of the seven municipalities in the city Skopje, which occupies central part of the capital of Macedonia, as a typical urban area; 2) Veles as a typical industrial area, situated in the central part of the Republic of Macedonia, and considered as the most polluted region in the country; 3) Zrnovci - situated in the eastern part of Macedonia, a typical agricultural area, mainly for rice production; 4) Gevgelija as a transboundary and transit area

  8. An Analysis of the Relationship between English Language Arts and Mathematics Achievement and Essential Learning Mastery in Grades 3 and 4. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haystead, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Over several years, Clark Pleasant Community School Corporation (CPCSC) schools have dedicated significant professional development hours and time to develop Essential Learnings (ELs) along with proficiency scales that could guide the content of classroom assessments used to determine student mastery. This executive summary highlights key findings…

  9. The Inclusion of Slovak Roma Pupils in Secondary School: Contexts of Language Policy and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The arrival of large numbers of Slovak Roma to Sheffield over a relatively short period has inserted two new languages (Slovak and Romani) into an already diverse, multilingual school environment. Schools face challenges in welcoming the new migrant children, inducting and integrating them and facilitating access to the English school curriculum.…

  10. Planning for Development or Decline? Education Policy for Chinese Language in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how political discourse, language ideologies, recent Chinese curriculum reforms, and their representations in the media are inextricably related. Using the "Speak Mandarin Campaign" as background for the inquiry, I focus on textual features of the various media sources, TV advertisements, campaign slogans, official…

  11. Program Evaluation and Strategic Language Planning at the Caribbean Christian Centre for the Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacres, Kristen Jackson

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to formulate and conduct a needs assessment identifying which present factors may contribute to the implementation of a bilingual education program using Jamaican Sign Language and Jamaican Standard English (JEBE) at The Caribbean Christian Centre for the Deaf, a non-governmental school serving deaf children in…

  12. So much to do, so little time. To accomplish the mandatory initiatives of ARRA, healthcare organizations will require significant and thoughtful planning, prioritization and execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) has set forth legislation for the healthcare community to achieve adoption of electronic health records (EHR), as well as form data standards, health information exchanges (HIE) and compliance with more stringent security and privacy controls under the HITECH Act. While the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONCHIT) works on the definition of both "meaningful use" and "certification" of information technology systems, providers in particular must move forward with their IT initiatives to achieve the basic requirements for Medicare and Medicaid incentives starting in 2011, and avoid penalties that will reduce reimbursement beginning in 2015. In addition, providers, payors, government and non-government stakeholders will all have to balance the implementation of EHRs, working with HIEs, at the same time that they must upgrade their systems to be in compliance with ICD-10 and HIPAA 5010 code sets. Compliance deadlines for EHRs and HIEs begin in 2011, while ICD-10 diagnosis and procedure code sets compliance is required by October 2013 and HIPAA 5010 transaction sets, with one exception, is required by January 1, 2012. In order to accomplish these strategic and mandatory initiatives successfully and simultaneously, healthcare organizations will require significant and thoughtful planning, prioritization and execution.

  13. Primary phonological planning units in spoken word production are language-specific: Evidence from an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Wang, Suiping; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2017-07-19

    It is widely acknowledged in Germanic languages that segments are the primary planning units at the phonological encoding stage of spoken word production. Mixed results, however, have been found in Chinese, and it is still unclear what roles syllables and segments play in planning Chinese spoken word production. In the current study, participants were asked to first prepare and later produce disyllabic Mandarin words upon picture prompts and a response cue while electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded. Each two consecutive pictures implicitly formed a pair of prime and target, whose names shared the same word-initial atonal syllable or the same word-initial segments, or were unrelated in the control conditions. Only syllable repetition induced significant effects on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) after target onset: a widely distributed positivity in the 200- to 400-ms interval and an anterior positivity in the 400- to 600-ms interval. We interpret these to reflect syllable-size representations at the phonological encoding and phonetic encoding stages. Our results provide the first electrophysiological evidence for the distinct role of syllables in producing Mandarin spoken words, supporting a language specificity hypothesis about the primary phonological units in spoken word production.

  14. Language planning for "Mundurukú do Amazonas" Planejamento Linguístico para "Mundurukú do Amazonas"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessiane Picanço

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mundurukú, a Tupian language of Brazil, exhibits two opposite scenarios. On one extreme, there is Mundurukú do Pará, the language of daily communication in the Mundurukú Indigenous Land, with fluent speakers found across all generations and still acquired by children as a mother tongue. On the other extreme, there is Mundurukú do Amazonas, formerly spoken in the Kwatá-Laranjal Indigenous Land, but whose inhabitants have shifted to Portuguese. A group of Mundurukú students from Amazonas decided to initiate a process of language revitalisation as a way to strengthen the community's ethnic and cultural identity. This paper reports the initial stages of language planning, and includes future actions to promote language use in the homes and communities, assessement of language proficiency, and definition of educational programs to teach Mundurukú in local schools.Mundurukú, uma língua Tupí do Brasil, apresenta dois cenários opostos. Em um extremo, há o Mundurukú do Pará, a língua de comunicação diária na Terra Indígena Mundurukú, com falantes fluentes de todas as idades e adquirida pelas crianças como língua materna. No outro extremo encontra-se o Mundurukú do Amazonas, Terra Indígena Kwatá-Laranjal, que foi substituída pelo Português. Um grupo de estudantes Mundurukú do Amazonas decidiu iniciar um processo de revitalização de sua língua, como uma forma de fortalecer a identidade étnica e cultural da comunidade. Este trabalho relata os estágios iniciais do planejamento linguístico, incluindo as ações futuras para promover o uso da língua em casa e na comunidade, avaliação da proficiência na língua e definição de programas educacionais para ensinar Mundurukú nas escolas locais.

  15. Mirror neurons and the action theory of language origins

    OpenAIRE

    Steels, Luc

    2000-01-01

    The research reported here attempts to understand how language may have originated from sensori-motor competences. Recently the observation of mirror neurons has lead to the suggestion that there is not only a rich representation of motor action but also that this representation is used for multiple purposes: action execution, action planning, action imaging, and action recognition. Of particular importance is the observation that one agent can recognise an action plan of another one and t...

  16. An intelligent tutoring system that generates a natural language dialogue using dynamic multi-level planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Chong Woo; Evens, Martha W; Freedman, Reva; Glass, Michael; Shim, Leem Seop; Zhang, Yuemei; Zhou, Yujian; Michael, Joel

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this research was to build an intelligent tutoring system capable of carrying on a natural language dialogue with a student who is solving a problem in physiology. Previous experiments have shown that students need practice in qualitative causal reasoning to internalize new knowledge and to apply it effectively and that they learn by putting their ideas into words. Analysis of a corpus of 75 hour-long tutoring sessions carried on in keyboard-to-keyboard style by two professors of physiology at Rush Medical College tutoring first-year medical students provided the rules used in tutoring strategies and tactics, parsing, and text generation. The system presents the student with a perturbation to the blood pressure, asks for qualitative predictions of the changes produced in seven important cardiovascular variables, and then launches a dialogue to correct any errors and to probe for possible misconceptions. The natural language understanding component uses a cascade of finite-state machines. The generation is based on lexical functional grammar. Results of experiments with pretests and posttests have shown that using the system for an hour produces significant learning gains and also that even this brief use improves the student's ability to solve problems more then reading textual material on the topic. Student surveys tell us that students like the system and feel that they learn from it. The system is now in regular use in the first-year physiology course at Rush Medical College. We conclude that the CIRCSIM-Tutor system demonstrates that intelligent tutoring systems can implement effective natural language dialogue with current language technology.

  17. Current implementation and future plans on new code architecture, programming language and user interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, B. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France)

    1997-07-01

    Computer technology has improved tremendously during the last years with larger media capacity, memory and more computational power. Visual computing with high-performance graphic interface and desktop computational power have changed the way engineers accomplish everyday tasks, development and safety studies analysis. The emergence of parallel computing will permit simulation over a larger domain. In addition, new development methods, languages and tools have appeared in the last several years.

  18. Current implementation and future plans on new code architecture, programming language and user interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, B.

    1997-01-01

    Computer technology has improved tremendously during the last years with larger media capacity, memory and more computational power. Visual computing with high-performance graphic interface and desktop computational power have changed the way engineers accomplish everyday tasks, development and safety studies analysis. The emergence of parallel computing will permit simulation over a larger domain. In addition, new development methods, languages and tools have appeared in the last several years

  19. 40 CFR 68.155 - Executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Executive summary. 68.155 Section 68...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.155 Executive summary. The owner or operator shall provide in the RMP an executive summary that includes a brief description of the following...

  20. MUSICAL LANGUAGE AND LEARNER`S PLANNING: WHEN THE TONES DON´T COINCIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Costa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It´s about the music and its utilization in the initial years in the place it occupies deployment in class. By means of classroom observations with teachers of 2nd and 3th grade classes from a state public school in Pau dos Ferros city, RN and its respective plans, notes that in the lesson plans, the occupied place by music is focused on acquisition of contents approached in the subject taught on initial years. Both the lesson plans and the teaching practice have gaps in the clearly defined objectives, on coherence between what is placed in the plan into its items and the didactic transposition. Such finding contributes to an emptying of a work with the musical art while individual and collective professional that enable creative learner´s conduct relegating the educational role at school.

  1. EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gricel eOrellana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The executive function (EF is a set of abilities, which allows us to invoke voluntary control of our behavioral responses. These functions enable human beings to develop and carry out plans, make up analogies, obey social rules, solve problems, adapt to unexpected circumstances, do many tasks simultaneously and locate episodes in time and place. EF includes divided attention and sustained attention, working memory, set-shifting, flexibility, planning and the regulation of goal directed behavior and can be defined as a brain function underlying the human faculty to act or think not only in reaction to external events but also in relation with internal goals and states. EF is mostly associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC. Besides EF, PFC is involved in self-regulation of behavior, i.e. the ability to regulate behavior according to internal goals and constraints, particularly in less structured situations. Self-regulation of behavior is subtended by ventral medial /orbital PFC. Impairment of EF is one of the most commonly observed deficits in schizophrenia through the various disease stages. Impairment in tasks measuring conceptualization, planning, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, ability to solve complex problems and working memory occur in schizophrenia. Disorders detected by executive tests are consistent with evidence from functional neuroimaging, which have shown PFC dysfunction in patients while performing these kinds of tasks. Schizophrenics also exhibit deficit in odor identifying, decision-making and self-regulation of behavior suggesting dysfunction of the orbital PFC. However, impairment in executive tests is explained by dysfunction of prefronto-striato-thalamic, prefronto-parietal and prefronto-temporal neural networks mainly. Disorders in executive functions may be considered central facts with respect to schizophrenia and it has been suggested that negative symptoms may be explained by that executive dysfunction.

  2. Educating Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions are thinking skills that assist with reasoning, planning, problem solving, and managing one’s life. The brain areas that underlie these skills are interconnected with and influenced by activity in many different brain areas, some of which are associated with emotion and stress. One consequence of the stress-specific connections is that executive functions, which help us to organize our thinking, tend to be disrupted when stimulation is too high and we are stressed out, or too low when we are bored and lethargic. Given their central role in reasoning and also in managing stress and emotion, scientists have conducted studies, primarily with adults, to determine whether executive functions can be improved by training. By and large, results have shown that they can be, in part through computer-based videogame-like activities. Evidence of wider, more general benefits from such computer-based training, however, is mixed. Accordingly, scientists have reasoned that training will have wider benefits if it is implemented early, with very young children as the neural circuitry of executive functions is developing, and that it will be most effective if embedded in children’s everyday activities. Evidence produced by this research, however, is also mixed. In sum, much remains to be learned about executive function training. Without question, however, continued research on this important topic will yield valuable information about cognitive development. PMID:27906522

  3. Execution Plans for Cyber Foraging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø

    2008-01-01

    Cyber foraging helps small devices perform heavy tasks by opportunistically discovering and utilising available resources (such as computation, storage, bandwidth, etc.) held by larger, nearby peers. This offloading is done in an ad-hoc manner, as larger machines will not always be within reach...

  4. Execution Plans for Cyber Foraging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø

    2008-01-01

    Cyber foraging helps small devices perform heavy tasks by opportunistically discovering and utilising available resources (such as computation, storage, bandwidth, etc.) held by larger, nearby peers. This offloading is done in an ad-hoc manner, as larger machines will not always be within reach. ...

  5. Strategic and Organisational Considerations in Planning Content and Language Integrated Learning: A Study on the Coordination between Content and Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavón Vázquez, Víctor; Ávila López, Javier; Gallego Segador, Arturo; Espejo Mohedano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is generally recognised as a fruitful example of bilingual education. However, success in CLIL may not be straightforward and may require the establishment of coordination between content and language teachers. The aim of this study is to investigate if content and language teachers are able to plan…

  6. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, N.; van Nimwegen, N.; van der Erf, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Demography Monitor 2008 gives a concise overview of current demographic trends and related developments in education, the labour market and retirement for the European Union and some other countries. This executive summary highlights the major findings of the Demography Monitor 2008 and further

  7. Executive Order No. 348 of 17 February 1989 approving and adopting the Philippine Development Plan for Women for 1989 to 1992, 17 February 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This document contains sections of the Philippine Development Plan for Women (PDPW) for 1989-92, which was approved and adopted by executive order in February 1989. Section 4 sets out basic goals, national development strategies, and policies. The PDPW considers individual, familial, sociocultural, economic, political, and legal spheres. Individual personal development and consciousness-raising are necessary so that women, especially poor women, will stop viewing themselves as less important than men. Within the sphere of the family, Filipinos must learn to acknowledge the vital nature of child-bearing and rearing. The sharing of familial responsibilities, from parenting to producing income to domestic duties, must be encouraged. The burden of housework should be eased by government policies to provide basic utilities, and special attention should be paid to developing appropriate responses to the crimes of domestic violence, rape, and incest. The educational system must be modified to eliminate sex discrimination in textbooks and curricula. The media must be sensitized to stop portraying stereotypical images of women as sex objects. Discrimination in religious institutions must also be confronted. Support systems, such as day care centers, need to be instituted to develop women's equality. Economic policies must be evaluated to determine their gender responsiveness. Women must receive equal opportunities for employment and training as well as pay equity and access to credit. The political goal for women is full participation in political processes and structures. This is dependent upon literacy and the availability of information and education. Legal action should include affirmative action programs for women and protection of women's rights. Such action is dependent upon the legal literacy of women and men, which must be provided for.

  8. Planning at a Higher Level: Ideas, Form, and Academic Language in Student Prewriting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul

    2012-01-01

    For students, writing is too frequently a matter of going through the motions, perhaps no truer than with the traditional academic essay. Although there are many culprits for this disengagement, one is surely an over-emphasis on form--and particularly set form--to the detriment of content. When form becomes formula, planning is stultified, losing…

  9. Investigating executive functions in children with severe speech and movement disorders using structured tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadskleiv, Kristine; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Batorowicz, Beata; van Balkom, Hans; Dahlgren-Sandberg, Annika; Renner, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions are the basis for goal-directed activity and include planning, monitoring, and inhibition, and language seems to play a role in the development of these functions. There is a tradition of studying executive function in both typical and atypical populations, and the present study investigates executive functions in children with severe speech and motor impairments who are communicating using communication aids with graphic symbols, letters, and/or words. There are few neuropsychological studies of children in this group and little is known about their cognitive functioning, including executive functions. It was hypothesized that aided communication would tax executive functions more than speech. Twenty-nine children using communication aids and 27 naturally speaking children participated. Structured tasks resembling everyday activities, where the action goals had to be reached through communication with a partner, were used to get information about executive functions. The children (a) directed the partner to perform actions like building a Lego tower from a model the partner could not see and (b) gave information about an object without naming it to a person who had to guess what object it was. The executive functions of planning, monitoring, and impulse control were coded from the children's on-task behavior. Both groups solved most of the tasks correctly, indicating that aided communicators are able to use language to direct another person to do a complex set of actions. Planning and lack of impulsivity was positively related to task success in both groups. The aided group completed significantly fewer tasks, spent longer time and showed more variation in performance than the comparison group. The aided communicators scored lower on planning and showed more impulsivity than the comparison group, while both groups showed an equal degree of monitoring of the work progress. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that aided language tax

  10. FY 1998 basic survey to promote the joint execution, etc. Overall repair plan of thermal power plants in Maritime Province of Russia; 1998 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa. Roshia Enkaishu ni okeru karyoku hatsudensho sogo kaishu keikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For thermal power plants in Maritime Province of Russia, a repair plan for effective reduction of emission of greenhouse effect gas was worked out as a draft plan for the joint execution. The project is to be implemented for the additional installation/replacement of boilers at Vladivostok No. 2 power plant, construction of a power plant as a substitute for Partizansk power plant, and new construction of Ussuriisk power plant. The draft plan includes the new installation of two gas-fired boilers/replacement of existing boilers at Vladivostok No. 2 power plant, construction of 200MW cogeneration facility at Partizansk power plant, construction of 180MW cogeneration facility at Ussuriisk power plant, abolition of small-sized boiler station, etc. The reduction amount of the greenhouse effect gas emission based on this repair plan totaled 338 million tons in project. The effect against cost is US$ 4.75 per 1 CO2 ton at Vladivostok. (NEDO)

  11. Moving the Field Forward: A Micro-Meso-Macro Model for Critical Language Planning. The Case of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates "de facto" language policy in Estonia. It investigates how language choices at the micro (or individual) level are negotiated within the macro (or social and historical) context: how official language policy and other features of the discursive environment surrounding language and its use in Estonia translate into…

  12. Surgery of language-eloquent tumors in patients not eligible for awake surgery: the impact of a protocol based on navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation on presurgical planning and language outcome, with evidence of tumor-induced intra-hemispheric plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Giovanni; Quattropani, Maria C; Scibilia, Antonino; Conti, Alfredo; Angileri, Filippo Flavio; Esposito, Felice; Sindorio, Carmela; Cardali, Salvatore Massimiliano; Germanò, Antonino; Tomasello, Francesco

    2018-05-01

    Awake surgery and intraoperative monitoring represent the gold standard for surgery of brain tumors located in the perisylvian region of the dominant hemisphere due to their ability to map and preserve the language network during surgery. Nevertheless, in some cases awake surgery is not feasible. This could increase the risk of postoperative language deficit. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) and nTMS-based DTI fiber tracking (DTI-FT) provide a preoperative mapping and reconstruction of the cortico-subcortical language network. This can be used to plan and guide the surgical strategy to preserve the language function. The objective if this study is to describe the impact of a non-invasive preoperative protocol for mapping the language network through the nTMS and nTMS-based DTI-FT in patients not eligible for awake surgery and thereby operated under general anesthesia for suspected language-eloquent brain tumors. We reviewed clinical data of patients not eligible for awake surgery and operated under general anaesthesia between 2015 and 2016. All patients underwent nTMS language cortical mapping and nTMS-based DTI-FT of subcortical language fascicles. The nTMS findings were used to plan and guide the maximal safe resection of the tumor. The impact on postoperative language outcome and the accuracy of the nTMS-based mapping in predicting language deficits were evaluated. Twenty patients were enrolled in the study. The nTMS-based reconstruction of the language network was successful in all patients. Interestingly, we observed a significant association between tumor localization and the cortical distribution of the nTMS errors (p = 0.004), thereby suggesting an intra-hemispheric plasticity of language cortical areas, probably induced by the tumor itself. The nTMS mapping disclosed the true-eloquence of lesions in 12 (60%) of all suspected cases. In the remaining 8 cases (40%) the suspected eloquence of the lesion was disproved. The n

  13. Teacher Use of Brain-Based Research, Response to Intervention, and Teacher Efficacy in Elementary Schools with High and Low Individual Education Plan Growth for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the possible causes that might contribute to the disproportionate percentage of English language learners ELLs with special education individual education plans (IEPs). Elementary school classroom teachers from school districts that exhibited high growth in the percentage of ELLs with IEPs during 2007-2010…

  14. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    This paper is an 'executive summary' of work undertaken to review proposals for transport, handling and emplacement of high level radioactive wastes in an underground repository, appropriate to the U.K. context, with particular reference to: waste block size and configuration; self-shielded or partially-shielded block; stages of disposal; transportation within the repository; emplacement in vertical holes or horizontal tunnels; repository access by adit, incline or shaft; and costs. The paper contains a section on general conclusions and recommendations. (U.K.)

  15. The most frequently used tests for assessing executive functions in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Assis Faria

    Full Text Available There are numerous neuropsychological tests for assessing executive functions in aging, which vary according to the different domains assessed. OBJECTIVE: To present a systematic review of the most frequently used instruments for assessing executive functions in older adults with different educational levels in clinical and experimental research. METHODS: We searched for articles published in the last five years, using the PubMed database with the following terms: "neuropsychological tests", "executive functions", and "mild cognitive impairment". There was no language restriction. RESULTS: 25 articles fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. The seven neuropsychological tests most frequently used to evaluate executive functions in aging were: [1] Trail Making Test (TMT Form B; [2] Verbal Fluency Test (VFT - F, A and S; [3] VFT Animals category; [4] Clock Drawing Test (CDT; [5] Digits Forward and Backward subtests (WAIS-R or WAIS-III; [6] Stroop Test; and [7] Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST and its variants. The domains of executive functions most frequently assessed were: mental flexibility, verbal fluency, planning, working memory, and inhibitory control. CONCLUSION: The study identified the tests and domains of executive functions most frequently used in the last five years by research groups worldwide to evaluate older adults. These results can direct future research and help build evaluation protocols for assessing executive functions, taking into account the different educational levels and socio-demographic profiles of older adults in Brazil.

  16. Educating executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions are thinking skills that assist with reasoning, planning, problem solving, and managing one's life. The brain areas that underlie these skills are interconnected with and influenced by activity in many different brain areas, some of which are associated with emotion and stress. One consequence of the stress-specific connections is that executive functions, which help us to organize our thinking, tend to be disrupted when stimulation is too high and we are stressed out, or too low when we are bored and lethargic. Given their central role in reasoning and also in managing stress and emotion, scientists have conducted studies, primarily with adults, to determine whether executive functions can be improved by training. By and large, results have shown that they can be, in part through computer-based videogame-like activities. Evidence of wider, more general benefits from such computer-based training, however, is mixed. Accordingly, scientists have reasoned that training will have wider benefits if it is implemented early, with very young children as the neural circuitry of executive functions is developing, and that it will be most effective if embedded in children's everyday activities. Evidence produced by this research, however, is also mixed. In sum, much remains to be learned about executive function training. Without question, however, continued research on this important topic will yield valuable information about cognitive development. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1403. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1403 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Eficienţa economică a programării şi urmăririi automate a lucrărilor în execuţia drumurilor forestiere. [Economic efficiency of automatic planning and control of works in the execution of forest roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bereziuc R

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the prospect of forest roads network system development and examines the actual management of theirs execution. We suggest the extension of automatic planning and control with addition of specific charts. The research showed that, in contrast with actual methods, automatic planning may guides to economic efficiency, regarding manual and mechanized labour – with 30 % reduction in execution time and a 35 % cut in cost

  18. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    On 18 May 2001, the Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, within the municipality of Eurajoki. The Municipality Council and the government has made positive decisions earlier, at the end of 2000, and in compliance with the Nuclear Energy Act, Parliament's ratification was then required. The decision is valid for the spent fuel generated by the existing Finnish nuclear power plants and means that the construction of the final disposal facility is considered to be in line with the overall good of society. Earlier steps included, amongst others, the approval of the technical project by the Safety Authority. Future steps include construction of an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO (2003-2004), and application for separate construction and operating licences for the final disposal facility (from about 2010). How did this political and societal decision come about? The FSC Workshop provided the opportunity to present the history leading up to the Decision in Principle (DiP), and to examine future perspectives with an emphasis on stakeholder involvement. This Executive Summary gives an overview of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop. It presents, for the most part, a factual account of the individual presentations and of the discussions that took place. It relies importantly on the notes that were taken at the meeting. Most materials are elaborated upon in a fuller way in the texts that the various speakers and session moderators contributed for these proceedings. The structure of the Executive Summary follows the structure of the workshop itself. Complementary to this Summary and also provided with this document, is a NEA Secretariat's perspective aiming to place the results of all discussions, feedback and site visit into an international perspective. (authors)

  19. Implementing corporate wellness programs: a business approach to program planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, D C; Dunn, L M; Eaton, K; Macedonio, C; Lubritz, L

    1995-11-01

    1. Support of key decision makers is critical to the successful implementation of a corporate wellness program. Therefore, the program implementation plan must be communicated in a format and language readily understood by business people. 2. A business approach to corporate wellness program planning provides a standardized way to communicate the implementation plan. 3. A business approach incorporates the program planning components in a format that ranges from general to specific. This approach allows for flexibility and responsiveness to changes in program planning. 4. Components of the business approach are the executive summary, purpose, background, ground rules, approach, requirements, scope of work, schedule, and financials.

  20. Didactics of Spanish Language and its Literature teaching, the main integrative discipline: view from Study Plan E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialina Ana García Escobio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main integrative discipline, a typical term to the Cuban Higher Education, is today object of study, in the new study plan E, of a reconceptualization to achieve more efficiently the integration of the academic, the researching, the working, and the extensional fields. The article aims at analyzing the main theoretical elements that are considered in the national literature on this issue, and the importance of this discipline for the professionals education from the Spanish and Literature studies. The main methods used were documental analysis and systematization, and survey was administered with the technique of focal groups. This all led to show the need of the discipline for permanent attention in the Curriculum for it to constitute the backbone of the formation process of the pedagogical and professional competence. The conclusion is that this discipline allows the integration of the student’s education in a coherent and systematic way, from the care of the language and the appreciation of literature as part of the professional identity and authority.

  1. Executable Architecture Research at Old Dominion University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolk, Andreas; Shuman, Edwin A.; Garcia, Johnny J.

    2011-01-01

    Executable Architectures allow the evaluation of system architectures not only regarding their static, but also their dynamic behavior. However, the systems engineering community do not agree on a common formal specification of executable architectures. To close this gap and identify necessary elements of an executable architecture, a modeling language, and a modeling formalism is topic of ongoing PhD research. In addition, systems are generally defined and applied in an operational context to provide capabilities and enable missions. To maximize the benefits of executable architectures, a second PhD effort introduces the idea of creating an executable context in addition to the executable architecture. The results move the validation of architectures from the current information domain into the knowledge domain and improve the reliability of such validation efforts. The paper presents research and results of both doctoral research efforts and puts them into a common context of state-of-the-art of systems engineering methods supporting more agility.

  2. Executable Operational Semantics of Solidity

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Jiao; Kan, Shuanglong; Lin, Shang-Wei; Sanan, David; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Bitcoin has attracted everyone's attention and interest recently. Ethereum (ETH), a second generation cryptocurrency, extends Bitcoin's design by offering a Turing-complete programming language called Solidity to develop smart contracts. Smart contracts allow creditable execution of contracts on EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine) without third parties. Developing correct smart contracts is challenging due to its decentralized computation nature. Buggy smart contracts may lead to huge financial lo...

  3. English Business Communication Needs of Mexican Executives in a Distance-Learning Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Christine Uber

    2004-01-01

    Many firms within and outside the United States operate in multilingual environments that require executives to do business in English as well as in other languages. Executives for whom English is a second language often face special challenges communicating in such settings. This study examines how 115 executives in a distance-learning business…

  4. Cannabinoid modulation of executive functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pattij, T.; Wiskerke, J.; Schoffelmeer, A.N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Executive functions are higher-order cognitive processes such as attention, behavioural flexibility, decision-making, inhibitory control, planning, time estimation and working memory that exert top-down control over behaviour. In addition to the role of cannabinoid signaling in other cognitive

  5. Usage of fMRI for pre-surgical planning in brain tumor and vascular lesion patients: Task and statistical threshold effects on language lateralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvi N. Nadkarni

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that the type of task and the applied statistical threshold influence LI and that the threshold effects on LI may be task-specific. Thus identifying critical functional regions and computing LIs should be conducted on an individual subject basis, using a continuum of threshold values with different tasks to provide the most accurate information for surgical planning to minimize post-operative language deficits.

  6. Meeting Common Core English Language Arts and English Language Development Standards with Character Education Lesson Plans in Alternative Education Grades 9 through 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedel, Joseph M.; Lee, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    This is a case study in which the Character Development and Leadership Program replaced an alternative high school's traditional English language offerings. A triangulated case study used student records, field notes, and interviews of stakeholders to compare the academic year prior to this substitution and the 2 academic years following it. All 3…

  7. Online Planning Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, Gregg R.; Chien, Steve A.

    2010-01-01

    AVA v2 software selects goals for execution from a set of goals that oversubscribe shared resources. The term goal refers to a science or engineering request to execute a possibly complex command sequence, such as image targets or ground-station downlinks. Developed as an extension to the Virtual Machine Language (VML) execution system, the software enables onboard and remote goal triggering through the use of an embedded, dynamic goal set that can oversubscribe resources. From the set of conflicting goals, a subset must be chosen that maximizes a given quality metric, which in this case is strict priority selection. A goal can never be pre-empted by a lower priority goal, and high-level goals can be added, removed, or updated at any time, and the "best" goals will be selected for execution. The software addresses the issue of re-planning that must be performed in a short time frame by the embedded system where computational resources are constrained. In particular, the algorithm addresses problems with well-defined goal requests without temporal flexibility that oversubscribes available resources. By using a fast, incremental algorithm, goal selection can be postponed in a "just-in-time" fashion allowing requests to be changed or added at the last minute. Thereby enabling shorter response times and greater autonomy for the system under control.

  8. Executive function and bilingualism in young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanna eKousaie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that being bilingual results in advantages on executive control processes and disadvantages on language tasks relative to monolinguals. Furthermore, the executive function advantage is thought to be larger in older than younger adults, suggesting that bilingualism may buffer against age-related changes in executive function. However, there are potential confounds in some of the previous research, as well as inconsistencies in the literature. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the presence of a bilingual advantage in executive control and a bilingual disadvantage on language tasks in the same sample of young and older monolingual anglophones, monolingual francophones, and French/English bilinguals. Participants completed a series of executive function tasks, including a Stroop task, a Simon task, a sustained attention to response task (SART, the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST, and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and language tasks, including the Boston Naming Test (BNT, and category and letter fluency. The results do not demonstrate an unequivocal advantage for bilinguals on executive function tasks and raise questions about the reliability, robustness and/or specificity of previous findings. The results also did not demonstrate a disadvantage for bilinguals on language tasks. Rather, they suggest that there may be an influence of the language environment. It is concluded that additional research is required to fully characterize any language group differences in both executive function and language tasks.

  9. A competence executive coaching model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Koortzen

    2010-07-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this article is to address the training and development needs of these consulting psychologists by presenting a competence executive coaching model for the planning, implementation and evaluation of executive coaching interventions. Research design, approach and method: The study was conducted while one of the authors was involved in teaching doctoral students in consulting psychology and executive coaching, specifically in the USA. The approach involved a literature review of executive coaching models and a qualitative study using focus groups to develop and evaluate the competence executive coaching model. Main findings: The literature review provided scant evidence of competence executive coaching models and there seems to be a specific need for this in the training of coaches in South Africa. Hence the model that was developed is an attempt to provide trainers with a structured model for the training of coaches. Contribution/value-add: The uniqueness of this competence model is not only described in terms of the six distinct coaching intervention phases, but also the competencies required in each.

  10. Language and "New" African Migration to South Africa: An Overview and Some Reflections on Theoretical Implications for Policy and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orman, Jon

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the phenomenon of African migration to post-apartheid South Africa from a language-sociological perspective. Although the subject has been one largely neglected by language scholars, the handful of studies which have addressed the issue have yielded ethnographic data and raised questions of considerable significance for the…

  11. The Importance of Natural Change in Planning School-Based Intervention for Children with Developmental Language Impairment (DLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botting, Nicola; Gaynor, Marguerite; Tucker, Katie; Orchard-Lisle, Ginnie

    2016-01-01

    Some reports suggest that there is an increase in the number of children identified as having developmental language impairment (Bercow, 2008). yet resource issues have meant that many speech and language therapy services have compromised provision in some way. Thus, efficient ways of identifying need and prioritizing intervention are required.…

  12. 2011 Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical and Biological Defense Advance Planning Briefing for Industry (APBI) Held in Baltimore, Maryland on September 7-9, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    Goals = More Attention • Aggressiveness of Subcontracting Plan goals during source selection • Follow-through on that Subcontracting Plan treated as...decontamination” systems • Sense the presence of agent • Respond and selectively release Decon where needed • Signal Decon status—is it... strippable Coatings An Example: Protection and hazard mitigation for a C130 platform and crew Balancing the equation—combining core technology and

  13. Defense Planning In A Time Of Conflict: A Comparative Analysis Of The 2001-2014 Quadrennial Defense Reviews, And Implications For The Army--Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    the opinions of its research clients and sponsors. Support RAND Make a tax -deductible charitable contribution at www.rand.org/giving/contribute...each QDR, including assessments from the U.S. Government Accountability Office, the Congressional Budget Office, the Congressional Research Service...cuts in modernization, readiness, and other accounts . Force Planning To assist in planning the FY19 force structure, the 2014 QDR assessed the

  14. Flexible Language Interoperability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Torbjörn; Mechlenborg, Peter; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2007-01-01

    Virtual machines raise the abstraction level of the execution environment at the cost of restricting the set of supported languages. Moreover, the ability of a language implementation to integrate with other languages hosted on the same virtual machine typically constrains the features...... of the language. In this paper, we present a highly flexible yet efficient approach to hosting multiple programming languages on an object-oriented virtual machine. Our approach is based on extending the interface of each class with language-specific wrapper methods, offering each language a tailored view...... of a given class. This approach can be deployed both on a statically typed virtual machine, such as the JVM, and on a dynamic virtual machine, such as a Smalltalk virtual machine. We have implemented our approach to language interoperability on top of a prototype virtual machine for embedded systems based...

  15. Usage of fMRI for pre-surgical planning in brain tumor and vascular lesion patients: Task and statistical threshold effects on language lateralization☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Tanvi N.; Andreoli, Matthew J.; Nair, Veena A.; Yin, Peng; Young, Brittany M.; Kundu, Bornali; Pankratz, Joshua; Radtke, Andrew; Holdsworth, Ryan; Kuo, John S.; Field, Aaron S.; Baskaya, Mustafa K.; Moritz, Chad H.; Meyerand, M. Elizabeth; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive pre-surgical tool used to assess localization and lateralization of language function in brain tumor and vascular lesion patients in order to guide neurosurgeons as they devise a surgical approach to treat these lesions. We investigated the effect of varying the statistical thresholds as well as the type of language tasks on functional activation patterns and language lateralization. We hypothesized that language lateralization indices (LIs) would be threshold- and task-dependent. Materials and methods Imaging data were collected from brain tumor patients (n = 67, average age 48 years) and vascular lesion patients (n = 25, average age 43 years) who received pre-operative fMRI scanning. Both patient groups performed expressive (antonym and/or letter-word generation) and receptive (tumor patients performed text-reading; vascular lesion patients performed text-listening) language tasks. A control group (n = 25, average age 45 years) performed the letter-word generation task. Results Brain tumor patients showed left-lateralization during the antonym-word generation and text-reading tasks at high threshold values and bilateral activation during the letter-word generation task, irrespective of the threshold values. Vascular lesion patients showed left-lateralization during the antonym and letter-word generation, and text-listening tasks at high threshold values. Conclusion Our results suggest that the type of task and the applied statistical threshold influence LI and that the threshold effects on LI may be task-specific. Thus identifying critical functional regions and computing LIs should be conducted on an individual subject basis, using a continuum of threshold values with different tasks to provide the most accurate information for surgical planning to minimize post-operative language deficits. PMID:25685705

  16. Editor, Executive and Entrepreneur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøe-Lillegraven, Tor; Wilberg, Erik

    2016-01-01

    To survive in today’s increasingly complex business environments, firms must embrace strategic paradoxes: contradictory yet interrelated objectives that persist over time. This can be one of toughest of all leadership challenges, as managers must accept inconsistency and contradictions....... In this article, we develop and empirically test a set of hypotheses related to ambidexterity, a key example of a paradoxical strategy. Through our analysis of data from a survey of executive leaders, we find a link between organizational ambidexterity and strategic planning, suggesting that the complexities...... of navigating in explorative ventures require more explicit strategy work than the old certainties of a legacy business. We identify and discuss inherent paradoxes and their implications for firm performance in 22 industry-specific strategies, where empirical industry data shows a pattern of conflict between...

  17. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Since 2007, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency has been organising a series of workshops on Structural Materials for Innovative Nuclear Systems. The third meeting was held on 7-9 October 2013 in Idaho Falls (United States). The main objectives of this workshop are to stimulate an exchange of information on current materials R and D programmes for different innovative nuclear systems. The main topics of the workshop covered fundamental studies, modelling and experiments on innovative structural materials including cladding materials for the range of advanced nuclear systems such as thermal/fast systems, sub-critical systems, as well as fusion systems. During the workshop, the following topics were discussed: - Fundamental studies; - Metallic materials; - Ceramic materials; - Novel materials pathways; - Ion vs neutron irradiation. Fundamental studies focused on the identification of mechanisms driving the response of materials under the conditions expected in innovative nuclear systems. These mechanisms may have acted at the atomic or higher scale with the application of multi-scale approaches, together with related problems of scale-bridging or numerical methods, were of special interest. Moreover, irradiation experiments and subsequent characterisation of materials with analytical techniques were included in the session if aimed at better understanding the acting mechanisms or drawing physics-based correlations. Metal alloys, ceramic and ceramic composites included in- and out-of-core applications which took into account the scope of: data availability and gaps (considering also licensing issues); experimental and modelling needs for specific components or degradation modes; the link between R and D, standardisation and experimental protocols; coolant effects and mechanical properties. Code development and implementation plans were also discussed. Application of SiC composites to LWR systems was of interest as an advanced concept. Novel materials pathways considered

  18. A science-based executive for autonomous planetary vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S.

    2001-01-01

    If requests for scientific observations, rather than specific plans, are uplinked to an autonomous execution system on the vehicle, it would be able to adjust its execution based upon actual performance. Such a science-based executive control system had been developed and demonstrated for the Rocky7 research rover.

  19. The Effect of Sensory Uncertainty Due to Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) on the Planning and Execution of Visually-Guided 3D Reaching Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa; Goltz, Herbert C.; Chandrakumar, Manokaraananthan; Wong, Agnes M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Impairment of spatiotemporal visual processing in amblyopia has been studied extensively, but its effects on visuomotor tasks have rarely been examined. Here, we investigate how visual deficits in amblyopia affect motor planning and online control of visually-guided, unconstrained reaching movements. Methods Thirteen patients with mild amblyopia, 13 with severe amblyopia and 13 visually-normal participants were recruited. Participants reached and touched a visual target during binocular and monocular viewing. Motor planning was assessed by examining spatial variability of the trajectory at 50–100 ms after movement onset. Online control was assessed by examining the endpoint variability and by calculating the coefficient of determination (R2) which correlates the spatial position of the limb during the movement to endpoint position. Results Patients with amblyopia had reduced precision of the motor plan in all viewing conditions as evidenced by increased variability of the reach early in the trajectory. Endpoint precision was comparable between patients with mild amblyopia and control participants. Patients with severe amblyopia had reduced endpoint precision along azimuth and elevation during amblyopic eye viewing only, and along the depth axis in all viewing conditions. In addition, they had significantly higher R2 values at 70% of movement time along the elevation and depth axes during amblyopic eye viewing. Conclusion Sensory uncertainty due to amblyopia leads to reduced precision of the motor plan. The ability to implement online corrections depends on the severity of the visual deficit, viewing condition, and the axis of the reaching movement. Patients with mild amblyopia used online control effectively to compensate for the reduced precision of the motor plan. In contrast, patients with severe amblyopia were not able to use online control as effectively to amend the limb trajectory especially along the depth axis, which could be due to their

  20. Planning and Execution of a Marine Methane Hydrate Pressure Coring Program for the Walker Ridge and Green Canyon Areas of the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, Gary [Fugro Geoconsulting Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The objective of this project (and report) is to produce a guide to developing scientific, operational, and logistical plans for a future methane hydrate-focused offshore pressure coring program. This report focuses primarily on a potential coring program in the Walker Ridge 313 and Green Canyon 955 blocks where previous investigations were undertaken as part of the 2009 Department of Energy JIP Leg II expedition, however, the approach to designing a pressure coring program that was utilized for this project may also serve as a useful model for planning pressure coring programs for hydrates in other areas. The initial portion of the report provides a brief overview of prior investigations related to gas hydrates in general and at the Walker Ridge 313 and Green Canyon 955 blocks in particular. The main content of the report provides guidance for various criteria that will come into play when designing a pressure coring program.

  1. Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…

  2. Language Policy in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2012-01-01

    The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

  3. Standardization of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  4. Reconfigurable manufacturing execution system for pipe cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y. H.; Xie, J. Y.

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a reconfigurable manufacturing execution system (RMES) filling the gap between enterprise resource planning and resource layer for pipe-cutting production with mass customisation and rapid adaptation to dynamic market, which consists of planning and scheduling layer and executive control layer. Starting from customer's task and process requirements, the cutting trajectories are planned under generalised mathematical model able to reconfigure in accordance with various intersecting types' joint, and all tasks are scheduled by nesting algorithm to maximise the utilisation rate of rough material. This RMES for pipe cutting has been effectively implemented in more than 100 companies.

  5. Embedding Temporal Constraints For Coordinated Execution in Habitat Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul; Schwabacher, Mark; Dalal, Michael; Fry, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Future NASA plans call for long-duration deep space missions with human crews. Because of light-time delay and other considerations, increased autonomy will be needed. This will necessitate integration of tools in such areas as anomaly detection, diagnosis, planning, and execution. In this paper we investigate an approach that integrates planning and execution by embedding planner-derived temporal constraints in an execution procedure. To avoid the need for propagation, we convert the temporal constraints to dispatchable form. We handle some uncertainty in the durations without it affecting the execution; larger variations may cause activities to be skipped.

  6. Facing the Challenge--Developing an Instructional Plan for Portuguese as Foreign Language in Brazil Based on Multiliteracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlindwein, Ana Flora

    2013-01-01

    Adopting the multiliteracy concept and embracing the challenge of developing meaningful and captivating classes for Portuguese as Foreign Language in Brazil, this paper proposes an approach which includes the use of different technologies to learn and teach Portuguese, the reading of graphic novel adaptations of Brazilian literature classics and…

  7. HAUTO: Automated composition of convergent services based in HTN planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Ordoñez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents HAUTO, a framework able to compose convergent services automatically. HAUTO is based in HTN (hierarchical task networks Automated Planning and is composed of three modules: a request processing module that transforms natural language and context information into a planning instance, the automated composition module based on HTN planning and the execution environment for convergent (Web and telecom services. The integration of a planning component provides two basic functionalities: the possibility of customizing the composition of services using the user context information and a middleware level that integrates the execution of services in high performance telecom environments. Finally, a prototype in environmental early warning management is presented as a test case.

  8. Assessment Planning within the Context of University English Language Teaching (ELT) in China: Implications for Teacher Assessment Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yueting

    2016-01-01

    Teacher assessment literacy (AL) is a concern for both educational assessment and teacher education research. As part of teacher AL, teacher competency of assessment planning has remained underexplored. To address this gap, this study explored how a group of 20 contest-winning university English teachers in China planned for assessment through…

  9. Evaluating the Theory of Executive Dysfunction in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elisabeth L.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper studies of executive function in autism spectrum disorder are reviewed. Executive function is an umbrella term for functions such as planning, working memory, impulse control, inhibition, and shifting set, as well as for the initiation and monitoring of action. In this review, the focus will be on planning, inhibition, shifting set,…

  10. Inter-Organisational Coordination in Ramp-Up Execution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    the degree of fragmentation in the process planning and execution. Resource dependence theory (RDT) is used as central explanatory framework for inter-organisational interdependencies formation throughout the planning and execution of the ramp-up activities and milestones. This study aims at exploring inter...

  11. Cognitive independence in foreign language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylín Rodríguez Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is intended to describe a didactic strategy to contribute to the development of foreign languages course students’ cognitive independence at Camagüey University. In its theoretical conception it is re-defined the concept “cognitive independence”, springing from the context in which the research is carried out, and the distinguishing features that characterize this capacity in students of foreign languages for pedagogical purposes are determined. The strategy comprises four stages: diagnosis, planning, execution, and evaluation. It is included the exemplification of the actions comprised in each stage, as well as the valuation of its effectiveness by means of experts’ opinions. Theoretical and empirical methods were applied, allowing the identification of the scientific problem and the modeling of its solution.

  12. Executive dysfunction, brain aging, and political leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark; Franklin, David L; Post, Jerrold M

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is an essential component of executive function, and a critical skill of political leadership. Neuroanatomic localization studies have established the prefrontal cortex as the critical brain site for executive function. In addition to the prefrontal cortex, white matter tracts as well as subcortical brain structures are crucial for optimal executive function. Executive function shows a significant decline beginning at age 60, and this is associated with age-related atrophy of prefrontal cortex, cerebral white matter disease, and cerebral microbleeds. Notably, age-related decline in executive function appears to be a relatively selective cognitive deterioration, generally sparing language and memory function. While an individual may appear to be functioning normally with regard to relatively obvious cognitive functions such as language and memory, that same individual may lack the capacity to integrate these cognitive functions to achieve normal decision-making. From a historical perspective, global decline in cognitive function of political leaders has been alternatively described as a catastrophic event, a slowly progressive deterioration, or a relatively episodic phenomenon. Selective loss of executive function in political leaders is less appreciated, but increased utilization of highly sensitive brain imaging techniques will likely bring greater appreciation to this phenomenon. Former Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon was an example of a political leader with a well-described neurodegenerative condition (cerebral amyloid angiopathy) that creates a neuropathological substrate for executive dysfunction. Based on the known neuroanatomical and neuropathological changes that occur with aging, we should probably assume that a significant proportion of political leaders over the age of 65 have impairment of executive function.

  13. Optimizing Hybrid Occlusion in Face-Jaw-Teeth Transplantation: A Preliminary Assessment of Real-Time Cephalometry as Part of the Computer-Assisted Planning and Execution Workstation for Craniomaxillofacial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ryan J; Basafa, Ehsan; Hashemi, Sepehr; Grant, Gerald T; Liacouras, Peter; Susarla, Srinivas M; Otake, Yoshito; Santiago, Gabriel; Armand, Mehran; Gordon, Chad R

    2015-08-01

    The aesthetic and functional outcomes surrounding Le Fort-based, face-jaw-teeth transplantation have been suboptimal, often leading to posttransplant class II/III skeletal profiles, palatal defects, and "hybrid malocclusion." Therefore, a novel technology-real-time cephalometry-was developed to provide the surgical team instantaneous, intraoperative knowledge of three-dimensional dentoskeletal parameters. Mock face-jaw-teeth transplantation operations were performed on plastic and cadaveric human donor/recipient pairs (n = 2). Preoperatively, cephalometric landmarks were identified on donor/recipient skeletons using segmented computed tomographic scans. The computer-assisted planning and execution workstation tracked the position of the donor face-jaw-teeth segment in real time during the placement/inset onto recipient, reporting pertinent hybrid cephalometric parameters from any movement of donor tissue. The intraoperative data measured through real-time cephalometry were compared to posttransplant measurements for accuracy assessment. In addition, posttransplant cephalometric relationships were compared to planned outcomes to determine face-jaw-teeth transplantation success. Compared with postoperative data, the real-time cephalometry-calculated intraoperative measurement errors were 1.37 ± 1.11 mm and 0.45 ± 0.28 degrees for the plastic skull and 2.99 ± 2.24 mm and 2.63 ± 1.33 degrees for the human cadaver experiments. These results were comparable to the posttransplant relations to planned outcome (human cadaver experiment, 1.39 ± 1.81 mm and 2.18 ± 1.88 degrees; plastic skull experiment, 1.06 ± 0.63 mm and 0.53 ± 0.39 degrees). Based on this preliminary testing, real-time cephalometry may be a valuable adjunct for adjusting and measuring "hybrid occlusion" in face-jaw-teeth transplantation and other orthognathic surgical procedures.

  14. MINORITY LANGUAGES IN ESTONIAN SEGREGATIVE LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Küün

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project in Estonia was to determine what languages are spoken by students from the 2nd to the 5th year of basic school at their homes in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. At the same time, this problem was also studied in other segregated regions of Estonia: Kohtla-Järve and Maardu. According to the database of the population census from the year 2000 (Estonian Statistics Executive Office's census 2000, there are representatives of 142 ethnic groups living in Estonia, speaking a total of 109 native languages. At the same time, the database doesn’t state which languages are spoken at homes. The material presented in this article belongs to the research topic “Home Language of Basic School Students in Tallinn” from years 2007–2008, specifically financed and ordered by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (grant No. ETF 7065 in the framework of an international study called “Multilingual Project”. It was determined what language is dominating in everyday use, what are the factors for choosing the language for communication, what are the preferred languages and language skills. This study reflects the actual trends of the language situation in these cities.

  15. Health-related characteristics and preferred methods of receiving health education according to dominant language among Latinos Aged 25 to 64 in a large Northern California health plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iribarren Carlos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latinos are a fast growing segment of the U.S. health care population. Acculturation factors, including English fluency, result in an ethnic group heterogeneous with regard to SES, health practices, and health education needs. This study examined how demographic and health-related characteristics of Spanish-dominant (SD, Bilingual (BIL, and English-dominant (ED Latino men and women aged 25–64 differed among members of a large Northern California health plan. Methods This observational study was based on data from cohorts of 171 SD (requiring an interpreter, 181 BIL, and 734 ED Latinos aged 25–64 who responded to random sample health plan member surveys conducted 2005–2006. Language groups were compared separately by gender on education, income, behavioral health risks (smoking, obesity, exercise frequency, dietary practices, health beliefs, health status (overall health and emotional health, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, heartburn/acid reflux, back pain, depression, computer and Internet access, and health education modality preferences. Results Compared with ED Latinos, higher percentages of the SD and BIL groups had very low educational attainment and low income. While groups were similar in prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol, SD were less likely than ED Latinos to rate overall health and emotional well-being as good, very good, or excellent and more likely to report heartburn and back pain (women only. The groups were similar with regard to smoking and obesity, but among women, SD were more likely to be physically inactive than ED, and BIL were less likely than SD and ED groups to eat Conclusion There are important differences among Latinos of different English language proficiency with regard to education, income, health status, health behaviors, IT access, and health education modality preferences that ought to be considered when planning and implementing health programs for this

  16. Executive summary of the GeSIDA/National AIDS Plan consensus document on antiretroviral therapy in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (updated January 2018).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-11

    This update to the document on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in adults, which has been prepared jointly by GeSIDA and the Spanish National AIDS Plan for the last two decades, supersedes the document published in 2017. 1 The update provides physicians treating HIV-1-infected adults with evidence-based recommendations to guide their therapeutic decisions. The main difference with respect to the previous document concerns recommended initial ART regimens, only three of which are maintained as preferential. All three include dolutegravir or raltegravir, together with emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide or abacavir/lamivudine. Other differences concern the section on switching ART in patients with suppressed viral replication, which now includes new two- and three-drug regimens, and the antiretroviral drugs recommended for pregnant women and patients with tuberculosis. A recommendation has also been added for patients who present with acute HIV infection after pre-exposure prophylaxis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Language Management x 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2017-01-01

    The term ‘language management’ has become a widely used expression in the sociolinguistic literature. Originally introduced by Jernudd and Neustupný in 1987, as a novel continuation of the language planning tradition stemming from the 1960/70s, language management along these lines has developed...... from the international management discipline, appear to have taken an interest in language as a variable in business and corporate management. It is also common to refer to this research field as language management. This conceptual article offers a theoretically based comparison of the three...... into the Language Management Theory (LMT). A second definition of language management, diverting from LMT, can be found in the work of Spolsky, who treats language management as a theoretical component of the wider concept of language policy. Furthermore, over the past 15 years a number of scholars, particularly...

  18. The Effects of Bilingualism on Toddlers' Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Blaye, Agnes; Coutya, Julie; Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Bilingual children have been shown to outperform monolingual children on tasks measuring executive functioning skills. This advantage is usually attributed to bilinguals' extensive practice in exercising selective attention and cognitive flexibility during language use because both languages are active when one of them is being used. We examined…

  19. Metacognition and executive functioning in Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinidad García

    Full Text Available This study analyzes differences in metacognitive skills and executive functioning between two groups of students (10-12 years with different levels of metacognitive knowledge (high n = 50, low n = 64. Groups were established based on students' score on a test of knowledge of strategy use. Metacognitive skills were assessed by means of self-report. Students reported the frequency with which they applied these strategies during the phases of planning, execution, and evaluation of learning. Information about student executive functioning was provided by families and teachers, who completed two parallel forms of a behavior rating scale. The results indicated that: a the group with high levels of metacognitive knowledge reported using their metacognitive skills more frequently than their peers in the other group. These differences were statistically significant in the phases of planning and execution; b both family and teachers informed of better levels of executive functioning in the students with high metacognitive knowledge. Statistically significant differences were found in planning, functional memory, focus, and sustained attention. These results show the existence of an association between different levels of metacognitive knowledge, and differences in metacognitive skills and executive functions, and suggest the need to emphasize this set of variables in order to encourage students to acquire increasing levels of control over their learning process.

  20. Diagnosis of plan structure Violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Nico

    2007-01-01

    Failures in plan execution can be attributed to errors in the execution of plan steps or violations of the plan structure. The structure of a plan prescribes which actions have to be performed and which precedence constraints between them have to be respected. Especially in multi-agent environments

  1. Evaluating Effects of Language Recognition on Language Rights and the Vitality of New Zealand Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rachel Locker; Manning, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Status planning through legislation made New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) an official language in 2006. But this strong symbolic action did not create resources or mechanisms to further the aims of the act. In this article we discuss the extent to which legal recognition and ensuing language-planning activities by state and community have affected…

  2. Towards a Reactive Semantic Execution Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komazec, Srdjan; Facca, Federico Michele

    Managing complex and distributed software systems built on top of the service-oriented paradigm has never been more challenging. While Semantic Web Service technologies offer a promising set of languages and tools as a foundation to resolve the heterogeneity and scalability issues, they are still failing to provide an autonomic execution environment. In this paper we present an approach based on Semantic Web Services to enable the monitoring and self-management of a Semantic Execution Environment (SEE), a brokerage system for Semantic Web Services. Our approach is founded on the event-triggered reactivity paradigm in order to facilitate environment control, thus contributing to its autonomicity, robustness and flexibility.

  3. Composable Framework Support for Software-FMEA Through Model Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Imre; Patricia, Andras; Brancati, Francesco; Rossi, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Performing Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) during software architecture design is becoming a basic requirement in an increasing number of domains; however, due to the lack of standardized early design phase model execution, classic SW-FMEA approaches carry significant risks and are human effort-intensive even in processes that use Model-Driven Engineering.Recently, modelling languages with standardized executable semantics have emerged. Building on earlier results, this paper describes framework support for generating executable error propagation models from such models during software architecture design. The approach carries the promise of increased precision, decreased risk and more automated execution for SW-FMEA during dependability- critical system development.

  4. Plan well, plan often

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Block

    2013-01-01

    This issue includes an invited paper by Courtney Schultz and her colleagues commenting on the application of the newly adopted U.S. Forest Service Planning Rule (hereafter, the rule) for wildlife. The rule is basically implementing language to interpret the spirit and intent of the National Forest Management Act (NFMA) of 1976. Laws such as NFMA require additional...

  5. IMPERA: Integrated Mission Planning for Multi-Robot Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Saur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the project IMPERA (Integrated Mission Planning for Distributed Robot Systems. The goal of IMPERA was to realize an extraterrestrial exploration scenario using a heterogeneous multi-robot system. The main challenge was the development of a multi-robot planning and plan execution architecture. The robot team consists of three heterogeneous robots, which have to explore an unknown environment and collect lunar drill samples. The team activities are described using the language ALICA (A Language for Interactive Agents. Furthermore, we use the mission planning system pRoPhEt MAS (Reactive Planning Engine for Multi-Agent Systems to provide an intuitive interface to generate team activities. Therefore, we define the basic skills of our team with ALICA and define the desired goal states by using a logic description. Based on the skills, pRoPhEt MAS creates a valid ALICA plan, which will be executed by the team. The paper describes the basic components for communication, coordinated exploration, perception and object transportation. Finally, we evaluate the planning engine pRoPhEt MAS in the IMPERA scenario. In addition, we present further evaluation of pRoPhEt MAS in more dynamic environments.

  6. Tutoring executives online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bignoux, Stephane; Sund, Kristian J.

    2018-01-01

    Studies of learning and student satisfaction in the context of online university programmes have largely neglected programmes catering specifically to business executives. Such executives have typically been away from higher education for a number of years, and have collected substantial practical...... experience in the subject matters they are taught. Their expectations in terms of both content and delivery may therefore be different from non-executive students. We explore perceptions of the quality of tutoring in the context of an online executive MBA programme through participant interviews. We find...... that in addition to some of the tutor behaviours already discussed in the literature, executive students look specifically for practical industry knowledge and experience in tutors, when judging how effective a tutor is. This has implications for both the recruitment and training of online executive MBA tutors....

  7. Tutoring Executives Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bignoux, Stephane; Sund, Kristian J.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of learning and student satisfaction in the context of online university programs have largely neglected programs catering specifically to business executives. Such executives have typically been away from higher education for a number of years, and have collected substantial practical...... experience in the subject matters they are taught. Their expectations in terms of both content and delivery may therefore be different from non-executive students. We explore perceptions of the quality of tutoring in the context of an online executive MBA program through participant interviews. We find...... that in addition to some of the tutor behaviors already discussed in the literature, executive students look specifically for practical industry knowledge and experience in tutors, when judging how effective a tutor is. This has implications for both the recruitment and training of online executive MBA tutors....

  8. Language and Aspiration of the Students on Global Outlook: a Review Based on Malaysia Education Development Plan (2013- 2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharipah Nur Mursalina Syed Azmy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Malaysia Education Development Plan (2013 – 2025 (pre-school to post-secondary education was launched by the Ministry of Education on October 2011. This plan aimed at transforming the national education system holistically and was based upon the international standard to instil the national aspiration and to prepare the students with sufficient competitive edge when upon completion of their study. This paper reviewed the six aspirations outlined in the Malaysia Education Development Plan which encompassed knowledge, thinking skills, leadership skills, bilingual skills, ethics and spirituality, and national identity. Each of these elements provide a holistic approach in ensuring the students are well equipped not only with knowledge and soft skills, but most instrumentally they are able to engulf the spirit of national identity. This is highly important in today’s world as without it, the country would not be able to move forward with its Vision 2020 when the people are not united and prepared to strive for excellence. This paper discovered that the six aspirations listed in the Malaysia Education Development Plan are embedded strategically in each of the thrust in developing the new generation of students.

  9. Language Management Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of existing literature on the topic of language management tools – the means by which language is managed – in multilingual organisations. By drawing on a combination of sociolinguistics and international business and management studies, a new taxonomy of language...... management tools is proposed, differentiating between three categories of tools. Firstly, corporate policies are the deliberate control of issues pertaining to language and communication developed at the managerial level of a firm. Secondly, corporate measures are the planned activities the firm’s leadership...... may deploy in order to address the language needs of the organisation. Finally, front-line practices refer to the use of informal, emergent language management tools available to staff members. The language management tools taxonomy provides a framework for operationalising the management of language...

  10. E-HOSPITAL - A Digital Workbench for Hospital Operations and Services Planning Using Information Technology and Algebraic Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Daniel; Padman, Rema

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a unified framework and a digital workbench for the strategic, tactical and operational hospital management plan driven by information technology and analytics. The workbench can be used not only by multiple stakeholders in the healthcare delivery setting, but also for pedagogical purposes on topics such as healthcare analytics, services management, and information systems. This tool combines the three classical hierarchical decision-making levels in one integrated environment. At each level, several decision problems can be chosen. Extensions of mathematical models from the literature are presented and incorporated into the digital platform. In a case study using real-world data, we demonstrate how we used the workbench to inform strategic capacity planning decisions in a multi-hospital, multi-stakeholder setting in the United Kingdom.

  11. Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder and intact executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, R; Ansermet, F; Massoni, F; Petrone, L; Onofri, E; Ricci, P; Archer, T; Ricci, S

    2016-01-01

    Earliest notions concerning autism (Autism Spectrum Disorders, ASD) describe the disturbance in executive functioning. Despite altered definition, executive functioning, expressed as higher cognitive skills required complex behaviors linked to the prefrontal cortex, are defective in autism. Specific difficulties in children presenting autism or verbal disabilities at executive functioning levels have been identified. Nevertheless, the developmental deficit of executive functioning in autism is highly diversified with huge individual variation and may even be absent. The aim of the present study to examine the current standing of intact executive functioning intact in ASD. Analysis of ASD populations, whether high-functioning, Asperger's or autism Broad Phenotype, studied over a range of executive functions including response inhibition, planning, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition, and alerting networks indicates an absence of damage/impairment compared to the typically-developed normal control subjects. These findings of intact executive functioning in ASD subjects provide a strong foundation on which to construct applications for growth environments and the rehabilitation of autistic subjects.

  13. Providing Virtual Execution Environments: A Twofold Illustration

    CERN Document Server

    Grehant, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Platform virtualization helps solving major grid computing challenges: share resource with flexible, user-controlled and custom execution environments and in the meanwhile, isolate failures and malicious code. Grid resource management tools will evolve to embrace support for virtual resource. We present two open source projects that transparently supply virtual execution environments. Tycoon has been developed at HP Labs to optimise resource usage in creating an economy where users bid to access virtual machines and compete for CPU cycles. SmartDomains provides a peer-to-peer layer that automates virtual machines deployment using a description language and deployment engine from HP Labs. These projects demonstrate both client-server and peer-to-peer approaches to virtual resource management. The first case makes extensive use of virtual machines features for dynamic resource allocation. The second translates virtual machines capabilities into a sophisticated language where resource management components can b...

  14. The relationship of theory of mind and executive functions to symptom type and severity in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Robert M; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Although neurocognitive impairments in theory of mind and in executive functions have both been hypothesized to play a causal role in autism, there has been little research investigating the explanatory power of these impairments with regard to autistic symptomatology. The present study examined the degree to which individual differences in theory of mind and executive functions could explain variations in the severity of autism symptoms. Participants included 31 verbal, school-aged children with autism who were administered a battery of tests assessing the understanding of mental states (knowledge and false belief) and executive control skills (working memory, combined working memory and inhibitory control, and planning) and who were behaviorally evaluated for autism severity in the three core symptom domains. Whereas theory of mind and executive control abilities explained the significant variance beyond that accounted for by language level in communication symptoms, neither explained the significant variance in reciprocal social interaction or repetitive behaviors symptoms. These findings are discussed in terms of a proposed distinction between higher level, cognitive-linguistic aspects of theory of mind and related executive control skills, and more fundamental social-perceptual processes involved in the apprehension of mental state information conveyed through eyes, faces, and voices, which may be more closely linked to autistic deficits in social reciprocity.

  15. Essays in Executive Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zhang (Dan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation focuses on how executive compensation is designed and its implications for corporate finance and government regulations. Chapter 2 analyzes several proposals to restrict CEO compensation and calibrates two models of executive compensation that describe how firms would

  16. [Memory and the executive functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirapu-Ustárroz, J; Muñoz-Céspedes, J M

    The terms 'executive functioning' or 'executive control' refer to a set of mechanisms involved in the improvement of cognitive processes to guide them towards the resolution of complex problems. Both the frontal lobes, acting as structure, and the executive processes, acting as function, work with memory contents, operating with information placed in the diencephalic structures and in the medial temporal lobe. Generally, we can state that many works find an association between frontal damage and specific memory shortages like working memory deficit, metamemory problems, source amnesia, or difficulties in the prospective memory. This paper is a critical review of the working memory concept and proposes a new term: the attentional operative system that works with memory contents. Concerning the metamemory, the frontal lobes are essential for monitoring processes in general and for 'the feeling of knowing' kind of judgements in particular. Patients suffering prefrontal damage show serious problems to remember the information source. Thus, the information is rightly remembered but the spatiotemporal context where that information was learned has been forgotten. Finally, the prospective memory deals with remembering to make something in a particular moment in the future and performing the plan previously drawn up.

  17. Assessment of Executive Functions in Methamphetamineaddicted Individuals: Emphasis on Duration of Addiction and Abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Farhadian

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed that although executive functions may be improved by protracted abstinence, executive dysfunctions are not completely relieved, and specific attention to planning and implementation of intervention programs are necessary.

  18. CSP for Executable Scientific Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard

    and can usually benefit performance-wise from both multiprocessing, cluster and grid environments. PyCSP is an implementation of Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP) for the Python programming language and takes advantage of CSP's formal and verifiable approach to controlling concurrency...... on multi-processing and cluster computing using PyCSP. Additionally, McStas is demonstrated to utilise grid computing resources using PyCSP. Finally, this thesis presents a new dynamic channel model, which has not yet been implemented for PyCSP. The dynamic channel is able to change the internal...... synchronisation mechanisms on-the-fly, depending on the location and number of channel-ends connected. Thus it may start out as a simple local pipe and evolve into a distributed channel spanning multiple nodes. This channel is a necessary next step for PyCSP to allow for complete freedom in executing CSP...

  19. Maternal reading fluency is positively associated with greater functional connectivity between the child's future reading network and regions related to executive functions and language processing in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Hutton, John S; Phelan, Kieran; Holland, Scott K

    2018-03-01

    The role of the parent or educator in a child's learning is a key feature in child development. Evidence supports the impact of early language exposure for future language and cognitive abilities and of home reading environment on neural circuits supporting language and reading. As shared parent-child reading is largely contingent on the reading ability of the parent, the aim of the current study was to explore association of parental reading ability on functional connectivity of brain networks involved with reading acquisition in their children. Twenty-two 4-year-old girls and their mothers participated in the current study. Maternal reading fluency was applied as predictors of functional connectivity analyses of a stories-listening functional MRI task. Results indicate a positive association between maternal fluency scores and greater functional connectivity between regions in the future reading network and brain regions supporting language and cognitive control in the children. Maternal reading fluency is important in facilitating development of a child's reading network. Implications regarding shared reading are discussed, and an extended ecological model for child language and literacy development is proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuclear decommissioning planning, execution and international experience

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    A title that critically reviews the decommissioning and decontamination processes and technologies available for rehabilitating sites used for nuclear power generation and civilian nuclear facilities, from fundamental issues and best practices, to procedures and technology, and onto decommissioning and decontamination case studies.$bOnce a nuclear installation has reached the end of its safe and economical operational lifetime, the need for its decommissioning arises. Different strategies can be employed for nuclear decommissioning, based on the evaluation of particular hazards and their attendant risks, as well as on the analysis of costs of clean-up and waste management. This allows for decommissioning either soon after permanent shutdown, or perhaps a long time later, the latter course allowing for radioactivity levels to drop in any activated or contaminated components. It is crucial for clear processes and best practices to be applied in decommissioning such installations and sites, particular where any ...

  1. Finance and supply management project execution plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENNION, S.I.

    1999-02-10

    As a subproject of the HANDI 2000 project, the Finance and Supply Management system is intended to serve FDH and Project Hanford major subcontractor with financial processes including general ledger, project costing, budgeting, and accounts payable, and supply management process including purchasing, inventory and contracts management. Currently these functions are performed with numerous legacy information systems and suboptimized processes.

  2. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan : Executive Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.; Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation in Oregon.

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of the project is to protect, enhance, and mitigate fish and wildlife resources impacted by Columbia River Basin hydroelectric development. The effort is one of several wildlife mitigation projects in the region developed to compensate for terrestrial habitat losses resulting from the construction of McNary and John Day Hydroelectric facilities located on the mainstem Columbia River. While this project is driven primarily by the purpose and need to mitigate for wildlife habitat losses, it is also recognized that management strategies will also benefit many other non-target fish and wildlife species and associated natural resources. The Northwest Power Act directs the NPPC to develop a program to ''protect, mitigate, and enhance'' fish and wildlife of the Columbia River and its tributaries. The overarching goals include: A Columbia River ecosystem that sustains an abundant, productive, and diverse community of fish and wildlife; Mitigation across the basin for the adverse effects to fish and wildlife caused by the development and operation of the hydrosystem; Sufficient populations of fish and wildlife for abundant opportunities for tribal trust and treaty right harvest and for non-tribal harvest; and Recovery of the fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of the hydrosystem that are listed under the Endangered Species Act.

  3. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LEROY, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities

  4. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEROY, P.G.

    2000-11-03

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities.

  5. How language production shapes language form and comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryellen C MacDonald

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Language production processes can provide insight into how language comprehension works and language typology—why languages tend to have certain characteristics more often than others. Drawing on work in memory retrieval, motor planning, and serial order in action planning, the Production-Distribution-Comprehension (PDC account links work in the fields of language production, typology, and comprehension: 1 faced with substantial computational burdens of planning and producing utterances, language producers implicitly follow three biases in utterance planning that promote word order choices that reduce these burdens, thereby improving production fluency. 2 These choices, repeated over many utterances and individuals, shape the distributions of utterance forms in language. The claim that language form stems in large degree from producers’ attempts to mitigate utterance planning difficulty is contrasted with alternative accounts in which form is driven by language use more broadly, language acquisition processes, or producers’ attempts to create language forms that are easily understood by comprehenders. 3 Language perceivers implicitly learn the statistical regularities in their linguistic input, and they use this prior experience to guide comprehension of subsequent language. In particular, they learn to predict the sequential structure of linguistic signals, based on the statistics of previously-encountered input. Thus key aspects of comprehension behavior are tied to lexico-syntactic statistics in the language, which in turn derive from utterance planning biases promoting production of comparatively easy utterance forms over more difficult ones. This approach contrasts with classic theories in which comprehension behaviors are attributed to innate design features of the language comprehension system and associated working memory. The PDC instead links basic features of comprehension to a different source: production processes that shape

  6. High-Impact Succession Management. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Kim; Campbell, Michael; Smith, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Most companies have an opportunity to improve their succession management programs. The number one challenge for succession management (as identified by both HR leaders and executives) is developing a succession planning strategy. This comprehensive industry study sets out to determine how succession management (when done well) helps improve…

  7. Executive Functions in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghini, D.; Addona, F.; Costanzo, F.; Vicari, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study was aimed at investigating working memory (WM) and executive functions capacities in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) as compared with mental-age matched typically developing (TD) children. Method: In order to serve the study goal, a sizeable battery of tasks tapping WM as well as attention, memory, planning,…

  8. 45 CFR 1700.5 - Executive Director.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Executive Director. 1700.5 Section 1700.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND..., recommendation and implementation of overall plans and policies to achieve the Commission's goals. (d) To...

  9. ROUTING FINANCIAL FLOWS AT THE EXECUTION OF THE MUNICIPALITY BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya V. Fedotova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of each administrative-territorial unit is an important factor in the economic development of the Russian Federation. In its turn, the effective execution of the budget at each level of the budget system is invariably topical, influencing the development of a system of both centralized and decentralized finance. The paramount characteristic of the organization of the budget execution of the municipality is an ability to ensure the timely and full execution of their commitments. There is a direct correlation of the budget process on both the revenue and expenditure sides. Cash gap in the local budget execution is actually quite common and, usually, inevitable, because revenues are coming unevenly during the financial year, budgetary expenditures are seasonal, and this threatens the execution of planned budgets; there is a need to raise funds. The article deals with the execution of the cash balance plan, cash flow at the single account of budget, debt and source of financing deficits. The analysis of financial flows in the execution of municipalities’ budget shows problems of execution of budget revenues and allows assessing the scale of emerging cash gaps. An outcome of the review consists in the recognition of an objective need to develop approaches to assessing the effectiveness of budget execution at all its stages and to implement the monitoring of the effectiveness of budget execution and timely effective measures for ensuring its high-quality.

  10. A distributed query execution engine of big attributed graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batarfi, Omar; Elshawi, Radwa; Fayoumi, Ayman; Barnawi, Ahmed; Sakr, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    A graph is a popular data model that has become pervasively used for modeling structural relationships between objects. In practice, in many real-world graphs, the graph vertices and edges need to be associated with descriptive attributes. Such type of graphs are referred to as attributed graphs. G-SPARQL has been proposed as an expressive language, with a centralized execution engine, for querying attributed graphs. G-SPARQL supports various types of graph querying operations including reachability, pattern matching and shortest path where any G-SPARQL query may include value-based predicates on the descriptive information (attributes) of the graph edges/vertices in addition to the structural predicates. In general, a main limitation of centralized systems is that their vertical scalability is always restricted by the physical limits of computer systems. This article describes the design, implementation in addition to the performance evaluation of DG-SPARQL, a distributed, hybrid and adaptive parallel execution engine of G-SPARQL queries. In this engine, the topology of the graph is distributed over the main memory of the underlying nodes while the graph data are maintained in a relational store which is replicated on the disk of each of the underlying nodes. DG-SPARQL evaluates parts of the query plan via SQL queries which are pushed to the underlying relational stores while other parts of the query plan, as necessary, are evaluated via indexless memory-based graph traversal algorithms. Our experimental evaluation shows the efficiency and the scalability of DG-SPARQL on querying massive attributed graph datasets in addition to its ability to outperform the performance of Apache Giraph, a popular distributed graph processing system, by orders of magnitudes.

  11. A Technical/Strategic Paradigm for Online Executive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marlene A.; Keaveney, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the development and delivery of online courses for the executive education audience. The goal is to introduce a new framework, the technical/strategic paradigm, that will help educators to identify the pedagogical needs of disparate executive groups and adjust their online course development plans accordingly. We describe…

  12. Automating Space Station operations planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemer, Kathleen A.

    1989-01-01

    The development and implementation of the operations planning processes for the Space Station are discussed. A three level planning process, consisting of strategic, tactical, and execution level planning, is being developed. The integration of the planning procedures into a tactical planning system is examined and the planning phases are illustrated.

  13. The Executive as Integrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Hans M.

    1983-01-01

    Argues that although the executive has many tasks, he or she must view internal organizational integration as a primary task, making use of organizational charts, job descriptions, statements of goals and objectives, evaluations, and feedback devices. (RH)

  14. Electronic Circuit Analysis Language (ECAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenghang, C.

    1983-03-01

    The computer aided design technique is an important development in computer applications and it is an important component of computer science. The special language for electronic circuit analysis is the foundation of computer aided design or computer aided circuit analysis (abbreviated as CACD and CACA) of simulated circuits. Electronic circuit analysis language (ECAL) is a comparatively simple and easy to use circuit analysis special language which uses the FORTRAN language to carry out the explanatory executions. It is capable of conducting dc analysis, ac analysis, and transient analysis of a circuit. Futhermore, the results of the dc analysis can be used directly as the initial conditions for the ac and transient analyses.

  15. Structured Design Language for Computer Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Walter H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Box language used at all stages of program development. Developed to provide improved productivity in designing, coding, and maintaining computer programs. BOX system written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution.

  16. Language Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  17. Executive functions in persons with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern man lyfestyle contributes to the increasing incidence of metabolic syndrome in the developed world. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in adults ranges from 20 to 25%, and it tends to increase. Each year, 3.2 million people around the world die from complications associated with this syndrome. Treatment involves cooperation of medical doctors of various specialties, but the decisive factor is patient motivation, given that the treatment requires significant lifestyle changes. Our hypothesis is that metabolic syndrome patients have reduced ability to plan, convert plan into action and effectively implement planned activities, showing signs of dysexecutive syndrome. The term executive functions comes from the English word 'executive', which also means the controlling, in neuropsychology reserved for high-level abilities that influence more basic abilities such as attention, perception, memory, thinking and speaking. The main objective of this study was to determine characteristics of executive functioning in patients with metabolic syndrome. The sample consisted of 61 subjects of both sexes, aged 20 to 60 years, divided into two groups - those with a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome and those without this diagnosis. The results suggest that people with metabolic syndrome showed significantly poorer performance in almost all indicators of executive functions, represented by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test variables.

  18. VAL language: description and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGraw, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    VAL is a high-level, function-based language designed for use on data flow computers. A data flow computer has many small processors organized to cooperate in the executive of a single computation. A computation is represented by its data flow graph; each operator in a graph is scheduled for execution on one of the processors after all of its operands' values are known. VAL promotes the indentification of concurrency in algorithms and simplifies the mapping into data graphs. This paper presents a detailed introduction to VAL and analyzes its usefulness for programming in a highly concurrent environment. VAL provides implicit concurrency (operations that can execute simultaneously are evident without the need for any explicit language notation). The language uses function- and expression-based features that prohibit all side effects, which simplifies translation to graphs. The salient language features are described and illustrated through examples taken from a complete VAL program for adaptive quadrature. Analysis of the language shows that VAL meets the critical needs for a data flow environment. The language encourages programmers to think in terms of general concurrency, enhances readability (due to the absence of side effects), and possesses a structure amenable to verification techniques. However, VAL is still evolving. The language definition needs refining, and more support tools for programmer use need to be developed. Also, some new kinds of optimization problems should be addressed

  19. Automatic Error Recovery in Robot Assembly Operations Using Reverse Execution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Johan Sund; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter

    2015-01-01

    , in particular for small-batch productions. As an alternative, we propose a system for automatically handling certain classes of errors instead of preventing them. Specifically, we show that many operations can be automatically reversed. Errors can be handled through automatic reverse execution of the control...... program to a safe point, from which forward execution can be resumed. This paper describes the principles behind automatic reversal of robotic assembly operations, and experimentally demonstrates the use of a domain-specific language that supports automatic error handling through reverse execution. Our...

  20. Graphical modeling and query language for hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzdins, Janis; Barzdins, Juris; Rencis, Edgars; Sostaks, Agris

    2013-01-01

    So far there has been little evidence that implementation of the health information technologies (HIT) is leading to health care cost savings. One of the reasons for this lack of impact by the HIT likely lies in the complexity of the business process ownership in the hospitals. The goal of our research is to develop a business model-based method for hospital use which would allow doctors to retrieve directly the ad-hoc information from various hospital databases. We have developed a special domain-specific process modelling language called the MedMod. Formally, we define the MedMod language as a profile on UML Class diagrams, but we also demonstrate it on examples, where we explain the semantics of all its elements informally. Moreover, we have developed the Process Query Language (PQL) that is based on MedMod process definition language. The purpose of PQL is to allow a doctor querying (filtering) runtime data of hospital's processes described using MedMod. The MedMod language tries to overcome deficiencies in existing process modeling languages, allowing to specify the loosely-defined sequence of the steps to be performed in the clinical process. The main advantages of PQL are in two main areas - usability and efficiency. They are: 1) the view on data through "glasses" of familiar process, 2) the simple and easy-to-perceive means of setting filtering conditions require no more expertise than using spreadsheet applications, 3) the dynamic response to each step in construction of the complete query that shortens the learning curve greatly and reduces the error rate, and 4) the selected means of filtering and data retrieving allows to execute queries in O(n) time regarding the size of the dataset. We are about to continue developing this project with three further steps. First, we are planning to develop user-friendly graphical editors for the MedMod process modeling and query languages. The second step is to do evaluation of usability the proposed language and tool

  1. BPELPower—A BPEL execution engine for geospatial web services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Genong (Eugene); Zhao, Peisheng; Di, Liping; Chen, Aijun; Deng, Meixia; Bai, Yuqi

    2012-10-01

    The Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) has become a popular choice for orchestrating and executing workflows in the Web environment. As one special kind of scientific workflow, geospatial Web processing workflows are data-intensive, deal with complex structures in data and geographic features, and execute automatically with limited human intervention. To enable the proper execution and coordination of geospatial workflows, a specially enhanced BPEL execution engine is required. BPELPower was designed, developed, and implemented as a generic BPEL execution engine with enhancements for executing geospatial workflows. The enhancements are especially in its capabilities in handling Geography Markup Language (GML) and standard geospatial Web services, such as the Web Processing Service (WPS) and the Web Feature Service (WFS). BPELPower has been used in several demonstrations over the decade. Two scenarios were discussed in detail to demonstrate the capabilities of BPELPower. That study showed a standard-compliant, Web-based approach for properly supporting geospatial processing, with the only enhancement at the implementation level. Pattern-based evaluation and performance improvement of the engine are discussed: BPELPower directly supports 22 workflow control patterns and 17 workflow data patterns. In the future, the engine will be enhanced with high performance parallel processing and broad Web paradigms.

  2. Can Complexity be Planned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Koutny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The long accepted complexity invariance of human languages has become controversial within the last decade. In investigations of the problem, both creole and planned languages have often been neglected. After a presentation of the scope of the invariance problem and the proposition of the natural to planned language continuum, this article will discuss the contribution of planned languages. It will analyze the complexity of Esperanto at the phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic levels, using linguistic data bases. The role of the L2 speech community and development of the language will also be taken into account when discussing the endurance of the same level of simplicity of this planned international language. The author argues that complexity can be variable and to some extent planned and maintained.

  3. Bilingual Language Switching in the Laboratory versus in the Wild: The Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Adaptive Language Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Elorrieta, Esti; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2017-09-13

    For a bilingual human, every utterance requires a choice about which language to use. This choice is commonly regarded as part of general executive control, engaging prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices similarly to many types of effortful task switching. However, although language control within artificial switching paradigms has been heavily studied, the neurobiology of natural switching within socially cued situations has not been characterized. Additionally, although theoretical models address how language control mechanisms adapt to the distinct demands of different interactional contexts, these predictions have not been empirically tested. We used MEG (RRID: NIFINV:nlx_inv_090918) to investigate language switching in multiple contexts ranging from completely artificial to the comprehension of a fully natural bilingual conversation recorded "in the wild." Our results showed less anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex involvement for more natural switching. In production, voluntary switching did not engage the prefrontal cortex or elicit behavioral switch costs. In comprehension, while laboratory switches recruited executive control areas, fully natural switching within a conversation only engaged auditory cortices. Multivariate pattern analyses revealed that, in production, interlocutor identity was represented in a sustained fashion throughout the different stages of language planning until speech onset. In comprehension, however, a biphasic pattern was observed: interlocutor identity was first represented at the presentation of the interlocutor and then again at the presentation of the auditory word. In all, our findings underscore the importance of ecologically valid experimental paradigms and offer the first neurophysiological characterization of language control in a range of situations simulating real life to various degrees. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Bilingualism is an inherently social phenomenon, interactional context fully determining language

  4. Hanford Site Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Yancey, E.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  5. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J.; Yancey, E.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs

  6. Planning for Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Before Pregnancy Home Overview Planning for Pregnancy Women Men Image Library Women Who Want to Become Pregnant Women Who Do Not Want to Become Pregnant Hugging Nutrition Physical Activity Visiting the Doctor Planning for Pregnancy Language: English ( ...

  7. MIV Project: Executive Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzotti, Mariolina T.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Neefs, Marc

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a reference mission scenario was defined. This report gives an executive summary of the achievements and results from the project.......Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a reference mission scenario was defined. This report gives an executive summary of the achievements and results from the project....

  8. Writing executable assertions to test flight software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, A.; Andrews, D. M.; Mccluskey, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    An executable assertion is a logical statement about the variables or a block of code. If there is no error during execution, the assertion statement results in a true value. Executable assertions can be used for dynamic testing of software. They can be employed for validation during the design phase, and exception and error detection during the operation phase. The present investigation is concerned with the problem of writing executable assertions, taking into account the use of assertions for testing flight software. They can be employed for validation during the design phase, and for exception handling and error detection during the operation phase The digital flight control system and the flight control software are discussed. The considered system provides autopilot and flight director modes of operation for automatic and manual control of the aircraft during all phases of flight. Attention is given to techniques for writing and using assertions to test flight software, an experimental setup to test flight software, and language features to support efficient use of assertions.

  9. Planning and User Interface Affordances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    St. Amant, Robert

    1999-01-01

    .... We identify a number of similarities between executing plans and interacting with a graphical user interface, and argue that affordances for planning environments apply equally well to user interface environments...

  10. Mismanagement Reasons of the Projects Execution Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem Khaleefah Al-Agele

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The execution phase of the project is most dangerous and the most drain on the resources during project life cycle, therefore, its need to monitor and control by specialists to exceeded obstructions and achieve the project goals. The study aims to detect the actual reasons behind mismanagement of the execution phase. The study begins with theoretical part, where it deals with the concepts of project, project selection, project management, and project processes. Field part consists of three techniques: 1- brainstorming, 2- open interviews with experts and 3- designed questionnaire (with 49 reason. These reasons result from brainstorming and interviewing with experts., in order to find the real reasons behind mismanagement of the execution phase. The most important reasons which are negatively impact on management of the execution phase that proven by the study were (Inability of company to meet project requirements because it's specialized and / or large project, Multiple sources of decision and overlap in powers, Inadequate planning, Inaccurate estimation of cost, Delayed cash flows by owners, Poor performance of project manager, inefficient decision making process, and the Negative impact of people in the project area. Finally, submitting a set of recommendations which will contribute to overcome the obstructions of successful management of the execution phase.

  11. Executions in The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofquist, William Steele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The stories of those who have been executed in the Bahamas are heretofore untold. In telling these stories and in linking them to the changing course of Bahamian history, the present research adds an important dimension to our understanding of Bahamian history and politics. The major theme of this effort is that the changing practice of the death penalty is much more than a consequence of changes in crime. The use of the death penalty parallels the changing interests of colonial rulers, the changing practice of slavery, and the changing role of the Bahamas in colonial and regional affairs. Four distinctive eras of death penalty practice can be identified: (1 the slave era, where executions and commutations were used liberally and with a clear racial patterning; (2 a long era of stable colonialism, a period of marginalization and few executions; (3 an era of unstable colonialism characterized by intensive and efficient use of the death penalty; and (4 the current independence era of high murder rates and equally high impediments to the use of executions.

  12. Executive functions in synesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouw, Romke; van Driel, Joram; Knip, Koen; Richard Ridderinkhof, K.

    2013-01-01

    In grapheme-color synesthesia, a number or letter can evoke two different and possibly conflicting (real and synesthetic) color sensations at the same time. In this study, we investigate the relationship between synesthesia and executive control functions. First, no general skill differences were

  13. School Executive Website Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The School Executive Website will be a one-stop, online site for officials who are looking for educational data, best practices, product reviews, school documents, professional opinions, and/or job-related networking. The format of the website is designed in certain sections similar to other current and popular websites, such as Angie's List.com,…

  14. Healthcare. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Gulish, Artem; Beach, Bennett H.

    2012-01-01

    This executive summary highlights several findings about healthcare. These are: (1) Healthcare is 18 percent of the U.S. economy, twice as high as in other countries; (2) There are two labor markets in healthcare: high-skill, high-wage professional and technical jobs and low-skill, low-wage support jobs; (3) Demand for postsecondary education in…

  15. Restorative Justice conferencing and the youth offender: exploring the role of oral language competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Pamela C; Sanger, Dixie D

    2011-01-01

    Restorative Justice is an approach to responding to youth offending that aims to be collaborative and conciliatory rather than adversarial. In this respect, it is a welcome innovation in justice, welfare, and educational settings, and is gaining favour around the world. To date, however, the Restorative Justice literature has not considered the possible implications of unidentified language impairment in the young offenders who are asked to participate in face-to-face conferences with their victim(s). The aims of this paper are (1) to bring two paradigms together: Restorative Justice on the one hand, and the literature on language and social cognition impairments in vulnerable and socially marginalized young people on the other; (2) to stimulate awareness and interest in this aspect of public policy and practice by speech-language pathologists; and (3) to suggest some research questions that need to be tackled from an oral language competence perspective. A narrative review of the relevant literature pertaining to both Restorative Justice and oral language competence in vulnerable young people was conducted, with particular emphasis on the implications of the undetected language impairments as a source of possible unintended harm to both victims and offenders in Restorative Justice conferences. This is the first paper that specifically addresses the oral language skills of vulnerable and socially marginalized young people with respect to their capacity to participate in Restorative Justice conferences. It is important that speech-language pathologists contribute their specialized knowledge and clinical skills to public policy-making and debate, and practice that pertains to marginalized young people who may have undetected oral language impairments. Speech-language pathology as a profession is well positioned to plan and execute important programmes of research on this growing approach to dealing with youth offending and reducing recidivism. © 2010 Royal College

  16. Strategic Audit and Marketing Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Lianna S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this audit was to revise the marketing plan for ADSum Professional Development School and give the owner a long-term vision of the school to operate competitively in the crowded field of for-profit schools. It is fairly simple to create a strategic plan but harder to implement and execute. Execution requires weeks and months of…

  17. A high level language for a high performance computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrott, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The proposed computational aerodynamic facility will join the ranks of the supercomputers due to its architecture and increased execution speed. At present, the languages used to program these supercomputers have been modifications of programming languages which were designed many years ago for sequential machines. A new programming language should be developed based on the techniques which have proved valuable for sequential programming languages and incorporating the algorithmic techniques required for these supercomputers. The design objectives for such a language are outlined.

  18. Executive function training in children with SLI: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugs, B.A.M.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Cuperus, J.M.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-based executive function (EF) training in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Ten children with SLI, ages 8 to 12 years, completed a 25-session training of visuospatial working memory, inhibition and cognitive

  19. Sustainable NREL - Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-01

    NREL's Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 reports on sustainability plans for the lab for the year 2015 based on Executive Order Goals and provides the status on planned actions cited in the FY 2014 report.

  20. Executive Function in Adolescence: Associations with Child and Family Risk Factors and Self-Regulation in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Donna; Hayes, Nicole; White, Sonia L. J.; Williams, Kate E.

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions are important higher-order cognitive skills for goal-directed thought and action. These capacities contribute to successful school achievement and lifelong wellbeing. The importance of executive functions to children’s education begins in early childhood and continues throughout development. This study explores contributions of child and family factors in early childhood to the development of executive function in adolescence. Analyses draw on data from the nationally representative study, Growing up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Participants are 4819 children in the Kindergarten Cohort who were recruited at age 4–5 years. Path analyses were employed to examine contributions of early childhood factors, including family socio-economic position (SEP), parenting behaviors, maternal mental health, and a child behavioral risk index, to the development of executive function in adolescence. The influence of children’s early self-regulatory behaviors (attentional regulation at 4–5 years and approaches to learning at 6–7 years) were also taken into account. A composite score for the outcome measure of executive function was constructed from scores on three Cogstate computerized tasks for assessing cognition and measured visual attention, visual working memory, and spatial problem-solving. Covariates included child gender, age at assessment of executive function, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, speaking a language other than English at home, and child’s receptive vocabulary skills. There were significant indirect effects involving child and family risk factors measured at 4–5 years on executive function at age 14–15 years, mediated by measures of self-regulatory behavior. Child behavioral risk, family SEP and parenting behaviors (anger, warmth, and consistency) were associated with attentional regulation at 4–5 years which, in turn, was significantly associated with approaches to learning at 6

  1. Executive Function in Adolescence: Associations with Child and Family Risk Factors and Self-Regulation in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Donna; Hayes, Nicole; White, Sonia L J; Williams, Kate E

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions are important higher-order cognitive skills for goal-directed thought and action. These capacities contribute to successful school achievement and lifelong wellbeing. The importance of executive functions to children's education begins in early childhood and continues throughout development. This study explores contributions of child and family factors in early childhood to the development of executive function in adolescence. Analyses draw on data from the nationally representative study, Growing up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children . Participants are 4819 children in the Kindergarten Cohort who were recruited at age 4-5 years. Path analyses were employed to examine contributions of early childhood factors, including family socio-economic position (SEP), parenting behaviors, maternal mental health, and a child behavioral risk index, to the development of executive function in adolescence. The influence of children's early self-regulatory behaviors (attentional regulation at 4-5 years and approaches to learning at 6-7 years) were also taken into account. A composite score for the outcome measure of executive function was constructed from scores on three Cogstate computerized tasks for assessing cognition and measured visual attention, visual working memory, and spatial problem-solving. Covariates included child gender, age at assessment of executive function, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, speaking a language other than English at home, and child's receptive vocabulary skills. There were significant indirect effects involving child and family risk factors measured at 4-5 years on executive function at age 14-15 years, mediated by measures of self-regulatory behavior. Child behavioral risk, family SEP and parenting behaviors (anger, warmth, and consistency) were associated with attentional regulation at 4-5 years which, in turn, was significantly associated with approaches to learning at 6-7 years. Both

  2. Executive Function in Adolescence: Associations with Child and Family Risk Factors and Self-Regulation in Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Berthelsen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions are important higher-order cognitive skills for goal-directed thought and action. These capacities contribute to successful school achievement and lifelong wellbeing. The importance of executive functions to children’s education begins in early childhood and continues throughout development. This study explores contributions of child and family factors in early childhood to the development of executive function in adolescence. Analyses draw on data from the nationally representative study, Growing up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Participants are 4819 children in the Kindergarten Cohort who were recruited at age 4–5 years. Path analyses were employed to examine contributions of early childhood factors, including family socio-economic position (SEP, parenting behaviors, maternal mental health, and a child behavioral risk index, to the development of executive function in adolescence. The influence of children’s early self-regulatory behaviors (attentional regulation at 4–5 years and approaches to learning at 6–7 years were also taken into account. A composite score for the outcome measure of executive function was constructed from scores on three Cogstate computerized tasks for assessing cognition and measured visual attention, visual working memory, and spatial problem-solving. Covariates included child gender, age at assessment of executive function, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, speaking a language other than English at home, and child’s receptive vocabulary skills. There were significant indirect effects involving child and family risk factors measured at 4–5 years on executive function at age 14–15 years, mediated by measures of self-regulatory behavior. Child behavioral risk, family SEP and parenting behaviors (anger, warmth, and consistency were associated with attentional regulation at 4–5 years which, in turn, was significantly associated with approaches

  3. Model Checking Artificial Intelligence Based Planners: Even the Best Laid Plans Must Be Verified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Margaret H.; Holzmann, Gerard J.; Cucullu, Gordon C., III; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2005-01-01

    Automated planning systems (APS) are gaining acceptance for use on NASA missions as evidenced by APS flown On missions such as Orbiter and Deep Space 1 both of which were commanded by onboard planning systems. The planning system takes high level goals and expands them onboard into a detailed of action fiat the spacecraft executes. The system must be verified to ensure that the automatically generated plans achieve the goals as expected and do not generate actions that would harm the spacecraft or mission. These systems are typically tested using empirical methods. Formal methods, such as model checking, offer exhaustive or measurable test coverage which leads to much greater confidence in correctness. This paper describes a formal method based on the SPIN model checker. This method guarantees that possible plans meet certain desirable properties. We express the input model in Promela, the language of SPIN and express the properties of desirable plans formally.

  4. Linguistic Aspects of Legal Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, JoAnn; Charrow, Veda R.

    Efforts to simplify language used in consumer documents come from the consumer movement and a public disillusioned with big business and government. Even before President Carter's 1978 executive order mandating simplification in government regulations, some agencies were revising regulations for clarity. However, these efforts were based on too…

  5. Language and Dementia: Neuropsychological Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Kempler, Daniel; Goral, Mira

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews recent evidence for the relationship between extralinguistic cognitive and language abilities in dementia. A survey of data from investigations of three dementia syndromes (Alzheimer's disease, semantic dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia) reveals that, more often than not, deterioration of conceptual organization appears associated with lexical impairments, whereas impairments in executive function are associated with sentence- and discourse-level deficits. These ...

  6. Compulsory African languages in tertiary education: prejudices from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies ... of African languages, in reality more has to be done if policy provisions are to be realised. ... of language attitude planning and that existing resources at universities should be ...

  7. Using Executive Information Systems to Manage Capital Projects and Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaynor, Robert

    1993-01-01

    In higher education, facilities data are essential for long-term capital and financial planning and for testing assumptions underlying anticipated policy change. Executive information systems should incorporate life-cycle considerations (planning, construction, renovation, and management) and resource linkages (describing interrelationships of…

  8. High-level language computer architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Yaohan

    1975-01-01

    High-Level Language Computer Architecture offers a tutorial on high-level language computer architecture, including von Neumann architecture and syntax-oriented architecture as well as direct and indirect execution architecture. Design concepts of Japanese-language data processing systems are discussed, along with the architecture of stack machines and the SYMBOL computer system. The conceptual design of a direct high-level language processor is also described.Comprised of seven chapters, this book first presents a classification of high-level language computer architecture according to the pr

  9. What executives should remember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Peter F

    2006-02-01

    In more than 30 essays for Harvard Business Review, Peter Drucker (1909-2005) urged readers to take on the hard work of thinking--always combined, he insisted, with decisive action. He closely analyzed the phenomenon of knowledge work--the growing call for employees who use their minds rather than their hands--and explained how it challenged the conventional wisdom about the way organizations should be run. He was intrigued by employees who knew more about certain subjects than their bosses or colleagues but who still had to cooperate with others in a large organization. As the business world matured in the second half of the twentieth century, executives came to think that they knew how to run companies--and Drucker took it upon himself to poke holes in their assumptions, lest organizations become stale. But he did so sympathetically, operating from the premise that his readers were intelligent, hardworking people of goodwill. Well suited to HBR's format of practical, idea-based essays for executives, his clear-eyed, humanistic writing enriched the magazine time and again. This article is a compilation of the savviest management advice Drucker offered HBR readers over the years--in short, his greatest hits. It revisits the following insightful, influential contributions: "The Theory of the Business" (September-October 1994), "Managing for Business Effectiveness" (May-June 1963), "What Business Can Learn from Nonprofits" (July-August 1989), "The New Society of Organizations" (September-October 1992), "The Information Executives Truly Need" (January-February 1995), "Managing Oneself" (March-April 1999 republished January 2005), "They're Not Employees, They're People" (February 2002), "What Makes an Effective Executive" (June 2004).

  10. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF CHINESE EXECUTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Lingfang Fayol-Song

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Chinese nationals have increasingly been employed by multinational companies (MNCs) operating in China taking positions previously occupied by foreign expatriates from investor countries. The development of local managers has therefore become crucial in the field of human resource management because the success of these companies depends greatly upon the ability and competence of their executive management class. The present paper addresses the issue of how to devel...

  11. Concurrent Models for Object Execution

    OpenAIRE

    Diertens, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we developed a framework of computational models for the concurrent execution of functions on different levels of abstraction. It shows that the traditional sequential execution of function is just a possible implementation of an abstract computational model that allows for the concurrent execution of functions. We use this framework as base for the development of abstract computational models that allow for the concurrent execution of objects.

  12. Engineering Play: Exploring Associations with Executive Function, Mathematical Ability, and Spatial Ability in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Zachary Samuel

    associations between engineering play and planning, executive function, and geometry for only a subgroup of children (n = 27) who had individualized education program (IEP) status. This was the first of a series of studies planned to evaluate the potential of the engineering play perspective as a tool for understanding young children's development and learning across multiple developmental domains. Although most hypotheses regarding engineering play and cognitive skills were not supported, the study provided partial evidence for the reliability and validity of the engineering play observation measure. Future research should include larger sample sizes with more statistical power, continued refinement of the engineering play observation measure, examination of potential associations with specific early learning domains, including spatial ability and language, and more comparisons of engineering play between typically developing children and children with disabilities.

  13. Executive Energy Leadership Academy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Energy Leadership Academy Executive Energy Leadership Academy NREL's Executive Energy Leadership Academy is a nationally renowned program that provides non-technical business, governmental, and foreground. Leadership Program The Leadership Program is designed for community and industry leaders with an

  14. Modeling of Future Initial Teacher of Foreign Language Training, Using Situation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryana М. Sidun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the content of modeling of future initial teacher of foreign language, using situation analysis, defines the stages of modeling during the professional competence formation of future teacher of foreign language: preparatory, analytical and executive.

  15. Dynamical Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huimin

    The following sections are included: * Definition of Dynamical Languages * Distinct Excluded Blocks * Definition and Properties * L and L″ in Chomsky Hierarchy * A Natural Equivalence Relation * Symbolic Flows * Symbolic Flows and Dynamical Languages * Subshifts of Finite Type * Sofic Systems * Graphs and Dynamical Languages * Graphs and Shannon-Graphs * Transitive Languages * Topological Entropy

  16. Language Choice and Language Policies in Filipino-Malaysian Families in Multilingual Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanig, Francisco Perlas; David, Maya Khemlani; Shanmuganathan, Thilagavathi

    2013-01-01

    Personal, social, cultural, economic, and political factors influence the language/s used by family members in the home domain. This study examines how family language policies are planned and developed in Filipino-Malaysian families in Malaysia. The language used at home in such mixed or exogamous marriages is also influenced by the ethnicity of…

  17. Safe robot execution in model-based reinforcement learning

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Martínez, David; Alenyà Ribas, Guillem; Torras, Carme

    2015-01-01

    Task learning in robotics requires repeatedly executing the same actions in different states to learn the model of the task. However, in real-world domains, there are usually sequences of actions that, if executed, may produce unrecoverable errors (e.g. breaking an object). Robots should avoid repeating such errors when learning, and thus explore the state space in a more intelligent way. This requires identifying dangerous action effects to avoid including such actions in the generated plans...

  18. Introduction - language planning: where have we been? where might we be going? Introdução - planejamento linguístico: onde estivemos? para onde poderíamos ir?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Baldauf Jr

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief overview of the development and state of language policy and planning and examines some of the directions that language planners have been taking to engage with issues of importance to their discipline. The papers in this volume of RBLA are linked to the overview and the directions being taken by scholars in the field.Este artigo apresenta um panorama do desenvolvimento e do estado da área de políticas e planejamento linguístico e examina algumas das direções que seus praticantes têm tomado para engajar-se com questões relevantespara sua disciplina. Os artigos deste volume daRBLA são vinculados com tal panorama e com as direções tomadas pelos pesquisadores da área.

  19. Working Memory Capacity and Language Processes in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Klara; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the interaction between working memory and language comprehension in children with specific language impairment (SLI), focusing on the function of the central executive component and its interaction with the phonological loop (A. D. Baddeley, 1986) in complex working memory tasks. Thirteen children with SLI and 13 age-matched…

  20. Integrating deductive verification and symbolic execution for abstract object creation in dynamic logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); F.S. de Boer (Frank); W. Ahrendt (Wolfgang); R. Bubel (Richard)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe present a fully abstract weakest precondition calculus and its integration with symbolic execution. Our assertion language allows both specifying and verifying properties of objects at the abstraction level of the programming language, abstracting from a specific implementation of

  1. China's SOE Executives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik; Hubbard, Paul; Cai, Guilong

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on a database tracking the career of 1,250 top Chinese executives from 1,084 publicly-listed state-owned enterprises (SOEs), this article analyzes differences in career incentives for subsidiaries controlled by the central government compared to those controlled by local governments. It a...... of promotion. However, in the case of central SOE subsidiaries, leaders are more likely to be promoted based on financial performance. For both central and local 'direct' SOE groups age is a significant negative factor for promotion, whereas tenure is a significant positive factor....

  2. Questionnaire-based assessment of executive functioning: Case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberger, William G; Castellanos, Irina; Pisoni, David B

    2018-01-01

    Delays in the development of executive functioning skills are frequently observed in pediatric neuropsychology populations and can have a broad and significant impact on quality of life. As a result, assessment of executive functioning is often relevant for the development of formulations and recommendations in pediatric neuropsychology clinical work. Questionnaire-based measures of executive functioning behaviors in everyday life have unique advantages and complement traditional neuropsychological measures of executive functioning. Two case studies of children with spina bifida are presented to illustrate the clinical use of a new questionnaire measure of executive and learning-related functioning, the Learning, Executive, and Attention Functioning Scale (LEAF). The LEAF emphasizes clinical utility in assessment by incorporating four characteristics: brevity in administration, breadth of additional relevant content, efficiency of scoring and interpretation, and ease of availability for use. LEAF results were consistent with another executive functioning checklist in documenting everyday behavior problems related to working memory, planning, and organization while offering additional breadth of assessment of domains such as attention, processing speed, and novel problem-solving. These case study results demonstrate the clinical utility of questionnaire-based measurement of executive functioning in pediatric neuropsychology and provide a new measure for accomplishing this goal.

  3. Conditional Epistemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; Jensen, Martin Holm

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has shown that Dynamic Epistemic Logic (DEL) offers a solid foundation for automated planning under partial observability and non-determinism. Under such circumstances, a plan must branch if it is to guarantee achieving the goal under all contingencies (strong planning). Without...... branching, plans can offer only the possibility of achieving the goal (weak planning). We show how to formulate planning in uncertain domains using DEL and give a language of conditional plans. Translating this language to standard DEL gives verification of both strong and weak plans via model checking....... In addition to plan verification, we provide a tableau-inspired algorithm for synthesising plans, and show this algorithm to be terminating, sound and complete....

  4. Graphical Language for Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphonso, Keith

    2011-01-01

    A graphical language for processing data allows processing elements to be connected with virtual wires that represent data flows between processing modules. The processing of complex data, such as lidar data, requires many different algorithms to be applied. The purpose of this innovation is to automate the processing of complex data, such as LIDAR, without the need for complex scripting and programming languages. The system consists of a set of user-interface components that allow the user to drag and drop various algorithmic and processing components onto a process graph. By working graphically, the user can completely visualize the process flow and create complex diagrams. This innovation supports the nesting of graphs, such that a graph can be included in another graph as a single step for processing. In addition to the user interface components, the system includes a set of .NET classes that represent the graph internally. These classes provide the internal system representation of the graphical user interface. The system includes a graph execution component that reads the internal representation of the graph (as described above) and executes that graph. The execution of the graph follows the interpreted model of execution in that each node is traversed and executed from the original internal representation. In addition, there are components that allow external code elements, such as algorithms, to be easily integrated into the system, thus making the system infinitely expandable.

  5. Who Studies Which Language and Why? : A Cross-Language Survey of First-Year College-Level Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M. Howard

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on surveys of first-year language learners studying 19 different languages at two large East Coast Universities. The survey included questions about why students decided to study these languages, including career plans, study abroad, interest in liter-ature and culture, desire to communicate with speakers of the lan-guage, desire to speak with family members, building on previous language skills, and love of languages in general. Results were broken down by language and by language types, such as whether the lan-guages were commonly taught in the United States, how the lan-guages are politicized in the current historical context, and how the languages intersect with historical and geographic trends in immigra-tion and immigration policy. This article examines in particular the presence of heritage language learners in these language classrooms, the varying reasons that students choose to study these languages, and students’ prior attainment and exposure to the language. The pa-per discusses the political, historical, and social contexts of language study in the United States and the associated implications for effec-tive language recruitment and effective language program design.

  6. Gender Issues in Language Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on recent work in variationist sociolinguistics, sociology of language and linguistic anthropology, focuses on new approaches to explaining gender differentiated patterns of sound change and language shift, the success or failure of planned linguistic reforms, and changes in the social evaluation of gendered speech styles. (Author/VWL)

  7. The Qur’anic Language in a Linguistic Perspective: The Language Engineering Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Akram A.M. Sa‘Adeddin

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to draw a plan for developing curricula for teaching the Qur’anic Language at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM. The article is in four sections. The first offers an overview of Language Engineering, the language profile in Malaysia, the Qur 'anic Language teaching situation at IIUM, and the conditions for competent Corpus Planning. The second discusses the significance of the Qur’anic Language, and the Islamic semantic affinity between the Qur’anic Language and Bahasa Melayu. The third focuses on the implications of the Qur’anic language Corpus Planning for language teachers, materials writers and curriculum designers. The fourth briefly introduces our theory of interpretive reading, goes on to apply it to an active reading of sūratu likhlās, and considers the implications of this type of reading for the Qur’anic Language syllabus design.

  8. A Process for Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurowitz, William D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes how Division of Campus Life at Cornell University conducted long-range planning and the results of its 2-year effort. Explains 2 (strategic and organizational) by 3 (diagnosis, formulation, and execution) matrix providing systems view from describing and evaluating long-range planning. Presents 10-step process implemented at Cornell. (NB)

  9. Creating a Marketing Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevier, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    A guide to developing a college marketing plan defines key marketing terms, outlines the development of a plan (including institutional analysis, market research, strategy formation and execution, and program evaluation), and provides a list of important principles with which to operate a program. (MSE)

  10. Getting the right grasp on executive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia L R Gonzalez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Executive Function (EF refers to important socio-emotional and cognitive skills that are known to be highly correlated with both academic and life success. EF is a blanket term that is considered to include self-regulation, working memory, and planning. Recent studies have shown a relationship between EF and motor control. The emergence of motor control coincides with that of EF, hence understanding the relationship between these two domains could have significant implications for early detection and remediation of later EF deficits. The purpose of the current study was to investigate this relationship in young children. This study incorporated the Behavioural Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF and two motor assessments with a focus on precision grasping to test this hypothesis. The BRIEF is comprised of two indices of EF: 1 the Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI containing three subscales: Inhibit, Shift, and Emotional Control; 2 the Metacognition Index (MI containing five subscales: Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, Organization of Materials, and Monitor. A global executive composite (GEC is derived from the two indices. In this study, right-handed children aged 5-6 and 9-10 were asked to: grasp-to-construct (Lego® models; and grasp-to-place (wooden blocks, while their parents completed the BRIEF questionnaire. Analysis of results indicated significant correlations between the strength of right hand preference for grasping and numerous elements of the BRIEF including the BRI, MI, and GEC. Specifically, the more the right hand was used for grasping the better the EF ratings. In addition, patterns of space-use correlated with the GEC in several subscales of the BRIEF. Finally and remarkably, the results also showed a reciprocal relationship between hand and space use for grasping and EF. These findings are discussed with respect to: 1 the developmental overlap of motor and executive functions; 2 detection of EF deficits through

  11. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  12. Build and Execute Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-21

    At exascale, the challenge becomes to develop applications that run at scale and use exascale platforms reliably, efficiently, and flexibly. Workflows become much more complex because they must seamlessly integrate simulation and data analytics. They must include down-sampling, post-processing, feature extraction, and visualization. Power and data transfer limitations require these analysis tasks to be run in-situ or in-transit. We expect successful workflows will comprise multiple linked simulations along with tens of analysis routines. Users will have limited development time at scale and, therefore, must have rich tools to develop, debug, test, and deploy applications. At this scale, successful workflows will compose linked computations from an assortment of reliable, well-defined computation elements, ones that can come and go as required, based on the needs of the workflow over time. We propose a novel framework that utilizes both virtual machines (VMs) and software containers to create a workflow system that establishes a uniform build and execution environment (BEE) beyond the capabilities of current systems. In this environment, applications will run reliably and repeatably across heterogeneous hardware and software. Containers, both commercial (Docker and Rocket) and open-source (LXC and LXD), define a runtime that isolates all software dependencies from the machine operating system. Workflows may contain multiple containers that run different operating systems, different software, and even different versions of the same software. We will run containers in open-source virtual machines (KVM) and emulators (QEMU) so that workflows run on any machine entirely in user-space. On this platform of containers and virtual machines, we will deliver workflow software that provides services, including repeatable execution, provenance, checkpointing, and future proofing. We will capture provenance about how containers were launched and how they interact to annotate

  13. Guidelines for Automation Project Execution

    OpenAIRE

    Takkinen, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this Master’s thesis was to create instructions for executing an automation project. Sarlin Oy Ab needed directions on how to execute an automation project. Sarlin is starting up a new business area offering total project solutions for customers. Sarlin focuses on small and minor automation projects on domestic markets. The thesis represents issues related to project execution starting from the theory of the project to its kick-off and termination. Site work is one importan...

  14. Code-Switching in the Primary Classroom: One Response to the Planned and the Unplanned Language Environment in Brunei [and] A Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter W.; Espiritu, Clemencia C

    1996-01-01

    Examines how the teacher incorporates elements of both "Bahasa Melayu" and Brunei Malay into content lessons and views code switching in the primary classroom within the wider framework of community language norms and the linguistic pressures on students and teachers. Espiritu shares Martin's concern regarding the quantity and quality of…

  15. Planeamiento de la unidad didactica en le ensenanza del ingles como idioma extranjero (Planning the Teaching Unit in the Instruction of English as a Foreign Language).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina T., Rene

    1971-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the teaching unit as a means for organization in English-as-a-foreign-language classes. It lists the essential elements in the construction of such a unit: cultural topic, linguistic elements, time period, main objectives, instructional materials, focus, specific activities, intended results, evaluation techniques,…

  16. Planned experiments and corpus based research play a complementary role. Comment on "Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasishth, Shravan

    2017-07-01

    This interesting and informative review by Liu and colleagues [17] in this issue covers the full spectrum of research on the idea that in natural language, dependency distance tends to be small. The authors discuss two distinct research threads: experimental work from psycholinguistics on online processes in comprehension and production, and text-corpus studies of dependency length distributions.

  17. Executable Use Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens Bæk; Bossen, Claus

    2004-01-01

    and into the work processes they're to support. However, prototypes typically provide an explicit representation only of the system itself. Executable use cases, on the other hand, can also describe the environment. EUCs are designed to: narrow the gap between informal ideas about requirements and the formalization...... modeling. This article describes a case study in which developers used EUCs to prototype an electronic patient record system for hospitals in Aarhus, Denmark.......Many software experts argue that when we design a new system, we should create an explicit description of the environment in which the proposed system is to be used. The argument becomes crucial for pervasive computing, which aims to tightly integrate systems into their environments...

  18. Development and content validity of the CENA Program for Educational Training on the Neuropsychology of Learning, with an emphasis on executive functions and attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pureza, Janice R.; Fonseca, Rochele P.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The importance of executive functions (EF) in childhood development, and their role as indicators of health, well-being, professional and academic success have been demonstrated by several studies in the literature. FE are cognitive processes that aim to control and manage behavior to achieve specific goal and included skills planning, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, (executive) attention and the central executive component of working memory (WM). In the context of education, the EF are crucial for continued learning and efficient academic performance due to their involvement in several components of the educational process. Objective The aim of this article was to describe the development and content validity of the CENA Program for Educational Training on the Neuropsychology of Learning, with an emphasis on executive functions and attention. Methods The study involved seven specialists (four responsible for evaluating the program, and three involved in brainstorming), and was carried out in three stages: Background research: neuropsychology and education; Program development - author brainstorming and Evaluation by expert judges The goals, language and methods. Results CENA Program were considered adequate, attesting to its content validity as a school-based neuropsychological intervention. Conclusion Teacher training in school neuropsychology may be an important area for future investment and contribute to academic achievement and student development in the Brazilian education system. PMID:29213497

  19. Executive Orders-Barack Obama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — Executive orders are official documents, numbered consecutively, through which the President of the United States manages the operations of the Federal Government....

  20. Two executives, one career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Cynthia R; Murray, Shelley S

    2005-02-01

    For six years, Cynthia Cunningham and Shelley Murray shared an executive job at Fleet Bank. One desk, one chair, one computer, one telephone, and one voice-mail account. To their clients and colleagues, they were effectively one person, though one person with the strengths and ideas of two, seamlessly handing projects back and forth. Although their department was dissolved after the bank merged with Bank of America, the two continue to consider themselves a package-they have one resume, and they are seeking their next opportunity together. Their choice to share a job was not only a quality-of-life decision but one intended to keep their careers on course: "Taking two separate part-time jobs would have thrown us completely off track" they write in this first-person account."We're both ambitious people, and neither of us wanted just a job. We wanted careers" In this article, the two highly motivated women reveal their determination to manage the demands of both family and career. Flextime,telecommuting, and compressed workweeks are just some of the options open to executives seeking greater work/ life balance, and the job share, as described by Cunningham and Murray, could well be the next solution for those wishing to avoid major trade-offs between their personal and professional lives. Cunningham and Murray describe in vivid detail how they structured their unusual arrangement, how they sold themselves to management, and the hurdles they faced along the way. Theirs is a win-win story, for the company and for them.