WorldWideScience

Sample records for plains

  1. Utopia Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    5 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dark-toned, cratered plain in southwest Utopia Planitia. Large, light-toned, windblown ripples reside on the floors of many of the depressions in the scene, including a long, linear, trough. Location near: 30.3oN, 255.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  2. The Plains of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic plains units of various types comprise at least 80% of the surface of Venus. Though devoid of topographic splendor and, therefore often overlooked, these plains units house a spectacular array of volcanic, tectonic, and impact features. Here I propose that the plains hold the keys to understanding the resurfacing history of Venus and resolving the global stratigraphy debate. The quasi-random distribution of impact craters and the small number that have been conspicuously modified from the outside by plains-forming volcanism have led some to propose that Venus was catastrophically resurfaced around 725×375 Ma with little volcanism since. Challenges, however, hinge on interpretations of certain morphological characteristics of impact craters: For instance, Venusian impact craters exhibit either radar dark (smooth) floor deposits or bright, blocky floors. Bright floor craters (BFC) are typically 100-400 m deeper than dark floor craters (DFC). Furthermore, all 58 impact craters with ephemeral bright ejecta rays and/or distal parabolic ejecta patterns have bright floor deposits. This suggests that BFCs are younger, on average, than DFCs. These observations suggest that DFCs could be partially filled with lava during plains emplacement and, therefore, are not strictly younger than the plains units as widely held. Because the DFC group comprises ~80% of the total crater population on Venus the recalculated emplacement age of the plains would be ~145 Ma if DFCs are indeed volcanically modified during plains formation. Improved image and topographic data are required to measure stratigraphic and morphometric relationships and resolve this issue. Plains units are also home to an abundant and diverse set of volcanic features including steep-sided domes, shield fields, isolated volcanoes, collapse features and lava channels, some of which extend for 1000s of kilometers. The inferred viscosity range of plains-forming lavas, therefore, is immense, ranging from the

  3. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  4. Tietkens Plain karst - Maralinga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, J.M.

    1988-09-01

    The Tietkens Plain karst is located to the north of Maralinga village which is on the crest of the Ooldea Range on the north and east margin of the Nullarbor Plain in western South Australia. The geology of the carbonate rocks in the Maralinga area is summarised. On Tietkens Plain from 1955 to 1963 nuclear weapons tests dispersed radioactive materials over the Maralinga area. Six nuclear devices were detonated in the air and one was exploded a few metres below the surface. The effect such explosions have on the karst and the possible rate of recovery of its surface are discussed. This report is the record of a visit to the Maralinga area from the 15th -21st November 1986 which involved an inspection of the karst surface together with collection of water, soil and rock samples. Results of the measurements made in order to assess water quality and water contamination by radioactive nuclides are presented. The implications arising from the presence of radioactive materials on the surface and the possibility of their entering and contaminating the groundwater in the area are discussed in the context of the chemistry of uranium and plutonium. The potential for transmission of contaminants through groundwater conduits and aquifers in the dolomite is discussed. Evidence is produced to show that the caves of the Nullabor Plain are not contaminated at present and are unlikely to be so in the future. 21 refs., 2 figs. 3 tabs., ills

  5. Woodville Karst Plain, North Florida

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Map showing the largest mapped underwater cave systems and conduit flow paths confirmed by tracer testing relative to surface streams, sinkholes and potentiometric surface of the Florida aquifer in the Woodville Karst Plain, Florida

  6. Plain formation on Mercury: tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1980-01-01

    Four major plain units, plus intermediates, are distinguished on Mercury. The chronologic relationships between these plains indicate that plains formation was a permanent process on Mercury. Their location and morphology seem to indicate a possible volcanic origin for these plains. The relationships between tectonism and volcanism seems to indicate the global contraction is not the only tectonic process on Mercury. (Auth.)

  7. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to the...

  8. Changes in plain bearing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Koring, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    A unique fusion of theoretical and practical knowledge, Changes in Plain Bearing Technology, by Rolf Koring, covers a meaningful range of expertise in this field.Drawing from years of experience in design development, materials selection, and their correlation to real-life part failure, this title, co-published by SAE International and expert Verlag (Germany), concentrates on hydrodynamic bearings lined with white metals, also known as Babbits.Written under the assumption that even the most mature body of knowledge can be revisited and improved, Changes in Plain Bearing Technology is a courageous and focused approach to questioning accepted test results and looking at alternative material compounds, and their application suitability.The process, which leads to innovative answers on how the technology is transforming itself to respond to new market requirements, shows how interdisciplinary thinking can recognize new potential in long-established industrial modus operandi.Tackling the highly complex issue of co...

  9. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  10. Climate variability and Great Plains agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Katz, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The ways in which inhabitants of the Great Plains, including Indians, early settlers, and 20th century farmers, have adapted to climate changes on the Great Plains are explored. The climate of the Great Plains, because of its variability and extremes, can be very stressful to plants, animals and people. It is suggested that agriculture and society on the Great Plains have, during the last century, become less vulnerable to the stresses imposed by climate. Opinions as to the sustainability of agriculture on the Great Plains vary substantially. Lockeretz (1981) suggests that large scale, high cost technologies have stressed farmers by creating surpluses and by requiring large investments. Opie (1989) sees irrigation as a climate substitute, however he stresses that the Ogallala aquifer must inevitably become depleted. Deborah and Frank Popper (1987) believe that farming on the Plains is unsustainable, and destruction of shelterbelts, out-migration of the rural population and environmental problems will lead to total collapse. With global warming, water in the Great Plains is expected to become scarcer, and although improvements in irrigation efficiency may slow depletion of the Ogallala aquifer, ultimately the acreage under irrigation must decrease to levels that can be sustained by natural recharge and reliable surface flows. 23 refs., 2 figs

  11. Seismic echo character northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreery, C.J.; Laine, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Latest efforts in echo-character mapping of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain have discerned variations in thickness in a near-surface sedimentary sequence which has been designated seismic unit A. This unit probably represents the last episode of progradation of the Hatteras Deep Sea Fan in the southern part of the study area, and has infilled probable paleochannels from the Wilmington Canyon and Sohm Gap in the north. Unit A thins to a minimum in the central part of the plain, where older sediments come within 1 meter of the surface. Variations in the character of the surface reflector probably represent differing degrees of microtopography developed on a Late Pleistocene surface overlain by Holocene sediments. With the exception of one area identified as a relict surface outcropping in the western plain, this microtopography seems related to present-day thalweg locations on the abyssal plain. 11 references, 13 figures

  12. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  13. flexural improvement of plain concrete beams strengthened

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muhammad Nura Isa

    Results show significant improvement in both stiffness and load bearing capacity of plain concrete ... Various methods have been developed to increase their strength capacity by using .... obtained by carrying out uniaxial direct tensile strength.

  14. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa | Cornelius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defining the concept 'plain language' has been hugely problematic since the origins of the socalled Plain Language Movement in the 1970s in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Definitions of 'plain language' abound, yet James (2008: 6) warns, in relation to plain language practitioners, that “we can't yet call ...

  15. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR...

  16. Stratigraphy of the Martian northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars are roughly defined as the large continuous region of lowlands that lies below Martian datum, plus higher areas within the region that were built up by volcanism, sedimentation, tectonism, and impacts. These northern lowlands span about 50 x 10(exp 6) km(sup 2) or 35 percent of the planet's surface. The age and origin of the lowlands continue to be debated by proponents of impact and tectonic explanations. Geologic mapping and topical studies indicate that volcanic, fluvial, and eolian deposition have played major roles in the infilling of this vast depression. Periglacial, glacial, fluvial, eolian, tectonic, and impact processes have locally modified the surface. Because of the northern plains' complex history of sedimentation and modification, much of their stratigraphy was obscured. Thus the stratigraphy developed is necessarily vague and provisional: it is based on various clues from within the lowlands as well as from highland areas within and bordering the plains. The results are summarized.

  17. Coastal geomorphology of the Martian northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Saunders, Stephen R.; Pieri, David C.; Schneeberger, Dale M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers the question of the formation of the outflow channels and valley networks discovered on the Martian northern plains during the Mariner 9 mission. Parker and Saunders (1987) and Parker et al. (1987, 1989) data are used to describe key features common both in the lower reaches of the outflow channels and within and along the margins of the entire northern plains. It is suggested, that of the geological processes capable of producing similar morphologies on earth, lacustrine or marine deposition and subsequent periglacial modification offer the simplest and most consistent explanation for the suit of features found on Mars.

  18. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    dimensions that are “characteristically human [and take the form of] the logical, the historical, ... the philosopher Cicero (James 2008: 3), are still important in plain language work: invention ... databases, help files, content management systems, etc., that essentially serve the same ...... From a talent to a scientific discipline.

  19. Porosity Prediction of Plain Weft Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Owais Raza Siddiqui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wearing comfort of clothing is dependent on air permeability, moisture absorbency and wicking properties of fabric, which are related to the porosity of fabric. In this work, a plug-in is developed using Python script and incorporated in Abaqus/CAE for the prediction of porosity of plain weft knitted fabrics. The Plug-in is able to automatically generate 3D solid and multifilament weft knitted fabric models and accurately determine the porosity of fabrics in two steps. In this work, plain weft knitted fabrics made of monofilament, multifilament and spun yarn made of staple fibers were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the developed plug-in. In the case of staple fiber yarn, intra yarn porosity was considered in the calculation of porosity. The first step is to develop a 3D geometrical model of plain weft knitted fabric and the second step is to calculate the porosity of the fabric by using the geometrical parameter of 3D weft knitted fabric model generated in step one. The predicted porosity of plain weft knitted fabric is extracted in the second step and is displayed in the message area. The predicted results obtained from the plug-in have been compared with the experimental results obtained from previously developed models; they agreed well.

  20. Necrotizing fasciitis : plain radiographic and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Dae; Park, Jeong Hee; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Lim, Jong Nam; Heo, Tae Haeng; Park, Dong Rib [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate the plain radiographic and CT findings of the necrotizing fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic findings of 4 cases with necrotizing fasciitis. Three cases were proven pathologically. We evaluated pattern and extent of the gas shadows in plain films. CT findings were analysed, with emphasis on : (a) gas pattern, (b) extent, (c) location and involved site, (d) associated focal abscess, and (e) swelling of the adjacent muscles. On plain radiographs, four cases showed streaky or mottled gas densities in the pelvis, three cases in the perineum, one case in the abdomen, and two cases in the thigh. On CT images, gas pattern was mottled and streaky appearance with swelling of the adjacent muscles. Gas shadows located in the extraperitoneal space in four cases, fascial layer in four cases, and subcutaneous layer in four cases. There were gas shadows in pelvic wall, perineum, abdominal wall, buttock, thigh, and scrotum. Focal low density lesion suggestive of focal abscess was not visualized. Plain radiography is useful for early diagnosis of the necrotizing fasciitis and CT is very useful for detection of precise location and extent of the disease. CT is also useful for differentiation of necrotizing fasciitis from focal abscess and cellulitis.

  1. Cardiac Arrest Following Spinal Anaesthesia With Plain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year old woman who was admitted for an elective caesarean section. After preoperative evaluation and premedication she received a spinal anaesthesia in the L3-4 interspace with plain bupivacaine 0.5%. After being replaced in the supine ...

  2. Radiocesium in wheat of the Po plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.; Malvicini, A.

    1988-01-01

    The Cs-137 measurements of many wheat samples, which was cultivated in Po plain during 1986 and 1987, are reported. A relationship is also shown between the quantity of Cs-137, which is contained in total fall-out, and that in the wheat by direct deposition

  3. Second chance for the plains bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Curtis H.; Aune, K.; Boyd, D.; Derr, James N.; Forrest, Steven C.; Gates, C. Cormack; Gogan, Peter J.; Grassel, Shaun M.; Halbert, Natalie D.; Kunkel, Kyran; Redford, Kent

    2007-01-01

    Before European settlement the plains bison (Bison bison bison) numbered in the tens of millions across most of the temperate region of North America. Within the span of a few decades during the mid- to late-1800s its numbers were reduced by hunting and other factors to a few hundred. The plight of the plains bison led to one of the first major movements in North America to save an endangered species. A few individuals and the American Bison Society rescued the remaining animals. Attempts to hybridize cattle and bison when bison numbers were low resulted in extensive cattle gene introgression in bison. Today, though approximately 500,000 plains bison exist in North America, few are free of cattle gene introgression, 96% are subject to anthropogenic selection for commodity production, and only 4% are in herds managed primarily for conservation purposes. Small herd size, artificial selection, cattle-gene introgression, and other factors threaten the diversity and integrity of the bison genome. In addition, the bison is for all practical purposes ecologically extinct across its former range, with multiple consequences for grassland biodiversity. Urgent measures are needed to conserve the wild bison genome and to restore the ecological role of bison in grassland ecosystems. Socioeconomic trends in the Great Plains, combined with new information about bison conservation needs and new conservation initiatives by both the public and public sectors, have set the stage for significant progress in bison conservation over the next few years.

  4. Great plains regional climate assessment technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Plains region (GP) plays important role in providing food and energy to the economy of the United States. Multiple climatic and non-climatic stressors put multiple sectors, livelihoods and communities at risk, including agriculture, water, ecosystems and rural and tribal communities. The G...

  5. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and bearing...

  6. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... user how alternative land use decisions may affect the aquatic and terrestial ecosystems, human safety... Flood-plain management. Through proper planning, flood plains can be managed to reduce the threat to... encourages sound flood-plain management decisions by land users. (a) Policy—(1) General. NRCS provides...

  7. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing. 215.111 Section 215.111... § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has a plain bearing— (a) That is missing, cracked, or broken; (b) On which the bearing liner— (1) Is...

  8. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not located...

  9. Plains Energy Services Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Plains Energy Services Ltd. (Plains) is a two year old public company in the oil and gas service industry. It provides an integrated pool of services, concentrating on the life cycle of oil and gas wells as the driver for its expansion. Although the industry saw a marked decrease in well drilling activity for 1998, Plains was able to sustain a consistent income and cash flow because of its focus on ensuring access to the well during drilling, completion, production and abandonment. For 1998, revenue reached a record $93.3 million, an 85 per cent increase over 1997. This report presented Plain's major achievements for 1998. These included the completed construction of a technical, machining and manufacturing facility to enhance the development and implementation of technology and equipment among all business units. The company also introduced coiled tubing drilling services in the North American marketplace, as well as the first commercial version of a casing inspection tool. Plain's also introduced production logging through their wireline services business and applied for four new patents in relation to downhole tool development. In 1998, the company consolidated their operations into four divisions including consolidation of administration, benefits, banking and related overhead services. This report also described the company's efforts in addressing the year 2000 challenge. The company's consolidated financial statements were presented for the benefit of shareholders. These included statements of earnings and deficit, balance sheets, as well as statements of changes in financial position. Notes to the consolidated financial statements included highlights of significant accounting policies, changes in accounting policies, acquisitions, discontinued operations, and capital assets. tabs., figs

  10. Chenier plain development: feedbacks between waves, mud and sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardin, W.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Cheniers are sandy ridges parallel to the coast established by high energy waves. Here we discuss Chenier plains ontogeny through dimensional analysis and numerical results from the morphodynamic model Delft3D-SWAN. Our results show that wave energy and shelf slope play an important role in the formation of Chenier plains. In our numerical experiments waves affect Chenier plain development in three ways: by winnowing sediment from the mudflat, by eroding mud and accumulating sand over the beach during extreme wave events. We further show that different sediment characteristics and wave climates can lead to three alternative coastal landscapes: strand plains, mudflats, or the more complex Chenier plains. Low inner-shelf slopes are the most favorable for strand plain and Chenier plain formation, while high slopes decrease the likelihood of mudflat development and preservation.

  11. Genetics, medicine, and the Plain people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kevin A; Puffenberger, Erik G

    2009-01-01

    The Old Order Amish and Old Order Mennonite populations of Pennsylvania are descended from Swiss Anabaptist immigrants who came to the New World in the early eighteenth century. Today they live in many small endogamous demes across North America. Genetically, these demes have dissimilar allele frequencies and disease spectra owing to unique founders. Biological and social aspects of Old Order communities make them ideal for studies in population genetics and genomic medicine, and over the last 40 years, advances in genomic science coincided with investigational studies in Plain populations. Newer molecular genetic technologies are sufficiently informative, rapid, and flexible to use in a clinical setting, and we have successfully integrated these tools into a rural pediatric practice. Our studies with the Pennsylvania Plain communities show that population-specific genetic knowledge provides a powerful framework in which to prevent disease, reduce medical costs, and create new insights into human biology.

  12. Ages of plains volcanism on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Ernst; Jagert, Felix; Broz, Petr

    2010-05-01

    Plain-style volcanism [1] is widespread in the Tharsis and Elysium volcanic provinces on Mars, [2,3]. Detailed images and topographic data reveal the morphology and topography of clusters of low shields and associated lava flows. The landforms of plains volcanism on Mars have all well-known terrestrial analogues in basaltic volcanic regions, such as Hawaii, Iceland, and in particular the Snake River Plains [4]. The very gentle flank slopes (J. (1981) Icarus, 45, 586-601. [3] Hodges C.A. and Moore H.J. (1994) Atlas of volcanic features on Mars: USGS Prof. Paper 1534, 194 p. [4] Hauber E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 69-95. [5] Wilson L. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 28-46. [6] Vaucher, J. et al. (2009) Icarus 204, 418-442. [7] Baratoux D. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 47-68. [8] Bleacher J.E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 96-102. [9] Ivanov B.A. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 87-104. [10] Hartmann W.H. and Neukum G. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 165-194 [11] Kneissl T. et al. (2010) LPS XVI, submitted. [12] Michael, G.G. and Neukum G. (2010) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., in press. . [13] Malin M.C. et al. (2007) JGR 112, E05S04, doi: 10.1029/2006JE002808.

  13. Radiocarbon dating of sediment cores from Hachinohe, the Kamikita Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitoki, Eri; Nakamura, Toshio; Matsumoto, Yui; Tsuji, Sei-ichiro; Fujine, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated stratigraphy and chronology by analyses of Holocene sediments and radiocarbon dating of sediment cores from the Kamikita Plain. On the Kamikita Plain, which faces the Pacific coast of Northeast Japan, marine and fluvial terraces covered with tephras derived from Towada and Hakkoda volcanoes are well developed. We clarified that Towada Chuseri tephra and fluvial deposits consisted of volcanic sediments influenced an alluvial depositional system in the Kamikita Plain after a maximum of the Jomon Transgression. (author)

  14. Hyperdensity liver tumor on plain CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Shozo; Hanaguri, Katsuro [Kochi Municipal Central Hospital (Japan); Shimizu, Masahumi; Sako, Masao; Harada, Yasushi

    1984-12-01

    Most liver tumors on plain CT have been recognized as low density or iso-density masses. Sometimes calcified high density masses were shown on plain CT in case of cysts or metastatic liver tumors. However, hyperdensity mass of the liver on CT, of which the density was a little higher than surrounding tissues, was very rare. Recently 7 patients with hyperdensity liver masses on plain CT were experienced: 6 hepatocellular carcinomas and 1 hepatic cavernous hemangioma. A single hyperdensity mass was shown in 4 patients, a hyperdensity mass of multiple hepatic tumors was shown in 2 patients, and some hyperdensity masses of multiple hepatic tumors were shown in 1 patient. Lesions are classified in 3 types according to the appearance of hyperdensity masses: diffuse hyperdensity all over the mass, ring like hyperdensity, creascent like hyperdensity. Intravenous contrast enhancement was performed in 2 patients: one with a primary hepatocellular carcinoma, and another with a hepatic cavernous hemangioma. In the former case the tumor margin had changed unclear, in the latter case the tumor was markedly enhanced. Our results revealed that hyperdensity liver tumors were divided into 2 types: One type, shown in a cavernous hemangioma with fatty liver, demonstrated relative hyperdensity due to lower density of the surrounding tissue. Another type, shown in 6 hepatocellular carcinomas, showed hyperdensity since the density of the tumor was hyperdensity relative to the surrounding tissue of the liver. It was suggested that the tumor with the latter type had been strongly probable of malignant one, and been recommended to receive further examination. Cause of hyperdensity was thought to be due to hemorrhage, though microcalcification could not be denyed. In Japan, no hyperdensity liver tumor had been reported partly due to a wide window width with which CT photographs were taken.

  15. Precipitation Dynamical Downscaling Over the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Ming; Xue, Ming; McPherson, Renee A.; Martin, Elinor; Rosendahl, Derek H.; Qiao, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Detailed, regional climate projections, particularly for precipitation, are critical for many applications. Accurate precipitation downscaling in the United States Great Plains remains a great challenge for most Regional Climate Models, particularly for warm months. Most previous dynamic downscaling simulations significantly underestimate warm-season precipitation in the region. This study aims to achieve a better precipitation downscaling in the Great Plains with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. To this end, WRF simulations with different physics schemes and nudging strategies are first conducted for a representative warm season. Results show that different cumulus schemes lead to more pronounced difference in simulated precipitation than other tested physics schemes. Simply choosing different physics schemes is not enough to alleviate the dry bias over the southern Great Plains, which is related to an anticyclonic circulation anomaly over the central and western parts of continental U.S. in the simulations. Spectral nudging emerges as an effective solution for alleviating the precipitation bias. Spectral nudging ensures that large and synoptic-scale circulations are faithfully reproduced while still allowing WRF to develop small-scale dynamics, thus effectively suppressing the large-scale circulation anomaly in the downscaling. As a result, a better precipitation downscaling is achieved. With the carefully validated configurations, WRF downscaling is conducted for 1980-2015. The downscaling captures well the spatial distribution of monthly climatology precipitation and the monthly/yearly variability, showing improvement over at least two previously published precipitation downscaling studies. With the improved precipitation downscaling, a better hydrological simulation over the trans-state Oologah watershed is also achieved.

  16. Plain film diagnosis of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.V. Jr.; Torres, W.E.; Clements, J.L. Jr.; Gedgaudas-McClees, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    One of the first examinations obtained routinely in abdominal radiography is the plain radiograph of the abdomen. The liver occupies anywhere from 15 to 30 percent of the area on such examinations. Thus, it is important to pay particular attention to the region of the liver and obtain as much information as possible from these films. The purpose of this chapter is to review the normal radiographic anatomy and pathology. Also, pathologic calcifications, gas collections, unusual collections of fat, and the systemic manifestations of hepatic disease are discussed within this chapter

  17. Creep of plain weave polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhishek

    Polymer matrix composites are increasingly used in various industrial sectors to reduce structural weight and improve performance. Woven (also known as textile) composites are one class of polymer matrix composites with increasing market share mostly due to their lightweight, their flexibility to form into desired shape, their mechanical properties and toughness. Due to the viscoelasticity of the polymer matrix, time-dependent degradation in modulus (creep) and strength (creep rupture) are two of the major mechanical properties required by engineers to design a structure reliably when using these materials. Unfortunately, creep and creep rupture of woven composites have received little attention by the research community and thus, there is a dire need to generate additional knowledge and prediction models, given the increasing market share of woven composites in load bearing structural applications. Currently, available creep models are limited in scope and have not been validated for any loading orientation and time period beyond the experimental time window. In this thesis, an analytical creep model, namely the Modified Equivalent Laminate Model (MELM), was developed to predict tensile creep of plain weave composites for any orientation of the load with respect to the orientation of the fill and warp fibers, using creep of unidirectional composites. The ability of the model to predict creep for any orientation of the load is a "first" in this area. The model was validated using an extensive experimental involving the tensile creep of plain weave composites under varying loading orientation and service conditions. Plain weave epoxy (F263)/ carbon fiber (T300) composite, currently used in aerospace applications, was procured as fabrics from Hexcel Corporation. Creep tests were conducted under two loading conditions: on-axis loading (0°) and off-axis loading (45°). Constant load creep, in the temperature range of 80-240°C and stress range of 1-70% UTS of the

  18. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: General. 215.107... Suspension System § 215.107 Defective plain bearing box: General. A railroad may not place or continue in... the bearing; or (2) Have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and the bearings. ...

  19. Analyzing the Various Approaches of Plain Language Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Betsy A., And Others

    1986-01-01

    Proposes a two-phase evaluation of the plain language laws that are designed to ensure that consumers can understand and use the personal business contracts they sign so that the best model for plain language legislation can be identified. (DF)

  20. 27 CFR 9.207 - Outer Coastal Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outer Coastal Plain. 9.207... Outer Coastal Plain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Outer Coastal Plain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Outer Coastal Plain” is a term of viticultural...

  1. Clinical and Plain Radiograph Pattern of Joint Dislocations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plain radiograph is an integral part of early assessment of patients' evaluation, though newer imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ... Conclusion: The shoulder joint is the most frequently dislocated and a conventional plain radiograph is still valuable as a first line investigative modality in ...

  2. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood plain management and protection. 801.8 Section 801.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands...

  3. Myxomatosis on the Western Plains of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, F G; Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Shepherd, R C; Gocs, A

    1977-10-01

    Myxomatosis on the Western Plains is an enzootic disease in contrast with the epizootic pattern which is general in eastern Australia. The most unusual aspects are the presence of significant numbers of diseased rabbits throughout the winter and the continuously low percentage of rabbits with antibodies to myxoma virus. Climatic and topographic conditions are unsuited to the production of the high densities of mosquitoes necessary for widespread epizootics. Under these conditions the effects of less efficient methods of myxomatosis transmission are apparent. The unusual epidemiology of myxomatosis has resulted in selection for virulence of the virus similar to that which has occurred under summer epizootic conditions. All field strains are now in the mid range of virulence.

  4. Two depositional models for Pliocene coastal plain fluvial systems, Goliad Formation, south Texas Gulf Coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, H.D.; Galloway, W.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Goliad Formation consists of four depositional systems-the Realitos and Mathis bed-load fluvial systems in the southwest and the Cuero and Eagle Lake mixed-load fluvial systems in the northeast. Five facies are recognized in the Realitos and Mathis bed-load fluvial systems: (1) primary channel-fill facies, (2) chaotic flood channel-fill facies, (3) complex splay facies, (4) flood plain facies, and (5) playa facies. A model for Realitos-Mathis depositional environments shows arid-climate braided stream complexes with extremely coarse sediment load, highly variable discharge, and marked channel instability. Broad, shallow, straight to slightly sinuous primary channels were flanked by wide flood channels. Flood channels passed laterally into broad, low-relief flood plains. Small playas occupied topographic lows near large channel axes. Three facies are recognized in the Cuero and Eagle Lake mixed-load fluvial systems: (1) channel-fill facies, (2) crevasse splay facies, and (3) flood plain facies. A model for Cuero-Eagle Lake depositional environments shows coarse-grained meander belts in a semi-arid climate. Slightly to moderately sinuous meandering streams were flanked by low, poorly developed natural levees. Crevasse splays were common, but tended to be broad and ill-defined. Extensive, low-relief flood plains occupied interaxial areas. The model proposed for the Realitos and Mathis fluvial systems may aid in recognition of analogous ancient depositional systems. In addition, since facies characteristics exercise broad controls on Goliad uranium mineralization, the proposed depositional models aid in defining target zones for Goliad uranium exploration

  5. Tobacco plain packaging: Evidence based policy or public health advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeganey, Neil; Russell, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    In December 2012, Australia became the first country to require all tobacco products be sold solely in standardised or 'plain' packaging, bereft of the manufacturers' trademarked branding and colours, although retaining large graphic and text health warnings. Following the publication of Sir Cyril Chantler's review of the evidence on the effects of plain tobacco packaging, the Ministers of the United Kingdom Parliament voted in March 2015 to implement similar legislation. Support for plain packaging derives from the belief that tobacco products sold in plain packs have reduced appeal and so are more likely to deter young people and non-smokers from starting tobacco use, and more likely to motivate smokers to quit and stay quit. This article considers why support for the plain packaging policy has grown among tobacco control researchers, public health advocates and government ministers, and reviews Australian survey data that speak to the possible introductory effect of plain packaging on smoking prevalence within Australia. The article concludes by emphasising the need for more detailed research to be undertaken before judging the capacity of the plain packaging policy to deliver the multitude of positive effects that have been claimed by its most ardent supporters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sustainable Authorship in Plain Text using Pandoc and Markdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Tenen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this tutorial, you will first learn the basics of Markdown—an easy to read and write markup syntax for plain text—as well as Pandoc, a command line tool that converts plain text into a number of beautifully formatted file types: PDF, .docx, HTML, LaTeX, slide decks, and more.1 With Pandoc as your digital typesetting tool, you can use Markdown syntax to add figures, a bibliography, formatting, and easily change citation styles from Chicago to MLA (for instance, all using plain text.

  7. San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The 1,200-kilometer (800-mile)San Andreas is the longest fault in California and one of the longest in North America. This perspective view of a portion of the fault was generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which flew on NASA's Space Shuttle last February, and an enhanced, true-color Landsat satellite image. The view shown looks southeast along the San Andreas where it cuts along the base of the mountains in the Temblor Range near Bakersfield. The fault is the distinctively linear feature to the right of the mountains. To the left of the range is a portion of the agriculturally rich San Joaquin Valley. In the background is the snow-capped peak of Mt. Pinos at an elevation of 2,692 meters (8,831 feet). The complex topography in the area is some of the most spectacular along the course of the fault. To the right of the fault is the famous Carrizo Plain. Dry conditions on the plain have helped preserve the surface trace of the fault, which is scrutinized by both amateur and professional geologists. In 1857, one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded in the United States occurred just north of the Carrizo Plain. With an estimated magnitude of 8.0, the quake severely shook buildings in Los Angeles, caused significant surface rupture along a 350-kilometer (220-mile) segment of the fault, and was felt as far away as Las Vegas, Nev. This portion of the San Andreas is an important area of study for seismologists. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times.The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60

  8. Chemical weathering outputs from the flood plain of the Ganga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickle, Michael J.; Chapman, Hazel J.; Tipper, Edward; Galy, Albert; De La Rocha, Christina L.; Ahmad, Talat

    2018-03-01

    Transport of sediment across riverine flood plains contributes a significant but poorly constrained fraction of the total chemical weathering fluxes from rapidly eroding mountain belts which has important implications for chemical fluxes to the oceans and the impact of orogens on long term climate. We report water and bedload chemical analyses from the Ganges flood-plain, a major transit reservoir of sediment from the Himalayan orogen. Our data comprise six major southern tributaries to the Ganga, 31 additional analyses of major rivers from the Himalayan front in Nepal, 79 samples of the Ganga collected close to the mouth below the Farakka barrage every two weeks over three years and 67 water and 8 bedload samples from tributaries confined to the Ganga flood plain. The flood plain tributaries are characterised by a shallow δ18O - δD array, compared to the meteoric water line, with a low δDexcess from evaporative loss from the flood plain which is mirrored in the higher δDexcess of the mountain rivers in Nepal. The stable-isotope data confirms that the waters in the flood plain tributaries are dominantly derived from flood plain rainfall and not by redistribution of waters from the mountains. The flood plain tributaries are chemically distinct from the major Himalayan rivers. They can be divided into two groups. Tributaries from a small area around the Kosi river have 87Sr/86Sr ratios >0.75 and molar Na/Ca ratios as high as 6. Tributaries from the rest of the flood plain have 87Sr/86Sr ratios ≤0.74 and most have Na/Ca ratios waters have lost up to 70% of their Ca (average ∼ 50%) to precipitation of secondary calcite which is abundant as a diagenetic cement in the flood plain sediments. 31% of the Sr, 8% of the Ca and 45% of the Mg are calculated to be derived from silicate minerals. Because of significant evaporative loss of water across the flood plain, and in the absence of hydrological data for flood plain tributaries, chemical weathering fluxes from the

  9. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task

  10. Nonlinear Dynamical Analysis for a Plain Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Belhamra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the nonlinear dynamic behavior for a plain classic bearing (fluid bearing lubricated by a non-Newtonian fluid of a turbo machine rotating with high speed; this type of fluid contains additives viscosity (couple-stress fluid film. The solution of the nonlinear dynamic problem of this type of bearing is determined with a spatial discretisation of the modified Reynolds' equation written in dynamic mode by using the optimized short bearing theory and a temporal discretisation for equations of rotor motion by the help of Euler's explicit diagram. This study analyzes the dynamic behavior of a rotor supported by two couple-stress fluid film journal lubricant enhances the dynamic stability of the rotor-bearing system considerably compared to that obtained when using a traditional Newtonian lubricant. The analysis shows that the dynamic behavior of a shaft which turns with high velocities is strongly nonlinear even for poor eccentricities of unbalance; the presence of parameters of couple stress allows strongly attenuating the will synchrony (unbalance and asynchrony (whipping amplitudes of vibrations of the shaft which supports more severe conditions (large unbalances.

  11. DNAPL migration in a coastal plain aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGuiseppi, W.H.; Jung, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    Soil and ground water at the Dover Gas Light Superfund Site, a former manufactured gas plant (1859 to 1948), are contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. Contaminants of concern include light aromatics, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), and heavy aromatics, including naphthalene, acenaphthylene, phenanthrene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Although ground-water contaminant levels are elevated near the site, only naphthalene and acenaphthylene are present within an order of magnitude of their solubility limits, indicating the possibility of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) in the subsurface. The unconfined Columbia Aquifer, which is characterized by interfingering and discontinuous sand, silt, and clay Coastal Plain deposits, overlies a clay aquitard at a depth of 60 feet. The ground water beneath the intermediate clay horizon exhibited little or no contamination, even immediately downgradient from the site. The relationship between the more permeable granular sand horizons and the less permeable interfingering clay zones controls the migration of both the aqueous-phase contamination and the DNAPL. A detailed horizontal and vertical characterization of the subsurface stratigraphy was critical to the accurate interpretation of the extent and magnitude of contamination and the identification and delineation of DNAPL zones

  12. Placentation in the plains zebra (Equus quagga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W R Twink; Stansfield, Fiona; Wilsher, Sandra

    2017-10-01

    The placenta and fetal gonads of 12 pregnant plains zebra (Equus quagga), estimated to be between 81 and 239 days of gestation, were examined. The diffuse, microcotyledonary zebra placenta appeared, developmentally, to be 3-4 weeks behind its counterpart in horse pregnancy and this, together with the presence of small and long-lived endometrial cups, low levels of zebra chorionic gonadotrophin in maternal serum and few accessory corpora lutea in the maternal ovaries during the first half of gestation, made zebra pregnancy more similar to donkey than horse pregnancy. Zebra fetal gonads enlarged after 80 days of gestation and their interstitial cells stained positively for 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17,20 lyase steroid enzymes while the trophoblast stained for aromatase. This confirmed that zebra fetal gonads, like those of the horse and donkey, can synthesise C19 androgens, which can then be aromatised by the placenta to C18 oestrogens. It is remarkable that such unusual feto-placental mechanisms of production of gonadotrophic and steroid hormones has persisted unchanged within the genus Equus despite the many physical adaptations and the considerable loss of chromosomes that have occurred during the evolution of its member species.

  13. Moessbauer studies on ancient Jizhon plain Temmoku porcelains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhengfang; Zheng Yufang; Lin Yongqiang

    1994-01-01

    Three kinds of ancient Jizhou plain Temmoku wares and their several ware-making raw materials were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The firing technique of ancient Jizhou Temmoku porcelains is discussed. (orig.)

  14. Vegetation - Carrizo Plain ER, 2005 - 2008 [ds561

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Vegetation Map of the Carrizo Plain Ecological Reserve, San Luis Obispo County, California was created by the California Department of Fish and Game (DFG)...

  15. Plain language: a strategic response to the health literacy challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stableford, Sue; Mettger, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Low health literacy is a major challenge confronting American and international health organizations. Research in the past decade has documented the prevalence of limited literacy and limited health literacy skills among adults worldwide. This creates a major policy challenge: how to create text-based health information - a common method of health communication - that is accessible to the public. Plain language is a logical, flexible response. While touted by American, Canadian, and European health policy makers, adoption and promotion of plain language standards and skills in health-focused organizations have lagged. Most text-based health information continues to be too hard for most adults to read. Barriers to more rapid diffusion of plain language are reflected in a set of myths perpetuated by critics. These myths are identified and refuted. While plain language is only one of many broad-based solutions needed to address low health literacy, the benefits to everyone demand increased use by health organizations.

  16. Study on ecological regulation of coastal plain sluice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wengong; Geng, Bing; Yu, Huanfei; Yu, Hongbo

    2018-02-01

    Coastal plains are densely populated and economically developed, therefore their importance is self-evident. However, there are some problems related with water in coastal plains, such as low flood control capacity and severe water pollution. Due to complicated river network hydrodynamic force, changeable flow direction and uncertain flood concentration and propagation mechanism, it is rather difficult to use sluice scheduling to realize flood control and tackle water pollution. On the base of the measured hydrological data during once-in-a-century Fitow typhoon in 2013 in Yuyao city, by typical analysis, theoretical analysis and process simulation, some key technologies were researched systematically including plain river network sluice ecological scheduling, “one tide” flood control and drainage scheduling and ecological running water scheduling. In the end, single factor health diagnostic evaluation, unit hydrograph of plain water level and evening tide scheduling were put forward.

  17. Types, harms and improvement of saline soil in Songnen Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengjun; Zhuang, Jingjing; Zhao, Anping; Li, Xinxin

    2018-03-01

    Saline soil is an extremely difficult and modified soil, widely distributed around the world. According to UN-UNESCO and FAO, the world’s saline soil area is about 9.54×108hm2, and there is a growing trend, every year in 1.0×106-1.5×106hm2 speed growth, the effective utilization of land resources to the world is the most serious threat. The total area of saline-alkali land in China is about 9.91×107hm2, including the Songnen Plain, which is called one of the three major saline soil concentrations in the world. The Songnen plain is an important grain producing area in China, and the saline soil occupies most of the Songnen plain, so it is of great significance to study the saline soil and improvement in Songnen plain.

  18. Level III Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions for the Mississippi Alluvial Plain were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in...

  19. Level IV Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions for the Mississippi Alluvial Plain were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in...

  20. Analysis of High Plains Resource Risk and Economic Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dealy, Bern Caudill [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaneyfelt, Calvin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Braeton James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moreland, Barbara Denise [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the High Plains Aquifer is broadly recognized as is its vulnerability to continued overuse. T his study e xplore s how continued depletions of the High Plains Aquifer might impact both critical infrastructure and the economy at the local, r egional , and national scale. This analysis is conducted at the county level over a broad geographic region within the states of Kansas and Nebraska. In total , 140 counties that overlie the High Plains Aquifer in these two states are analyzed. The analysis utilizes future climate projections to estimate crop production. Current water use and management practices are projected into the future to explore their related impact on the High Plains Aquifer , barring any changes in water management practices, regulat ion, or policy. Finally, the impact of declining water levels and even exhaustion of groundwater resources are projected for specific sectors of the economy as well as particular elements of the region's critical infrastructure.

  1. Plain abdominal radiographs in acute medical emergencies: an abused investigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyler, S; Williamson, V; King, D

    2002-02-01

    Plain abdominal radiographs are commonly requested for acute medical emergencies on patients with non-specific abdominal symptoms and signs. In this study 131 plain abdominal radiographs performed on the day of admission were prospectively analysed. In only 16 cases (12%) the reasons for requests conformed to the recommended guidelines by the Royal College of Radiologists. The reason for the request was stated in the case notes in only three cases. In 62 cases (47%), there was no comment made on the film by the requesting clinician. There was a discrepancy in the interpretation of the radiograph between the clinician and the radiologist in 31 cases (24%). The clinical management was influenced by plain abdominal radiographs in only nine cases (7%). The majority of plain abdominal radiographs requested on acute medical emergencies is inappropriate. There is a need to ensure guidelines are followed to prevent unnecessary exposure of patients to radiation as well as preventing expenditure on irrelevant investigations.

  2. The Great Plains IDEA Gerontology Program: An Online, Interinstitutional Graduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gregory F.

    2011-01-01

    The Great-Plains IDEA Gerontology Program is a graduate program developed and implemented by the Great Plains Interactive Distance Education Alliance (Great Plains IDEA). The Great Plains IDEA (Alliance) originated as a consortium of Colleges of Human Sciences ranging across the central United States. This Alliance's accomplishments have included…

  3. The innovation of nuclear science and technology supporting for the central plains economic zone construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the nuclear agronomy support for the central plains economic zone construction, radiation chemical new material support for the central plains economic zone construction, nuclear medical support for the central plains economic zone construction, nuclear instrument and meter industry support for the central plains economic zone construction and the development trend of related disciplines. (author)

  4. No (more) logo: plain packaging and communicative agency

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Pottage

    2013-01-01

    The tobacco industry’s archives suggest that the global campaign for the plain packaging of tobacco products originated in 1986, when the Canadian Medical Association passed a resolution calling for cigarettes to be sold in packages bearing only a brand name and the health message ‘this product is injurious to your health’. In most jurisdictions, regulations requiring the apposition of health warnings to cigarette packs have been in force for decades. Proposals for plain packaging aim to go f...

  5. Perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among Mexican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Seema; Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L; White, Christine M; Thrasher, James F

    2017-08-01

    Plain cigarette packaging, which seeks to remove all brand imagery and standardize the shape and size of cigarette packs, represents a novel policy measure to reduce the appeal of cigarettes. Plain packaging has been studied primarily in high-income countries like Australia and the UK. It is unknown whether the effects of plain packaging may differ in low-and-middle income countries with a shorter history of tobacco regulation, such as Mexico. An experimental study was conducted in Mexico City to examine perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among smoking and non-smoking Mexican adolescents (n = 359). Respondents were randomly assigned to a branded or plain pack condition and rated 12 cigarette packages for appeal, taste, harm to health and smoker-image traits. As a behavioral measure of appeal, respondents were offered (although not given) four cigarette packs (either branded or plain) and asked to select one to keep. The findings indicated that branded packs were perceived to be more appealing (β = 3.40, p packaging may reduce brand appeal among Mexican youth, consistent with findings in high-income countries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Collin N; Kraemer, John D; Johnson, Andrea C; Mays, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. PMID:25897269

  7. International collaborative study for the calibration of proposed International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Besselaar, A M H P; Chantarangkul, V; Angeloni, F

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability of International Standards for thromboplastin is essential for the calibration of routine reagents and hence the calculation of the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Stocks of the current 4(th) International Standards are running low. Candidate replacement materia......) international standard (rTF/09). The candidate materials have been accepted by WHO as the 5(th) International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit plain, and thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......BACKGROUND: The availability of International Standards for thromboplastin is essential for the calibration of routine reagents and hence the calculation of the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Stocks of the current 4(th) International Standards are running low. Candidate replacement materials...... have been prepared. This report describes the calibration of the proposed 5(th) International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain (coded RBT/16) and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain (coded rTF/16). METHODS: An international collaborative study was carried out for the assignment...

  8. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O' Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  9. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith CN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Collin N Smith,1 John D Kraemer,2 Andrea C Johnson,1 Darren Mays1 1Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC, USA; 2Department of Health Systems Administration, School of Nursing and Health Studies, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. Keywords: cigarette smoking, tobacco, plain packaging, regulation, policy

  10. Late Quarternary evolution of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, S.M.; Laine, E.P.

    1986-05-01

    The sedimentary history and seismic structure of a deep-water turbidite basin in the Western North Atlantic Ocean has been investigated to understand further the evolution of abyssal plains. This study integrates analyses of sedimentary and seismic facies in order to examine the temporal and spatial patterns of sedimentation on the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain during the Late Quaternary. Forty deep-sea sediment cores and 6000 km of high resolution (3.5 kHz) seismic reflection profiles from within 31-34 0 N and 69-74 0 W include portions of the Hatteras Outer Ridge, Lower Continental Rise and Bermuda Rise as well as the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain. Seismic profiles (within 32-33 0 N, 70-71.5 0 W) define two acoustically-transparent seismic units beneath the Plain. The composition of these seismic units has been investigated with sediment cores. This study has found two notable features in the sedimentary framework of the Plain that appear to have resulted from temporal changes in sediment supply. The most recent change, a postglacial decline in turbidity current activity, produced a diagenetic iron enrichment at the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. The stratigraphic thickness affected by diagenesis is related spatially to patterns of turbidite sedimentation. An earlier change, discovered in this research, occurred during the Wisconsinian glaciation and brought coarser-grained turbidity currents to the northern Plain. Deposition of sands from these flows appears to have been locally controlled by a broad topographic feature with less than ten meters relief. As a result of the topographic influence, there are abrupt boundaries, both verically and laterally, between an older mud facies and a younger sandy turbidite facies of the Plain

  11. Yellowstone-Snake River Plain seismic profilling experiment: Crustal structure of the eastern Snake River Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braile, L.W.; Smith, R.B.; Ansorge, J.; Baker, M.R.; Sparlin, M.A.; Prodehl, C.; Schilly, M.M.; Healy, J.H.; Mueller, S.; Olsen, K.H.

    1982-01-01

    Seismic refraction profiles recorded along the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) in southeastern Idaho during the 1978 Yellowstone-Snake River Plain cooperative seismic profiling experiment are interpreted to infer the crustal velocity and attenuation (Q-1) structure of the ESRP. Travel-time and synthetic seismogram modeling of a 250 km reversed refraction profile as well as a 100 km detailed profile indicate that the crust of the ESRP is highly anomalous. Approximately 3 to 6 km of volcanic rocks (with some interbedded sediments) overlie an upper-crustal layer (compressional velocity approx. =6.1 km/s) which thins southwestward along the ESRP from a thickness of 10 km near Island Park Caldera to 2 to 3 km beneath the central and southwestern portions of the ESRP. An intermediate-velocity (approx. =6.5 km/s) layer extends from approx. =10 to approx. =20 km depth. a thick (approx. =22 km) lower crust of compressional velocity 6.8 km/s, a total crustall thickness of approx. =42 km, and a P/sub n/ velocity of approx. =7.9 km/s is observed in the ESRP, similar to the western Snake River Plain and the Rocky Mountains Provinces. High attenuation is evident on the amplitude corrected seismic data due to low-Q values in the volcanic rocks (Q/sub p/ = 20 to 200) and throughout the crust (Q/sub p/ = 160 to 300). Based on these characteristics of the crustal structure and volcanic-age progression data, it is suggested that the ESRP has resulted from an intensitive period of intrusion of mantle-derived basaltic magma into the upper crust generating explosive silicic volcanism and associated regional uplift and caldera collapse. This activity began about 15 m.y. ago in southwestern Idaho and has migrated northeast to its present position at Yellowstone. Subsequent cooling of the intruded upper crust results in the 6.5 km/s velocity intermediate layer. Crustal subsidence and periodic basaltic volcanism as represented by the ESRP complete the sequence of crustal evolution

  12. General practitioners' willingness to request plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryynaenen, Olli-Pekka; Lehtovirta, Jukka; Soimakallio, Seppo; Takala, Jorma

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To examine general practitioners' attitudes to plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations. Design: A postal questionnaire consisting of questions on background data and doctors' opinions about plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, as well as eight vignettes (imaginary patient cases) presenting indications for lumbar radiography, and five vignettes focusing on the doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiography on the basis of patients' age and duration of symptoms. The data were analysed according to the doctor's age, sex, workplace and the medical school of graduation. Setting: Finland. Subjects: Six hundred and fifteen randomly selected physicians working in primary health care (64% of original target group). Results: The vignettes revealed that the use of plain lumbar radiographic examination varied between 26 and 88%. Patient's age and radiation protection were the most prominent factors influencing doctors' decisions to request lumbar radiographies. Only slight differences were observed between the attitudes of male and female doctors, as well as between young and older doctors. Doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiographies increased with the patient's age in most vignettes. The duration of patients' symptoms had a dramatic effect on the doctor's decision: in all vignettes, doctors were more likely to request lumbar radiography when patient's symptoms had exceeded 4 weeks. Conclusions: General practitioners commonly use plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, despite its limited value in the diagnosis of low back pain. Further consensus and medical education is needed to clarify the indications for plain lumbar radiographic examination

  13. Health Needs Assessment of Plain Populations in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kirk; Yost, Berwood; Abbott, Christina; Thompson, Scottie; Dlugi, Emily; Adams, Zachary; Schulman, Meryl; Strauss, Nicole

    2017-02-01

    We performed a health needs assessment for three Plain communities in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania from a random sample of households. Compared with the general population of adults, Plain respondents were more likely to be married, to have children, and they had large families; they were more likely to drink well water, to eat fruit and vegetables, to drink raw milk, and to live on a farm. Plain respondents had better physical and mental health and were less likely to have been diagnosed with various medical conditions compared with the general population of adults in Lancaster County but Old Order Mennonite respondents were more likely to have been diagnosed compared with Old Order Amish respondents. Plain respondents usually have a regular doctor and often receive preventive care but Old Order Mennonite respondents were more likely to have a regular doctor, to receive preventive care, to have had their children vaccinated, and to receive routine dental care compared with Old Order Amish respondents. Despite their relative geographic and genetic isolation, and despite the small, relative differences noted, the health of Plain communities in Lancaster County is similar to that of other adults in the County.

  14. Geomorphology of the Namoi alluvial plain, northwestern New South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.; Young, A.R.M.; Price, D.M.; Wray, R.A.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Quaternary history of the extensive alluvial plains of the northern part of the Darling River Basin has received little attention, and has generally been assumed to be an analogue of the very detailed history compiled for the Riverine Plain of southeastern Australia. Our study of the Namoi valley, which is a tributary to the upper Darling, shows that this assumption is unfounded. Thermoluminescence dating demonstrates that the oldest palaeochannels of the Namoi River correspond only to the youngest palaeochannels on the Riverine Plain. The thermoluminescence analyses were carried out on the 90-125 μm quartz fraction thermally stimulated by ionizing radiation using the combined additive/regenerative technique. This technique utilises a second glow normalisation procedure that involves re-irradiating each of the quartz sample aliquots and measuring the thermoluminescence induced in the grains. It has ben demonstrated that unlike the streams on the Riverine Plain, the Namoi River has moved progressively away from its buried Tertiary palaeovalley, probably due to declining sediment input from its southern tributaries. In contrast to the streams of the Riverine Plain, the dimensions of the Namoi palaeochannels are indicative of substantially greater discharges until the mid-Holocene. There is also evidence of significant aeolian input throughout the Late Quaternary. The study indicates that the water resources of this increasingly important irrigated region seem to be considerably constrained by the Quaternary heritage of the Namoi valley. Copyright (2002) Geological Society of Australia

  15. Plain film diagnostic of the acromio-clavicular dislocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Thomae, J.; Jungbluth, K.H.; Hamburg Univ.

    1980-01-01

    The distance between the clavicula and the acromion, between the clavicula and the processus coracoideus and the step height between the acromion and the clavicula arch were measured on roentgen films. Evaluated were plain films of the shoulder and of the chest. 64 patients with dislocation of the acromio-clavicular joint were compared to patients without shoulder lesion. The comparance of both groups showed that measures exceeding the upper limits of the group without lesions are highly suggestive for acromio-clavicular dislocation. If one defines an acromio-clavicular dislocation as proved when two of the measured three distances exceed the upper limit, then an acromio-clavicular dislocation could be seen in 36% of the analysed cases on plain films of the shoulder and in 56% on plain chest films. (orig.) [de

  16. Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2012-05-01

    We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure.

  17. The reevaluation of plain roentgenological study in isolated splenic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seong Ihn; Ko, Seung Sook; Kim, Kil Jeong; Oh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young Chul

    1986-01-01

    The spleen is the most common intraabdominal organ injured in blunt trauma. Although physical signs and symptoms, coupled with abdominal paracentesis and peritoneal lavage confirm intraabdominal injury, but isolated splenic injury especially delayed rupture, the diagnosis and clinical course is variable. We are reevaluation of plain roentgenologic findings for the light of early diagnosis of isolated splenic injury. 24 patients of the autopsy and surgically proven isolated splenic injury at Chosun University Hospital in the period from 1980 January to 1986 June were analyzed plain roentgenogram retrospectively. The results were as follows: 1. Male patients predominate, constitution 87.5%. Incidence has been greatest in second to fourth decade. 2. Mode of trauma causing isolated splenic injury is most common in motor vehicle accident and others are fall down, struck by fist, blow to object, uncertain blunt trauma. 3. Delayed rupture of spleen occurred in 2 cases (8.3%). 4. Common patterns of splenic injury is simple laceration that involves both the capsule and the parenchyma and a laceration that involves the splenic pedicle. 5. Plain chest roentgenographic findings were abnormal in 4 cases (16.7%). The most common plain abdominal roentgenographic findings was the evidence of intaabdominal fluid in 21 cases (87.5%). The others are included in order of frequency; gastric dilatation, prominent mucosal folds on greater curvature of the stomach, evidence of pelvic fluid, displacement of stomach to the right or downward, mass density in the region of spleen. 6. No relationship can be shown between patterns of injury, time lapse after trauma and plain roentgenological findings. But the evidence of intraabdominal fluid is most important in the light of early diagnosis. 7. Diagnosis of splenic injury may be most helpful that in combination with clinical history, clinical symptoms and signs and plain film findings. In delayed rupture, diagnostic value of serial examination

  18. The reevaluation of plain roentgenological study in isolated splenic injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seong Ihn; Ko, Seung Sook; Kim, Kil Jeong; Oh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young Chul [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    The spleen is the most common intraabdominal organ injured in blunt trauma. Although physical signs and symptoms, coupled with abdominal paracentesis and peritoneal lavage confirm intraabdominal injury, but isolated splenic injury especially delayed rupture, the diagnosis and clinical course is variable. We are reevaluation of plain roentgenologic findings for the light of early diagnosis of isolated splenic injury. 24 patients of the autopsy and surgically proven isolated splenic injury at Chosun University Hospital in the period from 1980 January to 1986 June were analyzed plain roentgenogram retrospectively. The results were as follows: 1. Male patients predominate, constitution 87.5%. Incidence has been greatest in second to fourth decade. 2. Mode of trauma causing isolated splenic injury is most common in motor vehicle accident and others are fall down, struck by fist, blow to object, uncertain blunt trauma. 3. Delayed rupture of spleen occurred in 2 cases (8.3%). 4. Common patterns of splenic injury is simple laceration that involves both the capsule and the parenchyma and a laceration that involves the splenic pedicle. 5. Plain chest roentgenographic findings were abnormal in 4 cases (16.7%). The most common plain abdominal roentgenographic findings was the evidence of intaabdominal fluid in 21 cases (87.5%). The others are included in order of frequency; gastric dilatation, prominent mucosal folds on greater curvature of the stomach, evidence of pelvic fluid, displacement of stomach to the right or downward, mass density in the region of spleen. 6. No relationship can be shown between patterns of injury, time lapse after trauma and plain roentgenological findings. But the evidence of intraabdominal fluid is most important in the light of early diagnosis. 7. Diagnosis of splenic injury may be most helpful that in combination with clinical history, clinical symptoms and signs and plain film findings. In delayed rupture, diagnostic value of serial examination

  19. Exploration for petroleum and natural gas in Sonai Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, K

    1965-09-01

    Exploration in the Sonai Plain by Sekyu Shigen Kaihatsu Kabushiki Kaisha (Oil Resources Development Corporation) since 1955 is described. The development tasks are made difficult due to the presence of permeability traps. However, 41 out of 65 wells drilled up to late March of 1965 have been successful. Quantities of crude oil and natural gas produced in 1963 were, respectively, 5 and 6 times those of 1958. The Sonai Plain is a relatively new area, and there are still many unknown factors, yet the rate of development has increased greatly. More and deeper wells are expected to be drilled with even better results.

  20. Cultural Landscape and Tourism Potential in the Transylvanian Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILFRIED SCHREIBER

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Contradicting the general belief that the Transylvanian Plain has a poor tourism potential, we bring proof that even in a non-tourist region there are many elements that can provide a generous support for a variety of tourism activities, such as: rural tourism, agro-tourism, recreational tourism, cultural and religious tourism, eco-tourism, and even the critical tourism may occur if the resources are not properly managed. Definitions, examples, two tables, and a map are offering additional information and data, in order to reveal a less known side of the Transylvanian Plain.

  1. Endeavor cruise 071 navigation and bathymetry, northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, E.P.; Friedrich, N.E.; McCreery, C.; Dickson, S.; Baker, M.

    1985-01-01

    Sub-bottom seismic profiling was carried out by R/V Endeavor during the summers of 1980 and 1981. Data collection was concentrated in LLWODP study area E-N3, which encompasses the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain and the adjacent lower continental rise. Time, position, and depth were logged and marked on the seismic record at 15-minute intervals. These navigational and bathymetric data have been used to produce a time/position/depth listing, and a detailed bathymetric map of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain and surrounding physiographic provinces. 6 figures, 1 table

  2. Floods, Droughts and Farming on the Plains of Argentina and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-04-01

    Floods, Droughts and Farming on the Plains of Argentina and Paraguay, Pampas and Chaco Regions ... End Date. April 1, 2015 ... Argentina, South America, Paraguay, North and Central America ... IDRC is now accepting applications for this year's IDRC Doctoral Research Awards (IDRA). ... Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  3. Wind measurement on the Linth plain; Windmessung in der Linthebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langraf, B.

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of wind measurements made on the Linth plain, a flat alluvial plain in eastern Switzerland located between mountain ranges. The data, which were collected using temporary measurement masts at two locations are presented in the form of tables, diagrams and maps showing the wind-energy potential of various areas of the plain. The actual measurements are compared with prognoses from a geo-information system. The wind measurement equipment and installations are described, as are the software models for the calculation of wind direction, wind intensity and of a prognosis for energy production. Particular attention was also paid to the question of wind turbulence. Further factors investigated included the possibility of icing-up in winter and the choice of a meteorological station in the neighbourhood with similar characteristics that could be used as a reference station. The report also presents the results of the evaluation of various possible locations for wind turbines on the Linth plain. Visual, noise and shadow-casing factors are considered.

  4. prediction of characteristics of coastal plain soils using terrain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clay, electrical and hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, pH, exchangeable calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and acidity ... significantly correlated with clay and pH (H2O), while SPI and CTI correlated significantly with clay, pH, organic carbon and ... Key words: coastal plain sands, DEM, soil characteristics, modelling.

  5. Long-term Agroecosystem Research in the Northern Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmer, M.; Sanderson, M.; Liebig, M. A.; Wienhold, B.; Awada, T.; Papiernik, S.; Osborne, S.; Kemp, W.; Okalebo, J. A.; Riedall, W.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern Great Plains is the bread basket of the United States, accounting for a substantial portion of U.S. agricultural production. This region faces critical challenges regarding balancing food needs, resource conservation (e.g Ogallala aquifer), environmental concerns, and rural economy development. Developing transformative, multifunctional systems will require equally imaginative and efficient tools to help farmers manage complex agroecosystems in a rapidly changing climate. The Northern Plains long-term agroecosystem research (LTAR) site at Mandan, ND and the Platte River High Plains LTAR (ARS/University of Nebraska-Lincoln) at Lincoln, NE in collaboration with USDA-ARS research units in Brookings, SD and Fargo, ND are collaborating to address the grand challenge of providing and sustaining multiple service provisions from Northern Great Plains agroecosystems. We propose to attain these goals through sustainable intensification based on the adoption of conservation agriculture principles including reduced soil disturbance, livestock integration, and greater complexity and diversity in the cropping system. Here, we summarize new concepts these locations have pioneered in dynamic cropping systems, resource use efficiency, and agricultural management technologies. As part of the LTAR network, we will conduct long-term cross-site research to design and assess new agricultural practices and systems aimed at improving our understanding of decision making processes and outcomes across an array of agricultural systems.

  6. Finger millet: An alternative crop for the Southern High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Southern High Plains, dairies are expanding to take advantage of favorable climatic conditions. Currently, corn (Zea mays L.) and forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] are the two major crops grown in the region to meet silage demands for the expanding dairy industry, but they have rel...

  7. Removal of nanoparticles from plain and patterned surfaces using nanobubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, S.; Duisterwinkel, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    It is the aim of this paper to quantitatively characterize the capability of surface nanobubbles for surface cleaning, i.e., removal of nanodimensioned polystyrene particles from the surface. We adopt two types of substrates: plain and nanopatterned (trench/ridge) silicon wafer. The method used to

  8. The Education of Children in Pre-European Plains America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitecap, Leah

    1988-01-01

    Describes child-rearing and educational practices of Plains Indians, stressing importance of hunting, especially of buffalo. Examines early childhood rituals and general child-rearing practices as part of cultural education. Describes religious education of children. Stresses Indian educational methods as "informal" but "direct and…

  9. Aerodynamic force coefficients of plain bridge cables in wet conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoni, Giulia; Georgakis, Christos T.

    In this paper, the aerodynamic forces and force coefficients from preliminary static wind tunnel tests on a plain cable in wet conditions are presented. The presented results are for several different relative cable wind-angles. A comparison is made with tests in dry conditions. In dry conditions...

  10. Sources and flow of north Canterbury Plains groundwater, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.; Brown, L.J.; Stewart, M.K.; Brailsford, G.W.; Wilson, D.D.; Burden, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Geological, hydrological, isotope (tritium and 18 O) and chemical evidence is interpreted to give a mutually consistent picture of the recharge sources and flow patterns of the important groundwater resource in the deep Quaternary deposits of the Canterbury Plains between Selwyn R. and Ashley R. The study period for tritium measurements extends over 27 years, encompassing the peak and decline of thermonuclear tritium fallout in this region. Major rivers emerging from mountain catchments to the west of the Plains are depleted in 18 O relative to average low-level precipitation. Most of the groundwater is river-recharged, but some areas with significant local precipitation recharge are clearly identified by 18 O and chemical concentrations. Artesian groundwater underlying Christchurch ascends from deeper aquifers into the shallowest aquifer via gaps in the confining layers; much of this flow is induced by withdrawal. The Christchurch aquifers are recharged by infiltration from Waimakariri R. in its central Plains reaches, and the resulting flow regime is E- and SE-directed; satisfactory water quality of the deeper Christchurch aquifer appears to be guaranteed for the future provided the river can be maintained in its present condition. Shallow groundwater, and water recharged to depth by other rivers, irrigation and local precipitation on the unconfined western areas of the Plains, are more susceptible to agricultural and other pollutants; none of this water is encountered in the deeper aquifers under Christchurch. (author). 15 refs., 12 figs

  11. Introducing Plain Language Principles to Business Communication Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Rachelle R.

    2012-01-01

    In response to current federal mandates requiring selected businesses and government agencies to use plain language (PL) when reporting information to the public, this article advocates the introduction of PL principles into current business communication curricula. Despite recent PL mandates and advances, many current business textbooks and…

  12. Wind Shear Characteristics at Central Plains Tall Towers (presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

    2006-06-05

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Analyze wind shear characteristics at tall tower sites for diverse areas in the central plains (Texas to North Dakota)--Turbines hub heights are now 70-100 m above ground and Wind measurements at 70-100+ m have been rare. (2) Present conclusions about wind shear characteristics for prime wind energy development regions.

  13. Computations Of Critical Depth In Rivers With Flood Plains | Okoli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical flows may occur at more than one depth in rivers with flood plains. The possibility of multiple critical depths affects the water-surface profile calculations. Presently available algorithms determine only one of the critical depths which may lead to large errors. It is the purpose of this paper to present an analytical ...

  14. Diagnostic value of plain abdominal radiographs in acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The plain film of the abdomen (PAX) is still utilised in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis (Aap). Aim of this study was to evaluate the value of PAX in the diagnosis of Aap in children, since it continues to be a controversial subject. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gazi ...

  15. Tear Gas, Expanding Bullets and Plain-Clothed Personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesener, Cornelius Rust

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the interplay between human rights law and humanitarian law in relation to riot control agents (such as tear gas), expanding bullets and plain-clothed forces. While outlawed under humanitarian law, they are widely used by police in peace time and not subject to similar bans...

  16. Clinical aspects of plain film radiography of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravin, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    In spite of the introduction of a number of intriguing new imaging modalities including Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging, the plain film of the chest remains the mainstay of thoracic imaging. It is estimated that more than fifty million chest radiographs are performed each year in the United States. In the attempt to compare newer imaging modalities with the standard plain film of the chest, investigators have been forced to adopt specific structures and or disease processes to be analyzed. To some extent identification of normally appearing structures in the mediastinum and lung parenchyma serves as a clue as to the ability of a newer technology to compete with or be compared with the plain film. However, as most authors would acknowledge, the ability to portray normal underlying anatomy is only the first step in analysis in intrathoracic disease. Experimental design becomes somewhat more complicated when one wishes to move beyond normal anatomy to analysis of disease processes. The challenge of digital radiography in whatever form it may take will be to equal or exceed the standard established by conventional plain film radiography and deliver such service at reasonable cost in a manner which allows for appropriate patient throughput

  17. Destruction of the arid plains by tubing in Kalmykia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Chichagov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The expedition researches results of natural state after functioning of the water and oil extraction tubes on the territory of Kalmykia republic. It’s shown that any linear destroyment of the North-West Caspian plain makes complex activity of exogenic processes, main of which are: erosion, suffusion and deflation.

  18. Plain ABDO X-rays: a waste of time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Plain abdominal radiographs are commonly requested for acute medical emergencies on patients with non-specific abdominal symptoms and signs. In this study, 131 plain abdominal radiographs performed on the day of admission were prospectively analysed by the research team. In only 16 cases (12 per cent) the reasons for requests conformed to the recommended guidelines by the Royal College of Radiologists. The reason for the request was stated in the case notes in only three cases. In 62 cases (47 per cent), there was no comment made on the film by the requesting clinician. There was a discrepancy in the interpretation of the radiograph between the clinician and the radiologist in 31 cases (24 per cent). The clinical management was influenced by plain abdominal radiographs in only nine cases (7 per cent). The researchers argue that most plain abdominal radiographs requested on acute medical emergencies are inappropriate. They suggest there is a need to ensure guidelines are followed to prevent unnecessary exposure of patients to radiation as well as preventing expenditure on irrelevant investigations.

  19. Guesstimation of posterior malleolar fractures on lateral plain radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, D. T.; Doornberg, J. N.; Sierevelt, I. N.; Mallee, W. H.; van Dijk, C. N.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Stufkens, S. A.; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; van Sterkenburg, Maayke; Engvall, Andreas; Arroyo, Ernesto; Golovakha, Maksym; Pereira, Ernesto; Josep Torrent, Eugene Toh; Haverkamp, Daniel; Bojanic, Ivan; Sousa, Manuel; Aragon, Oscar Castro; Russo, Alessandro; Cortes, Carlos; Pánics, Gergely; Vide, João; Spanos, Loannis; Carvalho, Manuel Santos; Maggi, Pablo; Thomas, Zach; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Dinato, Mauro; Fay, Jakob; Kimtys, Vytautas; Correia Moreira, António José; Hatziemmanuil, Dimitrios; Low, Tze-Choong; van der Plaat, Laurens Wessel; Mora, Allan David; van Rensen, Inge; del Vecchio, Javier; Ramos, James; Azevedo, Jorge; Bustamante, Carlos; Oliveira, Alexandre; Zaw, Htwe; Kurup, Harish; Yli-Kyyny, Tero; Baca, Emre; Haapasalo, Heidi; Bakhtamyan, Gurgen; Zbikowski, Piotr; van den Bekerom, Michel; de Muinck Keizer, Robert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of articular involvement of the posterior malleolar fracture fragments in ankle fractures is essential, as this is the leading argument for internal fixation. The purpose of this study is to assess diagnostic accuracy of measurements on plain lateral radiographs. Quantification

  20. Holocene climatic fluctuations from Lower Brahmaputra flood plain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pollen analysis of a 3.2-m deep sedimentary profile cored from the Dabaka Swamp, Nagaon District, Lower Brahmaputra flood plain, Assam has revealed persistent fluvial activity during 14,120–12,700 cal years BP which may be attributed to the paucity of pollen and spores with encounterance of fluvial marker taxa like ...

  1. The case for the plain packaging of tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon; Rimmer, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires nations that have ratified the convention to ban all tobacco advertising and promotion. In the face of these restrictions, tobacco packaging has become the key promotional vehicle for the tobacco industry to interest smokers and potential smokers in tobacco products. This paper reviews available research into the probable impact of mandatory plain packaging and internal tobacco industry statements about the importance of packs as promotional vehicles. It critiques legal objections raised by the industry about plain packaging violating laws and international trade agreements. Searches for available evidence were conducted within the internal tobacco industry documents through the online document archives; tobacco industry trade publications; research literature through the Medline and Business Source Premier databases; and grey literature including government documents, research reports and non-governmental organization papers via the Google internet search engine. Plain packaging of all tobacco products would remove a key remaining means for the industry to promote its products to billions of the world's smokers and future smokers. Governments have required large surface areas of tobacco packs to be used exclusively for health warnings without legal impediment or need to compensate tobacco companies. Requiring plain packaging is consistent with the intention to ban all tobacco promotions. There is no impediment in the FCTC to interpreting tobacco advertising and promotion to include tobacco packs.

  2. Prediction of characteristics of coastal plain soils using terrain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to model the characteristics of coastal plain sands using terrain attributes. Representative surface soil samples of upper, middle and lower slopes were collected from 10 locations and their properties determined using standard laboratory methods. Soil properties determined include depth, ...

  3. Visualizing Gender Variability in Plains Indian Pictographic Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocci, Max

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the few published references to gender variation among Plains Indians in order to contribute to a growing corpus of literature concerned with building a more complete picture of the social and cultural lives of individuals accustomed to these practices. In recent years these people have been known among Native Americans under…

  4. Traditional Plains Indian Art and the Contemporary Indian Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakes, Fraser

    1987-01-01

    Examines underlying concepts in traditional Plains Indian arts and encourages incorporation of traditional concepts into contemporary art education. Discusses spiritual foundations, holism, art for art's sake, portability, body art, conservation, tribal identity, aesthetic features, age/sex differentiation in art production, white society's…

  5. Coastal plain community tree guide: benefits, costs, and strategic planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; James R. Simpson; Paula J. Peper; Shelley L. Gardner; Kelaine E. Vargas; Scott E. Maco; Qingfu Xiao

    2006-01-01

    This report quantifies benefits and costs for representative large, medium, and small broadleaf trees and coniferous trees in the Coastal Plain region: the species chosen as representative are the Southern live oak (Quercus virginiana), Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), flowering dogwood (Cornus florida...

  6. Ball Games of Native American Women of the Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    The problem under investigation concerned (1) determining the ball games of Native American girls and women of the Great Plains, (2) determining the geographical spread of the games within the culture area, and (3) determining the characteristics of the various games. Data for this investigation were obtained from the 48 "Annual Reports of the…

  7. Terrain And Laboratory Conductivity Studies Of Flood Plains Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A shallow electromagnetic study (electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements) and laboratory conductivity sampling of the flood plains of Oluwatuyi/Oshinle area of Akure have been undertaken. This is with the aim of correlating the terrain conductivity mapping with laboratory measurements to establish ...

  8. Astrobiology and the Basaltic Plains in Gusev Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMarais, D. J.; Clark, B. C.; Crumpler, L. S.; Farmer, J. D.; Grotzinger, John P.; Haskin, Larry A.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Schroeder, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This report assesses the availability of nutrient elements, energy and liquid water on the plains surrounding Columbia Memorial Station by evaluating observations by the MER rover Spirit in the context of previous Mars missions, Earth-based studies of martian meteorites and studies of microbial communities on Earth that represent potential analogs of martian biota.

  9. PLAINS GERBILS (GERBILLISCUS ROBUSTA) AS FOOD OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Skull and other bone contents were mostly (about 90%) of Gerbilliscus robusta, suggesting this rodent to still be an important food item of the barn owl in the ... Their biology and ecology on the plains have received but few studies (Senzota 1990, Reed 2011). Gerbils are ground dwelling rodents that have also been tamed ...

  10. Dendroclimatic potential of plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) from the Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, Jesse; Friedman, Jonathan; Meko, David; Touchan, Ramzi; Scott, Julian; Edmonson, Alan

    2014-01-01

    A new 368-year tree-ring chronology (A.D. 1643–2010) has been developed in western North Dakota using plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) growing on the relatively undisturbed floodplain of the Little Missouri River in the North Unit of Theodore Roosevelt National Park. We document many slow-growing living trees between 150–370 years old that contradict the common understanding that cottonwoods grow fast and die young. In this northern location, cottonwood produces distinct annual rings with dramatic interannual variability that strongly crossdate. The detrended tree-ring chronology is significantly positively correlated with local growing season precipitation and soil moisture conditions (r  =  0.69). This time series shows periods of prolonged low radial tree growth during the known droughts of the instrumental record (e.g. 1931–1939 and 1980–1981) and also during prehistory (e.g. 1816–1823 and 1856–1865) when other paleoclimate studies have documented droughts in this region. Tree rings of cottonwood will be a useful tool to help reconstruct climate, streamflow, and the floodplain history of the Little Missouri River and other northern river systems.

  11. LAND SUITABILITY SCENARIOS FOR ARID COASTAL PLAINS USING GIS MODELING: SOUTHWESTERN SINAI COASTAL PLAIN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Wahid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Site selection analysis was carried out to find the best suitable lands for development activities in an example of promising coastal plains, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Two GIS models were developed to represent two scenarios of land use suitability in the study area using GIS Multi Criteria Analysis Modeling. The factors contributed in the analysis are the Topography, Land cover, Existing Land use, Flash flood index, Drainage lines and Water points. The first scenario was to classify the area according to various gradual ranges of suitability. According to this scenario, the area is classified into five classes of suitability. The percentage of suitability values are 51.16, 6.13, 22.32, 18.49 and 1.89% for unsuitable, least suitable, low suitable, suitable and high suitable, respectively. The second scenario is developed for a particular kind of land use planning; tourism and recreation projects. The suitability map of this scenario was classified into five values. Unsuitable areas represent 51.18% of the study area, least suitable 16.67%, low suitable 22.85%, suitable 8.61%, and high suitable 0.68%. The best area for locating development projects is the area surrounding El-Tor City and close to the coast. This area could be an urban extension of El-Tor City with more economical and environmental management.

  12. 78 FR 17653 - Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0408)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Wildlife Service Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS... Plains Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Draft [[Page 17654

  13. Hydrology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M Amatya; Callahan Timothy J.; Carl C. Trettin; Hakkila Jon

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  14. 41 CFR 102-2.140 - What elements of plain language appear in the FMR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION SYSTEM Plain Language Regulatory Style § 102-2.140 What elements of plain language... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What elements of plain language appear in the FMR? 102-2.140 Section 102-2.140 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  15. Hyrdology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M. Amatya; Timothy J. Callahan; Carl C. Trettin; Jon Hakkila

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  16. Formation mechanism of land subsidence in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haipeng; Cheng, Guoming

    2014-05-01

    Land subsidence is a progressive and gradual geological disaster, whose development is irreversible. Due to rapid development of industrialization and urbanization, land subsidence occurs commonly in the North China Plain, and has become the main environmental factor impacting sustainable economic and social development. This study presents a brief review on the current situation of land subsidence in the North China Plain. Then the hydrologic, hydrogeologic and anthropogenic conditions favorable for the formation of land subsidence are analyzed, indicating that the formation of land subsidence is mainly determined by local geological condition and enabling conditions, e.g. long-term excessive exploitation of groundwater and engineering construction. A correlation analysis was conducted in both the North China Plain and Cangzhou region, a typical area where severe land subsidence occurs, of the quantitative relationship between deep groundwater yield and the land subsidence. The analysis results indicate that the land subsidence volume accounts for 40% to 44% of deep water yield in the North China Plain, indirectly showing the proportion of released water from compressibility of the aquifer and the aquitard in deep groundwater yield. In Cangzhou region, this proportion was calculated as 58%, far greater than that of the North China Plain. This is induced by the local lithologic structure and recharge condition of deep groundwater in Cangzhou region. The analysis of soil samples in Cangzhou region shows that strong relations exist among different physical parameters, and good change laws of compression with depth and pressure are found for soil samples. The hydraulic conductivities of clay are six orders of magnitude greater than those of the aquifer, implying the strong hypothesis of land subsidence. This analysis provides data and scientific basis for further study on formation mechanism of land subsidence in Cangzhou region and objective evaluation of its

  17. Intussusception in childhood: the role of plain abdominal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Joo Yun; Kim, Min Joong; Kim, Young Mook; Park, Won Gyu; Ko, Kang Seok; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Byung Ran; Kim, Byong Geun

    1995-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the plain radiologic findings of the childhood intussusception and to evaluate the role of plain abdominal films in predicting the success of air or barium reduction. We retrospectively reviewed 140 cases with the diagnosis of intussusception in childhood. The radiological signs that included soft tissue mass, dilatation of small bowel suggesting obstruction, crescent sign, and target sign were evaluated in terms of frequency. The relationship between radiological findings and outcome of reduction was analyzed. The site of soft tissue mass or crescent sign seen on plain radiographs was correlated with the position of the apex of the intussusceptum seen at the beginning of barium edema. The degree of dilated small bowel was evaluated by calculating the proportion of air-filled small bowel occupying peritoneal cavity and measuring the maximal diameter of dilated bowel lumen. The radiological finding for small bowel obstruction is determined by observation of the degree of small bowel dilatation and/or air-fluid levels. Ninety-two cases out of 140 showed one or more radiographic signs. Two most common signs were soft tissue mass and small bowel obstruction. The success rate of air or barium reduction was significantly lower in patients with most severe degree of dilatation of small bowel and/or more than 7 air-fluid levels on erect view. The suspected location of intussusception on plain radiographs correlated well with the true location of intussusception seen in the first few seconds of barium reduction. Plain abdominal radiography is useful in the diagnosis of intussusception and provides helpful information for the reduction procedure as well as for the exclusion of the contraindications such as bowel perforation

  18. Acute paediatric ankle trauma: MRI versus plain radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohman, M. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Radiological Dept., Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Kivisaari, A.; Kivisaari, L. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Kallio, P.; Puntila, J. [Dept. of Paediatric Surgery, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Vehmas, T. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland)

    2001-09-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnosis of acute physeal ankle fractures on plain radiographs using MRI as the gold standard. Methods: Sixty consecutive children, 29 with a clinical diagnosis of lateral ligament injury and 31 with physeal ankle fractures, were examined using both radiographs and MRI in the acute period. The imaging data were reviewed by three ''masked'' radiologists. The fracture diagnosis and Slater-Harris classification of radiographs were compared with findings on MRI. Results: Plain radiography produced five of 28 (18%) false negative and 12 of 92 (13%) false positive fracture diagnoses compared with MRI. Six of the 12 false positive fractures were due to a misclassification of lateral ligament disruption as SH1 fractures. Altogether a difference was found in 21% of cases in either the diagnosis or the classification of the fractures according to Salter- Harris. All bone bruises in the distal tibia and fibula and 64% of bone bruises in the talus were seen in association with lateral ligament injuries. Talar bone bruises in association with fractures occurred on the same side as the malleolar fracture; talar bone bruises in association with lateral ligament disruption were seen in different locations. The errors identified on radiographs by MRI did not affect the management of the injury. Conclusions: The incidence of false negative ankle fractures in plain radiographs was small and no complex ankle fractures were missed on radiographs. The total extent of complex fractures was, however, not always obvious on radiographs. In an unselected series of relatively mild ankle injuries, we were unable to show a single case where the treatment or prognosis based on plain radiography should have been significantly altered after having done a routine MRI examination. Plain radiography is still the diagnostic cornerstone of paediatric ankle injuries. (orig.)

  19. Acute paediatric ankle trauma: MRI versus plain radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohman, M.; Kivisaari, A.; Kivisaari, L.; Vehmas, T.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnosis of acute physeal ankle fractures on plain radiographs using MRI as the gold standard. Methods: Sixty consecutive children, 29 with a clinical diagnosis of lateral ligament injury and 31 with physeal ankle fractures, were examined using both radiographs and MRI in the acute period. The imaging data were reviewed by three ''masked'' radiologists. The fracture diagnosis and Slater-Harris classification of radiographs were compared with findings on MRI. Results: Plain radiography produced five of 28 (18%) false negative and 12 of 92 (13%) false positive fracture diagnoses compared with MRI. Six of the 12 false positive fractures were due to a misclassification of lateral ligament disruption as SH1 fractures. Altogether a difference was found in 21% of cases in either the diagnosis or the classification of the fractures according to Salter- Harris. All bone bruises in the distal tibia and fibula and 64% of bone bruises in the talus were seen in association with lateral ligament injuries. Talar bone bruises in association with fractures occurred on the same side as the malleolar fracture; talar bone bruises in association with lateral ligament disruption were seen in different locations. The errors identified on radiographs by MRI did not affect the management of the injury. Conclusions: The incidence of false negative ankle fractures in plain radiographs was small and no complex ankle fractures were missed on radiographs. The total extent of complex fractures was, however, not always obvious on radiographs. In an unselected series of relatively mild ankle injuries, we were unable to show a single case where the treatment or prognosis based on plain radiography should have been significantly altered after having done a routine MRI examination. Plain radiography is still the diagnostic cornerstone of paediatric ankle injuries. (orig.)

  20. Artificial urethral sphincters: Value of plain film radiography in evaluation of prosthesis malfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, S.C.; Hansen, M.E.; Webster, G.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    Case records were reviewed to determine the diagnostic efficacy of plain radiographs in the evaluation of inflatable artificial urethral sphincters. Of 84 patients with prostheses, 21 (25%) developed complications. Fluid leaks were found in 16 patients who presented with recurrent incontinence; plain radiographs demonstrated an interval decrease in balloon reservoir diameter. Kinked tubing, which was evident on plain films, caused acute urinary retention in three patients. However, plain radiographs failed to detect evidence of prosthesis erosion into the urethra in either of two patients with this complication. Although urethroscopy is needed to detect urethral erosion, plain radiographs are inexpensive and reliable in the initial evaluation of artifical sphincter malfunction

  1. Ocean-Bottom Topography: The Divide between the Sohm and Hatteras Abyssal Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, R M

    1965-06-18

    A compilation of precision echo soundings has delineated the complex topography between the Sohm and Hatteras abyssal plains off the Atlantic coast of the United States. At present the divide between the two plains is a broad, flat area about 4950 meters deep; however, the configuration of channels and depressions suggests spillage of turbidity currents from the Sohm Plain into the Hatteras Plain and a shifting of the divide toward the northeast. Hudson Canyon terminates in the divide area and has probably fed sediment into both plains.

  2. Climatic change in the Great Plains region of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, B.

    1991-01-01

    Implications of global warming to Canada's Great Plains region are discussed, with reference to the climate predictions of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model under a two times atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration scenario. Two sets of climate variables for a geographic area located in the Great Plains are tabulated, for the current (1951-1980) climate normals and under the doubled carbon dioxide scenario. Simple univariate statistics were calculated for the two areas, for the variables of mean annual temperature, mean summer temperature, mean winter temperature, mean July temperature, mean growing season temperature, total annual precipitation, total summer precipitation, total winter precipitation, and total growing season precipitation. Under the GISS scenario, temperature values are on average 4 degree C higher than 1951-1980 normals, while precipitation remains about the same. Locations of ecoclimatic regions are graphed for the whole of Canada. 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Computed tomography and plain radiography in experimental fracture healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, E.M.; Goldstein, S.A.; Ku, J.; Smith, P.; Matthews, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    We evaluated the relative contribution of plain radiographs and computed tomography to the assessment of fracture healing under experimental circumstances. In 15 sheep, we performed midshaft femoral osteotomies and internal fixation of the resultant segmental fractures. Radiographs were obtained preoperatively and immediately postoperatively. Animals were sacrificed at 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, 24 weeks, and 36 weeks after surgery, and the femoral specimens radiographed. After removal of the internal fixation devices, computed tomographic scans of the specimens were performed. Computed tomography may be of value in the evaluation of fractures of long bones in those cases in which clinical examination and plain radiographs fail to give adequate information as to the status of healing. (orig./SHA)

  4. A Wear Geometry Model of Plain Woven Fabric Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Dapeng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper g describes a model meant for analysis of the wear geometry of plain woven fabric composites. The referred model consists of a mathematical description of plain woven fabric based on Peirce’s model coupled with a stratified method for the solution of the wear geometry. The evolutions of the wear area ratio of weft yarn, warp yarn and matrix resin on the worn surface are simulated by MatLab software in combination of warp and weft yarn diameters, warp and weft yarn-to-yarn distances, fabric structure phases (SPs. By comparing theoretical and experimental results from the PTFE/Kevlar fabric wear experiment, it can be concluded that the model can present a trend of the component area ratio variations along with the thickness of fabric, but has a inherently large error in quantitative analysis as an idealized model.

  5. Optimal Equipment Investments for Northern Plains Grain Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Terrance Jalbert; Mercedes Jalbert; James E. Briley

    2010-01-01

    This case presents a teaching tool which requires students to identify an optimal equipment plan for a northern plains small grain farm. Students are presented with information from a farm owner regarding farm size, available labor, farming techniques used and other relevant issues. Students are required to analyze this information to identify the equipment necessary to operate the farm. Students must balance equipment costs and labor issues. They must develop a plan that remains within a pre...

  6. Characterisation of the Ionian-Lucanian coastal plain aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Polemio, M.; Limoni, P.P.; Mitolo, D.; Santaloia, F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with a Southern Italy area, 40 km by 10 km wide, located where four river valleys anastomose themselves in the coastal plain. The geological and hydrogeological features of the study area and the chemical-physical groundwater characterisation have been inferred from the data analysis of 1130 boreholes. Some aquifers, connected among them, constituted by soils of different geological origin -marine terraces deposits, river valley alluvial deposits and alluvial and coastal depo...

  7. Groundwater Pollution Sources Apportionment in the Ghaen Plain, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Vesali Naseh; Roohollah Noori; Ronny Berndtsson; Jan Adamowski; Elaheh Sadatipour

    2018-01-01

    Although Iran’s Ghaen Plain provides saffron to much of the world, no regional groundwater quality (GQ) assessment has yet been undertaken. Given the region’s potential for saltwater intrusion and heavy metal contamination, it is important to assess the GQ and determine its main probable source of pollution (MPSP). Such knowledge would allow for informed mitigation or elimination of the potential adverse health effects of this groundwater through its use as drinking water, or indirectly as a ...

  8. Promoting innovative stormwater solutions for coastal plain communities

    OpenAIRE

    Drescher, Sadie

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the Center for Watershed Protection (CWP) surveyed seventy-three coastal plain communities to determine their current practices and need for watershed planning and low impact development (LID). The survey found that communities had varying watershed planning effectiveness and need better stormwater management, land use planning, and watershed management communication. While technical capacity is improving, stormwater programs are under staffed and innovative site designs ...

  9. Carpal pseudoerosions: a plain X-ray interpretation pitfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawer, Richard [Univ. Catholique de Lille (France). Service d' Imagerie Medicale; Budzik, Jean Francois [Univ. Catholique de Lille (France). Service d' Imagerie Medicale; Univ. Nord de France, Boulogne sur Mer (France). Unite de Recherche EA 4490, Physiopathologie des Maladies Osseuses Inflammatoires; Demondion, Xavier [Univ. Lille 2 (France). Service d' Imagerie Musculosquelettique; CHRU Lille (France). Lab. d' Anatomie; Forzy, Gerard [Univ. Catholique de Lille, Lomme (France). Lab. de Biologie; Cotten, Anne [Univ. Lille 2 (France). Service d' Imagerie Musculosquelettique; Univ. Nord de France, Boulogne sur Mer (France). Unite de Recherche EA 4490, Physiopathologie des Maladies Osseuses Inflammatoires

    2014-10-15

    To examine in detail images of pseudoerosion of the wrist and hand on plain radiographs. The study was conducted with 28 cadaver wrists. During a single imaging session three techniques - plain radiography, tomosynthesis, and computed tomography - were used to visualize the wrist and hand specimens. For each technique, 20 radio-ulno-carpo-metacarpal sites known to present bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis were analyzed by two radiologists using a standard system to score the cortical bone: normal, pseudoerosion, true erosion, or other pathology. Cohen's concordance analysis was performed to determine inter-observer and intra-observer (for the senior radiologist) agreement by site and by technique. Serial sections of two cadaver specimens were examined to determine the anatomical correlation of the pseudoerosions. On the plain radiographs, the radiologists scored many images as pseudoerosion (7.3 %), particularly in the distal ulnar portion of the capitate, the distal radial portion of the hamate, the proximal ulnar portion of the base of the third metacarpal, the proximal radial portion of the base of the fourth metacarpal, the distal ulnar portion of the hamate, and the proximal portion of the base of the fifth metacarpal. The computed tomography scan revealed that none of these doubtful images corresponded to true erosions. The anatomical correlation study showed that these images could probably be attributed to ligament insertions, thinner lamina, and enhanced cortical bone transparency. Knowledge of the anatomical carpal localizations where pseudoerosions commonly occur is a necessary prerequisite for analysis of plain radiographs performed to diagnose or monitor rheumatoid arthritis. (orig.)

  10. Herbage productivity of the Winneba plains of Ghana | Fleischer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biomass productivity of the Winneba plains of Ghana was measured between January 1990 and February 1992. Ten sampling sites were chosen for the study. An area of 5.0 m W 5.0 m was demarcated and within it an area of 1.0 m W 1.0 m was harvested at monthly intervals, clipped by means of sickle at 5 cm above ...

  11. Long term acroecosystem research in the Southern Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean L. Steiner; Patrick J. Starks; Jurgen Garbrecht; Daniel Moriasi; Paul Bartholomew; Jim Neel; Kenneth E. Turner; Brian Northup

    2016-01-01

    The Southern Plains (SP) site of the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is headquartered at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Research Laboratory (GRL) in El Reno, Oklahoma. The GRL was established in 1948. A long-term watershed and climate research program was established in the Little Washita River Experimental Watershed (LWREW) in 1961 and in the Fort Cobb...

  12. Suspended particulate studies over the Madeira Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Various aspects relating to suspended matter over the Madeira Abyssal Plain are discussed. Special attention is paid to the nepheloid layer including resuspension and transport processes; time variabilities in particle concentrations and fluxes; particle morphology, microbiology and chemical composition; phase association of metals. Also, tentative predictions of the behaviour of some radionuclides are made based on theory and data on rare earth elements. Instrumentation developed for the project is detailed - the deep water particle sampler. (author)

  13. Systematic assessment of constipation on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, Maurice van den; Graafmans, Doortje; Nievelstein, Rutger; Beek, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Constipation in childhood is common and its clinical assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and used to quantify constipation. Three scoring systems, those of Barr et al., Leech et al. and Blethyn et al., have been developed to quantify fecal loading on the abdominal radiograph. In order to determine which method is the most useful in clinical practice, we assessed the reproducibility of the three scoring systems. Plain abdominal radiographs from 40 clinically constipated children were retrospectively reviewed by two paediatric radiologists on two separate occasions. The radiographs were scored according to three different systems developed by Barr et al., Leech et al., Blethyn et al. Intraobserver variability and interobserver reproducibility were determined for each system. Kappa coefficients were calculated as indicators of inter- and intraobserver agreement for categorical outcome variables. The Leech score showed the highest reproducibility: the intraobserver agreement was high for both observers (κ values of 0.88 and 1.00, respectively, P<0.05). Furthermore, the interobserver agreement was also high: κ 0.91 in the first round and 0.84 in the second. The Leech score proved to be a highly reproducible tool for assessment of childhood constipation and is of value in clinical practice for systematic assessment of constipation on plain abdominal radiographs in children. (orig.)

  14. Acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot: Plain radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Dae Young; Kang, Heung Sik; Sim, Jung Suk; Yoon, Yong Kyu; Kim, Chu Wan

    1994-01-01

    To determine the plain film findings of acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot. Acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot was considered when fragmentation of the articular ends of bone and subluxation of the affected joint developed within eight weeks after clinical onset of diabetic gangrene. Eight toes of six diabetics were satisfactory to our criteria. We analyzed plain radiographic findings of the affected joint and soft tissue, interval changes in followed-up radiographs, and deformities after healing. The time interval between clinical onset of gangrene and bone destruction ranges from 2 weeks to 4 weeks(mean 2.6 weeks). Plane radiographs showed fragmentation of the articular ends, subluxation, and soft tissue swelling of the metatarsophalangeal joint or interphalangeal joint. The significant feature of these patients was rapid progression of the lesions. Clinically, all patients had diabetic gangrene in affected toes, however, there was no evidence of osteomyelitis in our series. Amputation was done in 2 cases, and lesions in 3 of the remaining 4 cases were repaired spontaneously with regression of gangrene, leaving radiological residua such as pointed-end, tapered-end, and ball and socket deformity. Rapid disorganisation of the joint with associated evidence of soft tissue gangrene in plain radiograph is believed to be valuable for the diagnosis of diabetic osteoarthropathy

  15. Diagnosis of lumbar central spinal stenosis by plain radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilkko, E.

    1989-01-01

    The usefulness of plain radiography in the diagnosis of lumbar central spinal stenosis was studied in 116 patients using computed tomography (CT) as a reference. The most significant signs found in central spinal stenosis were short pedicles, high narrow intervertebral foramina, small interlaminar windows and deep posterior concavity of the vertebral bodies. The sensitivity of plain radiography in the diagnosis of central spinal stenosis as compared to CT was 66%, the specificity was 93% and the accuracy was 86%. The midsagittal and interpedicular diameters were measured from plain radiograms and were compared with corresponding CT diameters. In approximately half of the cases, the sagittal diameters were compatible. The maximum error was 6 mm. On average, the interpedicular distances were measured as too wide. The reliability of CT measurements were established by taking the measurements from the vertebral column of a moose calf, and then comparing these to the real measurements obtained with a calibrated ruler. The maximal differences were 2 mm. (author). 24 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  16. Groundwater Pollution Sources Apportionment in the Ghaen Plain, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Vesali Naseh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Iran’s Ghaen Plain provides saffron to much of the world, no regional groundwater quality (GQ assessment has yet been undertaken. Given the region’s potential for saltwater intrusion and heavy metal contamination, it is important to assess the GQ and determine its main probable source of pollution (MPSP. Such knowledge would allow for informed mitigation or elimination of the potential adverse health effects of this groundwater through its use as drinking water, or indirectly as a result of the consumption of groundwater-irrigated crops. Total dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the water of the majority of 16 wells sampled within the region exceeded World Health Organization and Iranian permissible standards for drinking water. The groundwater proved to only be suitable for irrigating salt tolerant crops under good drainage conditions. Due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the water supply facilities, the water from all wells was deemed unsuitable for industrial purposes. Heavy metal pollution and contamination indices showed no groundwater contamination. Analysis of ionic ratios and the application of principal components analysis indicated the MPSP to be saltwater intrusion, with the geology subtending the plain, and to a lesser extent, anthropogenic activities. Reducing groundwater withdrawals, particularly those for agricultural production by using high performance irrigation methods could reduce saltwater intrusion and improve GQ in the Ghaen Plain.

  17. Groundwater Pollution Sources Apportionment in the Ghaen Plain, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesali Naseh, Mohammad Reza; Noori, Roohollah; Berndtsson, Ronny; Adamowski, Jan; Sadatipour, Elaheh

    2018-01-22

    Although Iran's Ghaen Plain provides saffron to much of the world, no regional groundwater quality (GQ) assessment has yet been undertaken. Given the region's potential for saltwater intrusion and heavy metal contamination, it is important to assess the GQ and determine its main probable source of pollution (MPSP). Such knowledge would allow for informed mitigation or elimination of the potential adverse health effects of this groundwater through its use as drinking water, or indirectly as a result of the consumption of groundwater-irrigated crops. Total dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the water of the majority of 16 wells sampled within the region exceeded World Health Organization and Iranian permissible standards for drinking water. The groundwater proved to only be suitable for irrigating salt tolerant crops under good drainage conditions. Due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the water supply facilities, the water from all wells was deemed unsuitable for industrial purposes. Heavy metal pollution and contamination indices showed no groundwater contamination. Analysis of ionic ratios and the application of principal components analysis indicated the MPSP to be saltwater intrusion, with the geology subtending the plain, and to a lesser extent, anthropogenic activities. Reducing groundwater withdrawals, particularly those for agricultural production by using high performance irrigation methods could reduce saltwater intrusion and improve GQ in the Ghaen Plain.

  18. The characteristics of hydrogeochemical zonation of groundwater in inland plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin-yu, HOU; Li-ting, XING; Yi, YANG; Wen-jing, ZHANG; Guang-yao, CHI

    2018-05-01

    To find out the hydrochemical zoning of groundwaterin the inland plain, taking Jiyang plain as an example, based on mathematical statistics, ion ratio coefficient and isotopic analysis method, the characteristics of water chemical composition and its zoning at different depths of 500m were studied. The result shows: ①The groundwater flow system in the study area can be divided into local flow system, intermediate flow system and regional flow system. ②The hydrochemical type of shallow groundwater is complex. The hydrochemical types of middle confined water are mainly ClṡSO4—MgṡNa and SO4ṡCl—NaṡMg. The deep confined water is mainly HCO3. ③The TDS of shallow groundwater increases gradually along the direction of groundwater flow. ④The shallow saltwater and freshwater are alternately distributed in horizontal direction, and saltwater is distributed sporadically in the interfluve area with sporadic punctate or banded, and hydrochemical types are mainly ClṡSO4—NaṡMgṡCa. Conclusion: Groundwater in the study area is affected by complicated hydrogeochemical action, mainly in the form of filtration, cation exchange and evaporation. The inland plain area is characterized by hydrogeochemical zonation in horizontal and vertical.

  19. Diagnostic value of pneumoperitoneum on plain abdominal film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frkovic, M.; Klapan, T.; Moscatello, I.; Frkovic, M.

    2001-01-01

    Background. Pneumoperitoneum is the presence of air outside the gut lumen as the hallmark of alimentary tract perforation. It can be spontaneous or traumatic in origin. The most frequent cause of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum is the perforation of gastric or duodenal ulcer and the aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic value of pneumoperitoneum on plain abdominal film. Patients and methods. This is a retrospective study based on the diagnostic value of pneumoperitoneum on plain abdominal film, with the patient in upright, supine and sometimes left lateral decubitus position. The study included 79 patients who were admitted to our hospital during a 2-year period of time (1998- 1999) and operated on for perforated gastroduodenal ulcer. Results. Ten (12.66 %) of 79 patients underwent operation without radiological procedure. Sixty-nine (87.34 %) patients were examined radiographically and 53 (76.81 %) of them had signs of pneumoperitoneum initially on the plain film. Conclusions. The most common cause of pneumoperitoneum was perforated duodenal ulcer in elderly male patients. The most frequent sign of pneumoperitoneum was the crescent shaped free air beneath the diaphragm. (author)

  20. Systematic assessment of constipation on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, Maurice van den; Graafmans, Doortje [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger; Beek, Erik [Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2006-03-15

    Constipation in childhood is common and its clinical assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and used to quantify constipation. Three scoring systems, those of Barr et al., Leech et al. and Blethyn et al., have been developed to quantify fecal loading on the abdominal radiograph. In order to determine which method is the most useful in clinical practice, we assessed the reproducibility of the three scoring systems. Plain abdominal radiographs from 40 clinically constipated children were retrospectively reviewed by two paediatric radiologists on two separate occasions. The radiographs were scored according to three different systems developed by Barr et al., Leech et al., Blethyn et al. Intraobserver variability and interobserver reproducibility were determined for each system. Kappa coefficients were calculated as indicators of inter- and intraobserver agreement for categorical outcome variables. The Leech score showed the highest reproducibility: the intraobserver agreement was high for both observers ({kappa} values of 0.88 and 1.00, respectively, P<0.05). Furthermore, the interobserver agreement was also high: {kappa} 0.91 in the first round and 0.84 in the second. The Leech score proved to be a highly reproducible tool for assessment of childhood constipation and is of value in clinical practice for systematic assessment of constipation on plain abdominal radiographs in children. (orig.)

  1. Pannonian plain as a morphostructural unit of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćalić Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation between the terms “Pannonian Basin” and “Pannonian Plain” is not clear enough in geographical literature. The paper discusses the usage of the term “plain” in geomorphology, as well as the usage of a quantitative method for plain delineation, through calculation of relief roughness coefficient (using a digital elevation model. Qualitative analysis, which includes the definition of dominant geomorphological processes and the distribution of Quaternary sediments, is an addition to the quantitative analysis. In the Republic of Serbia, the area of the Pannonian plain defined in this way is 24,448 km2, which is 27.5% of the total territory of the country. The paper gives the overview of the geotectonic structure and evolution of the Pannonian Basin System, with special stress on the territory of Serbia, as well as the chronology of the Pannonian sedimentation area in Serbia from the Lower Miocene till present. In order to explain the status of the Pannonian plain as one of the morphostructural units of Serbia, the theoretical basics of morphostructures are discussed, as well as the principles of their spatial definition and the relation to the notion of a geological structure. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007

  2. Orthorad - the online reference database of skeletal plain film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkmann, F.M.; Heberlein, C.; Greess, H.; Ketelsen, D.; Klose, K.J.; Grunewald, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: it is evident that there is a growing need for internet-based reference databases for reasons of practicability and due to the increasing use of reporting on digital workstations. The main advantages of online databases are expected with respect to plain film radiography and cross-sectional imaging. A reference database of skeletal plain film radiography was to be created using the Orthorad program. Materials and methods: the most important standard settings and special images of young and healthy adults in plain film radiography were collected over one year. All samples were approved for the Orthorad database by a board qualified radiologist. Based on the workflows of radiographers and radiologists, the records were organized by body part (http://www.idr.med.uni-erlangen.de/orthorad/orthorad.htm). This logical data structure will ensure that the tool serves as a source of information in two ways: On the one hand, the radiographer can access information on positioning, tube voltage and cassette format. On the other hand, the radiologist receives important knowledge regarding X-ray anatomy, reference data regarding the human skeleton, and information about the correct reporting for an image. (orig.)

  3. Acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot: Plain radiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Dae Young; Kang, Heung Sik; Sim, Jung Suk; Yoon, Yong Kyu; Kim, Chu Wan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    To determine the plain film findings of acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot. Acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot was considered when fragmentation of the articular ends of bone and subluxation of the affected joint developed within eight weeks after clinical onset of diabetic gangrene. Eight toes of six diabetics were satisfactory to our criteria. We analyzed plain radiographic findings of the affected joint and soft tissue, interval changes in followed-up radiographs, and deformities after healing. The time interval between clinical onset of gangrene and bone destruction ranges from 2 weeks to 4 weeks(mean 2.6 weeks). Plane radiographs showed fragmentation of the articular ends, subluxation, and soft tissue swelling of the metatarsophalangeal joint or interphalangeal joint. The significant feature of these patients was rapid progression of the lesions. Clinically, all patients had diabetic gangrene in affected toes, however, there was no evidence of osteomyelitis in our series. Amputation was done in 2 cases, and lesions in 3 of the remaining 4 cases were repaired spontaneously with regression of gangrene, leaving radiological residua such as pointed-end, tapered-end, and ball and socket deformity. Rapid disorganisation of the joint with associated evidence of soft tissue gangrene in plain radiograph is believed to be valuable for the diagnosis of diabetic osteoarthropathy.

  4. Presence of bias in radiographer plain film reading performance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brealey, S.; Scally, A.J.; Thomas, N.B.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose To raise awareness of the frequency of bias that can affect the quality of radiographer plain film reading performance studies. Methods Studies that assessed radiographer(s) plain film reading performance were located by searching electronic databases and grey literature, hand-searching journals, personal communication and scanning reference lists. Thirty studies were judged eligible from all data sources. Results A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrates no statistically significant difference (P=0.25) in the mean proportion of biases present from diagnostic accuracy (0.37), performance (0.42) and outcome (0.44) study designs. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed no statistically significant linear association between the proportion of biases present for the three different study designs and the year that the study was performed. The frequency of biases in film and observer selection and application of the reference standard was quite low. In contrast, many biases were present concerning independence of film reporting and comparison of reports for concordance. Conclusions The findings indicate variation in the presence of bias in radiographer plain film reading performance studies. The careful consideration of bias is an essential component of study quality and hence the validity of the evidence-base used to underpin radiographic reporting policy

  5. A New Boundary for the High Plains - Ogallala Aquifer Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker, E. M.; Nozari, S.; Kendall, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    In the semi-arid Great Plains, water is the key ingredient for crop growth: the difference between meager yields for many crops and an agricultural bonanza. The High Plains-Ogallala Aquifer complex (HPA) underlies 452,000 square kilometers of the region, and over 95% of water withdrawn from the aquifer is used for irrigation. Much of the HPA is being pumped unsustainably, and since the region is heavily reliant on this resource for its social and economic health, the High Plains has been a leader in groundwater management planning. However, the geographic boundary of the High Plains region fails to reflect the hydrogeological realities of the aquifer. The current boundary, recognizable from countless textbooks and news articles, is only slightly modified from a version from the 1980's, and largely follows the physiographic borders of the High Plains - defined by surface features such as escarpments and rivers - rather than the edges of water-bearing sediment sufficient for high-volume pumping. This is supported by three lines of evidence: hydrogeological observations from the original aquifer boundary determination; the extent of irrigated land, as estimated by MODIS-MIrAD data; and statistical estimates of saturated thickness, incorporating improved maps of the aquifer base and an additional 35 years of water table measurements. In this project, new maps of saturated thickness are used to create an updated aquifer boundary, which conforms with the standard definition of an aquifer as a package of sediment that yields enough water to be economically pumped. This has major implications for social and physical models, as well as water planning and estimates of sustainability for the HPA. Much of the area of the HPA that has been labeled `sustainable' based upon estimates of recharge relative to pumping estimates falls outside the updated aquifer boundary. In reality, the sustainably-pumped area of this updated aquifer boundary is far smaller—a fact that if more

  6. Radio monitoring of the Sozh-river flood plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, V.A.; Generalova, V.A.; Kol'nenkov, V.P.; Glaz, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Periodic radiation monitoring supervision is the important parameter of the radioactivity level time control with reference to concrete landscapes, estimation and their ecological radiochemistry conditions forecast in order to accept practical measures for the risk radiation danger reduction. The early monitoring supervision was carried out in the area of radioactive anomalies in Sozh-river flood plain. The new data received in 1998 and 2000 are cited below. The radiation situation of the last landscape appropriating to conditions in central and near terrace Sozh-river flood plain, more than in 10 years, is nowadays characterized by the data of the structure of Veprin one. In coastal flood plain the maximal radioactivity is dated to meadow vegetable layer in downturn of relief or to humus horizon of actual soil on coastal shaft. In central flood plain it remains rather high with the tendency of accumulation in meliorative channels, which are nowadays strongly overgrown, in 1,6-1,9 times exceeding earlier supervision. Down the Sozh near the village Gronovo in 1988 the level of gamma activity meadow vegetable layer changed. Radioactive situation is low here nowadays: on meadow vegetable layer almost in 5 times lower than former one. It is explained by the active hydro mode snow melt flood streams at the abrupt bend of Sozh channel, resulting in meadows washing and silt material washout. The deepening of Cs-137 reaches 0,20 m and connects with the accumulation of isotope in the top part of humus horizon where it is fixed in the fixed form. Monitoring supervision on radio strontium in the section of Sozh-river flood plain near the village Gronovo shows, that in 1995 its maximal concentration is observed in humusided loamy sand under meadow vegetable layer; the main mass of isotope - up to 80 % - was concentrated in the top 30-sm layer. It is remarkable, that with depth, reducing the contents almost twice and not being marked in underlaying sands, this isotope

  7. Desert plains classification based on Geomorphometrical parameters (Case study: Aghda, Yazd)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazeh, mahdi; Kalantari, Saeideh

    2013-04-01

    This research focuses on plains. There are several tremendous methods and classification which presented for plain classification. One of The natural resource based classification which is mostly using in Iran, classified plains into three types, Erosional Pediment, Denudation Pediment Aggradational Piedmont. The qualitative and quantitative factors to differentiate them from each other are also used appropriately. In this study effective Geomorphometrical parameters in differentiate landforms were applied for plain. Geomorphometrical parameters are calculable and can be extracted using mathematical equations and the corresponding relations on digital elevation model. Geomorphometrical parameters used in this study included Percent of Slope, Plan Curvature, Profile Curvature, Minimum Curvature, the Maximum Curvature, Cross sectional Curvature, Longitudinal Curvature and Gaussian Curvature. The results indicated that the most important affecting Geomorphometrical parameters for plain and desert classifications includes: Percent of Slope, Minimum Curvature, Profile Curvature, and Longitudinal Curvature. Key Words: Plain, Geomorphometry, Classification, Biophysical, Yazd Khezarabad.

  8. High-performance plain bearings for diesel engines. Hochleistungs-Gleitlager fuer Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.M.; Mathias, M.; Herrmann, B. (MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    The crankshaft bearings are among the most highly stressed engine components. Conventional plain bearings no longer fulfill the requirements of modern high-performance diesel engines. Introduction of the 'Sputter' technology, as a method of anti friction layer application, opened new perspectives in the field of plain bearing manufacture. In this presentation it is intended to compare various types of plain bearings and to demonstrate operation-oriented bearing testing. (orig.).

  9. Geothermal Alteration of Basaltic Core from the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    OpenAIRE

    Sant, Christopher Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Snake River Plain is located in the southern part of the state of Idaho. The eastern plain, on which this study focuses, is a trail of volcanics from the Yellowstone hotspot. Three exploratory geothermal wells were drilled on the Snake River Plain. This project analyzes basaltic core from the first well at Kimama, north of Burley, Idaho. The objectives of this project are to establish zones of geothermal alteration and analyze the potential for geothermal power production using sub-aquife...

  10. Plain radiographic evaluation of children with obstructive adenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolo, E.S.; Ahmed, A.O.; Kazeem, M.J.; Nwaorgu, O.G.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are several methods of evaluating adenoidal size pre-operatively. Plain nasopharyngeal radiography is a common investigative modality: it has been advocated, and also condemned. Aim: This study was intended to assess nasopharyngeal airway obstruction by the adenoids using plain X-rays; and also to find correlation if any, with the symptomatology. Methods: This is a retrospective study carried out between January and December 2008. The case notes and plain X-rays of the nasopharynx of 34 paediatric patients with clinical features of obstructive adenoids were analyzed. Results: A total of 34 children were studied, 22 (64.7%) were males and 12 (35.3%) were females. Their ages ranged between 7 months and 10 years: mean age was 3.55 years, standard deviation 2.723. Majority (67.6%) of the children were in the age group 0-4 years. The lowest symptomatology assessment score was 0 and the highest was 3. Children 4 years and below had the highest symptomatology scores. The minimum adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio was 0.35 and the maximum was 0.94. There was no significant difference in the mean adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio of males and females (t = 0.407; p = 0.692). Many (75.0%) of the children with moderate to severe nasopharyngeal airway obstruction by the adenoids were in the age bracket 0-4 years. The lowest adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio score was 0 and the highest was 3. Children 4 years and below had the highest adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio scores. There was a very weak nonsignificant correlation between the symptomatology assessment score and the radiological assessment score (r = 0.168; p = 0.375). Conclusion: The adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio is reliable in assessing the nasopharyngeal airway in children with obstructive adenoids.

  11. Landscape scale ecology at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, H.; Morris, K. J.; Bett, B. J.; Jones, D.; Huvenne, V. A. I.; Robert, K.; Gooday, A. J.; Durden, J. M.; Laguionie-Marchais, C.; Stefanoudis, P. V.; Benoist, N. M.; Paterson, G. L.; Wolff, G. A.; Milligan, R. J.; Bailey, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    The distribution and abundance of life on the seafloor is set to some extent by the supply of sinking particulate organic matter from overlying surface water. However, the habitat landscape of the seafloor can also exert important ecological influences at local scales. Community differences on the scales of centimeters upwards can arise from drivers including changes in seafloor sediments, slope, and lateral movement of particulate organic matter. Here we use photographic survey data covering an extent on the order of 100 km2 to examine relationships between megafauna density, biomass, diversity, and community composition, as well as food availability and habitat type across landscape scales. The surveyed area at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain has a maximum water depth of about 4850 m and includes a range of topographic features from slight undulations of the seafloor to exposed bedrock scarps on an abyssal hill rising more than 200 m above the surrounding plain. We first examine community descriptors across the entire area and then sequentially break the analytical units into smaller units including variants based on habitat types and spatial extent. We repeat the examination of seafloor community descriptors with finer and finer analytical unit scales, as well as for different habitat types, and changing levels of phytodetritus coverage. We then examine the scales at which diversity and community composition go from statistically indistinguishable between analytical units to significantly different and which factors best explain these observations. Lastly, we relate the results from this megafauna study to other recent spatial studies at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain, from foraminifera to fishes, to build a landscape view of the ecology of the area.

  12. Plain radiography procedures in Sudan: examination frequency and collective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa, B. E. Y.

    2010-12-01

    According to the previous studies diagnostic examinations are the largest man-made source to collective dose (CED) in world. It was observed that, despite of the large number of medical x-ray installations in Sudan and in particular conventional x-ray procedures, studies aimed at estimating collective effective dose in diagnostic radiology were lacking. The purpose of this study was to estimate the annual frequency of plain radiography examinations and to estimate the annual collective effective dose to Sudanese population due to plain radiography examinations, selected by their high frequencies or their relatively high doses delivered to patient. To have an idea about the typical examinations frequencies, data were collected from a sample of ten hospitals in Khartoum. The collected data provided information about the x-ray machine manufacture, year of installation and frequency of some examinations per day. The annual collective doses from all medical examinations to the population are: 441, 166, 630, 544, 276, 525, 30, 9, 12 and 161 man Sv from abdomen AP, chest AP, pelvis, lumbar spine PA, lumbar spain PA, lumbar- sacral joints, Skull AP, Skull LAT, Skull PA and from others examination, respectively. The resulting annual collective effective dose was evaluated 2793 man Sv, with the largest contribution of pelvis and LS examinations and lowest contribution of skull examinations. Collective effective dose resulting from the use of plain radiography examinations in the Sudan is small compared with global results. But that dose not negate the need to conduct radiological surveys in frequent intervals to meet the increase of successive x-ray equipment to try to estimate and reduce the doses of patients and the public. (Author)

  13. Managing flood prone ecosystem for rice production in Bihar plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.

    2002-06-01

    A large area of the eastern region especially Bihar (0.5 million hectare) faces flood submergence and/or drought every year which creates an unfavorable environment for crop production. In this ecosystem only flood prone rice is grown whose cultivation is entirely different than normal rice crop. Managing the flood prone ecosystem for rice production needs to evaluate the reasons and a comprehensive appropriate technology through research efforts for better rice production under such harsh ecology. An attempt was made to develop a suitable agronomic package for rice cultivation during and after flooding in flood prone plains of Bihar. (author)

  14. Plain film emergency radiology of child abuse: a strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestreich, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    A strategy is proposed for the dedicated interpretation of possible radiographic plain film signs that are suspicious for indicating child abuse. For each sign, the features ''PRO'' raise the question of abuse, while radiographic or clinical findings ''CON'' suggest an alternate explanation. Birth trauma, oesteogenesis imperfecta, rescue trauma, and metastatic neuroblastoma are among the many entities cited. A triad of situations may lead a radiologist to look systematically for changes from abuse; a triad of resolutions may result from the search. Periosteal reaction is the major factor in dating of fractures; physiologic periosteal reaction of infancy and periosteal reaction from previous fracture must be considered when so dating fractures. (orig.) [de

  15. Estimation of fracture energy of plain and reinforced concrete members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rajesh K.; Singh, R.K.; Kant, T.

    2012-01-01

    Modeling the complex behaviour of Reinforced concrete (RC), which is both non-homogenous and anisotropic, is a difficult task in finite element analysis of civil engineering structures. The application of fracture mechanics to plain and reinforced concrete has opened up a new field for modelling of phenomena that have often been treated empirically in the past. Cohesive crack model proposed by Hillerborg and crack band model Bazant et al with localization limiters are frequently used to study of tension failure of concrete. (author)

  16. Plain Language Summary: Evaluation of the Neck Mass in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pynnonen, Melissa A; Colandrea, Maria; Finestone, Sandra A; O'Connor, Sarah S

    2017-09-01

    This plain language summary serves as an overview in explaining the evaluation of the neck mass in adults. The summary applies to patients aged ≥18 years and is based on the 2017 "Clinical Practice Guideline: Evaluation of the Neck Mass in Adults." The evidence-based guideline includes research to support more effective evaluation and diagnosis of the neck mass in adults. The guideline was developed as a quality improvement opportunity for evaluation of the neck mass by creating clear recommendations to use in medical practice.

  17. Dispersion measurements from Sofar floats on the Iberian Abyssal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.M.; Gmitrowicz, M.

    1989-01-01

    Tracks of SOFAR floats launched on the Iberian Abyssal Plain are presented. The floats were launched in two groups in early October 1984 and mid-February 1985 to a nominal depth of 2500 m. Of these floats, 4 from the first deployment and 2 from the second functioned properly. Float signals were recorded by four autonomous listening stations at a depth of 1900 m. These preliminary results show the tracks of floats up to July 1986 and represent 3600 float days of information. The main task of the experiment was to especially study the dispersion of radioactive substances

  18. International collaborative study for the calibration of proposed International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain, and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Besselaar, A M H P; Chantarangkul, V; Angeloni, F; Binder, N B; Byrne, M; Dauer, R; Gudmundsdottir, B R; Jespersen, J; Kitchen, S; Legnani, C; Lindahl, T L; Manning, R A; Martinuzzo, M; Panes, O; Pengo, V; Riddell, A; Subramanian, S; Szederjesi, A; Tantanate, C; Herbel, P; Tripodi, A

    2018-01-01

    Essentials Two candidate International Standards for thromboplastin (coded RBT/16 and rTF/16) are proposed. International Sensitivity Index (ISI) of proposed standards was assessed in a 20-centre study. The mean ISI for RBT/16 was 1.21 with a between-centre coefficient of variation of 4.6%. The mean ISI for rTF/16 was 1.11 with a between-centre coefficient of variation of 5.7%. Background The availability of International Standards for thromboplastin is essential for the calibration of routine reagents and hence the calculation of the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Stocks of the current Fourth International Standards are running low. Candidate replacement materials have been prepared. This article describes the calibration of the proposed Fifth International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain (coded RBT/16) and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain (coded rTF/16). Methods An international collaborative study was carried out for the assignment of International Sensitivity Indexes (ISIs) to the candidate materials, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for thromboplastins and plasma used to control oral anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists. Results Results were obtained from 20 laboratories. In several cases, deviations from the ISI calibration model were observed, but the average INR deviation attributabled to the model was not greater than 10%. Only valid ISI assessments were used to calculate the mean ISI for each candidate. The mean ISI for RBT/16 was 1.21 (between-laboratory coefficient of variation [CV]: 4.6%), and the mean ISI for rTF/16 was 1.11 (between-laboratory CV: 5.7%). Conclusions The between-laboratory variation of the ISI for candidate material RBT/16 was similar to that of the Fourth International Standard (RBT/05), and the between-laboratory variation of the ISI for candidate material rTF/16 was slightly higher than that of the Fourth International Standard (rTF/09). The candidate materials

  19. Saline lakes of the glaciated Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Unless you have flown over the region or seen aerial photographs, it is hard to grasp the scale of the millions of lakes and wetlands that dot the prairie landscape of the glaciated Northern Great Plains (Figure 1). This region of abundant aquatic habitats within a grassland matrix provides for the needs of a wide diversity of wildlife species and has appropriately been deemed the "duck factory of North America." While the sheer number of lakes and wetlands within this area of the Northern Great Plains can be truly awe-inspiring, their diversity in terms of the chemical composition of their water adds an equally important component supporting biotic diversity and productivity. Water within these lakes and wetlands can range from extremely fresh with salinities approaching that of rainwater to hypersaline with salinity ten times greater than that of seawater. Additionally, while variation in salinity among these water bodies can be great, the ionic composition of lakes and wetlands with similar salinities can vary markedly, influencing the overall spatial and temporal diversity of the region's biota.

  20. Whooping crane stopover site use intensity within the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Brandt, David A.; Harrell, Wade C.; Metzger, Kristine L.; Baasch, David M.; Hefley, Trevor J.

    2015-09-23

    Whooping cranes (Grus americana) of the Aransas-Wood Buffalo population migrate twice each year through the Great Plains in North America. Recovery activities for this endangered species include providing adequate places to stop and rest during migration, which are generally referred to as stopover sites. To assist in recovery efforts, initial estimates of stopover site use intensity are presented, which provide opportunity to identify areas across the migration range used more intensively by whooping cranes. We used location data acquired from 58 unique individuals fitted with platform transmitting terminals that collected global position system locations. Radio-tagged birds provided 2,158 stopover sites over 10 migrations and 5 years (2010–14). Using a grid-based approach, we identified 1,095 20-square-kilometer grid cells that contained stopover sites. We categorized occupied grid cells based on density of stopover sites and the amount of time cranes spent in the area. This assessment resulted in four categories of stopover site use: unoccupied, low intensity, core intensity, and extended-use core intensity. Although provisional, this evaluation of stopover site use intensity offers the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and partners a tool to identify landscapes that may be of greater conservation significance to migrating whooping cranes. Initially, the tool will be used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other interested parties in evaluating the Great Plains Wind Energy Habitat Conservation Plan.

  1. Shelterbelts: A buffer to climate on the Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandle, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    One type of non-traditional forest on the Great Plains is the shelterbelt, which act as buffers to the climatic extremes of the region. The primary direct effect of a shelterbelt is to reduce the surface wind speed, resulting in altered microclimates extending 3-4 times the height of the shelterbelt on the windward side and 10-20 times the height on the leeward side. Field shelterbelts are used to protect crops, reduce wind erosion and distribute snow. Shelterbelts may also be used to protect farmsteads, livestock, roadways, and wildlife habitat. As future climate patterns develop, the value of wind protection and the moderating effect on microclimate will become more important, and careful shelterbelt design will result in benefits to various human activities. If the climate in the Plains becomes hotter and drier, as predicted, plants will need to have greater heat and drought tolerance, and will also require greater resistance to insect and disease attack. A classical genetic approach may be successful in adapting varieties, or biotechnology may shorten the period between successful identification of stress resistance and inclusion of the resistance on the next generation. 13 refs

  2. Potential future impacts of climatic change on the Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, B.

    1991-01-01

    A synopsis is provided of approaches to impact studies in the Great Plains, findings from studies of future impacts are summarized, and opportunities for enhancing understanding of future impacts are discussed. Potential impacts of climate change on agriculture, water resources, forestry, recreation/tourism, and energy are summarized. Impact analyses need to look more rigorously at variability in climate, the probabilities of various climatic conditions, and the sensitivity of social and economic activities to climatic variability. Most economic impact studies have assumed no adaptive behavior on the part of economic decision makers. Credible impact assessments require an improved understanding of the sensitivity and adaptability of sectors to climatic conditions, particularly variability. The energy sector in the Great Plains region is likely to be more sensitive to political developments in the Middle East than to climatic variability and change. Speculation and analysis of climate impacts have focused on supply conditions and demands, yet the sector is more keenly sensitive to policy implications of climatic change, such as the potential for fossil fuel taxes or other legislative or pricing constraints. 28 refs

  3. Plain radiographic findings of lung cancer with delayed diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kyu Ok; Chung, Jin Ill

    1994-01-01

    In Korea, Lung cancer is the Second most common prevailing malignancy among male population next to stomach cancer. Although CT scan and MRI is widely used in the staging of lung cancer, plain chest x-ray still plays an important role in screening and diagnosis. Our intention was to review the confusing radiographic features which result in delayed diagnosis of lung cancer. Of the 160 patients with lung cancer evaluated by us, 62 patients(39%) with delayed diagnosis and average diagnostic duration of 5.1 months compared with 2.1 months for those without delay. We reviewed the plain chest x-ray findings of those 62 patients. The diagnosis of lung cancer was delayed more than half of the cases under the impression of intrathoracic tuberculosis. Upon reviewing the roentgenologic findings in patients with diagnostic delay, central type appeared as a small hilar or mediastinal mass with or without obstructive pneumonia. Peripheral type appeared as an ill-defined pulmonary module, a nodule hidden by overlapping structures, or as a lung cancer associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Some cases were misinterpreted as extranodal spread of malignancy. To solve above mentioned problems, we recommend proper understanding of natural history of lung cancer, incorporation of high kVp technique in chest radiographs, routine acquisition of lateral chest radiograph to increase diagnostic accuracy, and appropriate use of CT scan in cases of difficult diagnosis

  4. Analysis of farming types’ characteristics in the Boianu Plain (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Vijulie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the distribution and dimensional structure of the farms depending on their legal status, and the owners’ perceptions on the current status. The main research methods used in the study were: direct observation method, digital mapping, statistical analysis, surveying (semi-structured interview and SWOT analysis. The Boianu Plain is by excellence an agricultural region. Its arable land is worked/operated by three main categories of farms: individual holdings, family farming associations and farming societies. Production obtained within individual holdings is always lower comparative to family farming associations and especially to farming societies. Partnership helps farmers to join their technical and financial means in order to increase the annual production and, implicitly, gain profit. In this respect, the farmers’ perception resulted from the semi-structured interviews is a good evaluation instrument. The most critical issue at local level is making individual farmers aware of the benefits of family association and/or farmland leasing. The SWOT analysis reveals the possibility of an efficient management as driven by the way that the existing opportunities are able to mitigate or completely remove the weaknesses. The Boianu Plain has a very good agricultural potential in a highly favourable environment, but poorly capitalized.

  5. Probabilistic Flexural Fatigue in Plain and Fiber-Reinforced Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, José D; Cifuentes, Héctor; Yu, Rena C; Ruiz, Gonzalo

    2017-07-07

    The objective of this work is two-fold. First, we attempt to fit the experimental data on the flexural fatigue of plain and fiber-reinforced concrete with a probabilistic model (Saucedo, Yu, Medeiros, Zhang and Ruiz, Int. J. Fatigue, 2013, 48, 308-318). This model was validated for compressive fatigue at various loading frequencies, but not for flexural fatigue. Since the model is probabilistic, it is not necessarily related to the specific mechanism of fatigue damage, but rather generically explains the fatigue distribution in concrete (plain or reinforced with fibers) for damage under compression, tension or flexion. In this work, more than 100 series of flexural fatigue tests in the literature are fit with excellent results. Since the distribution of monotonic tests was not available in the majority of cases, a two-step procedure is established to estimate the model parameters based solely on fatigue tests. The coefficient of regression was more than 0.90 except for particular cases where not all tests were strictly performed under the same loading conditions, which confirms the applicability of the model to flexural fatigue data analysis. Moreover, the model parameters are closely related to fatigue performance, which demonstrates the predictive capacity of the model. For instance, the scale parameter is related to flexural strength, which improves with the addition of fibers. Similarly, fiber increases the scattering of fatigue life, which is reflected by the decreasing shape parameter.

  6. 49 CFR 215.109 - Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication... Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.109 Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication system...) Metal parts contacting the journal; or (e) Is— (1) Missing; or (2) Not in contact with the journal. ...

  7. Landscape-scale patterns of fire and drought on the high plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulette Ford; Charles Jackson; Matthew Reeves; Benjamin Bird; Dave Turner

    2015-01-01

    We examine 31 years (1982-2012) of temperature, precipitation and natural wildfire occurrence data for Federal and Tribal lands to determine landscape-scale patterns of drought and fire on the southern and central High Plains of the western United States. The High Plains states of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas and...

  8. An appraisal of plain language in the South African banking sector

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    combination of approaches to plain language, but no testing is done on real consumers. ... language' definition in relation to other definitions of plain language, before the findings ... minimal experience as a consumer of the relevant goods or services, could be ..... The legal practitioner agreed by mentioning that marketing.

  9. Description of plant communities on the Red Sea costal plain of Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldewahid, G.; Werf, van der W.; Sykora, K.V.; Abate, T.; Mostofa, B.; Huis, van A.

    2007-01-01

    The coastal plains of the Red Sea constitute an important breeding area for the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. Vegetation analysis was undertaken in the coastal plain of Sudan to provide a frame of reference for studies on desert locust ecology and distribution. Vegetation relevés (>60 in

  10. 17 CFR 240.15d-20 - Plain English presentation of specified information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plain English presentation of specified information. 240.15d-20 Section 240.15d-20 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Other Reports § 240.15d-20 Plain English presentation of...

  11. 17 CFR 240.13a-20 - Plain English presentation of specified information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plain English presentation of specified information. 240.13a-20 Section 240.13a-20 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Other Reports § 240.13a-20 Plain English presentation of...

  12. The role of plain radiographs in the diagnosis of chronic maxillary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Computed tomography is currently the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis. However, this facility is not readily available in many developing countries. Thus, plain sinus radiography is still widely in use in our practice. Objectives: To assess the diagnostic value of plain radiographs in adult ...

  13. Plain Language to Communicate Physical Activity Information: A Website Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Samantha R; Black, David R; Mattson, Marifran; Coster, Daniel C; Stellefson, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Plain language techniques are health literacy universal precautions intended to enhance health care system navigation and health outcomes. Physical activity (PA) is a popular topic on the Internet, yet it is unknown if information is communicated in plain language. This study examined how plain language techniques are included in PA websites, and if the use of plain language techniques varies according to search procedures (keyword, search engine) and website host source (government, commercial, educational/organizational). Three keywords ("physical activity," "fitness," and "exercise") were independently entered into three search engines (Google, Bing, and Yahoo) to locate a nonprobability sample of websites ( N = 61). Fourteen plain language techniques were coded within each website to examine content formatting, clarity and conciseness, and multimedia use. Approximately half ( M = 6.59; SD = 1.68) of the plain language techniques were included in each website. Keyword physical activity resulted in websites with fewer clear and concise plain language techniques ( p websites with more clear and concise techniques ( p language techniques did not vary by search engine or the website host source. Accessing PA information that is easy to understand and behaviorally oriented may remain a challenge for users. Transdisciplinary collaborations are needed to optimize plain language techniques while communicating online PA information.

  14. Chemical speciation modelling of the South Terras and Madeira Abyssal Plain natural analogue sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffield, J.R.; Xu Langqui; Williams, D.R.

    1988-11-01

    The chemical speciation of uranium has been modelled using field data from the South Terras and Madeira Abyssal Plain natural analogue sites. In general, validation is good, particularly for the Abyssal Plain model. Problems regarding uranium redox couples have been highlighted as have other areas requiring further consideration for building into the thermodynamic models. (author)

  15. Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book “Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America” summarizes published research in soil science and agronomy from various field experiments conducted in the soil-climatic/agro-ecological regions of the Northern Great Plains of North America....

  16. Drought variability over Thessaly plain, Greece. Present and future changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Kapsomenakis, John; Dalezios, Nicolas R.; Kotsopoulos, Spyridon; Poulos, Serafim

    2015-04-01

    The diachronic variability of precipitation is of major scientific concern, because it is linked to water availability or deficiency on regional scale. The latter, resulted from a prolonged period of abnormally low precipitation or permanent absence of precipitation, is associated with dryness, having on one hand, a substantial impact on agricultural production and thus the society itself, and on the other hand, the redistribution of flora and fauna. In some cases, dryness drive climate refugees, and this is a great challenge - threat - that must be faced - mitigated - by stake holders in international organizations and fora. The Aridity Index (AI) measures the degree of dryness of the climate at a given region, and according to the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) it is defined as the ratio of precipitation to the potential evapotranspiration. In this study, we investigate the climate change impacts on AI over Thessaly plain, Greece. Thessaly, the largest plain and granary of Greece, includes a total area of 14,036 km2, which represents almost 11% of the Greek territory. Regarding the geomorphology, the ground is 50% mountainous-hilly and 50% flat, irrigated by Peneus, the third largest river in the country, which flows through the axis east-west. The assessment of AI was conducted utilizing daily evapotranspiration losses, based on the modified FAO-56 Penman-Monteith formula, and daily precipitation totals from a number of Regional Climate Models (RCMs), within the ENSEMBLE European Project. Further, the projected changes of AI between the period 1961-1990 (reference period) and the periods 2021-2050 (near future) and 2071-2100 (far future) along with the inter-model standard deviations are presented, under SRES A1B. The findings of the analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal changes of AI over Thessaly plain, focusing on their societal aspects. Acknowlegdements. This work is supported by the project AGROCLIMA (11SYN_3_1913), which is funded by

  17. Late Pleistocene dune activity in the central Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J.A.; Swinehart, J.B.; Hanson, P.R.; Loope, D.B.; Goble, R.J.; Miao, X.; Schmeisser, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Stabilized dunes of the central Great Plains, especially the megabarchans and large barchanoid ridges of the Nebraska Sand Hills, provide dramatic evidence of late Quaternary environmental change. Episodic Holocene dune activity in this region is now well-documented, but Late Pleistocene dune mobility has remained poorly documented, despite early interpretations of the Sand Hills dunes as Pleistocene relicts. New optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from drill cores and outcrops provide evidence of Late Pleistocene dune activity at sites distributed across the central Great Plains. In addition, Late Pleistocene eolian sands deposited at 20-25 ka are interbedded with loess south of the Sand Hills. Several of the large dunes sampled in the Sand Hills clearly contain a substantial core of Late Pleistocene sand; thus, they had developed by the Late Pleistocene and were fully mobile at that time, although substantial sand deposition and extensive longitudinal dune construction occurred during the Holocene. Many of the Late Pleistocene OSL ages fall between 17 and 14 ka, but it is likely that these ages represent only the later part of a longer period of dune construction and migration. At several sites, significant Late Pleistocene or Holocene large-dune migration also probably occurred after the time represented by the Pleistocene OSL ages. Sedimentary structures in Late Pleistocene eolian sand and the forms of large dunes potentially constructed in the Late Pleistocene both indicate sand transport dominated by northerly to westerly winds, consistent with Late Pleistocene loess transport directions. Numerical modeling of the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum has often yielded mean monthly surface winds southwest of the Laurentide Ice Sheet that are consistent with this geologic evidence, despite strengthened anticyclonic circulation over the ice sheet. Mobility of large dunes during the Late Pleistocene on the central Great Plains may have been the result of

  18. Groundwater Hydrochemical Zoning in Inland Plains and its Genetic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liting Xing

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pore water in inland plain areas, generally having poor water quality, contain complex hydrochemical properties. In order to examine groundwater chemical composition formation characteristics, groundwater in the Jiyang area of Lubei Plain was studied using stratified monitoring of drilling, analysis of water level and water quality, isotope analysis, ion ratio coefficient and isothermal adsorption experiments, hydrochemical characteristics, and analysis of variations in different shallow depths. Results show that: (1 Numerous hydrochemistry types are present in the diving. Along with the direction of groundwater flow, total dissolved solids (TDS of diving in the study area generally increases and the hydrochemical type changes from the HCO3 type to the HCO3·SO4 type, Cl·HCO3 type and the Cl·SO4 type. (2 Shallow brackish water and freshwater in the horizontal direction are alternately distributed, and shallow brackish water is distributed in the area between old channels, showing sporadic spots or bands, whose hydrochemistry type is predominantly Cl·SO4-Na·Mg·Ca. (3 Affected by the sedimentary environment, hydrodynamic conditions and other factors; diving, middle brackish water and deep freshwater are vertically deposited in the study area. The dynamics of middle brackish water quality are stable due to the sedimentary environment and clay deposits. The hydrochemistry types of middle brackish water are mainly Cl·SO4-Mg·Na and SO4·Cl-Na·Mg, while the deep confined water is dominated by HCO3. (4 The optimal adsorption isotherms of Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in groundwater from clay, with a thickness raging from 6–112 m, conformed to the Henry equation and the Langmuir equation. The retardation of Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in groundwater differed with differing depths of the clay deposit. The trend of change in retardation strength correlates strongly with the TDS of groundwater. Groundwater in the inland plain area is affected by complicated

  19. Remote Sensing Insights into Storage Capacities among Plains Village Horticulturalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewel, Adam S.

    Maize was a fundamental component of the diet and economy of Middle Missouri Plains Village groups, sedentary farmers with settlements along the Missouri River during the last millennia. More than a century of study has contributed to our understanding of agricultural production among these peoples, but little effort has been made to consider temporal variation in production. Such an understanding is crucial to examining changes that occurred before and after the arrival of colonists and their trade goods in the seventeenth century. Plains archaeologists have suggested that the storage capacity of Middle Missouri villages increased during the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries. In fact, the number and size of subterranean storage pits, ubiquitous features within most settlements, are thought to have grown during these centuries, which reflects greater agricultural production. To further examine changes in production and storage capacity during this centuries-long period, I combine information from historical documents, excavations, and geophysical investigations. At Huff Village, a fifteenth-century community, excavations and magnetic gradiometry surveys reveal the size and distribution of storage pits. Their number and average volume suggest the villagers grew immense amounts of food and contributed to widespread intertribal trade. Furthermore, storage pit excavation data from 20 regional sites, dating from the thirteenth to the nineteenth century, indicate pit volumes increased through the seventeenth century. A sharp decrease subsequently occurred during the eighteenth century due to epidemic disease. However, mean pit volumes were significantly larger during the nineteenth century, evidence of the resilience of Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras and the continued significance of maize. In fact, historical documents and remote sensing data suggest the Mandans and Arikaras, successive occupants of an earthlodge village near the American Fur Company's Fort

  20. Exploring perception of Indians about plain packaging of tobacco products: a mixed method research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eArora

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed perceptions and support among the Indian populace about plain packaging for all tobacco products.12 focus group discussions (n=124, stakeholder analysis with 24 officials and an opinion poll with 346 participants were conducted between December 2011 - May 2012 , Delhi. Plain packages for tobacco products were favoured by majority of participants (69% and key stakeholders (92%. The majority of participants perceived that plain packaging would reduce the appeal and promotional value of the tobacco pack (>80%, prevent initiation of tobacco use among children and youth (>60%, motivate tobacco users to quit (>80%, increase noticeability and effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on tobacco packs (>90%,reduce tobacco usage (75% of key stakeholders. Majority of participants favoured light grey colour for plain packaging. This study provides key evidence to advocate with Indian Government and other countries in South Asia region to introduce plain packaging legislation for all tobacco products.

  1. Geohazards (floods and landslides in the Ndop plain, Cameroon volcanic line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wotchoko Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ndop Plain, located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL, is a volcano-tectonic plain, formed by a series of tectonic movements, volcanic eruptions and sedimentation phases. Floods (annually and landslides (occasionally occur with devastating environmental effects. However, this plain attracts a lot of inhabitants owing to its fertile alluvial soils. With demographic explosion in the plain, the inhabitants (143,000 people tend to farm and inhabit new zones which are prone to these geohazards. In this paper, we use field observations, laboratory analyses, satellite imagery and complementary methods using appropriate software to establish hazard (flood and landslide maps of the Ndop Plain. Natural factors as well as anthropogenic factors are considered.

  2. Assessment of bioaerosol pollution over Indo-Gangetic plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta; Shrivastava, J N; Satsangi, G P; Kumar, Ranjit

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol plays a very important role in climate change and public health. It affects cloud condensation nuclei and causes a number of epidemic diseases. The correlations of aerosol with epidemic diseases are due to the biotic components of aerosol. The present study deals with the measurements and characterization of bioaerosol over Indo-Gangetic plain. The levels of PM10 and PM2.5 are much higher than the recommended value set by NAAQS in India. Bacterial and fungal concentrations are in the reported range. Bacterial concentration is higher than fungal concentration. Gram-positive bacteria contribute 75% while gram-negative bacteria contribute 25% only. A total seven types of fungi are identified in aerosols. Aspergillus niger is dominant. Meteorological parameters play important roles in growth and presence of microorganism in the air. Bacterial concentrations are governed mainly by temperature while fungal concentration is influenced by relative humidity.

  3. Arsenic in Water Resources of the Southern Pampa Plains, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Paoloni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Confronted with the need for accessible sources of good quality water and in view of the fact that the threat to public health posed by arsenic occurs mainly through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, the presence and distribution of arsenic was evaluated in the southern Pampa Plains of Bahía Blanca district in Argentina. The findings show variable concentrations of arsenic in a complex distribution pattern. Complementary information is provided on the behavior of the groundwater resource and its salinity in terms of dissolved ions. Groundwater is the most severely affected, 97% of the samples exceeding the guideline value for arsenic in drinking water as recommended by the WHO (Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 2004. and showing maximum concentrations of up to 0.30 mg/L. Informing those responsible for preventive medicine and alerting the community at large will facilitate measures to mitigate exposure and ensure the safety of drinking water.

  4. Radon-prone areas in the Lombard plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesana, Lucia; Polla, Giancarla; Facchini, Ugo; De Capitani, Luisa

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the results of indoor radon measurements carried out in the Lombard plain. The aim of this study, which is based on the geological context, was to identify radon high-risk areas. The underlying geology has been established by means of the available stratigraphies giving a schematic representation of the sites in which either occurrence of gravel or silt and clay predominate with depths ranging from 0 to 50 m. Radon measurements were performed in a sample of 411 one-family houses in seven villages located in the southern area of Bergamo and Brescia. The findings indicate that when the substrate is dominated by clay, radon concentration for dwellings on the ground floor are low, whereas a strong predominance of underlying gravel mixed up in sand gives in winter months high radon flux from underground

  5. Radon-prone areas in the Lombard plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesana, Lucia [Istituto di Fisica Generale Applicata, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Celoria, 16 - 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: lucia.sesana@unimi.it; Polla, Giancarla [Istituto di Fisica Generale Applicata, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Celoria, 16 - 20133 Milan (Italy); Facchini, Ugo [Istituto di Fisica Generale Applicata, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Celoria, 16 - 20133 Milan (Italy); De Capitani, Luisa [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Botticelli, 23 - 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports the results of indoor radon measurements carried out in the Lombard plain. The aim of this study, which is based on the geological context, was to identify radon high-risk areas. The underlying geology has been established by means of the available stratigraphies giving a schematic representation of the sites in which either occurrence of gravel or silt and clay predominate with depths ranging from 0 to 50 m. Radon measurements were performed in a sample of 411 one-family houses in seven villages located in the southern area of Bergamo and Brescia. The findings indicate that when the substrate is dominated by clay, radon concentration for dwellings on the ground floor are low, whereas a strong predominance of underlying gravel mixed up in sand gives in winter months high radon flux from underground.

  6. Summertime Low-Level Jets over the Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensrud, D.J. [NOAA/ERL/National Severe Storms Lab., Norman, OK (United States); Pfeifer, S. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The sky over the southern Great Plains Cloud and Atmospheric Radiation Testbed (CART) site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program during the predawn and early morning hours often is partially obstructed by stratocumulus, stratus fractus, or cumulus fractus that are moving rapidly to the north, even through the surface winds are weak. This cloud movement is evidence of the low-level jet (LLJ), a wind speed maximum that occurs in the lowest few kilometers of the atmosphere. Owing to the wide spacing between upper-air sounding sites and the relatively infrequent sounding launches, LLJ evolution has been difficult to observe adequately, even though the effects of LLJs on moisture flux into North America are large. Model simulation of the LLJ is described.

  7. Analysis of heat transfer in plain carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Heung Nam; Lee, Kyung Jong

    1999-01-01

    During cooling of steels, the heat transfer was controlled by radiation, convection, conduction and heat evolution from phase transformation. To analyze the heat transfer during cooling precisely, the material constants such as density, heat capacity and the heat evolved during transformation were obtained as functions of temperature and chemical composition for each phase observed in plain carbon steel using a thermodynamic analysis based on the sublattice model of Fe-C-Mn system. The results were applied to 0.049 wt% and 0.155 wt% carbon steels with an austenitic stainless steel as reference by developing a proper heat transfer governing equation. The equation was solved using the lumped system method. In addition, using a transformation dilatometer with adequate experimental conditions to clarify the individual heat transfer effect, the transformation heat evolved during cooling and the transformation behavior as well as the temperature change were observed. The predicted temperature profiles during cooling were well agreed with the measured ones

  8. Plain bearing stresses due to forming and oil film pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke-Veliz, A; Reed, P A S; Syngellakis, S [University of Southampton, School of Engineering Sciences, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Wang, D; Wahdy, N; Merritt, D, E-mail: allan.burke@itesm.m [MAHLE Engine Systems UK Ltd, 2 Central park Drive, Rugby CV23 0WE (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes a methodology for assessing critical stress ranges arising in automotive plain bearings during engine operations. An industry-produced and run simulation program provides information on oil film pressure and overall bearing deformation during accelerated performance tests. This code performs an elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication analysis accounting for the compliance of the housing and journal. Finite element analyses of a multilayer bearing are performed to assess the conditions responsible for possible fatigue damage over the bearing lining. The residual stresses arising from the forming and fitting process are first assessed. The stress analyses over the engine cycle show the intensity and distribution of cyclic tensile and compressive stresses in the bearing. The location of maximum stress range is found to be consistent with the damage observed in accelerated fatigue tests. Critical zones are identified in the lining for possible fatigue crack initiation and growth studies.

  9. Plain bearing stresses due to forming and oil film pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke-Veliz, A; Reed, P A S; Syngellakis, S; Wang, D; Wahdy, N; Merritt, D

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for assessing critical stress ranges arising in automotive plain bearings during engine operations. An industry-produced and run simulation program provides information on oil film pressure and overall bearing deformation during accelerated performance tests. This code performs an elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication analysis accounting for the compliance of the housing and journal. Finite element analyses of a multilayer bearing are performed to assess the conditions responsible for possible fatigue damage over the bearing lining. The residual stresses arising from the forming and fitting process are first assessed. The stress analyses over the engine cycle show the intensity and distribution of cyclic tensile and compressive stresses in the bearing. The location of maximum stress range is found to be consistent with the damage observed in accelerated fatigue tests. Critical zones are identified in the lining for possible fatigue crack initiation and growth studies.

  10. Integrated hydrological modelling of the North China Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, Yunqiao; Villholth, Karen G.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2012-01-01

    The integrated hydrological model MIKE SHE was applied to a part of the North China Plain to examine the dynamics of the hydrological system and to assess water management options to restore depleted groundwater resources. The model simulates the spatio-temporal distribution of recharge...... for scenario analysis of the effect of different cropping rotations, irrigation intensity, and other water management options, like the implementation of the South to North Water Transfer (SNWT) project. The model analysis verified that groundwater tables in the region are subject to steep declines (up to 1 m....../yr) due to decades of intensive exploitation of the groundwater resources for crop irrigation, primarily the widespread crop rotation of irrigated winter wheat and mostly rainfed summer maize. The SNWT project mitigates water stress in Shijiazhuang city and areas adjacent to wastewater canals but cannot...

  11. Arsenic in Water Resources of the Southern Pampa Plains, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoloni, Juan D.; Sequeira, Mario E.; Espósito, Martín E.; Fiorentino, Carmen E.; Blanco, María del C.

    2009-01-01

    Confronted with the need for accessible sources of good quality water and in view of the fact that the threat to public health posed by arsenic occurs mainly through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, the presence and distribution of arsenic was evaluated in the southern Pampa Plains of Bahía Blanca district in Argentina. The findings show variable concentrations of arsenic in a complex distribution pattern. Complementary information is provided on the behavior of the groundwater resource and its salinity in terms of dissolved ions. Groundwater is the most severely affected, 97% of the samples exceeding the guideline value for arsenic in drinking water as recommended by the WHO (Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 2004). and showing maximum concentrations of up to 0.30 mg/L. Informing those responsible for preventive medicine and alerting the community at large will facilitate measures to mitigate exposure and ensure the safety of drinking water. PMID:19936127

  12. Tillage practices and identity formation in High Plains farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Katherine; Arnould, Eric; Press, Melea

    2014-01-01

    farming, recognition and denunciation of other farmers’ practices, and recognition and justification of their own contribute to identity formation. This research contributes to the ongoing discussion of how identity is formed through day-to-day activities in the material world. The plow creates divisions...... landscape. Specifically, they compare conservation tillage wedded to ‘modern’ ideologies of scientific farming with conventional tillage newly linked to beliefs about both organic and traditional farming, and examine how farmers use these different forms of tillage to create their identities. Roadside...... in the High Plains community between organic farmers who continue to rely on this implement in their material engagement with the land and the chemical farmers who distance their practices from the plow as they distinguish themselves as stewards of the soil....

  13. Arsenic in Water Resources of the Southern Pampa Plains, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoloni, J.D.; Sequeira, M.E.; Esposito, M.E.; Fiorentino, C.E.; Blanco, M.D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Confronted with the need for accessible sources of good quality water and in view of the fact that the threat to public health posed by arsenic occurs mainly through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, the presence and distribution of arsenic was evaluated in the southern Pampa Plains of Bahia Blanca district in Argentina. The findings show variable concentrations of arsenic in a complex distribution pattern. Complementary information is provided on the behavior of the groundwater resource and its salinity in terms of dissolved ions. Groundwater is the most severely affected, 97% of the samples exceeding the guideline value for arsenic in drinking water as recommended by the Who (Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 2004). and showing maximum concentrations of up to 0.30 mg/L. Informing those responsible for preventive medicine and alerting the community at large will facilitate measures to mitigate exposure and ensure the safety of drinking water.

  14. Building Indigenous Community Resilience in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, B.

    2014-12-01

    Indigenous community resilience is rooted in the seasoned lifeways, developed over generations, incorporated into systems of knowledge, and realized in artifacts of infrastructure through keen observations of the truth and consequences of their interactions with the environment found in place over time. Their value lies, not in their nature as artifacts, but in the underlying patterns and processes of culture: how previous adaptations were derived and evolved, and how the principles and processes of detailed observation may inform future adaptations. This presentation examines how such holistic community approaches, reflected in design and practice, can be applied to contemporary issues of energy and housing in a rapidly changing climate. The Indigenous Peoples of the Great Plains seek to utilize the latest scientific climate modeling to support the development of large, utility scale distributed renewable energy projects and to re-invigorate an indigenous housing concept of straw bale construction, originating in this region. In the energy context, we explore the potential for the development of an intertribal wind energy dynamo on the Great Plains, utilizing elements of existing federal policies for Indian energy development and existing federal infrastructure initially created to serve hydropower resources, which may be significantly altered under current and prospective drought scenarios. For housing, we consider the opportunity to address the built environment in Indian Country, where Tribes have greater control as it consists largely of residences needed for their growing populations. Straw bale construction allows for greater use of local natural and renewable materials in a strategy for preparedness for the weather extremes and insurance perils already common to the region, provides solutions to chronic unemployment and increasing energy costs, while offering greater affordable comfort in both low and high temperature extremes. The development of large

  15. Quantifying uncertainties of seismic Bayesian inversion of Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C.; Lekic, V.

    2017-12-01

    Elastic waves excited by earthquakes are the fundamental observations of the seismological studies. Seismologists measure information such as travel time, amplitude, and polarization to infer the properties of earthquake source, seismic wave propagation, and subsurface structure. Across numerous applications, seismic imaging has been able to take advantage of complimentary seismic observables to constrain profiles and lateral variations of Earth's elastic properties. Moreover, seismic imaging plays a unique role in multidisciplinary studies of geoscience by providing direct constraints on the unreachable interior of the Earth. Accurate quantification of uncertainties of inferences made from seismic observations is of paramount importance for interpreting seismic images and testing geological hypotheses. However, such quantification remains challenging and subjective due to the non-linearity and non-uniqueness of geophysical inverse problem. In this project, we apply a reverse jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (rjMcMC) algorithm for a transdimensional Bayesian inversion of continental lithosphere structure. Such inversion allows us to quantify the uncertainties of inversion results by inverting for an ensemble solution. It also yields an adaptive parameterization that enables simultaneous inversion of different elastic properties without imposing strong prior information on the relationship between them. We present retrieved profiles of shear velocity (Vs) and radial anisotropy in Northern Great Plains using measurements from USArray stations. We use both seismic surface wave dispersion and receiver function data due to their complementary constraints of lithosphere structure. Furthermore, we analyze the uncertainties of both individual and joint inversion of those two data types to quantify the benefit of doing joint inversion. As an application, we infer the variation of Moho depths and crustal layering across the northern Great Plains.

  16. 78 FR 49684 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

  17. 77 FR 20295 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  18. 75 FR 73966 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  19. 78 FR 36091 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

  20. 77 FR 35854 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  1. 77 FR 65478 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River...

  2. 76 FR 63199 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal...

  3. 76 FR 2829 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  4. 75 FR 52462 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  5. 77 FR 60044 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River...

  6. Anterior atlantodental and posterior atlantodental intervals on plain radiography, multidetector CT, and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Park, Dong Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ki Bo; Lee, Seung Hun; Joo, Kyung Bin [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Seoul Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    To determine the normal values of the anterior atlantodental interval (AADI) and posterior atlantodental interval (PADI) on plain radiography, multidetector CT (MDCT) and MRI, as well as the dural sac width and spinal cord diameter at the atlantoaxial joint level on MRI. In total, 60 subjects underwent plain radiography, MRI and MDCT. We obtained values for AADI and PADI on plain radiography, MDCT, and MRI, and for dural sac width and spinal cord diameter on MRI. Two radiologists independently measured each value and a consensus was reached. The average AADI was 1.5 +/- 0.5 mm on plain radiography, 1.4 +/- 0.3 mm on MDCT, and 1.6 +/- 0.5 mm on MRI. The average PADI was 20.6 +/- 2.4 mm on plain radiography, 18.0 +/- 2.1 mm on MDCT, and 17.7 +/- 1.9 mm on MRI. The dural sac width was 13.7 +/- 1.8 mm, and the spinal cord diameter was 7.8 +/- 0.7 mm. Interobserver agreement was 0.701-0.927 and intraobserver agreement was 0.681-0.937. AADI values obtained on MDCT are significantly lower than those obtained on plain radiography or MRI. PADI values obtained on plain radiography are significantly higher than those obtained on MDCT or MRI. The dural sac width is most closely correlated with PADI values on MDCT. PADI seems to be easier to measure, more relevant, and clinically useful than AADI.

  7. Evaluating the Use of Plain Language in a Cancer Clinical Trial Website/App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Paula L; Carlisle, Regina; Cheatham, Chesley; O'Grady, Melissa

    2017-12-01

    Medically complex titles and descriptions found on clinical trial websites and online applications present a barrier to comprehension for users from the general public. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of plain language trial descriptions for user comprehension of basic trial details. Two hundred seventeen volunteers recruited from patient waiting areas completed 441 user tests of ten plain language trial descriptions. The majority of volunteers adequately comprehended the cancer type and basic inclusion/exclusion criteria from plain language trial descriptions. Difficulty comprehending the treatment being studied was seen in seven of ten descriptions tested. Revision and retesting of the seven trial descriptions showed continued user challenges in comprehending the treatment being studied. Plain language clinical trial descriptions integrated into a website/app allowed users to understand basic inclusion/exclusion criteria. Despite plain language used, discerning the treatment being studied may be difficult for some users. Integration of plain language descriptions into clinical trial online applications can help users understand trial basics. Further research regarding effective use of plain language to communicate the treatment being studied is needed.

  8. Anterior atlantodental and posterior atlantodental intervals on plain radiography, multidetector CT, and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Park, Dong Woo; Yoon, Ki Bo; Lee, Seung Hun; Joo, Kyung Bin

    2015-01-01

    To determine the normal values of the anterior atlantodental interval (AADI) and posterior atlantodental interval (PADI) on plain radiography, multidetector CT (MDCT) and MRI, as well as the dural sac width and spinal cord diameter at the atlantoaxial joint level on MRI. In total, 60 subjects underwent plain radiography, MRI and MDCT. We obtained values for AADI and PADI on plain radiography, MDCT, and MRI, and for dural sac width and spinal cord diameter on MRI. Two radiologists independently measured each value and a consensus was reached. The average AADI was 1.5 +/- 0.5 mm on plain radiography, 1.4 +/- 0.3 mm on MDCT, and 1.6 +/- 0.5 mm on MRI. The average PADI was 20.6 +/- 2.4 mm on plain radiography, 18.0 +/- 2.1 mm on MDCT, and 17.7 +/- 1.9 mm on MRI. The dural sac width was 13.7 +/- 1.8 mm, and the spinal cord diameter was 7.8 +/- 0.7 mm. Interobserver agreement was 0.701-0.927 and intraobserver agreement was 0.681-0.937. AADI values obtained on MDCT are significantly lower than those obtained on plain radiography or MRI. PADI values obtained on plain radiography are significantly higher than those obtained on MDCT or MRI. The dural sac width is most closely correlated with PADI values on MDCT. PADI seems to be easier to measure, more relevant, and clinically useful than AADI.

  9. Young people's perceptions of cigarette packaging and plain packaging: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Crawford; Ford, Allison; Mackintosh, Anne Marie; Hastings, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, with most marketing channels prohibited, packaging is one of the few remaining ways that tobacco companies can promote their products. An online survey with young people aged 10-17 years (N = 658) was used to explore why youth choose cigarettes, perceptions of pack color, and perceptions of plain (nonbranded) cigarette packaging. Young people were also shown an image of 3 plain packs, which differed by shape and method of opening, and asked which they liked most and thought others their age would smoke. Price and what significant others smoke were key factors for choosing cigarettes, with packaging also an important influence. More than a third of the sample associated lighter pack color with weak tasting and less harmful cigarettes. Plain packs were rated negatively as were perceptions of plain pack users. One in 3 showed a preference for either a narrow "perfume type" plain pack or a plain "slide" pack that opened from the side, and 1 in 3 also thought that young people would smoke these packs. Packaging appears to both attract young people and mislead them about product strength and relative harm. Innovative pack construction (novel pack shape and method of opening) and the use of color are instrumental in these effects. The findings therefore suggest that any move to plain packaging should not only consider the benefits of removing branding (including color) but also of standardizing pack construction in terms of shape and method of opening.

  10. Potential nitrogen critical loads for northern Great Plains grassland vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Smith, Anine T.; Newton, Wesley E.; Knapp, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    The National Park Service is concerned that increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion and agricultural activities could adversely affect the northern Great Plains (NGP) ecosystems in its trust. The critical load concept facilitates communication between scientists and policy makers or land managers by translating the complex effects of air pollution on ecosystems into concrete numbers that can be used to inform air quality targets. A critical load is the exposure level below which significant harmful effects on sensitive elements of the environment do not occur. A recent review of the literature suggested that the nitrogen critical load for Great Plains vegetation is 10-25 kg N/ha/yr. For comparison, current atmospheric nitrogen deposition in NGP National Park Service (NPS) units ranges from ~4 kg N/ha/yr in the west to ~13 kg N/ha/yr in the east. The suggested critical load, however, was derived from studies far outside of the NGP, and from experiments investigating nitrogen loads substantially higher than current atmospheric deposition in the region.Therefore, to better determine the nitrogen critical load for sensitive elements in NGP parks, we conducted a four-year field experiment in three northern Great Plains vegetation types at Badlands and Wind Cave National Parks. The vegetation types were chosen because of their importance in NGP parks, their expected sensitivity to nitrogen addition, and to span a range of natural fertility. In the experiment, we added nitrogen at rates ranging from below current atmospheric deposition (2.5 kg N/ha/yr) to far above those levels but commensurate with earlier experiments (100 kg N/ha/yr). We measured the response of a variety of vegetation and soil characteristics shown to be sensitive to nitrogen addition in other studies, including plant biomass production, plant tissue nitrogen concentration, plant species richness and composition, non-native species abundance, and soil inorganic

  11. The plain film roentgenographic findings in diagnosis of intestinal volvulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Gyung Ho; Seo, Yeon Hee; Sohn, Myung Hee; Kim, Chong Soo; Choi, Ki Chul; Jeon, Doo Sung [Chunbuk National University College of Medicine, Chunju (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    Intestinal volvulus indicates the twisting of a loop of bowel around the axis of its own mesentery and implies interference of the blood supply associated with the obstruction. It is the purpose of this communication to review the clinical and plain roentgen manifestation on the basis of which the diagnosis can be established. In this regard, the authors have reviewed 60 cases of intestinal volvulus which have been treated from Jan, 1976 to Dec, 1987 at Chunbuk National University and Chunju presbyterian Medical Center. The results were as follows: 1) The most frequent type of intestinal volvulus was volvulus of small intestine (50%), followed by sigmoid volvulus (40%), compound volvulus (5%), cecal volvulus (3.3%), and transverse colon volvulus (1.7%). 2) The sex distribution of intestinal vovulus assumed a male to female ratio of 2.9:1. The incidence ratio of male to female was 3.4:1 in the volvulus of small intestine, 1.67:1 in sigmoid volvulus. All patients with cecal volvulus, compound volvulus, and transverse volvulus were male. 3) Of the age distribution, the youngest case was an infant of 8 months, the oldest one in 79 years. There happened even age distribution in the volvulus of small intestine at any age group, and old age distribution in colon volvulus. 4) In 30 cases of small intestine, the predisposing factors were previous abdominal operation in 20 cases (66.7%), congenital band in 3 cases (10%), malrotation in 3 cases (10%), tumor in 1 case (3.3%), and Meckel's diverticulum in 1 case (3.3%). In 24 cases of sigmoid volvulus, the predisposing factors were redundant mobile bowel in 18 cases (75%), previous operation in 4 cases (16.7%), and pelvic inflammation and adhesion in 2 cases (8.4%). In 2 cases of cecal volulus, 1 case had the history of previous operation, and 1 case had long redundant cecal loop. In 3 cases of compound volvulus, 2 cases had redundant mobile sigmoid, and 1 case had previous operation. 5) In 30 cases of the volulus of small

  12. The plain film roentgenographic findings in diagnosis of intestinal volvulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Gyung Ho; Seo, Yeon Hee; Sohn, Myung Hee; Kim, Chong Soo; Choi, Ki Chul; Jeon, Doo Sung

    1988-01-01

    Intestinal volvulus indicates the twisting of a loop of bowel around the axis of its own mesentery and implies interference of the blood supply associated with the obstruction. It is the purpose of this communication to review the clinical and plain roentgen manifestation on the basis of which the diagnosis can be established. In this regard, the authors have reviewed 60 cases of intestinal volvulus which have been treated from Jan, 1976 to Dec, 1987 at Chunbuk National University and Chunju presbyterian Medical Center. The results were as follows: 1) The most frequent type of intestinal volvulus was volvulus of small intestine (50%), followed by sigmoid volvulus (40%), compound volvulus (5%), cecal volvulus (3.3%), and transverse colon volvulus (1.7%). 2) The sex distribution of intestinal vovulus assumed a male to female ratio of 2.9:1. The incidence ratio of male to female was 3.4:1 in the volvulus of small intestine, 1.67:1 in sigmoid volvulus. All patients with cecal volvulus, compound volvulus, and transverse volvulus were male. 3) Of the age distribution, the youngest case was an infant of 8 months, the oldest one in 79 years. There happened even age distribution in the volvulus of small intestine at any age group, and old age distribution in colon volvulus. 4) In 30 cases of small intestine, the predisposing factors were previous abdominal operation in 20 cases (66.7%), congenital band in 3 cases (10%), malrotation in 3 cases (10%), tumor in 1 case (3.3%), and Meckel's diverticulum in 1 case (3.3%). In 24 cases of sigmoid volvulus, the predisposing factors were redundant mobile bowel in 18 cases (75%), previous operation in 4 cases (16.7%), and pelvic inflammation and adhesion in 2 cases (8.4%). In 2 cases of cecal volulus, 1 case had the history of previous operation, and 1 case had long redundant cecal loop. In 3 cases of compound volvulus, 2 cases had redundant mobile sigmoid, and 1 case had previous operation. 5) In 30 cases of the volulus of small

  13. The Snake River Plain Volcanic Province: Insights from Project Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, J. W.; Potter, K. E.; Hanan, B. B.; Jean, M. M.; Duncan, R. A.; Champion, D. E.; Vetter, S.; Glen, J. M. G.; Christiansen, E. H.; Miggins, D. P.; Nielson, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Snake River Plain (SRP) Volcanic Province is the best modern example of a time-transgressive hotspot track beneath continental crust. The SRP began 17 Ma with massive eruptions of Columbia River basalt and rhyolite. After 12 Ma volcanism progressed towards Yellowstone, with early rhyolite overlain by basalts that may exceed 2 km thick. The early rhyolites are anorogenic with dry phenocryst assemblages and eruption temperatures up to 950C. Tholeiitic basalts have major and trace element compositions similar to ocean island basalts (OIB). Project Hotspot cored three deep holes in the central and western Snake River Plain: Kimama (mostly basalt), Kimberly (mostly rhyolite), and Mountain Home (lake sediments and basaslt). The Kimberly core documents rhyolite ash flows up to 700 m thick, possibly filling a caldera or sag. Chemical stratigraphy in Kimama and other basalt cores document fractional crystallization in relatively shallow magma chambers with episodic magma recharge. Age-depth relations in the Kimama core suggest accumulation rates of roughly 305 m/Ma. Surface and subsurface basalt flows show systematic variations in Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes with distance from Yellowstone interpreted to reflect changes in the proportion of plume source and the underlying heterogeneous cratonic lithosphere, which varies in age, composition, and thickness from west to east. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes suggest <5% lithospheric input into a system dominated by OIB-like plume-derived basalts. A major flare-up of basaltic volcanism occurred 75-780 ka throughout the entire SRP, from Yellowstone in the east to Boise in the west. The youngest western SRP basalts are transitional alkali basalts that range in age from circa 900 ka to 2 ka, with trace element and isotopic compositions similar to the plume component of Hawaiian basalts. These observations suggest that ancient SCLM was replaced by plume mantle after the North America passed over the hotspot in the western SRP, which triggered renewed

  14. Lacustrine-fluvial interactions in Australia's Riverine Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Justine; Pietsch, Timothy; Gontz, Allen; Olley, Jon

    2017-06-01

    Climatic forcing of fluvial systems has been a pre-occupation of geomorphological studies in Australia since the 1940s. In the Riverine Plain, southeastern Australia, the stable tectonic setting and absence of glaciation have combined to produce sediment loads that are amongst the lowest in the world. Surficial sediments and landforms exceed 140,000 yr in age, and geomorphological change recorded in the fluvial, fluvio-lacustrine and aeolian features have provided a well-studied record of Quaternary environmental change over the last glacial cycle. The region includes the Willandra Lakes, whose distinctive lunette lakes preserve a history of water-level variations and ecological change that is the cornerstone of Australian Quaternary chronostratigraphy. The lunette sediments also contain an ancient record of human occupation that includes the earliest human fossils yet found on the Australian continent. To date, the lake-level and palaeochannel records in the Lachlan-Willandra system have not been fully integrated, making it difficult to establish the regional significance of hydrological change. Here, we compare the Willandra Lakes environmental record with the morphology and location of fluvial systems in the lower Lachlan. An ancient channel belt of the Lachlan, Willandra Creek, acted as the main feeder channel to Willandra Lakes before channel avulsion caused the lakes to dry out in the late Pleistocene. Electromagnetic surveys, geomorphological and sedimentary evidence are used to reconstruct the evolution of the first new channel belt following the avulsion. Single grain optical dating of floodplain sediments indicates that sedimentation in the new Middle Billabong Palaeochannel had commenced before 18.4 ± 1.1 ka. A second avulsion shifted its upper reaches to the location of the present Lachlan River by 16.2 ± 0.9 ka. The timing of these events is consistent with palaeohydrological records reconstructed from Willandra Lakes and with the record of

  15. Effects of Concrete Channels on Stream Biogeochemistry, Maryland Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestegaard, K. L.; Gilbert, L.; Phemister, K.

    2005-05-01

    In the 1950's and 60's, extensive networks of cement-lined channels were built in suburban watersheds near Washington, D.C. to convey storm water to downstream locations. These cement-lined stream channels limit interactions between surface and groundwater and they provide sources of alkalinity in Maryland Coastal Plain watersheds that normally have low alkalinity. This project was designed to 1) compare base flow water chemistry in headwater reaches of urban and non-urban streams, and 2) to evaluate downstream changes in water chemistry in channelized urban streams in comparison with non-urban reference streams. During a drought year, headwater streams in both urban and non-urban sites had significant concentrations of Fe(II) that were discharged from groundwater sources and rapidly oxidized by iron-oxidizing bacteria. During a wet year, the concentrations of Fe(II) were higher in headwater urban streams than in the non-urban streams. This suggests that impervious surfaces in headwater urban watersheds prevent the recharge of oxygen-rich waters during storm events, which maintains iron-rich groundwater discharge to the stream. Downstream changes in water chemistry are prominent in cement-lined urban channels because they are associated with distinctive microbial communities. The headwater zones of channelized streams are dominated by iron-ozidizing bacteria, that are replaced downstream by manganese-oxidizing zones, and replaced further downstream by biofilms dominated by photosynthesizing cyanobacteria. The reaches dominated by cyanobacteria exhibit diurnal changes in pH due to uptake of CO2 for photosynthesis. Diurnal changes range from 7.5 to 8.8 in the summer months to 7.0 to 7.5 in the cooler months, indicating both the impact of photosynthesis and the additional source of alkalinity provided by concrete. The dissolved oxygen, pH, and other characteristics of tributaries dominated by cyanobacteria are similar to the water chemistry characteristics observed in

  16. Geo-archaeological aspects of the Modena plain (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriano Castaldini

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the various stages of geomorphological evolution of the plain area around Modena from the VIth millennium B.C.E. (Neolithic to the Present, through a reconstruction of the ancient landscape and human settlements.By means of a GIS platform, geomorphological investigations led to the implementation of a Microrelief Map, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM, a Map of Surface Deposits and a Geomorphological Map.The most striking altimetric features in the study area are the morphological changes of the Rivers Secchia and Panaro: south of Modena they run deep in the alluvial plain whereas north of the town they flow elevated over the plain. The surface lithology consists mainly of silt, with bands of sand and clay; mainly gravel deposits crop out only near southern tracks of the main Apennine watercourses. The geomorphological landscape is mainly characterised by alluvial fans, fluvial ridges paleo-riverbeds fluvial scarps, natural springs and some depressed areas; worth of note are also forms connected with human activity.There have been several attempts to cross–date geological and geomorphological evidence with archaeological data, on both detailed and wide territorial scales. A further advancement can now be attempted by comparing data obtained from systematic research on fluvial forms with data contained in the archives.In the area studied, some 800 archaeological sites were identified and catalogued. Such a high number of archaeological sites can give a great deal more information than is found in any other place in northern Italy.The research took into account the overlapping of archaeological and geomorphological data, with the implementation into a GIS (ArcGis 8.3 of geoarchaeological maps divided in main periods and here represented from the Neolithic to the to Iron Age and from Roman period to the Early Middle Ages. The dating thus obtained for fluvial forms was mainly based on the relationship between these forms and

  17. Plain chest film findings of staphylococcal pneumonia in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sook Young; Cha, Seong Sook; Kim, Jong Deok; Chung, Duck Hwan

    1991-01-01

    Infants during the first year of life are particularly prone to the development of staphylococcal pneumonia: in fact, it is the commonest bacterial cause of death due to respiratory tract infection in this age group. Pneumatoceles within the lungs and pleural complication such as pleural effusion, empyema, pyopneumothorax and pneumothorax are characteristics in this pneumonia. Retrospectively we reviewed 22 patients of staphylococcal pneumonia in children diagnosed by pleural fluid or blood culture, throat suction cytology, or culture of pus from thigh, joint fluid or ear discharge in one or combining them during the recent 5 years from January, 1985 to December, 1989 and obtained the following results: Male to female ratio was 1:1 and peak incidence was between 1 month and 1 year of age (45.5% : 10/22). Fever, coughing and dyspnea were the predominant symptoms, and duration of symptoms was 4 to 7 dyas in 59%. Plain chest film findings on admission day: 1) 27.3% (6/22) showed the lesion almost entirely restricted to the lung with ratio of 2:1 of right and left involvement and these were treated without complication. 2) Only one case (4.5%) showed pneumatoceles combined with pneumonic infiltration and pleural effusion. 3) Pleural lesion occurred in 72.7% (16/22) : 22.7% (5/22) without pneumonic infiltration and 50% (11/22) with pneumonic infiltration. They were empyema, pyopneumothorax, and pleural effusion in descending order. Mortalty was 4.5% (1/22)

  18. Dissuasive cigarette sticks: the next step in standardised ('plain') packaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Eckert, Christine; Louviere, Jordan

    2016-11-01

    Standardised (or 'plain') packaging has reduced the appeal of smoking by removing imagery that smokers use to affiliate themselves with the brand they smoke. We examined whether changing the appearance of cigarette sticks could further denormalise smoking and enhance the negative impact of standardised packaging. We conducted an online study of 313 New Zealand smokers who comprised a Best-Worst Choice experiment and a rating task. The Best-Worst experiment used a 2×3×3×6 orthogonal design to test the following attributes: on-pack warning message, branding level, warning size and stick appearance. We identified three segments whose members' choice patterns were strongly influenced by the stick design, warning theme and size, and warning theme, respectively. Each of the dissuasive sticks tested was less preferred and rated as less appealing than the most common stick in use; a 'minutes of life lost' stick was the most aversive of the stimuli tested. Dissuasive sticks could enhance the effect of standardised packaging, particularly among older smokers who are often more heavily addicted and resistant to change. Countries introducing standardised packaging legislation should take the opportunity to denormalise the appearance of cigarette sticks, in addition to removing external tobacco branding from packs and increasing the warning size. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Oligocene paleogeography of the northern Great Plains and adjacent mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeland, D.

    1985-01-01

    Early Oligocene paleogeography of the northern Great Plains and adjacent mountains is inferred in part from published surface and subsurface studies of the pre-Oligocene surface. These studies are combined with published and unpublished information on clast provenance, crossbedding orientation, and Eocene paleogeography. The Oligocene Arctic Ocean-Gulf of Mexico continental divide extended from the southern Absaroka Mountains east along the Owl Creek Mountains, across the southern Powder River Basin, through the northern Black Hills, and eastward across South Dakota. Streams north of the divide flowed northeastward. The Olligocene White River Group contains 50 to 90 percent airfall pyroclastic debris from a northern Great Basin source. Most of the uranium deposits of the region in pre-Oligocene rocks can be related to a uranium source in the volcanic ash of the White River; in many places the pre-Oligocene deposits can be related to specific Oligocene channels. Uranium deposits in sandstones of major Oligocene rivers are an important new type of deposit. The Oligocene channel sandstones also contain small quantities of gold, molybdenum, gas, and oil

  20. A cloud climatology of the Southern Great Plains ARM CART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, S.M.; Krueger, S.K.; Mace, G.G.

    2000-05-15

    Cloud amount statistics from three different sources were processed and compared. Surface observations from a National Centers for Environmental Prediction dataset were used. The data (Edited Cloud Report; ECR) consist of synoptic weather reports that have been edited to facilitate cloud analysis. Two stations near the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Test Bed (CART) in north-central Oklahoma (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma and Wichita, Kansas) were selected. The ECR data span a 10-yr period from December 1981 to November 1991. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) provided cloud amounts over the SGP CART for an 8-yr period (1983--91). Cloud amounts were also obtained from Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) and Belfort Ceilometer (BLC) cloud-base height measurements made at the SGP CART over a 1-yr period. The annual and diurnal cycles of cloud amount as a function of cloud height and type were analyzed. The three datasets closely agree for total cloud amount. Good agreement was found in the ECR and MPL-BLC monthly low cloud amounts. With the exception of summer and midday in other seasons, the ISCCP low cloud amount estimates are generally 5%--10% less than the others. The ECR high cloud amount estimates are typically 10%--15% greater than those obtained from either the ISCCP or MPL-BLC datasets. The observed diurnal variations of altocumulus support the authors' model results of radiatively induced circulations.

  1. The effect of reporting speed on plain film reporting errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, A.J.; Ricketts, C.; Dubbins, P.A.; Roobottom, C.A.; Wells, I.P.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether reporting plain films at faster rates lead to a deterioration in accuracy. METHODS: Fourteen consultant radiologists were asked to report a total of 90 radiographs in three sets of 30. They reported the first set at the rate they would report normally and the subsequent two sets in two thirds and one half of the original time. The 90 radiographs were the same for each radiologist, however, the order was randomly generated for each. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in overall accuracy for each of the three film sets (p=0.74). Additionally no significant difference in the total number of false-negatives for each film set was detected (p=0.14). However, there was a significant decrease in the number of false-positive reports when the radiologists were asked to report at higher speeds (p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: When reporting accident and emergency radiographs increasing reporting speed has no overall effect upon accuracy, however, it does lead to less false-positive reports

  2. Groundwater Discharge along a Channelized Coastal Plain Stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaSage, Danita M [Ky Dept for natural resources, Div of Mine Permits; Sexton, Joshua L [JL Sexton and Son; Mukherjee, Abhijit [Univ of Tx, Jackson School of Geosciences, Bur of Econ. Geology; Fryar, Alan E [Univ of KY, Dept of Earth and Geoligical Sciences; Greb, Stephen F [Univ of KY, KY Geological Survey

    2015-10-01

    In the Coastal Plain of the southeastern USA, streams have commonly been artificially channelized for flood control and agricultural drainage. However, groundwater discharge along such streams has received relatively little attention. Using a combination of stream- and spring-flow measurements, spring temperature measurements, temperature profiling along the stream-bed, and geologic mapping, we delineated zones of diffuse and focused discharge along Little Bayou Creek, a channelized, first-order perennial stream in western Kentucky. Seasonal variability in groundwater discharge mimics hydraulic-head fluctuations in a nearby monitoring well and spring-discharge fluctuations elsewhere in the region, and is likely to reflect seasonal variability in recharge. Diffuse discharge occurs where the stream is incised into the semi-confined regional gravel aquifer, which is comprised of the Mounds Gravel. Focused discharge occurs upstream where the channel appears to have intersected preferential pathways within the confining unit. Seasonal fluctuations in discharge from individual springs are repressed where piping results in bank collapse. Thereby, focused discharge can contribute to the morphological evolution of the stream channel.

  3. Descartes Mountains and Cayley Plains - Composition and provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M. J.; Taylor, G. J.; Goles, G. G.

    1974-01-01

    Trace element compositions of petrographically characterized 2-4 mm lithic fragments from Apollo 16 soil samples are used to calculate initial REE concentrations in liquids in equilibrium with lunar anorthosites and to discuss the provenance of the Cayley Formation. Lithic fragments may be subdivided into four groups: (1) ANT rocks, (2) K- and SiO2-rich mesostasis-bearing rocks, (3) poikiloblastic rocks, and (4) (spinel) troctolites. Model liquids in equilibrium with essentially monominerallic anorthosites have initial REE concentrations 5-8 times those of chondrites. The REE contents of K- and SiO2-rich mesostasis-bearing rocks and poikiloblastic rocks are dominated by the mesostasis phases. ANT rocks appear to be more abundant in the Descartes Mountains, while poikiloblastic rocks appear to be more abundant in the Cayley Plains. Poikiloblastic rocks have intermediate to high LIL-element concentrations yet the low gamma-ray activity of Mare Orientale implies low LIL-element concentrations. Consequently, it is unlikely that the Cayley Formation is Orientale ejecta. A local origin as ejecta from smaller impacts is a more plausible model for the deposition of the Cayley Formation.

  4. Origin of Sinuous Channels on the SW Apron of Ascraeus Mons and the Surrounding Plains, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierl, Z. P.; Spencer, P.; Signorella, J.; Collins, A.; Schwans, B.; de Wet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.

    2012-03-01

    We used a variety of spacecraft imagery to determine the most likely origin for a network of sinuous channels found on the southwest apron of Ascraeus Mons and that extend out onto the surrounding plains.

  5. A comparison of some methods to estimate the fatigue life of plain dents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Ricardo R.; Noronha Junior, Dauro B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    This paper describes a method under development at PETROBRAS R and D Center (CENPES) to estimate the fatigue life of plain dents. This method uses the API Publication 1156 as a base to estimate the fatigue life of dome shaped plain dents and the Pipeline Defect Assessment Manual (PDAM) approach to take into account the uncertainty inherent in the fatigue phenomenon. CENPES method, an empirical and a semi-empirical method available in the literature were employed to estimate the fatigue lives of 10 plain dents specimens of Year 1 of an ongoing test program carried out by BMT Fleet Technology Limited, with the support of the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI). The results obtained with the different methods are presented and compared. Furthermore some details are given on the numerical methodology proposed by PETROBRAS that have been used to describe the behavior of plain dents. (author)

  6. Plain abdominal radiographs in patients with Crohn's disease: radiological findings and diagnostic value.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, K

    2012-08-01

    To determine the diagnostic yield and clinical value of plain film of the abdomen (PFA) in Crohn\\'s disease (CD) patients and to determine whether performance of PFA yields definitive diagnostic information or whether additional imaging examinations are required.

  7. Quantifying potential yield and water-limited yield of summer maize in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingnuo; Liu, Chaoshun; Chen, Maosi

    2017-09-01

    The North China Plain is a major food producing region in China, and climate change could pose a threat to food production in the region. Based on China Meteorological Forcing Dataset, simulating the growth of summer maize in North China Plain from 1979 to 2015 with the regional implementation of crop growth model WOFOST. The results showed that the model can reflect the potential yield and water-limited yield of Summer Maize in North China Plain through the calibration and validation of WOFOST model. After the regional implementation of model, combined with the reanalysis data, the model can better reproduce the regional history of summer maize yield in the North China Plain. The yield gap in Southeastern Beijing, southern Tianjin, southern Hebei province, Northwestern Shandong province is significant, these means the water condition is the main factor to summer maize yield in these regions.

  8. Towards the Redefinition of the Global Stratigraphy of Mercury: The Case of Intermediate Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, V.; Rothery, D. A.; Massironi, M.; Ferranti, L.; Mercury Mapping Team

    2018-05-01

    Observations based on an average mapping scale of 1:400k provide context for the redefinition of the global stratigraphy of Mercury. Results show that the Intermediate Plains unit should be re-introduced as an official mappable terrain.

  9. Analysis of tumor-like shadows on abdominal plain x-ray film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hidehiro; Hiraki, Yoshio; Hashimoto, Keizi

    1986-01-01

    We found tumor-like shadows in the upper abdomen in 93 cases out of 400 abdominal plain films, although none of these 93 cases actually had a tumor. We analyzed these tumor-like shadows by computed tomography. For each of the 400 cases we measured the width of flank stripe on the abdominal plain film. Most of the tumor-like shadows in the left upper abdomen were gastric fundus, but it was significant for evaluating plain abdominal film that other organs such as a part of the left lobe of the liver, the upper pole of the left kidney, and a part of the spleen formed tumor-like shadows. The most important factors forming tumor-like shadows on plain abdominal film are the fat volume of the abdominal cauity as well as the fraciform ligament and alterations in the shape and volume of organs such as occur in liver cirrhosis. (author)

  10. Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V. [eds.

    1990-12-31

    The focus of the this conference of Coastal Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River Site (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  11. A Plain English Map of the Chromosomes of the Fruit Fly Drosophila Melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Presents a plain English map of the chromosomes of the fruit fly that contains genes from very different kinds of studies. Represents the work of nearly a century by thousands of researchers using a tremendous variety of techniques. (JRH)

  12. The History of the Environmental Conditions Research in the Braila Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2015-01-01

    The Romanian Plain has generally represented the study subject of research in the field of Geography and especially of the environment geography and resources. Due to the structure and the geological movements of the climate factors, the hydrography in the area of the Braila Plain has represents a subject of many geographers‘ interest. The divagation and the leaving of the water course phenomena of some rivers, the genesis and the classification of lake basins, underground waters, the links t...

  13. The History of the Environmental Conditions Research in the Brăila Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2015-01-01

    The Romanian Plain has generally represented the study subject of research in the field of Geography and especially of the environment geography and resources. Due to the structure and the geological movements of the climate factors, the hydrography in the area of the Braila Plain has represents a subject of many geographers‘ interest. The divagation and the leaving of the water course phenomena of some rivers, the genesis and the classification of lake basins, underground waters,...

  14. Unpacking the Right to plain and understandable Language in the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip N Stoop

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 came into effect on 1 April 2011. The purpose of this Act is, among other things, to promote fairness, openness and respectable business practice between the suppliers of goods or services and the consumers of such good and services. In consumer protection legislation fairness is usually approached from two directions, namely substantive and procedural fairness. Measures aimed at procedural fairness address conduct during the bargaining process and generally aim at ensuring transparency. Transparency in relation to the terms of a contract relates to whether the terms of the contract terms accessible, in clear language, well-structured, and cross-referenced, with prominence being given to terms that are detrimental to the consumer or because they grant important rights. One measure in the Act aimed at addressing procedural fairness is the right to plain and understandable language. The consumer’s right to being given information in plain and understandable language, as it is expressed in section 22, is embedded under the umbrella right of information and disclosure in the Act. Section 22 requires that notices, documents or visual representations that are required in terms of the Act or other law are to be provided in plain and understandable language as well as in the prescribed form, where such a prescription exists. In the analysis of the concept “plain and understandable language” the following aspects are considered in this article: the development of plain language measures in Australia and the United Kingdom; the structure and purpose of section 22; the documents that must be in plain language; the definition of plain language; the use of official languages in consumer contracts; and plain language guidelines (based on the law of the states of Pennsylvania and Connecticut in the United States of America.

  15. Behavior of Plain Concrete of a High Water-Cement Ratio after Freeze-Thaw Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Huai-Shuai; Yi, Ting-Hua; Song, Yu-Pu

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study of plain concrete specimens of water-cement ratio 0.55, subjected to 0, 15, 25, 40, 50 and 75 cycles of freeze-thaw was completed. The dynamic modulus of elasticity (DME), weight loss, compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, cleavage strength and stress-strain relationships of plain concrete specimens suffering from freeze-thaw cycles were measured. The experimental results showed that the strength decreased as the freeze-thaw cycles were repeated. A c...

  16. The potential impact of plain packaging of cigarette products among Brazilian young women: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Christine M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use is responsible for 5.4 million deaths every year worldwide and is a leading cause of preventable death. The burden of these deaths is rapidly shifting to low and middle-income countries, such as Brazil. Brazil has prohibited most forms of tobacco advertising; however, the cigarette pack remains a primary source of marketing. The current study examined how tobacco packaging influences brand appeal and perceptions of health risk among young women in Brazil. Methods A between-subjects experiment was conducted in which 640 Brazilian women aged 16–26 participated in an online survey. Participants were randomized to view 10 cigarette packages according to one of three experimental conditions: standard branded packages, the same packs without brand imagery (“plain packaging”, or the same packs without brand imagery or descriptors (e.g., flavors. Participants rated packages on perceived appeal, taste, health risk, smoothness, and smoker attributes. Finally, participants were shown a range of branded and plain packs from which they could select one as a free gift, which constituted a behavioral measure of appeal. Results Branded packs were rated as significantly more appealing, better tasting, and smoother on the throat than plain packs. Branded packs were also associated with a greater number of positive smoker attributes including style and sophistication, and were perceived as more likely to be smoked by females than the plain packs. Removing descriptors from the plain packs further decreased the ratings of appeal, taste and smoothness, and also reduced associations with positive attributes. In the pack offer, participants were three times more likely to select branded packs than plain packs. Conclusions Plain packaging and removal of descriptors may reduce the appeal of smoking for youth and young adults, and consequently reduce smoking susceptibility. Overall, the findings provide support for plain packaging

  17. Effects of plain packaging on decision-making and reward for nicotine cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin LE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Laura E Martin1,21Hoglund Brain Imaging Center, 2Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USAAbstract: Cigarette smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Efforts to reduce smoking prevalence include changes to policies that are expected to have impacts on smoking behaviors. Plain packaging has been introduced as a method to reduce the appeal of smoking by removing such branding information as pack colors and brand logos from cigarette packages. Behavioral studies of plain packaging demonstrate reductions in the appeal of cigarette packages, changes in smoking behaviors, and expected reductions in smoking initiation. Neuroimaging studies of branding demonstrate that the neural systems of rewards and cognitive control are associated with processing brand information (eg, logos. Neuroimaging studies in smokers demonstrate that the neural systems of reward respond to images of cigarettes and are associated with reductions in cognitive control responses. The current review discusses the state of research on plain packaging in terms of a biopsychosocial model of addiction in which behavioral studies of plain packaging can identify psychological and social changes related to packaging, whereas neuroimaging studies can identify biological changes underlying the psychological and social impacts of packaging. Together, these studies show that plain packaging may reduce positive perceptions of smoking by reducing related reward responses in the brain, thus increasing the likelihood that smokers will be able to resist the urge to smoke, and perhaps quit smoking altogether.Keywords: smoking, plain packaging, neuroimaging, branding, reward

  18. Review: Recharge rates and chemistry beneath playas of the High Plains aquifer, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Roe, Cassia D.

    2010-12-01

    Playas are ephemeral, closed-basin wetlands that are hypothesized as an important source of recharge to the High Plains aquifer in central USA. The ephemeral nature of playas, low regional recharge rates, and a strong reliance on groundwater from the High Plains aquifer has prompted many questions regarding the contribution and quality of recharge from playas to the High Plains aquifer. As a result, there has been considerable scientific debate about the potential for water to infiltrate the relatively impermeable playa floors, travel through the unsaturated zone sediments that are tens of meters thick, and subsequently recharge the High Plains aquifer. This critical review examines previously published studies on the processes that control recharge rates and chemistry beneath playas. Reported recharge rates beneath playas range from less than 1.0 to more than 500 mm/yr and are generally 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than recharge rates beneath interplaya settings. Most studies support the conceptual model that playas are important zones of recharge to the High Plains aquifer and are not strictly evaporative pans. The major findings of this review provide science-based implications for management of playas and groundwater resources of the High Plains aquifer and directions for future research.

  19. Imaging suspected cervical spine injury: Plain radiography or computed tomography? Systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, Gavin [Diagnostic Radiographer, Colchester Hospital University NHS Foundation Trust, Colchester General Hospital, Turner Road, Colchester, CO4 5JL Essex (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gavincain8@hotmail.com; Shepherdson, Jane; Elliott, Vicki; Svensson, Jon [Faculty of Health and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge, CB1 9PT Cambridgeshire (United Kingdom); Brennan, Patrick [UCD School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Health Science Building, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2010-02-15

    Aim: (1) to establish which modality offers the greatest accuracy in the detection of cervical spine injury (CSI) Following trauma: plain radiography or computed tomography (CT), and (2) make an evidence-based recommendation for the initial imaging modality of choice. Method: A systematic literature review was performed to identify primary research studies which compare the diagnostic accuracy of plain radiography and CT with the results of a reference standard in the detection of CSI. A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Science Direct and Pubmed Central databases was conducted. Results: Ten studies were identified. Critical appraisal identified limitations among all studies. There was heterogeneity in the sensitivity estimates for plain radiography, whereas estimates for CT were consistently high. Examination of the reported sensitivities shows that CT outperforms plain radiography in the detection of CSI. Conclusion: CT is superior to plain radiography in the detection of CSI. However, the optimal imaging strategy depends on the patients' relative risk of injury. If at high-risk cervical CT is indicated. If at low-risk the increased cost and radiation exposure mean that screening CT may not be warranted, good-quality plain radiographs are sufficient.

  20. Vascular flora of saline lakes in the southern high plains of Texas and eastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, David J.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Caskey, Amber D.

    2013-01-01

    Saline lakes and freshwater playas form the principal surface hydrological feature of the High Plains of the Southern Great Plains. Saline lakes number less than 50 and historically functioned as discharge wetlands with relatively consistent water availability due to the presence of one or more springs. Currently, less than ten saline lakes contain functional springs. A survey of vascular plants at six saline lakes in the Southern High Plains of northwest Texas and one in eastern New Mexico during May and September 2009 resulted in a checklist of 49 species representing 16 families and 40 genera. The four families with the most species were Asteraceae (12), Amaranthaceae (8), Cyperaceae (5), and Poaceae (12). Non-native species (Bromus catharticus, Poa compressa, Polypogon monspeliensis, Sonchus oleraceus, Kochia scoparia, and Tamarix ramosissima) accounted for 10% of the total species recorded. Whereas nearly 350 species of vascular plants have been identified in playas in the Southern High Plains, saline lakes contain a fraction of this species richness. The Southern High Plains saline lake flora is regionally unique, containing taxa not found in playas, with species composition that is more similar to temperate desert wetlands of the Intermountain Region and Gulf Coastal Plain of North America.

  1. Graphic warning labels on plain cigarette packs: will they make a difference to adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Judith; Webb, Lisa; Cameron, Linda D; Hoek, Janet

    2012-04-01

    Graphic warning labels and plain cigarette packaging are two initiatives developed to increase quit behaviour among smokers. Although a little is known about how adolescents interpret graphic warning labels, very few studies have examined how plain cigarette packaging would affect adolescents' perceptions of cigarette smoking and smoking behaviour. We explored how teens interpret and respond to graphic warning labels and the plain packaging of cigarettes, to assess the potential these strategies may offer in deterring smoking initiation. Twelve focus group interviews with a sample of 80 14-16 year old students from a diverse range of schools in Auckland, New Zealand were undertaken between June and August 2009. Textual analysis revealed that graphic warning labels may influence adolescents by reiterating a negative image of smokers. Graphic warning on a plain cigarette pack increased the attention paid to graphic warning labels and the overall perceptions of harm caused by cigarette smoking, and reduced the social appeal of cigarette smoking. This research offers evidence on how adolescents are appraising and interpreting graphic warning labels, and explores how dominant appraisals may affect the role graphic warning labels play in preventing smoking. Not only would plain cigarette packaging enhance the salience and impact of graphic warning labels, but it would potentially bolster the overall message that cigarette smoking is harmful. In the context of a comprehensive tobacco control programme, graphic warning labels on plain cigarette packaging present an explicit message about the risks (to health and image) associated with cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the Spring River flood plain and tributary flood plains, Cherokee County, Kansas, 2009--11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2013-01-01

    Historical mining activity in the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD), located in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma, has resulted in a substantial ongoing input of cadmium, lead, and zinc to the environment. To provide some of the information needed to support remediation efforts in the Cherokee County, Kansas, superfund site, a 4-year study was begun in 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey that was requested and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A combination of surficial-soil sampling and coring was used to investigate the occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the flood plains of the Spring River and several tributaries within the superfund site. Lead- and zinc-contaminated flood plains are a concern, in part, because they represent a long-term source of contamination to the fluvial environment. Lead and zinc contamination was assessed with reference to probable-effect concentrations (PECs), which represent the concentrations above which adverse aquatic biological effects are likely to occur. The general PECs for lead and zinc were 128 and 459 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. The TSMD-specific PECs for lead and zinc were 150 and 2,083 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. Typically, surficial soils in the Spring River flood plain had lead and zinc concentrations that were less than the general PECs. Lead and zinc concentrations in the surficial-soil samples were variable with distance downstream and with distance from the Spring River channel, and the largest lead and zinc concentrations usually were located near the channel. Lead and zinc concentrations larger than the general or TSMD-specific PECs, or both, were infrequent at depth in the Spring River flood plain. When present, such contamination typically was confined to the upper 2 feet of the core and frequently was confined to the upper 6 inches. Tributaries with few or no lead- and zinc-mined areas in the basin—Brush Creek

  3. Braid-plain dynamics and bank erosion along the Matanuska River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    Braid-plain activity and geomorphic features in the Matanuska River in southcentral Alaska between 1949 and 2006 were examined to support a bank erosion hazard assessment. The glacial Matanuska River drains 6,500 km2 and is braided for 85 percent of its 150 km course, which parallels a major highway and flows through the towns of Sutton and Palmer, Alaska. The historical braid plain was defined as the envelope of areas with active channels, unvegetated bars, or vegetated bars with evidence of channels since 1949 and delineated in a GIS from 1949, 1962, and 2006 aerial orthoimagery. We created a strip map of bank height and composition (primarily bedrock and unconsolidated sediment) at braid-plain margins and outlined valley bottom features (terraces and tributary fans) adjacent to the braid plain to assess erodibility. Braid-plain dynamism has created a mosaic of extensive lightly vegetated bars interspersed with forested bars in strips along the banks and in small mid-channel positions. Abandoned channels filled with groundwater or tributary streamflow have created clearwater side channels within these bars that serve as the primary spawning location for chum, sockeye, and coho salmon in the Matanuska River basin. Erosion magnitudes for the periods 1949-1962 and 1962-2006 were computed as braid-plain expansion at transects across the historical braid-plain boundaries. Episodic, spatially distributed erosion and the antiquity of some eroded surfaces suggests that average annual erosion rates at a location are not adequate for assessing future erosion at that location in a braid plain. Lateral expansion caused bank erosion of 100 -275 m at 20 locations over the full period, about half at tributary fans and most occurring in a single time period. Minor growth of tributary fans constricted the braid plain, and emerging terraces have the potential to shrink the braid plain. Eroded banks included undated but pre-historic fluvial terraces and tributary fans. Where

  4. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Costa Rica Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the northern coastal plain of Costa Rica with the Cordillera Central, composed of a number of active and dormant volcanoes, rising in the background. This view looks toward the south over the Rio San Juan, which marks the boundary between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The smaller river joining Rio San Juan in the center of the image is Rio Sarapiqui, which is navigable upstream as far inland as Puerto Viejo (Old Port) de Sarapiqui at the mountain's base. This river was an important transportation route for those few hardy settlers who first moved into this region, although as recently as 1953 a mere three thatched-roof houses were all that comprised the village of Puerto Viejo.This coastal plain is a sedimentary basin formed about 50 million years ago composed of river alluvium and lahar (mud and ash flow) deposits from the volcanoes of the Cordillera Central. It comprises the province of Heredia (the smallest of Costa Rica's seven) and demonstrates a wide range of climatic conditions, from warm and humid lowlands to cool and damp highlands, and including the mild but seasonally wet and dry Central Valley.This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat

  5. Seismic Investigation of the Glacier de la Plaine Morte, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laske, Gabi; Lindner, Fabian; Walter, Fabian; Krage, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Glacier de la Plaine Morte is a plateau glacier along the border between Valais and Berne cantons. It covers a narrow elevation range and is extremely vulnerable to climate change. During snow melt, it feeds three marginal lakes that have experienced sudden subglacial drainage in recent years, thereby causing flooding in the Simme Valley below. Of greatest concern is Lac des Faverges at the southeastern end of the glacier that has drained near the end of July in recent years, with flood levels reaching capacity of flood control systems downstream. The lake levels are carefully monitored but precise prediction has not yet been achieved. In the search for precursory ice fracturing to the lake drainage to improve forecast, four seismic arrays comprised of five short-period borehole seismometers provided by Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich as well as fifteen 3-component geophones from the Geophysical Instrument Pool Potsdam (GIPP) collected continuous seismic data for about seven weeks during the summer of 2016. We present initial results on discharge dynamics as well as changing noise levels and seismicity before, during and after the drainage of Lac des Faverges. Compared to previous recent years, the 2016 drainage of Lac des Faverges occurred unusually late on August 28. With an aperture between 100 and 200 m, the small arrays recorded many hundred ice quakes per day. A majority of the events exhibits clearly dispersed, high-frequency Rayleigh waves at about 10 Hz and higher. A wide distribution of events allows us to study azimuthal anisotropy and its relationship with the orientation of glacial crevasses.

  6. Plain radiologic findings of primary lung cancer by histologic types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Seok; Park, Jae Hyung; Choi, Byung In; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, Chu Wan

    1983-01-01

    Plain chest films are the most useful modality in diagnosis of primary lung cancer, but it is difficult to interpret the radiologic findings by histological types. Authors reviewed chest films of 324 cases of histologically confirmed primary lung cancer from January 1974 to April 1982 at Seoul National University. The results are as follows; 1. Incidence was most common in the 6th decade as 34.4%. Male to female sex radio was 3.8 : 1 and there was no sex difference in Adenocarcinoma. 2. Distribution of histologic types of primary lung cancers as follows; Squamous cell carcinoma 50.6%, Small cell carcinoma 22.5%, Large cell carcinoma 9.3%, Bronchogenic adeno carcinoma 10.5%, Bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma 1.9%, Adenosquamous carcinoma 0.6%, Carcinoid tumor 0.3%, Adenoid cystic carcinoma 0.3%. 3. Radiologic findings by histologic types are follows; a) Squamous cell carcinoma commonly present as collapse (51.8%), peripheral mass (40.8%), pneumonitis (37.2%), hilar involvement (34.8%), and in single abnormality, peripheral mass (44.4%). b) Small cell carcinoma commonly present as hilar involvement (78.1%), mediastinal widening or mass (53.4%) and in single abnormality, hilar involvement (58.3%). c) Large cell carcinoma commonly present as hilar involvement (50%), pneumonia (46.7%), collapse (40%), peripheral mass (36.7%) and in single abnormality, large peripheral mass (33.3%). d) Bronchogenic adenocarcinoma commonly present as peripheral mass (44.1%), collapse (41.2%), pleural effusion (35.2%) and in single abnormality, peripheral mass (50%). e) Solitary peripheral mass commonly present as lobulation (48%) and spiculated margin (51%), but no specific findings by histologic types. Cavitary formation was most common in Squamous cell carcinoma

  7. Determinants of fish assemblage structure in Northwestern Great Plains streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, J.A.; Bramblett, R.G.; Guy, C.S.; Zale, A.V.; Roberts, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Prairie streams are known for their harsh and stochastic physical conditions, and the fish assemblages therein have been shown to be temporally variable. We assessed the spatial and temporal variation in fish assemblage structure in five intermittent, adventitious northwestern Great Plains streams representing a gradient of watershed areas. Fish assemblages and abiotic conditions varied more spatially than temporally. The most important variables explaining fish assemblage structure were longitudinal position and the proportion of fine substrates. The proportion of fine substrates increased proceeding upstream, approaching 100% in all five streams, and species richness declined upstream with increasing fine substrates. High levels of fine substrate in the upper reaches appeared to limit the distribution of obligate lithophilic fish species to reaches further downstream. Species richness and substrates were similar among all five streams at the lowermost and uppermost sites. However, in the middle reaches, species richness increased, the amount of fine substrate decreased, and connectivity increased as watershed area increased. Season and some dimensions of habitat (including thalweg depth, absolute distance to the main-stem river, and watershed size) were not essential in explaining the variation in fish assemblages. Fish species richness varied more temporally than overall fish assemblage structure did because common species were consistently abundant across seasons, whereas rare species were sometimes absent or perhaps not detected by sampling. The similarity in our results among five streams varying in watershed size and those from other studies supports the generalization that spatial variation exceeds temporal variation in the fish assemblages of prairie and warmwater streams. Furthermore, given longitudinal position, substrate, and stream size, general predictions regarding fish assemblage structure and function in prairie streams are possible. ?? American

  8. Localized sulfate-reducing zones in a coastal plain aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.J.; Coates, J.D.; Schoonen, M.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    High concentrations of dissolved iron in ground water of coastal plain or alluvial aquifers contribute to the biofouling of public supply wells for which treatment and remediation is costly. Many of these aquifers, however, contain zones in which microbial sulfate reduction and the associated precipitation of iron-sulfide minerals decreases iron mobility. The principal water-bearing aquifer (Magothy Aquifer of Cretaceous age) in Suffolk County, New York, contains localized sulfate-reducing zones in and near lignite deposits, which generally are associated with clay lenses. Microbial analyses of core samples amended with [14C]-acetate indicate that microbial sulfate reduction is the predominant terminal-electron-accepting process (TEAP) in poorly permeable, lignite-rich sediments at shallow depths and near the ground water divide. The sulfate-reducing zones are characterized by abundant lignite and iron-sulfide minerals, low concentrations of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, and by proximity to clay lenses that contain pore water with relatively high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved organic carbon. The low permeability of these zones and, hence, the long residence time of ground water within them, permit the preservation and (or) allow the formation of iron-sulfide minerals, including pyrite and marcasite. Both sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) are present beneath and beyond the shallow sulfate-reducing zones. A unique Fe(III)-reducing organism, MD-612, was found in core sediments from a depth of 187 m near the southern shore of Long Island. The distribution of poorly permeable, lignite-rich, sulfate-reducing zones with decreased iron concentration is varied within the principal aquifer and accounts for the observed distribution of dissolved sulfate, iron, and iron sulfides in the aquifer. Locating such zones for the placement of production wells would be difficult, however, because these zones are of limited aerial extent.

  9. Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment: pre-assessment report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Timothy J.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Carr, Natasha B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the Pre-Assessment Report for the Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to document the selection process for and final list of Conservation Elements, Change Agents, and Management Questions developed during Phase I. The overall goal of the REAs being conducted for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change, and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks. The REA also may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing the cumulative effects of a variety of land uses. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and partners for the ecoregion, identify the information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant terrestrial and aquatic species and communities that are to be conserved and (or) restored. For each Conservation Element, key ecological attributes will be evaluated to determine the status of each species and community. The REA also will evaluate major drivers of ecosystem change, or Change Agents, currently affecting or likely to affect the status of Conservation Elements in the future. The relationships between Change Agents and key ecological attributes will be summarized using conceptual models. The REA process is a two-phase process. Phase I (pre-assessment) includes developing and finalizing the lists of priority Management Questions, Conservation Elements, and Change Agents, culminating in the REA Pre-Assessment Report.

  10. Evaluation of plain radiograph in mitral stenosis related to hemodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Ku Ok; Suh, Jung Ho; Park, Chang Yun; Choi, Byung So

    1973-01-01

    Mitral stenosis, the most frequent heart disease in adult, showed relatively characteristic pulmonary findings in plain chest X-ray. In recent years the knowledge of the altered physiology of hemodynamics could offer considerable amount of hemodynamic barrier in plain chest. But the value of several parameters was still controversial. In this study a variety of roentgen signs were related to physiologic data and those were acquired by the cardiac catheterization in total of 67 cases of mitral stenosis. 1. Correlation of DPA/DHT ratio (Diameter of pulmonary arterial segment/ Diameter of hemithorax X 100) to hemodynamic data; The pulmonary arterial segments was dilated by two factors, the one was pulmonary blood flow and the other the blood pressure within it. In mitral stenosis, the cardiac output was decreased to quite uniform level, hence measurement of pulmonary arterial segment might be valuable. The correlation coefficient of DPA/ DHT ratio to hemodynamic data were as follows: 0.54 to mean pulmonary artery pressure, 0.32 to pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, -0.37 to mitral valvular area and 0.07 to pulmonary vascular resistance. No significant difference was noted in between pure mitral stenosis and mitral stenosis associated with other valvular disease. 2. Correlation of diameter of right descending pulmonary artery to hemodynamic data: The measurement was made near the first bifurcation of right descending pulmonary artery at its widest point. Pulmonary vascular pattern was best correlated (r=0.71). Another had rough correlation: 0.05 to mean pulmonary artery pressure, 0.31 to pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, -0.44 to mitral valvular area in correlation coefficient. No pulmonary arterial hypertension was observed in the cases diameter of less than 12 mm, but all except two cases had pulmonary hypertension in which diameter exceeded 16 mm. According to increase of the mean pulmonary arterial pressure, the same increment in pressure increased change

  11. Evaluation of plain radiograph in mitral stenosis related to hemodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Ku Ok; Suh, Jung Ho; Park, Chang Yun; Choi, Byung So [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-04-15

    Mitral stenosis, the most frequent heart disease in adult, showed relatively characteristic pulmonary findings in plain chest X-ray. In recent years the knowledge of the altered physiology of hemodynamics could offer considerable amount of hemodynamic barrier in plain chest. But the value of several parameters was still controversial. In this study a variety of roentgen signs were related to physiologic data and those were acquired by the cardiac catheterization in total of 67 cases of mitral stenosis. 1. Correlation of DPA/DHT ratio (Diameter of pulmonary arterial segment/ Diameter of hemithorax X 100) to hemodynamic data; The pulmonary arterial segments was dilated by two factors, the one was pulmonary blood flow and the other the blood pressure within it. In mitral stenosis, the cardiac output was decreased to quite uniform level, hence measurement of pulmonary arterial segment might be valuable. The correlation coefficient of DPA/ DHT ratio to hemodynamic data were as follows: 0.54 to mean pulmonary artery pressure, 0.32 to pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, -0.37 to mitral valvular area and 0.07 to pulmonary vascular resistance. No significant difference was noted in between pure mitral stenosis and mitral stenosis associated with other valvular disease. 2. Correlation of diameter of right descending pulmonary artery to hemodynamic data: The measurement was made near the first bifurcation of right descending pulmonary artery at its widest point. Pulmonary vascular pattern was best correlated (r=0.71). Another had rough correlation: 0.05 to mean pulmonary artery pressure, 0.31 to pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, -0.44 to mitral valvular area in correlation coefficient. No pulmonary arterial hypertension was observed in the cases diameter of less than 12 mm, but all except two cases had pulmonary hypertension in which diameter exceeded 16 mm. According to increase of the mean pulmonary arterial pressure, the same increment in pressure increased change

  12. Geology and uranium occurrences in the Forez tertiary plain (in the French 'Massif Central'); Geologie et mineralisations uraniferes de la plaine tertiaire du Forez (Massif Central francais)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duclos, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses - 92 (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    In the first part, the observations made during the geological survey of the Forez Tertiary plain (in the French 'Massif Central') are recalled. Then, using various methods, the author lists the formations according to chronology. Finally, a reconstitution of the geological history of this subsidence basin is attempted. In the second part, the occurrence of 17 uranium bearing geochemical anomalies is commented upon. Each of these various anomalies is given a place on the stratigraphic scale. This enables the author to put the successive phases of uranium deposition into their proper perspective in the history of the plain. In conclusion, the author points out the usefulness of these uraniferous geochemical anomalies. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie, l'auteur rappelle les observations faites au cours de l'etude geologique de la plaine tertiaire du Forez (Massif Central francais). Puis se servant de differentes methodes, il etablit une chronologie des formations. Enfin, il termine par un essai de reconstitution de l'histoire geologique de ce bassin de subsidence. Dans la deuxieme partie, il commente la decouverte de 17 anomalies geochimiques uraniferes. Il situe ces differentes anomalies dans la serie stratigraphique. Ceci lui permet de replacer les depots successifs de l'uranium dans l'histoire de la plaine. Enfin, il indique l'interet de ces anomalies geochimiques uraniferes. (auteur)

  13. The Australian experience following plain packaging: the impact on tobacco branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, Steven J

    2016-12-01

    Brands are critical to tobacco marketing. Industry stakeholders predicted that plain packaging, by removing key tangible branding dimensions, would restrict new products and brand differentiation. However, manufacturers respond innovatively to limit regulatory impact. This study investigates brand strategy following plain packaging's introduction to Australia. Brand portfolios were determined using 2006-15 tobacco ingredient reports. These detail the brand and variant names sold and are provided annually as part of a voluntary agreement between the Australian Government and leading manufacturers. Post-plain packaging brand ranges were verified using retail price lists and a supermarket retail audit using a method used previously to verify a period of pre-plain packaging data. The verification process identified some data inaccuracies from one manufacturer which resulted in the issuing of corrected data. After plain packaging the leading manufacturers continued with extensive brand ranges differentiated by price. All launched new products. While total brand numbers fell from 29 to 24, the mean number of variants for the leading 12 brands grew from 8.9 to 9.7. Substantial variant name modifications occurred with 50 new or modified names in 2012-13. Among leading brands, the incidence of variant colour names increased from 49.5 to 79.3%. New brands and variants were not inhibited by the introduction of plain packaging in Australia. After plain packaging, leading brand variant numbers expanded by 9 to 116 and colour variant names increased by 73.6% and became the norm-lighter colours (blue, gold and silver) dominated, perpetuating notions of less harmful cigarettes. [Correction added on 09 September 2016, after first online publication: The figures in the last sentence of the Abstract are now corrected from 'expanded by 116' to 'expanded by 9 to 116'.]. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. The effect of cigarette branding and plain packaging on female youth in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Daniel, Samantha; White, Christine M

    2013-02-01

    Cigarette packaging is the most prominent form of tobacco marketing remaining in countries such as the United Kingdom. The current study examined perceptions of cigarette packaging among female youth and the potential impact of "plain" cigarette packaging regulations. A national sample of 947 16- to 19-year-old female subjects in the United Kingdom completed an online survey. Participants were randomized to view 10 cigarette packs designed according to one of four experimental conditions: fully branded female packs, the same packs without descriptor words, the same packs without brand imagery or descriptors ("plain" packs), and branded non-female brands. Participants rated packs on measures of appeal and health risk, positive smoker image, and completed a behavioral pack selection task. Plain packs were rated as the least appealing and worse tasting compared with all other conditions. Plain packs were also associated with fewer false beliefs about health risks compared with branded packs. Removing brand descriptors from packs significantly reduced measures of appeal and taste, particularly for brands with flavor descriptors, such as cherry and vanilla. Plain packs were significantly less likely to be associated with positive images, such as glamour, sophistication, and slimness. Most importantly, respondents were significantly less likely to accept a pack of cigarettes when offered only plain versus branded packs (p = .026). Marketing in the form of pack branding remains a potent tool for increasing the appeal of tobacco products to young women. The findings provide empirical support for plain cigarette packaging regulations in Australia to be implemented in 2012. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hiding in plain sight: communication theory in implementation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovich, Milisa; Squires, Janet E; Davies, Barbara; Graham, Ian D

    2015-04-23

    ignoring a key contributor to implementation intervention success. When conceptualized as a transformational process, the focus of communication moves to shared understanding and is grounded in human interactions and the way we go about constructing knowledge. Instead of hiding in plain sight, we suggest explicitly acknowledging the role that communication plays in our implementation efforts. By using both paradigms, we can investigate when communication facilitates implementation, when it does not, and how to improve it so that our implementation and clinical interventions are embraced by clinicians and patients alike.

  16. Southern Great Plains Ice Nuclei Characterization Experiment Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMott, PJ [Colorado State University; Suski, KJ [Colorado State University; Hill, TCJ [Colorado State University; Levin, EJT [Colorado State University

    2015-03-01

    The first ever ice nucleating particle (INP) measurements to be collected at the Southern Great Plains site were made during a period from late April to June 2014, as a trial for possible longer-term measurements at the site. These measurements will also be used to lay the foundation for understanding and parameterizing (for cloud resolving modeling) the sources of these climatically important aerosols as well as to augment the existing database containing this knowledge. Siting the measurements during the spring was intended to capture INP sources in or to this region from plant, soil, dust transported over long distances, biomass burning, and pollution aerosols at a time when they may influence warm-season convective clouds and precipitation. Data have been archived of real-time measurements of INP number concentrations as a function of processing conditions (temperature and relative humidity) during 18 days of sampling that spanned two distinctly different weather situations: a warm, dry and windy period with regional dust and biomass burning influences in early May, and a cooler period of frequent precipitation during early June. Precipitation delayed winter wheat harvesting, preventing intended sampling during that perturbation on atmospheric aerosols. INP concentrations were highest and most variable at all temperatures in the dry period, where we attribute the INP activity primarily to soil dust emissions. Additional offline INP analyses are underway to extend the characterization of INP to cover the entire mixed phase cloud regime from -5°C to -35°C during the full study. Initial comparisons between methods on four days show good agreement and excellent future promise. The additional offline immersion freezing data will be archived as soon as completed under separate funding. Analyses of additional specialized studies for specific attribution of INP to biological and smoke sources are continuing via the National Science Foundation and National Aeronautics

  17. Coastal Plain Soil Fertility Degradation And Natural Forest Ecosystem Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Sato, C. A.; Reis-Duarte, R. M.; Soares, M. R.; Galvão Bueno, M. S.

    2009-04-01

    The sand coastal plain vegetation (Restinga Forest) has been described as an ecosystem associated with the Atlantic Forest, constituted of mosaics, which occur in areas of great ecological diversity, particularly the features of the soil which mostly influence the forest, therefore assigned as edaphic community. The Restinga forest is one of the most fragile, showing low resilience to human damage This work was carried out in several points (14) of Restinga Forest (six low - trees from 3 to 10 m high - and eight high forest - trees from 10 to 15 m high) in the litoral coast of the state of São Paulo. Each sample was made of 15 subsamples of each area collected in each depth (one in 0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 15, 15 - 20, and another in 0 - 20, 20 - 40, 40 and 60 cm). Soil characteristics analyzed were pH, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, H + Al, Al, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn contents and base saturation, cation exchange capacity and aluminum saturation. The vegetation physiognomies of Restinga forest (low and high) were associated with soil results and with the history of human occupation. The soils are sandy (2 to 4% of clay), resulting in a low capacity of nutrient retention. Soil fertility analysis to low and high Restinga forest were similar and showed very low contents of phosphorous, calcium and magnesium in all areas investigated. The base saturation was low due to low amounts of Na, K, Ca and Mg. Base saturation presents low level in all cases, less than 10, indicating low nutritional reserve in the soil. The aluminum saturation values varied from 58 to 69%. The level of calcium and magnesium were low in the subsurface soil layer mainly, associate with high aluminum saturation, representing an limiting factor for the root system development in depth. If soil fertility parameters do not show any significant difference between low and high Restinga physiognomy, what make distinction is the recuperation time. In the areas of high Forest can be note a too long time of recuperation

  18. Soil salinity study in Northern Great Plains sodium affected soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharel, Tulsi P.

    Climate and land-use changes when combined with the marine sediments that underlay portions of the Northern Great Plains have increased the salinization and sodification risks. The objectives of this dissertation were to compare three chemical amendments (calcium chloride, sulfuric acid and gypsum) remediation strategies on water permeability and sodium (Na) transport in undisturbed soil columns and to develop a remote sensing technique to characterize salinization in South Dakota soils. Forty-eight undisturbed soil columns (30 cm x 15 cm) collected from White Lake, Redfield, and Pierpont were used to assess the chemical remediation strategies. In this study the experimental design was a completely randomized design and each treatment was replicated four times. Following the application of chemical remediation strategies, 45.2 cm of water was leached through these columns. The leachate was separated into 120- ml increments and analyzed for Na and electrical conductivity (EC). Sulfuric acid increased Na leaching, whereas gypsum and CaCl2 increased water permeability. Our results further indicate that to maintain effective water permeability, ratio between soil EC and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) should be considered. In the second study, soil samples from 0-15 cm depth in 62 x 62 m grid spacing were taken from the South Dakota Pierpont (65 ha) and Redfield (17 ha) sites. Saturated paste EC was measured on each soil sample. At each sampling points reflectance and derived indices (Landsat 5, 7, 8 images), elevation, slope and aspect (LiDAR) were extracted. Regression models based on multiple linear regression, classification and regression tree, cubist, and random forest techniques were developed and their ability to predict soil EC were compared. Results showed that: 1) Random forest method was found to be the most effective method because of its ability to capture spatially correlated variation, 2) the short wave infrared (1.5 -2.29 mum) and near infrared (0

  19. Sensitivity Analysis for Hydraulic Behavior of Shiraz Plain Aquifer Using PMWIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza karimipour

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, hydraulic behavior of Shirazplain aquifer, with an area of ~300 km2, was simulated using PMWIN model. The performance of recently constructed drainage system in the plain was modeled and parameters affecting hydraulic behavior of the aquifer were analyzed. Measured rainfall and evaporation rates in the plain, recharge and discharge rates through the aqueducts, Khoshk and Chenar Rahdar rivers, as well as amount of water discharged from production wells and recharge due to returned wastewater were considered in the model. Plain hydrodynamic coefficients were estimated via calibration and sensitivity analysis of the model was performed for four important parameters. Results showed that the model is most sensitive to recharge rate and hydraulic conductivity, respectively, such that a small variation in these two parameters causes a dramatic change in hydraulic head distribution in the plain. Furthermore, specific yield coefficient influences the seasonal water level fluctuations, but the aqueducts conductance coefficient only affects the aqueduct radius of influence with little effect on the overall hydraulic behavior of the plain.

  20. Determining the Appropriate Economic Strategy to Conserve Groundwater Resources in Qazvin Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abozar Parhizkari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Qazvin plain is one of the capable plains in Iran to produce of agricultural goods. Unfortunately, due to inordinate shafts digging and irregular use of groundwater the level of groundwater has been decreased during two last decades so that water balance is negative now. To conserve the groundwater resources in this plain, strategies and appropriate policies are needed and this requires a better understanding of farmers’ behavior. Therefore, in the present study in order to investigate farmers' behavior in using of groundwater and determine appropriate strategies to conserve of groundwater resources in Qazvin plain, positive mathematical programming and production function with constant elasticity of substitution were used. The investigated strategies included increase in water price, decrease in water availability and deficit irrigation strategy and were investigated under various scenarios. The required data were registered information related to 2011-2012 collected from relevant departments in Qazvin province. The model was solved using GAMS 23/9 software. The results showed that all the investigated strategies led to water saving however the average gross profit changes decreased by 3.13, 8.61 and 5.54 percent with increasing water price, decrease in water availability and deficit irrigation, respectively. Finally, considering the less reduction in average gross profit, the irrigation water pricing and then deficit irrigation strategies were proposed to conserve groundwater resources in Qazvin plain.

  1. Hematogenous candida pneumonia in major burn patients: plain chest radiograph and thin-section CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Heon; Lee, Eil Seong; Shim, Ya Seong; Kim, Ji Hun; Suh, Hong Kil; Cho, Sin Young; Kim, Dae Sun; Lee, Kil Woo; Kang, Ik Won

    1995-01-01

    To describe plain radiographic and thin-section CT findings of hematogenous candida pneumonia in major burn patients. We reviewed nine cases of hematogenous candida pneumonia in major burn patients who had positive blood culture for candida and findings of pneumonia on plain chest radiograph. On five of nine cases, thin-section CT was done. We evaluated retrospectively nine cases for onset, the pattern, distribution, and size of lesions on plain chest radiograph and thin-section CT. On plain chest radiograph, randomly distributed 2-10 mm nodules were seen in six cases(66%) and randomly distributed 10-15 mm consolidations in remaining three cases(33%). Lesion occurred in 11th to 75th post-burn day(average, 34th post-burn day). Other findings were cardiomegaly in three cases, atelectasis in three cases, and pulmonary edema in one case. Thin-section CT showed variable shaped subpleural nodules in all five cases. The size of nodules were 1-5 mm in two cases(40%) and 5-10 mm(60%) in three cases. Feeding vessel signs were seen in two cases. Other findings were atelectasis in three cases, cardiomegaly in three cases, ground-glass opacity and interlobular septal thickenings by pulmonary edema in two cases. Plain chest radiographic findings of hematogenous candida pneumonia in major burn patients are randomly distributed nodules or consolidations of variable size. Thin-section CT findings are variable shaped subpleural nodules less than 1 cm

  2. Antifriction coating of Cu-Fe-Al-Pb system for plain bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenkov, Pavel; Kontsevoi, Yurii; Mejlakh, Anna; Pastukhov, Eduard; Shubin, Alexey; Goyda, Eduard; Sipatov, Ivan

    2017-09-01

    Aluminium, copper and their compounds are used in common as basis for antifriction coatings of plain bearings. Antifriction testing of plain bearings (based on Al and Cu) made by leading automotive manufacturers from Germany, Japan, USA, United Kingdom and Russia were carried out to make judicious selection of basis for development of new antifriction material. Testing was carried out using friction machine. It was defined that materials based on Cu provide better durability and robustness of plain bearings in comparison with Al based ones. The new antifriction composite coatings based on copper were developed taking into account the requirements specified for plain bearings of internal-combustion engine. Pilot samples of plain bearings with antifriction coatings of Cu-Fe-Al-Pb system were produced. The antifriction composite having Cu-5Fe-5Al5Fe2-10Pb (mass %) composition has demonstrated low friction factor and high wear-resistance. Metallographic analysis of pilot samples was carried out by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Dispersion of near-infrared laser energy through radicular dentine when using plain or conical tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Christine Yi Jia; George, Roy; Walsh, Laurence J

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of tip design on patterns of laser energy dispersion through the dentine of tooth roots when using near-infrared diode lasers. Diode laser emissions of 810 or 940 nm were used in combination with optical fiber tips with either conventional plain ends or conical ends, to irradiate tooth roots of oval or round cross-sectional shapes. The lasers were operated in continuous wave mode at 0.5 W for 5 s with the distal end of the fiber tip placed in the apical or coronal third of the root canal at preset positions. Laser light exiting through the roots and apical foramen was imaged, and the extent of lateral spread calculated. There was a significant difference in infrared light exiting the root canal apex between plain and conical fiber tips for both laser wavelengths, with more forward transmission of laser energy through the apex for plain tips. For both laser wavelengths, there were no significant differences in emission patterns when the variable of canal shape was used and all other variables were kept the same (plain vs conical tip, tip position). To ensure optimal treatment effect and to prevent the risks of inadvertent laser effects on the adjacent periapical tissues, it is important to have a good understanding of laser transmission characteristics of the root canal and root dentine. Importantly, it is also essential to understand transmission characteristics of plain and conical fibers tips.

  4. Computed tomography of active pulmonary tuberculosis with nonvisualized cavitary lesion on plain chest film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Woo Hyun; Cho, Seoung Hwan; Lee, Jun Bae; Kim, Byung Soo

    1989-01-01

    The detection of cavity in pulmonary tuberculosis has important roles in its diagnosis, therapy planning and follow-up of healing process, and also means at least moderate advanced tuberculosis. The plain chest film has some limitation of detection of cavity in pulmonary tuberculosis owing to several factors. CT is superior to plain chest film and conventional tomography, in detection of cavitary lesion. Authors retrospectively analyzed CT findings of 20 cases of minimal pulmonary tuberculosis, of which the plain chest films showed no cavitary lesion from Sept. 1986 to July 1988 in Pusan National University Hospital. All cases were proven by culture or AFB test of sputum and clinical evidence. The results were as follows: 1. Sex distribution showed 10 cases (50%) in male, 10 case (50%) in female and the highest incidence in the second decade (40%). 2. All 20 cases showed no cavity on the plain chest films, but all cases showed variable sized cavities on CT. 3. The size of cavities ranged from 4 mm to 30 mm, averaged as 9.9 mm, the thickness of cavitary wall from 3 mm to 8 mm, averaged as 5.8 mm. 4. It is concluded that cavitary lesions which are not visualized on the plain chest films can be demonstrated by CT scan in minimal pulmonary tuberculosis

  5. Quantitative analysis of bowel gas by plain abdominal radiograph combined with computer image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yan; Peng Kewen; Zhang Houde; Shen Bixian; Xiao Hanxin; Cai Juan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method for quantitative analysis of bowel gas by plain abdominal radiograph and computer graphics. Methods: Plain abdominal radiographs in supine position from 25 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 20 health controls were studied. A gastroenterologist and a radiologist independently conducted the following procedure on each radiograph. After the outline of bowel gas was traced by axe pen, the radiograph was digitized by a digital camera and transmitted to the computer with Histogram software. The total gas area was determined as the pixel value on images. The ratio of the bowel gas quantity to the pixel value in the region surrounded by a horizontal line tangential to the superior pubic symphysis margin, a horizontal line tangential to the tenth dorsal vertebra inferior margin, and the lateral line tangential to the right and left anteriosuperior iliac crest, was defined as the gas volume score (GVS). To examine the sequential reproducibility, a second plain abdominal radiograph was performed in 5 normal controls 1 week later, and the GVS were compared. Results: Bowel gas was easily identified on the plain abdominal radiograph. Both large and small intestine located in the selected region. Both observers could finish one radiographic measurement in less than 10 mins. The correlation coefficient between the two observers was 0.986. There was no statistical difference on GVS between the two sequential radiographs in 5 health controls. Conclusion: Quantification of bowel gas based on plain abdominal radiograph and computer is simple, rapid, and reliable

  6. Sacroiliitis in Ankylosing Spondylitis: Comparison with Multidetector Row CT and Plain Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ji Youn; Joo, Kyung Bin; Choi, Byeong Kyoo; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Kim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Woo Jung [Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The objective of our study was to compare multidetector row CT and the plain radiographs for making the diagnosis and grading the sacroiliitis that accompanies ankylosing spondylitis. We wanted to determine the role of multidetector row CT for the evaluation of the sacroilitis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. One hundred ninety two patients with clinically suspected ankylosing spondylitis were evaluated by conventional radiography and multidetector row CT. Two musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively analyzed the images, and they graded the sacroiliitis using the modified New York Criteria. Multidetector row CT demonstrated a significantly higher sensitivity (74.5%, 83.3%) than did plain radiography (59.9%, 66.7%) for detecting early sacroiliitis (p<0.05). Multidetector row CT showed a higher grade of sacroiliitis in 114 and 127 of 384 sacroiliac joints. Performing multidetector row CT rather than plain radiography for making the diagnoses of accompanying ankylosing spondylitis allows an early start of treatment with a subsequently improved prognosis

  7. Diagnosis of cancer of the tongue and oral floor using plain CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariji, Eiichiro; Kanda, Shigenobu

    1988-01-01

    CT images of 18 patients, diagnosed squamous cell carcinomas of the tongue or oral floor, were analyzed to assess the clinical importance of plain CT for primary sites. All cases were scanned on Somatom DR (Siemens) at the Department of Dental Radiology, Kyushu University Dental Hospital from 1985 to 1988. Results were as follows : 1, As descriptions of primary tumors mainly depended on their size in soft tissue, plain CT was useful only for advanced cases (T3, T4). 2, For cancer of the oral floor and advanced cases of cancer of the tongue, plain CT was useful to evaluate the bone invasion, especially in cases of lingual cortex of the anterior mandible. (author)

  8. [Aboveground biomass of Tamarix on piedmont plain of Tianshan Mountains south slope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenyong; Wang, Ranghui; Zhang, Huizhi; Wang, Lei

    2006-09-01

    Based on the geo-morphological and hydro-geological characteristics, the piedmont plain of Tianshan Mountains south slope was classified into 4 geo-morphological belts, i.e., flood erosion belt, groundwater spill belt, delta belt, and the joining belt of piedmont plain and Tarim floodplain. A field investigation on the Tamarix shrub in this region showed that there was a significant difference in its aboveground biomass among the four belts, ranged from 1428.53 kg x hm(-2) at groundwater spill belt to 111.18 kg x hm(-2) at the joining belt of piedmont plain and Tarim floodplain. The main reason for such a big difference might be the different density of Tamarix shrub on different belts. Both the Tamarix aboveground biomass and the topsoil's salinity were decreased with increasing groundwater level. Groundwater level was the main factor limiting Tamarix growth, while soil salinity was not.

  9. A conceptual model to facilitate amphibian conservation in the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushnet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    As pressures on agricultural landscapes to meet worldwide resource needs increase, amphibian populations face numerous threats including habitat destruction, chemical contaminants, disease outbreaks, wetland sedimentation, and synergistic effects of these perturbations. To facilitate conservation planning, we developed a conceptual model depicting elements critical for amphibian conservation in the northern Great Plains. First, we linked upland, wetland, and landscape features to specific ecological attributes. Ecological attributes included adult survival; reproduction and survival to metamorphosis; and successful dispersal and recolonization. Second, we linked ecosystem drivers, ecosystem stressors, and ecological effects of the region to each ecological attribute. Lastly, we summarized information on these ecological attributes and the drivers, stressors, and effects that work in concert to influence the maintenance of viable and genetically diverse amphibian populations in the northern Great Plains. While our focus was on the northern Great Plains, our conceptual model can be tailored to other geographic regions and taxa.

  10. Correlation of plain radiographic and lumbar myelographic findings with surgical findings in thoracolumbar disc disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldby, N.J.; Dyce, J.; Houlton, J.E.F.

    1994-01-01

    The results of a prospective study to compare the plain radiographic and lumbar myelographic findings with the surgical findings in 70 cases of suspected thoracolumbar disc protrusion in the dog are reported. The aim was to assess the relative accuracy of disc lesion localisation using plain and contrast radiography. From the plain radiographs, the affected disc space was correctly identified in 40 cases (57.1 per cent), and incorrectly identified in seven. More than one site was identified in 11; in eight of these dogs, the affected disc space was strongly suspected. It was not possible to identify an affected disc in 12 cases. The site of disc protrusion was accurately identified by myelography in 60 dogs (85.7 per cent). In four dogs, myelography was helpful in identifying an adjacent disc and, in a further two, cord swelling was found at surgery. In one dog, neither disc material nor cord swelling was identified. Three myelograms were non-diagnostic

  11. Uranium in pore waters from North Atlantic (GME and Southern Nares Abyssal Plain) sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santschi, P.H.; Bajo, C.; Mantovani, M.; Orciuolo, D.; Cranston, R.E.; Bruno, J.

    1988-01-01

    Here we report the measurement of low uranium concentrations in composite pore-water samples from the uppermost 20-30 m of deep-sea abyssal plain sediments from the Great Meteor East and Southern Nares Abyssal Plains Area. Many values are the lowest uranium concentrations ever measured in the pore waters of deep-sea sediments. Our lowest value, 0.05 ± 0.01 p.p.b., is orders of magnitude lower than the predicted solubility of U0 2 or U 4 0 9 . The uranium concentrations obtained from both sites correlate closely with measured redox potentials in the sediments. The low mobility of uranium in pore waters from turbiditic deep-sea abyssal plain sediments, which can be deduced from these measurements, has important implications for the sub-seabed disposal of high-level radioactive waste, and for marine geochemistry of uranium. (author)

  12. Hydrologic and geochemical characterization of the Santa Rosa Plain watershed, Sonoma County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    The Santa Rosa Plain is home to approximately half of the population of Sonoma County, California, and faces growth in population and demand for water. Water managers are confronted with the challenge of meeting the increasing water demand with a combination of water sources, including local groundwater, whose future availability could be uncertain. To meet this challenge, water managers are seeking to acquire the knowledge and tools needed to understand the likely effects of future groundwater development in the Santa Rosa Plain and to identify efficient strategies for surface- and groundwater management that will ensure the long-term viability of the water supply. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sonoma County Water Agency and other stakeholders in the area (cities of Cotati, Rohnert Park, Santa Rosa, and Sebastopol, town of Windsor, Cal-American Water Company, and the County of Sonoma), undertook this study to characterize the hydrology of the Santa Rosa Plain and to develop tools to better understand and manage the groundwater system. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop an updated assessment of the hydrogeology and geochemistry of the Santa Rosa Plain; (2) to develop a fully coupled surface-water and groundwater-flow model for the Santa Rosa Plain watershed; and (3) to evaluate the potential hydrologic effects of alternative groundwater-management strategies for the basin. The purpose of this report is to describe the surface-water and groundwater hydrology, hydrogeology, and water-quality characteristics of the Santa Rosa Plain watershed and to develop a conceptual model of the hydrologic system in support of the first objective. The results from completing the second and third objectives will be described in a separate report.

  13. Peculiarities of 239,240Pu behaviour in flood-plain soils of the Techa river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailovskaya, L.N.; Molchanova, I.V.; Karavaeva, E.N.

    2004-01-01

    The Techa river was contaminated with the liquid nuclear waste discharged from the nuclear plant 'Mayak' within 1949-1956 years. In 1999-2002 flood-plain soils of the Techa river were investigated and the levels of content, a migration and a vertical distribution of 239,240 Pu in the flood-plain soils were studied. Reference plots were located in the pre-bed and in central flood plain at different distances from the source of contamination (78-240 km). It was shown that in the soils of the pre-bed the content of Pu isotopes was decreasing from 10.5 to 2.8 kBq/m 2 with the distance from the plant 'Mayak'. Besides, a non-uniform spatial distribution of 239,240 Pu was found in those plots, which were at the same distance from the source of the contamination. As a rule, the central flood plain (25-100 m from the river-bed) was contaminated with 239,240 Pu less than the area in the pre-bed (5-20 m from the the river-bed). Thus, in the area of the middle length of the river the density of the soil contamination with 239,240 Pu of the central flood plain is 0.3 to 0.8 kBq/m 2 and that of the pre-bed is 1.0 to 4.7 kBq/m 2 at a maximum migration depth being 25 to 30 cm and 40 to 50 cm, respectively. The determined value of the 239,240 Pu/ 137 Cs ratio proves that rates of the vertical migration of the Pu isotopes in the flood plain soils of the Techa river are comparable and higher (in some cases) than those of 137 Cs. (author)

  14. Socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers’ ratings of plain and branded cigarette packaging: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Chris; Durkin, Sarah; D'Este, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to test the potential impact of plain packaging for cigarettes on brand appeal among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers using the new design for cigarettes implemented in Australia, which combines plain packaging with larger health warning labels. Design A 2×2 factorial design trial embedded within a cross-sectional computer touchscreen survey. Data were collected between March and December 2012. Setting Socially disadvantaged welfare aid recipients were recruited through a large Social and Community Service Organisation in New South Wales, Australia. Participants N=354 smokers. The majority of the sample had not completed high school (64%), earned less than $A300/week (55%) and received their income from Government payments (95%). Interventions Participants were randomised to one of the four different pack conditions determined by brand name: Winfield versus Benson & Hedges, and packaging type: branded versus plain. Participants were required to rate their assigned pack on measures of brand appeal and purchase intentions. Results Plain packaging was associated with significantly reduced smoker ratings of ‘positive pack characteristics’ (p<0.001), ‘positive smoker characteristics’ (p=0.003) and ‘positive taste characteristics’ (p=0.033) in the Winfield brand name condition only. Across the four pack conditions, no main differences were found for ‘negative smoker characteristics’ (p=0.427) or ‘negative harm characteristics’ (p=0.411). In comparison to plain packaging, the presentation of branded packaging was associated with higher odds of smokers’ purchase intentions (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.34 to 3.54; p=0.002). Conclusions Plain packs stripped of branding elements, featuring larger health warning labels, were associated with reduced positive cigarette brand image and purchase intentions among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. PMID:24503299

  15. Socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers' ratings of plain and branded cigarette packaging: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Chris; Durkin, Sarah; D'Este, Catherine

    2014-02-06

    This study aimed to test the potential impact of plain packaging for cigarettes on brand appeal among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers using the new design for cigarettes implemented in Australia, which combines plain packaging with larger health warning labels. A 2×2 factorial design trial embedded within a cross-sectional computer touchscreen survey. Data were collected between March and December 2012. Socially disadvantaged welfare aid recipients were recruited through a large Social and Community Service Organisation in New South Wales, Australia. N=354 smokers. The majority of the sample had not completed high school (64%), earned less than $A300/week (55%) and received their income from Government payments (95%). Participants were randomised to one of the four different pack conditions determined by brand name: Winfield versus Benson & Hedges, and packaging type: branded versus plain. Participants were required to rate their assigned pack on measures of brand appeal and purchase intentions. Plain packaging was associated with significantly reduced smoker ratings of 'positive pack characteristics' (p<0.001), 'positive smoker characteristics' (p=0.003) and 'positive taste characteristics' (p=0.033) in the Winfield brand name condition only. Across the four pack conditions, no main differences were found for 'negative smoker characteristics' (p=0.427) or 'negative harm characteristics' (p=0.411). In comparison to plain packaging, the presentation of branded packaging was associated with higher odds of smokers' purchase intentions (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.34 to 3.54; p=0.002). Plain packs stripped of branding elements, featuring larger health warning labels, were associated with reduced positive cigarette brand image and purchase intentions among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers.

  16. Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Longuevergne, Laurent; Reedy, Robert C.; Alley, William M.; McGuire, Virginia L.; McMahon, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Aquifer overexploitation could significantly impact crop production in the United States because 60% of irrigation relies on groundwater. Groundwater depletion in the irrigated High Plains and California Central Valley accounts for ∼50% of groundwater depletion in the United States since 1900. A newly developed High Plains recharge map shows that high recharge in the northern High Plains results in sustainable pumpage, whereas lower recharge in the central and southern High Plains has resulted in focused depletion of 330 km3 of fossil groundwater, mostly recharged during the past 13,000 y. Depletion is highly localized with about a third of depletion occurring in 4% of the High Plains land area. Extrapolation of the current depletion rate suggests that 35% of the southern High Plains will be unable to support irrigation within the next 30 y. Reducing irrigation withdrawals could extend the lifespan of the aquifer but would not result in sustainable management of this fossil groundwater. The Central Valley is a more dynamic, engineered system, with north/south diversions of surface water since the 1950s contributing to ∼7× higher recharge. However, these diversions are regulated because of impacts on endangered species. A newly developed Central Valley Hydrologic Model shows that groundwater depletion since the 1960s, totaling 80 km3, occurs mostly in the south (Tulare Basin) and primarily during droughts. Increasing water storage through artificial recharge of excess surface water in aquifers by up to 3 km3 shows promise for coping with droughts and improving sustainability of groundwater resources in the Central Valley. PMID:22645352

  17. South Ilan Plain High-Resolution 3-D S-Wave Velocity from Ambient Noise Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Xun Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ilan Plain in northeastern Taiwan is located at a pivotal point where the Ryukyu trench subduction zone, the northern Taiwan crustal stretching zone, and the ongoing arc-continent collision zone converge. In contrast to the North Ilan Plain, the South Ilan Plain exhibits a thin unconsolidated sedimentary layer with depths ranging from 0 - 1 km, high on-land seismicity and significant SE movements relative to Penghu island. We deployed a dense network of 43 short-period vertical component Texan instruments from June to November 2013 in this study, covering most of the South Ilan Plain and its vicinity. We then used the ambient noise tomography method for simultaneous phase and group Rayleigh wave velocity measurements to invert a high-resolution 3-D S-wave for shallow structures (up to a depth of 2.5 km in the South Ilan Plain. We used the fast marching method for ray tracing to deal with ray bending in an inhomogeneous medium. The resulting rays gradually bend toward high velocity zones with increasing number of iterations. The high velocity zone results are modified by more iterations and the resolutions become higher because ray crossings are proportional to ray densities for evenly distributed stations. The final results agreed well with known sedimentary basement thickness patterns. We observed nearly EW trending fast anomalies beneath the mountainous terrain abutting to the South Ilan Plain. The Chingshui location consistently exhibited a low S-wave velocity zone to a depth of 1.5 km.

  18. Isotopic estimation of the evapo-transpiration flux in a plain agricultural region (Po plain, Northern Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmi, Giovanni; Sacchi, Elisa; Zuppi, Gian Maria; Cerasuolo, Marcello; Allais, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Isotopic data from 19-months monitoring of water vapour and monthly precipitation. ► The mean annual weighted δ 18 O in rainwater samples is −6.90 ± 2.2. ► Results interpreted in relationship to climatic factors and to air masses circulation. ► Besides local vapour, moisture is carried by continental and maritime circulations. ► A computational method based on isotopes (EMMA) allows quantifying the local vapour fraction. - Abstract: Samples of water vapour and monthly precipitation were collected in Pavia, located 50 km south of Milan (Western Po plain, Northern Italy), over a period of 19 months, from March 2006 to September 2007. Results are interpreted in relation to the local climatic factors (temperature and precipitation rates), and to air mass circulation patterns, derived from sea level pressure maps, geopotential maps and satellite images. Since most water vapour samples represent a mixture of continental air masses and local evapo-transpiration fluxes, a computational method based on the stable isotope content (EMMA) has been used to evaluate the percentage of the different components and to quantify the local vapour fraction. The regression line equation for rainwater samples is: δ 2 H vs.VSMOW =8.8(±0.5)·δ 18 O vs.SMOW +14.5(±3.5)‰(R 2 =0.96;n=17) The slope of the line is extremely high and probably related to the dataset used, which includes two summer seasons and one winter season. In addition, the latter was somewhat anomalous, with recorded average temperatures higher than the average calculated for the years 1970–2002. The mean annual weighted δ 18 O in rainwater samples is equal to −6.90 ± 2.2‰. The regression line equation for water vapour samples is: δ 2 H vs.VSMOW =6.8(±0.3)·δ 18 O vs.SMOW -7.4(±4.9)‰(R 2 =0.92;n=37). The two regression lines meet at δ 18 O = −10.82 ± 13.97‰. This value appears more depleted than the mean annual weighted precipitation value, but is close to the isotope

  19. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Cratering histories of the intercrater plains. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon are defined, in part, by their high densities of small craters. The crater size frequency statistics presented in this chapter may help constrain the relative ages and origins of these surfaces. To this end, the effects of common geologic processes on crater frequency statistics are compared with the diameter frequency distributions of the intercrater regions of the Moon and Mercury. Such analyses may determine whether secondary craters dominate the distribution at small diameters, and whether volcanic plains or ballistic deposits form the intercrater surface. Determining the mass frequency distribution and flux of the impacting population is a more difficult problem. The necessary information such as scaling relationships between projectile energy and crater diameter, the relative fluxes of solar system objects, and the absolute ages of surface units is model dependent and poorly constrained, especially for Mercury.

  20. Isotopes to Study the coastal aquifer plain, Cap Bon, Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Hamouda, M. F.; Zouari, Kamel; Tarhouni, J.; Gaye, C.B.; Oueslati, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    The study area is located in the northeastern part of Tunisia about 60 km south of the Tunis city. It is bounded by the Gulf of Haematite in the East, Djebel Sidi Aberahmane in the West, The town of Nabeul in the south and the area of the town Kelibia in the north. The landscape is a coastal plain slightly sloping (3%) towards the sea. The groundwater of the Oriental coast aquifer system occurs mainly at two levels, a shallow aquifer up to depths of about 50 m whose reservoir is consisted by sediments of the Plio quaternary and a deep aquifer between about 150 and 400 m located in the sand stone formations of Miocene of the anticline of Djebel Sidi Abderrahmene. The climate of the region is semi-arid to sub-humid and of Mediterranean type. There are no perennial rivers in this region; but intense storms occasionally cause surface runoff, which is discharged by the oueds. The study is related to a technical cooperation project with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, aimed at the use of isotope techniques to study the seawater intrusion into the coastal aquifers of Cap Bon in Tunisia. In this regard, a better understanding of the recharge and flow regime as well as the origin or salinity of the groundwater was required. To reach this goal, isotope and geochemical investigations were carried out. Water samples were taken from wells, boreholes from deep and shallow aquifer of the Oriental coastal aquifer located between Beni Khiar in the south and Kelibia in the north. The samples were analysed for their chemical and isotopic compositions (18O, 2H, 3H, 13C, 14C, 34S). In the following, the results of these analyses are presented and discussed in terms of the recharge and flow regime of the groundwater and the origin and evolution of its salinity. The results of geochemical and isotopic studies have shown that the groundwater is very eterogeneous and suggest the aquifer is replenished by recent water coming from direct infiltration from rain. At

  1. High School Racial Confrontation, A Study of the White Plains, New York, Student Boycott. Student Unrest and Changing Student-Staff Relationships in the White Plains Public Schools, September, 1967 to December, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Dan W.; And Others

    This case study examines a racial confrontation in the high school of White Plains, New York. The study includes a chronology of the White Plains incident, a report of the community background, discussion of various hypotheses concerning the reasons for the incident (social class factors, youths testing new roles, and breakdown of authority),…

  2. Quantifying local-scale dust emission from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    KAUST Repository

    Anisimov, Anatolii

    2017-01-23

    Dust plumes emitted from the narrow Arabian Red Sea coastal plain are often observed on satellite images and felt in local population centers. Despite its relatively small area, the coastal plain could be a significant dust source; however, its effect is not well quantified as it is not well approximated in global or even regional models. In addition, because of close proximity to the Red Sea, a significant amount of dust from the coastal areas could be deposited into the Red Sea and serve as a vital component of the nutrient balance of marine ecosystems. In the current study, we apply the offline Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) to better quantify dust emission from the coastal plain during the period of 2009-2011. We verify the spatial and temporal variability in model results using independent weather station reports. We also compare the results with the MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). We show that the best results are obtained with 1 km model spatial resolution and dust source function based on Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) measurements. We present the dust emission spatial pattern, as well as estimates of seasonal and diurnal variability in dust event frequency and intensity, and discuss the emission regime in the major dust generation hot spot areas. We demonstrate the contrasting seasonal dust cycles in the northern and southern parts of the coastal plain and discuss the physical mechanisms responsible for dust generation. This study provides the first estimates of the fine-scale spatial and temporal distribution of dust emissions from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain constrained by MERRAero and short-term WRF-Chem simulations. The estimate of total dust emission from the coastal plain, tuned to fit emissions in MERRAero, is 7.5 ± 0.5 Mt a. Small interannual variability indicates that the study area is a stable dust source. The mineralogical composition analysis shows that the coastal plain

  3. 137Cs contamination of Techa river flood plain in Brodokalmak settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesnokov, A.V.; Govorun, A.P.; Liksonov, V.I.; Shcherbak, S.B.; Ivanitskaya, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    137 Cs contamination of the Techa river flood plain inside the Brodokalmak settlement has been mapped. The collimated scintillated detector technique was used for 137 Cs deposit measurements. The 137 Cs contamination is very heterogeneous. A comparison of this technique with the traditional sample method was performed at selected locations. The sampling data are in good agreement with in-situ data. Soil surface activity of 90 Sr was determined from the samples. It was shown that 137 Cs contamination correlates with 90 Sr contamination within the flood plain of the settlement

  4. Quantifying local-scale dust emission from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    KAUST Repository

    Anisimov, Anatolii; Tao, Weichun; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Kalenderski, Stoitchko; Jish Prakash, P.; Yang, Zong Liang; Shi, Mingjie

    2017-01-01

    Dust plumes emitted from the narrow Arabian Red Sea coastal plain are often observed on satellite images and felt in local population centers. Despite its relatively small area, the coastal plain could be a significant dust source; however, its effect is not well quantified as it is not well approximated in global or even regional models. In addition, because of close proximity to the Red Sea, a significant amount of dust from the coastal areas could be deposited into the Red Sea and serve as a vital component of the nutrient balance of marine ecosystems. In the current study, we apply the offline Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) to better quantify dust emission from the coastal plain during the period of 2009-2011. We verify the spatial and temporal variability in model results using independent weather station reports. We also compare the results with the MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). We show that the best results are obtained with 1 km model spatial resolution and dust source function based on Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) measurements. We present the dust emission spatial pattern, as well as estimates of seasonal and diurnal variability in dust event frequency and intensity, and discuss the emission regime in the major dust generation hot spot areas. We demonstrate the contrasting seasonal dust cycles in the northern and southern parts of the coastal plain and discuss the physical mechanisms responsible for dust generation. This study provides the first estimates of the fine-scale spatial and temporal distribution of dust emissions from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain constrained by MERRAero and short-term WRF-Chem simulations. The estimate of total dust emission from the coastal plain, tuned to fit emissions in MERRAero, is 7.5 ± 0.5 Mt a. Small interannual variability indicates that the study area is a stable dust source. The mineralogical composition analysis shows that the coastal plain

  5. A decade of investigations on groundwater arsenic contamination in Middle Ganga Plain, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipankar; Sahu, Sudarsan

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater arsenic (As) load in excess of drinking limit (50 µg L(-1)) in the Gangetic Plains was first detected in 2002. Though the menace was known since about two decades from the downstream part of the plains in the Bengal Basin, comprising of Lower Ganga Plain and deltaic plains of Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna River system, little thought was given to its possible threat in the upstream parts in the Gangetic Plains beyond Garo-Rajmahal Hills. The contamination in Bengal Basin has become one of the extensively studied issues in the world and regarded as the severest case of health hazard in the history of mankind. The researches and investigations in the Gangetic Plains during the last decade (2003-2013) revealed that the eastern half of the plains, also referred as Middle Ganga Plain (MGP), is particularly affected by contamination, jeopardising the shallow aquifer-based drinking water supply. The present paper reviews researches and investigations carried out so far in MGP by various research institutes and government departments on wide array of issues of groundwater As such as its spatio-temporal variation, mobilisation paths, water level behaviour and flow regime, configuration of contaminated and safe aquifers and their recharge mechanism. Elevated conc. of groundwater As has been observed in grey and dark grey sediments of Holocene age (Newer Alluvium) deposited in a fluvio-lacustrine environment in the floodplain of the Ganga and most of its northern tributaries from Himalayas. Older Alluvium, comprising Pleistocene brownish yellow sediment, extending as deeper aquifers in Newer Alluvium areas, is low in groundwater As. Similarities and differences on issues between the MGP and the Bengal Basin have been discussed. The researches point towards the mobilisation process as reductive dissolution of iron hydroxide coating, rich in adsorbed As, mediated by microbial processes. The area is marked with shallow water level (<8.0 m below ground) with ample

  6. Geology and uranium occurrences in the Forez tertiary plain (in the French 'Massif Central')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duclos, P.

    1967-01-01

    In the first part, the observations made during the geological survey of the Forez Tertiary plain (in the French 'Massif Central') are recalled. Then, using various methods, the author lists the formations according to chronology. Finally, a reconstitution of the geological history of this subsidence basin is attempted. In the second part, the occurrence of 17 uranium bearing geochemical anomalies is commented upon. Each of these various anomalies is given a place on the stratigraphic scale. This enables the author to put the successive phases of uranium deposition into their proper perspective in the history of the plain. In conclusion, the author points out the usefulness of these uraniferous geochemical anomalies. (author) [fr

  7. The History of the Environmental Conditions Research in the Brăila Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Plain has generally represented the study subject of research in the field of Geography and especially of the environment geography and resources. Due to the structure and the geological movements of the climate factors, the hydrography in the area of the Braila Plain has represents a subject of many geographers‘ interest. The divagation and the leaving of the water course phenomena of some rivers, the genesis and the classification of lake basins, underground waters, the links that are established between these hydrographical units, the water balance, the water chemism, the existence of the oil and gas resources made the researchers study them as a whole.

  8. The value of plain abdominal radiographs in management of abdominal emergencies in Luth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashindoitiang, J A; Atoyebi, A O; Arogundade, R A

    2008-01-01

    The plain abdominal x-ray is still the first imaging modality in diagnosis of acute abdomen. The aim of this study was to find the value of plain abdominal x-ray in the management of abdominal emergencies seen in Lagos university teaching hospital. The accurate diagnosis of the cause of acute abdominal pain is one of the most challenging undertakings in emergency medicine. This is due to overlapping of clinical presentation and non-specific findings of physical and even laboratory data of the multifarious causes. Plain abdominal radiography is one investigation that can be obtained readily and within a short period of time to help the physician arrive at a correct diagnosis The relevance of plain abdominal radiography was therefore evaluated in the management of abdominal emergencies seen in Lagos over a 12 month period (April 2002 to March 2003). A prospective study of 100 consecutively presenting patients with acute abdominal conditions treated by the general surgical unit of Lagos University Teaching Hospital was undertaken. All patients had supine and erect abdominal x-ray before any therapeutic intervention was undertaken. The diagnostic features of the plain films were compared with final diagnosis to determine the usefulness of the plain x-ray There were 54 males and 46 females (M:F 1.2:1). Twenty-four percent of the patients had intestinal obstruction, 20% perforated typhoid enteritis; gunshot injuries and generalized peritonitis each occurred in 13%, blunt abdominal trauma in 12%, while 8% and 10% had acute appendicitis and perforated peptic ulcer disease respectively. Of 100 patients studied, 54% had plain abdominal radiographs that showed positive diagnostic features. Plain abdominal radiograph showed high sensitivity in patients with intestinal obstruction 100% and perforated peptic ulcer 90% but was less sensitive in patients with perforated typhoid, acute appendicitis, and blunt abdominal trauma and generalized peritonitis. In conclusion, this study

  9. The importance of plain radiographic signs for emergency aortography in blunt chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, K.A.; Trost, K.; Bargon, G.

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective study of plain radiographic findings in 11 patients with traumatic rupture of the aorta was conducted, and the results compared with the incidence of numerous chest x-rays signs previously described in 294 cases of angiographically proven thoracic aorta dissection. It is concluded that positive plain radiographic signs obtained from patients with blunt chest trauma reveal high sensitivity and may thus be used as an indication for emergency aortography. However, since this procedure lacks 100% specificity even those patients with normal x-ray findings but clinically and/or anamnestically adequate thoracic trauma should be submitted to aortography. (orig.) [de

  10. Importance of Small Isolated Wetlands for Herpetofaunal Diversity in Managed, Young Growth Forests in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, K.R.; Guynn, D.C. Jr.; Hanlin, H.G.

    2002-01-01

    Assessment and comparison of richness, abundance and difference of herpetofauna at five small isolated wetlands located within a commercial forest landscape in the South Carolina Coastal Plain. Data indicates small isolated wetlands are focal points of herpetofaunal richness and abundance in managed coastal plain forest and contribute more to regional biodiversity than is implied by their small size or ephemeral hydrology

  11. 78 FR 7448 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Spokane Tribe of Indians West Plains Casino...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Proposed Spokane Tribe of Indians West Plains Casino and Mixed Use Project, City of Airway Heights, Spokane...) for the Spokane Tribe of Indians West Plains Casino and Mixed Use Project, City of Airway Heights... casino-resort facility, parking structure, site retail, commercial building, tribal cultural center, and...

  12. 77 FR 12873 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Spokane Tribe of Indians West Plains Casino...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Proposed Spokane Tribe of Indians West Plains Casino and Mixed Use Project, City of Airway Heights, Spokane... statement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the Spokane Tribe of Indians West Plains casino... determination by the Secretary of the Interior; and (2) development of a casino-resort facility, parking...

  13. 77 FR 24976 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Spokane Tribe of Indians West Plains Casino...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Spokane Tribe of Indians West Plains Casino and Mixed Use Project, City of Airway Heights, Spokane... Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Spokane Tribe of Indians West Plains casino and mixed use project, City...

  14. 78 FR 17099 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including...

  15. 76 FR 78161 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake...

  16. 78 FR 65874 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including...

  17. 78 FR 4071 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  18. 75 FR 64673 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and, Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and, Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and... Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Ship and...: The Coast Guard will enforce Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des...

  19. 78 FR 40635 - Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  20. 78 FR 36092 - Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  1. 76 FR 35106 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago..., DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a permanent safety zone from Brandon... Safety Zones; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary...

  2. 75 FR 64147 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Ship and Sanitary Canal... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  3. 77 FR 25595 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and [[Page 25596

  4. 76 FR 65609 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago... INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake...

  5. The role of the plain radiograph and renal tract ultrasound in the management of children with renal tract calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.L.; Somers, J.M.; Broderick, N.; Halliday, K.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the relative efficacy of plain abdominal radiographs and detailed renal tract ultrasound (US) examination in the diagnosis and follow-up of children with renal tract calculi. METHODS: The records and imaging studies of 28 paediatric patients who had presented with proven renal tract calculi over a period of 5 years were examined. RESULTS: In 23 (82%) patients, US was the first investigation. All these patients also had plain radiographs. Plain radiographs were the first investigation in five (18%) patients. All renal calculi (100%) visible on plain films were demonstrated on US. Furthermore, detailed US often provided other clinically significant findings that were not apparent on plain films. CONCLUSION: As a result of this study it is recommend that detailed US should be the investigation of choice in children with suspected renal tract calculi. Smith, S.L. (2000)

  6. The role of the plain radiograph and renal tract ultrasound in the management of children with renal tract calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S L; Somers, J M; Broderick, N; Halliday, K

    2000-09-01

    AIMS: The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the relative efficacy of plain abdominal radiographs and detailed renal tract ultrasound (US) examination in the diagnosis and follow-up of children with renal tract calculi. METHODS: The records and imaging studies of 28 paediatric patients who had presented with proven renal tract calculi over a period of 5 years were examined. RESULTS: In 23 (82%) patients, US was the first investigation. All these patients also had plain radiographs. Plain radiographs were the first investigation in five (18%) patients. All renal calculi (100%) visible on plain films were demonstrated on US. Furthermore, detailed US often provided other clinically significant findings that were not apparent on plain films. CONCLUSION: As a result of this study it is recommend that detailed US should be the investigation of choice in children with suspected renal tract calculi. Smith, S.L. (2000)

  7. Geochemistry of shallow ground water in coastal plain environments in the southeastern United States: implications for aquifer susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Spruill, Timothy B.; Eimers, Jo L.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water chemistry data from coastal plain environments have been examined to determine the geochemical conditions and processes that occur in these areas and assess their implications for aquifer susceptibility. Two distinct geochemical environments were studied to represent a range of conditions: an inner coastal plain setting having more well-drained soils and lower organic carbon (C) content and an outer coastal plain environment that has more poorly drained soils and high organic C content. Higher concentrations of most major ions and dissolved inorganic and organic C in the outer coastal plain setting indicate a greater degree of mineral dissolution and organic matter oxidation. Accordingly, outer coastal plain waters are more reducing than inner coastal plain waters. Low dissolved oxygen (O 2 ) and nitrate (NO 3 - ) concentrations and high iron (Fe) concentrations indicate that ferric iron (Fe (III)) is an important electron acceptor in this setting, while dissolved O 2 is the most common terminal electron acceptor in the inner coastal plain setting. The presence of a wide range of redox conditions in the shallow aquifer system examined here underscores the importance of providing a detailed geochemical characterization of ground water when assessing the intrinsic susceptibility of coastal plain settings. The greater prevalence of aerobic conditions in the inner coastal plain setting makes this region more susceptible to contamination by constituents that are more stable under these conditions and is consistent with the significantly (p 3 - found in this setting. Herbicides and their transformation products were frequently detected (36% of wells sampled), however concentrations were typically low (<0.1 μg/L). Shallow water table depths often found in coastal plain settings may result in an increased risk of the detection of pesticides (e.g., alachlor) that degrade rapidly in the unsaturated zone

  8. In plain sight: the Chesapeake Bay crater ejecta blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griscom, D. L.

    2012-02-01

    The discovery nearly two decades ago of a 90 km-diameter impact crater below the lower Chesapeake Bay has gone unnoted by the general public because to date all published literature on the subject has described it as "buried". To the contrary, evidence is presented here that the so-called "upland deposits" that blanket ∼5000 km2 of the U.S. Middle-Atlantic Coastal Plain (M-ACP) display morphologic, lithologic, and stratigraphic features consistent with their being ejecta from the 35.4 Ma Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure (CBIS) and absolutely inconsistent with the prevailing belief that they are of fluvial origin. Specifically supporting impact origin are the facts that (i) a 95 %-pure iron ore endemic to the upland deposits of southern Maryland, eastern Virginia, and the District of Columbia has previously been proven to be impactoclastic in origin, (ii) this iron ore welds together a small percentage of well-rounded quartzite pebbles and cobbles of the upland deposits into brittle sheets interpretable as "spall plates" created in the interference-zone of the CBIS impact, (iii) the predominantly non-welded upland gravels have long ago been shown to be size sorted with an extreme crater-centric gradient far too large to have been the work of rivers, but well explained as atmospheric size-sorted interference-zone ejecta, (iv) new evidence is provided here that ~60 % of the non-welded quartzite pebbles and cobbles of the (lower lying) gravel member of the upland deposits display planar fractures attributable to interference-zone tensile waves, (v) the (overlying) loam member of the upland deposits is attributable to base-surge-type deposition, (vi) several exotic clasts found in a debris flow topographically below the upland deposits can only be explained as jetting-phase crater ejecta, and (vii) an allogenic granite boulder found among the upland deposits is deduced to have been launched into space and sculpted by hypervelocity air friction during reentry. An

  9. Particulate matter concentrations for mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confined cattle facilities are an increasingly common housing system in the Northern Great Plains region of the United States. Producers may maintain a deep-bedded manure pack (Pack), they may remove all bedding/manure material from the pens weekly (Scrape), or use a combination of management styles...

  10. Understanding Great Plains Urbanization through the Lens of South Dakota Townscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conzen, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Most towns were crucial to the initial colonization and economic development of the Great Plains. Many were, directly or indirectly, creatures of railroad corporate planning, owing their location as well as their physical layout to the townsite companies controlled by railroad officials. This article examines how these facts shaped the fundamental…

  11. Adolescents' perceptions of cigarette brand image: does plain packaging make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Daniella; Wakefield, Melanie A; Durkin, Sarah J

    2010-04-01

    To examine the effect of plain packaging on adolescents' perceptions of cigarette packs, attributes of smokers, and expectations of cigarette taste, and to identify the effect of increasing the size of pictorial health warnings on appraisal of plain packs. We used a 5 (degree of plain packaging and graphic health warning)x 3 (brand type) between-subjects experimental design, using a Web-based methodology to expose adolescents to one randomly selected cigarette pack, during which respondents completed ratings. When brand elements such as color, branded fonts, and imagery were progressively removed from cigarette packs, adolescents perceived packs to be less appealing, rated attributes of a typical smoker of the pack less positively, and had more negative expectations of cigarette taste. Pack appeal was reduced even further when the size of the pictorial health warning on the most plain pack was increased from 30% to 80% of the pack face, with this effect apparent among susceptible nonsmokers, experimenters, and established smokers. Removing as much brand information from cigarette packs as possible is likely to reduce positive cigarette brand image associations among adolescents. By additionally increasing the size of pictorial health warnings, positive pack perceptions of those who are at greater risk of becoming regular addicted adult smokers are most likely to be reduced. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Presence of trace elements in fishes from the Chaco-Pampeana plain (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra V. Volpedo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chaco-Pampean plain is one of the greatest plains worldwide; present a wetland macro system (lagoons, marshes, rivers, streams, channels. The water quality of these environments is diverse and has different trace elements natural (As, F, Mo and V and anthropogenic (Cr, Cu and Pb. The Chaco Pampean plain has an important diversity of fish species however the species of commercial importance are limited. This paper presents the reviews of the studies related to the presence of trace elements in tissues of commercial fishes (shad Prochilodus lineatus and silversides Odontesthes bonariensis in the Chaco-Pampean plain in recent decades and a discussion about associated information gaps is presented. The presence of trace elements in commercial fish muscle is a major problem for food security. The results showed that most of the elements present in shad are in lower levels than the maximum limits set by the Argentine Food Code (CAA, 2014. In the case of Pb present in the muscle of the shad, the determined values exceed those considered by the European Food Safety Authority. In the case of silversides the values of As, Pb, Hg are mostly lower than those maximum recommended by the Argentine Food Code. However, according to the European Food Safety Authority, the lower limit on the benchmark dose for a 10% response (BMDL values associated with health risk for As.

  13. Nitrate retention in a sand plains stream and the importance of groundwater discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert S. Stelzer; Damion R. Drover; Susan L. Eggert; Maureen A. Muldoon

    2011-01-01

    We measured net nitrate retention by mass balance in a 700-m upwelling reach of a third-order sand plains stream, Emmons Creek, from January 2007 to November 2008. Surface water and ground-water fluxes of nitrate were determined from continuous records of discharge and from nitrate concentrations based on weekly and biweekly sampling at three surface water stations and...

  14. Ecology of fire in shortgrass prairie of the southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulette L. Ford; Guy R. McPherson

    1996-01-01

    The ecology of fire in shortgrass prairie of the southern Great Plains includes a complex interaction between the shortgrass prairie ecosystem and its inhabitants, all inextricably linked to land-use patterns. The history of the relationship between man and fire has been filled with ambivalence and mistrust, along with an appreciation of the power of fire as a...

  15. Seasonal weather-related decision making for cattle production in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    High inter-annual variability of seasonal weather patterns can greatly affect forage and therefore livestock production in the Northern Great Plains. This variability can make it difficult for ranchers to set yearly stocking rates, particularly in advance of the grazing season. To better understand ...

  16. Radiation fibrosis : differentiation from true hilar mass on plain chest film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Jun Hyun; Ahn, Kook Jin; Park, Seog Hee; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1996-01-01

    Radiation-induced fibrotic mass might masquerade as a true hilar tumor mass on a plain chest radiograph. We attempted to differentiate radiation fibrosis from a true hilar tumor using only a plain radiograph. Plain chest radiographs were obtained from seven patients who had developed radiation fibrosis simulating hilar mass after radiation therapy for lung cancer, and from 19 patients with lung cancer, a comparison group, who had not received radiation therapy. They were reviewed for the obliteration of the overlapped mediastinal and hilar anatomical silhouettes by the mass : pulmonary artery, heart or aorta border, and paraspinal line. All seven patients with radiation-induced fibrotic mass(bilateral lesion in two patients) showed obliteration of all three overlapped anatomical silhouettes of the mediastinum and hilum on chest radiographs. In the comparison group of 19 patients with a true hilar mass, there was, however, no case which demonstrated obliteration of all landmarks, Obliteration of all anatomical landmarks at the hilum and mediastinum may be a helpful clue in the differential diagnosis of radiation-induced fibrotic mass from true hilar mass on a plain radiograph, particularly when clinical information on previous radiation therapy is unavailable

  17. Response of Competing Vegetation to Site Preparation on West Gulf Coastal Plain Commercial Forest Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale L. Wolters; Henry A. Pearson; Ronald E. Thill; V. Clark Baldwin; Alton Martin

    1995-01-01

    The response of woody and herbaceous vegetation to site preparation, subsoil texture, and fertilization was measured on the West Gulf Coastal Plain. The influences of these treatments on competing vegetation were short-term. Drastic soil disturbance and fertilization briefly increased herbage production. Shear-windrow and shear-disk were generally the most effective...

  18. Coronado and Aesop: Fable and Violence on the Sixteenth-Century Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Daryl W.

    2009-01-01

    In the spring of 1540, Francisco Vazquez de Coronado led an "entrada" from present-day Mexico into the region we call New Mexico, where the expedition spent a violent winter among pueblo peoples. The following year, after a long march across the Great Plains, Coronado led an elite group of his men north into present-day Kansas where,…

  19. [The plain packaging of tobacco products: a new strategy for tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Pino, Juan Miguel; Nerín, Isabel; Lacave-García, Ma Blanca

    There is evidence that global tobacco smoking control policies contribute to decrease the prevalence of smoking among populations, so there is a need to effectively implement different measures in a coordinated way. The plain packaging and labelling of tobacco products is one of the measures proposed by the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. At the moment, leading countries are implementing this tobacco control measure, which involves a plain packaging for all tobacco products, i.e., the absence of any promotional or communication tool in the packaging, except the name of the brand, appearing with a standardised font, size, colour and placing in the pack. Australia was the first country to implement this measure in 2012 and recently other countries are legislating and approving it. In Spain, tobacco legislation (2005 and 2010), was an important advance in tobacco control policies. The introduction of plain packaging in Spain would mean the next step in the development of a global strategy for fighting this significant health problem. The aim of this article is to synthesise in a structured manner the role that the packaging of tobacco products has within marketing and communication strategies, as well as to describe the potential effects that the plain packaging has on some aspects of smoking behaviour, according to current literature. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Low-dose glyphosate does not control annual bromes in the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual bromes (downy brome and Japanese brome) have been shown to decrease perennial grass forage production and alter ecosystem functions in northern Great Plains rangelands. Large-scale chemical control might be a method for increasing rangeland forage production if low application rates confer co...

  1. Spatial variation in seed bank dynamics of two annual brome species in the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual bromes decrease forage production in northern central plains rangelands of North America. Early life history stages are when plants are most failure-prone, yet studying death post-germination and prior to emergence is difficult. In seed bank collections conducted over the course of two growin...

  2. Harvest timing and techniques to optimize fiber quality in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production conditions typical to the Texas High Plains region can produce cotton crops with high short fiber and nep content, both of which have a detrimental impact on ring spinning performance. Since Texas now produces nearly 50% of the US cotton crop annually, it is critical that research focuses...

  3. Application of Watershed Scale Models to Predict Nitrogen Loading From Coastal Plain Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    George M. Chescheir; Glenn P Fernandez; R. Wayne Skaggs; Devendra M. Amatya

    2004-01-01

    DRAINMOD-based watershed models have been developed and tested using data collected from an intensively instrumented research site on Kendricks Creek watershed near Plymouth. NC. These models were applied to simulate the hydrology and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) loading from two other watersheds in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, the 11600 ha Chicod Creek watershed...

  4. Small mammals in successional prairie woodlands of the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; John E. Gobeille

    2001-01-01

    Prairie woodlands comprise about 1 percent of the landscape in the northern Great Plains. However, prairie woodlands provide habitat for far more than 1 percent of the wildlife species that occur in the prairie region. With increasing pressures on natural resources, managers need methods for managing wildlife habitat and biodiversity that are based on ecological...

  5. How Rural and Nonrural Principals Differ in High Plains U.S. States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Andrea D.; Clark, Tedra F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the characteristics of rural versus nonrural principals in the High Plains states. It is based on data from the Schools and Staffing Survey, examining the differences in preparation and experience and the extent to which characteristics of the rural principalship (perceptions of autonomy, workload, etc.) predicted retention.…

  6. Towards groundwater neutral cropping systems in the Alluvial Fans of the North China Plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van P.A.J.; Wang, G.; Vos, J.; Meinke, H.; Li, B.G.; Huang, J.K.; Werf, van der W.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater levels in the North China Plain (NCP), the bread basket of China, have dropped more than one meter per year over the last 40 years, putting at risk the long term productivity of this region. Groundwater decline is most severe in the Alluvial Fans where our study site is located.

  7. Study of the malaria situation in forested foothill and nearby plain areas of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, L; Ye, H

    1991-12-01

    A longitudinal demographic-parasitological survey on malaria was conducted at 10 weekly intervals starting from September in one foothill village with the population of 1,095 and one epidemiologically comparable plain village with the population of 962 in Kyauktaga township, Bago division, 120 miles north of Yangon. The objective was to describe and analyse the current malaria situation in a forested foothill area and an adjacent plain area. Ten weekly blood film collections for malaria parasite examination, six monthly sera collections on filter paper for serological examination from the whole study population and ten weekly splenic measurements from 2-9 year children were done. The malaria parasite rate in the foothill area was invariably higher than that in the plain area in all age groups throughout the study period. Moreover, the parasite rate decreased with the increase in distance from the forested foothill area indicating that the deep forest malaria may have some influence on the foothill villages. The total age specific parasite rate in foothill villages was found to be highest in the 5-8 year age group and decreased as the age advanced which may be due to the increasing immunity. The study revealed the presence of local transmission in the foothill village. From these data it is evident that new village sites should be chosen at least 5 miles away from the forest fringe and the malaria control measures in the plain area should utilize chemoprophylaxis and effective chemotherapy focusing on the people who travel into the forest.

  8. Knife River: Early Village Life on the Plains. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Fay

    This document, from the lesson plan series, "Teaching with Historic Places," examines the Native Americans who lived on the plains along the Knife River in what is now North Dakota. Following an introductory section, the document sets out student objectives, teaching activities, readings, and illustrations. The teaching activity…

  9. Curve number derivation for watersheds draining two headwater streams in lower coastal plain South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Epps; Daniel R. Hitchcock; Anand D. Jayakaran; Drake R. Loflin; Thomas M. Williams; Devendra M. Amatya

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess curve number (CN) values derived for two forested headwater catchments in the Lower Coastal Plain (LCP) of South Carolina using a three-year period of storm event rainfall and runoff data in comparison with results obtained from CN method calculations. Derived CNs from rainfall/runoff pairs ranged from 46 to 90 for the Upper...

  10. Solute geochemistry of the Snake River Plain regional aquifer system, Idaho and eastern Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.W.; Low, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Three geochemical methods were used to determine chemical reactions that control solute concentrations in the Snake River Plain regional aquifer system: (1) calculation of a regional solute balance within the aquifer and of mineralogy in the aquifer framework to identify solute reactions, (2) comparison of thermodynamic mineral saturation indices with plausible solute reactions, and (3) comparison of stable isotope ratios of the groundwater with those in the aquifer framework. The geothermal groundwater system underlying the main aquifer system was examined by calculating thermodynamic mineral saturation indices, stable isotope ratios of geothermal water, geothermometry, and radiocarbon dating. Water budgets, hydrologic arguments, and isotopic analyses for the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer system demonstrate that most, if not all, water is of local meteoric and not juvenile or formation origin. Solute balance, isotopic, mineralogic, and thermodynamic arguments suggest that about 20% of the solutes are derived from reactions with rocks forming the aquifer framework. Reactions controlling solutes in the western Snake river basin are believed to be similar to those in the eastern basin but the regional geothermal system that underlies the Snake river Plain contains total dissolved solids similar to those in the overlying Snake River Plain aquifer system but contains higher concentrations of sodium, bicarbonate, silica, fluoride, sulfate, chloride, arsenic, boron, and lithium, and lower concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and hydrogen. 132 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs

  11. Grasshopper responses to fire and postfire grazing in the northern Great Plains vary among species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland management practices such as burning and grazing management may affect grasshopper populations by impacting development, survival and reproduction. Experiments are lacking in the northern Great Plains examining the effects of fire and grazing intensity on grasshoppers. As part of a larger ...

  12. Density evaluation by computerized tomography in plain soils over different manipulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrotti, Alceu

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this paper is the evaluation of a plain soil density in different culture systems determined by X ray computerized tomography.It was observed a larger variation in densities in soils profiles analysed. The identification of layers is better utilising computerized tomography than others technic

  13. Analyzing the Various Approaches of Plain Language Laws. CDC Technical Report No. 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B. A.; And Others

    Noting that plain language laws--designed to put the consumer on a more equal footing with business and industry when signing business contracts--have become an important new kind of legislation, this paper traces the development of such legislation and the need to evaluate its effectiveness. The first section of the paper describes the federal…

  14. Research and absence of bats across habitat scales in the upper coastal plain of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Jennifer M. Menzel; Michael A. Menzel; John W. Edwards; John C. Kilgo

    2006-01-01

    During 2001, we used active acoustical sampling (Anabat 11) to survey foraging habitat relationships of bats on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Using an a priori information-theoretic approach, we conducted logistic regression analysis to examine presence of individual bat species relative to a suite of microhabitat, stand,...

  15. Canola-Wheat Rotation versus Continuous Wheat for the Southern Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Duke, Jason C.; Epplin, Francis M.; Vitale, Jeffrey D.; Peeper, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Crop rotations are not common in the wheat belt of the Southern Plains. After years of continuous wheat, weeds have become increasingly difficult and expensive to manage. Yield data were elicited from farmers and used to determine if canola-wheat-wheat rotations are economically competitive with continuous wheat in the region.

  16. Probabilistic health risk assessment for arsenic intake through drinking groundwater in Taiwan's Pingtung Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C. P.; Chen, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    An abundant and inexpensive supply of groundwater is used to meet drinking, agriculture and aquaculture requirements of the residents in the Pingtung Plain. Long-term groundwater quality monitoring data indicate that the As content in groundwater in the Pingtung Plain exceeds the maximum level of 10 g/L recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The situation is further complicated by the fact that only 46.89% of population in the Pingtung Plain has been served with tap water, far below the national average of 92.93%. Considering there is a considerable variation in the measured concentrations, from below the detection limit (consumption rate and body weight of the individual, the conventional approach to conducting a human health risk assessment may be insufficient for health risk management. This study presents a probabilistic risk assessment for inorganic As intake through the consumption of the drinking groundwater by local residents in the Pingtung Plain. The probabilistic risk assessment for inorganic As intake through the consumption of the drinking groundwater is achieved using Monte Carlo simulation technique based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and target cancer risk (TR) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This study demonstrates the importance of the individual variability of inorganic As intake through drinking groundwater consumption when evaluating a high exposure sub-group of the population who drink high As content groundwater.

  17. Child Labor in the Early Sugar Beet Industry in the Great Plains, 1890-1920

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons-Barrett, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Children working in agriculture have always been a part of the rural culture and work ethos of the United States, especially on the Great Plains. Many teenagers still detassel corn or walk the beans in the summer months to earn spending money or money for college. But what about the children who work as migrant laborers in commercialized…

  18. Evapotranspiration in winter wheat under different grazing and tillage practices in the southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precipitation in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) is highly variable both spatially and temporally with recurring periods of severe drought. Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – summer fallow system with conventional tillage is the principal dryland cropping system in this region for both grazing an...

  19. Coastal plain soils and geomorphology: a key to understanding forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Williams; Devendra M. Amatya

    2016-01-01

    In the 1950s, Coile published a simple classification of southeastern coastal soils using three characteristics: drainage class, sub-soil depth, and sub-soil texture. These ideas were used by Warren Stuck and Bill Smith to produce a matrix of soils with drainage class as one ordinate and subsoil texture as the second for the South Carolina coastal plain. Soils...

  20. Change of microelemental composition of flood-plain soils under the increase of the anthropogenic impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrakov, L.M.; Dmitrakova, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Change of technogenic pressure and pedotechnogenic concentration were research for some heavy metals (Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd). They describe the general character of element into the soil and the risk of disturbance of geochemical equilibrium in flood-plain soils and depend on regional technogenic loads and combinations of sources of microelements emission.

  1. Developing a hybrid solar/wind powered irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some small scale irrigation systems (powered by wind or solar do not require subsidies, but this paper discusses ways to achieve an economical renewable energy powered center pivot irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains. By adding a solar-photovoltaic (PV) array together with a wind...

  2. Comparison of intrathecal plain articaine and levobupivacaine with fentanyl for Caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircioglu, Rüveyda I; Gozdemir, Muhammet; Usta, Burhanettin; Sert, Hüseyin; Karabayirli, Safinaz; Muslu, Bünyamin; Keskin, Esra A

    2016-12-01

    Articaine is used as a local anesthetic for outpatient surgery because it offers rapid onset of anesthesia and short duration motor block. Levobupivacaine is often preferred for Caesarean section. We evaluated the anesthetic characteristics of fentanyl-supplemented plain articaine and levobupivacaine for Caesarean section under combine spinal epidural anesthesia. Patients undergoing Caesarean section received in random order plain articaine 40 mg (Group A, n=50) or plain levobupivacaine 10 mg (Group L, n=50) mixed with fentanyl 20 µg intrathecally. The onset and duration of sensory and motor block, first analgesic request, and hemodynamic parameters were recorded. Onset times of maximum motor block were longer in Group L than Group A (P=0,001). Time to two-segment regression of sensory block were 70 min for Group A and 90 min group L (P=0.001). Times to complete regression of motor blockade were significantly longer in group L than group A (P =0,001). To have a faster onset and shorter duration of spinal anesthesia, we recommend the use of plain articaine for Caesarean section.

  3. Soils and grassland types of the Serengeti Plain (Tanzania) : their distribution and interrelations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de H.A.

    1978-01-01

    De Serengeti Plain maakt deel uit van een zeer oude versneden hoogvlakte die tijdens het Pleistoceen overdekt is door aeolische afzettingen van vulkanische assen met een sterk alkalisch karakter; de assen waren afkomstig van de Ngorongoro Highlands.
    Het klimaat is semi-aride en wordt gekenmerkt

  4. Economic performance and sustainability of a novel intercropping system on the north China plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, C.; Liu, Q.; Heerink, N.B.M.; Stomph, T.J.; Li, B.; Liu, R.; Zhang, H.; Wang, C.; Li, X.; Zhang, C.; Werf, van der W.; Zhang, F.

    2015-01-01

    Double cropping of wheat and maize is common on the North China Plain, but it provides limited income to rural households due to the small farm sizes in the region. Local farmers in Quzhou County have therefore innovated their production system by integration of watermelon as a companion cash crop

  5. Influence of latitude on the US great plains East-West precipitation gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precipitation varies greatly from east to west across the US Great Plains as a result of a combination of the rain shadow of the Rocky Mountains and the moisture flow from the Gulf of Mexico. Because of this precipitation gradient, application of research results obtained in one location to other lo...

  6. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood-plain and wetlands management. 120.172 Section 120.172 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Policies Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.172...

  7. Exit loss model for plain axial seals in multi-stage centrifugal pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruurs, K.A.J.; van Esch, B.P.M.; van der Schoot, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Plain axial seals are often used in centrifugal pumps as a means to achieve acceptable sealing against leakage flow without the much higher friction losses that are associated with mechanical seals. Examples of their application are the front seals in shrouded radial and mixed-flow pumps and the

  8. Response surfaces of vulnerability to climate change: The Colorado River Basin, the High Plains, and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano Foti; Jorge A. Ramirez; Thomas C. Brown

    2014-01-01

    We quantify the vulnerability of water supply to shortage for the Colorado River Basin and basins of the High Plains and California and assess the sensitivity of their water supply system to future changes in the statistical variability of supply and demand. We do so for current conditions and future socio-economic scenarios within a probabilistic framework that...

  9. Conization of the cervix uteri. Complications in connection with plain catgut or silk suturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmskov, A; Qvist, N; Møller, A

    1984-01-01

    During a retrospective study on postoperative complications in 213 patients who had undergone conization, a (non-significant) reduction in the bleeding rate from 27.9% to 18.6% was found when using silk sutures (102 patients) instead of plain catgut (111 patients) for adaption of the edges of the...

  10. Estimating Groundwater Development area in Jianan Plain using Standardized Groundwater Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Hsiang; Haw, Lee Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan has been facing severe water crises in recent years owing to the effects of extreme weather conditions. Changes in precipitation patterns have also made the drought phenomenon increasingly prominent, which has indirectly affected groundwater recharge. Hence, in the present study, long-term monitoring data were collected from the study area of the Jianan plain. The standardized groundwater index (SGI) and was then used to analyse the region's drought characteristics. To analyse the groundwater level by using SGI, making SGI180 groundwater level be the medium water crises, and SGI360 groundwater level be the extreme water crises. Through the different water crises signal in SGI180 and SGI360, we divide groundwater in Jianan plain into two sections. Thereby the water crises indicators establishing groundwater level standard line in Jianan Plain, then using the groundwater level standard line to find the study area where could be groundwater development area in Jianan plain. Taking into account relatively more water scarcity in dry season, so the study screen out another emergency backup groundwater development area, but the long-term groundwater development area is still as a priority development area. After finding suitable locations, groundwater modeling systems(GMS) software is used to simulate our sites to evaluate development volume. Finally, the result of study will help the government to grasp the water shortage situation immediately and solve the problem of water resources deployment.

  11. My Website Reads at an Eighth Grade Level: Why Plain Language Benefits Your Users (and You)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    Writing in plain language aims to help users find what they need and ensures that the information is both useful and understandable. This is key for distance students whose primary library interaction may be with the library Website. A mix of user research and readability scores can be used to measure whether content is findable, useful, and…

  12. Immigration to the Great Plains, 1865-1914: War, Politics, Technology, and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The advent and vast extent of immigration to the Great Plains states during the years 1865 to 1914 is perhaps best understood in light of the new international context that emerged during the 1860s in the aftermath of six large wars whose consequences included the enlargement of civil liberties, an acceleration of economic growth and technological…

  13. Picloram Movement in Soil Solution and Streamflow from a Coastal Plain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry L. Michael; D.G. Neary; M.J.M. Wells

    1989-01-01

    Picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid) was aerially applied to P longleaf pine (Pinus palustris L.) site in the upper constnl plain of Alabama to control kudzu [Purraria lobota (Willd.) Ohwi]. Pellets (10% a.i.) were spread at the rate of 56 kg ha-1 on loamy sand Typic Knnhspludult soils....

  14. Summary of findings from the Great Plains Tree and Forest Invasives Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Andrew J. Lister; Cody. Sullivan

    2018-01-01

    The Great Plains Tree and Forest Invasives Initiative (GPI) was a cooperative effort of the U.S. Forest Service and state forestry agencies in Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota, with a primary goal of evaluating the tree resources throughout the four-state region as a preparedness measure for the arrival of invasive pests, such as the emerald ash borer...

  15. Solubility of corrosion products of plain steel in oxygen-containing water solutions at high parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynova, O.I.; Samojlov, Yu.F.; Petrova, T.I.; Kharitonova, N.L.

    1983-01-01

    Technique for calculation of solubility of iron corrosion products in oxygen-containing aqueous solutions in the 298-573 K temperature range is presented. Solubility of corrosion products of plain steel in deeply-desalinizated water in the presence of oxygen for the such range of the temperatures is experimentally determined. Rather good convergence between calculated and experimental data is noted

  16. Physical and chemical properties of deposited airborne particulates over the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    KAUST Repository

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Prakash, P. Jish; Lersch, Traci; Anisimov, Anatolii; Shevchenko, Illia

    2017-01-01

    ) situated on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia and subjected to the same chemical and mineralogical analysis we conducted on soil samples. Frisbee deposition samplers with foam inserts were used to collect dust and other deposits, for the period

  17. Hydrology, geomorphology, and vegetation of Coastal Plain rivers in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff R. Hupp

    2000-01-01

    Rivers of the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States are characteristically low-gradient meandering systems that develop broad floodplains subjected to frequent and prolonged flooding. These floodplains support a relatively unique forested wetland (Bottomland Hardwoods), which have received considerable ecological study, but distinctly less hydrogeomorphic...

  18. Outlook for coastal plain forests: a subregional report from the Southern Forest Futures Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier Klepzig; Richard Shelfer; Zanethia Choice

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Coastal Plain consists of seven sections: the Northern Atlantic, Eastern Atlantic, Peninsular Florida, Southern Gulf, Middle Gulf-East, Middle Gulf-West, and Western Gulf. It covers a large area, consists of a diverse array of habitats, and supports a diverse array of uses. This report presents forecasts from the Southern Forest Futures Project that are...

  19. Simulated soil organic carbon response to tillage, yield, and climate change in the southeastern Coastal Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive tillage, low-residue crops, and a warm, humid climate have contributed to soil organic carbon (SOC) loss in the southeastern Coastal Plains region. Conservation (CnT) tillage and winter cover cropping are current management practices to rebuild SOC; however, there is sparse long-term field...

  20. Supplemental irrigation for grain sorghum production in the US Eastern Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum is an important grain crop throughout the world and is generally considered drought tolerant. Recently, in the US eastern Coastal Plain region, there was an emphasis on increasing regional grain production with grain sorghum having an important role. The region soils have low water hol...

  1. Acute abdomen due to gastric volvulus: diagnostic value of a single plain radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andiran, F.; Tanyel, F.C.; Balkanci, F.; Hicsoenmez, A.

    1995-01-01

    A 2 1/2-year-old child was admitted to hospital with acute abdominal pain and vomiting. A single large air-fluid level without additional bowel gas was seen on plain abdominal radiography. At laparotomy organoaxial volvulus of the stomach was found and partial gastric resection performed. A 'single bubble' appearance may indicate gastric volvulus. (orig.)

  2. Assessing urban forest effects and values of the Great Plains: Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert E. III Hoehn; Daniel E. Crane; Allison R. Bodine

    2012-01-01

    This report details the evaluation of the urban tree resources of the north-central Great Plains region of the United States. Specifically this report provides a more comprehensive understanding of the species composition and structural and functional benefits of the urban forests in the states of Kansas (33.1 million urban trees), Nebraska (13.3 million urban trees),...

  3. Determination of groundwater characteristics in the Nigde-Misli Plain by means of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursali, S.; Ertan, I.; Yalcin, H.; Gunay, G.; Onhon, E.

    1975-06-01

    Nigde-Misli Plain, situated in the Central Anatolia, is 30 km north to Nigde City. The most important part of the plain is Golcuk with a superficial area of 290 sq. kilometers. Ovacik part has a superficial area of 22 sq. kilometers and separately Edikli part with 35 sq. kilometers. The total of the superficial area of the plain is 347 sq. km and its average altitude is 1340 m. The main purpose of this study is to check the sufficiency of the Nigde-Misli aquifer from which all of the wells are fed. Hydrogeological studies of the Nigde-Misli Plain have been completed in order to determine some of the groundwater characteristics. However, it was thought that it would be useful to check and support the hydrogeological conclusions by isotopic methods and to clarify some important points in the groundwater movement for which hydrogeological methods seem to be insufficient. For this purpose, surface water and ground water, precipitation and soil samples have been collected and analysed to determine their stable isotopes and tritium contents. Results have been interpreted in order to answer, as far as it is possible, to the question of the sufficiency of the Nigde-Misli aquifer

  4. Mountain Plains Telecommunications: 1987 Survey of Colleges Serving Nonmetropolitan Distance Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotten, Marjorie Hacker

    Information is provided about the use of telecommunications in the delivery of postsecondary coursework to off-campus nonmetropolitan sites in the Mountain Plains states. The five chapters cover the following: introduction; review of the literature (shift to information society, underserved rural adult population, historical sketch, selected…

  5. Cover crop biomass production and water use in the central great plains under varying water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The water-limited environment of the semi-arid central Great Plains may not have potential to produce enough cover crop biomass to generate benefits associated with cover crop use in more humid regions. There have been reports that cover crops grown in mixtures produce more biomass with greater wate...

  6. Vulnerability of crops and croplands in the U.S. Northern Plains to predicted climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    The states of Colorado, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming comprise the Northern Great Plains region of the United States. The soil and water resources contained in this region have historically supported a highly diverse and productive agriculture that provides a significant...

  7. Characterization of storm flow dynamics of headwater streams in the South Carolina lower coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Epps; Daniel R. Hitchcock; Anand D. Jayakaran; Drake R. Loflin; Thomas M. Williams; Devendra M. Amatya

    2013-01-01

    Hydrologic monitoring was conducted in two first-order lower coastal plain watersheds in South Carolina, United States, a region with increasing growth and land use change. Storm events over a three-year period were analyzed for direct runoff coefficients (ROC) and the total storm response (TSR) as percent rainfall. ROC calculations utilized an empirical hydrograph...

  8. Sonographic appearances of common gut pathology in paediatric patients: comparison with plain abdominal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotto, Lino; Gent, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Even with the advent of more specialised imaging modalities such as fluoroscopic contrast examinations, CT and MRI, the plain abdominal radiograph remains the initial imaging modality in investigating the signs and symptoms of suspected gut pathology. However, ultrasound is playing an increasing part in the detection of gut pathology in paediatric patients. At our hospital, when plain abdominal radiography does not provide a diagnosis, ultrasound is commonly requested to rule out conditions that require urgent attention, such as intussusception, appendicitis and midgut malrotation and volvulus. After these conditions have been excluded however, the ultrasound examination can frequently lead to the diagnosis of several other conditions, including gastroenteritis, Crohn's disease, mesenteric lymphadenopathy and less commonly, duplication cysts, bezoas, and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Although plain radiography of the abdomen may be suggestive of gut pathology, the additional information provided by sonography often provides a specific diagnosis, leading to better patient care. This paper is a presentation of ten case studies demonstrating the use of ultrasound to augment plain X-ray findings, in order to obtain a final diagnosis. Copyright (2004) Australian Institute of Radiography

  9. Acute abdomen due to gastric volvulus: diagnostic value of a single plain radiograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andiran, F. [Dept. of Pediatric Surgery, Hacettepe Children`s Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Tanyel, F.C. [Dept. of Pediatric Surgery, Hacettepe Children`s Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Balkanci, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Children`s Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Hicsoenmez, A. [Dept. of Pediatric Surgery, Hacettepe Children`s Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)

    1995-11-01

    A 2 1/2-year-old child was admitted to hospital with acute abdominal pain and vomiting. A single large air-fluid level without additional bowel gas was seen on plain abdominal radiography. At laparotomy organoaxial volvulus of the stomach was found and partial gastric resection performed. A `single bubble` appearance may indicate gastric volvulus. (orig.)

  10. Effect of habitat and foraging height on bat activity in the coastal plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer, M.; Menzel, Michael A.; Kilgo, John C.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.; McCracken, Gary F.

    2005-07-01

    A comparison of bat activity levels in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina among 5 habitat types: forested riparian areas, clearcuts, young pine plantations, mature pine plantations and pine savannas, using time expansion radio-microphones and integrated detectors to simultaneously monitor bat activity at three heights in each habitat type.

  11. Victims, Heroes, and Just Plain Folks (Teaching and Learning about Cultural Diversity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Howard M., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that multicultural education, if it is to be effective and meaningful, needs to be woven throughout the curriculum. Discusses 11 children's books that take into account the age and maturity level of students as they tell forthright stories of the victims, heroes, and just plain folks of the Holocaust, slavery, and the involuntary of…

  12. Effect of Different Bar Embedment Length on Bond-Slip in Plain and Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankovic, D.; Chopra, M.B.; Kunnath, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    This research aims to study the behaviour of the concrete-steel bond using numerical models, taking into account the effect of the different bar embedment length. Both plain and fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) are modeled. The interface bond stress as well as load-displacement response of the

  13. Javelin, Arrow, Dart and Pin Games of Native American Women of the Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.; Pesavento, Lisa C.

    This study was designed to determine (1) the arrow, dart, javelin, and pin games of Native American girls and women of the Great Plains, (2) the geographical spread of the games within the culture area, and (3) the characteristics of the various games. Data for this investigation were researched from "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American…

  14. Adaptability and performance of short-season maize hybrids in the southern high plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought incidences change with year and location, and are prevalent in the Southern High Plains where annual rainfall is low and highly variable and most maize and other crops are irrigated. The low rainfall and groundwater overuse are leading to shortages of water for crop irrigation in this regio...

  15. Diagnosis of bowel infarction: a comparison of plain films and CT scans in 23 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerud, M J; Johnson, C D; Stephens, D H

    1990-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed abdominal CT and plain film findings in 23 proved cases of mesenteric infarction to compare the value of the two techniques. Criteria considered specific for infarction on CT were identified in nine (39%) of 23 patients and comprised pneumatosis in seven patients (30%), mesenteric or portal venous gas in three patients (13%), and focally thick-walled bowel in two patients (9%). Criteria considered specific for bowel infarction on plain films were identified in seven (30%) of 23 patients and comprised focally edematous bowel in six patients (26%) and pneumatosis intestinalis in one patient (4%). Only one patient had specific changes on both CT and plain films, but 15 (65%) of the 23 showed specific changes on at least one study. The results indicate that plain films remain an important tool in patients suspected of mesenteric infarction and can provide information that is complementary to CT. Also, as both studies were nonspecific in eight (35%) of our patients, negative or nonspecific findings should not deter further diagnostic or interventional procedures in patients in whom the clinical suspicion of bowel infarction is high.

  16. Streamflow characteristics of a naturally drained forested watershed in southeast Atlantic coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Carl C. Trettin

    2010-01-01

    Information about streamflow characteristics e.g. runoff-rainfall (R/O) ratio, rate and timing of flow, surface and subsurface drainage (SSD), and response time to rainfall events is necessary to accurately simulate fluxes and for designing best management practices (BMPs). Unfortunately, those data are scarce in the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain, a highly...

  17. Modeling farm nutrient flows in the North China Plain to reduce nutrient losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Zhanqing; Bai, Zhaohai; Wei, Sha; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Mengru; Kroeze, Carolien; Ma, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Years of poor nutrient management practices in the agriculture industry in the North China Plain have led to large losses of nutrients to the environment, causing severe ecological consequences. Analyzing farm nutrient flows is urgently needed in order to reduce nutrient losses. A farm-level

  18. Patterns of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Distribution on Mainland and Island Sandy Coastal Plain Ecosystems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Iolanda Ramalho; de Souza, Francisco Adriano; da Silva, Danielle Karla Alves; Oehl, Fritz; Maia, Leonor Costa

    2017-10-01

    Although sandy coastal plains are important buffer zones to protect the coast line and maintain biological diversity and ecosystem services, these ecosystems have been endangered by anthropogenic activities. Thus, information on coastal biodiversity and forces shaping coastal biological diversity are extremely important for effective conservation strategies. In this study, we aimed to compare arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities from soil samples collected on the mainland and nearby islands located in Brazilian sandy coastal plain ecosystems (Restingas) to get information about AM fungal biogeography and identify factors shaping these communities. Soil samples were collected in 2013 and 2014 on the beachfront of the tropical sandy coastal plain at six sites (three island and three mainland locations) across the northeast, southeast, and south regions of Brazil. Overall, we recorded 53 AM fungal species from field and trap culture samples. The richness and diversity of AM fungal species did not differ between mainland and island locations, but AM fungal community assemblages were different between mainland and island environments and among most sites sampled. Glomeromycota communities registered from island samples showed higher heterogeneity than communities from mainland samples. Sandy coastal plains harbor diverse AM fungal communities structured by climatic, edaphic, and spatial factors, while the distance from the colonizing source (mainland environments) does not strongly affect the AM fungal communities in Brazilian coastal environments.

  19. Regional implications of heat flow of the Snake River Plain, Northwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, D. D.

    1989-08-01

    The Snake River Plain is a major topographic feature of the Northwestern United States. It marks the track of an upper mantle and crustal melting event that propagated across the area from southwest to northeast at a velocity of about 3.5 cm/yr. The melting event has the same energetics as a large oceanic hotspot or plume and so the area is the continental analog of an oceanic hotspot track such as the Hawaiian Island-Emperor Seamount chain. Thus, the unique features of the area reflect the response of a continental lithosphere to a very energetic hotspot. The crust is extensively modified by basalt magma emplacement into the crust and by the resulting massive rhyolite volcanism from melted crustal material, presently occurring at Yellowstone National Park. The volcanism is associated with little crustal extension. Heat flow values are high along the margins of the Eastern and Western Snake River Plains and there is abundant evidence for low-grade geothermal resources associated with regional groundwater systems. The regional heat flow pattern in the Western Snake River Plains reflects the influence of crustal-scale thermal refraction associated with the large sedimentary basin that has formed there. Heat flow values in shallow holes in the Eastern Snake River Plains are low due to the Snake River Plains aquifer, an extensive basalt aquifer where water flow rates approach 1 km/yr. Below the aquifer, conductive heat flow values are about 100 mW m -2. Deep holes in the region suggest a systematic eastward increase in heat flow in the Snake River Plains from about 75-90 mW m -2 to 90-110 mW m -2. Temperatures in the upper crust do not behave similarly because the thermal conductivity of the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary rocks in the west is lower than that in the volcanic rocks characteristic of the Eastern Snake River Plains. Extremely high heat loss values (averaging 2500 mW m -2) and upper crustal temperatures are characteristic of the Yellowstone caldera.

  20. PATTERNS OF THE MAXIMUM RAINFALL AMOUNTS REGISTERED IN 24 HOURS WITHIN THE OLTENIA PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA VLĂDUŢ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of the maximum rainfall amounts registered in 24 hours within the Oltenia Plain. The present study aims at rendering the main features of the maximum rainfall amounts registered in 24 h within the Oltenia Plain. We used 30-year time series (1980-2009 for seven meteorological stations. Generally, the maximum amounts in 24 h display the same pattern as the monthly mean amounts, namely higher values in the interval May-October. In terms of mean values, the highest amounts are registered in the western and northern extremity of the plain. The maximum values generally exceed 70 mm at all meteorological stations: D.T. Severin, 224 mm, July 1999; Slatina, 104.8 mm, August 2002; Caracal, 92.2 m, July 1991; Bechet, 80.8 mm, July 2006; Craiova, 77.6 mm, April 2003. During the cold season, there was noticed a greater uniformity all over the plain, due to the cyclonic origin of rainfalls compared to the warm season, when thermal convection is quite active and it triggers local showers. In order to better emphasize the peculiarities of this parameter, we have calculated the frequency on different value classes (eight classes, as well as the probability of appearance of different amounts. Thus, it resulted that the highest frequency (25-35% is held by the first two classes of values (0-10 mm; 10.1-20 mm. The lowest frequency is registered in case of the amounts of more than 100 mm, which generally display a probability of occurrence of less than 1% and only in the western and eastern extremities of the plain.

  1. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness.

  2. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness

  3. Neural mechanisms underlying visual attention to health warnings on branded and plain cigarette packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Brooks, Jonathan C W; Munafò, Marcus R; Leonards, Ute

    2017-04-01

    To (1) test if activation in brain regions related to reward (nucleus accumbens) and emotion (amygdala) differ when branded and plain packs of cigarettes are viewed, (2) test whether these activation patterns differ by smoking status and (3) examine whether activation patterns differ as a function of visual attention to health warning labels on cigarette packs. Cross-sectional observational study combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with eye-tracking. Non-smokers, weekly smokers and daily smokers performed a memory task on branded and plain cigarette packs with pictorial health warnings presented in an event-related design. Clinical Research and Imaging Centre, University of Bristol, UK. Non-smokers, weekly smokers and daily smokers (n = 72) were tested. After exclusions, data from 19 non-smokers, 19 weekly smokers and 20 daily smokers were analysed. Brain activity was assessed in whole brain analyses and in pre-specified masked analyses in the amygdala and nucleus accumbens. On-line eye-tracking during scanning recorded visual attention to health warnings. There was no evidence for a main effect of pack type or smoking status in either the nucleus accumbens or amygdala, and this was unchanged when taking account of visual attention to health warnings. However, there was evidence for an interaction, such that we observed increased activation in the right amygdala when viewing branded as compared with plain packs among weekly smokers (P = 0.003). When taking into account visual attention to health warnings, we observed higher levels of activation in the visual cortex in response to plain packaging compared with branded packaging of cigarettes (P = 0.020). Based on functional magnetic resonance imaging and eye-tracking data, health warnings appear to be more salient on 'plain' cigarette packs than branded packs. © 2016 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Usefulness of plain radiography for assessing hypouricemic treatment response in patients with tophaceous gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Young Sun; Cheon, Yun-Hong; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Ji-Min; Kim, Sang-Hyon; Lee, Won-Seok; Yoo, Wan-Hee; Lee, Sang-Il; Kim, Hyun-Ok

    2016-11-01

    To investigate whether plain radiography is useful for assessing the changes in gouty tophi size following hypouricemic therapy. Gout was diagnosed according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Before and after hypouricemic treatment, serum uric acid level was measured, and plain radiography was performed to measure gouty tophi size. The tophi were graded by measuring the maximum vertical and horizontal diameters, and they were scored by adding up the scores of the grades. The vertical diameter was measured on both sides of the proximal phalanges (PPs). The horizontal diameter was measured on the lateral side of the PPs. The maximum vertical diameter measurement was graded 0-4. The maximum horizontal diameter measurement was graded 0-3. Seven hundred first metatarsal phalangeal joints (MTPJ) of 350 patients with gout were assessed for gouty tophi. Tophi were observed using plain radiography in 174 MTPJs (24.9%) of 109 patients (31.1%). Follow-up plain radiography was performed in 60 of these patients. Before the treatment, the average serum uric acid level of these patients was 8.3 ± 1.9 mg/dL, and the average tophi score was 3.7 ± 2.5. After hypouricemic treatment, the uric acid level decreased to 5.9 ± 1.6 mg/dL (P < 0.05), and the average tophi score decreased to 1.5 ± 1.8 (P < 0.05). This new method for measuring gouty tophi using plain radiography may be useful for evaluating changes in gouty tophi size following hypouricemic treatment. © 2016 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. General practitioners' willingness to request plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryynaenen, Olli-Pekka E-mail: ollipekka.ryynanen@uku.fi; Lehtovirta, Jukka; Soimakallio, Seppo; Takala, Jorma

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To examine general practitioners' attitudes to plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations. Design: A postal questionnaire consisting of questions on background data and doctors' opinions about plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, as well as eight vignettes (imaginary patient cases) presenting indications for lumbar radiography, and five vignettes focusing on the doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiography on the basis of patients' age and duration of symptoms. The data were analysed according to the doctor's age, sex, workplace and the medical school of graduation. Setting: Finland. Subjects: Six hundred and fifteen randomly selected physicians working in primary health care (64% of original target group). Results: The vignettes revealed that the use of plain lumbar radiographic examination varied between 26 and 88%. Patient's age and radiation protection were the most prominent factors influencing doctors' decisions to request lumbar radiographies. Only slight differences were observed between the attitudes of male and female doctors, as well as between young and older doctors. Doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiographies increased with the patient's age in most vignettes. The duration of patients' symptoms had a dramatic effect on the doctor's decision: in all vignettes, doctors were more likely to request lumbar radiography when patient's symptoms had exceeded 4 weeks. Conclusions: General practitioners commonly use plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, despite its limited value in the diagnosis of low back pain. Further consensus and medical education is needed to clarify the indications for plain lumbar radiographic examination.

  6. Groundwater declines are linked to changes in Great Plains stream fish assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkin, Joshuah S; Gido, Keith B; Falke, Jeffrey A; Fausch, Kurt D; Crockett, Harry; Johnson, Eric R; Sanderson, John

    2017-07-11

    Groundwater pumping for agriculture is a major driver causing declines of global freshwater ecosystems, yet the ecological consequences for stream fish assemblages are rarely quantified. We combined retrospective (1950-2010) and prospective (2011-2060) modeling approaches within a multiscale framework to predict change in Great Plains stream fish assemblages associated with groundwater pumping from the United States High Plains Aquifer. We modeled the relationship between the length of stream receiving water from the High Plains Aquifer and the occurrence of fishes characteristic of small and large streams in the western Great Plains at a regional scale and for six subwatersheds nested within the region. Water development at the regional scale was associated with construction of 154 barriers that fragment stream habitats, increased depth to groundwater and loss of 558 km of stream, and transformation of fish assemblage structure from dominance by large-stream to small-stream fishes. Scaling down to subwatersheds revealed consistent transformations in fish assemblage structure among western subwatersheds with increasing depths to groundwater. Although transformations occurred in the absence of barriers, barriers along mainstem rivers isolate depauperate western fish assemblages from relatively intact eastern fish assemblages. Projections to 2060 indicate loss of an additional 286 km of stream across the region, as well as continued replacement of large-stream fishes by small-stream fishes where groundwater pumping has increased depth to groundwater. Our work illustrates the shrinking of streams and homogenization of Great Plains stream fish assemblages related to groundwater pumping, and we predict similar transformations worldwide where local and regional aquifer depletions occur.

  7. Geothermal alteration of basaltic core from the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, Christopher J.

    The Snake River Plain is located in the southern part of the state of Idaho. The eastern plain, on which this study focuses, is a trail of volcanics from the Yellowstone hotspot. Three exploratory geothermal wells were drilled on the Snake River Plain. This project analyzes basaltic core from the first well at Kimama, north of Burley, Idaho. The objectives of this project are to establish zones of geothermal alteration and analyze the potential for geothermal power production using sub-aquifer resources on the axial volcanic zone of the Snake River Plain. Thirty samples from 1,912 m of core were sampled and analyzed for clay content and composition using X-ray diffraction. Observations from core samples and geophysical logs are also used to establish alteration zones. Mineralogical data, geophysical log data and physical characteristics of the core suggest that the base of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the axial zone is located 960 m below the surface, much deeper than previously suspected. Swelling smectite clay clogs pore spaces and reduces porosity and permeability to create a natural base to the aquifer. Increased temperatures favor the formation of smectite clay and other secondary minerals to the bottom of the hole. Below 960 m the core shows signs of alteration including color change, formation of clay, and filling of other secondary minerals in vesicles and fractured zones of the core. The smectite clay observed is Fe-rich clay that is authigenic in some places. Geothermal power generation may be feasible using a low temperature hot water geothermal system if thermal fluids can be attained near the bottom of the Kimama well.

  8. Comparison of plain radiography and CT in postoperative evaluation of ankle fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Zhang, K.; Qiang, M.; Li, H.; Dai, H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare postoperative plain radiographs with computed tomography (CT) post-processing images in evaluating the quality of anatomical reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures. Materials and methods: A total of 168 patients who sustained closed ankle fracture and were treated with open reduction and internal fixation in East Hospital were reviewed. Postoperative plain radiographs and CT post-processing images were evaluated. The observation was performed under volume-rendering mode and multiplanar reconstruction mode. The assessment was performed by two independent orthopaedic surgeons. The inter- and intra-observer variations were analysed by kappa statistics. The differences between plain radiographs and CT post-processing images were compared using χ 2 test (McNemar's test). Results: Inter- and intra-observer agreement was almost perfect (0.813–1.000) using CT post-processing images, which was higher than that using plain radiographs (0.323–0.848). More non-anatomical reduction could be recognised in the supination–external rotation (SER), supination–adduction (SAD), pronation–external rotation (PER), and overall groups (p<0.05) and more poor internal fixation could be recognised in the SER, SAD, and overall groups (p<0.05) using CT post-processing images than using radiographs. Conclusion: More residual articular step, fracture fragment displacement, and poor internal fixation could be detected by CT post-processing images than plain radiographs. -- Highlights: •We compared postoperative X-rays with CT images in ankle fractures. •The evaluation agreement using CT images was higher than X-rays. •CT images detect more residual articular steps than X-rays. •CT images detect more fracture fragment displacement than X-rays. •CT images detect more poor internal fixation than X-rays

  9. Geodatabase compilation of hydrogeologic, remote sensing, and water-budget-component data for the High Plains aquifer, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Natalie A.; Gonzales-Bradford, Sophia L.; Flynn, Amanda T.; Qi, Sharon L.; Peterson, Steven M.; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Ryter, Derek W.; Sohl, Terry L.; Senay, Gabriel B.

    2013-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies almost 112 million acres in the central United States. It is one of the largest aquifers in the Nation in terms of annual groundwater withdrawals and provides drinking water for 2.3 million people. The High Plains aquifer has gained national and international attention as a highly stressed groundwater supply primarily because it has been appreciably depleted in some areas. The U.S. Geological Survey has an active program to monitor the changes in groundwater levels for the High Plains aquifer and has documented substantial water-level changes since predevelopment: the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study is part of a series of regional groundwater availability studies conducted to evaluate the availability and sustainability of major aquifers across the Nation. The goals of the regional groundwater studies are to quantify current groundwater resources in an aquifer system, evaluate how these resources have changed over time, and provide tools to better understand a systems response to future demands and environmental stresses. The purpose of this report is to present selected data developed and synthesized for the High Plains aquifer as part of the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study. The High Plains Groundwater Availability Study includes the development of a water-budget-component analysis for the High Plains completed in 2011 and development of a groundwater-flow model for the northern High Plains aquifer. Both of these tasks require large amounts of data about the High Plains aquifer. Data pertaining to the High Plains aquifer were collected, synthesized, and then organized into digital data containers called geodatabases. There are 8 geodatabases, 1 file geodatabase and 7 personal geodatabases, that have been grouped in three categories: hydrogeologic data, remote sensing data, and water-budget-component data. The hydrogeologic data pertaining to the northern High Plains aquifer is included in three separate

  10. Summary of the Snake River plain Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in Idaho and eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Regional aquifers underlying the 15,600-square-mile Snake River Plain in southern Idaho and eastern Oregon was studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis program. The largest and most productive aquifers in the Snake River Plain are composed of Quaternary basalt of the Snake River Group, which underlies most of the 10,8000-square-mile eastern plain. Aquifer tests and simulation indicate that transmissivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer in the eastern plain commonly ranges from about 100,000 to 1,000,000 feet squared per day. However, transmissivity of the total aquifer thickness may be as much as 10 million feet squared per day. Specific yield of the upper 200 feet of the aquifer ranges from about 0.01 to 0.20. Average horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer ranges from less than 100 to 9,000 feet per day. Values may be one to several orders of magnitude higher in parts in individual flows, such as flow tops. Vertical hydraulic conductivity is probably several orders of magnitude lower than horizontal hydraulic conductivity and is generally related to the number of joints. Pillow lava in ancestral Snake River channels has the highest hydraulic conductivity of all rock types. Hydraulic conductivity of the basalt decreases with depth because of secondary filling of voids with calcite and silica. An estimated 80 to 120 million acre-feet of water is believed to be stored in the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer in the eastern plain. The most productive aquifers in the 4,800-square-mile western plain are alluvial sand and gravel in the Boise River valley. Although aquifer tests indicate that transmissivity of alluvium in the Boise River valley ranges from 5,000 to 160,000 feet squared per day, simulation suggests that average transmissivity of the upper 500 feet is generally less than 20,000 feet squared per day. Vertically averaged horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper

  11. Plain Radiography May Be Safely Omitted for Selected Major Trauma Patients Undergoing Whole Body CT: Database Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hudson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Whole body CT is being used increasingly in the primary survey of major trauma patients. We evaluated whether omitting plain films of the chest and pelvis in the primary survey was safe. We compared the probability of survival of patients and time to CT who had plain X-rays to those who did not. Method. We performed a database study on major trauma patients admitted between 2008 and 2010 using data from Trauma, Audit and Research Network (TARN and our PACS system. We included adult major trauma patients who has an ISS of greater than 15 and underwent whole body CT. Results. 245 patients were included in the study. 44 (17.9% did not undergo plain films. The median time to whole body CT from the time of admission was longer (47 minutes in patients having plain films, than those who did not have plain films performed (30 minutes, P<0.005. Mortality was increased in the group who received plain films, 9.5% compared to 4.5%, but this was not statistically significant (P=0.77. Conclusion. We conclude that plain films may be safely omitted during the primary survey of selected major trauma patients.

  12. A reconnaissance study of the effect of irrigated agriculture on water quality in the Ogallala Formation, Central High Plains Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program began a regional study of water quality in the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies an area of about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States. Because of its large size, the High Plains aquifer has been divided into three regions: the Southern High Plains, Central High Plains, and Northern High Plains. Although an assessment of water quality in each of the three regions is planned, the initial focus will be the Central High Plains aquifer. Anyone who has flown over the Central High Plains in the summer and has seen the large green circles associated with center pivot sprinklers knows that irrigated agriculture is a widespread land use. Pesticides and fertilizers applied on those irrigated fields will not degrade ground-water quality if they remain in or above the root zone. However, if those chemicals move downward through the unsaturated zone to the water table, they may degrade the quality of the ground water. Water is the principal agent for transporting chemicals from land surface to the water table, and in the semiarid Central High Plains, irrigation often represents the most abundant source of water during the growing season. One objective of NAWQA's High Plains Regional Ground-Water study is to evaluate the effect of irrigated agriculture on the quality of recently recharged water in the Ogallala Formation of the Central High Plains aquifer. The Ogallala Formation is the principal geologic unit in the Central High Plains aquifer, and it consists of poorly sorted clay, silt, sand, and gravel that generally is unconsolidated (Gutentag and others, 1984). Approximately 23 percent of the cropland overlying the Ogallala Formation is irrigated (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1999). The NAWQA Program generally defines recently recharged ground water to be water recharged in the last 50 years. The water table in the Ogallala Formation is separated from

  13. Plain magnetic resonance imaging as an alternative in evaluating inflammation and bowel damage in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesuratnam-Nielsen, Kayalvily; Løgager, Vibeke B; Rezanavaz-Gheshlagh, Bijan

    2015-01-01

    -52%, 83-94% and 76-92% for DWI, respectively. The κ values for bowel wall thickening, DWI, and mural hyperenhancement were detected with fair agreement (κ = 0.26-0.39) at both MRI examinations, whereas only bowel wall thickening in MRFT were detected with moderate agreement (κ = 0.47) Conclusion. Plain......OBJECTIVE: To compare prospectively the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without use of contrast medium orally or intravenously (plain MRI) with magnetic resonance follow-through (MRFT) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Plain MRI...

  14. Using Radon and Radium isotopes to trace submarine groundwater discharge in Yilan Plain, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Kai; Su, Chih-Chieh

    2015-04-01

    The Yilan Plain which located in the northeast Taiwan was selected for submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) study. The geomorphic and climatic conditions induce lush rain drenched mountains and create abundant groundwater resource in the Yilan Plain. The annual precipitation in 2014 is 2025 mm with most of the precipitation concentrated on autumn (from September to November). In this study, radon and radium isotopes are used as tracers for SGD survey. The 224Ra (t1/2 =3.6 days) was measured by a delayed coincidence counter (RaDeCC). The 222Rn (t1/2 =3.8 days) was measured by RAD-7 equipped with RAD H2O and RAD AQUA system. The river-water samples were collected from the main stream of Lanyang River and its tributaries from upstream to river mouth. The spring-water samples were collected at 8 sites in April, July and October 2014. Ten surface seawater samples along the coastline of the Yilan Plain were collected in August 2014. Our results show the activities of 222Rn and 224Ra in springs ranging from 3400 to 30850 Bq/m3 and 0.02 to 0.29 Bq/m3, and there are no significant differences between wet and dry seasons. Unexpectedly, the springs are characterized with high 222Rn and low 224Ra activities. For river samples, the activities of 224Ra in downstream and river mouth (0.18 to 1.48 Bq/m3) are higher than upstream (0 to 0.3 Bq/m3). The average activity of 224Ra in downstream samples which collected in April (0.98 Bq/m3) has the highest value than other seasons (0.41-0.51 Bq/m3). In coastal seawater, the activities of 222Rn and 224Ra ranged from 0 to 366 Bq/m3 and 0.10 to 1.14 Bq/m3 in August 2014. In summary, this study points out in some coastal regions of the Yilan Plain, where without riverine input, have high 222Rn and 224Ra activities in seawater. We suggest the SGD plays an important role on land-sea exchange along the coastline of the Yilan Plain. Compare with the spring water samples, the 224Ra activities in coastal seawater are 3-4 times higher than

  15. Groundwater availability in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce G.; Coes, Alissa L.

    2010-01-01

    The Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers and confining units of North and South Carolina are composed of crystalline carbonate rocks, sand, clay, silt, and gravel and contain large volumes of high-quality groundwater. The aquifers have a long history of use dating back to the earliest days of European settlement in the late 1600s. Although extensive areas of some of the aquifers have or currently (2009) are areas of groundwater level declines from large-scale, concentrated pumping centers, large areas of the Atlantic Coastal Plain contain substantial quantities of high-quality groundwater that currently (2009) are unused. Groundwater use from the Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers in North Carolina and South Carolina has increased during the past 60 years as the population has increased along with demands for municipal, industrial, and agricultural water needs. While North Carolina and South Carolina work to increase development of water supplies in response to the rapid growth in these coastal populations, both States recognize that they are facing a number of unanswered questions regarding availability of groundwater supplies and the best methods to manage these important supplies. An in-depth assessment of groundwater availability of the Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers of North and South Carolina has been completed by the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program. This assessment includes (1) a determination of the present status of the Atlantic Coastal Plain groundwater resources; (2) an explanation for how these resources have changed over time; and (3) development of tools to assess the system's response to stresses from potential future climate variability. Results from numerous previous investigations of the Atlantic Coastal Plain by Federal and State agencies have been incorporated into this effort. The primary products of this effort are (1) comprehensive hydrologic datasets such as groundwater levels, groundwater use, and aquifer properties; (2) a

  16. Artesian water in the Malabar coastal plain of southern Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George C.; Ghosh, P.K.

    1964-01-01

    The present report is based on a geological and hydrological reconnaissance during 1954 of the Malabar Coastal Plain and adjacent island area of southern Kerala to evaluate the availability of ground water for coastal villages and municipalities and associated industries and the potentialities for future development. The work was done in cooperation with the Geological Survey of India and under the auspices of the U.S. Technical Cooperation Mission to India. The State of Kerala, which lies near the southern tip of India and along the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, contains a total area of 14,937 square miles. The eastern part of the state is s rugged mountainous highland which attains altitudes of more than 6,000 feet. This highland descends westward through piedmont upland to s narrow coastal plain, which reaches a maximum width of about 16 miles in the latitude of Shertalli. A tropical monsoon rain-forest climate prevails in most of Kerala, and annual rainfall ranges from 65 to 130 inches in the southern part of the coastal plain to as much a 200 inches in the highland. The highland and piedmont upland tracts of Kerala are underlain by Precambrian meamorphic and igneous rocks belonging in large parabola-the so-called Charnockite Series. Beneath ahe coastal plain are semiconsolidated asunconsolidated sedimentary deposits whose age ranges from Miocene to Recent. These deposits include sofa sandstone and clay shale containing some marl or limestone and sand, and clay and pea containing some gravel. The sofa sandstone, sand, and gravel beds constitute important aquifers a depths ranging from a few tens of feet to 400 feet or more below the land surface. The shallow ground war is under water-able or unconfined conditions, but the deeper aquifers contain water under artesian pressure. Near the coast, drilled wells tapping the deeper aquifers commonly flow with artesian heads as much as 10 to 12 feet above the land surface. The draft from existing wells in the

  17. Groundwater recharge and chemical evolution in the southern High Plains of Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryar, Alan; Mullican, William; Macko, Stephen

    2001-11-01

    The unconfined High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer is the largest aquifer in the USA and the primary water supply for the semiarid southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico. Analyses of water and soils northeast of Amarillo, Texas, together with data from other regional studies, indicate that processes during recharge control the composition of unconfined groundwater in the northern half of the southern High Plains. Solute and isotopic data are consistent with a sequence of episodic precipitation, concentration of solutes in upland soils by evapotranspiration, runoff, and infiltration beneath playas and ditches (modified locally by return flow of wastewater and irrigation tailwater). Plausible reactions during recharge include oxidation of organic matter, dissolution and exsolution of CO2, dissolution of CaCO3, silicate weathering, and cation exchange. Si and 14C data suggest leakage from perched aquifers to the High Plains aquifer. Plausible mass-balance models for the High Plains aquifer include scenarios of flow with leakage but not reactions, flow with reactions but not leakage, and flow with neither reactions nor leakage. Mechanisms of recharge and chemical evolution delineated in this study agree with those noted for other aquifers in the south-central and southwestern USA. Résumé. L'aquifère libre des Hautes Plaines (Ogallala) est le plus vaste aquifère des états-Unis et la ressource de base pour l'eau potable de la région semi-aride du sud des Hautes Plaines du Texas et du Nouveau-Mexique. Des analyses de l'eau et des sols prélevés au nord-est d'Amarillo (Texas), associées à des données provenant d'autres études dans cette région, indiquent que des processus intervenant au cours de l'infiltration contrôlent la composition de l'eau de la nappe libre dans la moitié septentrionale du sud des Hautes Plaines. Les données chimiques et isotopiques sont compatibles avec une séquence de précipitation épisodique, avec la reconcentration en solut

  18. Survey of the Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction of Referring Physicians Concerning the Radiologic Report of Plain Radiography Except for Chest Plain Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Soon Young; Park, Noh Hyuck; Kim, Mi Sung; Park, Chan Sub; Park, Ji Yeon; Park, Hee Jin; Kim, Sam Soo; Jeon, Hyun Jun

    2011-01-01

    To assess the satisfaction, attitude, dissatisfaction and general opinion of radiologic reports on the plain radiography, except for chest plain radiographs. A questionnaire was distributed to the 63 physicians of our hospital. The questionnaire aimed to investigate physician's general attitude, dissatisfaction and opinions. The responses elicited, as well as discrepancies among residents, staff, medical clinicians and surgical clinicians were assessed. Chi-square and t-tests were used to determine the value of the data. The mean rate of satisfaction for the reading report by medical clinicians (64%) was higher than surgical clinicians (25%) (p < 0.001). The mean satisfaction score was 3.1 (2.8-3.61). The main cause for dissatisfaction was the absence of reports when they were needed, especially for residents. The medical clinician's dependence on radiologic reports was higher than that of the surgical clinicians. The satisfaction score was in the middle range and the main cause of dissatisfaction was absence of the reports when they were needed.

  19. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Discussion of the nature, origin and role of the intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    The nature and origin of the intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon as determined through geologic mapping, crater statistics, and remotely sensed data are summarized. Implications of these results regarding scarp formation, absolute ages, and terrestrial planet surfaces are included. The role of the intercrater plains is defined and future work which might lead to a better understanding of these units and terrestrial planet evolution is outlined.

  20. Annual crop type classification of the U.S. Great Plains for 2000 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Daniel M.; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase the spatial and temporal availability of crop classification data. In this study, nearly 16.2 million crop observation points were used in the training of the US Great Plains classification tree crop type model (CTM). Each observation point was further defined by weekly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, annual climate, and a number of other biogeophysical environmental characteristics. This study accounted for the most prevalent crop types in the region, including, corn, soybeans, winter wheat, spring wheat, cotton, sorghum, and alfalfa. Annual CTM crop maps of the US Great Plains were created for 2000 to 2011 at a spatial resolution of 250 meters. The CTM achieved an 87 percent classification success rate on 1.8 million observation points that were withheld from model training. Product validation was performed on greater than 15,000 county records with a coefficient of determination of R2 = 0.76.

  1. Microbicidal effects of plain soap vs triclocarban-based antibacterial soap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S A; Rhee, M S

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the bactericidal effects of plain and antibacterial soap. The bactericidal effects of plain and antibacterial soap containing 0.3% triclocarban were examined against 10 Gram-positive and 10 Gram-negative bacterial strains after exposure at 22°C and 40°C for 20 s. Gram-negative bacteria were more susceptible to both soaps than Gram-positive bacteria. However, with one exception (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 at 40°C), there was no significant difference between the effects of medicated and non-medicated soap at either temperature. Triclocarban in soap does not lead to a meaningful reduction in bacterial levels during use. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. How to distinguish between bleeding and coagulated extradural hematomas on the plain CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, O.F.; Espersen, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    Four types of extradural hematoma could be separated at examination of the plain CT scan in 54 extradural hematomas. Two major groups appear: the still bleeding hematoma showing either generally low attenuation values of ''holes'', and a coagulated homogenous type with generally high attenuation values. The attenuation values of the bleeding-liquid part of hematoma - were correlated to hemoglobin concentration in blood, to which clots were not related. Seven extradural hematomas grew and coagulated on repeated preoperative CT scans. In two cases intravenous contrast was given to the bleeding type of hematoma, and the contrast media appeared in ''holes'', but not in areas of high attenuation value. It is easy to distinguish between the different types of hematoma on the plain CT scan, and the separation by eye between the still bleeding and the coagulated extradural hematoma seems reliable. (orig.)

  3. Chemical and Isotopic Study of the Groundwater of Jeffara Plain of Medenine and Tataouine (Southern Tunisia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabelsi, R.; Kalled, M; Zouari, K.; Abidi, B.; Yahyaoui, H.

    2007-01-01

    The study area constitutes the major part of the plain of Jeffara, located at the south-east of Tunisia. This plain is characterized by an arid climate with rare and irregular pluviometry. The hydrochemical approach is used to define the chemical characteristics of the water in these aquifer systems. Indeed, the water salinity varies between 0.6g/? and 9g/?, and increases from the Daher mountains in the west to the Mediterranean Sea. The groundwaters are homogeneous and characterized by a Cl-(SO 4 ) and Na-(Ca-Mg) water type. The isotopic approach shows that the carbone-14 activities, measured in groundwater, evolve in the same direction of groundwater flow. These activities suggest a recent recharge area in eastern piedmont of the Dahar mountains, as well as the zone of the Sahel Abebsa and Zeuss-Koutine. The isotopic values confirm, also, the communication between the various major levels through the existing faults and discontinuities in this area

  4. Numerical Analysis of the Influence of Clearance on Stress State and Contact Pressure in Plain Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Cojocaru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the analysis of plain bearings by finite element method it is important to model as closely to real state the aspects that influence the stress and contact pressure: the loading mode, the properties of the materials, the lubrication system, the clearance between the shaft and the bearing body, the evolution in time of clearance correlated with the wear, etc. In order to study the effect of the clearance on the stress state, a plain bearing with nominal diameter d=40 mm was modeled. The contact pressure and the equivalent stress were computed for six discrete values of clearance, range from c=0 to c=0.3 mm. It has been shown that the increase of clearance generates an increase of the equivalent stress and contact pressure. The growth rate is higher for contact pressure, due to the decrease of the contact surface between the shaft and the bearing body

  5. Lithosphere stress changes due to groundwater unloading in North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yajin; Zhang, Huai; Shi, Yaolin

    2015-04-01

    During the past 50 years, excessive groundwater pumping has led to the continuous decline of groundwater table in North China Plain, which becomes one of the global hotspots of groundwater depletion. Over most of the rural areas of the plain, the shallow aquifer has experienced a water-table decline of more than 15m, with greater declines up to 50m in most urban centres, such as Beijing, Tangshan, Shijiangzhuang and so forth in 1960-2000. The entire groundwater depletion area covers a total area of approximately 56,273 km2 , more than 40% of the North China Plain. The vast area of enormous groundwater exploitation in North China Plain will definitely unload the lithosphere and create stress perturbations, the problem is if the stresses change large enough to affect tectonic activities. In this essay, we set up a 3 dimensional numerical visco-elastic model to discuss the effect of groundwater over-pumping on the lithosphere deformation and stress state in North China Plain. Based on the records of total groundwater-table decline during 1960-2010 in North China Plain, we estimate the accumulated deformation and lithosphere stress due to unloading of human-induced groundwater depletion. The area in the model ranges from 34° To 42°N, and 112° To 119°E, including the major groundwater depression cones in North China Plain. According to the simulating result, the maximum surface vertical uplift caused by groundwater unloading is 8cm. Meanwhile cumulative horizontal crustal stress changes near the surface goes up to 100kPa, and up to 40kPa at 15km depth where most earthquakes occurred in this area. The tectonic compressive stress rate is about 0.25kPa per year. Therefore, the stress changes due to groundwater pumping is significant compared with the tectonic driven stress changes. As China developed rapidly since 1978, the groundwater table mainly declined after 1978. Taking the earthquake catalog in the vicinity of groundwater depression zone into consideration, we

  6. Evaluation of pineal calcification in children. Using both CT and plain radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Kazuo; Odagiri, Kunio; Fujiwara, Takuya; Tanohata, Kazunori; Matsui, Kengo; Okano, Shigeki

    1987-07-01

    The study cases were 804 patients who had received either CT or plain radiographs for some reasons. Their ages ranged from newborn to 15 years old. Twenty four patients had the pineal calcification, in which one patient had the pineal region tumor and 4 patients had precocious puberty. The incidence of the pineal calcification was observed on CT as 0.2, 5.8, and 14 % in their age of 0 to 5, 6 to 10, and 11 to 15 years old, respectively. On the other hand, this finding was detected only in 0, 1.1, and 1.2 % on plain radiographs. In conclusion, pineal calcification on CT may suggest the pathological state in children. Although it is observed in a minority of normal children, such a calcification could be looked upon as not only pineal region tumor but precocious puberty and other intracranial disorders with suspicion.

  7. A southern African origin and cryptic structure in the highly mobile plains zebra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Casper-Emil T; Albrechtsen, Anders; Etter, Paul D.

    2018-01-01

    insights into the past phylogeography of the species. The results identify a southern African location as the most likely source region from which all extant populations expanded around 370,000 years ago. We show evidence for inclusion of the extinct and phenotypically divergent quagga (Equus quagga quagga......The plains zebra (Equus quagga) is an ecologically important species of the African savannah. It is also one of the most numerous and widely distributed ungulates, and six subspecies have been described based on morphological variation. However, the within-species evolutionary processes have been...... difficult to resolve due to its high mobility and a lack of consensus regarding the population structure. We obtained genome-wide DNA polymorphism data from more than 167,000 loci for 59 plains zebras from across the species range, encompassing all recognized extant subspecies, as well as three mountain...

  8. Pollution load index for heavy metals in Mian-Ab plain soil, Khuzestan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorfi, Sahand; Maleki, Rohangiz; Jaafarzadeh, Neemat; Ahmadi, Mehdi

    2017-12-01

    Soil pollution by heavy metals is a major concern in agricultural area. Potential impact of heavy metals in agricultural soil on human health by accumulating in food chain demonstrated elsewhere. In this regard Mian-Ab plain as a major agricultural site of Khuzestan province considered for Arsenic, cadmium and lead concentration as the main potential toxic pollutants in soil. 50 topsoil samples were collected and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Also Contamination level of selected heavy metals in Mian-Ab Plain, was assessed by single factor contaminant index (PI) and pollution load index (PLI). Results show mean concentration of arsenic, cadmium and lead were 2.52, 0.30 and 7.21 mg kg -1 . Base on PLI results 12 point (24%) of the studied area show moderately polluted and 38 point (76%) show unpolluted area.

  9. The role and value of water in natural capital restoration on the Agulhas Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helanya Fourie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Agulhas Plain is a low-lying coastal area within the Cape Floristic Region. It is heavily invaded by alien vegetation that infringes upon the sustainable supply of ecosystem goods and services provided by the native fynbos vegetation. Alien clearing and natural capital restoration is expected to recover these ecosystem goods and services and in particular to increase water availability. The study conducts cost-benefit analyses to assess whether alien clearing and natural capital restoration would add value to the Agulhas Plain through sufficiently increasing the supply of marketable ecosystem goods and services. The results indicate that the costs of alien clearing and restoration cannot be justified in the absence of water as a valued commodity. Other ecosystem goods and services included have a negligible impact on justifying costs.

  10. Patient exposure during plain radiography and mammography in Japan in 1974-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Yuta; Kawaguchi, Ai; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Minami, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Shoichi; Chida, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    We investigated changes in the entrance skin dose (ESD) and the mean glandular dose (MGD) during plain radiography or mammography in Japan from 1974 to 2014. Surveys regarding the conditions used for plain radiography and mammography were performed throughout Japan in 1974, 1979, 1989, 1993, 1997, 2001, 2003, 2007, 2011 and 2014. The anatomical regions considered were categorised as follows: skull anteroposterior (AP), lumbar AP, lumbar lateral (LAT), pelvis (AP), ankle, chest posteroanterior (PA), Guthmann (lateral pelviography for pregnant women), infant hip joint and mammography. The doses for all anatomical regions decreased from 1974 to 1993. The MGD for mammography remained low from 1993 to 2014, and the ESDs for chest (PA) radiography trended upward. After the 2000's, the use of digital imaging increased in Japan. This is the first long-term study to examine changes in ESDs and MGDs in Japan. (authors)

  11. Effect of flexural crack on plain concrete beam failure mechanism A numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoullah Namdar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The flexural failure of plain concrete beam occurs along with development of flexural crack on beam. In this paper by using ABAQUS, mechanism failure of plain concrete beam under three steps have been simulated. The cracking moment has been analytically calculated and applied on the both sides of the fixed beam, and flexural crack has been simulated on beam. Displacement, von Mises, load reaction, displacementcrack length, von Mises-crack length and von Mises-displacement of beams have been graphical depicted. Results indicated that, the flexural crack governs beam mechanism failure and its effects on beam resistance failure. It has been found that the flexural crack in initial stage it developed slowly and changes to be fast at the final stage of collapsing beam due to reduction of the flexural resistance of beam. Increasing mechanical properties of concrete, collapse displacement is reduced.

  12. Ballistic Impact Resistance of Plain Woven Kenaf/Aramid Reinforced Polyvinyl Butyral Laminated Hybrid Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhad D. Salman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the helmet shell has been used to provide protection against head injuries and fatalities caused by ballistic threats. In this study, because of the high cost of aramid fibres and the necessity for environmentally friendly alternatives, a portion of aramid was replaced with plain woven kenaf fibre, with different arrangements and thicknesses, without jeopardising the requirements demanded by U.S. Army helmet specifications. Furthermore, novel helmets were produced and tested to reduce the dependency on the ballistic resistance components. Their use could lead to helmets that are less costly and more easily available than conventional helmet armour. The hybrid materials subjected to ballistic tests were composed of 19 layers and were fabricated by the hot press technique using different numbers and configurations of plain woven kenaf and aramid layers. In the case of ballistic performance tests, a positive effect was found for the hybridisation of kenaf and aramid laminated composites.

  13. Electrical structure of Plaine des Sables caldera, Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Reunion Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Schnegg

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available An Audio Magnetotelluric (AMT profile has been carried out across the Plaine des Sables, a former caldera of the active Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island. Located in the Western Indian Ocean, between the Mascarene and Madagascar basins, this basaltic shield volcano originates from the activity of a hot spot. Our aim was to determine the internal structure of the volcano, in particular the shallow electrical properties of an area extending between the old and the new caldera rims. Although several teams had already conducted AMT work in this region a few years ago, there was a need for more a detailed, in depth survey. Our final model displays a noticeable slope of the Plaine des Sables basement oriented toward the present Fournaise summit. This slope is interpreted as resulting from successive landslides toward the ocean. We conclude that this dipping, electrically good conducting layer, probably belongs to the flat layering of an older caldera.

  14. Evaluation of pre and post-operative spinal plain CT and CT-myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Joji; Inoue, Shunichi; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Kamata, Sakae; Shinohara, Hiroyasu.

    1983-01-01

    Confirmation of the level of scan slices is essential for the CT diagnosis of spinal and spinal-cord diseases. Pre- and postoperative comparison should be made on the same level. For reading of plain CT and CTM, window levels should be identical pre- and postoperatively. Both methods demonstrated the spinal canal, morphology of the spinal cord, and three-Fdimensional pathologic pictures inside and outside the spinal cord. Preoperative CT contributed useful information on the pathologic conditions and selection of surgical procedures and routes. Postoperative plain CT confirmed surgical results, and CTM revealed the spinal cord and the subarachnoid space, as well as the range and degree of decompression from the spinal cord. (Chiba, N.)

  15. Blunt abdominal trauma and hollow viscus injury in children: The diagnostic value of plain radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, M.; Ekloef, O.; Thomasson, B.; Sankt Goeran's Children's Hospital, Stockholm

    1984-01-01

    Although blunt abdominal trauma is common in children, the G-I tract is involved only rarely. However, this paper deals with a series of 24 cases in whom a hollow viscus was injured. We present the radiological and operative findings as well as the results of subsequent radiological workup in patients who had no surgery. Contrary to the recent trend which stresses early abdominal CT as critically important for guiding treatment we have retained a more conservative attitude. Our present protocol includes plain radiography frequently combined with sonographic screening of the abdomen. In patients with stable vital signs and when necessary, we follow up with scintigraphy. CT is reserved for complicated cases with obscure clinical manifestations which do not fit the plain radiological findings and also cases running an unexpected course. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of nine-frame enhanced multiband photography San Andreas fault zone, Carrizo Plain, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Nine-frame multiband aerial photography of a sample area 4500 feet on a side was processed to enhance spectral contrasts. The area concerned is in the Carrizo Plain, 45 miles west of Bakersfield, California, in sec. 29, T 31 S., R. 21 E., as shown on the Panorama Hills quadrangle topographic map published by the U. S. Geological Survey. The accompany illustrations include an index map showing the location of the Carrizo Plain area; a geologic map of the area based on field studies and examination of black and white aerial photographs; an enhanced multiband aerial photograph; an Aero Ektachrome photograph; black and white aerial photographs; and infrared image in the 8-13 micron band.

  17. Adaptive Crack Modeling with Interface Solid Elements for Plain and Fiber Reinforced Concrete Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yijian; Meschke, Günther

    2017-07-08

    The effective analysis of the nonlinear behavior of cement-based engineering structures not only demands physically-reliable models, but also computationally-efficient algorithms. Based on a continuum interface element formulation that is suitable to capture complex cracking phenomena in concrete materials and structures, an adaptive mesh processing technique is proposed for computational simulations of plain and fiber-reinforced concrete structures to progressively disintegrate the initial finite element mesh and to add degenerated solid elements into the interfacial gaps. In comparison with the implementation where the entire mesh is processed prior to the computation, the proposed adaptive cracking model allows simulating the failure behavior of plain and fiber-reinforced concrete structures with remarkably reduced computational expense.

  18. The foraging behaviour of herons and egrets on the Magela Creek flood plain, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recher, H.F.; Holmes, R.T.

    1982-03-01

    Five species of diurnal herons are common on the Magela Creek flood plain and forage along the edges of natural and artifical waterbodies both inside and outside the Ranger Uranium Project Area. The species of heron differ in the kinds and sizes of prey they take, their foraging location, degree of sociality and foraging behaviour. Because it takes relatively large fish, the Great Egret, E. alba, is most likely to be affected by any contamination of the aquatic environment by heavy metals or radionuclides. The Nankeen Night Heron, Nycticorax caledonicus is also abundant on the flood plain and probably feeds on large fish and frogs. The other herons take smaller or immature prey or hunt mostly in terrestrial habitats and are therefore less likely to be affected by contamination of the aquatic environment

  19. The rheumatoid cervical spine: Signs of instability on plain cervical radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, Clare J.; Eyes, Brian E.; Whitehouse, Graham H.

    2002-01-01

    The cervical spine is a common focus of destruction from rheumatoid arthritis, second only to the metacarpophalangeal joints. Joint, bone and ligament damage in the cervical spine leads to subluxations which can cause cervical cord compression resulting in paralysis and even sudden death. Because many patients with significant subluxations are asymptomatic, the radiologist plays a key role in recognizing the clinically important clues to instability on plain radiographs of the cervical spine-often difficult in rheumatoid arthritis when the bony landmarks are osteoporotic or eroded. This review focuses on the signs of instability on plain radiographs of the cervical spine, using diagrams and clinical examples to illustrate methods of identifying significant subluxations in rheumatoid arthritis. Roche, C.J., Eyes, B.E. and Whitehouse, G.H. (2002)

  20. Radiographers and radiologists reporting plain radiograph requests from accident and emergency and general practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brealey, S.D.; King, D.G.; Hahn, S.; Crowe, M.; Williams, P.; Rutter, P.; Crane, S.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess selectively trained radiographers and consultant radiologists reporting plain radiographs for the Accident and Emergency Department (A and E) and general practitioners (GPs) within a typical hospital setting. METHODS: Two radiographers, a group of eight consultant radiologists, and a reference standard radiologist independently reported under controlled conditions a retrospectively selected, random, stratified sample of 400 A and E and 400 GP plain radiographs. An independent consultant radiologist judged whether the radiographer and radiologist reports agreed with the reference standard report. Clinicians then assessed whether radiographer and radiologist incorrect reports affected confidence in their diagnosis and treatment plans, and patient outcome. RESULTS: For A and E and GP plain radiographs, respectively, there was a 1% (95% confidence interval (CI) -2 to 5) and 4% (95% CI -1 to 8) difference in reporting accuracy between the two professional groups. For both A and E and GP cases there was an 8% difference in the clinicians' confidence in their diagnosis based on radiographer or radiologist incorrect reports. For A and E and GP cases, respectively, there was a 2% and 8% difference in the clinicians' confidence in their management plans based on radiographer or radiologist incorrect reports. For A and E and GP cases, respectively, there was a 1% and 11% difference in effect on patient outcome of radiographer or radiologist incorrect reports. CONCLUSION: There is the potential to extend the reporting role of selectively trained radiographers to include plain radiographs for all A and E and GP patients. Further research conducted during clinical practice at a number of sites is recommended

  1. A network model framework for prioritizing wetland conservation in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Gene; Haukos, David A.

    2017-01-01

    ContextPlaya wetlands are the primary habitat for numerous wetland-dependent species in the Southern Great Plains of North America. Plant and wildlife populations that inhabit these wetlands are reciprocally linked through the dispersal of individuals, propagules and ultimately genes among local populations.ObjectiveTo develop and implement a framework using network models for conceptualizing, representing and analyzing potential biological flows among 48,981 spatially discrete playa wetlands in the Southern Great Plains.MethodsWe examined changes in connectivity patterns and assessed the relative importance of wetlands to maintaining these patterns by targeting wetlands for removal based on network centrality metrics weighted by estimates of habitat quality and probability of inundation.ResultsWe identified several distinct, broad-scale sub networks and phase transitions among playa wetlands in the Southern Plains. In particular, for organisms that can disperse >2 km a dense and expansive wetland sub network emerges in the Southern High Plains. This network was characterized by localized, densely connected wetland clusters at link distances (h) >2 km but <5 km and was most sensitive to changes in wetland availability (p) and configuration when h = 4 km, and p = 0.2–0.4. It transitioned to a single, large connected wetland system at broader spatial scales even when the proportion of inundated wetland was relatively low (p = 0.2).ConclusionsOur findings suggest that redundancy in the potential for broad and fine-scale movements insulates this system from damage and facilitates system-wide connectivity among populations with different dispersal capacities.

  2. Listeria abortions in sheep on the Accra plains: A case report | Osei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Listeria abortions in sheep on the Accra plains: A case report. ... Fifteen (19.2 per cent) of the 78 ewes were affected. Serological tests ... L'organisme était également isolé des prélèvements vaginaux et préputiaux des moutons à Achimota et Kade, d'où les animaux de reproduction avaient transférés à Pokoase et Achimota.

  3. Estimating shallow groundwater recharge in the headwaters of the Liverpool Plains using SWAT

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, H.; Cornish, P.S.

    2005-01-01

    Metadata only record A physically based catchment model (SWAT) was used for recharge estimation in the headwaters of the Liverpool Plains in NSW, Australia. The study used water balance modelling at the catchment scale to derive parameters for long-term recharge estimation. The derived parameters were further assessed at a subcatchment scale. Modelling results suggest that recharge occurs only in wet years, and is dominated by a few significant years or periods. The results were matched by...

  4. Peculiarities of the thermal regime of the Russian plain depending on tidal oscillation Earth rotation speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, L. M.

    2018-01-01

    Typification of fields of anomaly of temperature in the central part of East European Plain depending on the main phases of the Moon taking into account these tidal fluctuations of speed of rotation of Earth is presented. The main regularities of spatial distribution of anomaly of temperature in December are revealed. The opposite dependence of distribution of anomaly of temperature on antiphases of the Moon is established.

  5. Groundwater Management Innovations in the High Plains Aquifer, USA: A possible path towards sustainability? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. High Plains aquifer, one of the largest freshwater aquifer systems in the world covering parts of eight US states, continues to decline, threatening the long-term viability of the region’s irrigation-based economy. The theory of the commons has meaningful messages for High-Plains jurisdictions as no private incentive exists to save for tomorrow, and agricultural prosperity depends on mining water from large portions of the aquifer. The eight High Plains states take different approaches to the development and management of the aquifer based on each state’s body of water laws that abide by different legal doctrines, on which Federal laws are superposed, thus creating difficulties in integrated regional water management efforts. Although accumulating hydrologic stresses and competing demands on groundwater resources are making groundwater management increasingly complex, they are also leading to innovative approaches to the management of groundwater supplies, and those are highlighted in this presentation as good examples for emulation in managing groundwater resources. The highlighted innovations include (1) the Texas Groundwater Availability Modeling program, (2) Colorado’s water-augmentation program, (3) Kansas’ Intensive Groundwater Use Control Area policy, (4) the Kansas Groundwater Management Districts’ “safe yield” policies, (5) the water-use reporting program in Kansas, (6) the Aquifer Storage and Recovery program of the City of Wichita, Kansas, and (7) Nebraska’s Natural Resources Districts. It is concluded that the fragmented and piecemeal institutional arrangements for managing the supplies and quality of water are unlikely to be sufficient to meet the water challenges of the future. A number of recommendations for enhancing the sustainability of the aquifer are presented, including the formation of an interstate groundwater commission for the High Plains aquifer along the lines of the Delaware and Susquehanna River Basins

  6. Sensitivity and specificity of plain radiographic features of peripheral enthesopathy at major sites in psoriatic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helliwell, P.S.; Porter, G.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed that the defining difference between rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthropathy (including psoriatic arthritis) is the initial pathological lesion where the emphasis in psoriatic arthritis is on the enthesis and in rheumatoid arthritis on the synovium. Classical radiological descriptions of seronegative spondyloarthropathy include enthesopathy at major entheseal insertions characterised by erosions and exuberant new bone formation. In this study, the plain radiographic features of spondyloarthropathy are compared between psoriatic arthritis, other spondyloarthropathies and rheumatoid arthritis. The CASPAR study collected clinical, radiological and laboratory data on 588 patients with physician diagnosed psoriatic arthritis and 525 controls with other inflammatory arthritis, 70% of which had rheumatoid arthritis. Plain radiographs of the pelvis and heels were part of the study protocol, although radiographs of other potential entheseal sites such as the knee, elbow and shoulder, were interpreted if available. All radiographs were read blind by two observers working in tandem. Significant differences in entheseal erosion and entheseal new bone formation were found between psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy, rheumatoid arthritis and other diagnoses (entheseal erosion, chi-squared 20.8, p = 0.008; entheseal new bone formation, chi-squared 24.5, p = 0.001). These differences were mainly due to a higher proportion of these features in ankylosing spondylitis. No differences in the plain radiographic features of enthesopathy were found between psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis except in the case of entheseal new bone formation at sites of attachment of inguinal ligament, sartorius and rectus femoris muscles to the ilium (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.13-8.02). Very few subjects with symptomatic heel involvement had radiographic changes and minimal differences were found between those with and without

  7. Long distance seawater intrusion through a karst conduit network in the Woodville Karst Plain, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Zexuan Xu; Seth Willis Bassett; Bill Hu; Scott Barrett Dyer

    2016-01-01

    Five periods of increased electrical conductivity have been found in the karst conduits supplying one of the largest first magnitude springs in Florida with water. Numerous well-developed conduit networks are distributed in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP), Florida and connected to the Gulf of Mexico. A composite analysis of precipitation and electrical conductivity data provides strong evidence that the increases in conductivity are directly tied to seawater intrusion moving inland and travel...

  8. Aerosol measurements at the Southern Great Plains Site: Design and surface installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, R.; Knuth, R.H.; Guggenheim, S.F.; Albert, B. [Department of Energy, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    To impropve the predictive capabilities of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program radiation models, measurements of awserosol size distributions, condensation particle concentrations, aerosol scattering coefficients at a number of wavelenghts, and the aerosol absorption coefficients are needed at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Alos, continuous measurements of ozone concnetrations are needed for model validation. The environmental Measuremenr Laboratory (EMK) has the responsibility to establish the surface aerosol measurements program at the SGP site. EML has designed a special sampling manifold.

  9. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume II. Plant specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, R. E.

    1983-12-31

    The specifications and design criteria for all plant systems and subsystems used in developing the preliminary design of Carrisa Plains 30-MWe Solar Plant are contained in this volume. The specifications have been organized according to plant systems and levels. The levels are arranged in tiers. Starting at the top tier and proceeding down, the specification levels are the plant, system, subsystem, components, and fabrication. A tab number, listed in the index, has been assigned each document to facilitate document location.

  10. Distribution, typology and assessment of degraded soils Piedmont Plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Kussainova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Identification of land degradation is essential to check the problem and to implement the remedial measures needed. The study area falls under parts of foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, that is an arid region in climate. Recent data on the status of study area refer to the 80s of the last century, and the intensive use of them led to a significant anthropogenic transformation. This study was carried out in 2015-2016 as part of a project aimed to study features and causes of land degradation in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan. Under the conditions of rainfed soil degradation manifests itself in the development of erosion processes, agro depletion of soils, reducing the productivity of agriculture. The use of land for irrigation often accompanied by secondary salinization. In this regard, at present there is need to assess current state of the soil, with the identification of changes in their properties as a result of the impact of various anthropogenic factors and creation of new electronic soil maps and applied the powerful capabilities of advanced remote sensing (RS and geographic information system (GIS techniques to identify the geomorphological units and degradation risk assessment. Satellite imagery in addition to the field and laboratory studies to identify salinity-induced soil degradation was adopted in this study. Morphological, chemical and physical characteristics of soils in degraded sites in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, were depicted. The main results of a thorough evaluation of soil degradation in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, are presented. The data revealed that extent of salinity-induced degradation was generally related to some physical properties of soil, uncontrolled livestock grazing and previous soil management practices. These results are useful as the basis for designing soil conservation and restoration programs, as a base line for evaluating the performance of conservation

  11. Paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain, Northern coast of Santa Catarina, SC, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Maria Cristina de; Angulo, Rodolfo Jose; angulo@geologia.ufpr.br; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to characterize the paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain during the Quaternary and to compare this evolution with other proposed models. To reach the objectives the area was mapped in scale 1:50.000, sub-surface information were obtained from geotechnical drillings and paleosea-levels were inferred by radiocarbon dating performed on vermetids tubes, wood fragments and shells of Anomalocardia brasiliana samples. The paleosea-level reconstructions are consistent with the sea level curve proposed in previous works. The evolution model for the Itapoa coastal plain proposed in this work is similar to the model proposed for the coastal plain of Paranagua. The paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain can be summarized as: formation of fans during Lower Miocene, with sea level similar or lower than the present one; island-barrier formation during the Upper Pleistocene transgression maximum; formation of extensive regressive barriers and later dissection by a rectangular pattern drainage system, during sea level low stand; island barrier formation during the Holocene transgression maximum, with inlets associated to the present mouth of Sai-Mirim and Sai-Guacu rivers; formation of extensive regressive barriers during falling sea level period. During the Holocene regression, spits grew northward, moving northward the estuarine inlets as well. This drift direction is the same that was suggested for Parana and Santa Catarina north coast. During regression until present the Sai-Mirim River has eroded the Holocene barrier inland portion, that probably caused the erosion of most of the Holocene transgressive barrier-islands. (author)

  12. Sensitivity and specificity of plain radiographic features of peripheral enthesopathy at major sites in psoriatic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helliwell, P.S. [University of Leeds, Academic Unit of Musculoskeletal and Rehabilitation Medicine, Leeds (United Kingdom); Porter, G. [Airedale Hospital NHS Trust, Keighley, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    It has been proposed that the defining difference between rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthropathy (including psoriatic arthritis) is the initial pathological lesion where the emphasis in psoriatic arthritis is on the enthesis and in rheumatoid arthritis on the synovium. Classical radiological descriptions of seronegative spondyloarthropathy include enthesopathy at major entheseal insertions characterised by erosions and exuberant new bone formation. In this study, the plain radiographic features of spondyloarthropathy are compared between psoriatic arthritis, other spondyloarthropathies and rheumatoid arthritis. The CASPAR study collected clinical, radiological and laboratory data on 588 patients with physician diagnosed psoriatic arthritis and 525 controls with other inflammatory arthritis, 70% of which had rheumatoid arthritis. Plain radiographs of the pelvis and heels were part of the study protocol, although radiographs of other potential entheseal sites such as the knee, elbow and shoulder, were interpreted if available. All radiographs were read blind by two observers working in tandem. Significant differences in entheseal erosion and entheseal new bone formation were found between psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy, rheumatoid arthritis and other diagnoses (entheseal erosion, chi-squared 20.8, p = 0.008; entheseal new bone formation, chi-squared 24.5, p = 0.001). These differences were mainly due to a higher proportion of these features in ankylosing spondylitis. No differences in the plain radiographic features of enthesopathy were found between psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis except in the case of entheseal new bone formation at sites of attachment of inguinal ligament, sartorius and rectus femoris muscles to the ilium (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.13-8.02). Very few subjects with symptomatic heel involvement had radiographic changes and minimal differences were found between those with and without

  13. Pollution load index for heavy metals in Mian-Ab plain soil, Khuzestan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Jorfi, Sahand; Maleki, Rohangiz; Jaafarzadeh, Neemat; Ahmadi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Soil pollution by heavy metals is a major concern in agricultural area. Potential impact of heavy metals in agricultural soil on human health by accumulating in food chain demonstrated elsewhere.In this regard Mian-Ab plain as a major agricultural site of Khuzestan province considered for Arsenic, cadmium and lead concentration as the main potential toxic pollutants in soil. 50 topsoil samples were collected and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Also Contamina...

  14. Neural mechanisms underlying visual attention to health warnings on branded and plain cigarette packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jonathan C. W.; Munafò, Marcus R.; Leonards, Ute

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims To (1) test if activation in brain regions related to reward (nucleus accumbens) and emotion (amygdala) differ when branded and plain packs of cigarettes are viewed, (2) test whether these activation patterns differ by smoking status and (3) examine whether activation patterns differ as a function of visual attention to health warning labels on cigarette packs. Design Cross‐sectional observational study combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with eye‐tracking. Non‐smokers, weekly smokers and daily smokers performed a memory task on branded and plain cigarette packs with pictorial health warnings presented in an event‐related design. Setting Clinical Research and Imaging Centre, University of Bristol, UK. Participants Non‐smokers, weekly smokers and daily smokers (n = 72) were tested. After exclusions, data from 19 non‐smokers, 19 weekly smokers and 20 daily smokers were analysed. Measurements Brain activity was assessed in whole brain analyses and in pre‐specified masked analyses in the amygdala and nucleus accumbens. On‐line eye‐tracking during scanning recorded visual attention to health warnings. Findings There was no evidence for a main effect of pack type or smoking status in either the nucleus accumbens or amygdala, and this was unchanged when taking account of visual attention to health warnings. However, there was evidence for an interaction, such that we observed increased activation in the right amygdala when viewing branded as compared with plain packs among weekly smokers (P = 0.003). When taking into account visual attention to health warnings, we observed higher levels of activation in the visual cortex in response to plain packaging compared with branded packaging of cigarettes (P = 0.020). Conclusions Based on functional magnetic resonance imaging and eye‐tracking data, health warnings appear to be more salient on ‘plain’ cigarette packs than branded packs. PMID:27886656

  15. Luminescence dating of paleoseismic events associated with the Muzaffarnagar fault in the Western Gangetic Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhosle, Balaji; Parkash, B.; Awasthi, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Using remote sensing and GIS techniques of satellite data processing, Muzaffarnagar fault is identified in western Gangetic Plain. Activity along the fault has resulted in deposition of colluvial deposits (alluvial fans) on the downthrown block. Luminescence dating of colluvial deposits suggests that the fault is segmented. The last activity which took place along the eastern segment was at 3.5 ka and middle and western segment were active during 2.5-2.8 ka. (author)

  16. Location of irrigated land classified from satellite imagery - High Plains Area, nominal date 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Sharon L.; Konduris, Alexandria; Litke, David W.; Dupree, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (nominal date 1992) was used to classify and map the location of irrigated land overlying the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a water-quality study of the High Plains aquifer as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. To help interpret data and select sites for the study, it is helpful to know the location of irrigated land within the study area. To date, the only information available for the entire area is 20 years old. To update the data on irrigated land, 40 summer and 40 spring images (nominal date 1992) were acquired from the National Land Cover Data set and processed using a band-ratio method (Landsat Thematic Mapper band 4 divided by band 3) to enhance the vegetation signatures. The study area was divided into nine subregions with similar environmental characteristics, and a band-ratio threshold was selected from imagery in each subregion that differentiated the cutoff between irrigated and nonirrigated land. The classified images for each subregion were mosaicked to produce an irrigated-land map for the study area. The total amount of irrigated land classified from the 1992 imagery was 13.1 million acres, or about 12 percent of the total land in the High Plains. This estimate is approximately 1.5 percent greater than the amount of irrigated land reported in the 1992 Census of Agriculture (12.8 millions acres).

  17. Groundwater Recharge Processes Revealed By Multi-Tracers Approach in a Headwater, North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, K.; Tsujimura, M.; Song, X.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater recharge variation in space and time is crucial for effective water management especially in arid/ semi-arid regions. In order to reveal comprehensive groundwater recharge processes in a catchment with a large topographical relief and seasonal hydrological variations, intensive field surveys were conducted at 4 times in different seasons in Wangkuai watershed, Taihang Mountains, which is a main groundwater recharge zone of North China Plain. The groundwater, spring, stream water and lake water were sampled, and inorganic solute constituents and stable isotopes of oxygen-18 and deuterium were determined on all water samples. Also, the stream flow rate was observed in stable state condition. The stable isotopic compositions, silica and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater show close values as those in the surface water, suggesting main groundwater recharge occurs from surface water at mountain-plain transitional zone throughout a year. Also, the deuterium and oxgen-18 in the Wangkuai reservoir and the groundwater in the vicinity of the reservoir show higher values, suggesting the reservoir water, affected by evaporation effect, seems to have an important role for the groundwater recharge in alluvial plain. For specifying the groundwater recharge area and quantifying groundwater recharge rate from the reservoir, an inversion analysis and a simple mixing model were applied in Wangkuai watershed using stable isotopes of oxygen-18 and deuterium. The model results show that groundwater recharge occurs dominantly at the altitude from 357 m to 738 m corresponding to mountain-plain transitional zone, and groundwater recharge rate by Wangkuai reservoir is estimated to be 2.4 % of total groundwater recharge in Wangkuai watershed.

  18. Effects of first thinning on growth of loblolly pine plantations in the West Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean W. Coble; Jason B. Grogan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze thinning response in basal area and height growth of residual loblolly pine trees growing in plantations located in the West Gulf Coastal Plain. Thinning is a well-known silvicultural practice that increases the growing space available to desirable trees by removing competing trees.

  19. Gulf Atlantic Coastal Plain Long Term Agroecosystem Research site, Tifton, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Strickland; David D. Bosch; Dinku M. Endale; Thomas L. Potter

    2016-01-01

    The Gulf-Atlantic Coastal Plain (GACP) physiographic region is an important agricultural production area within the southeastern U.S. that extends from Delaware in the Northeast to the Gulf Coast of Texas. The region consists mainly of low-elevation flat to rolling terrain with numerous streams, abundant rainfall, a complex coastline, and many wetlands. The GACP Long ...

  20. Restoration of Prime Farmland Disturbed by Mineral Sand Mining in the Upper Coastal Plain of Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Philip D.

    1996-01-01

    Economic deposits of heavy mineral sand were identified in the late 1980's under prime farmland along the Upper Coastal Plain of Virginia. Mining in Virginia will commence in 1997 on the Old Hickory Deposit in Dinwiddie/Sussex Counties. Experiments were established on two mine pits representing two likely pit closure scenarios; regrading the surface with unprocessed subsoil (Pit 1) or filling to the surface with processed material (Pit 3). To evaluate topsoil replacement vs. organic amendment...

  1. Evidence brief – Plain packaging of tobacco products: measures to decrease smoking initiation and increase cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Céline E J L Brassart

    2015-01-01

    to women and young people. They also show that, when combined with large pictorial health warnings, plain-packaging measures increase awareness about the risks related to tobacco consumption, encouraging more people to quit and fewer to start. In that these measures merely regulate the use of logos...... or colours for public health purposes, they are in compliance with international trade and intellectual property law....

  2. Geological Structure of the Basement of Western and Eastern Parts of the West-Siberian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Kirill S.; Erokhin, Yuriy V.; Ponomarev, Vladimir S.; Pogromskaya, Olga E.; Berzin, Stepan V.

    2016-01-01

    The U-Pb dating (SHRIMP-II on zircon) was obtained for the first time from the basement of the West Siberian Plain in the Western half of the region. It is established that a large part of the protolith of the metamorphic depth in the Shaim-Kuznetsov meganticlinorium contained sedimentary late- and middle-Devonian rocks (395-358 million years).…

  3. Le phosphore limite-t-il la production intensive du riz dans la plaine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Le phosphore (P) est un élément important dans la nutrition minérale du riz et dans l'élaboration du rendement paddy. Des essais soustractifs ont été conduits en milieu paysan dans la plaine rizicole de Bagré au cours de trois campagnes successives pour évaluer l'effet de l'application de P sur le rendement paddy. La.

  4. Validity of plain film radiograph (KUB) in the diagnosis of urolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maravilla, L.M.; Castillo, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    The article is about the study on the validity of plain film radiograph (KUB) in the diagnosis of urolithiasis in Filipino patients. This is based on the fact that 75% to 85% of stones are composed of calcium phosphate. Radiolucent, uric acid, urate, xanthine and matrix stones which comprised 5% to 8% cases may also contain radiographically detectable amounts of calcium oxalates. The study will also determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of KUB. 10 refs.; 3 tabs

  5. 75 FR 26094 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... establishing a temporary safety zone from Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan. This temporary safety...

  6. A distribution of adsorbed forms of cesium 137 and strontium 90 in flood-plain formations of Sozh river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.A.; Generalova, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of strontium 90 and cesium 137 forms in flood-plain geochemical system 'alluvial deposits - flood-plain turf - humus horizon - soil-source rock', where sorption and colloidal processes play main role in the isotopes migration, was studied. The bulk amount of strontium 90 is presented in adsorbed form in all investigated objects, whereas only 6% of cesium 137 amount in alluvial deposits, flood-plain turf and humus horizon is in adsorbed form. The content of exchange forms of cesium 137 and strontium 90 increases with the depth of the layer. The race of this increase for strontium 90 is large than for cesium 137. The distribution of radionuclides through the different parts of flood-plain of Sozh river has some distinctions due to more lability of adsorbed strontium 90 forms in comparison with cesium 137 ones

  7. Water quality in the surficial aquifer near agricultural areas in the Delaware Coastal Plain, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; Mensch, Laura L.; Denver, Judith M.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-07-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, developed a network of wells to monitor groundwater quality in the surficial aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain. Well-drained soils, a flat landscape, and accessible water in the Delaware Coastal Plain make for a productive agricultural setting. As such, agriculture is one of the largest industries in the State of Delaware. This setting enables the transport of chemicals from agriculture and other land uses to shallow groundwater. Efforts to mitigate nutrient transport to groundwater by the implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been ongoing for several decades. To measure the effectiveness of BMPs on a regional scale, a network of 48 wells was designed to measure shallow groundwater quality (particularly nitrate) over time near agricultural land in the Delaware Coastal Plain. Water characteristics, major ions, nutrients, and dissolved gases were measured in groundwater samples collected from network wells during fall 2014. Wells were organized into three groups based on their geochemical similarity and these groups were used to describe nitrate and chloride concentrations and factors that affect the variability among the groups. The results from this study are intended to establish waterquality conditions in 2014 to enable comparison of future conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural BMPs on a regional scale.

  8. Impacts of climate change on freshwater fisheries of the Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regier, H.A.; Holmes, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The diversity and habitats of fish in Great Plains hydrologic systems are described. Fisheries on the Great Plains consist of commercial, subsistence, and recreational. Direct effects of climate change on Great Plains fisheries will involve temperature and hydrology. Increased temperature could expand suitable habitat for fish with preferred temperatures between 10 and 27.5 degree C by 2.5 times base conditions. Reductions in precipitation will reduce river flows and lake levels, and an overall reduction in habitat for the most preferred species is expected. Indirect effects stem from human responses to climate change, and streams, wetlands and coastal zones will likely bear the brunt of such activity. More river systems may be damned or channelized, which could lead to increases in eutrophication or pollution, most severely affecting the preferred white fishes. Geographical shifts of species in response to climate change will likely favour black fish over grey fish over white fish, and when longitudinal or lateral movement is blocked, local extinctions may occur. 22 refs., 1 tab

  9. First Results from HOTSPOT: The Snake River Plain Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Shervais

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available HOTSPOT is an international collaborative effort to understand the volcanic history of the Snake River Plain (SRP. The SRP overlies a thermal anomaly, the Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot, that is thought to represent a deep-seated mantle plume under North America. Theprimary goal of this project is to document the volcanic and stratigraphic history of the SRP, which represents the surface expression of this hotspot, and to understand how it affected the evolution of continental crust and mantle. An additional goal is to evaluate the geothermal potential of southern Idaho.Project HOTSPOT has completed three drill holes. (1 The Kimama site is located along the central volcanic axis of the SRP; our goal here was to sample a long-term record of basaltic volcanism in the wake of the SRP hotspot. (2 The Kimberly site is located near the margin of the plain; our goal here was to sample a record of high-temperaturerhyolite volcanism associated with the underlying plume. This site was chosen to form a nominally continuous record of volcanism when paired with the Kimama site. (3 The Mountain Home site is located in the western plain; our goal here was to sample the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition in lake sediments at this site and to sample older basalts that underlie the sediments.We report here on our initial results for each site, and on some of the geophysical logging studies carried out as part of this project.

  10. Evaluation of a method of assessing faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, S.C.; Sullivan, P.B.; McHugh, K.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Childhood constipation is common and assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and commonly used to assess constipation. The role of radiography with the use of a simple scoring system has not been fully evaluated. Objective. To assess the reliability of scoring faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children with intractable constipation. Materials and methods. Plain abdominal radiographs from 33 constipated and 67 control children were independently assessed by three observers on two separate occasions. A scoring system was devised with scores from 0 (no stool) to 5 (gross faecal loading with bowel dilatation) in three areas of the colon, giving a total score of 0-15. Results. There were significant differences between the scores of the constipated and control radiographs for each observer (P = 0.05). There was no intra-observer variation (P = 0.12-0.69), but significant inter-observer variation was demonstrated (P = 0.00). Conclusions. We have found this scoring system to be a clinically useful and a reproducible tool in assessing childhood constipation. Assessment of faecal loading is subjective and varies between observers, although one observer will consistently score faecal loading on the same radiograph on successive occasions. To limit exposure to ionising radiation, we recommend that radiography be reserved for the investigation of intractable constipation, and its accuracy is improved if all radiographs are scored by the same observer. (orig.)

  11. Estimating occurrence and detection probabilities for stream-breeding salamanders in the Gulf Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Jennifer Y.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Qualls, Carl P.

    2017-01-01

    Large gaps exist in our knowledge of the ecology of stream-breeding plethodontid salamanders in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Data describing where these salamanders are likely to occur along environmental gradients, as well as their likelihood of detection, are important for the prevention and management of amphibian declines. We used presence/absence data from leaf litter bag surveys and a hierarchical Bayesian multispecies single-season occupancy model to estimate the occurrence of five species of plethodontids across reaches in headwater streams in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Average detection probabilities were high (range = 0.432–0.942) and unaffected by sampling covariates specific to the use of litter bags (i.e., bag submergence, sampling season, in-stream cover). Estimates of occurrence probabilities differed substantially between species (range = 0.092–0.703) and were influenced by the size of the upstream drainage area and by the maximum proportion of the reach that dried. The effects of these two factors were not equivalent across species. Our results demonstrate that hierarchical multispecies models successfully estimate occurrence parameters for both rare and common stream-breeding plethodontids. The resulting models clarify how species are distributed within stream networks, and they provide baseline values that will be useful in evaluating the conservation statuses of plethodontid species within lotic systems in the Gulf Coastal Plain.

  12. Cigarette packaging and health warnings: the impact of plain packaging and message framing on young smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Niaura, Raymond S; Evans, W Douglas; Hammond, David; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the impact of pictorial cigarette-warning labels, warning-label message framing and plain cigarette packaging, on young adult smokers' motivation to quit. Smokers aged 18-30 years (n=740) from a consumer research panel were randomised to one of four experimental conditions where they viewed online images of four cigarette packs with warnings about lung disease, cancer, stroke/heart disease and death, respectively. Packs differed across conditions by warning-message framing (gain vs loss) and packaging (branded vs plain). Measures captured demographics, smoking behaviour, covariates and motivation to quit in response to cigarette packs. Pictorial warnings about lung disease and cancer generated the strongest motivation to quit across conditions. Adjusting for pretest motivation and covariates, a message framing by packaging interaction revealed gain-framed warnings on plain packs generated greater motivation to quit for lung disease, cancer and mortality warnings (ppackaging regulations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Assessment of the Effect of Fruit (Apple and Plain Yoghurt Consumption on Plaque pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyvand Moeiny

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, thanks to improvements in fruit yoghurt tastes, more tendencies are seen in their consumption especially among children. Therefore, their cariogenicity evaluation as healthy snacks is important. The goal of this study was the assessment of the consumption effect of two kinds of Iranian fruit (apple and plain yoghurts on dental plaque PH. Methods: In this experimental study, 10 healthy dentistry students were selected upon inclusion criteria. Plaque pH in the certain areas of the mouth was measured by microelectrode and digital pH meter. PH was measured at the baseline and intervals of 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes after eating test products: fruit yoghurt (apple and plain Yoghurt. For positive control group, just the baseline PH and at intervals of 2 and 5 min after swishing with 10% sucrose solutions were recorded. The results were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Lowest pH was obtained after fruit yoghurt consumption followed by plain yoghurt and %10 sucrose solution and the plaque PH difference was significant (P=0.05. Furthermore, time duration which remained below the critical pH was longer after consuming fruit yoghurt. Conclusion: Both kinds of yoghurts were considered cariogenic since plaque pH drop below critical points. Average of plaque pH after consuming fruit yoghurt was significantly lower in almost all the time intervals

  14. Chromium, Nickel and Manganese in the Groundwater Resources of Asadabad Plain, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Ghobadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Heavy metals are one of the most important environmental pollutants which agricultural and industrial activities and urban development increased their entry rate to the underground resources. This study aimed to investigate the concentration of chromium, nickel and manganese in groundwater resources in Asadabad plain. Materials & Methods: Sampling of groundwater done in 2015 autumn. In this study, according to the Cochran’s sample size formula, tote formula, totally 60 samples of groundwater of Asadabad plain were collected from 20 wells and after preparation stage with atomic device, elements concentration of samples is read. To analysis of data SPSS 19 with significant level of 0.50 is used. Results: The concentration average of Chromium, Nickel and Manganese equal to 0.044¬ ±0.016, 70.42±10.83 and 2.64±0.83 ppb. The comparison results of the concentration average of elements based on WHO and ISIRI standard shows the concentration average of elements is lower than standard level. Conclusions: Currently the groundwater resources of Asadabad plain are not polluted with heavy metals, but long-term excessive use of agricultural inputs and construction of polluting industries can cause a threat to groundwater resources in this area.

  15. Experimental evaluation of residual stresses produced by plain dents in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascotto, Jorge [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marques, Altino; Fonseca, Maria Cindra [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A dent means a permanent plastic deformation of the circular cross-section of the pipe. Dents are potentially danger for structural integrity of onshore and offshore pipelines, because it causes a local stress and strain concentration. It is also expected that residual stresses are introduced by the non-uniform plastic deformation. A plain dent is a dent which causes a smooth change in the curvature of the pipe wall that contains no wall thickness reductions (such as a gouge or a crack) or other defects or imperfections (such as a weld). This work presents an experimental evaluation of residual stresses intensification due to plain dents introduced through the same indentation process, in samples made of the same steel line pipe, commonly used in the pipeline industry. The residual stresses were measured in the longitudinal and circumferential directions in preselected points by X-ray diffraction technique, before indentation. After the samples have been dented, the residual stresses were measured once more at the same points, for comparison. All samples presented a similar behavior of the residual stresses due to induced plain dents, and the X-ray diffraction technique shows itself as an efficient methodology of stress measurement in pipelines. (author)

  16. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities.

  17. A southern African origin and cryptic structure in the highly mobile plains zebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Casper-Emil T; Albrechtsen, Anders; Etter, Paul D; Johnson, Eric A; Orlando, Ludovic; Chikhi, Lounes; Siegismund, Hans R; Heller, Rasmus

    2018-03-01

    The plains zebra (Equus quagga) is an ecologically important species of the African savannah. It is also one of the most numerous and widely distributed ungulates, and six subspecies have been described based on morphological variation. However, the within-species evolutionary processes have been difficult to resolve due to its high mobility and a lack of consensus regarding the population structure. We obtained genome-wide DNA polymorphism data from more than 167,000 loci for 59 plains zebras from across the species range, encompassing all recognized extant subspecies, as well as three mountain zebras (Equus zebra) and three Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi). Surprisingly, the population genetic structure does not mirror the morphology-based subspecies delineation, underlining the dangers of basing management units exclusively on morphological variation. We use demographic modelling to provide insights into the past phylogeography of the species. The results identify a southern African location as the most likely source region from which all extant populations expanded around 370,000 years ago. We show evidence for inclusion of the extinct and phenotypically divergent quagga (Equus quagga quagga) in the plains zebra variation and reveal that it was less divergent from the other subspecies than the northernmost (Ugandan) extant population.

  18. Tobacco product developments in the Australian market in the 4 years following plain packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; White, Sarah; Lindorff, Kylie; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-10-09

    This paper aimed to identify continued and emerging trends in the Australian tobacco market following plain packaging implementation, over a period of substantial increases in tobacco taxes. Since 2012, our surveillance activities (including review of trade product and price lists, ingredient reports submitted by tobacco companies to government and monitoring of the retail environment) found several trends in the factory-made cigarette market. These include the continued release of extra-long and slim cigarettes and packs with bonus cigarettes, particularly in the mainstream and premium market segments; new menthol capsule products; other novel flavourings in cigarettes; filter innovations including recessed and firm filters; continued use of evocative and descriptive product names; the proliferation of the new super-value market segment; and umbrella branding, where new products are introduced within established brand families. Several similar trends were also observed within the smoking tobacco market. While not all of these trends were new to the Australian market at the time of plain packaging implementation, their continued and increased use is notable. Plain packaging legislation could be strengthened to standardise cigarette and pack size, restrict brand and variant names, and ban features such as menthol capsules and filters innovations that provide novelty value or that may provide false reassurance to smokers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Radiological verification survey results at the Pompton Plains Railroad Spur, Pequannock, New Jersey (PJ008V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action during 1993 at the Pompton Plains railroad spur and eight vicinity properties in the Wayne and Pequannock Townships in New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), formerly the W.R. Grace facility. The property at the Pompton Plains Railroad Spur, Pequannock, New Jersey is one of these vicinity properties. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted between September and December 1993, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at 1 meter, beta-gamma scans, and the collection of soil and debris samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the property at the Pompton Plains railroad spur were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on the results of the remedial action data and confirmed by the verification survey data, the portions of the site that had been remediated during this action successfully meet the DOE remedial action objectives

  20. Energy Profiles of an Agricultural Frontier: The American Great Plains, 1860-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunfer, Geoff; Watson, Andrew; MacFadyen, Joshua

    2018-04-01

    Agro-ecosystem energy profiles reveal energy flows into, within, and out of U.S. Great Plains farm communities across 140 years. This study evaluates external energy inputs such as human labor, machinery, fuel, and fertilizers. It tracks the energy content of land produce, including crops, grazed pasture, and firewood, and also accounts unharvested energy that remains available for wildlife. It estimates energy redirected through livestock feed into draft power, meat, and milk, and estimates the energy content of final produce available for local consumption or market sale. The article presents energy profiles for three case studies in Kansas in 1880, 1930, 1954, and 1997. Two energy transformations occurred during that time. The first, agricultural colonization , saw farm communities remake the landscape, turning native grassland into a mosaic of cropland and pasture, a process that reduced overall landscape energy productivity. A second energy transition occurred in the mid-twentieth century, characterized by fossil fuel energy imports. That outside energy raised harvested and unharvested energy flows, reused biomass energy, and also final produce. This socio-ecological transition increased landscape energy productivity by 33 to 45 percent above pre-settlement conditions in grain-growing regions. These energy developments were not uniform across the plains. Variations in rainfall and soil quality constrained or favored energy productivity in different places. The case studies reveal the spatial variation of energy profiles in Great Plains agro-ecosystems, while the longitudinal approach tracks temporal change.

  1. Moored current meter data from the Madeira Abyssal Plain (GME). 1. deployment (1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    Near bottom current have been measured at three closely spaced sites in the N.E. Atlantic for 13 months. Locations were selected in the Great Meteor East study site area, near 31 0 30'N 25 0 W, one on the abyssal plain, one on top of a small abyssal hill about 400 m high and one on its flank just above the plain. Current meters were moored 10, 100, and 1000 m above the local bottom (5438 m, 5398 m and 4999 m) in January 1984 and recovered in February 1985. This report displays the characteristics of the currents in numerous tables and figures. In the mean they ar found to be very weak and though adjacent moorings are separated by only 12 km and 27 km the year-long current directions differ radically. Current variations are principally due to semi-diurnal tides, inertial oscillations and eddies the latter of which migrate over the moorings. The tidal energy meets expectations as does the eddy energy with magnitude 2-3 cm 2 s -2 . Horizontal (isopycnal) diffusivity is estimated as about 2x10 2 m 2 s -1 . Currents 10 m above the bottom exceed 10 cm/s least frequently on the plain and most frequently at the hill-foot. The influence of the hill is surprisingly large. At all three sites the strongest currents are found near the sea bed. Speeds also show a Weibull distribution and rough 50 year return currents are inferred. (author)

  2. MRI of atlantoaxial subluxation; Correlating with plain X-ray films and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikawa, Yuko; Nishi, Naoko; Saitoh, Yoko; Akimura, Rumiko; Sasaki, Taisuke; Yodono, Hiraku; Takekawa, Shoichi; Harata, Seikou; Sannohe, Akio (Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-04-01

    Twenty-three patients with atlantoaxial subluxation (14 with rheumatoid arthritis, one each with rheumatoid arthritis and Arnold-Chiari malformation, os odontoideum, Klippel-Feil syndrome, trauma, and 5 with unknown causes) were evaluated with MRI. We used 0.5 T MRI unit (RESONA; Yokogawa Medical Systems, Japan) and 1.5 T MRI unit (SMT 150; Shimazu, Japan) with head or flexible coils. We compared the usefulness of MRI with those of plain X-ray films and CT regarding several points. MRI provided better image of the soft tissue mass around the odontoid process, compression of cord or subarachnoid space than plain X-ray films and CT. Atlanto-odontoid distance on MRI is nearer to that on plain X-ray films than CT. MRI is useful in analyzing the anatomic details such as transverse ligament, alar ligament, tectorial membrane and thickened synovium. Both MRI and CT provided detailed bony changes. High correlation was observed between MRI grading of cord compression and the degree of myelopathy. (author).

  3. Standard heart and vessel size on plain films of normal children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoever, B.

    1986-01-01

    Standards of heart size, i.e. heart diameters and heart volume of normal children aged 4-15 years were obtained. In all cases requiring exact heart size determination, heart volume calculation is mandatory in children as well as in adults. Statistical work to date has provided precise calculation of heart volume plain films in the upright position. Additional plain films in prone position are unnecessary because no evident orthostatic influence on heart volume in children can be found. Percentiles of normal heart volume related to body weight representing the best correlation to the individual data are given as well as percentiles related to age. Furthermore ratios of normal vessel size to the height of the 8sup(th) thoracic vertebral body, measured on the same plain film, are given. In addition the ratio of upper to lower lung vessel size is calculated. These ratios are useful criteria in estimating normal vessel size and also in cases with increased pulmonary venous pressure. (orig.) [de

  4. Pharmacodynamic Comparison of Rocuronium Bromide between Patients from the Plateau Area and from the Plain Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Huang, Jianxin; Li, Peng; Ou, Zhiyan; Hou, Jing

    2016-06-23

    We aimed to conduct a pharmacodynamic comparison of rocuronium bromide between patients from the plateau area and from the plain area. A total of 104 patients who received laparoscopic cholecystectomy in Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital and Aba Autonomous Prefecture People's Hospital from October 2015 to December 2015 were included in this study. Among them, 46 patients were from the plateau area and 58 were from the plain area. Both groups received total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with a dose of 0.6mg/kg rocuronium bromide during induction. In the meantime, neuromuscular block was monitored using a train-of-four (TOF) stimulation mode. The onset time (time to achieve the lowest TOF value after the injection of rocuronium bromide), duration of maximal neuromuscular block (duration of lowest T1 value), time to 25% recovery, time to 75% recovery, recovery index (time from 25% recovery to 75% recovery), time to extubation, length of stay in Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) and muscle strength upon PACU discharge were all recorded. The onset time, time to 25% recovery, time to 75% recovery and time to extubation were all significantly prolonged in patients from the plateau area after receiving one single dose of rocuronium bromide (P0.05). Compared to patients from the plain area, patients from the plateau area showed prolonged onset time of rocuronium bromide, reduced metabolic capabilities and longer duration of muscular relaxation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the applicability of the SWAT model in an arid piedmont plain oasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong; Li, Changyou; Zhang, Chengfu; Shi, Xiaohong; Bourque, Charles P-A; Zhao, Shengnan

    2016-01-01

    Hetao Oasis is located in a typical piedmont alluvial plain bounded by the Langshan Mountain Range in the north, desert in the west, and the Yellow River in the south. Agricultural activities within the oasis significantly impact the hydrological cycle and water quality in downstream locations. The research uses the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for a piedmont plain by defining the watershed boundary as coinciding with the natural mountain ridge, the border between the oasis and the desert, and the Yellow River. The model simulates water discharge with coefficient of determination and a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency of 0.78 and 0.62 during model calibration, and 0.75 and 0.69 during model validation, suggesting that delineation of the watershed as carried out in this research is suitable for piedmont plain topography. From the results, the mountains contribute 28.4% to the water discharge at the outlet of the watershed, and water-use efficiency of irrigated water is about 40%, which is consistent with field-based measurements. Methodologies used in delineating watershed boundaries and parameterizing SWAT provide a solid foundation for water balance studies in other regions of the world with similar topography.

  6. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities. PMID:26907560

  7. Qualitative zoning of groundwater for drinking purposes in Lenjan plain using GQI method through GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohebbi Tafreshi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new method has been presented specifically for zoning the quality of groundwater for drinking purposes; this method is the groundwater quality index (GQI method. The present research used the GQI method to qualitatively zoning of the Lenjan groundwater for drinking purposes. Methods: Three phases were applied in this research. In the first phase, working on the quality data of 38 wells within the studied plain, the raster map of quality concentration parameters, including pH, TDS, Cl, SO4, Ca, Mg, and Na parameters, was provided by interpolation using the kriging method in the ArcGIS software. In the second phase, the mentioned maps were standardized so that various bits of data can follow a common standard and scale. In the third phase, weight was applied to each standardized map, and ultimately the classification map for each parameter was drawn. The final GQI map was created by combining the mentioned classification maps. Results: The GQI values for Lenjan plain were rated from the minimum (67.48 to the maximum (90.05. The results showed an average to acceptable level of quality for drinking water. Conclusion: According to the final map, the central and southern parts of Lenjan plain, which have acceptable GQI rankings, are the best zones from which to use groundwater for drinking purposes.

  8. Application of a radiotelemetric system to evaluate the performance of enteric coated and plain aspirin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, C Y; Oberle, R; Fleisher, D; Amidon, G L

    1986-05-01

    The bioavailability of enteric coated and plain aspirin tablets was studied in four beagle dogs. Blood sampling for enteric coated tablets was planned with the aid of a radiotelemetric system. The release of aspirin from its dosage form was detected by monitoring the change in intestinal pH. Aspirin and salicylic acid levels in plasma obtained from the enteric coated dosage form exhibited familiar concentration versus time absorption profiles. Variation in the plasma concentrations of these two compounds within each dog studied (four runs each) was relatively small when time zero was adjusted to the commencement of tablet dissolution. The plasma levels obtained from plain aspirin (three runs each), however, show atypical absorption. The estimated absolute bioavailability was 0.432 +/- 0.0213 and 0.527 +/- 0.0260 for enteric coated and plain aspirin, respectively. Other pharmacokinetic parameters for these two dosage forms such as the highest observed plasma concentration (Cmax) (10.9 +/- 0.535 microgram/mL versus 13.6 +/- 1.88 micrograms/mL) and the time to reach Cmax (tmax) (26.6 +/- 1.94 min versus 31.0 +/- 7.04 min) agree well. The mean values for gastric emptying time, in vivo coating dissolution time, and in vivo disintegration/dissolution time of the tablet core for enteric coated aspirin are 48.7 +/- 7.23 min, 44.3 +/- 3.80 min, and 34.7 +/- 2.04 min, respectively.

  9. Long-term change in the megabenthos of the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billett, D. S. M.; Bett, B. J.; Rice, A. L.; Thurston, M. H.; Galéron, J.; Sibuet, M.; Wolff, G. A.

    A radical change in the abundance of invertebrate megafauna on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain is reported over a period of 10 years (1989-1999). Actiniarians, annelids, pycnogonids, tunicates, ophiuroids and holothurians increased significantly in abundance. However, there was no significant change in wet weight biomass. Two holothurian species, Amperima rosea and Ellipinion molle, increased in abundance by more than two orders of magnitude. Samples from the Porcupine Abyssal Plain over a longer period (1977-1999) show that prior to 1996 these holothurian species were always a minor component of the megafauna. From 1996 to 1999 A. rosea was abundant over a wide area of the Porcupine Abyssal Plain indicating that the phenomenon was not a localised event. Several dominant holothurian species show a distinct trend in decreasing body size over the study period. The changes in megafauna abundance may be related to environmental forcing (food supply) rather than to localised stochastic population variations. Inter-annual variability and long-term trends in organic matter supply to the seabed may be responsible for the observed changes in abundance, species dominance and size distributions.

  10. Deciphering storm-event runoff behavior in a coastal plain watershed using chemical and physical hydrograph separation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Callahan; Austin E. Morrison

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting storm-event runoff in coastal plain watersheds is challenging because of the space- and time-variable nature of different sources that contribute to stream flow. These flow vectors and the magnitude of water flux is dependent on the pre-storm soil moisture (as estimated from depth to water table) in the lower coastal plain (LCP) region.

  11. Managed aquifer recharge experiences with shallow wells: first analysis of the experimental activities in the high Vicenza plain (Northern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Altissimo; Silvia Bertoldo; Francesca Campagnolo; Giancarlo Gusmaroli; Teresa Muraro; Andrea Sottani

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, groundwater resources of the high Vicenza plain were subjected to an increasing extraction rate and, at the same time, to a lower quantity of groundwater recharge. The result is a decreasing flow from the plain springs and a high reduction in piezometric levels of the middle and lower Venetian aquifers. In order to restore the balance of groundwater resources in the Vicenza area, the Vicenza Province has promoted experimental activities aimed to increase the recharge of the...

  12. Perceptions of plain packaging among young adult roll-your-own smokers in France: a naturalistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallopel-Morvan, Karine; Moodie, Crawford; Eker, Figen; Beguinot, Emmanuelle; Martinet, Yves

    2015-03-01

    We explored, for the first time, young adult roll-your-own smokers' response to using plain packaging in real-world settings. Naturalistic research was employed, where 133 French young adult smokers (18-25 years of age) used plain roll-your-own packs for 10 days; the plain packs they were provided with contained their usual brand of rolling tobacco and displayed the name of their usual brand. Participants were recruited in five cities in France (Paris, Marseille, Metz, Nantes, Toulouse) and completed two questionnaires to measure their response to their own branded packs and the plain packs. Both questionnaires assessed pack perceptions, brand attachment, product perceptions (eg, taste, quality, natural), feelings about smoking (satisfying, pleasurable), feelings when using the pack in front of others (embarrassment, image), warning response (credibility, awareness of risks) and smoking-related behaviour (eg, consumption, quitting). Compared to their own fully branded packs, plain packs were associated with less positive pack and product perceptions, lower brand attachment and less positive feelings about smoking and feelings when using the pack in front of others. Participants were also more likely to report feeling like reducing consumption and quitting when using the plain packs, and more likely to feel like missing out on rolling a cigarette. No significant differences between the two pack types (plain and branded) were found in terms of credibility of warnings and perceptions of level of tar. The study suggests that the impacts of plain packaging for roll-your-own cigarette smokers are the same as for smokers of factory-made cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Relation to Energy and Nutrient Intake at Full-Service Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruopeng An

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drinking plain water, such as tap or bottled water, provides hydration and satiety without adding calories. We examined plain water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption in relation to energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants. Methods: Data came from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, comprising a nationally-representative sample of 2900 adults who reported full-service restaurant consumption in 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regressions were performed to examine the differences in daily energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants by plain water and SSB consumption status, adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Results: Over 18% of U.S. adults had full-service restaurant consumption on any given day. Among full-service restaurant consumers, 16.7% consumed SSBs, 2.6% consumed plain water but no SSBs, and the remaining 80.7% consumed neither beverage at the restaurant. Compared to onsite SSB consumption, plain water but no SSB consumption was associated with reduced daily total energy intake at full-service restaurants by 443.4 kcal, added sugar intake by 58.2 g, saturated fat intake by 4.4 g, and sodium intake by 616.8 mg, respectively. Conclusion: Replacing SSBs with plain water consumption could be an effective strategy to balance energy/nutrient intake and prevent overconsumption at full-service restaurant setting.

  14. Patients with liver FNH and HCC patients with negative AFP: plain and dynamic enhanced MRI and CT findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Mingtong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate plain and dynamic enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computed tomography (CT findings in patients with focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients with negative alpha-fetoprotein (AFP. MethodsA statistical analysis was performed on the clinical data of 124 cases of liver tumor admitted to Beijing Miyun County Hospital from April 2012 to April 2014. ResultsFifty-five of the 74 patients with FNH underwent CT examination, among whom 38 patients received three-phase dynamic enhanced scan and 16 received only plain scan; 62 cases had plain and enhanced MRI with the application of contrast agent Gd-BOPTA in 42 patients. Among the 50 HCC patients with negative AFP, CT examination was performed in 40 and 10 only had plain scan; 46 patients received plain and enhanced MRI with the use of contrast agent Gd-BOPTA in 30. Delayed scan after 1-2 h demonstrated low signal in 30 lesions of the 30 cases. ConclusionFor patients with liver FNH and AFP-negative HCC patients, their plain and dynamic enhanced MRI and CT scan have respective characteristics. A combination of multiple examination methods can significantly improve diagnostic yield of the two diseases.

  15. Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Relation to Energy and Nutrient Intake at Full-Service Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng

    2016-05-04

    Drinking plain water, such as tap or bottled water, provides hydration and satiety without adding calories. We examined plain water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in relation to energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants. Data came from the 2005-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, comprising a nationally-representative sample of 2900 adults who reported full-service restaurant consumption in 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regressions were performed to examine the differences in daily energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants by plain water and SSB consumption status, adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Over 18% of U.S. adults had full-service restaurant consumption on any given day. Among full-service restaurant consumers, 16.7% consumed SSBs, 2.6% consumed plain water but no SSBs, and the remaining 80.7% consumed neither beverage at the restaurant. Compared to onsite SSB consumption, plain water but no SSB consumption was associated with reduced daily total energy intake at full-service restaurants by 443.4 kcal, added sugar intake by 58.2 g, saturated fat intake by 4.4 g, and sodium intake by 616.8 mg, respectively. Replacing SSBs with plain water consumption could be an effective strategy to balance energy/nutrient intake and prevent overconsumption at full-service restaurant setting.

  16. Environmental changes in the central Po Plain (northern Italy) due to fluvial modifications and anthropogenic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Mauro

    2002-05-01

    The fluvial environment of the central Po Plain, the largest plain in Italy, is discussed in this paper. Bounded by the mountain chains of the Alps and the Apennines, this plain is a link between the Mediterranean environment and the cultural and continental influences of both western and eastern Europe. In the past decades, economic development has been responsible for many changes in the fluvial environment of the area. This paper discusses the changes in fluvial dynamics that started from Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene due to distinct climatic changes. The discussion is based on geomorphological, pedological, and archaeological evidences and radiocarbon dating. In the northern foothills, Late Pleistocene palaeochannels indicate several cases of underfit streams among the northern tributaries of the River Po. On the other hand, on the southern side of the Po Plain, no geomorphological evidence of similar discharge reduction has been found. Here, stratigraphic sections, together with archaeological remains buried under the fluvial deposits, show a reduction in the size of fluvial sediments after the 10th millennium BC. During the Holocene, fluvial sedimentation became finer, and was characterised by minor fluctuations in the rate of deposition, probably related to short and less intense climatic fluctuations. Given the high rate of population growth and the development of human activities since the Neolithic Age, human influence on fluvial dynamics, especially since the Roman Age, prevailed over other factors (i.e., climate, tectonics, vegetation, etc.). During the Holocene, the most important changes in the Po Plain were not modifications in water discharge but in sediment. From the 1st to 3rd Century AD, land grants to war veterans caused almost complete deforestation, generalised soil erosion, and maximum progradation of the River Po delta. At present, land abandonment in the mountainous region has led to reafforestation. Artificial channel control in the

  17. Buried paleoindian-age landscapes in stream valleys of the central plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study of late-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Central Plains documented widespread, deeply buried paleosols that represent Paleoindian-age landscapes in terrace fills of large streams (> 5th order), in alluvial fans, and in draws in areas of western Kansas with a thick loess mantle. Alluvial stratigraphic sections were investigated along a steep bio-climatic gradient extending from the moist-subhumid forest-prairie border of the east-central Plains to the dry-subhumid and semi-arid shortgrass prairie of the west-central Plains. Radiocarbon ages indicate that most large streams were characterized by slow aggradation accompanied by cumulic soil development from ca. 11,500 to 10,000??14C yr B.P. In the valleys of some large streams, such as the Ninnescah and Saline rivers, these processes continued into the early Holocene. The soil-stratigraphic record in the draws of western Kansas indicates slow aggradation punctuated by episodes of landscape stability and pedogenesis beginning as early as ca. 13,300??14C yr B.P. and spanning the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. The development record of alluvial fans in western Kansas is similar to the record in the draws; slow aggradation was punctuated by multiple episodes of soil development between ca. 13,000 and 9000??14C yr B.P. In eastern Kansas and Nebraska, development of alluvial fans was common during the early and middle Holocene, but evidence shows fan development as early as ca. 11,300??14C yr B.P. Buried soils dating between ca. 12,600 and 9000??14C yr B.P. were documented in fans throughout the region. In stream valleys across the Central Plains, rapid alluviation after ca. 9000??14C yr B.P. resulted in deeply buried soils that may harbor Paleoindian cultural deposits. Hence, the paucity of recorded stratified Paleoindian sites in the Central Plains is probably related to poor visibility (i.e., deep burial in alluvial deposits) instead of limited human occupation in the region during the terminal

  18. Investigating the limping child: The role of plain radiographs and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Amanda Jane

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective study was carried out on children between the ages of 1 and 6 years who had radiological investigations for an acute atraumatic limp. The study focused on children who had a whole leg X-ray but also included those having specific radiographic projections with a hip ultrasound scan. Children under the age of 1 year were excluded from the study as the possibility of non-accidental injury may warrant a whole leg X-ray in the absence of trauma. The study aimed to determine if there is a relationship between pain and radiological findings and to establish whether the absence of pain is predictive of a normal radiological investigation. The study also sought to compare the value of plain radiographs and ultrasound in the investigation of these children. Methods: Records and radiographs of children presenting to a Paediatric Accident and Emergency department were reviewed in order to identify those meeting the eligibility criteria. Results: A total of 107 limping children were included in the study. Forty-five (42%) were pain free, and 87 (85%) had normal radiological investigations. Five (5%) had unexpected findings; two (2%) on plain radiographs and three (3%) on ultrasound. Seventy children (65%) had complete resolution of symptoms within 1 week and four (4%) had positive findings on follow-up investigations. Conclusions: The findings in this study suggested that the association between pain and radiological findings was highly significant (P < 0.05). Plain radiographs and possibly ultrasound scan of the hips in a limping child who is not experiencing any pain, can be deferred until review, and it is not likely to be detrimental to the management of that child. Furthermore, plain radiographs for those children who are experiencing pain on physical examination can be limited to the affected area. If the pain is in the hip joint, an ultrasound scan is more sensitive than plain radiographs (in %, 100:26.6) and would be the better investigation to

  19. Isolated syndesmotic injury in acute ankle trauma: Comparison of plain film radiography with 3 T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoennagel, B.P., E-mail: b.schoennagel@uke.uni-hamburg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Karul, M.; Avanesov, M.; Bannas, P.; Gold, G. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Großterlinden, L.G. [Department of Trauma-, Hand- and Reconstructive Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Rupprecht, M. [Department of Pediatric Orthopedics, Children' s Hospital Hamburg-Altona, Bleickenallee 38, 22763 Hamburg (Germany); Adam, G.; Yamamura, J. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Isolated syndesmotic injury is a frequent finding after acute ankle trauma. • Cut-off values and accuracy of plain film radiograph measurements were determined. • The TFCS and the MCS have the potential to detect isolated syndesmotic injury. • Appropriate cut-off values allow detection of isolated syndesmotic injury. • Only MRI reveals severity of isolated syndesmotic injury and concomitant injuries. - Abstract: Objectives: To determine cut-off values and the accuracy of plain film measurements for the detection of isolated syndesmotic injury after acute ankle trauma and to investigate MRI findings of concomitant ankle injury. Methods: Eighty-four consecutive patients with absent fracture in plain film radiographs were prospectively evaluated for isolated syndesmotic injury after acute ankle trauma. The tibiofibular clear space (TFCS), the tibiofibular overlap (TFO), and the medial clear space (MCS) were independently assessed in plain radiographs by two readers. MRI performed at 3 T within 24 h served as the reference standard. MRI was evaluated for syndesmotic injury, using a four-scale grading system (0 = normal syndesmosis, 1a = periligamentous edema, 1b = intraligamentous edema, 2 = partial rupture, 3 = complete rupture), and for concomitant ankle injury. Inter-observer variability for x-ray measurements was assessed using Bland–Altman diagrams. ROC analyses were performed to determine cut-off values and sensitivity and specificity for TFCS, TFO, and MCS. Results: Eleven of 84 patients (13.1%) revealed syndesmotic injury (Grade 2 or 3) according to MRI. Between patients with and without syndesmotic injury significantly different measurements were obtained for TFCS (p = 0.003) and MCS (p = 0.04). ROC derived cut-off values were 5.3 mm for TFCS, 2.8 mm for TFO, and 2.8 mm for MCS. Sensitivity and specificity was 82% and 75% for TFCS, 36% and 78% for TFO, and 73% and 59% for MCS. The bias and limits of agreement were −0.04 mm and [−1

  20. Cigarette brand diversity and price changes during the implementation of plain packaging in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Magdalena Opazo; Britton, John; Huang, Yue; Bogdanovica, Ilze

    2018-05-29

    Plain packaging of cigarettes appeared in the UK in July 2016 and was ubiquitous by May 2017. The change coincided with another legislative change, raising the minimum pack size from 10 to 20 cigarettes. Laws imposing plain packaging on cigarette packs remove another promotional route from tobacco companies but the effect of such laws on brand diversity, pricing, and sales volume is unknown. This study aimed to 1) describe and quantify changes in brand diversity, price segmentation and sales volumes and 2) estimate the association between the introduction of plain cigarette packaging and cigarette pricing in the UK. We used a natural experiment design to assess the impact of plain packaging legislation on brand diversity and cigarette prices. The data comprised a sample of 76% of sales of cigarettes in the UK between March 2013 and June 2017. United Kingdom MEASUREMENTS: Cigarette prices, number of brands and products, volumes of sales FINDINGS: During the period analysed, there was a slight decrease in the number of cigarette brands. There was also an initial increase observed in the number of cigarette products, mainly due to an increase in the number of products in packs of fewer than 20 cigarettes sold before July 2016, which was then followed by a rapid decrease in the number of products that coincided with the implementation of the new legislation. Cigarette sales volumes during this period did not deviate from the preceding secular trend, but prices rose substantially. Regression results showed that price per cigarette, regardless of pack size, was 5.0 (95% CI 4.8 to 5.3) pence higher in plain than in fully branded packs. For packs of 20 cigarettes, price increases were greater in the lower price quintiles, ranging from 2.6 (95% CI 2.4 to 2.7) GBP in the lowest to 0.3 (95% CI 0.3-0.4) GBP per pack in the highest quintile. The implementation of standardised packaging legislation in the UK, which included minimum pack sizes of 20, was associated with

  1. Isolated syndesmotic injury in acute ankle trauma: Comparison of plain film radiography with 3 T MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoennagel, B.P.; Karul, M.; Avanesov, M.; Bannas, P.; Gold, G.; Großterlinden, L.G.; Rupprecht, M.; Adam, G.; Yamamura, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Isolated syndesmotic injury is a frequent finding after acute ankle trauma. • Cut-off values and accuracy of plain film radiograph measurements were determined. • The TFCS and the MCS have the potential to detect isolated syndesmotic injury. • Appropriate cut-off values allow detection of isolated syndesmotic injury. • Only MRI reveals severity of isolated syndesmotic injury and concomitant injuries. - Abstract: Objectives: To determine cut-off values and the accuracy of plain film measurements for the detection of isolated syndesmotic injury after acute ankle trauma and to investigate MRI findings of concomitant ankle injury. Methods: Eighty-four consecutive patients with absent fracture in plain film radiographs were prospectively evaluated for isolated syndesmotic injury after acute ankle trauma. The tibiofibular clear space (TFCS), the tibiofibular overlap (TFO), and the medial clear space (MCS) were independently assessed in plain radiographs by two readers. MRI performed at 3 T within 24 h served as the reference standard. MRI was evaluated for syndesmotic injury, using a four-scale grading system (0 = normal syndesmosis, 1a = periligamentous edema, 1b = intraligamentous edema, 2 = partial rupture, 3 = complete rupture), and for concomitant ankle injury. Inter-observer variability for x-ray measurements was assessed using Bland–Altman diagrams. ROC analyses were performed to determine cut-off values and sensitivity and specificity for TFCS, TFO, and MCS. Results: Eleven of 84 patients (13.1%) revealed syndesmotic injury (Grade 2 or 3) according to MRI. Between patients with and without syndesmotic injury significantly different measurements were obtained for TFCS (p = 0.003) and MCS (p = 0.04). ROC derived cut-off values were 5.3 mm for TFCS, 2.8 mm for TFO, and 2.8 mm for MCS. Sensitivity and specificity was 82% and 75% for TFCS, 36% and 78% for TFO, and 73% and 59% for MCS. The bias and limits of agreement were −0.04 mm and [−1

  2. A study of soil organic carbon distribution and storage in the Northeast Plain of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Xi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Employing the Unit Soil Carbon Amount (USCA approach, soil carbon storage was calculated across the Northeast Plain of China based on the Multi-purpose Regional Geochemical Survey conducted in 2004–2006 (MRGS. The results indicated that the soil organic carbon (SOC storage in topsoil (0–0.2 m, subsoil (0–1 m and deep soil (0–1.8 m was 768.1 Mt, 2978.4 Mt and 3729.2 Mt with densities of 3327.8 t/km2, 12,904.7 t/km2 and 16,157.5 t/km2, respectively. These values were consistent with national averages, whereas the soil carbon densities showed a clear increasing trend from the southern area of the Northeast Plain (Liaoning, to the middle (Jilin and the northern Plain (Heilongjiang — particularly in terms of topsoil carbon density, which increased from 2284.2, to 3436.7 and 3861.5 t/km2, respectively. In comparison to carbon data obtained from the Second National Soil Survey in 1984–1986 (SNSS, the topsoil SOC storage values from the MRGS were found to have decreased by 320.59 Mt (29.4%, with an average annual decline of 16.0 Mt (l.73% over the 20 years. In the southern, middle and northern areas of the plain, soil carbon densities decreased by 1060.6 t/km2, 1646.4 t/km2 and 1300.2 t/km2, respectively, with an average value of 1389.0 t/km2 for the whole plain. These findings indicate that the decrease in soil carbon density varied according to the different ecosystems and land-use types. Therefore, ratios of soil carbon density were calculated in order to study the carbon dynamic balance between ecosystems, and to further explore distribution characteristics, as well as the sequestration potential of SOC.

  3. A comparison of native tallgrass prairie and plains bluestem forage systems for cow-calf production in the southern great plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S W; Phillips, W A; Volesky, J D; Buchanan, D

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare an introduced warm-season perennial grass (plains bluestem, Bothriochloa ischaemum) to native tallgrass prairie for cow-calf production. Three systems were used, two based on tallgrass prairie with two different forms of protein supplementation and one based on plains bluestem as the primary forage. The systems were as follows: 1) native tallgrass prairie with pelleted oilseed meal as the winter protein supplement (native-control); 2) native tallgrass prairie with limited access to wheat pasture as the winter protein supplement (native-wheat); and 3) plains bluestem with limited access to wheat pasture as the protein supplement (bluestem-wheat). Oilseed meal protein supplements were fed twice weekly. Cows grazing wheat pasture were allowed 6 h of grazing twice weekly. Ninety-nine cows per year were used over the 3-yr study. Cows were sired by either Charolais, Gelbvieh, Angus, or Hereford bulls out of commercial Angus-Hereford dams. Calves were sired by Simmental bulls. Calving and weaning rate increased over time but did not differ among systems or breed types. System did not influence the size or body condition score of cows or the performance of calves, but changes in the weight and condition scores of cows were greater on either native system than on the bluestem-wheat system. Cows from Charolais and Gelbvieh bulls were taller (P < 0.05), and heavier (P < 0.05), and weaned heavier (P < 0.05) calves than cows from Angus or Hereford bulls. The weight of cows on the bluestem-wheat system tended to decrease over time, whereas cows grazing on the native systems tended to gain weight over time. The native-control system was the most profitable system based on cow production. If excess hay produced from the bluestem-wheat system was sold as a cash crop, then this system was the most profitable. In general, we conclude that limit-grazing wheat pasture is a viable alternative to oilseed meal as protein supplement for wintering

  4. Holocene tectono-geomorphic evolution of parts of the Upper and Middle Gangetic plains, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Pitambar; Parkash, B.; Awasthi, A. K.; Acharya, Vivekanand

    2011-05-01

    Using multispectral scanning (MSS) images and digital elevation models (DEMs), 26 terrain morphological units were delineated in the study area between the Rapti and Kosi Rivers in the Gangetic plains. Based on the degree of soil development and the infrared stimulated luminescence chronology, these terrain morphological units have been grouped into six members of a morphostratigraphic sequence with ages ≤ 1.65, 1.65-5.3, 5.3-7.5, 7.5-8.5, 8.5-10, and > 10 Ka. Integrated use of geomorphic markers including different drainage patterns identified from MSS images, significant breaks in topographic profiles, terminal fans, and artifact terrain features (e.g., 'cliffs' and 'significant breaks in slopes') in DEMs/digital terrain models (DTMs) with highly exaggerated vertical dimensions were made to infer and map 20 nascent faults in the region between the Ghaghara and Kosi Rivers in the flat Gangetic plains. The three major tectonic blocks are; the upland Ghaghara-Rapti block of the Upper Gangetic Plain, and the Rapti-Gandak and Gandak-Kosi blocks of the Middle Gangetic Plain, marked by high rates of subsidence and sedimentation. The Ghaghara-Rapti block bounded by the incised Ghaghara and Rapti rivers is an upland region and is primarily overlain by > 10 Ka old soils. Subsequent activity along the NE-SW trending transverse normal faults led to deposition of young terminal fans. Southward tilt of the Ghaghara-Rapti block generated two E-W trending terraces on the left bank of the Ghaghara River. Southwestward tilting of the upper part of the Ghaghara-Rapti block led to development of the widest Old Ghaghara Plain and Rapti Floodplain in the SW direction. Northeastward tilting of the Rapti-Gandak block shifted the Gandak River from west to east over a distance of 80 km during the period from 10 to 8.5 Ka. Further compression from the SW caused development of four extensional normal faults. The activity of three faults between 5.7 and 1.0 Ka generated four terminal

  5. Estimating SGD flux in the Pingtung Plain coastal area by using Radon and Radium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Chang, Yao; Chieh Su, Chih

    2015-04-01

    In the past two decades, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important pathway to transport material into coastal area. Our study area is located at Pingtung Plain which is the second largest plain in Taiwan with three major rivers, including Gaoping, Donggang and Linbian Rivers, flow through the plain. The Gaoping River, which has the largest drainage area, flows throughout the central part of the plain. The Pingtung Plain composed by four aquifers in different depths (0, 50, 100, and 200 m) and each layer extends to coastal area. Groundwater is an important water resource for local agriculture and aquaculture. However, the long-term over-pumping induced subsidence problem makes salinization at some coastal area. Some previous studies pointed out the SGD accounts for 80% or more of the mass of freshwater in Fangshan coast, depends on salinity and stable isotopes research. In this study, the radioactive tracers, Radon (222Rn, T1/2=3.8 d) and short-lived Ra isotopes (223Ra, T1/2=11.4 d & 224Ra, T1/2=3.6 d) are used in tracing SGD off the Pingtung Plain. During 2013 to 2014, the terrestrial water samples were collected from Gaoping, Donggang, Linbian Rivers and springs in different seasons. We also conducted two coastal waters cruises by using R/V Ocean Researcher 3 (OR3-1768 and 1799 cruises in May and September 2014). Continuous 222Rn was measured by RAD7 equipped with RAD-AQUA system and large volume (20 L) seawater samples were collected by CTD/Rosette water sampler with Niskin sterile bottles. Water samples were flow through Mn-fiber (flow rate < 1 LPM) to concentrate the Ra isotopes, and counted via RaDeCC system. In spatial variation, our result shows the excess 224Ra in the downstream of Gaoping River (2.39 dpm 100L-1) is higher than upstream (1.09 dpm 100L-1). It indicates the groundwater input may play an important role at the downstream of Gaoping River. For temporal variation, excess 224Ra in the Gaoping River are higher in wet

  6. Plateaus and sinuous ridges as the fingerprints of lava flow inflation in the Eastern Tharsis Plains of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Orr, Tim R.; de Wet, Andrew P.; Zimbelman, James R.; Hamilton, Christopher W.; Brent Garry, W.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Williams, David A.

    2017-08-01

    The Tharsis Montes rift aprons are composed of outpourings of lava from chaotic terrains to the northeast and southwest flank of each volcano. Sinuous and branching channel networks that are present on the rift aprons suggest the possibility of fluvial processes in their development, or erosion by rapidly emplaced lavas, but the style of lava flow emplacement throughout rift apron development is not clearly understood. To better characterize the style of lava emplacement and role of fluvial processes in rift apron development, we conducted morphological mapping of the Pavonis Mons southwest rift apron and the eastern Tharsis plains using images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), Context Camera (CTX), Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) along with the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Precision Experiment Data Records (PEDRs) and gridded data. Our approach was to: (1) search for depositional fans at the slope break between the rift apron and adjacent low slope plains; (2) determine if there is evidence that previously formed deposits might have been buried by plains units; (3) characterize the Tharsis plains morphologies east of Pavonis Mons; and (4) assess their relationship to the rift apron units. We have not identified topographically significant depositional fans, nor did we observe evidence to suggest that plains units have buried older rift apron units. Flow features associated with the rift apron are observed to continue across the slope break onto the plains. In this area, the plains are composed of a variety of small fissures and low shield vents around which broad channel-fed and tube-fed flows have been identified. We also find broad, flat-topped plateaus and sinuous ridges mixed among the channels, tubes and vents. Flat-topped plateaus and sinuous ridges are morphologies that are analogous to those observed on the coastal plain of Hawai'i, where lava

  7. [Distribution Characteristics and Source of Fluoride in Groundwater in Lower Plain Area of North China Plain: A Case Study in Nanpi County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiao-le; Wang, Shi-qin; Zhao, Huan; Yuan, Rui-qiang

    2015-11-01

    There is an obvious regional contradiction between water resources and agricultural produce in lower plain area of North China, however, excessive fluorine in deep groundwater further limits the use of regional water resources. In order to understand the spatial distribution characteristics and source of F(-) in groundwater, study was carried out in Nanpi County by field survey and sampling, hydrogeochemical analysis and stable isotopes methods. The results showed that the center of low fluoride concentrations of shallow groundwater was located around reservoir of Dalang Lake, and centers of high fluoride concentrations were located in southeast and southwest of the study area. The region with high fluoride concentration was consistent with the over-exploitation region of deep groundwater. Point source pollution of subsurface drainage and non-point source of irrigation with deep groundwater in some regions were the main causes for the increasing F(-) concentrations of shallow groundwater in parts of the sampling sites. Rock deposition and hydrogeology conditions were the main causes for the high F(-) concentrations (1.00 mg x L(-1), threshold of drinking water quality standard in China) in deep groundwater. F(-) released from clay minerals into the water increased the F(-) concentrations in deep groundwater because of over-exploitation. With the increasing exploitation and utilization of brackish shallow groundwater and the compressing and restricting of deep groundwater exploitation, the water environment in the middle and east lower plain area of North China will undergo significant change, and it is important to identify the distribution and source of F(-) in surface water and groundwater for reasonable development and use of water resources in future.

  8. Comparison of Water and Nutrient Cycles in the North China Plain and U.S. High Plains related to Climate Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Pei, H.; Shen, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) and U.S. High Plains play critical roles in food production, which relies heavily on groundwater resources for irrigation and nutrients. Here we evaluate food production in terms of resource availability (water and nutrients) and impacts on resources (groundwater quantity and quality) within the context of climate forcing. Double cropping of corn and wheat in the NCP under intensive irrigation (80 - 90% of cropland) and massive N fertilization (384 kg/ha) resulted in total corn plus wheat yields of 13.4 kg/ha (2002 - 2011). In contrast, single cropping of corn on the USHP under less intensive irrigation (40% of cropland) and N fertilization (90 kg/ha) resulted in only 15% lower yield in the USHP (11.7 kg/ha) than in the NCP. However, irrigation essentially decouples crop production from climate extremes. Average corn and wheat yield in the NCP over the past three decades is not correlated with precipitation. Irrigated corn yield in the north and central USHP was actually higher during the recent 2012 drought by up to ~ 30% relative to the 30 year long-term mean yield whereas rainfed corn yield decreased by ~50% during the drought. The main impact of climate extremes on the aquifers is indirect through increased irrigation pumpage for crop production rather than direct through changes in recharge. Effects of crop production on groundwater quality should be much greater in the NCP because of ~4 times higher fertilizer application relative to that in the USHP. Field research experiments in the NCP indicate that much of this fertilizer application (> 200 kg N/ha) does not impact yield and could potentially leach into underlying aquifers. Projected groundwater depletion in these aquifers should result in a shift from intensive irrigation to more rainfed crop production, increasing vulnerability of crop production to climate extremes.

  9. Impacts of varying agricultural intensification on crop yield and groundwater resources: comparison of the North China Plain and US High Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Hongwei; Shen, Yanjun; Liu, Changming; Scanlon, Bridget R; Reedy, Robert C; Long, Di

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is often considered the primary approach to meet rising food demand. Here we compare impacts of intensive cultivation on crop yield in the North China Plain (NCP) with less intensive cultivation in the US High Plains (USHP) and associated effects on water resources using spatial datasets. Average crop yield during the past decade from intensive double cropping of wheat and corn in the NCP was only 15% higher than the yield from less intensive single cropping of corn in the USHP, although nitrogen fertilizer application and percent of cropland that was irrigated were both ∼2 times greater in the NCP than in the USHP. Irrigation and fertilization in both regions have depleted groundwater storage and resulted in widespread groundwater nitrate contamination. The limited response to intensive management in the NCP is attributed in part to the two month shorter growing season for corn to accommodate winter wheat than that for corn in the USHP. Previous field and modeling studies of crop yield in the NCP highlight over application of N and water resulting in low nitrogen and water use efficiencies and indicate that cultivars, plant densities, soil fertility and other factors had a much greater impact on crop yields over the past few decades. The NCP–USHP comparison along with previous field and modeling studies underscores the need to weigh the yield returns from intensive management relative to the negative impacts on water resources. Future crop management should consider the many factors that contribute to yield along with optimal fertilization and irrigation to further increase crop yields while reducing adverse impacts on water resources. (letter)

  10. Effects of plain package branding and graphic health warnings on adolescent smokers in the USA, Spain and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J Craig; Netemeyer, Richard G; Burton, Scot; Kees, Jeremy

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an experimental test of the effects of plain pack branding and graphic health warnings (GHWs) in three different countries for an important and vulnerable population, that is, adolescents who are experimenting with smoking. The effects of plain pack branding (logo present, logo absent), and graphic visual warning level (absent, low, medium, high) are studied experimentally for their impact on adolescent cigarette craving, evoked fear, pack feelings and thoughts of quitting in the USA, Spain and France. A total of 1066 adolescents who were experimenting with smoking served as participants in the study. A quota sample produced 375 respondents in the USA, 337 in Spain and 354 in France. Overall findings indicate that the GHWs were effective in impacting adolescent cigarette craving, evoked fear, pack feelings and thoughts of quitting. The plain pack effects were not as strong, yet reduced craving, increased fear, and decreased pack feelings for all three samples combined, and for US adolescent smokers individually, irrespective of the GHWs. For French adolescent smokers, plain pack effects for craving were limited to low/moderate GHW levels. For Spanish adolescent smokers, plain pack feeling effects were limited to the absence of the GHWs. The results show that plain packs can independently strengthen the more instantaneous, direct effects (short of quitting thoughts) found with the GHWs. Yet, the plain pack results were attenuated for Spanish and French adolescent smokers, who are currently exposed to GHWs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. [Secondary Full Title: Effects of high intensity interval training in plain and uphill regarding physical performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marterer, Natalie; Menz, Verena; Burtscher, Martin

    2018-04-05

     As the number of HIITs is increasing in competitive and non-competitive sports, the risk of injuries and overload is increasing. There are no scientific data to support specific recommendations in regard to intensity, duration, number of intervals and gradient for HIIT that result in improved muscular parameters in athletes. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare HIIT in plain and uphill exercise, with respect to exercise tolerance and improvements in performance (VO 2max and 800 m running time in the plain and uphill).  17 well-trained sport students (10 females, 7 males; Ø VO 2max : 53.7 ml/min/kg) were randomly assigned to the plain group (plain; GE) (n = 8) or the uphill group (hill, GB) (n = 9). In the four weeks of training, all subjects completed 14 HIIT sessions. Each session consisted of 8 × 2 min running at 90 - 95 % of the maximal heart rate (HR max ), separated by 2 min recovery periods (work/rest ratio: 1:1). Before the intervention phase, subjects performed treadmill spirometry, a 800 m field test in the plain, as well as an 800 m uphill field test to determine baseline performance. One week after the intervention period, all subjects completed a retest of all measurements and tests. After the intervention, all subjects completed a questionnaire by giving their level of perceived exertion during training, using the BORG scale.  In GE, three subjects dropped out of the study because of overtraining. In GB, two subjects did not complete the study because of time constraints. The evaluation of the perceived exertion of the training in flat terrain showed a trend (p = 0.08; t = - 1.96) towards being perceived as more exhausting then in hilly terrain. A four week HIIT showed significant improvements in VO 2max by 5.2 % (p = 0.02; t = - 2.76), and a reduction in the running time in the plain by 4.6 % (p = 0.01; t = 3.48) and uphill by 6.3 % (p = 0.02; t = 2.77). No

  12. Usefulness of ultrasonography in follow-up evaluation after Ilizarov procedure : comparison with plain radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Hoon; Jee, Sung Woo; Lee, Ho Won; Lee, Sung Moon; Kim, Jung Sik; Kim, Hong; Song, Kwang Soon; Woo, Sung Ku [Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of). School of Medicine; Cho, Kil Ho [Yeungnam Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of). School of Medicine

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the usefulness of ultrasonography in follow up evaluation after the Ilizarov procedure with that of plain radiography. We analyzed ultrasound findings in twelve patients who had undergone the Ilizarov procedure, and retrospectively compared the results with the findings of plain radiography. The procedure was performed due to post-traumatic limb deformity or non-union (nine of twelve patients), congenital pseudoarthrosis (one case), sequelae of poliomyelitis (one case), and short stature (one case). The patients` mean age was 29 years; eleven of twelve were male. Ten of twelve procedures were performed on the tibia and two on the femur. After 7-10 days, distraction was initiated at a rate of 0.25 mm four times a day. Ultrasonography was performed with a 5-10 MHz linear or convex transducer; new bone formation was defined as dotted or linear echogenic foci within a hypoechoic distraction gap. Initial ultrasonographic examination was performed 2-4 weeks after distraction, and the results were compared with those of plain radiography. Color doppler imaging was performed in three cases. After the Ilizarov bone lengthening procedure, ultrasound appears to be useful for follow-up examination. New bone formation, as well as complications, can be detected earlier; it can indicate whether ultrasound-guided interventional procedure is required, and if combined with color doppler study, is able to detect the periosteal blood supply. Further evaluation of the clinical significance of preserved periosteal blood supply seems however, to be needed. (author). 18 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Integrating channel form and processes in the Gangetic plains rivers: Implications for geomorphic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, N. G.; Sinha, R.

    2018-02-01

    Geomorphic diversity at a variety of spatial and temporal scales has been studied in the western Ganga plains (WGP), India, to isolate the dominating factors at each scale that have the potential to cause major geomorphic change. The Ganga River and its major tributaries draining the WGP have been investigated in terms of longitudinal, cross-sectional, and planform morphology to assess the influence of potential controls such as climate, geology, topography, land use, hydrology, and sediment transport. These data were then compared with those from the rivers draining the eastern Ganga plains (EGP) to understand the geomorphic diversity across the Ganga plains and the causal factors. Our investigations suggest that in-channel geomorphic diversity over decadal scale in rivers with low width-to-depth (W/D) ratio is caused by periodic incision/aggradation, but it is driven by channel avulsion in rivers characterized by high W/D ratio. Similarly, planform (reach-scale) parameters such as sinuosity and braid-channel-ratio are influenced by intrinsic factors such as changes in hydrological conditions and morphodynamics (cutoffs, small-scale avulsion) that are in turn impacted by natural and human-induced factors. Finally, we have isolated the climatic and hydrologic effects on the longitudinal profile concavity of alluvial trunk channels in tectonically stable and unstable landscapes. We demonstrate that the rivers flowing through a tectonically stable landscape are graded in nature where higher discharge tends to create more concave longitudinal profiles compared to those in tectonically unstable landscape at 103-year scale.

  14. Using Land Surface Phenology to Detect Land Use Change in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L. H.; Henebry, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Northern Great Plains of the US have been undergoing many types of land cover / land use change over the past two decades, including expansion of irrigation, conversion of grassland to cropland, biofuels production, urbanization, and fossil fuel mining. Much of the literature on these changes has relied on post-classification change detection based on a limited number of observations per year. Here we demonstrate an approach to characterize land dynamics through land surface phenology (LSP) by synergistic use of image time series at two scales. Our study areas include regions of interest (ROIs) across the Northern Great Plains located within Landsat path overlap zones to boost the number of valid observations (free of clouds or snow) each year. We first compute accumulated growing degree-days (AGDD) from MODIS 8-day composites of land surface temperature (MOD11A2 and MYD11A2). Using Landsat Collection 1 surface reflectance-derived vegetation indices (NDVI, EVI), we then fit at each pixel a downward convex quadratic model linking the vegetation index to each year's progression of AGDD. This quadratic equation exhibits linearity in a mathematical sense; thus, the fitted models can be linearly mixed and unmixed using a set of LSP endmembers (defined by the fitted parameter coefficients of the quadratic model) that represent "pure" land cover types with distinct seasonal patterns found within the region, such as winter wheat, spring wheat, maize, soybean, sunflower, hay/pasture/grassland, developed/built-up, among others. Information about land cover corresponding to each endmember are provided by the NLCD (National Land Cover Dataset) and CDL (Cropland Data Layer). We use linear unmixing to estimate the likely proportion of each LSP endmember within particular areas stratified by latitude. By tracking the proportions over the 2001-2011 period, we can quantify various types of land transitions in the Northern Great Plains.

  15. Free air on plain film: Do we need a computed tomography too?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina V Solis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Standard teaching is that patients with pneumoperitoneum on plain X-ray and clinical signs of abdominal pathology should undergo urgent surgery. It is unknown if abdominal computed tomography (CT provides additional useful information in this scenario. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine whether or not CT scanning after identification of pneumoperitoneum on plain X-ray changes clinical management or outcomes. Settings and Design: Retrospective study carried out over 4 years at a tertiary care academic medical center. All patients in our acute care surgery database with pneumoperitoneum on plain X-ray were included. Patients who underwent subsequent CT scanning (CT group were compared with patients who did not (non-CT group. Statistical Analysis Used: The Wilcoxon rank-sum test, t-test and Fisher′s exact test were used as appropriate to compare the groups. Results: There were 25 patients in the non-CT group and 18 patients in the CT group. There were no differences between the groups at presentation. All patients in the non-CT group underwent surgery, compared with 83% (n = 15 of patients in the CT group (P = 0.066. 16 patients in the non-CT and 11 patients in the CT group presented with peritonitis and all underwent surgery regardless of group. For patients undergoing surgery, there were no differences in outcomes between the groups. After X-ray, patients undergoing CT required 328.0 min to arrive in the operating room compared with 136.0 min in the non-CT group (P = 0.007. Conclusions: In patients with pneumoperitoneum on X-ray and peritonitis on physical exam, CT delays surgery without providing any measurable benefit.

  16. Groundwater recharge and sustainability in the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M.

    2005-01-01

    Sustainable use of groundwater must ensure not only that the future resource is not threatened by overuse, but also that natural environments that depend on the resource, such as stream baseflows, riparian vegetation, aquatic ecosystems, and wetlands are protected. To properly manage groundwater resources, accurate information about the inputs (recharge) and outputs (pumpage and natural discharge) within each groundwater basin is needed so that the long-term behavior of the aquifer and its sustainable yield can be estimated or reassessed. As a first step towards this effort, this work highlights some key groundwater recharge studies in the Kansas High Plains at different scales, such as regional soil-water budget and groundwater modeling studies, county-scale groundwater recharge studies, as well as field-experimental local studies, including some original new findings, with an emphasis on assumptions and limitations as well as on environmental factors affecting recharge processes. The general impact of irrigation and cultivation on recharge is to appreciably increase the amount of recharge, and in many cases to exceed precipitation as the predominant source of recharge. The imbalance between the water input (recharge) to the High Plains aquifer and the output (pumpage and stream baseflows primarily) is shown to be severe, and responses to stabilize the system by reducing water use, increasing irrigation efficiency, adopting water-saving land-use practices, and other measures are outlined. Finally, the basic steps necessary to move towards sustainable use of groundwater in the High Plains are delineated, such as improving the knowledge base, reporting and providing access to information, furthering public education, as well as promoting better understanding of the public's attitudinal motivations; adopting the ecosystem and adaptive management approaches to managing groundwater; further improving water efficiency; exploiting the full potential of dryland and

  17. Wind-Eroded Crater Floors and Intercrater Plains, Terra Sabaea, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Rossman P.; Wray, James J.; Mest, Scott C.; Maxwell, Ted A.

    2018-02-01

    Ancient impact craters with wind-eroded layering on their floors provide a record of resurfacing materials and processes on early Mars. In a 54 km Noachian crater in Terra Sabaea (20.2°S, 42.6°E), eolian deflation of a friable, dark-toned layer up to tens of meters thick has exposed more resistant, underlying light-toned material. These layers differ significantly from strata of similar tone described in other regions of Mars. The light-toned material has no apparent internal stratification, and visible/near-infrared spectral analysis suggests that it is rich in feldspar. Its origin is ambiguous, as we cannot confidently reject igneous, pyroclastic, or clastic alternatives. The overlying dark-toned layer is probably a basaltic siltstone or sandstone that was emplaced mostly by wind, although its weak cementation and inverted fluvial paleochannels indicate some modification by water. Negative-relief channels are not found on the crater floor, and fluvial erosion is otherwise weakly expressed in the study area. Small impacts onto this crater's floor have exposed deeper friable materials that appear to contain goethite. Bedrock outcrops on the crater walls are phyllosilicate bearing. The intercrater plains contain remnants of a post-Noachian thin, widespread, likely eolian mantle with an indurated surface. Plains near Hellas-concentric escarpments to the north are more consistent with volcanic resurfacing. A 48 km crater nearby contains similar dark-over-light outcrops but no paleochannels. Our findings indicate that dark-over-light stratigraphy has diverse origins across Mars and that some dark-toned plains with mafic mineralogy are not of igneous origin.

  18. Taenia spp. infections in wildlife in the Bangweulu and Kafue flood plains ecosystems of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muma, J B; Gabriël, S; Munyeme, M; Munang'andu, H M; Victor, B; Dorny, P; Nalubamba, K S; Siamudaala, V; Mwape, K E

    2014-09-15

    Taenia spp. have an indirect life cycle, cycling between a definitive and an intermediate host with zoonotic species causing public health problems in many developing countries. During the course of 2 separate surveys in Zambia (2004 and 2009), the presence of Taenia larval stages (cysticerci) was examined in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis), Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithermani) and other wildlife species from the Kafue and Bangweulu flood plains. Examinations involved post-mortem inspection and serum specific antigen detection. The recovered cysts from seven carcasses were characterised using PCR and DNA sequence analysis. The overall proportion of infection in wildlife on post-mortem examination was 19.0% (95% CI: 9.1-29.0%). The proportion of infected wildlife based on post-mortem examinations in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 28.6% (95% CI: 13.3-43.9%), while the seroprevalence was estimated at 25.0% (95% CI: 2.9-47.1%). The seroprevalence for cattle in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 61.5% (95% CI: 42.0-81.0%) while that of Kafue lechwe in the same ecosystem was estimated at 66.6% (95% CI: 45.6-85.7%). Infection rates were higher in Kafue lechwe than in Black lechwe suggesting differences in the exposure patterns. The sequencing results indicated that none of the recovered cysts were either Taenia solium or Taenia saginata. We therefore conclude they most likely belong to a less studied (wildlife) Taenia species that requires further characterisation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in American Indian women of the Northern Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Maria C.; Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf; Patrick, Sarah; Ryschon, Tim; Linz, Laurie; Chauhan, Subhash C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Cervical cancer is the leading gynecological malignancy worldwide, and the incidence of this disease is very high in American Indian women. Infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for more than 95% of cervical squamous carcinomas. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to analyze oncogenic HPV infections in American Indian women residing in the Northern Plains. Methods Cervical samples were collected from 287 women attending a Northern Plains American Indian reservation outpatient clinic. DNA was extracted from the cervical samples and HPV specific DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the L1 consensus primer sets. The PCR products were hybridized with the Roche HPV Line Blot assay for HPV genotyping to detect 27 different low and high-risk HPV genotypes. The chi-square test was performed for statistical analysis of the HPV infection and cytology diagnosis data. Results Of the total 287 patients, 61 women (21.25%) tested positive for HPV infection. Among all HPV-positive women, 41 (67.2%) were infected with high-risk HPV types. Of the HPV infected women, 41% presented with multiple HPV genotypes. Additionally, of the women infected with oncogenic HPV types, 20 (48.7%) were infected with HPV 16 and 18 and the remaining 21 (51.3%) were infected with other oncogenic types (i.e., HPV59, 39, 73). Women infected with oncogenic HPV types had significantly higher (p=0.001) abnormal Papanicolaou smear tests (Pap test) compared to women who were either HPV negative or positive for non-oncogenic HPV types. The incidence of HPV infection was inversely correlated (pIndian women residing on Northern Plains Reservations. In addition, a significant proportion of the oncogenic HPV infections were other than HPV16 and 18. PMID:17659767

  20. Aquifer recharge from infiltration basins in a highly urbanized area: the river Po Plain (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetti, M.; Nghiem, S. V.; Sorichetta, A.; Stevenazzi, S.; Santi, E. S.; Pettinato, S.; Bonfanti, M.; Pedretti, D.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the extensive urbanization in the Po Plain in northern Italy, rivers need to be managed to alleviate flooding problems while maintaining an appropriate aquifer recharge under an increasing percentage of impermeable surfaces. During the PO PLain Experiment field campaign in July 2015 (POPLEX 2015), both active and under-construction infiltration basins have been surveyed and analyzed to identify appropriate satellite observations that can be integrated to ground based monitoring techniques. A key strategy is to have continuous data time series on water presence and level within the basin, for which ground based monitoring can be costly and difficult to be obtained consistently.One of the major and old infiltration basin in the central Po Plain has been considered as pilot area. The basin is active from 2003 with ground based monitoring available since 2009 and supporting the development of a calibrated unsaturated-saturated two-dimensional numerical model simulating the infiltration dynamics through the basin.A procedure to use satellite data to detect surface water change is under development based on satellite radar backscatter data with an appropriate incidence angle and polarization combination. An advantage of satellite radar is that it can observe surface water regardless of cloud cover, which can be persistent during rainy seasons. Then, the surface water change is correlated to the reservoir water stage to determine water storage in the basin together with integrated ground data and to give quantitative estimates of variations in the local water cycle.We evaluated the evolution of the infiltration rate, to obtain useful insights about the general recharge behavior of basins that can be used for informed design and maintenance. Results clearly show when the basin becomes progressively clogged by biofilms that can reduce the infiltration capacity of the basin by as much as 50 times compared to when it properly works under clean conditions.