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Sample records for plains ny usa

  1. The distribution of depleted uranium contamination in Colonie, NY, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, N.S., E-mail: nsl3@alumni.leicester.ac.uk [Department of Geology, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Chenery, S.R.N. [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Parrish, R.R. [Department of Geology, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-20

    Uranium oxide particles were dispersed into the environment from a factory in Colonie (NY, USA) by prevailing winds during the 1960s and '70s. Uranium concentrations and isotope ratios from bulk soil samples have been accurately measured using inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) without the need for analyte separation chemistry. The natural range of uranium concentrations in the Colonie soils has been estimated as 0.7-2.1 {mu}g g{sup -1}, with a weighted geometric mean of 1.05 {mu}g g{sup -1}; the contaminated soil samples comprise uranium up to 500 {+-} 40 {mu}g g{sup -1}. A plot of {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U against {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratios describes a mixing line between natural uranium and depleted uranium (DU) in bulk soil samples; scatter from this line can be accounted for by heterogeneity in the DU particulate. The end-member of DU compositions aggregated in these bulk samples comprises (2.05 {+-} 0.06) x 10{sup -3235}U/{sup 238}U, (3.2 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup -5236}U/{sup 238}U, and (7.1 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -6234}U/{sup 238}U. The analytical method is sensitive to as little as 50 ng g{sup -1} DU mixed with the natural uranium occurring in these soils. The contamination footprint has been mapped northward from site, and at least one third of the uranium in a soil sample from the surface 5 cm, collected 5.1 km NNW of the site, is DU. The distribution of contamination within the surface soil horizon follows a trend of exponential decrease with depth, which can be approximated by a simple diffusion model. Bioturbation by earthworms can account for dispersal of contaminant from the soil surface, in the form of primary uranium oxide particulates, and uranyl species that are adsorbed to organic matter. Considering this distribution, the total mass of uranium contamination emitted from the factory is estimated to be c. 4.8 tonnes.

  2. The High Plains Aquifer, USA: Groundwater development and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, K.F.; Litke, D.W.; McMahon, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    The High Plains Aquifer, located in the United States, is one of the largest freshwater aquifers in the world and is threatened by continued decline in water levels and deteriorating water quality. Understanding the physical and cultural features of this area is essential to assessing the factors that affect this groundwater resource. About 27% of the irrigated land in the United States overlies this aquifer, which yields about 30% of the nation's groundwater used for irrigation of crops including wheat, corn, sorghum, cotton and alfalfa. In addition, the aquifer provides drinking water to 82% of the 2.3 million people who live within the aquifer boundary. The High Plains Aquifer has been significantly impacted by human activities. Groundwater withdrawals from the aquifer exceed recharge in many areas, resulting in substantial declines in groundwater level. Residents once believed that the aquifer was an unlimited resource of high-quality water, but they now face the prospect that much of the water may be gone in the near future. Also, agricultural chemicals are affecting the groundwater quality. Increasing concentrations of nitrate and salinity can first impair the use of the water for public supply and then affect its suitability for irrigation. A variety of technical and institutional measures are currently being planned and implemented across the aquifer area in an attempt to sustain this groundwater resource for future generations. However, because groundwater withdrawals remain high and water quality impairments are becoming more commonplace, the sustainability of the High Plains Aquifer is uncertain.

  3. Late Pleistocene dune activity in the central Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J.A.; Swinehart, J.B.; Hanson, P.R.; Loope, D.B.; Goble, R.J.; Miao, X.; Schmeisser, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Stabilized dunes of the central Great Plains, especially the megabarchans and large barchanoid ridges of the Nebraska Sand Hills, provide dramatic evidence of late Quaternary environmental change. Episodic Holocene dune activity in this region is now well-documented, but Late Pleistocene dune mobility has remained poorly documented, despite early interpretations of the Sand Hills dunes as Pleistocene relicts. New optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from drill cores and outcrops provide evidence of Late Pleistocene dune activity at sites distributed across the central Great Plains. In addition, Late Pleistocene eolian sands deposited at 20-25 ka are interbedded with loess south of the Sand Hills. Several of the large dunes sampled in the Sand Hills clearly contain a substantial core of Late Pleistocene sand; thus, they had developed by the Late Pleistocene and were fully mobile at that time, although substantial sand deposition and extensive longitudinal dune construction occurred during the Holocene. Many of the Late Pleistocene OSL ages fall between 17 and 14 ka, but it is likely that these ages represent only the later part of a longer period of dune construction and migration. At several sites, significant Late Pleistocene or Holocene large-dune migration also probably occurred after the time represented by the Pleistocene OSL ages. Sedimentary structures in Late Pleistocene eolian sand and the forms of large dunes potentially constructed in the Late Pleistocene both indicate sand transport dominated by northerly to westerly winds, consistent with Late Pleistocene loess transport directions. Numerical modeling of the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum has often yielded mean monthly surface winds southwest of the Laurentide Ice Sheet that are consistent with this geologic evidence, despite strengthened anticyclonic circulation over the ice sheet. Mobility of large dunes during the Late Pleistocene on the central Great Plains may have been the result of

  4. Dendroclimatic potential of plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) from the Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, Jesse; Friedman, Jonathan; Meko, David; Touchan, Ramzi; Scott, Julian; Edmonson, Alan

    2014-01-01

    A new 368-year tree-ring chronology (A.D. 1643–2010) has been developed in western North Dakota using plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) growing on the relatively undisturbed floodplain of the Little Missouri River in the North Unit of Theodore Roosevelt National Park. We document many slow-growing living trees between 150–370 years old that contradict the common understanding that cottonwoods grow fast and die young. In this northern location, cottonwood produces distinct annual rings with dramatic interannual variability that strongly crossdate. The detrended tree-ring chronology is significantly positively correlated with local growing season precipitation and soil moisture conditions (r  =  0.69). This time series shows periods of prolonged low radial tree growth during the known droughts of the instrumental record (e.g. 1931–1939 and 1980–1981) and also during prehistory (e.g. 1816–1823 and 1856–1865) when other paleoclimate studies have documented droughts in this region. Tree rings of cottonwood will be a useful tool to help reconstruct climate, streamflow, and the floodplain history of the Little Missouri River and other northern river systems.

  5. Assessment and Molecular Characterization of Human Intestinal Parasites in Bivalves from Orchard Beach, NY, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tei, Freda F; Kowalyk, Steven; Reid, Jhenelle A; Presta, Matthew A; Yesudas, Rekha; Mayer, D C Ghislaine

    2016-03-29

    Bivalves have been shown to be carriers of the human intestinal parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Toxoplasma gondii. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of protozoan parasites in mollusks of New York City using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Four species of mollusks, Mya arenaria, Geukensia demissa, Crassostrea virginica, and Mytilis edulis, were collected from Orchard Beach, NY in the fall of 2014, totaling 159 specimens. Each individual mollusk was dissected to harvest the digestive gland, the mantle, the gills, the foot and the siphon. The tissues were assayed for the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii DNA by using primers that target parasite-specific genes. C. parvum was found at a prevalence of 50%, 11.3%, and 1%, respectively, in Mya arenaria, G. demissa, and Mytilis edulis. C. parvum DNA was detected in all the tissues of these bivalve species, except the gills. Furthermore, G. lamblia was detected in Mya arenaria, G. demissa, Crassostrea virginica and Mytilis edulis at a prevalence of 37.5%, 4.5%, 60%, and 20.6%, respectively, while T. gondii DNA was not detected.

  6. Seasonal sap flow of four Salix varieties growing on the Solvay wastebeds in Syracuse, NY, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirck, Jaconette; Volk, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    Sap flow of four shrub willow varieties was measured to study their potential use as an evapotranspiration (ET) cover on the Solvay wastebeds to reduce deep percolation and leaching of chloride. Stem and stand-level sap flow and crop coefficients (K(c)) were different among four willow varieties measured between early June and mid November 2006. Diameter and cross sectional area had a significant impact on stand level sap flow. Peak stand-level sap flow of 7 mm d(-1) occurred in June, due to coupling of the willow with the atmosphere, and not in July or August when peak LAI was measured. The coupling also resulted in high K(c) values of 3 in June and above 2 in October with an average of 1.1-1.3 for the entire season. Our measurements confirmed the potentials of shrub willow in ET cover applications in the northeastern USA. Total transpiration for the growing season ranged between 494 mm and 533 mm, which was about 45% of the precipitation in 2006. Our calculations showed a significant difference between peak season sap flow in June, July and August and sap flow over the course of the whole growing season, which showed the need for long-term measurements.

  7. Temporal Variation in the Stable Isotopic Composition of Water and Sediment in Seneca Lake, NY (USA): Implications for Paleoclimate Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, T.; Finkelstein, D. B.; Gunn, P.

    2014-12-01

    Paleoclimatic studies often use stratigraphic changes in the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of lacustrine carbonate to infer changes in water temperature and/or the δ18O of lake water. To better understand the environmental factors that influence the isotopic composition of lacustrine carbonates and the assumptions that need to be made to infer past changes in climate, we undertook a four-year study of the water chemistry and sediment trap material in Seneca Lake (NY, USA), a large, monomictic, glacial, hardwater lake. Sediment trap material collected weekly between May 2009 and 2013 together with isotopic monitoring of surface and bottom water allow for analysis of the controls on calcite precipitation in the lake. We show that calcite mainly accumulates in traps July through September when the lake water column is stratified and epilimnetic water temperature exceeds 20°C. Up to ~70% of the sediment is comprised of calcite during summer and only ~10% of the sediment is calcite during autumn, winter, and spring. The δ18O of Seneca Lake epilimnetic water varies by only ~0.6 ‰ throughout the year whereas the δ18O of bulk carbonate varies by as much as 2.4‰. As calcite precipitates in the eplimnion, the δ18O declines. Likely due to the large volume and residence time of water, the δ18O of Seneca Lake water appears to track changes in temperature. Our temperature reconstruction using the δ18O of calcite and epilimnetic lake water reveals that calcite was a reasonable proxy for lake surface temperature from July through September. During the remainder of the year, reconstructed temperatures exceed actual temperatures by as much as 18°C. Sediment resuspension (including calcite) during isothermal conditions may explain why calcite is a poor predictor of lake surface temperature in late autumn though spring. The δ18O of calcite in this lake records summer temperatures rather than year-round conditions.

  8. Groundwater recharge and chemical evolution in the southern High Plains of Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryar, Alan; Mullican, William; Macko, Stephen

    2001-11-01

    The unconfined High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer is the largest aquifer in the USA and the primary water supply for the semiarid southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico. Analyses of water and soils northeast of Amarillo, Texas, together with data from other regional studies, indicate that processes during recharge control the composition of unconfined groundwater in the northern half of the southern High Plains. Solute and isotopic data are consistent with a sequence of episodic precipitation, concentration of solutes in upland soils by evapotranspiration, runoff, and infiltration beneath playas and ditches (modified locally by return flow of wastewater and irrigation tailwater). Plausible reactions during recharge include oxidation of organic matter, dissolution and exsolution of CO2, dissolution of CaCO3, silicate weathering, and cation exchange. Si and 14C data suggest leakage from perched aquifers to the High Plains aquifer. Plausible mass-balance models for the High Plains aquifer include scenarios of flow with leakage but not reactions, flow with reactions but not leakage, and flow with neither reactions nor leakage. Mechanisms of recharge and chemical evolution delineated in this study agree with those noted for other aquifers in the south-central and southwestern USA. Résumé. L'aquifère libre des Hautes Plaines (Ogallala) est le plus vaste aquifère des états-Unis et la ressource de base pour l'eau potable de la région semi-aride du sud des Hautes Plaines du Texas et du Nouveau-Mexique. Des analyses de l'eau et des sols prélevés au nord-est d'Amarillo (Texas), associées à des données provenant d'autres études dans cette région, indiquent que des processus intervenant au cours de l'infiltration contrôlent la composition de l'eau de la nappe libre dans la moitié septentrionale du sud des Hautes Plaines. Les données chimiques et isotopiques sont compatibles avec une séquence de précipitation épisodique, avec la reconcentration en solut

  9. Intermittent Elevated Radium Concentrations in Coastal Plain Groundwater of South Carolina, U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, Miles; Millings, Margaret; Noonkester, Jay

    2005-09-22

    To learn the cause of intermittent radium concentrations in groundwater of Coastal Plain aquifers, 31 groundwater wells in South Carolina, U.S.A. were sampled for radium and other geochemical parameters. Sediments cored from near the well screens were also sampled to examine any relationship between sediment properties and radium concentration in the groundwater. Elevated radium concentrations only occurred in groundwater with low electrical conductivity and pH values below 6.3. The adsorption edge for radium on hematite--a major surface active mineral in these aquifers--is at a pH value of about 6. Near this value, small changes in pH can result in significant adsorption or desorption of radium. In groundwater with initially low alkalinity, small intermittent decreases in partial pressure of carbon dioxide in groundwater cause decreases in pH and desorption of radium. The result is intermittent elevated radium concentrations.

  10. A conceptual hydrologic model for a forested Carolina bay depressional wetland on the Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Timothy J. Callahan; Ge Sun; Carl C. Trettin; Masato Miwa

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how climate influences the hydrology of an ephemeral depressional wetland. Surface water and groundwater elevation data were collected for 7 years in a Coastal Plain watershed in South Carolina USA containing depressional wetlands, known as Carolina bays. Rainfall and temperature data were compared with water-table well and piezometer data in and...

  11. Effects of plain package branding and graphic health warnings on adolescent smokers in the USA, Spain and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J Craig; Netemeyer, Richard G; Burton, Scot; Kees, Jeremy

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an experimental test of the effects of plain pack branding and graphic health warnings (GHWs) in three different countries for an important and vulnerable population, that is, adolescents who are experimenting with smoking. The effects of plain pack branding (logo present, logo absent), and graphic visual warning level (absent, low, medium, high) are studied experimentally for their impact on adolescent cigarette craving, evoked fear, pack feelings and thoughts of quitting in the USA, Spain and France. A total of 1066 adolescents who were experimenting with smoking served as participants in the study. A quota sample produced 375 respondents in the USA, 337 in Spain and 354 in France. Overall findings indicate that the GHWs were effective in impacting adolescent cigarette craving, evoked fear, pack feelings and thoughts of quitting. The plain pack effects were not as strong, yet reduced craving, increased fear, and decreased pack feelings for all three samples combined, and for US adolescent smokers individually, irrespective of the GHWs. For French adolescent smokers, plain pack effects for craving were limited to low/moderate GHW levels. For Spanish adolescent smokers, plain pack feeling effects were limited to the absence of the GHWs. The results show that plain packs can independently strengthen the more instantaneous, direct effects (short of quitting thoughts) found with the GHWs. Yet, the plain pack results were attenuated for Spanish and French adolescent smokers, who are currently exposed to GHWs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Wintering Sandhill Crane exposure to wind energy development in the central and southern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Brandt, David; Krapu, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Numerous wind energy projects have been constructed in the central and southern Great Plains, USA, the main wintering area for midcontinental Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis). In an initial assessment of the potential risks of wind towers to cranes, we estimated spatial overlap, investigated potential avoidance behavior, and determined the habitat associations of cranes. We used data from cranes marked with platform transmitting terminals (PTTs) with and without global positioning system (GPS) capabilities. We estimated the wintering distributions of PTT-marked cranes prior to the construction of wind towers, which we compared with current tower locations. Based on this analysis, we found 7% spatial overlap between the distributions of cranes and towers. When we looked at individually marked cranes, we found that 52% would have occurred within 10 km of a tower at some point during winter. Using data from cranes marked after tower construction, we found a potential indication of avoidance behavior, whereby GPS-marked cranes generally used areas slightly more distant from existing wind towers than would be expected by chance. Results from a habitat selection model suggested that distances between crane locations and towers may have been driven more by habitat selection than by avoidance, as most wind towers were constructed in locations not often selected by wintering cranes. Our findings of modest regional overlap and that few towers have been placed in preferred crane habitat suggest that the current distribution of wind towers may be of low risk to the continued persistence of wintering midcontinental Sandhill Cranes in the central and southern Great Plains.

  13. Aquifer geochemistry at potential aquifer storage and recovery sites in coastal plain aquifers in the New York city area, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.J.; Misut, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of injecting oxic water from the New York city (NYC) drinking-water supply and distribution system into a nearby anoxic coastal plain aquifer for later recovery during periods of water shortage (aquifer storage and recovery, or ASR) were simulated by a 3-dimensional, reactive-solute transport model. The Cretaceous aquifer system in the NYC area of New York and New Jersey, USA contains pyrite, goethite, locally occurring siderite, lignite, and locally varying amounts of dissolved Fe and salinity. Sediment from cores drilled on Staten Island and western Long Island had high extractable concentrations of Fe, Mn, and acid volatile sulfides (AVS) plus chromium-reducible sulfides (CRS) and low concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U. Similarly, water samples from the Lloyd aquifer (Cretaceous) in western Long Island generally contained high concentrations of Fe and Mn and low concentrations of other trace elements such as As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U, all of which were below US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and NY maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In such aquifer settings, ASR operations can be complicated by the oxidative dissolution of pyrite, low pH, and high concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water.The simulated injection of buffered, oxic city water into a hypothetical ASR well increased the hydraulic head at the well, displaced the ambient groundwater, and formed a spheroid of injected water with lower concentrations of Fe, Mn and major ions in water surrounding the ASR well, than in ambient water. Both the dissolved O2 concentrations and the pH of water near the well generally increased in magnitude during the simulated 5-a injection phase. The resultant oxidation of Fe2+ and attendant precipitation of goethite during injection provided a substrate for sorption of dissolved Fe during the 8-a extraction phase. The baseline scenario with a low (0.001M) concentration of pyrite in aquifer sediments, indicated that nearly 190% more water

  14. Mapping the spatio-temporal evolution of irrigation in the Coastal Plain of Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus D. Williams; Christie M.S. Hawley; Marguerite Madden; J. Marshall Shepherd

    2017-01-01

    This study maps the spatial and temporal evolution of acres irrigated in the Coastal Plain of Georgia over a 38 year period. The goal of this analysis is to create a time-series of irrigated areas in the Coastal Plain of Georgia at a sub-county level. From 1976 through 2013, Landsat images were obtained and sampled at four year intervals to manually...

  15. Coastal morphodynamics and Chenier-Plain evolution in southwestern Louisiana, USA: A geomorphic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Randolph A.; Taylor, Matthew J.; Byrnes, Mark R.

    2007-08-01

    Using 28 topographic profiles, air-photo interpretation, and historical shoreline-change data, coastal processes were evaluated along the Chenier Plain to explain the occurrence, distribution, and geomorphic hierarchy of primary landforms, and existing hypotheses regarding Chenier-Plain evolution were reconsidered. The Chenier Plain of SW Louisiana, classified as a low-profile, microtidal, storm-dominated coast, is located west and downdrift of the Mississippi River deltaic plain. This Late-Holocene, marginal-deltaic environment is 200 km long and up to 30 km wide, and is composed primarily of mud deposits capped by marsh interspersed with thin sand- and shell-rich ridges ("cheniers") that have elevations of up to 4 m. In this study, the term "ridge" is used as a morphologic term for a narrow, linear or curvilinear topographic high that consists of sand and shelly material accumulated by waves and other physical coastal processes. Thus, most ridges in the Chenier Plain represent relict open-Gulf shorelines. On the basis of past movement trends of individual shorelines, ridges may be further classified as transgressive, regressive, or laterally accreted. Geomorphic zones that contain two or more regressive, transgressive, or laterally accreted ridges are termed complexes. Consequently, we further refine the Chenier-Plain definition by Otvos and Price [Otvos, E.G. and Price, W.A., 1979. Problems of chenier genesis and terminology—an overview. Marine Geology, 31: 251-263] and define Chenier Plain as containing at least two or more chenier complexes. Based on these definitions, a geomorphic hierarchy of landforms was refined relative to dominant process for the Louisiana Chenier Plain. The Chenier Plain is defined as a first-order feature (5000 km 2) composed of three second-order features (30 to 300 km 2): chenier complex, beach-ridge complex, and spit complex. Individual ridges of each complex type were further separated into third-order features: chenier, beach

  16. Role of ground water in geomorphology, geology, and paleoclimate of the Southern High Plains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Warren W

    2002-01-01

    Study of ground water in the Southern High Plains is central to an understanding of the geomorphology, deposition of economic minerals, and climate change record in the area. Ground water has controlled the course of the Canadian and Pecos rivers that isolated the Southern High Plains from the Great Plains and has contributed significantly to the continuing retreat of the westward escarpment. Evaporative and dissolution processes are responsible for current plateau topography and the development of the signature 20,000 small playa basins and 40 to 50 large saline lake basins in the area. In conjunction with eolian processes, ground water transport controls the mineralogy of commercially valuable mineral deposits and sets up the distribution of fine efflorescent salts that adversely affect water quality. As the water table rises and retreats, lunette and tufa formation provides valuable paleoclimate data for the Southern High Plains. In all these cases, an understanding of ground water processes contributes valuable information to a broad range of geological topics, well beyond traditional interest in water supply and environmental issues.

  17. Using stable isotopes to understand hydrochemical processes in and around a Prairie Pothole wetland in the Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher T.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Stricker, Craig A.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Morrison, Jean M.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Thurston, Roland S.

    2011-01-01

    Millions of internally drained wetland systems in the Prairie Potholes region of the northern Great Plains (USA and Canada) provide indispensable habitat for waterfowl and a host of other ecosystem services. The hydrochemistry of these systems is complex and a crucial control on wetland function, flora and fauna. Wetland waters can have high concentrations of SO2-4 due to the oxidation of large amounts of pyrite in glacial till that is in part derived from the Pierre shale. Water chemistry including δ18OH2O, δ2HH2O, and δ34SSO4 values, was determined for groundwater, soil pore water, and wetland surface water in and around a discharge wetland in North Dakota. The isotopic data for the first time trace the interaction of processes that affect wetland chemistry, including open water evaporation, plant transpiration, and microbial SO4 reduction.

  18. Effect of conservation practices on soil carbon and nitrogen accretion and crop yield in a corn production system in the southeastern coastal plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    We implemented conservation farming practices (winter cover cropping plus strip tillage) for a non-irrigated corn production system in the southern coastal plain of Georgia, USA that had been previously been managed under a plow and harrow tillage regime. Total soil carbon and nitrogen were measure...

  19. Evaluation of amendments to decrease high strength in southeastern USA Coastal Plain soils using fuzzy multi-attributive comparison of alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Productivity of many southeastern USA Coastal Plain soils is reduced by cemented subsurface layers that restrict root growth. Though tillage is the usual way to reduce cementation, if soil amendments can develop aggregation, they offer a more permanent solution. To improve soil physical properties a...

  20. Self-seeding warm-season legumes for low-input forage production in the southern Great Plains of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the southern Great Plains (SGP) of the USA warm-season legumes can improve the quality of available forage in pasture systems based on perennial warm-season grasses. Legumes that persist through self-seeding may be especially useful in low-input systems where resources for annual replanting are l...

  1. First Results from HOTSPOT: The Snake River Plain Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Shervais

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available HOTSPOT is an international collaborative effort to understand the volcanic history of the Snake River Plain (SRP. The SRP overlies a thermal anomaly, the Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot, that is thought to represent a deep-seated mantle plume under North America. Theprimary goal of this project is to document the volcanic and stratigraphic history of the SRP, which represents the surface expression of this hotspot, and to understand how it affected the evolution of continental crust and mantle. An additional goal is to evaluate the geothermal potential of southern Idaho.Project HOTSPOT has completed three drill holes. (1 The Kimama site is located along the central volcanic axis of the SRP; our goal here was to sample a long-term record of basaltic volcanism in the wake of the SRP hotspot. (2 The Kimberly site is located near the margin of the plain; our goal here was to sample a record of high-temperaturerhyolite volcanism associated with the underlying plume. This site was chosen to form a nominally continuous record of volcanism when paired with the Kimama site. (3 The Mountain Home site is located in the western plain; our goal here was to sample the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition in lake sediments at this site and to sample older basalts that underlie the sediments.We report here on our initial results for each site, and on some of the geophysical logging studies carried out as part of this project.

  2. Loess record of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition on the northern and central Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J.A.; Miao, X.; Hanson, P.R.; Johnson, W.C.; Jacobs, P.M.; Goble, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Various lines of evidence support conflicting interpretations of the timing, abruptness, and nature of climate change in the Great Plains during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Loess deposits and paleosols on both the central and northern Great Plains provide a valuable record that can help address these issues. A synthesis of new and previously reported optical and radiocarbon ages indicates that the Brady Soil, which marks the boundary between late Pleistocene Peoria Loess and Holocene Bignell Loess, began forming after a reduction in the rate of Peoria Loess accumulation that most likely occurred between 13.5 and 15 cal ka. Brady Soil formation spanned all or part of the B??lling-Aller??d episode (approximately 14.7-12.9 cal ka) and all of the Younger Dryas episode (12.9-11.5 cal ka) and extended at least 1000 years beyond the end of the Younger Dryas. The Brady Soil was buried by Bignell Loess sedimentation beginning around 10.5-9 cal ka, and continuing episodically through the Holocene. Evidence for a brief increase in loess influx during the Younger Dryas is noteworthy but very limited. Most late Quaternary loess accumulation in the central Great Plains was nonglacigenic and was under relatively direct climatic control. Thus, Brady Soil formation records climatic conditions that minimized eolian activity and allowed effective pedogenesis, probably through relatively high effective moisture. Optical dating of loess in North Dakota supports correlation of the Leonard Paleosol on the northern Great Plains with the Brady Soil. Thick loess in North Dakota was primarily derived from the Missouri River floodplain; thus, its stratigraphy may in part reflect glacial influence on the Missouri River. Nonetheless, the persistence of minimal loess accumulation and soil formation until 10 cal ka at our North Dakota study site is best explained by a prolonged interval of high effective moisture correlative with the conditions that favored Brady Soil formation. Burial

  3. Loess record of the Pleistocene Holocene transition on the northern and central Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Joseph A.; Miao, Xiaodong; Hanson, Paul R.; Johnson, William C.; Jacobs, Peter M.; Goble, Ronald J.

    2008-09-01

    Various lines of evidence support conflicting interpretations of the timing, abruptness, and nature of climate change in the Great Plains during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Loess deposits and paleosols on both the central and northern Great Plains provide a valuable record that can help address these issues. A synthesis of new and previously reported optical and radiocarbon ages indicates that the Brady Soil, which marks the boundary between late Pleistocene Peoria Loess and Holocene Bignell Loess, began forming after a reduction in the rate of Peoria Loess accumulation that most likely occurred between 13.5 and 15 cal ka. Brady Soil formation spanned all or part of the Bølling-Allerød episode (approximately 14.7-12.9 cal ka) and all of the Younger Dryas episode (12.9-11.5 cal ka) and extended at least 1000 years beyond the end of the Younger Dryas. The Brady Soil was buried by Bignell Loess sedimentation beginning around 10.5-9 cal ka, and continuing episodically through the Holocene. Evidence for a brief increase in loess influx during the Younger Dryas is noteworthy but very limited. Most late Quaternary loess accumulation in the central Great Plains was nonglacigenic and was under relatively direct climatic control. Thus, Brady Soil formation records climatic conditions that minimized eolian activity and allowed effective pedogenesis, probably through relatively high effective moisture. Optical dating of loess in North Dakota supports correlation of the Leonard Paleosol on the northern Great Plains with the Brady Soil. Thick loess in North Dakota was primarily derived from the Missouri River floodplain; thus, its stratigraphy may in part reflect glacial influence on the Missouri River. Nonetheless, the persistence of minimal loess accumulation and soil formation until 10 cal ka at our North Dakota study site is best explained by a prolonged interval of high effective moisture correlative with the conditions that favored Brady Soil formation. Burial

  4. Buried paleoindian-age landscapes in stream valleys of the central plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study of late-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Central Plains documented widespread, deeply buried paleosols that represent Paleoindian-age landscapes in terrace fills of large streams (> 5th order), in alluvial fans, and in draws in areas of western Kansas with a thick loess mantle. Alluvial stratigraphic sections were investigated along a steep bio-climatic gradient extending from the moist-subhumid forest-prairie border of the east-central Plains to the dry-subhumid and semi-arid shortgrass prairie of the west-central Plains. Radiocarbon ages indicate that most large streams were characterized by slow aggradation accompanied by cumulic soil development from ca. 11,500 to 10,000??14C yr B.P. In the valleys of some large streams, such as the Ninnescah and Saline rivers, these processes continued into the early Holocene. The soil-stratigraphic record in the draws of western Kansas indicates slow aggradation punctuated by episodes of landscape stability and pedogenesis beginning as early as ca. 13,300??14C yr B.P. and spanning the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. The development record of alluvial fans in western Kansas is similar to the record in the draws; slow aggradation was punctuated by multiple episodes of soil development between ca. 13,000 and 9000??14C yr B.P. In eastern Kansas and Nebraska, development of alluvial fans was common during the early and middle Holocene, but evidence shows fan development as early as ca. 11,300??14C yr B.P. Buried soils dating between ca. 12,600 and 9000??14C yr B.P. were documented in fans throughout the region. In stream valleys across the Central Plains, rapid alluviation after ca. 9000??14C yr B.P. resulted in deeply buried soils that may harbor Paleoindian cultural deposits. Hence, the paucity of recorded stratified Paleoindian sites in the Central Plains is probably related to poor visibility (i.e., deep burial in alluvial deposits) instead of limited human occupation in the region during the terminal

  5. Field and laboratory fomesafen dissipation in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) was discovered in central Georgia (USA) in 2006. Subsequent spread of this highly problematic weed throughout the region prompted growers and registrants to seek labels for herbicides that can provide cost-effective control. To this end, the...

  6. Groundwater recharge and sustainability in the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M.

    2005-01-01

    Sustainable use of groundwater must ensure not only that the future resource is not threatened by overuse, but also that natural environments that depend on the resource, such as stream baseflows, riparian vegetation, aquatic ecosystems, and wetlands are protected. To properly manage groundwater resources, accurate information about the inputs (recharge) and outputs (pumpage and natural discharge) within each groundwater basin is needed so that the long-term behavior of the aquifer and its sustainable yield can be estimated or reassessed. As a first step towards this effort, this work highlights some key groundwater recharge studies in the Kansas High Plains at different scales, such as regional soil-water budget and groundwater modeling studies, county-scale groundwater recharge studies, as well as field-experimental local studies, including some original new findings, with an emphasis on assumptions and limitations as well as on environmental factors affecting recharge processes. The general impact of irrigation and cultivation on recharge is to appreciably increase the amount of recharge, and in many cases to exceed precipitation as the predominant source of recharge. The imbalance between the water input (recharge) to the High Plains aquifer and the output (pumpage and stream baseflows primarily) is shown to be severe, and responses to stabilize the system by reducing water use, increasing irrigation efficiency, adopting water-saving land-use practices, and other measures are outlined. Finally, the basic steps necessary to move towards sustainable use of groundwater in the High Plains are delineated, such as improving the knowledge base, reporting and providing access to information, furthering public education, as well as promoting better understanding of the public's attitudinal motivations; adopting the ecosystem and adaptive management approaches to managing groundwater; further improving water efficiency; exploiting the full potential of dryland and

  7. Sources and paleoclimatic significance of Holocene Bignell Loess, central Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Joseph A.; Jacobs, Peter M.; Hanson, Paul R.; Miao, Xiaodong; Goble, Ronald J.

    2003-11-01

    This paper reexamines the stratigraphy, sources, and paleoclimatic significance of Holocene Bignell Loess in the central Great Plains. A broadly similar sequence of loess depositional units and paleosols was observed in thick Bignell Loess sections up to 300 km apart, suggesting that these sections record major regional changes in the balance between dust deposition and pedogenesis. New optical ages, together with previously reported radiocarbon ages, indicate Bignell Loess deposition began 9000-11,000 yr ago and continued into the late Holocene; some Bignell Loess is <1000 yr old. There is little evidence that Holocene Loess was derived from flood plain sources, as previously proposed. Instead, thick Bignell Loess occurs mainly near the downwind margins of inactive dune fields, particularly atop escarpments facing the dunes. Thus, the immediate loess source was dust produced when the dunes were active. Previous work indicates that widespread episodes of dune activity are likely to have resulted from drier-than-present climatic conditions. The regionally coherent stratigraphy of Bignell Loess can be interpreted as a near-continuous record of climatically driven variation in dune field activity throughout the Holocene.

  8. Quantifying the Impacts of Irrigation Technology Adoption on Water Resources in the High Plains Aquifer, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Anthony; Cotterman, Kayla; Hyndman, David

    2016-04-01

    Producers in key agricultural regions worldwide are contending with increasing demand while simultaneously managing declining water resources. The High Plains Aquifer (HPA) is the largest aquifer system in the United States, and supplied most of the water to irrigate 6 million hectares in 2012. Water levels in the central and southern sections of the aquifer have steadily declined, as groundwater recharge in this semi-arid region is insufficient to meet water demands. Individual irrigators have responded to these declines by moving from less efficient irrigation technologies to those that apply water more precisely. Yet, these newer technologies have also allowed for water to be pumped from lower-yielding wells, thus extending the life of any given well and allowing drawdown to continue. Here we use a dataset of the annual irrigation technology choices from every irrigator in the state of Kansas, located in the Central High Plains. This irrigation data, along with remotely-sensed Leaf Area Index, crop choice, and irrigated area, drives a coupled surface/groundwater simulation created using the Landscape Hydrology Model (LHM) to examine the impacts of changing irrigation technology on the regional water cycle, and water levels in the HPA. The model is applied to simulate cases in which no irrigation technology change had occurred, and complete adoption of newer technologies to better understand impacts of management choices on regional water resources.

  9. Decreased runoff response to precipitation, Little Missouri River Basin, northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Eleanor R.; Friedman, Jonathan M.

    2017-01-01

    High variability in precipitation and streamflow in the semiarid northern Great Plains causes large uncertainty in water availability. This uncertainty is compounded by potential effects of future climate change. We examined historical variability in annual and growing season precipitation, temperature, and streamflow within the Little Missouri River Basin and identified differences in the runoff response to precipitation for the period 1976-2012 compared to 1939-1975 (n = 37 years in both cases). Computed mean values for the second half of the record showed little change (1°C increases in January through March, are the dominant driver of the observed decrease in runoff response to precipitation in the Little Missouri River Basin.

  10. Vegetation, substrate and hydrology in floating marshes in the Mississippi river delta plain wetlands, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasser, C.E.; Gosselink, J.G.; Swenson, E.M.; Swarzenski, C.M.; Leibowitz, N.C.

    1996-01-01

    In the 1940s extensive floating marshes (locally called 'flotant') were reported and mapped in coastal wetlands of the Mississippi River Delta Plain. These floating marshes included large areas of Panicum hemitomon-dominated freshwater marshes, and Spartina patens/Scirpus olneyi brackish marshes. Today these marshes appear to be quite different in extent and type. We describe five floating habitats and one non-floating, quaking habitat based on differences in buoyancy dynamics (timing and degree of floating), substrate characteristics, and dominant vegetation. All floating marshes have low bulk density, organic substrates. Nearly all are fresh marshes. Panicum hemitomon floating marshes presently occur within the general regions that were reported in the 1940's by O'Neil, but are reduced in extent. Some of the former Panicum hemitomon marshes have been replaced by seasonally or variably floating marshes dominated, or co-dominated by Sagittaria lancifolia or Eleocharis baldwinii. ?? 1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  11. Photosynthetic and growth response of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) mature trees and seedlings to calcium, magnesium, and nitrogen additions in the Catskill Mountains, NY, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, Bahram; Behling, Shawna J; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Sullivan, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    Decline of sugar maple in North American forests has been attributed to changes in soil calcium (Ca) and nitrogen (N) by acidic precipitation. Although N is an essential and usually a limiting factor in forests, atmospheric N deposition may cause N-saturation leading to loss of soil Ca. Such changes can affect carbon gain and growth of sugar maple trees and seedlings. We applied a 22 factorial arrangement of N and dolomitic limestone containing Ca and Magnesium (Mg) to 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain region of NY, USA. To quantify the short-term effects, we measured photosynthetic-light responses of sugar maple mature trees and seedlings two or three times during two summers. We estimated maximum net photosynthesis (An-max) and its related light intensity (PAR at An-max), apparent quantum efficiency (Aqe), and light compensation point (LCP). To quantify the long-term effects, we measured basal area of living mature trees before and 4 and 8 years after treatment applications. Soil and foliar chemistry variables were also measured. Dolomitic limestone increased Ca, Mg, and pH in the soil Oe horizon. Mg was increased in the B horizon when comparing the plots receiving N with those receiving CaMg. In mature trees, foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in the CaMg and N+CaMg plots than in the reference or N plots; foliar Ca concentration was higher in the N+CaMg plots compared with the CaMg plots, foliar Mg was higher in the CaMg plots than the N+CaMg plots; An-max was maximized due to N+CaMg treatment; Aqe decreased by N addition; and PAR at An-max increased by N or CaMg treatments alone, but the increase was maximized by their combination. No treatment effect was detected on basal areas of living mature trees four or eight years after treatment applications. In seedlings, An-max was increased by N+CaMg addition. The reference plots had an open herbaceous layer, but the plots receiving N had a dense monoculture of common woodfern in the

  12. Photosynthetic and Growth Response of Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum Marsh. Mature Trees and Seedlings to Calcium, Magnesium, and Nitrogen Additions in the Catskill Mountains, NY, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Momen

    Full Text Available Decline of sugar maple in North American forests has been attributed to changes in soil calcium (Ca and nitrogen (N by acidic precipitation. Although N is an essential and usually a limiting factor in forests, atmospheric N deposition may cause N-saturation leading to loss of soil Ca. Such changes can affect carbon gain and growth of sugar maple trees and seedlings. We applied a 22 factorial arrangement of N and dolomitic limestone containing Ca and Magnesium (Mg to 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain region of NY, USA. To quantify the short-term effects, we measured photosynthetic-light responses of sugar maple mature trees and seedlings two or three times during two summers. We estimated maximum net photosynthesis (An-max and its related light intensity (PAR at An-max, apparent quantum efficiency (Aqe, and light compensation point (LCP. To quantify the long-term effects, we measured basal area of living mature trees before and 4 and 8 years after treatment applications. Soil and foliar chemistry variables were also measured. Dolomitic limestone increased Ca, Mg, and pH in the soil Oe horizon. Mg was increased in the B horizon when comparing the plots receiving N with those receiving CaMg. In mature trees, foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in the CaMg and N+CaMg plots than in the reference or N plots; foliar Ca concentration was higher in the N+CaMg plots compared with the CaMg plots, foliar Mg was higher in the CaMg plots than the N+CaMg plots; An-max was maximized due to N+CaMg treatment; Aqe decreased by N addition; and PAR at An-max increased by N or CaMg treatments alone, but the increase was maximized by their combination. No treatment effect was detected on basal areas of living mature trees four or eight years after treatment applications. In seedlings, An-max was increased by N+CaMg addition. The reference plots had an open herbaceous layer, but the plots receiving N had a dense monoculture of common woodfern in the

  13. Shrub and tree establishment on coal spoils in northern High Plains - USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjugstad, A.J.

    1984-10-01

    Trickle irrigation, during establishment, increased survival two fold for seven species of shrubs and trees planted on coal mine spoil in the semiarid area of northeastern Wyoming, USA. Increased survival of irrigated plants persisted for five years after initiation of this study, which included two growing and winter seasons after cessation of irrigation. Species included green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), silver buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea), Siberian peashrub (Caragana arborescens), American plum (Prunus americana), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum). 28 references.

  14. Rheomorphic ignimbrites of the Rogerson Formation, central Snake River plain, USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Thomas R.; Reichow, Marc K.; Branney, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Rogerson Graben, USA, is critically placed at the intersection between the Yellowstone hotspot track and the southern projection of the west Snake River rift. Eleven rhyolitic members of the re-defined, ≥420-m-thick, Rogerson Formation record voluminous high-temperature explosive eruptions...... by a trend towards less-evolved rhyolites that may record melting and hybridisation of a mid-crustal source region. Contemporaneous magmatism-induced crustal subsidence of the central Snake River Basin is recorded by successive ignimbrites offlapping and thinning up the N-facing limb of a regional basin...

  15. Legislating to communicate: Plain English guidelines explicated using the USA Patriot Act 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Tanner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Lifting the Fog of Legalese, Joseph Kimble offered a set of guidelines for writing in clearer language. He does not provide a method for the interpretation and grammatical analysis of those guidelines. This article provides that analysis. Examples are taken from the USA Patriot Act 2001 to explicate and validate them and to assess whether that Act is expressed clearly, simply, and precisely. It was found that that Act contained some long and syntactically complicated sentences which result from the unnecessary adherence to the single provision/single sentence structure. If adherence to this structure were abandoned, comprehension could be enhanced and the legislation made more accessible to lawyers and lay persons alike.

  16. Floodplain geomorphic processes and environmental impacts of human alteration along coastal plain rivers, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, C.R.; Pierce, A.R.; Noe, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    Human alterations along stream channels and within catchments have affected fluvial geomorphic processes worldwide. Typically these alterations reduce the ecosystem services that functioning floodplains provide; in this paper we are concerned with the sediment and associated material trapping service. Similarly, these alterations may negatively impact the natural ecology of floodplains through reductions in suitable habitats, biodiversity, and nutrient cycling. Dams, stream channelization, and levee/canal construction are common human alterations along Coastal Plain fluvial systems. We use three case studies to illustrate these alterations and their impacts on floodplain geomorphic and ecological processes. They include: 1) dams along the lower Roanoke River, North Carolina, 2) stream channelization in west Tennessee, and 3) multiple impacts including canal and artificial levee construction in the central Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. Human alterations typically shift affected streams away from natural dynamic equilibrium where net sediment deposition is, approximately, in balance with net erosion. Identification and understanding of critical fluvial parameters (e.g., stream gradient, grain-size, and hydrography) and spatial and temporal sediment deposition/erosion process trajectories should facilitate management efforts to retain and/or regain important ecosystem services. ?? 2009, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  17. Types of phreatomagmatic volcanoes in the western Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godchaux, M.M.; Bonnichsen, B.; Jenks, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    The western Snake River Plain graben in southwestern Idaho includes a large hydrovolcanic field which was produced in late Miocene to Pleistocene time by the interaction of rising basaltic magmas with the waters and water-saturated deposits of an enormous freshwater lake, Lake Idaho. The phreatomagmatic volcanoes in this field may be grouped into three types: emergent, subaqueous and subaerial. Emergent volcanoes, which began erupting under water and built up above the lake level, are relatively large and symmetrical, are dominated by bedded tuffs and late magmatic deposits, and are excellent indicators of water depth at the time of the eruption. Subaqueous volcanoes, which never built up above the lake level, are relatively small and asymmetrical, are dominated by basal massive deposits, and are potentially useful in discriminating between deep- and very-deep-water settings. Subaerial volcanoes, which were formed when magmas intercepted buried aquifers and interacted explosively with water, are small tuff rings and maars with variable shapes, are composed of subequal (although variable) proportions of basal massive deposits, bedded tuffs and late magmatic deposits, and are useful in determining the stratigraphic successions underlying them. ?? 1992.

  18. Characterization and mapping of the Browns Creek rhyolite: Western Snake River Plain, ID, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clippinger, D. T.; Boroughs, S.; Bonnichsen, B.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to map and characterize the geologic units that comprise the Brown's Creek region of the western Snake River Plain, with a focus on the eruptive behavior and physical characteristics of the exposed rhyolite. Located near Oreana ID, southeast of the Owyhee Front, the rhyolite in Browns Creek and adjacent rocks has never been mapped in detail. The volcanics in the Browns Creek area are predominantly comprised of low to high silica rhyolite (73%-78% SiO2), and a previously published 40Ar/39Ar date returned an age of 11.20 ± .02 Ma. The rhyolites have phenocryst assemblages of Na-plagioclase, quartz, K-feldspar, pyroxene, oxides, and zircon. Both phenocryst content and crystal size vary widely from approximately 15-50% and 1-10 mm respectively. The rhyolite in the Browns Creek region has a δ18O value of 8.5‰ and marks a very sharp boundary (Owyhee Front.

  19. Episodic bedrock erosion by gully-head migration, Colorado High Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengers, Francis; Tucker, G.E.; Mahan, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the frequency of bedrock exposure in a soil-mantled low-relief (i.e. non-mountainous) landscape. In the High Plains of eastern Colorado, gully headcuts are among the few erosional features that will incise through the soil mantle to expose bedrock. We measured the last time of bedrock exposure using optically stimulated luminescence dating of alluvial sediment overlying bedrock in gully headcuts. Our dating suggests that headcuts in adjacent gullies expose bedrock asynchronously, and therefore, the headcuts are unlikely to have been triggered by a base-level drop in the trunk stream. This finding supports the hypothesis that headcuts can develop locally in gullies as a result of focused scour in locations where hydraulic stress during a flash flood is sufficiently high, and/or ground cover is sufficiently weak, to generate a scour hole that undermines vegetation. Alluvium dating also reveals that gullies have been a persistent part of this landscape since the early Holocene. 

  20. Mercury and methylmercury dynamics in a coastal plain watershed, New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, J.L.; Riskin, M.L.; Szabo, Z.; Reilly, P.A.; Rosman, R.; Bonin, J.L.; Fischer, J.M.; Heckathorn, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    The upper Great Egg Harbor River watershed in New Jersey's Coastal Plain is urbanized but extensive freshwater wetlands are present downstream. In 2006-2007, studies to assess levels of total mercury (THg) found concentrations in unfiltered streamwater to range as high as 187 ng/L in urbanized areas. THg concentrations were water with THg that exceeds the drinking water standard (2,000 ng/L). THg concentrations were lower (Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in unfiltered streamwater ranged from 0.17 ng/L at a forest/wetlands site to 2.94 ng/L at an urban site. The percentage of THg present as MeHg increased as the percentage of forest + wetlands increased, but also was high in some urban areas. MeHg was detected only in groundwater water/sediment interface. Atmospheric deposition is presumed to be the main source of Hg to the wetlands and also may be a source to groundwater, where wastewater inputs in urban areas are hypothesized to mobilize Hg deposited to soils. ?? 2010 US Government.

  1. A Stream Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) for the Sand Hills Ecoregion of the Southeastern Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosnicki, Ely; Sefick, Stephen A.; Paller, Michael H.; Jerrell, Miller S.; Prusha, Blair A.; Sterrett, Sean C.; Tuberville, Tracey D.; Feminella, Jack W.

    2016-10-01

    A macroinvertebrate multimetric index is an effective tool for assessing the biological integrity of streams. However, data collected under a single protocol may not be available for an entire region. We sampled macroinvertebrates from the full extent of the Sand Hills ecoregion Level IV of the Southeastern Plains with a standard protocol during the summers of 2010-2012. We evaluated the performance of 94 metrics through a series of screening criteria and built 48 macroinvertebrate multimetric indexs with combinations of the best performing metrics, representing richness, habit, functional feeding guild, sensitivity, and community composition. A series of narrative-response tests for each macroinvertebrate multimetric index was used to find the best performing macroinvertebrate multimetric index which we called the Sand Hills macroinvertebrate multimetric index. The Sand Hills macroinvertebrate multimetric index consisted of the measures Biotic Index, % Shredder taxa, Clinger taxa2/total taxa, Plecoptera and Trichoptera richness, and Tanytarsini taxa2/Chironomidae taxa. Comparison of the Sand Hills macroinvertebrate multimetric index with existing assessment tools calculated with our data indicated that the Sand Hills macroinvertebrate multimetric index performs at a high level with regard to identifying degraded sites and in its response to stress gradients.

  2. Role of Surface Energy Exchange for Simulating Wind Turbine Inflow: A Case Study in the Southern Great Plains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Wharton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model is used to investigate choice of land surface model (LSM on the near surface wind profile, including heights reached by multi-megawatt (MW wind turbines. Simulations of wind profiles and surface energy fluxes were made using five LSMs of varying degrees of sophistication in dealing with soil–plant–atmosphere feedbacks for the Department of Energy (DOE Southern Great Plains (SGP Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM Central Facility in Oklahoma, USA. Surface flux and wind profile measurements were available for validation. WRF was run for three, two-week periods covering varying canopy and meteorological conditions. The LSMs predicted a wide range of energy flux and wind shear magnitudes even during the cool autumn period when we expected less variability. Simulations of energy fluxes varied in accuracy by model sophistication, whereby LSMs with very simple or no soil–plant–atmosphere feedbacks were the least accurate; however, the most complex models did not consistently produce more accurate results. Errors in wind shear were also sensitive to LSM choice and were partially related to energy flux accuracy. The variability of LSM performance was relatively high suggesting that LSM representation of energy fluxes in WRF remains a large source of model uncertainty for simulating wind turbine inflow conditions.

  3. Land cover changes associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin; Northern Great Plains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M; Kim, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    The Williston Basin in the Northern Great Plains has experienced rapid energy development since 2000. To evaluate the land cover changes resulting from recent (2000-2015) development, the area and previous land cover of all well pads (pads) constructed during this time were determined, the amount of disturbed and reclaimed land adjacent to pads was estimated, land cover changes were analyzed over time for three different well types, and the effects from future development were predicted. The previous land cover of the 12,990ha converted to pads was predominately agricultural (49.5%) or prairie (47.4%) with lesser amounts of developed (2.3%), aquatic (0.5%), and forest (0.4%). Additionally, 12,121ha has likely been disturbed and reclaimed. The area required per gas well remained constant through time while the land required per oil well increased initially and then decreased as development first shifted from conventional to unconventional drilling and then to multi-bore pads. For non-oil-and-gas wells (i.e. stratigraphic test wells, water wells, and injection wells), the area per well increased through time likely due to increased produced water disposal requirements. Future land cover change is expected to be 2.7 times greater than recent development with much of the development occurring in five counties in the core Bakken development area. Direct land cover change and disturbance from recent and expected development are predicted to affect 0.4% of the landscape across the basin; however, in the core Bakken development area, 2.3% of the landscape will be affected including 2.1% of the remaining grassland. Although future development will result in significant land cover change, evolving industry practices and proactive siting decisions, such as development along energy corridors and placing pads in areas previously altered by human activity, have the potential to reduce the ecological effects of future energy development in the Williston Basin.

  4. Induced thermoluminescence as a method for dating recent volcanism: Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Derek W. G.; Sears, Hazel; Sehlke, Alexander; Hughes, Scott S.

    2017-02-01

    The induced thermoluminescence properties of 24 samples of basalts from volcanoes in the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho, were measured as part of an investigation into the possibility of using this technique for dating purposes. The volcanic flows sampled ranged in age from 2200 years to 400,000 years. The thermoluminescence (TL) sensitivity values obtained, i.e., maximum induced TL normalized to that of the Dhajala meteorite (where Dhajala = 1000), ranged from 1.6 ± 0.3 to 226 ± 15 and showed a correlation between log TL and age with an r2 value of 0.47. Thus, TL sensitivity values correlate with age in the manner expected, although there is a high level of scatter. We discuss various mechanisms for the correlation and scatter, particularly (1) the role of primary (igneous processes) and secondary (solid state processes), (2) composition of the plagioclase feldspar, and (3) weathering. The induced TL signal from feldspars, the mineral responsible for the TL, is strongly dependent on their composition, and correcting for this improved the correlation (r2 = 0.7). Variations in primary feldspar are affecting the data, but we find no evidence that weathering of the samples is important. Further work is required to explore the remaining causes for the scatter and the TL-age trend. However, it is clear from the present study that induced TL has the potential for dating volcanism on the 2200 to 400,000 year time frame. This dating method, if successful, would be well-suited to spacecraft use since it requires low mass and low power instruments with a low data demand.

  5. Land cover changes associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin; Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M.; Kim, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The Williston Basin in the Northern Great Plains has experienced rapid energy development since 2000. To evaluate the land cover changes resulting from recent (2000 – 2015) development, the area and previous land cover of all well pads (pads) constructed during this time was determined, the amount of disturbed and reclaimed land adjacent to pads was estimated, land cover changes were analyzed over time for three different well types, and the effects from future development were predicted. The previous land cover of the 12,990 ha converted to pads was predominately agricultural (49.5%) or prairie (47.4%) with lesser amounts of developed (2.3%), aquatic (0.5%), and forest (0.4%). Additionally, 12,121 ha have likely been disturbed and reclaimed. The area required per gas well remained constant through time while the land required per oil well increased initially and then decreased as development first shifted from conventional to unconventional drilling and then to multi-bore pads. For non-oil-and- gas wells (i.e. stratigraphic test wells, water wells, injection wells, etc.), the area per well increased through time likely due to increased produced water disposal requirements. Future land cover change is expected to be 2.7 times greater than recent development with much of the development occurring in five counties in the core Bakken development area. Direct land cover change and disturbance from recent and expected development are predicted to affect 0.4% of the landscape across the basin; however, in the core Bakken development area, 2.3% of the landscape will be affected including 2.1% of the remaining grassland. Although future development will result in significant land cover change, evolving industry practices and proactive siting decisions, such as development along energy corridors and placing pads in areas previously altered by human activity, have the potential to reduce the ecological effects of future energy development in the Williston Basin.

  6. USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html......http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html...

  7. Elevated naturally occurring arsenic in a semiarid oxidizing system, Southern High Plains aquifer, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B.R.; Nicot, J.-P.; Reedy, R.C.; Kurtzman, D.; Mukherjee, A.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    High groundwater As concentrations in oxidizing systems are generally associated with As adsorption onto hydrous metal (Al, Fe or Mn) oxides and mobilization with increased pH. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution, sources and mobilization mechanisms of As in the Southern High Plains (SHP) aquifer, Texas, relative to those in other semiarid, oxidizing systems. Elevated groundwater As levels are widespread in the southern part of the SHP (SHP-S) aquifer, with 47% of wells exceeding the current EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 μg/L (range 0.3–164 μg/L), whereas As levels are much lower in the north (SHP-N: 9% ⩾ As MCL of 10 μg/L; range 0.2–43 μg/L). The sharp contrast in As levels between the north and south coincides with a change in total dissolved solids (TDS) from 395 mg/L (median north) to 885 mg/L (median south). Arsenic is present as arsenate (As V) in this oxidizing system and is correlated with groundwater TDS (Spearman’s ρ = 0.57). The most likely current source of As is sorbed As onto hydrous metal oxides based on correlations between As and other oxyanion-forming elements (V, ρ = 0.88; Se, ρ = 0.54; B, ρ = 0.51 and Mo, ρ = 0.46). This source is similar to that in other oxidizing systems and constitutes a secondary source; the most likely primary source being volcanic ashes in the SHP aquifer or original source rocks in the Rockies, based on co-occurrence of As and F (ρ = 0.56), oxyanion-forming elements and SiO2 (ρ = 0.41), which are found in volcanic ashes. High groundwater As concentrations in some semiarid oxidizing systems are related to high evaporation. Although correlation of As with TDS in the SHP aquifer may suggest evaporative concentration, unenriched stable isotopes (δ2H: −65 to −27; δ18O: −9.1 to −4.2) in the SHP aquifer do not support evaporation. High TDS in the SHP aquifer is most likely related to upward movement of saline water from the underlying

  8. Evidence for natural molecular hydrogen seepage associated with Carolina bays (surficial, ovoid depressions on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Province of the USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgonnik, Viacheslav; Beaumont, Valérie; Deville, Eric; Larin, Nikolay; Pillot, Daniel; Farrell, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-01

    A study of soil gases was made in North Carolina (USA) in and around morphological depressions called "Carolina bays." This type of depression is observed over the Atlantic coastal plains of the USA, but their origin remains debated. Significant concentrations of molecular hydrogen (H2) were detected, notably around the bays. These measurements suggest that Carolina bays are the surficial expression of fluid flow pathways for hydrogen gas moving from depth to the surface. The potential mechanisms of H2 production and transport and the geological controls on the fluid migration pathways are discussed, with reference to the hypothesis that Carolina bays are the result of local collapses caused by the alteration of rock along the deep pathways of H2 migrating towards the surface. The present H2 seepages are comparable to those in similar structures previously observed in the East European craton.

  9. The distribution and composition of REE-bearing minerals in placers of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton; Shah, Anjana K.; Benzel, William M.; Lowers, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) resources are currently of great interest because of their importance as raw materials for high-technology manufacturing. The REE-phosphates monazite (light REE enriched) and xenotime (heavy REE enriched) resist weathering and can accumulate in placer deposits as part of the heavy mineral assemblage. The Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains of the southeastern United States are known to host heavy mineral deposits with economic concentrations of zircon, ilmenite and rutile. This study provides a perspective on the distribution and composition of REE phosphate minerals in the region. The elemental chemistry and mineralogy of sands and associated heavy-mineral assemblages from new and archived sediment samples across the coastal plains are examined, along with phase-specific compositions of monazite, xenotime and zircon. Both monazite and xenotime are present across the coastal plains. The phase-specific compositions allow monazite content to be estimated using La as a geochemical proxy. Similarly, both Y and Yb are geochemical proxies for xenotime, but their additional presence in zircon and monazite require a correction to prevent overestimation of xenotime content. Applying this correction, maps of monazite and xenotime content across the coastal plains were generated using sample coverage from the National Geochemical Database (NGS) and National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE). The NGS and NURE approach of sampling stream sediments in small watersheds links samples to nearby lithologies. The results show an approximately 40 km-wide band of primarily Cretaceous, marine sediments bordering the Piedmont province from North Carolina to Alabama in which monazite and xenotime content are relatively high (up to 4.4 wt. % in < 150 μm bulk sediment). Strong correlations between concentrations of the two phases were found, with estimated monazite:xenotime ratios ranging approximately 6:1 to 12:1 depending upon the dataset analyzed. From a resource

  10. Role of Surface Energy Exchange for Simulating Wind Turbine Inflow: A Case Study in the Southern Great Plains, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Wharton; Matthew Simpson; Jessica L. Osuna; Jennifer F. Newman; Biraud, Sebastien C.

    2014-01-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to investigate choice of land surface model (LSM) on the near surface wind profile, including heights reached by multi-megawatt (MW) wind turbines. Simulations of wind profiles and surface energy fluxes were made using five LSMs of varying degrees of sophistication in dealing with soil–plant–atmosphere feedbacks for the Department of Energy (DOE) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Central Facili...

  11. The Effect of Land Cover/Land Use Changes on the Regional Climate of the USA High Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Mutiibwa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the detection of the signatures of land use/land cover (LULC changes on the regional climate of the US High Plains. We used the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI as a proxy of LULC changes and atmospheric CO2 concentrations as a proxy of greenhouse gases. An enhanced signal processing procedure was developed to detect the signatures of LULC changes by integrating autoregression and moving average (ARMA modeling and optimal fingerprinting technique. The results, which are representative of the average spatial signatures of climate response to LULC change forcing on the regional climate of the High Plains during the 26 years of the study period (1981–2006, show a significant cooling effect on the regional temperatures during the summer season. The cooling effect was attributed to probable evaporative cooling originating from the increasing extensive irrigation in the region. The external forcing of atmospheric CO2 was included in the study to suppress the radiative warming effect of greenhouse gases, thus, enhancing the LULC change signal. The results show that the greenhouse gas radiative warming effect in the region is significant, but weak, compared to the LULC change signal. The study demonstrates the regional climatic impact of anthropogenic induced atmospheric-biosphere interaction attributed to LULC change, which is an additional and important climate forcing in addition to greenhouse gas radiative forcing in High Plains region.

  12. Isotope paleoecology of episodic mid-to-late Holocene bison population expansions in the Southern Plains, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Jon C.; Madsen, David B.; Culleton, Brendan J.; Kennett, Douglas J.

    2014-10-01

    We used a XAD-purified AMS radiocarbon method to date 62 bison specimens from different contexts on the very southern extent of the Great Plains of North America to produce a precise chronology of bison population expansions spanning the last 6000 years. Sixty-one of these samples provide stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicating relative temperature and moisture conditions during intervals defined by the presence of bison within this time span. This chronology indicates climatic conditions favorable to bison were present in the greater central Texas area, including the uplifted Edwards Plateau and extending to the Coastal Plain during periods from ˜5955 to 5815, ˜3290 to 3130, 2700 to 2150, and 650 to 530 cal BP. However, isotope results suggest climatic conditions differed for each period. The earliest “Calf Creek” period was characterized by cool but dry conditions, the later “Late Archaic 1 & 2” periods were increasingly warmer and wetter, and the latest “Toyah” period was cooler and drier than the Late Archaic periods, but warmer and wetter than Calf Creek. Both the Calf Creek and Toyah periods had higher variability within these overall trends. Comparison with regional records suggests that these periods represent variation within generally cool-dry climates. Human adaptive response to increased bison availability resulted in significant cultural changes across all four periods.

  13. Paleotsunami Inundation of a Beach Ridge Plain: Cobble Ridge Overtopping and Interridge Valley Flooding in Seaside, Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt D. Peterson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Seaside beach ridge plain was inundated by six paleotsunamis during the last ~2500 years. Large runups (adjusted >10 m in height overtopped seawardmost cobble beach ridges (7 m elevation at ~1.3 and ~2.6 ka before present. Smaller paleotsunami (6–8 m in height likely entered the beach plain interior (4-5 m elevation through the paleo-Necanicum bay mouth. The AD 1700 Cascadia paleotsunami had a modest runup (6-7 m height, yet it locally inundated to 1.5 km landward distance. Bed shear stresses (100–3,300 dyne cm−2 are estimated for paleotsunami surges (0.5–2 m depths that flowed down slopes (0.002–0.017 gradient on the landward side of the cobble beach ridges. Critical entrainment shear stresses of 1,130–1,260 dyne cm−2 were needed to dislodge the largest clasts (26–32 cm diameter in paleotsunami coulees that were cut (100–200 m width into the landward side of the cobble ridges.

  14. Stress feature interpretation from ICDP drill holes to constrain the orientations of the three principal stresses: Snake River Plain (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Kück, Jochem; Harms, Ulrich; Schmitt, Douglas R.

    2016-04-01

    Downhole data from drilled holes provide a unique opportunity to identify wellbore failure and understand physical properties of the deep sediments and rocks. In the framework of the ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) we have obtained and analysed a set of geophysical logging data of two deep boreholes (Kimama and Kimberly) in the Snake River Plain in southern Idaho for the ICDP Hot Spot project. The Snake River Plain represents the track of a deep-seated mantle hotspot that has thinned the lithosphere and fuelled the intrusion of up to 10 km of hot basaltic-rhyolitic magma into the lower and middle crust. This area represents the ideal place for geothermal exploration and exploitation. For that a study of the complete state of stress in this region becomes a key point to know and understand the distribution of fractures and failures and how they can influence the permeability of the Hot Spot geothermal reservoir. Processed acoustic borehole images acquired along two boreholes detect a variety of natural and drilling induced features on the borehole wall, including bedding, fractures and breakouts. Three primary types of stress-induced drillhole indicators, breakouts, petal centre-line fractures and tensile fractures, were analysed in detail in order to define the orientation of the present-day stress state. Borehole breakouts are stress-induced elongations of a borehole cross section and on borehole images they appear as dark features and in some cases, incipient breakouts have been identified by conjugate shear fractures, where no spalling of the borehole wall has occurred. The drilling induced tensile fractures appear as dark electrically conductive features, with a strike parallel to the direction of the far-field greatest horizontal stress. They can be differentiated from natural fractures because they do not cross the borehole, do not form complete sinusoids shape on BHTV images and show a discontinuous nature. On the contrary the

  15. The History of Fire on the Northern Plains, USA, and its Response to Holocene Drought-Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K.; Clark, J.; Grimm, E.; Donovan, J.; Mueller, P.

    2003-12-01

    Extensive drought has periodically gripped large regions of the United States in the past. The "Dust Bowl" of the 1930's in the central plains is perhaps one of the most vivid examples of prolonged drought, climatic extremes, dust storms, crop failure and general human hardship. The impact of future drought conditions potentiated by greenhouse gas emissions may indeed exceed the devastation wrought during historical droughts and thus mandates examination of past drought variability. Two long cores from Kettle Lake (North Dakota) and Brush Lake (Montana) were collected to study past drought variability in the northern plains. An age-depth model was developed for the cores by fitting a locally weighted loess curve to AMS radiocarbon dates obtained from the cores. The cores were continuously sub-sampled at high resolution (1 cm) for pollen, charcoal, and sediment mineralogy. Pollen was extracted using standard techniques and charcoal was sieved from the sediment at 180 um resolution and its area determined through optical microscopy. Minerology was determined using x-ray diffraction. The data reveal that the mid-Holocene was exceptionally warm and dry and that several fire regimes existed throughout the Holocene. In general more fire characterized the early- and late-Holocene with less fire during the mid-Holocene. Spectral analysis of the multi-proxies reveals that 100- to 130-year drought cycles persisted during the early-Holocene in the northern plains. Drought cycles are also observed during the late-Holocene interval. The dry phases of the cycles are characterized by a decline in grasses and fire and an increase in forb vegetation and erosion. The forb response during the mid-Holocene is one of fluctuating Ambrosia pollen whereas Artemisia pollen cycles in the late-Holocene. This change in pollen response may reflect a change in the seasonality of drought from winter to summer over that time. Fires are more common during the wet phases of the drought cycles

  16. Pathways for arsenic from sediments to groundwater to streams: Biogeochemical processes in the Inner Coastal Plain, New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Julia L.; Mumford, Adam; Young, Lily Y.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Bonin, Jennifer L.; Rosman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments that underlie the Inner Coastal Plain of New Jersey contain the arsenic-rich mineral glauconite. Streambed sediments in two Inner Coastal Plain streams (Crosswicks and Raccoon Creeks) that traverse these glauconitic deposits are enriched in arsenic (15–25 mg/kg), and groundwater discharging to the streams contains elevated levels of arsenic (>80 μg/L at a site on Crosswicks Creek) with arsenite generally the dominant species. Low dissolved oxygen, low or undetectable levels of nitrate and sulfate, detectable sulfide concentrations, and high concentrations of iron and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the groundwater indicate that reducing environments are present beneath the streambeds and that microbial activity, fueled by the DOC, is involved in releasing arsenic and iron from the geologic materials. In groundwater with the highest arsenic concentrations at Crosswicks Creek, arsenic respiratory reductase gene (arrA) indicated the presence of arsenic-reducing microbes. From extracted DNA, 16s rRNA gene sequences indicate the microbial community may include arsenic-reducing bacteria that have not yet been described. Once in the stream, iron is oxidized and precipitates as hydroxide coatings on the sediments. Arsenite also is oxidized and co-precipitates with or is sorbed to the iron hydroxides. Consequently, dissolved arsenic concentrations are lower in streamwater than in the groundwater, but the arsenic contributed by groundwater becomes part of the arsenic load in the stream when sediments are suspended during high flow. A strong positive relation between concentrations of arsenic and DOC in the groundwater samples indicates that any process—natural or anthropogenic—that increases the organic carbon concentration in the groundwater could stimulate microbial activity and thus increase the amount of arsenic that is released from the geologic materials.

  17. Long-term patterns of air temperatures, daily temperature range, precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration and aridity index in the USA Great Plains: Part I. Spatial trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukal, M.; Irmak, S.

    2016-11-01

    Due to their substantial spatio-temporal behavior, long-term quantification and analyses of important hydrological variables are essential for practical applications in water resources planning, evaluating the water use of agricultural crop production and quantifying crop evapotranspiration patterns and irrigation management vs. hydrologic balance relationships. Observed data at over 800 sites across the Great Plains of USA, comprising of 9 states and 2,307,410 km2 of surface area, which is about 30% of the terrestrial area of the USA, were used to quantify and map large-scale and long-term (1968-2013) spatial trends of air temperatures, daily temperature range (DTR), precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and aridity index (AI) at monthly, growing season and annual time steps. Air temperatures had a strong north to south increasing trend, with annual average varying from -1 to 24 °C, and growing season average temperature varying from 8 to 30 °C. DTR gradually decreased from western to eastern parts of the region, with a regional annual and growing season averages of 14.25 °C and 14.79 °C, respectively. Precipitation had a gradual shift towards higher magnitudes from west to east, with the average annual and growing season (May-September) precipitation ranging from 163 to 1486 mm and from 98 to 746 mm, respectively. ETo had a southwest-northeast decreasing trend, with regional annual and growing season averages of 1297 mm and 823 mm, respectively. AI increased from west to east, indicating higher humidity (less arid) towards the east, with regional annual and growing season averages of 0.49 and 0.44, respectively. The spatial datasets and maps for these important climate variables can serve as valuable background for climate change and hydrologic studies in the Great Plains region. Through identification of priority areas from the developed maps, efforts of the concerned personnel and agencies and resources can be diverted towards development

  18. Genetic and grade and tonnage models for sandstone-hosted roll-type uranium deposits, Texas Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Tureck, Kathleen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hannon, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The coincidence of a number of geologic and climatic factors combined to create conditions favorable for the development of mineable concentrations of uranium hosted by Eocene through Pliocene sandstones in the Texas Coastal Plain. Here 254 uranium occurrences, including 169 deposits, 73 prospects, 6 showings and 4 anomalies, have been identified. About 80 million pounds of U3O8 have been produced and about 60 million pounds of identified producible U3O8 remain in place. The development of economic roll-type uranium deposits requires a source, large-scale transport of uranium in groundwater, and deposition in reducing zones within a sedimentary sequence. The weight of the evidence supports a source from thick sequences of volcanic ash and volcaniclastic sediment derived mostly from the Trans-Pecos volcanic field and Sierra Madre Occidental that lie west of the region. The thickest accumulations of source material were deposited and preserved south and west of the San Marcos arch in the Catahoula Formation. By the early Oligocene, a formerly uniformly subtropical climate along the Gulf Coast transitioned to a zoned climate in which the southwestern portion of Texas Coastal Plain was dry, and the eastern portion humid. The more arid climate in the southwestern area supported weathering of volcanic ash source rocks during pedogenesis and early diagenesis, concentration of uranium in groundwater and movement through host sediments. During the middle Tertiary Era, abundant clastic sediments were deposited in thick sequences by bed-load dominated fluvial systems in long-lived channel complexes that provided transmissive conduits favoring transport of uranium-rich groundwater. Groundwater transported uranium through permeable sandstones that were hydrologically connected with source rocks, commonly across formation boundaries driven by isostatic loading and eustatic sea level changes. Uranium roll fronts formed as a result of the interaction of uranium-rich groundwater

  19. Use of chemical and isotopic tracers to assess nitrate contamination and ground-water age, Woodville Karst Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B.G.; Chelette, A.R.; Pratt, T.R.

    2004-01-01

    Concerns regarding ground-water contamination in the Woodville Karst Plain have arisen due to a steady increase in nitrate-N concentrations (0.25-0.90 mg/l) during the past 30 years in Wakulla Springs, a large regional discharge point for water (9.6 m3/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Multiple isotopic and chemical tracers were used with geochemical and lumped-parameter models (exponential mixing (EM), dispersion, and combined exponential piston flow) to assess: (1) the sources and extent of nitrate contamination of ground water and springs, and (2) mean transit times (ages) of ground water. Delta 15N-NO3 values (1.7-13.8???) indicated that nitrate in ground water originated from localized sources of inorganic fertilizer and human/animal wastes. Nitrate in spring waters (??15N-NO3=5.3-8.9???) originated from both inorganic and organic N sources. Nitrate-N concentrations (1.0 mg/l) were associated with shallow wells (open intervals less than 15 m below land surface), elevated nitrate concentrations in deeper wells are consistent with mixtures of water from shallow and deep zones in the UFA as indicated from geochemical mixing models and the distribution of mean transit times (5-90 years) estimated using lumped-parameter flow models. Ground water with mean transit times of 10 years or less tended to have higher dissolved organic carbon concentrations, lower dissolved solids, and lower calcite saturation indices than older waters, indicating mixing with nearby surface water that directly recharges the aquifer through sinkholes. Significantly higher values of pH, magnesium, dolomite saturation index, and phosphate in springs and deep water (>45 m) relative to a shallow zone (<45 m) were associated with longer ground-water transit times (50-90 years). Chemical differences with depth in the aquifer result from deep regional flow of water recharged through low permeability sediments (clays and clayey sands of the Hawthorn Formation) that overlie the UFA

  20. Use of chemical and isotopic tracers to assess nitrate contamination and ground-water age, Woodville Karst Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Brian G.; Chelette, Angela R.; Pratt, Thomas R.

    2004-04-01

    Concerns regarding ground-water contamination in the Woodville Karst Plain have arisen due to a steady increase in nitrate-N concentrations (0.25-0.90 mg/l) during the past 30 years in Wakulla Springs, a large regional discharge point for water (9.6 m 3/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Multiple isotopic and chemical tracers were used with geochemical and lumped-parameter models (exponential mixing (EM), dispersion, and combined exponential piston flow) to assess: (1) the sources and extent of nitrate contamination of ground water and springs, and (2) mean transit times (ages) of ground water. Delta 15N-NO 3 values (1.7-13.8‰) indicated that nitrate in ground water originated from localized sources of inorganic fertilizer and human/animal wastes. Nitrate in spring waters (δ 15N-NO 3=5.3-8.9‰) originated from both inorganic and organic N sources. Nitrate-N concentrations (1.0 mg/l) were associated with shallow wells (open intervals less than 15 m below land surface), elevated nitrate concentrations in deeper wells are consistent with mixtures of water from shallow and deep zones in the UFA as indicated from geochemical mixing models and the distribution of mean transit times (5-90 years) estimated using lumped-parameter flow models. Ground water with mean transit times of 10 years or less tended to have higher dissolved organic carbon concentrations, lower dissolved solids, and lower calcite saturation indices than older waters, indicating mixing with nearby surface water that directly recharges the aquifer through sinkholes. Significantly higher values of pH, magnesium, dolomite saturation index, and phosphate in springs and deep water (>45 m) relative to a shallow zone (<45 m) were associated with longer ground-water transit times (50-90 years). Chemical differences with depth in the aquifer result from deep regional flow of water recharged through low permeability sediments (clays and clayey sands of the Hawthorn Formation) that overlie the UFA

  1. Stochastic Model of Fracture Frequency Heterogeneity in a Welded Tuff EGS reservoir, Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, A.; Fairley, J. P., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    In light of recent advancements in reservoir enhancement and injection tests at active geothermal fields, there is interest in investigating the geothermal potential of widespread subsurface welded tuffs related to caldera collapse on the Snake River Plain (SRP). Before considering stimulation strategies, simulating heat extraction from the reservoir under in-situ fracture geometries will give a first-order estimation of extractable heat. With only limited deep boreholes drilled on the SRP, few analyses of the bulk hydrologic properties of the tuffs exist. Acknowledging the importance of the spatial heterogeneity of fractures to the permeability and injectivity of reservoirs hosted in impermeable volcanic units, we present fracture distributions from ICDP hole 5036-2A drilled as a part of Project HOTSPOT. The core documents more than 1200 m of largely homogeneous densely welded tuff hosting an isothermal warm-water reservoir at ~60˚ C. Multiple realizations of a hypothetical reservoir are created using sequential indicator algorithms that honor the observed vertical fracture frequency statistics. Results help form criteria for producing geothermal energy from the SRP.

  2. Adaptation of C4 Bioenergy Crop Species to Various Environments within the Southern Great Plains of USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumin Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As highly productive perennial grasses are evaluated as bioenergy feedstocks, a major consideration is biomass yield stability. Two experiments were conducted to examine some aspects of yield stability for two biofuel species: switchgrass (Panicum vigratum L. and Miscanthus x giganteus (Mxg. Biomass yields of these species were evaluated under various environmental conditions across the Southern Great Plains (SGP, including some sites with low soil fertility. In the first experiment, measured yields of four switchgrass ecotypes and Mxg varied among locations. Overall, plants showed optimal growth performance in study sites close to their geographical origins. Lowland switchgrass ecotypes and Mxg yields simulated by the ALMANAC model showed reasonable agreement with the measured yields across all study locations, while the simulated yields of upland switchgrass ecotypes were overestimated in northern locations. In the second experiment, examination of different N fertilizer rates revealed switchgrass yield increases over the range of 0, 80, or 160 kg N ha−1 year−1, while Mxg only showed yield increases between the low and medium N rates. This provides useful insights to crop management of two biofuel species and to enhance the predictive accuracy of process-based models, which are critical for developing bioenergy market systems in the SGP.

  3. Ground water flow analysis of a mid-Atlantic outer coastal plain watershed, Virginia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Reay, William G

    2002-01-01

    Models for ground water flow (MODFLOW) and particle tracking (MODPATH) were used to determine ground water flow patterns, principal ground water discharge and recharge zones, and estimates of ground water travel times in an unconfined ground water system of an outer coastal plain watershed on the Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia. By coupling recharge and discharge zones within the watershed, flowpath analysis can provide a method to locate and implement specific management strategies within a watershed to reduce ground water nitrogen loading to surface water. A monitoring well network was installed in Eyreville Creek watershed, a first-order creek, to determine hydraulic conductivities and spatial and temporal variations in hydraulic heads for use in model calibration. Ground water flow patterns indicated the convergence of flow along the four surface water features of the watershed; primary discharge areas were in the nontidal portions of the watershed. Ground water recharge zones corresponded to the surface water features with minimal development of a regional ground water system. Predicted ground water velocities varied between water features. Some ground water residence times exceeded 100 years, although average residence times ranged between 16 and 21 years; approximately 95% of the ground water resource would reflect land use activities within the last 50 years.

  4. Geomorphic and sedimentary responses of the Bull Creek Valley (Southern High Plains, USA) to Pleistocene and Holocene environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arauza, Hanna M.; Simms, Alexander R.; Bement, Leland C.; Carter, Brian J.; Conley, Travis; Woldergauy, Ammanuel; Johnson, William C.; Jaiswal, Priyank

    2016-01-01

    Fluvial geomorphology and stratigraphy often reflect past environmental and climate conditions. This study examines the response of Bull Creek, a small ephemeral creek in the Oklahoma panhandle, to environmental conditions through the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Fluvial terraces were mapped and their stratigraphy and sedimentology documented throughout the course of the main valley. Based on their elevations, terraces were broadly grouped into a late-Pleistocene fill terrace (T3) and two Holocene fill-cut terrace sets (T2 and T1). Terrace systems are marked by similar stratigraphies recording the general environmental conditions of the time. Sedimentary sequences preserved in terrace fills record the transition from a perennial fluvial system during the late glacial period and the Younger Dryas to a semiarid environment dominated by loess accumulation and punctuated by flood events during the middle to late Holocene. The highest rates of aeolian accumulation within the valley occurred during the early to middle Holocene. Our data provide significant new information regarding the late-Pleistocene and Holocene environmental history for this region, located between the well-studied Southern and Central High Plains of North America.

  5. Old groundwater in parts of the upper Patapsco aquifer,Atlantic Coastal Plain, Maryland, USA: Evidence fromradiocarbon, chlorine-36 and helium-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, L. Niel; Eggleston, John R.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Casile, Gerolamo C.; Andreasen, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    Apparent groundwater ages along two flow paths in the upper Patapsco aquifer of the Maryland Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA, were estimated using 14C, 36Cl and 4He data. Most of the ages range from modern to about 500 ka, with one sample at 117 km downgradient from the recharge area dated by radiogenic 4He accumulation at more than one Ma. Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) water was located about 20 km downgradient on the northern flow path where the radiocarbon age was 21.5 ka, paleorecharge temperatures were 0.5 to 1.5 °C (a maximum cooling of about 12 °C relative to the modern mean annual temperature of 13 °C), and Cl-, Cl/Br, and stable isotopes of water were minimum. Low recharge temperatures (typically 5-7 °C) indicate that recharge occurred predominantly during glacial periods when coastal heads were lowest due to low sea-level stand. Flow velocities averaged about 1.0 ma-1 in upgradient parts of the upper Patapsco aquifer and decreased from 0.13 ma-1 to 0.04 ma-1 at 40 km and 80 km further downgradient, respectively. This study demonstrates that most water in the upper Patapsco aquifer is non-renewable on human timescales under natural gradients, thus highlighting the importance of effective water-supply management to prolong the resource.

  6. Influence of catchment-scale military land use on stream physical and organic matter variables in small Southeaster Plains Catchments (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, Kelly [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a 3-year study designed to examine the relationship between disturbance from military land use and stream physical and organic matter variables within 12 small (<5.5 km2) Southeastern Plains catchments at the Fort Benning Military Installation, Georgia, USA. Primary land-use categories were based on percentages of bare ground and road cover and nonforested land (grasslands, sparse vegetation, shrublands, fields) in catchments and natural catchments features, including soils (% sandy soils) and catchment size (area). We quantified stream flashiness (determined by slope of recession limbs of storm hydrographs), streambed instability (measured by relative changes in bed height over time), organic matter storage [coarse wood debris (CWD) relative abundance, benthic particulate organic matter (BPOM)] and stream-water dissolved organic carbon concentration (DOC). Stream flashiness was positively correlated with average storm magnitude and percent of the catchment with sandy soil, whereas streambed instability was related to percent of the catchment containing nonforested (disturbed) land. The proportions of in-stream CWD and sediment BPOM, and stream-water DOC were negatively related to the percent of bare ground and road cover in catchments. Collectively, our results suggest that the amount of catchment disturbance causing denuded vegetation and exposed, mobile soil is (1) a key terrestrial influence on stream geomorphology and hydrology and (2) a greater determinant of in-stream organic matter conditions than is natural geomorphic or topographic variation (catchment size, soil type) in these systems.

  7. Estimation of potential evapotranspiration from extraterrestrial radiation, air temperature and humidity to assess future climate change effects on the vegetation of the Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David A.; Bachelet, Dominique M.; Symstad, Amy J.; Ferschweiler, Ken; Hobbins, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The potential evapotranspiration (PET) that would occur with unlimited plant access to water is a central driver of simulated plant growth in many ecological models. PET is influenced by solar and longwave radiation, temperature, wind speed, and humidity, but it is often modeled as a function of temperature alone. This approach can cause biases in projections of future climate impacts in part because it confounds the effects of warming due to increased greenhouse gases with that which would be caused by increased radiation from the sun. We developed an algorithm for linking PET to extraterrestrial solar radiation (incoming top-of atmosphere solar radiation), as well as temperature and atmospheric water vapor pressure, and incorporated this algorithm into the dynamic global vegetation model MC1. We tested the new algorithm for the Northern Great Plains, USA, whose remaining grasslands are threatened by continuing woody encroachment. Both the new and the standard temperature-dependent MC1 algorithm adequately simulated current PET, as compared to the more rigorous PenPan model of Rotstayn et al. (2006). However, compared to the standard algorithm, the new algorithm projected a much more gradual increase in PET over the 21st century for three contrasting future climates. This difference led to lower simulated drought effects and hence greater woody encroachment with the new algorithm, illustrating the importance of more rigorous calculations of PET in ecological models dealing with climate change.

  8. Rescuing degrading aquifers in the Central Coastal Plain of North Carolina (USA): Just process, effective groundwater management policy, and sustainable aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Alex K.; Klein, Wendy A.

    2014-07-01

    Strategic management of degrading coastal aquifers in eastern North Carolina (USA) became imperative after a severe imbalance occurred between withdrawal and recharge rates. To ameliorate this growing problem, an aggressive water policy was developed through public input by creating the Central Coastal Plain Capacity Use Area (CCPCUA) to maintain beneficial use of groundwater resources. Insights from social psychology, and socio-legal studies are used to evaluate how procedural justice and public participation played major roles to resolving groundwater resource management problems. A mixed methods approach uses archival data and interviews with various rule-making participants to assess the process of stakeholder involvement that led to creation of the policy. In addition, data analysis techniques are utilized to evaluate the effects of the policy on aquifer health (through water levels) over a ˜10 year period. Results suggest that not only did a stakeholder group participate in a process that was deemed fair, understandable, and relatively easy to administer for users and regulators, but public participation resulted in an effective plan that ensures the long-term sustainable use of groundwater. Declining groundwater withdrawals and recovering water levels suggest that the rule is achieving its intended goal of protecting the aquifers from depletion and degradation. This paper touches on global themes that are essential to water demand and consumption, water management techniques, and water resources protection.

  9. Old groundwater in parts of the upper Patapsco aquifer, Atlantic Coastal Plain, Maryland, USA: evidence from radiocarbon, chlorine-36 and helium-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, L. N.; Eggleston, J. R.; Andreasen, D. C.; Raffensperger, J. P.; Hunt, A. G.; Casile, G. C.

    2012-11-01

    Apparent groundwater ages along two flow paths in the upper Patapsco aquifer of the Maryland Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA, were estimated using 14C, 36Cl and 4He data. Most of the ages range from modern to about 500 ka, with one sample at 117 km downgradient from the recharge area dated by radiogenic 4He accumulation at more than one Ma. Last glacial maximum (LGM) water was located about 20 km downgradient on the northern flow path, where the radiocarbon age was 21.5 ka, paleorecharge temperatures were 0.5-1.5 °C (a maximum cooling of about 12 °C relative to the modern mean annual temperature of 13 °C), and Cl-, Cl/Br, and stable isotopes of water were minimum. Low recharge temperatures (typically 5-7 °C) indicate that recharge occurred predominantly during glacial periods when coastal heads were lowest due to low sea-level stand. Flow velocities averaged about 1.0 m a-1 in upgradient parts of the upper Patapsco aquifer and decreased from 0.13 to 0.04 m a-1 at 40 and 80 km further downgradient, respectively. This study demonstrates that most water in the upper Patapsco aquifer is non-renewable on human timescales under natural gradients, thus highlighting the importance of effective water-supply management to prolong the resource.

  10. Use of NMR logging to obtain estimates of hydraulic conductivity in the High Plains aquifer, Nebraska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlubac, Katherine; Knight, Rosemary; Song, Yi-Qiao; Bachman, Nate; Grau, Ben; Cannia, Jim; Williams, John

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivity (K) is one of the most important parameters of interest in groundwater applications because it quantifies the ease with which water can flow through an aquifer material. Hydraulic conductivity is typically measured by conducting aquifer tests or wellbore flow (WBF) logging. Of interest in our research is the use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging to obtain information about water-filled porosity and pore space geometry, the combination of which can be used to estimate K. In this study, we acquired a suite of advanced geophysical logs, aquifer tests, WBF logs, and sidewall cores at the field site in Lexington, Nebraska, which is underlain by the High Plains aquifer. We first used two empirical equations developed for petroleum applications to predict K from NMR logging data: the Schlumberger Doll Research equation (KSDR) and the Timur-Coates equation (KT-C), with the standard empirical constants determined for consolidated materials. We upscaled our NMR-derived K estimates to the scale of the WBF-logging K(KWBF-logging) estimates for comparison. All the upscaled KT-C estimates were within an order of magnitude of KWBF-logging and all of the upscaled KSDR estimates were within 2 orders of magnitude of KWBF-logging. We optimized the fit between the upscaled NMR-derived K and KWBF-logging estimates to determine a set of site-specific empirical constants for the unconsolidated materials at our field site. We conclude that reliable estimates of K can be obtained from NMR logging data, thus providing an alternate method for obtaining estimates of K at high levels of vertical resolution.

  11. The use of mineralogic techniques as relative age indicators for weathering profiles on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, D.R.; Owens, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Textural, geochemical, and mineralogic study of soils and weathering profiles has led to the practice of applying varioys weathering parameters as relative age indicators. In our studies examined the entire thickness of weathered sediment (i.e., the weathering profile) for evidence of weathering-induced changes in both sand- and clay-sized mineralogy, and used two techniques for relative age determinations. These techniques were developed as tools to support geologic mapping. One of our techniques for determining relative ages is based on the depth of weathering as recorded by progressive loss of denrital sand-sized minerals upward in the weathering profile. This is our preferred tool, especially in areas where weathering profiles have been truncated. We have found a gradual trend of increasing loss of labile sand-sized minerals (e.g., hornblendes, feldspars) and increasing depth of weathering with increasing age of the deposit. Of significance to many research programs, this technique does not require expensive instruments such as an X-ray diffractometer. Our other technique depends on accumulation of stable, secondary clay-sized minerals in the upper part of the weathering profile. In our study area on the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States, the stable assemblage consists of vermiculite, kaolinite, gibbsite, and iron oxides and hydroxides. This technique can be effective for relative age determinations where profiles have not been truncated, and can provide useful information on depositional and erosional history. However, in areas of widespread erosion and profile truncation, such as the Carolinas, the utility of this technique for relative age determinations is limited. There, soils were partially or completely removed in many localities in relatively recent times. ?? 1991.

  12. Centennial eolian cyclicity in the Great Plains, USA: A dominant pattern of wind transport over the past 4000 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalb, Antje; Dean, Walter E.; Fritz, C. Sherilyn; Geiss, Christoph E.; Kromer, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Proxy evidence at decadal resolution from Late Holocene sediments from Pickerel Lake, northeastern South Dakota, shows distinct centennial cycles (400-700 years) in magnetic susceptibility; contents of carbonate, organic carbon, and major elements; abundance in ostracodes; and delta18O and delta13C values in calcite. Proxies indicate cyclic changes in eolian input, productivity, and temperature. Maxima in magnetic susceptibility are accompanied by maxima in aluminum and iron mass accumulation rates (MARs), and in abundances of the ostracode Fabaeformiscandona rawsoni. This indicates variable windy, and dry conditions with westerly wind dominance, including during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Maxima in carbonates, organic carbon, phosphorous, and high delta13C values of endogenic calcite indicate moister and less windy periods with increased lake productivity, including during the Little Ice Age, and alternate with maxima of eolian transport. Times of the Maunder, Sporer and Wolf sunspot minima are characterized by maxima in delta18O values and aluminum MARs, and minima in delta13C values and organic carbon content. We interpret these lake conditions during sunspot minima to indicate decreases in lake surface water temperatures of up to 4-5 degrees C associated with decreases in epilimnetic productivity during summer. We propose that the centennial cycles are triggered by solar activity, originate in the tropical Pacific, and their onset during the Late Holocene is associated with insolation conditions driven by precession. The cyclic pattern is transmitted from the tropical Pacific into the atmosphere and transported by westerly winds into the North Atlantic realm where they strengthen the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during periods of northern Great Plains wind maxima. This consequently leads to moister climates in Central and Northern Europe. Thus, Pickerel Lake provides evidence for mechanisms of teleconnections including an atmospheric link

  13. Atmospheric black carbon concentrations in North America, ~1100 to 2005. Liaquat Husain and Tanveer Ahmed Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York, Albany, NY, 12201-0509, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, L.

    2013-05-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols in the atmosphere absorb solar radiation, and cause heating of the atmosphere, may alter Earth's cloud cover, and impact precipitation cycle. The best estimate for radiative forcing from BC with 90% certainty is + 1.1 Wm-2 ( + 0.17 to 2.1 Wm-2), second only to that of CO2. A major uncertainty in the estimation is a lack of atmospheric BC data. Models are used to estimate BC emissions into the atmosphere. They have not been validated by field data. We report measurements of BC in the atmosphere, over a period of several centuries using lake sediments. Retrieval of such records provides an invaluable source for understanding changes in the atmosphere with time. Numerous studies have been conducted with such an objective. Owing to a lack of knowledge of deposition rates of atmospheric aerosols into the lake sediments, a major shortcoming of these studies have been an inability to convert the measurements of chemical species in lake sediments into the atmosphere. We have developed a technique to overcome this shortcoming by measuring black carbon in atmospheric aerosols, and in lake sediment cores. The concentrations of BC were determined in daily filters collected at Whiteface Mountain, NY, from 1978 to 2005. Cores from two lakes around Whiteface Mountain, NY, were collected. Cores were (1) sectioned in thin slices, (2) freeze dried, (3) dated using the 210Pb technique, (4) BC chemically separated, and (5) concentrations measured using the thermal-optical method. By The deposition rate of BC from the atmosphere to the lakes was determined by comparing the BC concentration in air and the sediments for the 1978 -2005 period. The deposition rate so determined was used to concert the BC in the sediment into the atmosphere for the ~1978 to ~1100 period. The BC concentrations for the industrial period, ~1850 was low but rapidly increased from ~1900, peaked ~1925, decreased very slowly ~ 1980, followed by a sharp decrease. Concentrations has

  14. Biogenic origin of coalbed gas in the northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, P.D.; Breland, F.C.; Hackley, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    New coal-gas exploration and production in northern Louisiana and south-central Mississippi, Gulf of Mexico Basin, is focused on the Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene), where the depth to targeted subbituminous C to high volatile C bituminous coal beds ranges from 300 to 1680??m, and individual coal beds have a maximum thickness of about 6??m. Total gas content (generally excluding residual gas) of the coal beds ranges from less than 0.37??cm3/g (as-analyzed or raw basis; 1.2??cm3/g, dry, ash free basis, daf) at depths less than 400??m, to greater than 7.3??cm3/g (as-analyzed basis; 8.76??cm3/g, daf) in deeper (> 1,500??m) parts of the basin. About 20 Wilcox coal-gas wells in northern Louisiana produce from 200 to 6485??m3 of gas/day and cumulative gas production from these wells is approximately 25??million m3 (as of December, 2006). U.S. Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas resources in the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, including northern and south-central Mississippi, indicates that coal beds of the Wilcox Group contain an estimated mean total 109.3??million m3 (3.86??trillion ft3) of producible natural gas. To determine the origin of the Wilcox Group coal gases in northern Louisiana, samples of gas, water, and oil were collected from Wilcox coal and sandstone reservoirs and from under- and overlying Late Cretaceous and Eocene carbonate and sandstone reservoirs. Isotopic data from Wilcox coal-gas samples have an average ??13CCH4 value of - 62.6??? VPDB (relative to Vienna Peedee Belemnite) and an average ??DCH4 value of - 199.9??? VSMOW (relative to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water). Values of ??13CCO2 range from - 25.4 to 3.42??? VPDB. Produced Wilcox saline water collected from oil, conventional gas, and coalbed gas wells have ??DH2O values that range from - 27.3 to - 18.0??? VSMOW. These data suggest that the coal gases primarily are generated in saline formation water by bacterial reduction of CO2. Shallow (hydrocarbons from

  15. Land Use Change Impacts on Water, Salt, and Nutrient Cycles: Case Study Semiarid Southern High Plains, Texas, USA (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Reedy, R. C.; Gates, J. B.

    2009-12-01

    Land use change can have large scale impacts on the salt and nutrient cycles by changing partitioning of water at the land surface, applying irrigation and fertilizers to the system, and transporting salts and nutrients to underlying aquifers. The objective of this study was to evaluate impacts of land-use change on salt and nutrient cycles by quantifying water fluxes and salt and nutrient inventories under natural ecosystems (3 boreholes) and rain-fed agroecosystem (19 boreholes) and irrigated agroecosystem (13 boreholes) in the Southern High Plains, Texas. Salt and nutrient inventories were estimated by measuring water-extractable anion concentrations in sampled boreholes and water fluxes were estimated using the chloride mass balance approach. Large salt inventories accumulated under natural ecosystems from bulk precipitation since the Pleistocene (median chloride: 2,200 kg/ha/m; perchlorate: 46 g/ha/m; sulfate: 5,600 kg/ha/m). Conversion of natural ecosystems to rainfed agroecosystems flushed these pre-existing salt reservoirs towards and into the underlying Ogallala aquifer as a result of increased recharge rates (median of 19 profiles: 24 mm/yr). The flushed zone of rain-fed profiles are characterized by extremely low inventories of salts (chloride: 15 kg/ha/m; perchlorate: 6.3 g/ha/m; sulfate, 750 kg/ha/m). Cultivation also resulted in mineralization and nitrification of soil organic nitrogen, creating nitrate reservoirs at the leading edge of the front that represent 74% of profile nitrate-N and that are being mobilized into the aquifer. Irrigation has the greatest impact on nonpoint source contaminants by adding salts and nutrients to the system. Chloride inventories under irrigated agroecosystems (median 1,600 kg/ha/m) are similar to those under natural ecosystems (median 2,200 kg/ha/m) but accumulated over decades rather than millennia typical of natural ecosystems. Peak Cl concentrations in profiles represent evapoconcentration factors of 12-42 relative

  16. Biogenic origin of coalbed gas in the northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Hackley, Paul C. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Breland, F. Clayton Jr. [Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, 617 North 3rd Street, Baton Rouge, LA 70802 (United States)

    2008-10-02

    New coal-gas exploration and production in northern Louisiana and south-central Mississippi, Gulf of Mexico Basin, is focused on the Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene), where the depth to targeted subbituminous C to high volatile C bituminous coal beds ranges from 300 to 1680 m, and individual coal beds have a maximum thickness of about 6 m. Total gas content (generally excluding residual gas) of the coal beds ranges from less than 0.37 cm{sup 3}/g (as-analyzed or raw basis; 1.2 cm{sup 3}/g, dry, ash free basis, daf) at depths less than 400 m, to greater than 7.3 cm{sup 3}/g (as-analyzed basis; 8.76 cm{sup 3}/g, daf) in deeper (> 1,500 m) parts of the basin. About 20 Wilcox coal-gas wells in northern Louisiana produce from 200 to 6485 m{sup 3} of gas/day and cumulative gas production from these wells is approximately 25 million m{sup 3} (as of December, 2006). U.S. Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas resources in the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, including northern and south-central Mississippi, indicates that coal beds of the Wilcox Group contain an estimated mean total 109.3 million m{sup 3} (3.86 trillion ft{sup 3}) of producible natural gas. To determine the origin of the Wilcox Group coal gases in northern Louisiana, samples of gas, water, and oil were collected from Wilcox coal and sandstone reservoirs and from under- and overlying Late Cretaceous and Eocene carbonate and sandstone reservoirs. Isotopic data from Wilcox coal-gas samples have an average {delta}{sup 13}C{sub CH4} value of - 62.6 permille VPDB (relative to Vienna Peedee Belemnite) and an average {delta}D{sub CH4} value of - 199.9 permille VSMOW (relative to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water). Values of {delta}{sup 13}C{sub CO2} range from - 25.4 to 3.42 permille VPDB. Produced Wilcox saline water collected from oil, conventional gas, and coalbed gas wells have {delta}D{sub H2O} values that range from - 27.3 to - 18.0 permille VSMOW. These data suggest that the

  17. Using a network modularity analysis to inform management of a rare endemic plant in the northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.; Droege, Sam; Rabie, Paul A.; Larson, Jennifer L.; Devalez, Jelle; Haar, Milton; McDermott-Kubeczko, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    1. Analyses of flower-visitor interaction networks allow application of community-level information to conservation problems, but management recommendations that ensue from such analyses are not well characterized. Results of modularity analyses, which detect groups of species (modules) that interact more with each other than with species outside their module, may be particularly applicable to management concerns. 2. We conducted modularity analyses of networks surrounding a rare endemic annual plant, Eriogonum visheri, at Badlands National Park, USA, in 2010 and 2011. Plant species visited were determined by pollen on insect bodies and by flower species upon which insects were captured. Roles within modules (network hub, module hub, connector and peripheral, in decreasing order of network structural importance) were determined for each species. 3. Relationships demonstrated by the modularity analysis, in concert with knowledge of pollen species carried by insects, allowed us to infer effects of two invasive species on E. visheri. Sharing a module increased risk of interspecific pollen transfer to E. visheri. Control of invasive Salsola tragus, which shared a module with E. visheri, is therefore a prudent management objective, but lack of control of invasive Melilotus officinalis, which occupied a different module, is unlikely to negatively affect pollination of E. visheri. Eriogonum pauciflorum may occupy a key position in this network, supporting insects from the E. visheri module when E. visheri is less abundant. 4. Year-to-year variation in species' roles suggests management decisions must be based on observations over several years. Information on pollen deposition on stigmas would greatly strengthen inferences made from the modularity analysis. 5. Synthesis and applications: Assessing the consequences of pollination, whether at the community or individual level, is inherently time-consuming. A trade-off exists: rather than an estimate of fitness effects, the

  18. Long-term patterns of air temperatures, daily temperature range, precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration and aridity index in the USA great plains: Part II. Temporal trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukal, M.; Irmak, S.

    2016-11-01

    Detection of long-term changes in climate variables over large spatial scales is a very important prerequisite to the development of effective mitigation and adaptation measures for the future potential climate change and for developing strategies for future hydrologic balance analyses under changing climate. Moreover, there is a need for effective approaches of providing information about these changes to decision makers, water managers and stakeholders to aid in efficient implementation of the developed strategies. This study involves computation, mapping and analyses of long-term (1968-2013) county-specific trends in annual, growing-season (1st May-30th September) and monthly air temperatures [(maximum (Tmax), minimum (Tmin) and average (Tavg)], daily temperature range (DTR), precipitation, grass reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and aridity index (AI) over the USA Great Plains region using datasets from over 800 weather station sites. Positive trends in annual Tavg, Tmax and Tmin, DTR, precipitation, ETo and AI were observed in 71%, 89%, 85%, 31%, 61%, 38% and 66% of the counties in the region, respectively, whereas these proportions were 48%, 89%, 62%, 20%, 57%, 28%, and 63%, respectively, for the growing-season averages of the same variables. On a regional average basis, the positive trends in growing-season Tavg, Tmax and Tmin, DTR, precipitation, ETo and AI were 0.18 °C decade-1, 0.19 °C decade-1, 0.17 °C decade-1, 0.09 °C decade-1, 1.12 mm yr-1, 0.4 mm yr-1 and 0.02 decade-1, respectively, and the negative trends were 0.21 °C decade-1, 0.06 °C decade-1, 0.09 °C decade-1, 0.22 °C decade-1, 1.16 mm yr-1, 0.76 mm yr-1 and 0.02 decade-1, respectively. The temporal trends were highly variable in space and were appropriately represented using monthly, annual and growing-season maps developed using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. The long-term and spatial and temporal information and data for a large region provided in this study can be

  19. Impacts of Changing Agri-Environmental Policy on Countryside Conservation: A Report of Focus Groups Held in Association with Skaneateles Lake Watershed, Skaneateles, NY, USA, and High Weald Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Goudhurst, Kent, England, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, David; Bills, Nelson L.

    2003-01-01

    Utilizing area-based agri-environmental programs, our work involves focus groups and interviews with program managers, landowners, and elected officials to assess the impact of on-farm managerial interventions on broader countryside conservation issues. Initially, two areas were compared: The Skaneateles Lake Watershed Agricultural Program (NY) and the High Weald Land Management Initiative (England). The organizing principle for this research is that the British experience with countryside ma...

  20. Hydrological responses of land use change from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to cellulosic bioenergy crops in the Southern High Plains of Texas, USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Yong; Ale, Srinivasulu; Rajan, Nithya; Morgan, Cristine L. S; Park, Jongyoon

    2016-01-01

    The Southern High Plains ( SHP ) region of Texas in the United States, where cotton is grown in a vast acreage, has the potential to grow cellulosic bioenergy crops such as perennial grasses and biomass sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor...

  1. Nye Medier - ny journalistik?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    2009-01-01

    På baggrund af en pilotundersøgelse undersøger denne artikel forskningens hypoteser om netjournalistikken, med særligt fokus på den nordiske litteratur på området. Det argumenteres, at der med netmediet og netavisernes vækst ikke nødvendigvis er tale om ny journalistik; på den ene side bekræfter ...... nogle traditionelle journalistiske rutiner i nyhedsproduktionen.En radikalisering der indikerer, at nyheden i den digitale tidsalder kan ses som en dynamisk proces frem for et statisk produkt. Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  2. Faglighed + test = ny elevtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Claus Munch

    2010-01-01

    Kronikken handler om tiden efter den seneste folkeskolelov, samt de teknikker der indføres i bestræbelserne på at optimere elevernes færdigheder og kundskaber. Siden de dårlige PISA-test i 2000, og specielt 2003, har der været fokus på det kernefaglige, og for at sikre eleverne denne faglighed in...... indføres en række teknikker såsom evaluering, test, trin- og slutmål, der skal sikre at eleverne optimere deres faglighed. Dette peger frem mod en ny elevtype - en præstationsorienteret elev....

  3. Diversity among melon (Cucumis melo L.) landraces from the Indo-Gangetic plains of India and their genetic relationship with U.S.A. melon cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report here the first broad genetic characterization of farmer-developed land races of melon (Cucumis melo L.) from the Indo-Gangetic plains of India, an area overlooked in previous genetic diversity analyses of Indian melon germplasm. Eighty-eight landraces from three melon groups in two subspec...

  4. Tendenser i ny tysk litteratur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Steen Klitgård

    Arbejdspapiret indeholder to foredrag: dels om ny tysk litteraturs forhold til 2. verdenskrig, dels om Pater Handke og hans roman "Don Juan (fortalt af ham selv)......Arbejdspapiret indeholder to foredrag: dels om ny tysk litteraturs forhold til 2. verdenskrig, dels om Pater Handke og hans roman "Don Juan (fortalt af ham selv)...

  5. Acute and chronic toxicity of Roundup Weathermax and Ignite 280 SL to larval Spea multiplicata and S. bombifrons from the Southern High Plains, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinehart, Simon K., E-mail: simon.dinehart@okstate.ed [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Smith, Loren M.; McMurry, Scott T. [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Smith, Philip N.; Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Haukos, David A. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, MS 2125, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Pesticides have been implicated in widespread amphibian declines. We assessed acute and chronic toxicity of two widely used herbicides to larval New Mexico (Spea multiplicata) and Plains (S. bombifrons) spadefoots from cropland and native grassland playas. Roundup WeatherMAX (WM) toxicity estimates (48- and 216-h LC{sub 50}; 48-h LC{sub 1}) for both species were similar to environmental concentrations expected from accidental overspray. Chronic (30-day) exposure to WM at predicted environmental concentrations (2.0 and 2.8 mg glyphosate acid equivalents/L) reduced survival of both species. Ignite 280 SL (IG) toxicity estimates (48-h LC{sub 50} and LC{sub 1}) for both species were above predicted environmental concentrations of 1.0 mg glufosinate/L. Chronic exposure to predicted environmental concentrations of IG did not reduce survival of either species. Toxicity test results suggest that at predicted environmental concentrations IG would not cause extensive mortalities among larval New Mexico and Plains spadefoots. However, WM may cause extensive mortality among larvae of these species. - Roundup WeatherMAX may cause extensive mortality among larval New Mexico and Plains spadefoots; it is unlikely that exposure to Ignite 280 SL would result in extensive mortalities.

  6. Nitrate leaching, water-use efficiency and yield of corn with different irrigation and nitrogen management systems in coastal plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation management for corn (Zea mays L.) production on the typical low water holding capacity soil of the southeastern USA needs to be improved to increase irrigation efficiency and reduce losses of nitrate from fields. A three-year (2012-2014) field study was conducted to compare the effects of...

  7. Paleoenvironmental interpretation of an ancient Arctic coastal plain: Integrated paleopedology and palynology from the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Prince Creek Formation, North Slope, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, P. J.; Flaig, P. P.; Fiorillo, A. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Cretaceous (Early Maastrichtian), dinosaur-bearing Prince Creek Formation, North Slope, Alaska, records high-latitude, alluvial sedimentation and soil formation on a low-lying, coastal plain during a greenhouse phase in Earth history. This study combines outcrop observations, micromorphology, geochemistry, and palynological analyses of paleosols in order to reconstruct local paleoenvironments of weakly developed, high-latitude coastal plain soils. Sediments of the Prince Creek Fm. include quartz- and chert-rich sandstone channels, and floodplains containing organic-rich siltstone and mudstone, carbonaceous shale, coal and ashfall deposits. Vertically stacked horizons of blocky-to-platy, drab-colored mudstone and siltstone with carbonaceous root-traces and mottled aggregates alternating with sandy units indicate that the development of compound and cumulative, weakly-developed soils on floodplains alternated with overbank alluviation and deposition on crevasse splay complexes on floodplains . Soil formation occurred on levees, point bars, crevasse splays and along the margins of floodplain lakes, ponds, and swamps. Soil-forming processes were interrupted by repeated deposition of sediment on top of soil profiles by flooding of nearby channels. Alluviation is evidenced by thin (fern and moss spores, projectates, age-diagnostic Wodehouseia edmontonicola, hinterland bisaccate pollen and pollen from lowland trees, shrubs, and herbs indicate an Early Maastrichtian age for these sediments. Large and small theropods, hadrosaurs, pachycephalosaurs, and ceratopsians, as well as fishes and fossil mammals have been found as well. Paleosols are similar to modern aquic subgroups of Entisols and Inceptisols and, in more distal locations, potential acid sulfate soils. Integration of pedogenic processes and palynology suggests that these high latitude floodplains were influenced by seasonally(?) fluctuating water table levels on a coastal plain governed by a near polar light

  8. Anti-Brucella Antibodies in Moose (Alces alces gigas), Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), and Plains Bison (Bison bison bison) in Alaska, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Ingebjørg Helena; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Godfroid, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    We used an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) and the rose bengal test (RBT) to test for anti-Brucella antibodies in moose (Alces alces gigas), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), and plains bison (Bison bison bison) from various game management units (GMUs) in Alaska, US, sampled from 1982 to 2010. A portion of the sera had previously been tested with the standard plate test (SPT), the buffered Brucella antigen (BBA) card test, and the card test (CARD). No antibody-positive plains bison were identified. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected in moose (iELISA, n=4/87; RBT, n=4/87; SPT, n=4/5; BBA, n=4/4) from GMU 23 captured in 1992, 1993, and 1995 and in muskoxen (iELISA, n=4/52; RBT, n=4/52; CARD, n=4/35) from GMUs 26A and 26B captured in 2004, 2006, and 2007. A negative effect of infection on the health of individuals of these species is probable. The presence of antibody-positive animals from 1992 to 2007 suggests presence of brucellae over time. The antibody-positive animals were found in northern Alaska, an area with a historically higher prevalence of Brucella-positive caribou, and a spillover of Brucella suis biovar 4 from caribou may have occurred. Brucella suis biovar 4 causes human brucellosis, and transmission from consumption of moose and muskoxen is possible.

  9. Estimating the Regional Flux of Nitrate and Agricultural Herbicide Compounds from Groundwater to Headwater Streams of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ator, S.; Denver, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Agriculture is common in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP, including New Jersey through North Carolina), and groundwater discharge provides nitrogen (primarily in the form of nitrate) and herbicide compounds from agricultural sources along with the majority of flow to NACP streams. Poor water quality has contributed to ecological degradation of tidal streams and estuaries along much of the adjacent mid-Atlantic coast. Although statistical models have provided estimates of total instream nutrient flux in the Coastal Plain, the regional flux of nitrogen and herbicides during base flow is less well understood. We estimated the regional flux of nitrate and selected commonly used herbicide compounds from groundwater to non-tidal headwater streams of the NACP on the basis of late-winter or spring base-flow samples from 174 such streams. Sampled streams were selected using an unequal-probability random approach, and flux estimates are based on resulting population estimates rather than empirical models, which are commonly used for such estimates. Base-flow flux in the estimated 8,834 NACP non-tidal headwater streams are an estimated 21,200 kilograms per day of nitrate (as N) and 5.83, 0.565, and 20.7 kilograms per day of alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor (including selected degradates), respectively. Base-flow flux of alachlor and metolachlor is dominated by degradates; flux of parent compounds is less than 3 percent of the total flux of parent plus degradates. Base-flow flux of nitrate and herbicides as a percentage of applications generally varies predictably with regional variations in hydrogeology. Abundant nonpoint (primarily agricultural) sources and hydrogeologic conditions, for example, contribute to particularly large base-flow flux from the Delmarva Peninsula to Chesapeake Bay. In the Delmarva Peninsula part of the Chesapeake Watershed, more than 10 percent of total nonpoint nitrogen applications is transported through groundwater to stream base flow

  10. Holocene environmental change in the eastern Snake River Plain of Idaho, USA, as inferred from stable isotope analyses of small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commendador, Amy S.; Finney, Bruce P.

    2016-05-01

    Previous research on the small mammal population recovered from archeological excavations at the Wasden Site in southeastern Idaho suggests that changing frequency distributions through time represent a shift in climate during the early Holocene from a cooler, wetter regime to a warmer, drier one. This conclusion was re-evaluated using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of bone collagen from the three species of small mammals examined in the earlier studies: pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides), pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis), and ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii). Resulting carbon and nitrogen isotopic values are consistent with known differences in feeding ecology, suggesting high fidelity as proxies for past vegetation (and thus climate) regimes. Patterns of 15N enrichment and increased representation of C4-CAM vegetation observed in the pocket gophers, and to a lesser extent ground squirrels, suggests increasing warmth and/or aridity from the early Holocene until ∼7000 cal yr BP, thus supporting previous hypotheses of climate change on the eastern Snake River Plain. The results highlight the potential contribution of such studies for archeological research by providing additional proxies for environmental conditions that bear on paleoecological adaptations to climatic change, including past human use and occupation of the region.

  11. Distinguishing and correlating deposits from large ignimbrite eruptions using paleomagnetism: The Cougar Point Tuffs (mid-Miocene), southern Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, David R.; Coe, Robert S.; Brown, Ethan; Branney, Michael; Reichow, Marc; Knott, Thomas; Storey, Michael; Bonnichsen, Bill

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present paleomagnetic, geochemical, mineralogical, and geochronologic evidence for correlation of the mid-Miocene Cougar Point Tuff (CPT) in southwest Snake River Plain (SRP) of Idaho. The new stratigraphy presented here significantly reduces the frequency and increases the scale of known SRP ignimbrite eruptions. The CPT section exposed at the Black Rock Escarpment along the Bruneau River has been correlated eastward to the Brown's Bench escarpment (six common eruption units) and Cassia Mountains (three common eruption units) regions of southern Idaho. The CPT records an unusual pattern of geomagnetic field directions that provides the basis for robust stratigraphic correlations. Paleomagnetic characterization of eruption units based on geomagnetic field variation has a resolution on the order of a few centuries, providing a strong test of whether two deposits could have been emplaced from the same eruption or from temporally separate events. To obtain reliable paleomagnetic directions, the anisotropy of anhysteretic remanence was measured to correct for magnetic anisotropy, and an efficient new method was used to remove gyroremanence acquired during alternating field demagnetization.

  12. Tertiary thrust systems and fluid flow beneath the Beaufort coastal plain (1002 area), Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Grow, John A.; Perry, William J.; Moore, Thomas E.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Saltus, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    Beneath the Arctic coastal plain (commonly referred to as "the 1002 area") in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, northeastern Alaska, United States, seismic reflection data show that the northernmost and youngest part of the Brookian orogen is preserved as a Paleogene to Neogene system of blind and buried thrust-related structures. These structures involve Proterozoic to Miocene (and younger?) rocks that contain several potential petroleum reservoir facies. Thermal maturity data indicate that the deformed rocks are mature to overmature with respect to hydrocarbon generation. Oil seeps and stains in outcrops and shows in nearby wells indicate that oil has migrated through the region; geochemical studies have identified three potential petroleum systems. Hydrocarbons that were generated from Mesozoic source rocks in the deformed belt were apparently expelled and migrated northward in the Paleogene, before much of the deformation in this part of the orogen. It is also possible that Neogene petroleum, which was generated in Tertiary rocks offshore in the Arctic Ocean, migrated southward into Neogene structural traps at the thrust front. However, the hydrocarbon resource potential of this largely unexplored region of Alaska's North Slope remains poorly known.

  13. Diversity, flexibility, and the resilience effect: lessons from a social-ecological case study of diversified farming in the northern Great Plains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Carlisle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social-ecological systems are considered resilient when they are capable of recovering from externally forced shocks. Thus, whether a given system is identified as resilient depends on a number of contested definitions: what constitutes a shock, what constitutes a discrete system, and what constitutes acceptable performance. Here, I present a case study in which outcomes apparent to both the researcher and the study subjects demonstrated resilience in effect: a group of farmers in the northern Great Plains in the north-central United States realized economically sufficient production during a low rainfall year when many others in the region did not. However, the researcher's attempt to model this case as a resilient system was continually challenged by qualitative findings, suggesting that these farmers did not experience the officially decreed "drought" year as a shock. Moreover, the social and ecological processes that produced a "resilience effect" functioned as open systems, and were not readily bounded, even in analytical terms. This is not to suggest that resilience is not an operationalizable concept. Rather, the series of processes which produce a resilience effect may be best understood within a broad framework attentive to diversity, flexibility, and relationships at multiple scales - instead of quantitative models focused on discrete moments of disturbance and adaptation.

  14. Assessing the impacts of sea-level rise and precipitation change on the surficial aquifer in the low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier islands, east-central Florida (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Wang, Dingbao; Hagen, Scott C.; Medeiros, Stephen C.; Hall, Carlton R.

    2016-11-01

    A three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow and salinity transport model is implemented using the SEAWAT code to quantify the spatial variation of water-table depth and salinity of the surficial aquifer in Merritt Island and Cape Canaveral Island in east-central Florida (USA) under steady-state 2010 hydrologic and hydrogeologic conditions. The developed model is referred to as the `reference' model and calibrated against field-measured groundwater levels and a map of land use and land cover. Then, five prediction/projection models are developed based on modification of the boundary conditions of the calibrated `reference' model to quantify climate change impacts under various scenarios of sea-level rise and precipitation change projected to 2050. Model results indicate that west Merritt Island will encounter lowland inundation and saltwater intrusion due to its low elevation and flat topography, while climate change impacts on Cape Canaveral Island and east Merritt Island are not significant. The SEAWAT models developed for this study are useful and effective tools for water resources management, land use planning, and climate-change adaptation decision-making in these and other low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier island systems.

  15. Assessing the impacts of sea-level rise and precipitation change on the surficial aquifer in the low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier islands, east-central Florida (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Wang, Dingbao; Hagen, Scott C.; Medeiros, Stephen C.; Hall, Carlton R.

    2016-07-01

    A three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow and salinity transport model is implemented using the SEAWAT code to quantify the spatial variation of water-table depth and salinity of the surficial aquifer in Merritt Island and Cape Canaveral Island in east-central Florida (USA) under steady-state 2010 hydrologic and hydrogeologic conditions. The developed model is referred to as the `reference' model and calibrated against field-measured groundwater levels and a map of land use and land cover. Then, five prediction/projection models are developed based on modification of the boundary conditions of the calibrated `reference' model to quantify climate change impacts under various scenarios of sea-level rise and precipitation change projected to 2050. Model results indicate that west Merritt Island will encounter lowland inundation and saltwater intrusion due to its low elevation and flat topography, while climate change impacts on Cape Canaveral Island and east Merritt Island are not significant. The SEAWAT models developed for this study are useful and effective tools for water resources management, land use planning, and climate-change adaptation decision-making in these and other low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier island systems.

  16. Late Quaternary environmental change inferred from phytoliths and other soil-related proxies: Case studies from the central and southern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, C.E.; Johnson, W.C.; Mandel, R.D.; Palmer, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates stable carbon isotopes (??13C), opal phytolith assemblages, burnt phytoliths, microscopic charcoal and Sporormiella spores from modern soils and paleosols in Kansas and Oklahoma. Grass and dicot phytoliths in combination with ??13C are used as proxies for reconstructing the structure of grasslands and woodlands. Burnt grass phytoliths and microscopic charcoal are evaluated as proxies for reconstructing paleofire incidence. Concentrations of the fungal spore Sporormiella are used as a proxy for assessing large herbivore activity. These proxies were tested on various modern grassland communities of the central and southern Great Plains, including areas with bison, cattle, and small herbivores, and areas under different fire frequencies.Opal phytolith assemblages and ??13C values show that before cal 11ka, C3 grasses and woody plants predominated in areas that today are dominated by C4 grasses. The origin of the shortgrass prairie dates back to about cal 10ka. The origin of the tallgrass prairie, however, is not clear as phytolith data show variable assemblages throughout the Holocene (mixed-grass, tallgrass, and tallgrass-woodland mosaic). Different proxies (burnt phytoliths vs. charcoal) reveal different fire frequencies, but it is apparent that microfossil evidence for fire incidence is closely related to the abundance of woody plants in the landscape.Before cal 12. ka, soils show somewhat elevated concentration of Sporormiella, but lower concentrations than the modern high-density bison and cattle grazing areas. Throughout the Holocene, Sporormiella frequencies are low, which suggests lower large ungulate densities and perhaps high mobility. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Close evolutionary affinities between freshwater corbulid bivalves from the Neogene of western Amazonia and Paleogene of the northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Laurie C.; Hartman, Joseph H.; Wesselingh, Frank

    2006-03-01

    Freshwater corbulid bivalves found in Miocene deposits of western Amazonia have been considered products of an endemic radiation of a marine clade within the large lacustrine system occupying the region at that time. Our reexamination of Paleocene freshwater corbulids of the Tongue River Formation of western North Dakota and eastern Montana, however, extends the stratigraphic and geographic range of three Amazonian taxa— Pachydon, Ostomya, and Anticorbula—to the Paleocene of the northern Great Plains of the United States. Both Paleocene and Miocene freshwater corbulid taxa occur in large freshwater systems with an intermittent marine connection. To test the phylogenetic relationships of one particularly widespread Paleocene species ( Pachydon mactriformis), we conducted cladistic analyses using maximum parsimony and heuristic searches of matrices of conchologic characters. Seven species of Pachydon and Pebasia dispar from the western Amazonian Neogene, Pachydon mactriformis from the Paleocene of North Dakota, representative species of eight neotropical marine corbulid genera, and three additional corbulid taxa were included. Corbula was the outgroup. All analyses produced similar regions of stability within trees. One such area is a Pachydon crown group that includes P. mactriformis, indicating that Paleocene and Miocene Pachydon are not convergent. Our results also indicate that Pachydon does not represent a separate basal radiation within the family. However, we have not resolved a robust sister clade relationship for the Pachydon crown group. Two Amazonian Neogene taxa do not fall within the Pachydon crown group, and their phylogenetic position is not resolved. At this time, we do not have sufficient evidence to refine the definitions of Pachydon and Pachydontinae as monophyletic clades. Although we have evidence that three genera of corbulid bivalves ( Pachydon, Ostomya, and Anticorbula) in the Pebas Formation are not endemic and have long geologic

  18. Studerende giver ny indsigt til digital byudvikling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    http://studerende.au.dk/studier/fagportaler/arts/aktuelt/nyheder/vis-nyhed/artikel/studerende-giver-ny-indsigt-til-digital-byudvikling/......http://studerende.au.dk/studier/fagportaler/arts/aktuelt/nyheder/vis-nyhed/artikel/studerende-giver-ny-indsigt-til-digital-byudvikling/...

  19. Udlejers godkendelse af ny erhvervslejer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Hansen, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    I artiklen er taget udgangspunkt i den »klassiske« afståelsessituation, hvor en lejer vil afhænde den i de lejede lokaler drevne virksomhed, og lejeren har afståelsesret til en af udlejer godkendt lejer, uden at kravene til den ny lejer er specificeret. På baggrund af Vestre Landsrets dom af 9/2 ...

  20. Ny industrialisering - et bedre produktmarked

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    2001-01-01

    for byggeriet med titlerne: 1. Bygherren som forandringsagent. 2. Tæt samarbejde i byggedelen. 3. Ny industrialisering. 4. Byg med kommunikation og innovation. Dette debathæfte er nummer tre i rækken og omhandler byggeriets industridel og mulighederne for at fremme en succesfuld industriel produktion....

  1. Improvement of the Trapezoid Method Using Raw Landsat Image Digital Count Data for Soil Moisture Estimation in the Texas (USA High Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Shafian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in soil moisture strongly affect surface energy balances, regional runoff, land erosion and vegetation productivity (i.e., potential crop yield. Hence, the estimation of soil moisture is very valuable in the social, economic, humanitarian (food security and environmental segments of society. Extensive efforts to exploit the potential of remotely sensed observations to help quantify this complex variable are ongoing. This study aims at developing a new index, the Thermal Ground cover Moisture Index (TGMI, for estimating soil moisture content. This index is based on empirical parameterization of the relationship between raw image digital count (DC data in the thermal infrared spectral band and ground cover (determined from raw image digital count data in the red and near-infrared spectral bands.The index uses satellite-derived information only, and the potential for its operational application is therefore great. This study was conducted in 18 commercial agricultural fields near Lubbock, TX (USA. Soil moisture was measured in these fields over two years and statistically compared to corresponding values of TGMI determined from Landsat image data. Results indicate statistically significant correlations between TGMI and field measurements of soil moisture (R2 = 0.73, RMSE = 0.05, MBE = 0.17 and AAE = 0.049, suggesting that soil moisture can be estimated using this index. It was further demonstrated that maps of TGMI developed from Landsat imagery could be constructed to show the relative spatial distribution of soil moisture across a region.

  2. Improvment of the Trapezoid Method Using Raw Landsat Image Digital Count Data for Soil Moisture Estimation in the Texas (usa) High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafian, S.; Maas, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Variations in soil moisture strongly affect surface energy balances, regional runoff, land erosion and vegetation productivity (i.e., potential crop yield). Hence, the estimation of soil moisture is very valuable in the social, economic, humanitarian (food security) and environmental segments of society. Extensive efforts to exploit the potential of remotely sensed observations to help quantify this complex variable are ongoing. This study aims at developing a new index, the Thermal Ground cover Moisture Index (TGMI), for estimating soil moisture content. This index is based on empirical parameterization of the relationship between raw image digital count (DC) data in the thermal infrared spectral band and ground cover (determined from raw image digital count data in the red and near-infrared spectral bands).The index uses satellite-derived information only, and the potential for its operational application is therefore great. This study was conducted in 18 commercial agricultural fields near Lubbock, TX (USA). Soil moisture was measured in these fields over two years and statistically compared to corresponding values of TGMI determined from Landsat image data. Results indicate statistically significant correlations between TGMI and field measurements of soil moisture (R2 = 0.73, RMSE = 0.05, MBE = 0.17 and AAE = 0.049), suggesting that soil moisture can be estimated using this index. It was further demonstrated that maps of TGMI developed from Landsat imagery could be constructed to show the relative spatial distribution of soil moisture across a region.

  3. Influence of dietary carbon on mercury bioaccumulation in streams of the Adirondack Mountains of New York and the Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva-Murray, Karen; Bradley, Paul M; Chasar, Lia C; Button, Daniel T; Brigham, Mark E; Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C; Journey, Celeste A; Lutz, Michelle A

    2013-01-01

    We studied lower food webs in streams of two mercury-sensitive regions to determine whether variations in consumer foraging strategy and resultant dietary carbon signatures accounted for observed within-site and among-site variations in consumer mercury concentration. We collected macroinvertebrates (primary consumers and predators) and selected forage fishes from three sites in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, and three sites in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina, for analysis of mercury (Hg) and stable isotopes of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N). Among primary consumers, scrapers and filterers had higher MeHg and more depleted δ(13)C than shredders from the same site. Variation in δ(13)C accounted for up to 34 % of within-site variation in MeHg among primary consumers, beyond that explained by δ(15)N, an indicator of trophic position. Consumer δ(13)C accounted for 10 % of the variation in Hg among predatory macroinvertebrates and forage fishes across these six sites, after accounting for environmental aqueous methylmercury (MeHg, 5 % of variation) and base-N adjusted consumer trophic position (Δδ(15)N, 22 % of variation). The δ(13)C spatial pattern within consumer taxa groups corresponded to differences in benthic habitat shading among sites. Consumers from relatively more-shaded sites had more enriched δ(13)C that was more similar to typical detrital δ(13)C, while those from the relatively more-open sites had more depleted δ(13)C. Although we could not clearly attribute these differences strictly to differences in assimilation of carbon from terrestrial or in-channel sources, greater potential for benthic primary production at more open sites might play a role. We found significant variation among consumers within and among sites in carbon source; this may be related to within-site differences in diet and foraging habitat, and to among-site differences in environmental conditions that influence primary production. These observations

  4. Impacts of Stream Flow and Climate Variability on Native and Invasive Woody Species in a Riparian Ecosystem of a Semi-Arid Region of the Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolaut, K.; Awada, T.; Cherubini, P.; Schapaugh, A.

    2012-12-01

    Riparian ecosystems support diverse plant communities that exert direct and indirect biological, physical and chemical influence on, and are influenced by, adjacent water through both above and below-ground interactions. Historically, riparian areas of the northern Great Plains, US have been dominated by the native Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). This species relies on regular floods for regeneration and groundwater access for success. Over the past sixty years, changes in flow management and agricultural practices, coupled with climate variability and drought have altered stream flow and caused a dramatic decline in stream water yields and levels of groundwater. These and other biotic and biotic factors have promoted the expansion of the upland native woody species Juniperus virginiana (eastern redcedar), and the invasion of the non-native (introduced) Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) into riparian ecosystems. This invasion has further altered the water balance in the system and exasperated the problem of water scarcity with negative feedback on ecosystem services and growth of native woody species. The ability of P. deltoides to re-establish and grow is of concern for natural resource managers. Tree ring analysis of annual growth rates were used to determine 1) the responses P. deltoides and invasive J. virginiana and E. angustifulia to climate variability and stream flow regulation, and 2) the impacts of the two invasive species on the growth of native P. deltoides. Results show a dependency of growth for P. deltoides on the previous year summer temperature, and a less significant correlation to annual stream flow. J. virginiana showed the highest correlation to annual stream flow, as well as some dependency on the previous growing season precipitation. While the growth of both P. deltoides and J. virginiana displayed greater dependence on climatic factors, E. angustifolia displayed the lowest mean basal area growth and deviation from the growth. E

  5. Influence of dietary carbon on mercury bioaccumulation in streams of the Adirondack Mountains of New York and the Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva-Murray, Karen; Bradley, Paul M.; Chasar, Lia C.; Button, Daniel T.; Brigham, Mark E.; Eikenberry, Barbara C. Scudder; Journey, Celeste A.; Lutz, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    We studied lower food webs in streams of two mercury-sensitive regions to determine whether variations in consumer foraging strategy and resultant dietary carbon signatures accounted for observed within-site and among-site variations in consumer mercury concentration. We collected macroinvertebrates (primary consumers and predators) and selected forage fishes from three sites in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, and three sites in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina, for analysis of mercury (Hg) and stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N). Among primary consumers, scrapers and filterers had higher MeHg and more depleted δ13C than shredders from the same site. Variation in δ13C accounted for up to 34 % of within-site variation in MeHg among primary consumers, beyond that explained by δ15N, an indicator of trophic position. Consumer δ13C accounted for 10 % of the variation in Hg among predatory macroinvertebrates and forage fishes across these six sites, after accounting for environmental aqueous methylmercury (MeHg, 5 % of variation) and base-N adjusted consumer trophic position (Δδ15N, 22 % of variation). The δ13C spatial pattern within consumer taxa groups corresponded to differences in benthic habitat shading among sites. Consumers from relatively more-shaded sites had more enriched δ13C that was more similar to typical detrital δ13C, while those from the relatively more-open sites had more depleted δ13C. Although we could not clearly attribute these differences strictly to differences in assimilation of carbon from terrestrial or in-channel sources, greater potential for benthic primary production at more open sites might play a role. We found significant variation among consumers within and among sites in carbon source; this may be related to within-site differences in diet and foraging habitat, and to among-site differences in environmental conditions that influence primary production. These observations suggest that different

  6. Use of OSL dating to establish the stratigraphic framework of Quaternary eolian sediments, Anton scarp upper trench, Northeastern Colorado High Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, S.A.; Noe, D.C.; McCalpin, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper contains the results of the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating used to establish stratigraphic ages and relationships of eolian sediments in a trench in northeastern Colorado, USA. This trench was located in the upper face of the Anton scarp, a major topographic lineament trending NW-SE for a distance of 135 km, in anticipation of intersecting near-surface faulting. The trench was 180 m long, 4.5-6.0 m deep, and exposed 22 m of stratigraphic section, most of which dipped gently west and was truncated by gulley channeling at the face of the scarp. No direct evidence of faulting was found in the upper trench. The stratigraphy from the trench was described, mapped and dated using OSL on quartz and potassium feldspar, and 14C obtained from woody material. OSL dating identified two upper loess units as Peoria Loess and Gilman Canyon Loess, deposited between 16 and 30 ka ago. The bottom layers of the trench were substantially older, giving OSL ages in excess of 100 ka. These older ages are interpreted as underestimates, owing to saturation of the fast component of OSL. Using OSL and 14C dating, we can constrain the erosion and down cutting of the scarp face as occurring between 16 and 5.7 ka. As the trenching investigation continues in other parts of the scarp face, the results of this preliminary study will be of importance in relating the ages of the strata that underlie different parts of the scarp, and in determining whether Quaternary faulting was a mechanism that contributed to the formation of this regional geomorphic feature.

  7. Rheomorphic ignimbrites of the Rogerson Formation, central Snake River plain, USA: record of mid-Miocene rhyolitic explosive eruptions and associated crustal subsidence along the Yellowstone hotspot track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Thomas R.; Reichow, Marc K.; Branney, Michael J.; Finn, David R.; Coe, Robert S.; Storey, Michael; Bonnichsen, Bill

    2016-04-01

    Rogerson Graben, USA, is critically placed at the intersection between the Yellowstone hotspot track and the southern projection of the west Snake River rift. Eleven rhyolitic members of the re-defined, ≥420-m-thick, Rogerson Formation record voluminous high-temperature explosive eruptions, emplacing extensive ashfall and rheomorphic ignimbrite sheets. Yet, each member has subtly distinct field, chemical and palaeomagnetic characteristics. New regional correlations reveal that the Brown's View ignimbrite covers ≥3300 km2, and the Wooden Shoe ignimbrite covers ≥4400 km2 and extends into Nevada. Between 11.9 and ˜8 Ma, the average frequency of large explosive eruptions in this region was 1 per 354 ky, about twice that at Yellowstone. The chemistry and mineralogy of the early rhyolites show increasing maturity with time possibly by progressive fractional crystallisation. This was followed by a trend towards less-evolved rhyolites that may record melting and hybridisation of a mid-crustal source region. Contemporaneous magmatism-induced crustal subsidence of the central Snake River Basin is recorded by successive ignimbrites offlapping and thinning up the N-facing limb of a regional basin-margin monocline, which developed between 10.59 and 8 Ma. The syn-volcanic basin topography contrasted significantly with the present-day elevated Yellowstone hotspot plateau. Concurrent basin-and-range extension produced the N-trending Rogerson Graben: early uplift of the Shoshone Hills (≥10.34 Ma) was followed by initiation of the Shoshone Fault and an E-sloping half-graben (˜10.3-10.1 Ma). The graben asymmetry then reversed with initiation of the Brown's Bench Fault (≥8 Ma), which remained intermittently active until the Pliocene.

  8. Novel insect leaf-mining after the end-Cretaceous extinction and the demise of cretaceous leaf miners, Great Plains, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Donovan

    Full Text Available Plant and associated insect-damage diversity in the western U.S.A. decreased significantly at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg boundary and remained low until the late Paleocene. However, the Mexican Hat locality (ca. 65 Ma in southeastern Montana, with a typical, low-diversity flora, uniquely exhibits high damage diversity on nearly all its host plants, when compared to all known local and regional early Paleocene sites. The same plant species show minimal damage elsewhere during the early Paleocene. We asked whether the high insect damage diversity at Mexican Hat was more likely related to the survival of Cretaceous insects from refugia or to an influx of novel Paleocene taxa. We compared damage on 1073 leaf fossils from Mexican Hat to over 9000 terminal Cretaceous leaf fossils from the Hell Creek Formation of nearby southwestern North Dakota and to over 9000 Paleocene leaf fossils from the Fort Union Formation in North Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming. We described the entire insect-feeding ichnofauna at Mexican Hat and focused our analysis on leaf mines because they are typically host-specialized and preserve a number of diagnostic morphological characters. Nine mine damage types attributable to three of the four orders of leaf-mining insects are found at Mexican Hat, six of them so far unique to the site. We found no evidence linking any of the diverse Hell Creek mines with those found at Mexican Hat, nor for the survival of any Cretaceous leaf miners over the K-Pg boundary regionally, even on well-sampled, surviving plant families. Overall, our results strongly relate the high damage diversity on the depauperate Mexican Hat flora to an influx of novel insect herbivores during the early Paleocene, possibly caused by a transient warming event and range expansion, and indicate drastic extinction rather than survivorship of Cretaceous insect taxa from refugia.

  9. Modelling dune erosion, overwash and breaching at Fire Island (NY) during hurricane Sandy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vet, P.L.M.; McCall, R.T.; Den Bieman, J.P.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van Ormondt, M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused a breach at Fire Island (NY, USA), near Pelican Island. This paper aims at modelling dune erosion, overwash and breaching processes that occured during the hurricane event at this stretch of coast with the numerical model XBeach. By using the default settings, the ero

  10. Modelling dune erosion, overwash and breaching at Fire Island (NY) during hurricane Sandy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vet, P.L.M.; McCall, R.T.; Den Bieman, J.P.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van Ormondt, M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused a breach at Fire Island (NY, USA), near Pelican Island. This paper aims at modelling dune erosion, overwash and breaching processes that occured during the hurricane event at this stretch of coast with the numerical model XBeach. By using the default settings, the

  11. Using an Integrated Surface Water - Groundwater Flow Model for Evaluating the Hydrologic Impacts of Historic and Potential Future Dry Periods on Simulated Water Budgets in the Santa Rosa Plain Watershed, Northern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevesi, J. A.; Woolfenden, L. R.; Nishikawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    Communities in the Santa Rosa Plain watershed (SRPW), Sonoma County, CA, USA are experiencing increasing demand for limited water resources. Streamflow in the SRPW is runoff dominated; however, groundwater also is an important resource in the basin. The watershed has an area of 262 mi2 that includes natural, agricultural, and urban land uses. To evaluate the hydrologic system, an integrated hydrologic model was developed using the U.S. Geological Survey coupled groundwater and surface-water flow model, GSFLOW. The model uses a daily time step and a grid-based discretization of the SRPW consisting of 16,741 10-acre cells for 8 model layers to simulate all water budget components of the surface and subsurface hydrologic system. Simulation results indicate significant impacts on streamflow and recharge in response to the below average precipitation during the dry periods. The recharge and streamflow distributions simulated for historic dry periods were compared to future dry periods projected from 4 GCM realizations (two different GCMs and two different CO2 forcing scenarios) for the 21st century, with the dry periods defined as 3 consecutive years of below average precipitation. For many of the projected dry periods, the decreases in recharge and streamflow were greater than for the historic dry periods due to a combination of lower precipitation and increases in simulated evapotranspiration for the warmer 21st century projected by the GCM realizations. The greatest impact on streamflow for both historic and projected future dry periods is the diminished baseflow from late spring to early fall, with an increase in the percentage of intermittent and dry stream reaches. The results indicate that the coupled model is a useful tool for water managers to better understand the potential effects of future dry periods on spatially and temporally distributed streamflow and recharge, as well as other components of the water budget.

  12. Plains Traveler

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    10 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust devil traveling across a plain west-southwest of Schiaparelli Crater, in far eastern Sinus Meridiani. The dust devil is casting a shadow toward the northeast, just south (below) of an egg-shaped crater. Location near: 6.4oS, 349.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  13. Utopia Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    5 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dark-toned, cratered plain in southwest Utopia Planitia. Large, light-toned, windblown ripples reside on the floors of many of the depressions in the scene, including a long, linear, trough. Location near: 30.3oN, 255.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  14. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE ROCKLAND COUNTY, NY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  15. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE ROCKLAND COUNTY, NY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  16. Revisiting Plain Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the plain language movement and its origins. Reviews past and current resources related to plain language writing. Examines criticism of the movement while examining past and current plain language literature, with particular attention to the information design field. (SR)

  17. Urban metabolism in Syracuse, NY – introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of Urban Ecosystems contains a series of papers related to assessing urban metabolism in Syracuse, NY. These papers were developed under the Urban Long-Term Research Area Exploratory Awards Program funded by the National Science Foundation. Objectives of this two-year project (2009–2011) in Syracuse, NY were to investigate: a)...

  18. Urine antibody against human cancer antigen NY-ESO-1

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Dirk; Stockert, Elisabeth; Karbach, Julia; Herrlinger, Kristina; Atmaca, Akin; Arand, Michael; Chen, Yao-Tseng; Gnjatic, Sacha; Old, Lloyd J.; Knuth, Alexander; Jäger, Elke

    2002-01-01

    NY-ESO-1 is one of the most immunogenic tumor antigens known to date. Spontaneous humoral and cellular immune responses against NY-ESO-1 are detected in a substantial proportion of patients with NY-ESO-1 positive cancers. NY-ESO-1 serum antibody is dependent on the presence of NY-ESO-1+ cancer cells, and antibody titers correlate with the clinical development of the disease. NY-ESO-1 serum antibody is associated with detectable NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T cell reactivity. High titers of NY-ESO-1...

  19. Multikulturalisme er en ny slags Apartheid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech

    2016-01-01

    I en ny antologi retter forfatterne et kritisk lys mod forsvarerne af multikulturalisme. Og det er der god grund til, mener en af bogens redaktører. For den store gruppe, der hylder multikulturen, glemmer i al dens godhed, at de samtidig er med til at undergrave demokratiet og styrke uheldige mag...

  20. Multikulturalisme er en ny slags Apartheid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech

    2016-01-01

    I en ny antologi retter forfatterne et kritisk lys mod forsvarerne af multikulturalisme. Og det er der god grund til, mener en af bogens redaktører. For den store gruppe, der hylder multikulturen, glemmer i al dens godhed, at de samtidig er med til at undergrave demokratiet og styrke uheldige mag...

  1. Mangfoldighed som ny EU-politik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Analyse. EU er stadig i krise. EU er endnu ikke kommet med i det globale opsving efter finanskrisen, og Sydeuropas strukturproblemer er uløste, men maskeret af statsstøtte via ECB. Vælgerne gav EU-politikerne en alvorlig advarsel ved valget til Europa-Parlamentet. Efter en bølge af ny regulering er...

  2. 2008 FEMA Lidar: South Oneida County (NY)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — For Oneida County, NY, there were two types of elevation datasets. The first type is LiDAR and the second one is Auto-correlation DEM. Auto-correlation DEM data was...

  3. Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Daniel E. Crane

    2002-01-01

    Based on field data from 10 USA cities and national urban tree cover data, it is estimated that urban trees in the coterminous USA currently store 700 million tonnes of carbon ($14,300 million value) with a gross carbon sequestration rate of 22.8 million tC/yr ($460 rnillion/year). Carbon storage within cities ranges From 1.2 million tC in New York, NY, to 19,300 tC in...

  4. Taphonomy and paleoecology of nonmarine mollusca: indicators of alluvial plain lacustrine sedimentation, upper part of the Tongue River Member, Fort Union Formation ( Paleocene), Northern Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana ( USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J.H.; Flores, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The composition, species abundances, and spatial and temporal distributions of mollusc assemblages were controlled by the environments in which they lived and the depositional processes that affected the molluscs after death and before final burial. Post-mortem transport, reworking and concentration of shells, and mixing of faunal elements from discrete habitats produced a taphonomic 'overprint' on assemblage characteristics that directly reflects the processes of alluvial plain and floodbasin lacustrine sedimentation. The 'overprint' can be interpreted from outcrop analysis of molluscan biofabric, which consists of: 1) orientation, fragmentation, size-sorting, abrasion, density, and dispersion of shells, 2) the nature and extent of shell-infilling, and 3) ratio of articulated to disarticulated bivalves. Taphonomic characteristics were used with sedimentological properties to differentiate in-place, reworked, transported, and ecologically mixed mollusc assemblages. This study also defines the paleoecology of habitat preferences of mollusc species as a basis for recognition of the environments in which these assemblages were deposited: 1) large floodbasin lakes, 2) small floodbasin lakes, and 3) crevasse deltas and splays. Integration of sedimentology and paleoecology provides an interdisciplinary approach to the interpretation of alluvial environments through time in the Tongue River Member. -Authors

  5. Mot en ny pedagogisk lederrolle og lederidentitet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Kristin Larsen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen omhandler hvordan endrede ledelsesstrukturer oppstått gjennom ny organisasjonsmodell virker inn på de pedagogiske ledernes arbeidsoppgaver. Vi har etterspurt deres erfaringer knyttet til mulige endringer i oppgaver, arbeidsdeling og faglig-pedagogisk fokus i arbeidet. Undersøkelsen ble gjennomført i en bydel i Oslo. Hovedfunnene er at pedagogiske ledere har fått flere administrative oppgaver og personalleder oppgaver. De pedagogiske lederne deler seg i to med hensyn til hvor fornøyde de er med disse endringene. I artikkelen drøfter vi hva denne todelingen betyr for deres rolleforståelse og identitet.

  6. 33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Light 322° true across the southwest tangent of the island on the north side of Jones Inlet to the... to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the Shinnecock Inlet East Breakwater Light to Shinnecock Inlet West Breakwater Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Moriches Inlet East Breakwater Light to...

  7. The Plains of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic plains units of various types comprise at least 80% of the surface of Venus. Though devoid of topographic splendor and, therefore often overlooked, these plains units house a spectacular array of volcanic, tectonic, and impact features. Here I propose that the plains hold the keys to understanding the resurfacing history of Venus and resolving the global stratigraphy debate. The quasi-random distribution of impact craters and the small number that have been conspicuously modified from the outside by plains-forming volcanism have led some to propose that Venus was catastrophically resurfaced around 725×375 Ma with little volcanism since. Challenges, however, hinge on interpretations of certain morphological characteristics of impact craters: For instance, Venusian impact craters exhibit either radar dark (smooth) floor deposits or bright, blocky floors. Bright floor craters (BFC) are typically 100-400 m deeper than dark floor craters (DFC). Furthermore, all 58 impact craters with ephemeral bright ejecta rays and/or distal parabolic ejecta patterns have bright floor deposits. This suggests that BFCs are younger, on average, than DFCs. These observations suggest that DFCs could be partially filled with lava during plains emplacement and, therefore, are not strictly younger than the plains units as widely held. Because the DFC group comprises ~80% of the total crater population on Venus the recalculated emplacement age of the plains would be ~145 Ma if DFCs are indeed volcanically modified during plains formation. Improved image and topographic data are required to measure stratigraphic and morphometric relationships and resolve this issue. Plains units are also home to an abundant and diverse set of volcanic features including steep-sided domes, shield fields, isolated volcanoes, collapse features and lava channels, some of which extend for 1000s of kilometers. The inferred viscosity range of plains-forming lavas, therefore, is immense, ranging from the

  8. Faget almen dannelse og ny teknologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiemensma, Britt Due

    2015-01-01

    16 lektioner anvendes Skoletube, en digital platform rettet mod folkeskolen samt gratis programmer, som jeg forestiller mig vil imødekomme de studerendes behov for sjove oplevelser og samtidig ruste dem til at forholde sig reflekteret og nuanceret til etiske, politiske, demokratiske og religiøse......Denne case handler om, hvordan 90 lærerstuderende på 1. årg. introduceres til faget almen dannelse ud fra en antagelse om, at ny teknologi påvirker forestillingen om, hvad der er relevant viden for professionsudøvelsen, og således også hvad der skal prioriteres i studiet. I introduktionsforløbet på...... udfordringer i relation til skole- og forældresamarbejde. Udfordringen er altså at få ny teknologi til at indgå som aktør i faget almen dannelse og skabe en eksemplarisk praksis, hvor de studerende kan udvikle sig fagligt og personligt i forhold til kommende undervisningsopgaver i folkeskolen....

  9. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  10. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110.84b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as...

  11. NY-ESO-1 specific antibody and cellular responses in melanoma patients primed with NY-ESO-1 protein in ISCOMATRIX and boosted with recombinant NY-ESO-1 fowlpox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Li; Dawoodji, Amina; Tarlton, Andrea; Gnjatic, Sacha; Tajar, Abdelouahid; Karydis, Ioannis; Browning, Judy; Pratap, Sarah; Verfaille, Christian; Venhaus, Ralph R; Pan, Linda; Altman, Douglas G; Cebon, Jonathan S; Old, Lloyd L; Nathan, Paul; Ottensmeier, Christian; Middleton, Mark; Cerundolo, Vincenzo

    2015-03-15

    Vaccination strategies based on repeated injections of NY-ESO-1 protein formulated in ISCOMATRIX particles (NY-ESO-1 ISCOMATRIX) have shown to elicit combined NY-ESO-1 specific antibody and T cell responses. However, it remains unclear whether heterologous prime-boost strategies based on the combination with NY-ESO-1 ISCOMATRIX with different NY-ESO-1 boosting reagents could be used to increase NY-ESO-1 CD8(+) or CD4(+) T cell responses. To address this question, we carried out a randomized clinical trial in 39 high-risk, resected melanoma patients vaccinated with NY-ESO-1 ISCOMATRIX, and then boosted with repeated injections of either recombinant fowlpox virus encoding full length NY-ESO-1 (rF-NY-ESO-1) (Arm A) or NY-ESO-1 ISCOMATRIX alone (Arm B). We have comprehensively analyzed NY-ESO-1 specific T cells and B cells response in all patients before and after vaccination for a total of seven time points per patient. NY-ESO-1 ISCOMATRIX alone elicited a strong NY-ESO-1 specific CD4(+) T cell and antibody response, which was maintained by both regiments at similar levels. However, CD8(+) T cell responses were significantly boosted in 3 out of 18 patients in Arm A after the first rF-NY-ESO-1 injection and such responses were maintained until the end of the trial, while no patients in Arm B showed similar CD8(+) T cell responses. In addition, our results clearly identified immunodominant regions in the NY-ESO-1 protein: NY-ESO-179-102 and NY-ESO-1115-138 for CD4+ T cells and NY-ESO-185-108 for CD8+ T cells in a large proportion of vaccinated patients. These regions of NY-ESO-1 protein should be considered in future clinical trials as immunodominant epitopes. © 2014 UICC.

  12. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith CN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Collin N Smith,1 John D Kraemer,2 Andrea C Johnson,1 Darren Mays1 1Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC, USA; 2Department of Health Systems Administration, School of Nursing and Health Studies, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. Keywords: cigarette smoking, tobacco, plain packaging, regulation, policy

  13. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  14. 'The American Connection' i ny dansk poesi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Stein

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen fokuserer på lyriktrafikken fra USA til Danmark. Der ses på to litterære bølger, som har haft indflydelse på dansk digtning, nemlig dels 50’ernes beatdigtning eller Oral Poetry, der får stor betydning for en række danske poeter fra 1960’erne og fremefter, dels 80’ernes og 90’ernes flerst...

  15. Induction of primary NY-ESO-1 immunity: CD8+ T lymphocyte and antibody responses in peptide-vaccinated patients with NY-ESO-1+ cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Elke; Gnjatic, Sacha; Nagata, Yasuhiro; Stockert, Elisabeth; Jäger, Dirk; Karbach, Julia; Neumann, Antje; Rieckenberg, Julia; Chen, Yao-Tseng; Ritter, Gerd; Hoffman, Eric; Arand, Michael; Old, Lloyd J.; Knuth, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Cancer–testis antigen NY-ESO-1 is one of the most immunogenic tumor antigens defined to date. Spontaneous humoral and CD8+ T-cell responses to NY-ESO-1 are detected in 40–50% of patients with advanced NY-ESO-1-expressing tumors. A clinical trial was initiated to study the immunological effects of intradermal vaccination with 3 HLA-A2-binding NY-ESO-1 peptides in 12 patients with metastatic NY-ESO-1-expressing cancers. Seven patients were NY-ESO-1 serum antibody neg...

  16. Induction of primary NY-ESO-1 immunity: CD8+ T lymphocyte and antibody responses in peptide-vaccinated patients with NY-ESO-1+ cancers

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Cancer–testis antigen NY-ESO-1 is one of the most immunogenic tumor antigens defined to date. Spontaneous humoral and CD8+ T-cell responses to NY-ESO-1 are detected in 40–50% of patients with advanced NY-ESO-1-expressing tumors. A clinical trial was initiated to study the immunological effects of intradermal vaccination with 3 HLA-A2-binding NY-ESO-1 peptides in 12 patients with metastatic NY-ESO-1-expressing cancers. Seven patients were NY-ESO-1 serum antibody neg...

  17. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the New York, NY EnviroAtlas community. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based...

  18. 77 FR 16800 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Westfield, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Westfield, NY AGENCY: Federal Communications..., Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant Chief, Audio...

  19. Middle Holocene Unconformity in Seneca Lake, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, T. M.; Crocker, M.; Loddengaard, K.

    2008-12-01

    The post-glacial history of the Finger Lakes, NY have involved several changes in lake levels throughout the latest Pleistocene and Holocene, resulting from the changing position of the retreating Laurentide ice sheet, river outlet position, glacial rebound, and water balance. Previous studies of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles from three Finger Lakes define a middle Holocene erosional surface at water depths as great as 26 m in the northern end of each of lake. There are two proposed hypotheses to explain the origin of the observed erosional surfaces: 1) subaerial erosion during a lake lowstand and 2) erosion resulting from increased internal seiche activity. To evaluate these hypotheses, we examined a series of 2 to 5 m long piston cores collected along a north-south transect from one of the Finger Lakes, Seneca Lake. Cores were correlated using distinctive changes in the profiles of grain size, loss-on-ignition, and magnetic susceptibility. We recognize a significant erosional unconformity of early to middle Holocene sediment at modern depths 60 m, the unconformity continues as a conformable zone. We attribute the unconformity to wave abrasion and nearshore current winnowing of the shoreface during a lowstand. With an assumption of an effective 20 m wave base, the depth to the low level lake surface responsible for the unconformity is estimated to be 40 m. The age of the unconformity is ~6 ka, based on radiocarbon ages of lithologic boundaries in the sediment cores. Because the unconformity grades into a conformable zone in deepwater cores that display no change in lithology, we hypothesize that the large-scale lake level drop is likely not the result of climate change, but rather a change in accommodation space in the northern portion of the lake basin due to glacial rebound.

  20. Autoimmune thyroid disease elicited by NY-ESO-1 vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Roberto; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Agah, Ravin; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2014-02-01

    Immunotherapies and targeted therapies are frequently associated with thyroid dysfunction, which is in contrast with the rare thyroid abnormalities induced by cytotoxic agents. Immunotherapy with NY-ESO-1, a tumor-associated antigen expressed by a number of malignancies, was reported to trigger hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism in two HLA-A2 patients with ovarian cancer. We describe now a case of Graves' disease triggered by NY-ESO-1 in a HLA-A2-negative woman. A 32-year-old woman with a synovial sarcoma received radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and finally NY-ESO-1 vaccine. The patient was found to have HLA A11/A33(19), B13/B56(22), Cw3/-. One month after the beginning of immunotherapy, thyroid dysfunction was clinically suspected and Graves' disease was biochemically confirmed. Fearful of the antithyroid drugs' side effects, the patient was treated with a beta-blocker (propranolol, 80-20 mg/day). As hyperthyroidism progressively worsened, the patient underwent total thyroidectomy. We hypothesized that NY-ESO-1 shared partial homology with thyroid autoantigens (the so-called molecular mimicry mechanism) and that at least one pair of homologous sequences contained amino acid sequence binding motifs to a restricted number of HLA molecules. We used BLAST software to search amino acid sequence homologies between NY-ESO-1 and thyroid autoantigens (thyrotropin receptor [TSH-R], thyroperoxidase, and thyroglobulin), and the HLA ligand/motif database to look for HLA/T-cell receptor binding motifs in the regions of NY-ESO-1 and thyroid autoantigens that were homologous. We found 15 epitopic regions of NY-ESO-1 homologous to 15 regions of thyroid autoantigens, some of which epitopic: 5 of TSH-R, 8 of thyroglobulin, and 2 of thyroperoxidase. These homologous sequences contain binding motifs belonging to several HLA class I antigens, including HLA A2 and the patient's A11 and A33. Genetically predisposed patients who receive NY-ESO-1 vaccination are at risk to develop thyroid

  1. En ny generasjon troverdige kliniske retningslinjer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Olav Vandvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Trygg og effektiv diagnostikk, pleie og behandling fordrer at helsepersonell har tilgang til oppdatert og gyldig forskningsbasert kunnskap, fortrinnsvis i form av faglige kliniske retningslinjer utviklet med tilfredsstillende metodikk. De fleste retningslinjer har imidlertid betydelige svakheter med hensyn til både kunnskapsgrunnlag, utvikling av anbefalinger, presentasjonsformater og oppdatering. Nye definisjoner, standarder og metoder for kunnskapsbaserte troverdige retningslinjer gir langt bedre muligheter enn tidligere for å lykkes i arbeidet med å utvikle og implementere retningslinjer, men stiller samtidig større krav til metodekompetanse, klinisk ekspertise og tid. I vår digitale tidsalder åpner ny nettbasert teknologi for bedre disseminering av retningslinjer til frontlinjene i klinikken, og til å dele kunnskap med pasienter i konsultasjonen, for eksempel gjennom smarttelefoner og lesebrett. Gjennom et praktisk eksempel redegjør vi i denne artikkelen for nye definisjoner, standarder, metoder og verktøy for utvikling, disseminering og oppdatering av faglige retningslinjer. GRADE-systemet er en sentral komponent i dette. Det er nå mulig å lage troverdige retningslinjer som klinikere og pasienter kan ta i bruk i en travel hverdag. Det gjenstår å se hvordan myndighetene og fagmiljøene vil bidra for å sikre pasienter trygg og effektiv behandling gjennom utvikling av denne nye generasjonen av kliniske retningslinjer.Vandvik PO, Berg R, Vist G. A new generation of trustworthy clinical practice guidelines. Nor J Epidemiol 2013; 23 (2: 197-204.ENGLISH SUMMARYSafe and effective diagnosis and treatment requires that health care personnel can access the best current research evidence, preferably through clinical practice guidelines. Most guidelines suffer from methodological weaknesses (e.g., identification and assessment of research evidence, development of recommendations, suboptimal presentation formats and infrequent updating of

  2. First report of Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and laurel wilt in Louisiana, USA: The disease continues westward on sassafras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen W. Fraedrich; C. Wood Johnson; Roger D. Menard; Thomas C. Harrington; Rabiu Olatinwo; G. Susan Best

    2015-01-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola Harrington, Fraedrich & Aghayeva (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae), has spread rapidly through the coastal plains forests of the southeastern United States (USA) with devastating effects on redbay (Persea borbonia [L.] Spreng.; Laurales: Lauraceae) populations (Fraedrich et...

  3. Specific yield, High Plains aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents specific-yield ranges in the High Plains aquifer of the United States. The High Plains aquifer underlies 112.6 million acres (176,000...

  4. American Uveitis Society Meeting October 30, 1995 Marriott Marquis Hotel, Atlanta, GA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisler, D M; Chern, K C

    1996-01-01

    1 Retinal vascular occlusion and scleroderma. Tessler H, Flores-Guevara J, Goldstein D, Chicago, IL, USA. 2 MHC Class II antigen expression in ciliary body in spontaneous and experimental uveitis. Kalsow C, Zhavoronkova M, Dwyer A, Rochester, NY & Scottsville, NY, USA. 3 IL-10 in the vitreous of patients with intraocular lymphoma. Whitcup S, Solomon D, Nussenblatt R, Chan C-C, Bethesda, MD, USA 4 Iris juvenile xanthogranuloma studied by immunohistochemistry. Shields J, Shields C, Eagle R, DePotter P, Collins M, Philadelphia, PA, USA. 5 Outcomes analysis in with JRA-associated uveitis. Dana M-R, Merayo-Lloves J, Foster C, Boston MA, USA. 6 Persistent glaucoma secondary to periocular steroids. Akduman L, Conway M, Burchfield J, Kolker A, Black D, DelPriore L, Kaplan H, St. Louis, MO, USA 7 The use of itraconazole in ocular histoplasmosis Callanan D, Fish G, Dallas, TX, USA 8 Succesful treatment of macular hole secondary to sympathetic ophthalmia. Cano J, Diaz M, Navea A, Ruiz C, Castilla M. Barcelona, Spain. 9 HLA-DR2+ intermediate uveitis. Pulido J, Tang W, Han D, Mieler W. Milwaukee, WI, USA. 10 Vein occlusion in AIDS misdiagnosed as CMV retinitis. Park K, Marx J, Rao N. Los Angeles, CA, USA. 11 HIV-associated foveal hemorrhage. Crews K, Zimmerman P, Lohner S. Salt Lake City, UT, USA. 12 Cytomegalovirus papillitis in patients with AIDS. Patel S, Rutzen A, Marx J, Thach A, Chong L, Rao N, Los Angeles, CA, USA. 13 Recurrence rate of CMV retinitis following the ganciclovir implant and pars plans vitrectomy and silicone oil. Marx J, Thach A, Rao N, Chong L. Los Angeles, CA, USA.

  5. Site Characterization at a Tidal Energy Site in the East River, NY (usa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, B.; Neary, V. S.; Colby, J.

    2012-12-01

    A comprehensive tidal energy site characterization is performed using ADV measurements of instantaneous horizontal current magnitude and direction at the planned hub centerline of a tidal turbine over a two month period, and contributes to the growing data base of tidal energy site hydrodynamic conditions. The temporal variation, mean current statistics, and turbulence of the key tidal hydrodynamic parameters are examined in detail, and compared to estimates from two tidal energy sites in Puget Sound. Tidal hydrodynamic conditions, including mean annual current (at hub height), the speed of extreme gusts (instantaneous horizontal currents acting normal to the rotor plane), and turbulence intensity (as proposed here, relative to a mean current of 2 m s-1) can vary greatly among tidal energy sites. Comparison of hydrodynamic conditions measured in the East River tidal straight in New York City with those reported for two tidal energy sites in Puget Sound indicate differences of mean annual current speeds, difference in the instantaneous current speeds of extreme gusts, and differences in turbulence intensities. Significant differences in these parameters among the tidal energy sites, and with the tidal resource assessment map, highlight the importance of conducting site resource characterization with ADV measurements at the machine scale. As with the wind industry, which adopted an International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) wind class standard to aid in the selection of wind turbines for a particular site, it is recommended that the tidal energy industry adopt an appropriate standard for tidal current classes. Such a standard requires a comprehensive field campaign at multiple tidal energy sites that can identify the key hydrodynamic parameters for tidal current site classification, select a list of tidal energy sites that exhibit the range of hydrodynamic conditions that will be encountered, and adopt consistent measurement practices (standards) for site classification.

  6. INDIAN POINT. Processus de reconversion d'une centrale nucléaire (NY, USA)

    OpenAIRE

    Di, Capua Davide

    2012-01-01

    Autrefois symbole absolu de la maîtrise de l'homme sur la nature, les centrales nucléaires obsolètes présentent à ce jour un défi non négligeable, à savoir le démantèlement de ces installations ainsi que la requalification territoriale de leurs emprises spatiales. La présence des centrales nucléaires produit un équilibre urbain entre la centrale et son environnement à différentes échelles. Cette relation urbaine s'établit sur plusieurs fronts, premièrement par la contribution du développement...

  7. 78 FR 45957 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Columbia University, Department of Anthropology, New York, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ..., Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, telephone (212) 854-4977, email roth@columbia.edu . SUPPLEMENTARY... York, NY 10027, telephone (212) 854-4977, email roth@columbia.edu , by August 29, 2013. After that...

  8. Evaluering af ny kokkeuddannelse for hørehandicappede

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels-Henrik Møller

    2010-01-01

    Center for Ungdomsforskning har netop afsluttet en evaluering af en ny uddannelse indenfor madproduktion, rettet imod personer med et hørehandicap. Hensigten med uddannelsen er, at kunne tilbyde døve, døvblinde og hørehæmmede personer et uddannelsestilbud indenfor fremstilling af mad. Konkret han...

  9. 78 FR 44187 - New York Disaster # NY-00136

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION New York Disaster NY-00136 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... locations. The following areas have been determined to be adversely affected by the disaster:...

  10. Evaluering af ny kokkeuddannelse for hørehandicappede

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels-Henrik Møller

    2010-01-01

    Center for Ungdomsforskning har netop afsluttet en evaluering af en ny uddannelse indenfor madproduktion, rettet imod personer med et hørehandicap. Hensigten med uddannelsen er, at kunne tilbyde døve, døvblinde og hørehæmmede personer et uddannelsestilbud indenfor fremstilling af mad. Konkret han...

  11. Kapitalismens dna i ny oversættelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schanz, Hans-Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Adam Smiths klassiske storværk om kapitalismen ’Nationernes velstand’ havde stor indflydelse på socialfilosofien, på Hegel, på Marx og liberaløkonomerne. Ny oversættelse yder omsider værket fuld respekt på dansk. Anmeldelse af: Adam Smith: Nationernes velstand. 441+ 519 sider. 699,95 kr. Informat...

  12. 78 FR 7848 - New York Disaster Number NY-00130

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION New York Disaster Number NY-00130 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 5.... Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road, Fort Worth,...

  13. Ny international efteruddannelse for fødevaresektoren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Julia; Brunsø, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Ny MBA på Handelshøjskolen i Århus stiller skarpt på fødevaresektoren. MBA - med fokus på fødevaresektoren henvender sig til personer med minimum tre års ledererfaring, der ønsker nye erhvervsrettede kompetencer på højt niveau....

  14. Kapitalismens dna i ny oversættelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schanz, Hans-Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Adam Smiths klassiske storværk om kapitalismen ’Nationernes velstand’ havde stor indflydelse på socialfilosofien, på Hegel, på Marx og liberaløkonomerne. Ny oversættelse yder omsider værket fuld respekt på dansk. Anmeldelse af: Adam Smith: Nationernes velstand. 441+ 519 sider. 699,95 kr. Informat...

  15. Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellington, Andre

    2014-03-31

    The Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (Interoperability Project) was awarded to Con Edison in 2009. The objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate methodologies to enhance the ability of customer sited Demand Response resources to integrate more effectively with electric delivery companies and regional transmission organizations.

  16. 77 FR 50630 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Westfield, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Westfield, NY AGENCY: Federal Communications... Review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio...

  17. NY-ESO-1 cancer testis antigen demonstrates high immunogenicity in triple negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademuyiwa, Foluso O; Bshara, Wiam; Attwood, Kristopher; Morrison, Carl; Edge, Stephen B; Karpf, Adam R; James, Smith A; Ambrosone, Christine B; O'Connor, Tracey L; Levine, Ellis G; Miliotto, Anthony; Ritter, Erika; Ritter, Gerd; Gnjatic, Sacha; Odunsi, Kunle

    2012-01-01

    NY-ESO-1 cancer testis (CT) antigen is an attractive candidate for immunotherapy as a result of its high immunogenicity. The aim of this study was to explore the potential for NY-ESO-1 antigen directed immunotherapy in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) by determining the frequency of expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the degree of inherent immunogenicity to NY-ESO-1. 168 TNBC and 47 ER+/HER2- primary breast cancer specimens were used to determine NY-ESO-1 frequency by IHC. As previous studies have shown that patients with a robust innate humoral immune response to CT antigens are more likely to develop CD8 T-cell responses to NY-ESO-1 peptides, we evaluated the degree to which patients with NY-ESO-1 expression had inherent immunogenicity by measuring antibodies. The relationship between NY-ESO-1 expression and CD8+ T lymphocytes was also examined. The frequency of NY-ESO-1 expression in the TNBC cohort was 16% versus 2% in ER+/HER2- patients. A higher NY-ESO-1 score was associated with a younger age at diagnosis in the TNBC patients with NY-ESO-1 expression (p = 0.026). No differences in OS (p = 0.278) or PFS (p = 0.238) by NY-ESO-1 expression status were detected. Antibody responses to NY-ESO-1 were found in 73% of TNBC patients whose tumors were NY-ESO-1 positive. NY-ESO-1 positive patients had higher CD8 counts than negative patients (p = 0.018). NY-ESO-1 is expressed in a substantial subset of TNBC patients and leads to a high humoral immune response in a large proportion of these individuals. Given these observations, patients with TNBC may benefit from targeted therapies directed against NY-ESO-1.

  18. 33 CFR 207.60 - Federal Dam, Hudson River, Troy, N.Y.; pool level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., N.Y.; pool level. 207.60 Section 207.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., N.Y.; pool level. (a) Whenever the elevation of the pool created by the Federal dam at Troy, N.Y... automatically when the pool level rises to an elevation of +18.5 feet mean sea level, and conform in...

  19. 76 FR 20532 - Safety Zone; Boom Days, Niagara River, Niagara Falls, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ..., Niagara River, Niagara Falls, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Niagara River, Niagara Falls, NY for the Boom... Niagara River, Niagara Falls, NY during the Boom Days Fireworks on April 16, 2011. This temporary...

  20. Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system in Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina.

  1. DEMOGRAPHIC VULNERABILITIES IN TECUCI PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Adrian ŞORCARU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on analyzing and mapping 8 indicators considered to best reflect the demographic vulnerability in Tecuci Plain in the year 2010 and proposes a model of aggregation which finally allows us to distinguish three major types of demographic vulnerability (low, medium and high. Mapping the final values also shows significant disparities in the territorial administrative units that broadly overlap the plain, the most vulnerable being Tecuci city and the peripheral communes, towards Vrancea and Vaslui Counties.

  2. Geothermal energy and district heating in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, Julianne

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the possibilities for using shallow geothermal energy for heating purposes in Ny-Ålesund. The current energy supply in Ny-Ålesund is a diesel generator, which does not comply with the Norwegian government and Ny-Ålesund Science Managers Committee’s common goal to maintain the natural environment in Ny-Ålesund. Ny-Ålesund has a potential for replacing the heat from the current diesel based energy source with geothermal energy. Geothermal energy is considered to have low im...

  3. Ny forskning: Derfor virker ros ikke mod stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    Ny forskning peger på, at stressede medarbejdere overhører din ros og anerkendelse, hvis de føler skam. Skam over ikke at kunne slå til på arbejdet. Vil du hjælpe en stresset medarbejder, skal du forebygge, at de føler sig skamfulde. Læs her anbefalinger til, hvordan du bedst hjælper din stressed...

  4. Characterization of the near-Earth Asteroid 2002NY40

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Jr., Lewis C.; Hall, Doyle T.; Lambert, John V.; Africano, John L.; Knox, Keith T.; Barros, Jacob K.; Hamada, Kris M.; Liang, Dennis; Sydney, Paul F.; Kervin, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In August 2002, the near-Earth asteroid 2002 NY40, made its closest approach to the Earth. This provided an opportunity to study a near-Earth asteroid with a variety of instruments. Several of the telescopes at the Maui Space Surveillance System were trained at the asteroid and collected adaptive optics images, photometry and spectroscopy. Analysis of the imagery reveals the asteroid is triangular shaped with significant self-shadowing. The photometry reveals a 20-hour period and the spectros...

  5. Den fjerde vej: Trumps sejr skaber ny samfundsorden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin Møller Boje; Andersen, Torben K.; Kragh, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Bag Donald Trumps uempatiske retorik gemmer sig omridset af et politisk projekt, man kan kalde den fjerde vej. USA’s kommende præsident blander højre- og venstreorienterede mærkesager til et nyt nationalsocialt politisk koncept. Spørgsmålet er, om Trumps fjerde vej er et seriøst bud på en ny...

  6. Zoning v USA:Kapitola 2 - Zoning na přelomu 20 - 21. století

    OpenAIRE

    Moučka, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Kapitola 2 popisuje vývoj zoningu v územním řádu USA. Reflektuje změny způsobené v USA hypoteční a měnovou krizí r. 2006 a jejich možné důsledky pro územní řád a zoning v USA. Popúisuje se podrobně konvenční zoning a jeho některé novinky.

  7. NY-ESO-1 antibody as a novel tumour marker of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, S; Wada, H; Kawada, J; Kawabata, R; Takahashi, T; Fujita, J; Hirao, T; Shibata, K; Makari, Y; Iijima, S; Nishikawa, H; Jungbluth, A A; Nakamura, Y; Kurokawa, Y; Yamasaki, M; Miyata, H; Nakajima, K; Takiguchi, S; Nakayama, E; Mori, M; Doki, Y

    2013-03-19

    NY-ESO-1 antibodies are specifically observed in patients with NY-ESO-1-expressing tumours. We analysed whether the NY-ESO-1 humoral immune response is a useful tumour marker of gastric cancer. Sera from 363 gastric cancer patients were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect NY-ESO-1 antibodies. Serial serum samples were obtained from 25 NY-ESO-1 antibody-positive patients, including 16 patients with curative resection and 9 patients who received chemotherapy alone. NY-ESO-1 antibodies were detected in 3.4% of stage I, 4.4% of stage II, 25.3% of stage III, and 20.0% of stage IV patients. The frequency of antibody positivity increased with disease progression. When the NY-ESO-1 antibody was used in combination with carcinoembryonic antigen and CA19-9 to detect gastric cancer, information gains of 11.2% in stages III and IV, and 5.8% in all patients were observed. The NY-ESO-1 immune response levels of the patients without recurrence fell below the cutoff level after surgery. Two of the patients with recurrence displayed incomplete decreases. The nine patients who received chemotherapy alone continued to display NY-ESO-1 immune responses. When combined with conventional tumour markers, the NY-ESO-1 humoral immune response could be a useful tumour marker for detecting advanced gastric cancer and inferring the post-treatment tumour load in seropositive patients.

  8. NY-ESO-1 expression and immunogenicity in prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gati, Asma; Lajmi, Nesrine; Derouiche, Amine; Marrakchi, Raja; Chebil, Mohamed; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel

    2011-10-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of men cancer-related death. Cancer immunotherapy has been investigated as a treatment which might be instituted at the point of detection of androgen-independent metastatic disease. to investigate the expression and humoral response against NYESO-1 in patients with prostate cancer (PC) and to analyze the relationship between expression of NY-ESO-1 and clinicopathological features. NY-ESO-1 mRNA in surgically resected PC and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were examined by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction. The antibody response to NY-ESO-1 was examined by enzyme-linked Elisa assay using recombinant NYESO-1 protein. NY-ESO-1 mRNA was detected in 9 of 23 (39%) PC patients. Antibodies against NY-ESO-1 protein were detected in 12 of 23 (52%) sera of PC patients and in 5 of 9 (55%) of NY-ESO-1 expressing tumors. However, no mRNA copy or NY-ESO-1 antibodies were detected in all BPH patients tested. The present study has demonstrated the expression of NY-ESO-1mRNA in prostate Cancer patients and NY-ESO-1 antibody production. Our data suggest that NY-ESO-1 could be used as a tumor marker and constitute a good candidate for vaccine-based immunotherapy for hormonal resistant prostate cancer patients.

  9. Vaccination with NY-ESO-1 overlapping peptides mixed with Picibanil OK-432 and montanide ISA-51 in patients with cancers expressing the NY-ESO-1 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hisashi; Isobe, Midori; Kakimi, Kazuhiro; Mizote, Yu; Eikawa, Shingo; Sato, Eiichi; Takigawa, Nagio; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Yamasaki, Makoto; Miyata, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Hirokazu; Udono, Heiichiro; Seto, Yasuyuki; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Pan, Linda; Venhaus, Ralph; Oka, Mikio; Doki, Yuichiro; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a clinical trial of an NY-ESO-1 cancer vaccine using 4 synthetic overlapping long peptides (OLP; peptides #1, 79-108; #2, 100-129; #3, 121-150; and #4, 142-173) that include a highly immunogenic region of the NY-ESO-1 molecule. Nine patients were immunized with 0.25 mg each of three 30-mer and a 32-mer long NY-ESO-1 OLP mixed with 0.2 KE Picibanil OK-432 and 1.25 mL Montanide ISA-51. The primary endpoints of this study were safety and NY-ESO-1 immune responses. Five to 18 injections of the NY-ESO-1 OLP vaccine were well tolerated. Vaccine-related adverse events observed were fever and injection site reaction (grade 1 and 2). Two patients showed stable disease after vaccination. An NY-ESO-1-specific humoral immune response was observed in all patients and an antibody against peptide #3 (121-150) was detected firstly and strongly after vaccination. NY-ESO-1 CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses were elicited in these patients and their epitopes were identified. Using a multifunctional cytokine assay, the number of single or double cytokine-producing cells was increased in NY-ESO-1-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells after vaccination. Multiple cytokine-producing cells were observed in PD-1 (-) and PD-1 (+) CD4 T cells. In conclusion, our study indicated that the NY-ESO-1 OLP vaccine mixed with Picibanil OK-432 and Montanide ISA-51 was well tolerated and elicited NY-ESO-1-specific humoral and CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses in immunized patients.

  10. Saturated thickness, High Plains aquifer, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents the saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer of the United States, 2009, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  11. In search of annual legumes to improve forage sorghum yield and nutritive value in the southern high plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock production is significant in the Southern High Plains of the USA and demand is increasing for greater forage dry matter (DM) yield with increased nutritive value. Forage sorghum (FS)[Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is commonly used, although, it is low in crude protein (CP) and high in fiber....

  12. 33 CFR 110.87 - Henderson Harbor, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.87 Henderson Harbor, N.Y. (a) Area A. The area in the... latitude 43°51′08.8″ N, longitude 76°12′08.9″ W, thence to latitude 43°51′09.0″ N, longitude 76°12′19.0″ W, thence to latitude 43°51′33.4″ N, longitude 76°12′19.0″ W, thence to latitude 43°51′33.4″ N, longitude...

  13. NY-ESO-1 — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    NY-ESO-1, official name CTAG1B, is an antigen that is expressed in normal testis and ovary and overexpressed in a wide variety of cancers. The CTAG1B gene is found in a duplicated region of the X-chromosome and therefore has a neighboring gene of identical sequence. CTAG1B is expressed from 18 weeks until birth in human fetal testis. In the adult testis, is strongly expressed in spermatogonia and in primary spermatocytes, but not in post-meiotic cells or in testicular somatic cells (at protein level).

  14. Increased NY-ESO-1 Expression and Reduced Infiltrating CD3+ T Cells in Cutaneous Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Giavina-Bianchi; Pedro Giavina-Bianchi; Mirian Nacagami Sotto; Alona Muzikansky; Jorge Kalil; Cyro Festa-Neto; Duncan, Lyn M.

    2015-01-01

    NY-ESO-1 is a cancer-testis antigen aberrantly expressed in melanomas, which may serve as a robust and specific target in immunotherapy. NY-ESO-1 antigen expression, tumor features, and the immune profile of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were assessed in primary cutaneous melanoma. NY-ESO-1 protein was detected in 20% of invasive melanomas (16/79), rarely in in situ melanoma (1/10) and not in benign nevi (0/20). Marked intratumoral heterogeneity of NY-ESO-1 protein expression was observed. N...

  15. Increased NY-ESO-1 Expression and Reduced Infiltrating CD3+ T Cells in Cutaneous Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Giavina-Bianchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available NY-ESO-1 is a cancer-testis antigen aberrantly expressed in melanomas, which may serve as a robust and specific target in immunotherapy. NY-ESO-1 antigen expression, tumor features, and the immune profile of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were assessed in primary cutaneous melanoma. NY-ESO-1 protein was detected in 20% of invasive melanomas (16/79, rarely in in situ melanoma (1/10 and not in benign nevi (0/20. Marked intratumoral heterogeneity of NY-ESO-1 protein expression was observed. NY-ESO-1 expression was associated with increased primary tumor thickness (P=0.007 and inversely correlated with superficial spreading melanoma (P<0.02. NY-ESO-1 expression was also associated with reduced numbers and density of CD3+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (P=0.017. When NY-ESO-1 protein was expressed, CD3+ T cells were less diffusely infiltrating the tumor and were more often arranged in small clusters (P=0.010 or as isolated cells (P=0.002 than in large clusters of more than five lymphocytes. No correlation of NY-ESO-1 expression with gender, age, tumor site, ulceration, lymph node sentinel status, or survival was observed. NY-ESO-1 expression in melanoma was associated with tumor progression, including increased tumor thickness, and with reduced tumor infiltrating lymphocytes.

  16. NY-ESO-1 protein glycosylated by yeast induces enhanced immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadle, Andreas; Mischo, Axel; Strahl, Sabine; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Held, Gerhard; Neumann, Frank; Wullner, Beate; Fischer, Eliane; Kleber, Sascha; Karbach, Julia; Jager, Elke; Shiku, Hiroshi; Odunsi, Kunle; Shrikant, Protul A; Knuth, Alexander; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Renner, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    Vaccine strategies that target dendritic cells to elicit potent cellular immunity are the subject of intense research. Here we report that the genetically engineered yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expressing the full-length tumour-associated antigen NY-ESO-1, is a versatile host for protein production. Exposing dendritic cells (DCs) to soluble NY-ESO-1 protein linked to the yeast a-agglutinin 2 protein (Aga2p) protein resulted in protein uptake, processing and MHC class I cross-presentation of NY-ESO-1-derived peptides. The process of antigen uptake and cross-presentation was dependent on the glycosylation pattern of NY-ESO-1-Aga2p protein and the presence of accessible mannose receptors. In addition, NY-ESO-1-Aga2p protein uptake by dendritic cells resulted in recognition by HLA-DP4 NY-ESO-1-specific CD4(+) T cells, indicating MHC class II presentation. Finally, vaccination of mice with yeast-derived NY-ESO-1-Aga2p protein led to an enhanced humoral and cellular immune response, when compared to the bacterially expressed NY-ESO-1 protein. Together, these data demonstrate that yeast-derived full-length NY-ESO-1-Aga2p protein is processed and presented efficiently by MHC class I and II complexes and warrants clinical trials to determine the potential value of S. cerevisiae as a host for cancer vaccine development. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. NY-ESO-1 expression in synovial sarcoma and other mesenchymal tumors: significance for NY-ESO-1-based targeted therapy and differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jin-Ping; Robbins, Paul F; Raffeld, Mark; Aung, Phyu Phyu; Tsokos, Maria; Rosenberg, Steven A; Miettinen, Markku M; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard

    2012-06-01

    A promising targeted therapy against NY-ESO-1 (CTAG 1B) using genetically modified T-cells in synovial sarcomas was recently demonstrated in a clinical trial at the NCI. To investigate the role of NY-ESO-1 immunohistochemistry in patient selection and gain better insight into the incidence of NY-ESO-1 expression in synovial sarcomas and other mesenchymal tumors, we evaluated NY-ESO-1 expression by immunohistochemistry in 417 tumors. This collection of samples included: 50 SS18/SSX1/2 fusion positive synovial sarcomas, 155 gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), 135 other spindle cell sarcomas as well as 77 other sarcomas (chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, angiosarcoma, malignant mesothelioma, and Ewing's sarcoma). We report that 76% of synovial sarcomas expressed NY-ESO-1 in a strong and diffuse pattern (2-3+, >50-70% of tumor cells). In contrast, only rare cases of other spindle cell mesenchymal tumor expressed NY-ESO-1 (GIST (2/155), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (1/34), and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (2/20)). Individual cases of other sarcomas (angiosarcoma, malignant mesothelioma, chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, and Ewing's sarcoma) were positive for NY-ESO-1. However, no positive cases were identified amongst our cohort of leiomyosarcomas (0/24), hemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumors (0/40), and cellular schwannomas (0/17). In summary, we find that NY-ESO-1 is strongly and diffusely expressed in a majority of synovial sarcomas, but only rarely in other mesenchymal lesions. Beyond its role in patient selection for targeted therapy, immunohistochemistry for NY-ESO-1 may be diagnostically useful for the distinction of synovial sarcoma from other spindle cell neoplasms.

  18. Atmospheric Research in Ny-Aalesund. Proceedings from the Third NySMAC meeting. NILU, Kjeller, Norway, 9.-11. April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floeisand, Inga; Gernandt, Hartwig; Larsen, Elisabeth Stoltz; Stordal, Frode; Wada, Makoto

    1997-07-01

    Leading abstract. The Ny-Aalesund Seminar Series was conceived by NySMAC (Ny-Aalesund Science Managers Committee) as a means of bringing together research scientists involved in programmes running at Ny-Aalesund or having an interest in that area. The first Seminar was held in Potsdam in Germany in May 1995, and included talks which covered all current research disciplines; physical, atmospheric, earth and biological sciences. The Second Seminar was devoted to biological science and particularly to ecology. It was held in Cambridge in UK in February 1996. The subject of this Third Seminar, held in Kjeller in Norway in April 1997, is atmospheric research in Ny-Aalesund. Since the early 1980s a wide range of projects have been carried out on Svalbard and particularly at Ny-Aalesund. Prominent in this research have been several international research programmes with emphasis on topics of e.g. Arctic (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, AMAP), European (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme, EMEP) or global (International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, IGBP; World Climate Research Programme, WCRP) scales. Atmospheric observations have been carried out in Ny-Aalesund in Svalbard for several years. From the early 1980s, the long range transport of sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosols leading to Arctic Haze, has been studied. As a consequence, EMEP included Ny-Aalesund in their network. In the following years the transport of ozone and chemical precursors were observed, and recently the naturally occurring phenomenon of rapid surface ozone loss has been given particular attention. From the late 1980s observations of the stratospheric ozone layer and related chemical species were undertaken, and the efforts have increased considerably since. Ny-Aalesund is now one of the primary Arctic sites of the NDSC (Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change) network. Important efforts have been undertaken to participate in the European campaigns as the European

  19. Plain Polynomial Arithmetic on GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisul Haque, Sardar; Moreno Maza, Marc

    2012-10-01

    As for serial code on CPUs, parallel code on GPUs for dense polynomial arithmetic relies on a combination of asymptotically fast and plain algorithms. Those are employed for data of large and small size, respectively. Parallelizing both types of algorithms is required in order to achieve peak performances. In this paper, we show that the plain dense polynomial multiplication can be efficiently parallelized on GPUs. Remarkably, it outperforms (highly optimized) FFT-based multiplication up to degree 212 while on CPU the same threshold is usually at 26. We also report on a GPU implementation of the Euclidean Algorithm which is both work-efficient and runs in linear time for input polynomials up to degree 218 thus showing the performance of the GCD algorithm based on systolic arrays.

  20. NY-ESO-1 expression predicts an aggressive phenotype of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szender, J Brian; Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; Eng, Kevin H; Miliotto, Anthony J; Lugade, Amit A; Gnjatic, Sacha; Matsuzaki, Junko; Morrison, Carl D; Odunsi, Kunle

    2017-06-01

    NY-ESO-1 is a cancer testis antigen and a promising target for immunotherapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the expression frequency, immunogenicity, and clinical impact of NY-ESO-1 in ovarian cancer. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and quantitative-PCR (qRT-PCR) were utilized in an ovarian cancer (including Fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers) patient cohort; humoral responses against NY-ESO-1 were determined by ELISA. Clinicopathologic outcomes including progression-free (PFS) and overall (OS) survival were evaluated based on NY-ESO-1 expression. Cohen's kappa (κ) tested agreement between expression tests. NY-ESO-1 expression was detected by any method in 40.7% of 1002 patients' tumors (NY-ESO-1+) and baseline humoral response was identified in 19.0% of 689 tested patients. NY-ESO-1+ patients were older (pESO-1+ patients. A subset analysis of NY-ESO-1+ patients that received immunotherapy demonstrated improved OS by >2years (52.6 vs. 27.2months, pESO-1 expression and an aggressive cancer phenotype. The relatively high expression frequency of NY-ESO-1 in ovarian cancer patients coupled with the poor clinical outcomes in NY-ESO-1+ patients reveals an underappreciated need for targeted therapy against this antigen. In support, our study reveals that NY-ESO-1+ patients enrolled on immunotherapy trials targeting the antigen exhibited an improvement in OS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  2. Archive of Datasonics SIS-1000 Chirp Subbottom Data Collected During USGS Cruise DIAN 96040 Long Island, NY Inner Shelf -- Fire Island, NY, 4-24 September, 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This CD-ROM contains digital high resolution seismic reflection data collected during the USGS DIAN 96040 cruise. The coverage is the nearshore of Long Island, NY in...

  3. Archive of Datasonics SIS-1000 Chirp Subbottom Data Collected During USGS Cruise DIAN 96040 Long Island, NY Inner Shelf -- Fire Island, NY, 4-24 September, 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This CD-ROM contains digital high resolution seismic reflection data collected during the USGS DIAN 96040 cruise. The coverage is the nearshore of Long Island, NY in...

  4. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Benthic Habitat Data, Long Island Sound, Jamaica Bay, and Lower Bay of NY/NJ Harbor, NY, 1994-2002 (NODC Accession 0089467)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are a collection of benthic habitat data from studies conducted in the coastal Long Island Sound, NY region in GIS shapefile (.shp, .dbf, .shx, and .prj...

  5. NY-ESO-1抗原与肿瘤免疫治疗进展%NY-ESO-1 and Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭吉润; 冷希圣

    2008-01-01

    NY-ESO-1抗原是肿瘤-睾丸抗原家族中的重要成员,在多种类型的肿瘤中广泛表达,并且是迄今发现的最具免疫原性的肿瘤抗原,可以在NY-ESO-1表达阳性的肿瘤患者体内引起自发性体液免疫反应和特异性T细胞免疫反应.因此,NY-ESO-1被认为是最好的肿瘤候选疫苗,在肿瘤免疫治疗中最具发展潜力.本文主要介绍了近年来有关NY-ESO-1抗原以及相关疫苗的研究进展.

  6. Progress in NY-ESO-I as cancer vaccines%NY-ESO-1癌症疫苗研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志青

    2006-01-01

    NY-ESO-1抗原是近年来发现的一种肿瘤特异性抗原,在乳腺癌、黑色素瘤、食管癌等20多种肿瘤中均有不同程度的表达.NY-ESO-1的广泛表达使其成为多种实体瘤特异性疫苗免疫治疗的首选抗原.在制备NY-ESO-1癌症疫苗时,目前主要围绕癌症疫苗的类型、抗原的加工提呈两个方面进行研究.现综述近年来NY-ESO-1癌症疫苗在这两方面的研究进展.

  7. Archive of Datasonics SIS-1000 Chirp Subbottom Data Collected During USGS Cruise DIAN 96040 Long Island, NY Inner Shelf -- Fire Island, NY, 4-24 September, 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This CD-ROM contains digital high resolution seismic reflection data collected during the USGS DIAN 96040 cruise. The coverage is the nearshore of Long Island, NY...

  8. Induction of immune response against NY-ESO-1 by CHP-NY-ESO-1 vaccination and immune regulation in a melanoma patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Kazuhide; Hamada, Toshitada; Uenaka, Akiko; Wada, Hisashi; Sato, Eiichi; Isobe, Midori; Asagoe, Kenji; Yamasaki, Osamu; Shiku, Hiroshi; Ritter, Gerd; Murphy, Roger; Hoffman, Eric W; Old, Lloyd J; Nakayama, Eiichi; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2008-10-01

    NY-ESO-1 is a cancer/testis antigen highly immunogenic in cancer patients. Cholesterol-bearing hydrophobized pullulan (CHP) is a nanoparticle-forming antigen-delivery vehicle and CHP complexed with NY-ESO-1 protein (CHP-NY-ESO-1) efficiently activates CD4 and CD8 T cells in vitro. In this study we report on a 50-year-old male melanoma patient with multiple skin and organ metastases (T4N3M1c) who was vaccinated with CHP-NY-ESO-1 at biweekly intervals and who had an unusual disease course. We characterized in this patient humoral and cellular immune responses, immune regulatory cells, and cytokine profiles in the peripheral blood and at local tumor sites. Ten days after the second CHP-NY-ESO-1 vaccination (day 25), blisters appeared on the skin at the metastatic lesions associated with inflammatory changes. A skin biopsy showed the presence of many NY-ESO-1-expressing apoptotic melanoma cells as determined by a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) test. However, the tumors continued to grow, and the patient died of pulmonary failure due to multiple metastases on day 48. Serum antibody responses were detected after the second CHP-NY-ESO-1 vaccination and antibody titer increased with subsequent vaccinations. Th1 dependent IgG1 was the predominant immunoglobulin subtype. Both, NY-ESO-1-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses were detected in PBMC by IFN-gamma secretion assays. After CHP-NY-ESO-1 vaccination a slight decrease in CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs was observed in PBMC but significantly increased numbers of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs and CD68(+) immunoregulatory macrophages were detected at the local tumor sites. CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs were also increased in the blister fluid. Cytokines in the serum suggested a polarization towards a Th1 pattern in the PBMC and those in the blister fluid suggested a Th2-type response at the tumor site. Our observations indicate induction of specific humoral and

  9. Wind-blown sand movement periods on the Nyírség alluvial fan, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buró, Botond; Lóki, József; Sipos, György; Négyesi, Gábor; Andrási, Bence; Jakab, Attila; Félegyházi, Enikő; Molnár, Mihály

    2017-04-01

    Wind-blown sand movement periods on the Nyírség alluvial fan, Hungary The Nyírség is an alluvial fan, was built by rivers, which were flown down from the NE Carpathians. When the weather was dry, wind-blown sand was blowed out and the wind started to develop the aeolian landforms. The first significant sand movements in the Nyírség was in the Upper plenniglacial and the Late glacial. The main landforms of the Nyírség were developed at this time. The aeolic transformation of the land was not completed in the Nyírség at the end of the Pleistocene. In the Holocene the sand moved within small area, mainly by anthropogenic impact. Our aim is clarify the age of the wind-blown sand movements period, with different absolute (Radiocarbon dating method, OSL), and relative (Archaeological finds, Pollen analyses) dating methods. We have collected for the age determining charcoal from many sand quarry (Gégény, Kántorjánosi, Nyíradony, Nagyvarsány, Máriapócs and Lövőpetri) which contain fossil soil layer. For the OSL measurements samples were collected from Baktalórántháza, Gégény and Kántorjánosi sand quarries. We collected samples from 5 places for the pollen analyses (Nyírtanya, Máriapócs, Nyírbéltek-Nyírlúgos, Nyírábrány, Vámospércs), and also from an archaeological excavation (Nyíregyháza- Oros). The new age dates show us, that in the Nyírség the first significant sand movements were in the cold and drier period of the Upper pleniglacial and Late glacial (Baktalórántháza, Nyírtanya, Vámospércs). At the end of the Pleistocene the sand movements not competed in the Nyírség (Gégény, Kántorjánosi, Nyírábrány). In the Holocene there were many little sand movement periods, mainly caused by anthropogenic impact (Nyíradony, Nyíregyháza-Oros). The research was supported by the European Union and the State of Hungary, co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund in the project of GINOP-2.3.2.-15-2016-00009 'ICER

  10. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig historie...

  11. Glemmer USA Afghanistan nu?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016.......Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016....

  12. 33 CFR 110.150 - Block Island Sound, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Block Island Sound, N.Y. 110.150 Section 110.150 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.150 Block Island Sound, N.Y. (a) The anchorage ground. A...

  13. 33 CFR 110.85 - Niagara River, Youngstown, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Niagara River, Youngstown, N.Y. 110.85 Section 110.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.85 Niagara River, Youngstown, N.Y. (a) Area...

  14. 78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking... Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY during the Long Beach Regatta Powerboat Race scheduled for August...

  15. Epigenetic potentiation of NY-ESO-1 vaccine therapy in human ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunsi, Kunle; Matsuzaki, Junko; James, Smitha R; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Tsuji, Takemasa; Miller, Austin; Zhang, Wa; Akers, Stacey N; Griffiths, Elizabeth A; Miliotto, Anthony; Beck, Amy; Batt, Carl A; Ritter, Gerd; Lele, Shashikant; Gnjatic, Sacha; Karpf, Adam R

    2014-01-01

    The cancer-testis/cancer-germline antigen NY-ESO-1 is a vaccine target in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but its limited expression is a barrier to vaccine efficacy. As NY-ESO-1 is regulated by DNA methylation, we hypothesized that DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors may augment NY-ESO-1 vaccine therapy. In agreement, global DNA hypomethylation in EOC was associated with the presence of circulating antibodies to NY-ESO-1. Pre-clinical studies using EOC cell lines showed that decitabine treatment enhanced both NY-ESO-1 expression and NY-ESO-1-specific CTL-mediated responses. Based on these observations, we performed a phase I dose-escalation trial of decitabine, as an addition to NY-ESO-1 vaccine and doxorubicin liposome (doxorubicin) chemotherapy, in 12 patients with relapsed EOC. The regimen was safe, with limited and clinically manageable toxicities. Both global and promoter-specific DNA hypomethylation occurred in blood and circulating DNAs, the latter of which may reflect tumor cell responses. Increased NY-ESO-1 serum antibodies and T cell responses were observed in the majority of patients, and antibody spreading to additional tumor antigens was also observed. Finally, disease stabilization or partial clinical response occurred in 6/10 evaluable patients. Based on these encouraging results, evaluation of similar combinatorial chemo-immunotherapy regimens in EOC and other tumor types is warranted.

  16. Expression and immunogenicity of NY-ESO-1 in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Song, Ruifeng; Li, Xinqiang; Xu, Feng

    2017-06-01

    Serum assays of NY-ESO-1 antibodies provide a guide to discriminate between patients who suffer from different types of cancer. In the present study, the expression of NY-ESO-1 was detected with the aim to identify a novel tumor antigen in colorectal cancer (CRC). Sera were obtained from 89 healthy individuals and 236 patients with CRC with stage I, II, III and IV tumors. The NY-ESO-1 autoantibody levels were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mRNA and protein expression levels of NY-ESO-1 were detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in 60 CRC and paired adjacent non-tumor tissues. NY-ESO-1 antibody was detected in 40 of the 236 (16.9%) patients with CRC. The NY-ESO-1 antibody combined with carcinoembryonic antigen enhanced the sensitivity, from 52.1 to 62.7%, of the diagnosis of CRC. The frequency of antibody positivity increased with the TNM cancer stage (8.8 vs. 28.3% in stages I+II and III+IV, respectively). The mRNA and protein expression levels of NY-ESO-1 were significantly higher in CRC tissue than in adjacent non-tumor tissue. In conclusion, NY-ESO-1 is frequently expressed in CRC with the capacity of inducing a humoral immune response in CRC patients, exhibiting the potential to be a promising biomarker for CRC.

  17. Increased NY-ESO-1 expression and reduced infiltrating CD3+ T cells in cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavina-Bianchi, Mara; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Sotto, Mirian Nacagami; Muzikansky, Alona; Kalil, Jorge; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Duncan, Lyn M

    2015-01-01

    NY-ESO-1 is a cancer-testis antigen aberrantly expressed in melanomas, which may serve as a robust and specific target in immunotherapy. NY-ESO-1 antigen expression, tumor features, and the immune profile of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were assessed in primary cutaneous melanoma. NY-ESO-1 protein was detected in 20% of invasive melanomas (16/79), rarely in in situ melanoma (1/10) and not in benign nevi (0/20). Marked intratumoral heterogeneity of NY-ESO-1 protein expression was observed. NY-ESO-1 expression was associated with increased primary tumor thickness (P = 0.007) and inversely correlated with superficial spreading melanoma (P ESO-1 expression was also associated with reduced numbers and density of CD3+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (P = 0.017). When NY-ESO-1 protein was expressed, CD3+ T cells were less diffusely infiltrating the tumor and were more often arranged in small clusters (P = 0.010) or as isolated cells (P = 0.002) than in large clusters of more than five lymphocytes. No correlation of NY-ESO-1 expression with gender, age, tumor site, ulceration, lymph node sentinel status, or survival was observed. NY-ESO-1 expression in melanoma was associated with tumor progression, including increased tumor thickness, and with reduced tumor infiltrating lymphocytes.

  18. NY-ESO-1-specific immunological pressure and escape in a patient with metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Boehmer, Lotta; Mattle, Muriel; Bode, Peter; Landshammer, Alexandro; Schäfer, Carolin; Nuber, Natko; Ritter, Gerd; Old, Lloyd; Moch, Holger; Schäfer, Niklaus; Jäger, Elke; Knuth, Alexander; van den Broek, Maries

    2013-01-01

    During cancer progression, malignant cells may evade immunosurveillance. However, evidence for immunological escape in humans is scarce. We report here the clinical course of a melanoma patient whose initial tumor was positive for the antigens NY-ESO-1, MAGE-C1, and Melan-A. Upon immunization with a recombinant vaccinia/fowlpox NY-ESO-1 construct, the patient experienced a mixed clinical response and spreading of the NY-ESO-1 epitopes in the CD4+ T cell compartment. After NY-ESO-1 protein + CpG immunization, the patient's anti-NY-ESO-1 IgG response increased. Over the following years, progressing lesions were resected and found to be NY-ESO-1-negative while being positive for MAGE-C1, Melan-A, and MHC-I. The fatal, inoperable brain metastasis was analyzed after his death and also proved to be NY-ESO-1-negative, while being positive for MAGE-C1 and Melan-A, as well as MHC-I. We propose that cancer control and cancer escape in this patient were governed by NY-ESO-1-specific immunological pressure. Our findings provide evidence for the existence of immunoediting and immunoescape in this cancer patient.

  19. 75 FR 38710 - Special Local Regulation, Fran Schnarr Open Water Championships, Huntington Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... Championships, Huntington Bay, NY'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 13454). The Coast Guard received no comments...-2009-0520) in the Federal Register (74 FR 51243). The notice proposed a regulated area encompassing 100... Bay, NY in the Federal Register (75 FR 13454). This notice proposes a 100 yard regulated area...

  20. 77 FR 35113 - Canadian National Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Niagara County, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... milepost 0.20 to approximately milepost 0.35 in the City of Niagara Falls, Niagara County, N.Y., a distance... track in Niagara Falls, extending between the eastern end of the Bridge and the beginning of the Niagara... Niagara Falls, N.Y., and Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada, and is owned by the bi-national Niagara......

  1. 33 CFR 165.170 - Safety Zone: Triathlon, Ulster Landing, Hudson River, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Triathlon, Ulster Landing, Hudson River, NY. 165.170 Section 165.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.170 Safety Zone: Triathlon, Ulster Landing, Hudson River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The...

  2. 77 FR 30451 - Safety Zone; Olcott Fireworks, Lake Ontario, Olcott, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Olcott Fireworks, Lake Ontario, Olcott, NY... establish a temporary safety zone on Lake Ontario, Olcott, NY. This proposed rule is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Ontario during the Olcott fireworks display. The safety zone established...

  3. Bacterial Diversity of Ny-Ålesund, Arctic Archipelago Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battsetseg Choidash

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial diversity of the water sample, collected from Ny-Ålesund, Arctic Archipelago Svalbard was analyzed by a phenotypic as well as a genotypic approach. Pure colonies of the culturable bacteria were established and grown at a range of temperatures: 4ºC, 15ºC, 22ºC and 37ºC. Optimum growth was found at 15ºC, and around 28 colonies were obtained. The library was dominated by 16S rDNAs of Gram-negative bacteria ( γ -Proteobacteria. Twenty two isolates exhibited sequences were similar to that of known bacterial isolates (>97% sequence similarity, represented by the species of the genera Psychrobacter , Pseudomonas , and Acinetobacter . Six isolates exhibited sequences showed less affi liation with known taxa (<97% sequence similarity, and may represent novel taxa.

  4. T cells targeting NY-ESO-1 demonstrate efficacy against disseminated neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nathan; Kulikovskaya, Irina; Barrett, David M; Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn; Jakobsen, Bent; Martinez, Daniel; Pawel, Bruce; June, Carl H; Kalos, Michael D; Grupp, Stephan A

    The cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 is expressed by many solid tumors and has limited expression by mature somatic tissues, making it a highly attractive target for tumor immunotherapy. Targeting NY-ESO-1 using engineered T cells has demonstrated clinical efficacy in the treatment of some adult tumors. Neuroblastoma is a significant cause of cancer mortality in children, and is a tumor type shown to be responsive to immunotherapies. We evaluated a large panel of primarily resected neuroblastoma samples and demonstrated that 23% express NY-ESO-1. After confirming antigen-specific activity of T cells genetically engineered to express an NY-ESO-1 directed high-affinity transgenic T cell receptor in vitro, we performed xenograft mouse studies assessing the efficacy of NY-ESO-1-targeted T cells in both localized and disseminated models of neuroblastoma. Disease responses were monitored by tumor volume measurement and in vivo bioluminescence. After delivery of NY-ESO-1 transgenic TCR T cells, we observed significant delay of tumor progression in mice bearing localized and disseminated neuroblastoma, as well as enhanced animal survival. These data demonstrate that NY-ESO-1 is an antigen target in neuroblastoma and that targeted T cells represent a potential therapeutic option for patients with neuroblastoma.

  5. Expression of MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 in Primary and Metastatic Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tristen S; Groh, Eric M; Patel, Krishna; Kerkar, Sid P; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma-associated antigen-A (MAGE-A) and New York esophageal squamous cell cancer-1 (NY-ESO-1) are 2 cancer testis antigens (CTA) demonstrating potential for use in targeted immunotherapy. Clinical trials in melanoma and synovial sarcomas targeting these antigens in immune-based therapies have demonstrated durable tumor regression. Although protein expression of NY-ESO-1 has been assessed in a variety of cancer types, the expression of MAGE-A has not been studied in depth. In this study we analyzed MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 expression in 314 melanoma specimens from 301 melanoma patients, 38 patients with squamous cell cancers and 111 patients with adenocarcinomas. Our results demonstrated higher expression of MAGE-A compared with NY-ESO-1 in melanomas (32% vs. 13%) and squamous cell carcinomas (45% vs. 7.9%), and higher expression of both CTAs in metastatic versus primary tumors. CTA expression in adenocarcinomas was low (MAGE-A: 10%, NY-ESO-1: 0.9%). In addition, we looked at concordance of expression among metastatic melanoma lesions within the same patient and found concordant expression in 38 of 47 patients for MAGE-A and 43 of 47 patients for NY-ESO-1. Our study demonstrated that the MAGE-A family may be of greater utility than NY-ESO-1 for targeted immunotherapy in a variety of cancer histologies, in particular metastatic melanomas and squamous cell carcinomas.

  6. Expression of NY-ESO-1 ,NY-SAR-35 in retinoblastoma and its clinical significance%视网膜母细胞瘤中NY-ESO-1、NY-SAR-35基因的表达及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严宇清; 林泉; 孔旻; 何剑峰; 陈迎迎; 谢小薰; 罗彬; 梁皓

    2012-01-01

    背景 视网膜母细胞瘤(RB)的免疫治疗因创伤小、针对性强而受到广泛关注,寻求相关免疫原性较强的肿瘤抗原是免疫治疗的基础.NY-ESO-I和NY-SAR-35是癌-睾丸抗原(CTA)中的两种基因,检测其在RB组织中的表达可为RB的免疫治疗研究提供依据. 目的 研究RB中NY-ESO-1 mRNA、NY-SAR-35 mRNA的表达情况,探讨将其用于RB特异性免疫治疗靶抗原的可能性. 方法 收集15例RB患儿组织为RB组、12例非肿瘤病变部位视网膜组织为非肿瘤病变组,及22例眼部因其他眼部病变进行手术治疗获取的正常相关眼组织标本为正常组.采用逆转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)检测待测组织标本中NY-ESO-1mRNA、NY-SAR-35 mRNA的表达;并按随机数字表法抽取RT-PCR检测的阳性产物直接进行DNA测序,对检测结果与肿瘤病理分级、肿瘤大小、临床分期等临床指标进行分析.结果 15例RB组织中有6例标本表达NY-ESO-1基因,9例标本表达NY-SAR-35基因;在12例非肿瘤病变视网膜组织及22例眼部正常组织中均未见到NY-ESO-1基因和NY-SAR-35基因的表达.NY-ESO-1基因和NY-SAR-35基因的表达均与患者的性别(P=0.426、0.822)、年龄(P=0.180、0.464)、病理分型(P=0.744、0.582)、肿瘤大小(P=0.760、0.790)、临床分期(P=0.868、0.707)等临床相关指标无明显关联.结论 NY-ESO-1基因及NY-SAR-35基因均可特异性地高表达于RB组织中,其表达率明显高于其他全身肿瘤,有可能成为RB特异性免疫治疗的靶抗原.%Background The immunotherapy for retinoblastoma(RB) is gradually concerned recent year.To seek relative immune-associated antigen is a basis of immunotherapy.NY-ESO-1 and NY-SAR-35 are two kinds of genes of cancer testis antigen( CTA ).To understand their expressions in RB tissue can offer index for relative study.Objective This study was to investigate the expressions of two CTA NY-ESO-1 and NY-SAR-35 in RB and explore the possibility of them as

  7. USA Hire Testing Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  8. Loeng USA Sisejulgeolekuministeeriumi kantslerilt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    13. okt. pidas USA Sisejulgeolekuministeeriumi teaduse ja tehnoloogia kantsler dr Charles McQueary Tartu Ülikooli Tehnoloogiainstituudis loengu "Uue põlvkonna ettevõtlust suunavad ja julgeolekut edendavad tehnoloogiad"

  9. USA kunstidessant Venemaale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    USA kunstnike näitus "Kolm sajandit ameerika kunsti" Moskvas Pushkini muuseumis. Eksponeeritakse Mark Rothko, Jean-Michel Basguiat', Roy Lichtensteini, Robert Rauschenbergi, Georgia O'Keefe'i, Willem de Kooningi töid

  10. USA kunstidessant Venemaale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    USA kunstnike näitus "Kolm sajandit ameerika kunsti" Moskvas Pushkini muuseumis. Eksponeeritakse Mark Rothko, Jean-Michel Basguiat', Roy Lichtensteini, Robert Rauschenbergi, Georgia O'Keefe'i, Willem de Kooningi töid

  11. A novel human-derived antibody against NY-ESO-1 improves the efficacy of chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anurag; Nuber, Natko; Esslinger, Christoph; Wittenbrink, Mareike; Treder, Martin; Landshammer, Alexandro; Noguchi, Takuro; Kelly, Marcus; Gnjatic, Sacha; Ritter, Erika; von Boehmer, Lotta; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Shiku, Hiroshi; Old, Lloyd; Ritter, Gerd; Knuth, Alexander; van den Broek, Maries

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether antibodies against intracellular tumor-associated antigens support tumor-specific immunity when administered together with a treatment that destroys the tumor. We propose that released antigens form immune complexes with the antibodies, which are then efficiently taken up by dendritic cells. We cloned the first human monoclonal antibodies against the Cancer/Testis (CT) antigen, NY-ESO-1. We tested whether the monoclonal anti-NY-ESO-1 antibody (12D7) facilitates cross-presentation of a NY-ESO-1-derived epitope by dendritic cells to human CD8+ T cells, and whether this results in the maturation of dendritic cells in vitro. We investigated the efficacy of 12D7 in combination with chemotherapy using BALB/c mice bearing syngeneic CT26 tumors that express intracellular NY-ESO-1. Human dendritic cells that were incubated with NY-ESO-1:12D7 immune complexes efficiently stimulated NY-ESO-1(157-165)/HLA-A2-specific human CD8+ T cells to produce interferon-γ, whereas NY-ESO-1 alone did not. Furthermore, the incubation of dendritic cells with NY-ESO-1:12D7 immune complexes resulted in the maturation of dendritic cells. Treatment of BALB/c mice that bear CT26/NY-ESO-1 tumors with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) plus 12D7 was significantly more effective than chemotherapy alone. We propose systemic injection of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against tumor-associated antigens plus a treatment that promotes the local release of those antigens resulting in immune complex formation as a novel therapeutic modality for cancer.

  12. Application of serum NY-ESO-1 antibody assay for early SCLC diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jihua; Jiao, Shunchang; Kang, Jingbo; Li, Rong; Zhang, Guanzhong

    2015-01-01

    NY-ESO-1 antibody is one of the cancer-related antibodies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic role of the NY-ESO-1 humoral immune response in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We recombined the recombinant protein of NY-ESO-1 antibody and NSE, analyzed them by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and then established the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve to estimate the diagnostic value of NY-ESO-1 antibody, NSE and their combinations. According to detection, the positive rate of NY-ESO-1 humoral immune response (26.3%), NSE (43.8%) and their combinations (10.5%) were all lower than the negative rate which indicated that the NY-ESO-1 antibody might be down-regulated in SCLC. And the positive rate wasn't related to clinicopathologic characteristics. The ROC curve demonstrated that with a 37.17% sensitivity and a 91.7% specificity along with a AUC of 0.619 for NY-ESO-1ab as well as with a 48.3% sensitivity and a 90.87% specificity along with a AUC value of 0.773 for NSE, their diagnostic value were both high. Besides, the diagnostic value of their combinations was also good for a AUC of 0.83 and a 69.12% sensitivity and a 91.8% specificity. There were significant difference of diagnostic value among three types above (NY-ESO-1 vs. NSE, P ESO-1, P ESO-1ab, NSE and their combinations all were important diagnostic markers for SCLC. Moreover, the diagnostic value of their combinations was higher than any single of them. And NY-ESO-1 humoral immune to NSE might be a potential diagnostic indicator in SCLC.

  13. Expression of NY-ESO-1 gene in human hepatocellular carcinoma%人类NY-ESO-1基因编码在肝癌中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阳德; 任菲; 彭健

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究NY-ESO-1在肝细胞肝癌中的表达情况并探索其表达与肝癌预后的相关性.方法 我们收集了124例肝癌患者的肝癌组织和相应的癌旁组织,37例肝硬化患者的肝组织,以及43例非肝硬化的肝组织.应用实时荧光定量聚合酶链技术(RT-PCR)检测了上述组织中NY-ESO-1基因的表达水平,并利用DNA免疫杂交技术和测序技术检测RT-PCR产物.收集健康志愿者外周血基因组DNA作为正常对照.结果 在124例肝癌组织中,56例(45.2%)检测到有NY-ESO-1基因的表达,而在癌旁组织中未检测到表达.NY-ESO-1基因的RT-PCR产物长度为329 bp,利用测序方法检测NY-ESO-1基因突变.在56例表达NY-ESO-1的肝癌组织中,有4例检测到位点2的突变.该突变导致一个氨基酸的变异,这种氨基酸的变异对蛋白结构和功能具有决定性的影响.NY-ESO-1基因的表达与临床特征如肿瘤标志物(甲胎蛋白,半乳糖酸苷酶)、转移、复发和肿瘤的大小无显著关联性.结论 NY-ESO-1在肝癌组织中呈高表达,但是与预后无相关性.NY-ESO-1蛋白能否作为肝癌治疗的候选疫苗有待进一步研究.

  14. Exit and Paradise Creek Braid Plain Kilometers, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of points designating braid plain kilometers, or distance along the braid plain centerline, for the 2012 active braid plain of Exit Creek and...

  15. Vulnerability of grazing and confined livestock in the Northern Great Plains to projected mid- and late-twenty-first century climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin Derner; David Briske; Matt Reeves; Tami Brown-Brandl; Miranda Meehan; Dana Blumenthal; William Travis; David Augustine; Hailey Wilmer; Derek Scasta; John Hendrickson; Jerry Volesky; Laura Edwards; Dannele Peck

    2017-01-01

    The Northern Great Plains (NGP) region of the USA - which comprises Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska - is a largely rural area that provides numerous ecosystem services, including livestock products, cultural services, and conservation of biological diversity. The region contains 25% of the Nation's beef cattle and approximately...

  16. Global warming likely reduces crop yield and water availability of the dryland cropping systems in the U.S. central Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated impacts of GCM-projected climate change on dryland crop rotations of wheat-fallow and wheat-corn-fallow in the Central Great Plains (Akron in Colorado, USA) using the CERES 4.0 crop modules in RZWQM2. The climate change scenarios for CO2, temperature, and precipitation were produced ...

  17. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2004-10-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  18. Planetary plains: subsidence and warping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G.

    fabric of oceanic floors. Short, medium wave undulations of Pacific's floor (A. Cazenave et al., 1992; D. McAdoo & K. Marks, 1992) present lineations underlining its whole shape. NE lineations predominate on its northern sub-basin, NW lineations on its southern one. They cross at the equatorial zone and together with some other directions give a pattern resembling that observed on the venusian surface. The venusian regional plains typically deformed by wrinkle ridges show interesting similarities to volcanic plains on the Moon and Mars [3]. A subsidence along with warpings can squeeze out some "superfluous" material to surface through planetary scale fissures. This material builds mid-oceanic ridges and huge Hawaii volcano. The Cassini Regio on Iapetus is crossed in the equatorial plain by the dark ridge in some places high 20 km. References: [1] Kochemasov G. G. (2004) Mars and Earth: two dichotomies - one cause. In Workshop on "Hemispheres 1 apart: the origin and modification of the martian crustal dichotomy", LPI Contribution # 1203, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, p. 37. [2] Kochemasov G.G.(1999) Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr. v.1, #3, p.700 . [3] Basilevsky A.T., Head J.W. (2006) Impact craters on regional plains in Venus: Age relations with wrinkle ridges and implications for the geological evolution of Venus // JGR, v.111, EO3006, doi: 10.1029/2005JE002473, 2006. 2

  19. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-01-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  20. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-01-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  1. NY-ESO-1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma: A potential new marker for early recurrence after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Heng; Gu, Na; Liu, Zhao-Bo; Zheng, Min; Xiong, Fang; Wang, Si-Ying; Li, Ning; Lu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    NY-ESO-1 belongs to the cancer testis antigens (CTA) family, and is identified in a variety of tumors. Certain studies have demonstrated that NY-ESO-1 predicts tumor recurrence and treatment response. No reports are currently available regarding the correlation between NY-ESO-1 and the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following surgery. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between NY-ESO-1 and relapse of HCC and to explore the possible mechanisms for this correlation. A total of 120 HCC patients were analyzed for the expression of NY-ESO-1 by immunohistochemistry (IHC). A stable NY-ESO-1 over-expressed HepG2 cell line (ESO-HepG2) was established to determine the biological effects of NY-ESO-1 on cell proliferation, cell cycle and migration by using the xCELLigence DP system, flow cytometry and xCELLigence SP system. NY-ESO-1 was positive in 28 of 120 (23.3%) HCC tumor tissues. NY-ESO-1 was not detectable in adjacent normal liver tissues. A close correlation was found between NY-ESO-1 expression and the recurrence of HCC following surgery (P=0.007). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) for patients positive for NY-ESO-1 (log-rank test, P=0.003). The Cox regression model demonstrated that NY-ESO-1 expression was a significant independent predictor for the recurrence of HCC following curative surgery (P=0.022). Compared with HepG2 cells, ESO-HepG2 cells have increased migration but not proliferation ability. In conclusion, NY-ESO-1 expression is associated with worse HCC outcome following surgery, and the mechanism for this finding may be that NY-ESO-1 increases tumor cell migration.

  2. THERMOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF ILLITE FROM FÜZÉRRADVÁNY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Húlan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Young’s modulus of green illite from Füzérradvány (Hungary was measured in-situ in the temperature interval 20 °C – 1100 °C and auxiliary analyses DTA, TG and TDA, XRD and EGA, were also performed. It was found that a removal of the physically bound water (20 °C – 250 °C sets illite crystals closer which leads to a significant increase of Young’s modulus from its initial value of 7 GPa and reaches the maximum 12 GPa at 300 °C. Young’s modulus slightly decreases in the temperature interval of dehydroxylation of illite (300 °C – 800 °C, and which then reaches up to 45 GPa at 1100 °C, increasing exponentially as a consequence of the sintering above 800 °C.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7152

  3. 肿瘤抗原NY-ESO-1研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王运伟; 顾琴龙; 朱正纲

    2005-01-01

    肿瘤抗原NY-ESO-1是肿瘤-睾丸(cancer-testis,CT)抗原,其编码基因是一基因家族,目前发现的主要包括NY-ESO-1、LAGE-1和ESO3三个成员.NY-ESO-1是迄今发现的最具免疫原性的肿瘤抗原之一,可以在NY-ESO-1表达阳性的肿瘤患者体内引起自发性体液免疫反应和T细胞免疫反应,因此在抗原特异性肿瘤免疫治疗中具有广泛的应用前景.

  4. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2008) Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas ). The New York, NY EnviroAtlas...

  5. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data (2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The New York, NY EnviroAtlas Meter-scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data were generated by the University of Vermont Spatial Analysis Laboratory (SAL) under the...

  6. LiDAR Elevation Data Collection - Putnam County, NY, 2008 (NYSDEC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Summary of the surface elevation data collection project in Putnam County, NY (NYSDEC) 2008. Products generated include LiDAR point data in LAS Binary format v1.1....

  7. 76 FR 4078 - Television Broadcasting Services; North Pole and Plattsburgh, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; North Pole and Plattsburgh, NY AGENCY: Federal... CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble,...

  8. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The New York, NY EnviroAtlas Meter-scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data were generated by the University of Vermont Spatial Analysis Laboratory (SAL) under the...

  9. Advances in the Research of Tumor Antigen NY-ESO-1%肿瘤抗原NY-ESO-1研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丹

    2008-01-01

    NY-ESO-1是肿瘤-睾丸(cancer-testis,CT)抗原家族成员之一,在许多不同类型的人类肿瘤中都有表达,是迄今发现的最具免疫原性的肿瘤抗原之一.NY-ESO-1可以在阳性表达肿瘤患者体内诱导自发性体液和T细胞免疫应答,因此在肿瘤疫苗研制中具有非常广泛的前景.

  10. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 2008 Numerical Relativity Data Analysis Meeting, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA, 11-14 August 2008 Proceedings of the 2008 Numerical Relativity Data Analysis Meeting, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA, 11-14 August 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Patrick; Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2009-06-01

    The 2008 Numerical Relativity Data Analysis (NRDA) Meeting, the second in the series, was hosted by the Department of Physics at Syracuse University, 11-14 August 2008 with 60 participants. The purpose of the NRDA meetings is to bring together two communities with a vested interest in gravitational-wave observations: the data analysis and numerical relativity communities. The first NRDA meeting was held in November 2006 at MIT. A quote of Peter Saulson's from the Matters of Gravity Newsletter puts the importance of the NRDA meetings in perspective. He wrote: `As I sat in the back row of Rm NW14-1112 at MIT on Tuesday 7 November 2006, it suddenly struck me that we were participating in a watershed moment in the history of gravitational physics. Here, in the same room, were two communities who decades earlier had promised to help each other in a grand adventure: the detection of gravitational waves and the use of those waves to explore the frontiers of strong field gravity.' That meeting marked the first time when the two communities began to speak each other's language. By the time of the second NRDA meeting, much progress had been made. Numerical relativists were starting to explore the binary-black-hole parameter space and were making advances in evolutions of neutron-star and neutron-star/black-hole binaries. Data analysts were investigating better algorithms for the detection of both inspiral and burst sources. Most importantly, on 14 August 2008, someone sitting in the back row of the Stolkin Auditorium in Syracuse University might have noted the beginning of real collaborations between the two communities. The meeting included presentations based on joint work by numerical relativists and data analysts. Also the participants at NRDA2008 asked tough questions about how to best use numerical relativity in gravitational wave detection, as well as showcasing some of the science that will allow us to formulate the answers to these questions. This issue presents many of the highlights of the meeting. These include an article that summarizes the NINJA project, a collaboration between data analysts and numerical relativists that is testing data analysis pipelines on numerical relativity waveforms buried in simulated detector noise. In addition, there are several technical papers concerning the results of team efforts involved in NINJA. Also included is a review of the status of black-hole simulations, updates on black-hole and neutron-star sources of gravitational waves, accuracy tests of gravitational waveforms, binary parameter estimation methods, updates on searches using analytic and phenomenological waveforms, and a road map to the advanced LIGO detectors. The conference organizers would like to acknowledge the financial support of the National Science Foundation under grant number PHY-0838740, and support from Syracuse University. We thank the local organizing committee of Duncan Brown, Penny Davis and Joshua Smith as well as the other members of the scientific organizing committee of Duncan Brown (Syracuse University), Sascha Husa (AEI), Badri Krishnan (AEI) and Harald Pfeiffer (CITA) for putting together an exciting conference. We also thank the editorial staff of the journal Classical and Quantum Gravity, especially Adam Day, Suzanne Prescott, and Joseph Tennant for their assistance, support, and patience in preparing this issue. Finally, we would like to thank the participants of NRDA2008 for making this conference so vital and energizing. The next NRDA meeting will be held at the Albert Einstein Institute in Potsdam, Germany 6-9 July 2009. We look forward to new collaborations, and to the continued blurring of the lines between our communities as we explore the interface of numerical relativity and data analysis. Patrick Sutton, Cardiff University and Deirdre Shoemaker, Georgia Institute of Technology Guest Editors

  11. T cells targeting NY-ESO-1 demonstrate efficacy against disseminated neuroblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Nathan; Kulikovskaya, Irina; Barrett, David M.; Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn; Jakobsen, Bent; Martinez, Daniel; Pawel, Bruce; June, Carl H.; Kalos, Michael D.; Grupp, Stephan A.

    2015-01-01

    The cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 is expressed by many solid tumors and has limited expression by mature somatic tissues, making it a highly attractive target for tumor immunotherapy. Targeting NY-ESO-1 using engineered T cells has demonstrated clinical efficacy in the treatment of some adult tumors. Neuroblastoma is a significant cause of cancer mortality in children, and is a tumor type shown to be responsive to immunotherapies. We evaluated a large panel of primarily resected neuroblastom...

  12. NY-ESO-1 expression is tightly linked to TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupp, Katharina; Ospina-Klinck, Daniel; Tsourlakis, Maria Christina; Koop, Christina; Wilczak, Waldemar; Adam, Meike; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Izbicki, Jakob Robert; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Steurer, Stefan; Schlomm, Thorsten; Minner, Sarah; Quaas, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    NY-ESO-1 has been suggested as therapeutic cancer vaccine in prostate cancer. This study was undertaken to explore the relationship of NY-ESO-1 with tumor phenotype, biochemical recurrence, and molecular subgroups in hormone-naive prostate cancers. NY-ESO-1 immunohistochemistry was analyzed on a tissue microarray containing 11,152 prostate cancer samples. Results were compared to clinically follow-up data, ERG status, and deletions on PTEN, 3p13, 5q21, and 6q15. NY-ESO-1 expression was absent in benign prostate glands. In prostate cancer, NY-ESO-1 positivity was found 8.8% of our 8,761 interpretable tumors including 5.8% with weak, 2.5% with moderate, and 0.5% with strong expression. There was a threefold higher rate of NY-ESO-1 expression in ERG fusion positive tumors than in ERG negative cancers (P ESO-1 expression was associated with early biochemical recurrence (P = 0.0002) and high Gleason grade (P ESO-1 expression was also linked to PTEN (P = 0.0012) and 6q15 deletions (P = 0.0005). Our observations indicate a tight link of NY-ESO-1 expression to ERG activation and (to a lesser extent) PTEN- and 6q15-deletions in prostate cancer. The impact of these interactions on the likelihood of response to immunotherapy is unclear. The prognostic impact of NY-ESO-1 expression is little and not independent of histologic variables. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Diagnostic and therapeutic relevance of NY-ESO-1 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Jutta; Mollaoglu, Nur; Vairaktaris, Eleftherios; Neukam, Friedrich W; Nkenke, Emeka

    2009-12-01

    Cancer/testis antigen 1B (NY-ESO-1) is exclusively expressed in various types of tumor but not in healthy normal tissue, except testis, and induces strong cellular and humoral immune responses. Therefore, it represents an ideal target for diagnostic and immunotherapeutic applications. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of NY-ESO-1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to determine its impact as a diagnostic parameter or a therapeutic target for oral cancer. A total of 65 OSCC and 20 normal oral mucosal samples of otherwise healthy volunteers were included in this study. Expression of NY-ESO-1 was determined using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results were correlated to diagnosis and clinicopathological parameters. NY-ESO-1 was expressed in 27.7% of the investigated tumor samples, but not in normal oral mucosal. The correlation between NY-ESO-1 expression and malignancy was significant (p=0.008). The prevalence of NY-ESO-1 expression was significantly associated with tumor size (p=0.033), but not with histological grading, positive lymph node status or clinical stage of disease. NY-ESO-1 expression is restricted to OSCC, clearly indicating malignancy. However, the expression rate of this antigen is too low for clinical application but it might be a useful additional biomarker within a multiple marker system for the diagnosis of OSCC. In addition, NY-ESO-1 might be a candidate for immunotherapy and polyvaccination in patients suffering from OSCC.

  14. Three novel NY-ESO-1 epitopes bound to DRB1*0803, DQB1*0401 and DRB1*0901 recognized by CD4 T cells from CHP-NY-ESO-1-vaccinated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizote, Yu; Taniguchi, Taku; Tanaka, Kei; Isobe, Midori; Wada, Hisashi; Saika, Takashi; Kita, Shoichi; Koide, Yukari; Uenaka, Akiko; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2010-07-19

    Three novel NY-ESO-1 CD4 T cell epitopes were identified using PBMC obtained from patients who were vaccinated with a complex of cholesterol-bearing hydrophobized pullulan (CHP) and NY-ESO-1 protein (CHP-NY-ESO-1). The restriction molecules were determined by antibody blocking and using various EBV-B cells with different HLA alleles as APC to present peptides to CD4 T cells. The minimal epitope peptides were determined using various N- and C-termini truncated peptides deduced from 18-mer overlapping peptides originally identified for recognition. Those epitopes were DRB1*0901-restricted NY-ESO-1 87-100, DQB1*0401-restricted NY-ESO-1 95-107 and DRB1*0803-restricted NY-ESO-1 124-134. CD4 T cells used to determine those epitope peptides recognized EBV-B cells or DC that were treated with recombinant NY-ESO-1 protein or NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cell lysate, suggesting that the epitope peptides are naturally processed. These CD4 T cells showed a cytokine profile with Th1 characteristics. Furthermore, NY-ESO-1 87-100 peptide/HLA-DRB1*0901 tetramer staining was observed. Multiple Th1-type CD4 T cell responses are beneficial for inducing effective anti-tumor responses after NY-ESO-1 protein vaccination. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. NY-ESO-1 (CTAG1B) expression in mesenchymal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Makoto; de Graaff, Marieke A; Ingram, Davis R; Lim, Simin; Lev, Dina C; Briaire-de Bruijn, Inge H; Somaiah, Neeta; Bovée, Judith V M G; Lazar, Alexander J; Nielsen, Torsten O

    2015-04-01

    New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1 (NY-ESO-1, CTAG1B) is a cancer-testis antigen and currently a focus of several targeted immunotherapeutic strategies. We performed a large-scale immunohistochemical expression study of NY-ESO-1 using tissue microarrays of mesenchymal tumors from three institutions in an international collaboration. A total of 1132 intermediate and malignant and 175 benign mesenchymal lesions were enrolled in this study. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on tissue microarrays using a monoclonal antibody for NY-ESO-1. Among mesenchymal tumors, myxoid liposarcomas showed the highest positivity for NY-ESO-1 (88%), followed by synovial sarcomas (49%), myxofibrosarcomas (35%), and conventional chondrosarcomas (28%). Positivity of NY-ESO-1 in the remaining mesenchymal tumors was consistently low, and no immunoreactivity was observed in benign mesenchymal lesions. On the basis of these findings, nearly 90% of myxoid liposarcomas, as well as a significant proportion of synovial sarcomas, myxofibrosarcomas, and conventional chondrosarcomas are good candidates for immunotherapy targeting NY-ESO-1.

  16. NY-ESO-1 as a potential immunotherapeutic target in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Eva; Jilaveanu, Lucia B; Parisi, Fabio; Kluger, Yuval; Camp, Robert L; Kluger, Harriet M

    2014-07-30

    Novel immune therapies targeting tumor specific antigens are being developed. Our purpose was to determine expression of the cancer testes antigen NY-ESO-1 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), as NY-ESO-1 targeting approaches, particularly adoptive cell therapy, have not been evaluated in this disease. We employed tissue microarrays containing >300 unique RCC cases and adjacent benign renal tissue to determine NY-ESO-1 expression using a quantitative immunofluorescence method. In addition, we studied NY-ESO-1 expression in 35 matched primary and metastatic RCC specimens to assess concordance between different tumor sites. NY-ESO-1 was highly expressed in a subset of RCCs. Expression in primary RCC specimens was significantly higher than adjacent normal renal tissue (PESO-1 expression seen in clear cell RCC suggests that NY-ESO-1 targeting approaches should be studied in this disease. Expression is higher in metastatic sites, and discordance between primary and metastatic sites in some patients suggests that patient selection for these therapies should be based on expression in metastatic rather than nephrectomy specimens.

  17. Albuquerque, NM, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Albuquerque, NM (35.0N, 106.5W) is situated on the edge of the Rio Grande River and flood plain which cuts across the image. The reddish brown surface of the Albuquerque Basin is a fault depression filled with ancient alluvial fan and lake bed sediments. On the slopes of the Manzano Mountains to the east of Albuquerque, juniper and other timber of the Cibola National Forest can be seen as contrasting dark tones of vegetation.

  18. Atmospheric Research in Ny-Aalesund. Proceedings from the Third NySMAC meeting. NILU, Kjeller, Norway, 9.-11. April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floeisand, Inga; Gernandt, Hartwig; Larsen, Elisabeth Stoltz; Stordal, Frode; Wada, Makoto

    1997-07-01

    Leading abstract. The Ny-Aalesund Seminar Series was conceived by NySMAC (Ny-Aalesund Science Managers Committee) as a means of bringing together research scientists involved in programmes running at Ny-Aalesund or having an interest in that area. The first Seminar was held in Potsdam in Germany in May 1995, and included talks which covered all current research disciplines; physical, atmospheric, earth and biological sciences. The Second Seminar was devoted to biological science and particularly to ecology. It was held in Cambridge in UK in February 1996. The subject of this Third Seminar, held in Kjeller in Norway in April 1997, is atmospheric research in Ny-Aalesund. Since the early 1980s a wide range of projects have been carried out on Svalbard and particularly at Ny-Aalesund. Prominent in this research have been several international research programmes with emphasis on topics of e.g. Arctic (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, AMAP), European (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme, EMEP) or global (International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, IGBP; World Climate Research Programme, WCRP) scales. Atmospheric observations have been carried out in Ny-Aalesund in Svalbard for several years. From the early 1980s, the long range transport of sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosols leading to Arctic Haze, has been studied. As a consequence, EMEP included Ny-Aalesund in their network. In the following years the transport of ozone and chemical precursors were observed, and recently the naturally occurring phenomenon of rapid surface ozone loss has been given particular attention. From the late 1980s observations of the stratospheric ozone layer and related chemical species were undertaken, and the efforts have increased considerably since. Ny-Aalesund is now one of the primary Arctic sites of the NDSC (Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change) network. Important efforts have been undertaken to participate in the European campaigns as the European

  19. [Prokaryotic expression, purification and identification of NY-ESO-1/GST fusion protein in E.coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lei; Song, Chao-jun; Sun, Yuan-jie; Li, Na; Wei, Yu-ying; Sun, Yi; Yang, Kun

    2012-10-01

    To construct an expression plasmid for NY-ESO-1 gene and identify the expression of recombinant protein NY-ESO-1/GST in E.coli. NY-ESO-1 segment was amplified from the testis cDNA library by RT-PCR and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX4T-1 downstream tagged by GST to construct the expression plasmid pGEX-4T1-NY-ESO-1. The recombinant vector was transformed to BL21 (DE3) and NY-ESO-1/GST fusion protein was induced expression by IPTG. The protein was purified by urea elution and identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. The NY-ESO-1 segment was successfully amplified and its sequence was identical with that published in GenBank. The BL21 (DE3) pLysS containing the pGEX-4T1-NY-ESO-1 expressed a M(r); 44 000 fusion protein under the induction of IPTG. The purity of the protein was 90%. Western blotting proved that NY-ESO-1/GST had a specific reaction with anti-GST mAb. The prokaryotic expression vector of NY-ESO-1 has been constructed and the fusion protein NY-ESO-1/GST of high purity is successfully expressed.

  20. Whillans Ice Plain Stick Slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovsky, B.; Dunham, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Concern about future sea level rise motivates the study of fast flowing ice. The Whillans Ice Plain (WIP) region of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is notable for decelerating from previously fast motion during the instrumental record. Since most ice flux in Antarctica occurs through ice streams, understanding the conditions that cause ice stream stagnation is of basic importance in understanding the continent's contribution to future sea level rise. Although recent progress has been made in understanding the relationship between basal conditions and ice stream motion, direct observation of the temporal variation in subglacial conditions during ice stream stagnation has remained elusive. The Whillans Ice Plain flows to the sea mostly by way of stick-slip motion. We present numerical simulations of this stick-slip motion that capture the inertial dynamics, seismic waves, and the evolution of sliding with rate- and state-dependent basal friction. Large scale stick-slip behavior is tidally modulated and encompasses the entire WIP. Sliding initiates within one of several locked regions and then propagates outward with low average rupture velocity (~ 200 m/s). Sliding accelerates over a period of 200 s attain values as large as 65 m/d. From Newton's second law, this acceleration is ~ T / (rho H) for average shear stress drop T, ice thickness H, and ice density rho. This implies a 3 Pa stress drop that must be reconciled with the final stress drop of 300 Pa inferred from the total slip and fault dimensions. A possible explanation of this apparent discrepancy is that deceleration of the ice is associated with a substantial decrease in traction within rate-strengthening regions of the bed. During these large-scale sliding events, m-scale patches at the bed produce rapid (20 Hz) stick-slip motion. Each small event occurs over ~ 1/100 s, produces ~ 40 microns of slip, and gives rise to a spectacular form of seismic tremor. Variation between successive tremor episodes allows us

  1. Zahraničná politika USA a Číny voči Barme

    OpenAIRE

    Hlopková, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    Burma, abounds with vast natural resources and this coupled with its strategic geographical and political position draws the country increasing attention from the international community. However, any further cooperation with Burma is complicated by her nondemocratic regime represented by the military junta.The thesis presented here aims to compare the attitude of two world powers the U.S. and China towards Burma, find motives of their foreign policy and to evaluate the consequences of this p...

  2. Antibody responses against NY-ESO-1 and HER2 antigens in patients vaccinated with combinations of cholesteryl pullulan (CHP)-NY-ESO-1 and CHP-HER2 with OK-432.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Masatoshi; Ueda, Shugo; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Kitano, Shigehisa; Hirayama, Michiko; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Toyoda, Hideki; Tanaka, Kyosuke; Kanai, Michiyuki; Takabayashi, Arimichi; Imai, Hiroshi; Shiraishi, Taizo; Sato, Eiichi; Wada, Hisashi; Nakayama, Eiichi; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Katayama, Naoyuki; Shiku, Hiroshi; Kageyama, Shinichi

    2009-11-16

    Combination vaccines of the NY-ESO-1 protein complexed with cholesteryl pullulan (CHP), CHP-NY-ESO-1, and the truncated 146HER2 protein with CHP, CHP-HER2, were subcutaneously administered with the immuno-adjuvant OK-432 to eight esophageal cancer patients. Vaccination was well-tolerated. NY-ESO-1- and HER2-specific antibody responses were analyzed using the patients' sera and samples from previous single CHP-NY-ESO-1 or CHP-HER2 vaccine trial. The responses to NY-ESO-1 in the combination vaccine study were comparable to the single vaccine. For responses to HER2, there were fewer antibody responses in the combination vaccines. Although there were marked individual variations in the antibody responses to the NY-ESO-1 and HER2 antigens, the reaction patterns to these antigens were comparable within each patient. Antibodies to OK-432 were not augmented. Protein cancer vaccines targeting multiple antigens are feasible.

  3. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44...

  4. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  5. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Lisa S. Botnen

    2005-07-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership characterization work is nearing completion, and most remaining efforts are related to finalizing work products. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) has developed a Topical Report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region''. Task 3 (Public Outreach) has developed an informational Public Television program entitled ''Nature in the Balance'', about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The program was completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in this quarter. Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) efforts are nearing completion, and data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation are being incorporated into a series of topical reports. The expansion of the Decision Support System Geographic Information System database has continued with the development of a ''save bookmark'' feature that allows users to save a map from the system easily. A feature that allows users to develop a report that summarizes CO{sub 2} sequestration parameters was also developed. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options and developing economic estimates for important regional CO{sub 2} sequestration strategies.

  6. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-04-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) and provided information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 2 efforts also included preparation of a draft topical report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region'', which is nearing completion. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The video will be completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in the next quarter. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. The addition of the Canadian province of Alberta to the PCOR Partnership region expanded the decision support system (DSS) geographic information system database. Task 5 screened and qualitatively assessed sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  7. Baltimaade kunsti turnee USAs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    5. nov.-st USA Lõuna-Carolina osariigis Wellington B. Grey galeriis ja Jenkins Fine Art Center's 13 eesti, läti ja leedu kunstniku näitus, mis hakkab kolme aasta jooksul ringlema Ameerikas. Eksponeeritud fotokunst, video, installatsioon, joonistused. Kuraator Peeter Linnap ja Mari Laanemets peavad ettekande näituse avamisega samal ajal toimuval Fotohariduse Ühingu konverentsil

  8. Baltimaade kunsti turnee USAs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    5. nov.-st USA Lõuna-Carolina osariigis Wellington B. Grey galeriis ja Jenkins Fine Art Center's 13 eesti, läti ja leedu kunstniku näitus, mis hakkab kolme aasta jooksul ringlema Ameerikas. Eksponeeritud fotokunst, video, installatsioon, joonistused. Kuraator Peeter Linnap ja Mari Laanemets peavad ettekande näituse avamisega samal ajal toimuval Fotohariduse Ühingu konverentsil

  9. The USA PATRIOT Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Mary; Coyle, Karen; Kaufman, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Explains the USA PATRIOT (Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism) Act, passed after the September 11 terrorist attacks, and its implications for libraries and patron records. Considers past dealings with the FBI; court orders; search warrants; wiretaps; and subpoenas. Includes:…

  10. NY-ESO-1 expression in meningioma suggests a rationale for new immunotherapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baia, Gilson S; Caballero, Otavia L; Ho, Janelle S Y; Zhao, Qi; Cohen, Tzeela; Binder, Zev A; Salmasi, Vafi; Gallia, Gary L; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Olivi, Alessandro; Brem, Henry; Burger, Peter; Strausberg, Robert L; Simpson, Andrew J G; Eberhart, Charles G; Riggins, Gregory J

    2013-11-01

    Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial tumors. Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice for these tumors. However, a significant number of tumors are not surgically accessible, recur, or become malignant, necessitating the repetition of surgery and sometimes radiation. Chemotherapy is rarely used and is generally not recognized as an effective treatment. Cancer/testis (CT) genes represent a unique class of genes, which are expressed by germ cells, normally silenced in somatic cells, but activated in various cancers. CT proteins can elicit spontaneous immune responses in patients with cancer and this feature makes them attractive targets for immunotherapy-based approaches. We analyzed mRNA expression of 37 testis-restricted CT genes in a discovery set of 18 meningiomas by reverse transcription PCR. The overall frequency of expression of CT genes ranged from 5.6% to 27.8%. The most frequently expressed was NY-ESO-1, in 5 patients (27.8%). We subsequently analyzed NY-ESO-1 protein expression in a larger set of meningiomas by immunohistochemistry and found expression in 108 of 110 cases. In some cases, NY-ESO-1 expression was diffused and homogenous, but in most instances it was heterogeneous. Importantly, NY-ESO-1 expression was positively correlated with higher grade and patients presenting with higher levels of NY-ESO-1 staining had significantly worse disease-free and overall survival. We have also shown that NY-ESO-1 expression may lead to humoral immune response in patients with meningioma. Considering the limited treatment options for patients with meningioma, the potential of NY-ESO-1-based immunotherapy should be explored. ©2013 AACR.

  11. Efficacy of systemic adoptive transfer immunotherapy targeting NY-ESO-1 for glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Richard G; Antonios, Joseph P; Lisiero, Dominique N; Soto, Horacio; Scharnweber, Rudi; Garrett, Matthew C; Yong, William H; Li, Ning; Li, Gang; Kruse, Carol A; Liau, Linda M; Prins, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    Immunotherapy is an ideal treatment modality to specifically target the diffusely infiltrative tumor cells of malignant gliomas while sparing the normal brain parenchyma. However, progress in the development of these therapies for glioblastoma has been slow due to the lack of immunogenic antigen targets that are expressed uniformly and selectively by gliomas. We utilized human glioblastoma cell cultures to induce expression of New York-esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (NY-ESO-1) following in vitro treatment with the demethylating agent decitabine. We then investigated the phenotype of lymphocytes specific for NY-ESO-1 using flow cytometry analysis and cytotoxicity against cells treated with decitabine using the xCelligence real-time cytotoxicity assay. Finally, we examined the in vivo application of this immune therapy using an intracranially implanted xenograft model for in situ T cell trafficking, survival, and tissue studies. Our studies showed that treatment of intracranial glioma-bearing mice with decitabine reliably and consistently induced the expression of an immunogenic tumor-rejection antigen, NY-ESO-1, specifically in glioma cells and not in normal brain tissue. The upregulation of NY-ESO-1 by intracranial gliomas was associated with the migration of adoptively transferred NY-ESO-1-specific lymphocytes along white matter tracts to these tumors in the brain. Similarly, NY-ESO-1-specific adoptive T cell therapy demonstrated antitumor activity after decitabine treatment and conferred a highly significant survival benefit to mice bearing established intracranial human glioma xenografts. Transfer of NY-ESO-1-specific T cells systemically was superior to intracranial administration and resulted in significantly extended and long-term survival of animals. These results reveal an innovative, clinically feasible strategy for the treatment of glioblastoma. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro

  12. Heteroclitic serological response in esophageal and prostate cancer patients after NY-ESO-1 protein vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Junji; Wada, Hisashi; Isobe, Midori; Gnjatic, Sacha; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Jungbluth, Achim A; Okazaki, Nami; Uenaka, Akiko; Nakamura, Yurika; Fujiwara, Shinichi; Mizuno, Naoaki; Saika, Takashi; Ritter, Erika; Yamasaki, Makoto; Miyata, Hiroshi; Ritter, Gerd; Murphy, Roger; Venhaus, Ralph; Pan, Linda; Old, Lloyd J; Doki, Yuichiro; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2012-02-01

    NY-ESO-1 is a prototypic cancer/testis antigen. In a recent phase I clinical trial, we vaccinated 13 patients bearing NY-ESO-1-expressing tumors with a complex of cholesterol-bearing hydrophobized pullulan (CHP) and NY-ESO-1 protein (CHP-NY-ESO-1) and showed efficient induction of NY-ESO-1 antibody, and CD4 and CD8 T cell responses using peripheral blood from the patients. In our study, we analyzed heteroclitic serological responses in those patients after vaccination. Serological response against 11 tumor antigens including MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3, MAGE-A4, CT7/MAGEC1, CT10/MAGEC2, CT45, CT46/HORMAD1, SOX2, SSX2, XAGE1B and p53 was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using sera from ten vaccinated patients. Expression of tumor antigens was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction or immunohistochemistry. Eight of nine patients who showed antibody responses against NY-ESO-1 also showed an antibody response against at least 1 of these 11 tumor antigens after vaccination. In one patient, seven tumor antigens were recognized. Specificity analysis of the antibody response by ELISA using control recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides and by Western blot showed that the response was not against His6-tag and/or bacterial products included in a preparation of CHP-NY-ESO-1 used for vaccination. Thus, heteroclitic serological responses appear to be indicative of the overall immune response against the tumor, and their analysis could be useful for immune monitoring in cancer vaccine. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  13. CTLA-4 blockade enhances polyfunctional NY-ESO-1 specific T cell responses in metastatic melanoma patients with clinical benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jianda; Gnjatic, Sacha; Li, Hao; Powel, Sarah; Gallardo, Humilidad F; Ritter, Erika; Ku, Geoffrey Y; Jungbluth, Achim A; Segal, Neil H; Rasalan, Teresa S; Manukian, Gregor; Xu, Yinyan; Roman, Ruth-Ann; Terzulli, Stephanie L; Heywood, Melanie; Pogoriler, Evelina; Ritter, Gerd; Old, Lloyd J; Allison, James P; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2008-12-23

    Blockade of inhibitory signals mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) has been shown to enhance T cell responses and induce durable clinical responses in patients with metastatic melanoma. The functional impact of anti-CTLA-4 therapy on human immune responses is still unclear. To explore this, we analyzed immune-related adverse events and immune responses in metastatic melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab, a fully human anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody. Fifteen patients were selected on the basis of availability of suitable specimens for immunologic monitoring, and eight of these showed evidence of clinical benefit. Five of the eight patients with evidence of clinical benefit had NY-ESO-1 antibody, whereas none of seven clinical non-responders was seropositive for NY-ESO-1. All five NY-ESO-1 seropositive patients had clearly detectable CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells against NY-ESO-1 following treatment with ipilimumab. One NY-ESO-1 seronegative clinical responder also had a NY-ESO-1 CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell response, possibly related to prior vaccination with NY-ESO-1. Among five clinical non-responders analyzed, only one had a NY-ESO-1 CD4(+) T cell response and this patient did not have detectable anti-NY-ESO-1 antibody. Overall, NY-ESO-1-specific T cell responses increased in frequency and functionality during anti-CTLA-4 treatment, revealing a polyfunctional response pattern of IFN-gamma, MIP-1beta and TNF-alpha. We therefore suggest that CTLA-4 blockade enhanced NY-ESO-1 antigen-specific B cell and T cell immune responses in patients with durable objective clinical responses and stable disease. These data provide an immunologic rationale for the efficacy of anti-CTLA-4 therapy and call for immunotherapeutic designs that combine NY-ESO-1 vaccination with CTLA-4 blockade.

  14. NY-ESO-1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma: A potential new marker for early recurrence after surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Heng; GU, NA; LIU, ZHAO-BO; Zheng, Min; Xiong, Fang; WANG, SI-YING; Li, Ning; Lu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    NY-ESO-1 belongs to the cancer testis antigens (CTA) family, and is identified in a variety of tumors. Certain studies have demonstrated that NY-ESO-1 predicts tumor recurrence and treatment response. No reports are currently available regarding the correlation between NY-ESO-1 and the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following surgery. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between NY-ESO-1 and relapse of HCC and to explore the possible mechanisms for th...

  15. NY-ESO-1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma: A potential new marker for early recurrence after surgery

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    NY-ESO-1 belongs to the cancer testis antigens (CTA) family, and is identified in a variety of tumors. Certain studies have demonstrated that NY-ESO-1 predicts tumor recurrence and treatment response. No reports are currently available regarding the correlation between NY-ESO-1 and the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following surgery. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between NY-ESO-1 and relapse of HCC and to explore the possible mechanisms for th...

  16. Estimation of an NY-ESO-1 expressing HCC cell line by NY-ESO-1b specific CD8+T cells in vitro induced by HLA-A2 restricted NY-ESO-1b peptide%HLA-A2限制性NY-ESO-1b肽段诱导的CD8+ T细胞对稳定表达NY-ESO-1的HepG2肝癌细胞系的杀伤效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔欢; 钱晓萍; 张华刚; 田婵; 陈慰峰

    2005-01-01

    目的:分析体外诱导的NY-ESO-1特异性杀伤性T淋巴细胞对稳定表达NY-ESO-1蛋白的肝细胞性肝癌(hepatocellular carcinoma,HCC)细胞系的杀伤效应,为进一步分析NY-ESO-1蛋白作为疫苗用于治疗HCC的可能性提供实验支持.方法:从HLA-A2阳性的肝癌患者体内分离出外周血单个核细胞,用NY-ESO-1肽段体外诱导特异性杀伤性T淋巴细胞,并通过酶联免疫斑点法分析特异性杀伤性T淋巴细胞对稳定表达NY-ESO-1蛋白的HCC细胞系HepG2细胞的杀伤效应.结果:转染了NY-ESO-1的HepG2细胞(HLA-A2+)可有效地被NY-ESO-1157-165抗原肽诱导的特异性CD8+ T淋巴细胞所识别.效应细胞中大量GrB的释放表明其对稳定转染了NY-ESO-1基因的HepG2细胞有很强的杀伤作用.结论:HepG2细胞中表达的NY-ESO-1蛋白可被此肝癌细胞有效地加工处理,而且HLA-A2限制性的抗原肽NY-ESO-1157-165也可被有效地提呈到细胞表面,从而被效应T细胞所识别.

  17. Application of flood index in monitoring Flood-plain ecosystems (by the example of the Middle Ob flood-plain)

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotnov, V. P.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of regional hydroecological monitoring has been developed for the flood-plain of the Middle Ob. Its object is to control the state of flood-plain ecosystem productivity for organization of scientific, regional-adopted and ecologically regulated nature management. For this purpose hydroecological zoning of flood-plain territory performed, the most representative stations of water-gauge observations for each flood-plain zone organized, the scheme of flood-plain flooding was prepared...

  18. Middle Permian palaeobiogeography study in East Kunlun, A'nyêmaqên and Bayan Har

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yongbiao; YANG; Hao

    2004-01-01

    Three regions can easily be identified in the study area according to the Middle Permian palaeobiogeographic distribution of biota, they are the southern slope of East Kunlun, A'nyêmaqên and Bayan Har. Biotic constitution and ecology in the southern slope of East Kunlun and Bayan Har are very similar. Both the diversity and abundance of organisms in these two areas are very high and reefs are widely developed. However, biotic diversity and abundance in A'nyêmaqên which is between the above two areas are obviously low. Differentiation of palaeobiogeographic distribution in these areas should be due to the baring of A'nyêmaqên ocean in the time of Middle Permian. Middle Permian radiolarian chert and thick abyssal red ooze are widely spread in A'nyêmaqên, implying that the A'nyêmaqên ocean had a great scale in size. Vast scale of deep ocean basin became an impassable gulf for some of the benthos, and as a result, only part of the organisms could have the chance to get to the isolated islands situated in ocean basin. Small living space and hard conditions in the islands further limited the abundance and diversity of biota. Tectonic background reflected by the geochemical study of basalt in the three areas is coupling well enough with the palaeobiogeographic division.

  19. Short-term Climate Characteristics at Ny-(A)lesund over the Arctic Tundra Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Based on the Germany Koldwey Station's 1994-2003 conventional observation hourly data, this paper conducts a statistical analysis on the short-term climate characteristics for an arctic tundra region (Ny-(A)lesund island) where our first arctic expedition station (Huanghe Station) was located. Affected by the North Atlantic warming current, this area has a humid temperate climate, and the air temperature at Ny-(A)lesund rose above 0 ℃ even during deep winter season during our research period. The wind speed in this area was low and appeared most at southeast direction. We find that the temperature at Ny-(A)lesund rose in the faster rate (0.68 ℃/10 a) than those at the whole Arctic area. Compared with the floating ices where our expedition conducted in the Arctic, Ny-(A)lesund was warmer and more humid and had lower wind speed. Comparison of the near surface air temperature derived by NCEP/NCAR reanalysis to the conventional measurements conducted at the Koldwey site in Ny-(A)lesund area shows a good agreement for winter season and a significant difference for summer season.

  20. Spatial Soil Temperature and Moisture Monitoring Across the Transylvanian Plain, in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Teodor; Weindorf, David; Haggard, Beatrix; Moraru, Paula Ioana; Sopterean, Mara Lucia

    2011-01-01

    The Transylvanian Plain, Romania is an important region for agronomic productivity. However, limited soils data and adoption of best management practices hinder land productivity. Soil temperatures of the Transylvanian Plain were evaluated using a set of twenty datalogging stations positioned throughout the plain. Soil temperatures were monitored at the surface and at 10, 30, and 50 cm depths, and soil moisture was monitored at 10 cm. Preliminary results indicate that most soils of the Transylvanian Plain will have a mesic temperature regime. However, differences in seasonal warming and cooling trends across the plain were noted. These have important implications for planting recommendations. Growing degree days (GDDs) are preferred over maturity ratings, because they can account for temperature anomalies. The crop being considered for this study was corn. The base temperature (BT) was set at 10oC, and the upper threshold was 30oC. Two methods were used to calculate GDDs; 1) minimum and maximum daily temperatures, and 2) 24 h of averaged temperature data. Growing degree days were run from 110-199 day of year (DOY) to represent approximate planting date to tasseling. The DOY that 694 accumulated growing degree days (AGDDs) was reached at each site was then analyzed to identify differences across the TP. Three sites failed to reach 694 AGDDs by DOY 199, and were excluded from comparisons to other results. Averaged values were used to create spline interpolation maps with ArcMap 9.2 (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA). The southeastern portion of the TP was found to tassel a month earlier assuming a planting date of 109 DOY. Four DeKalb® corn hybrids were then selected based on GDDs to tasseling, drydown, drought tolerance, and insect resistance. With a better understanding of the GDD trends across the TP, more effective planting and harvesting could be accomplished by Romanian farmers to maximize agronomic production.

  1. Martel's links with USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Shaw

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the 29% foreign members in the Société de Spéléologie, five lived in USA. They were Luella Owen (the only woman member of the Société, R. Ellsworth Cali, H.C. Hovey, E Van Epps and C. R. Blackall. E.S. Balch, though not a member, also knew Martel. These members, between them, published ten papers in Spelunca, which also reviewed their other work. The activities of these six, and their links with France, are discussed. Martel actively encouraged cave work in America, as elsewhere, and Hovey, who had been with him during the survey of Aven Armand, he knew quite well. In 1912 Martel at last visited USA himself and the barometer readings he took in Mamoth Cave to measure altitude enabled him to draw the first longitudinal section of the cave since 1835.

  2. A phase I study of vaccination with NY-ESO-1f peptide mixed with Picibanil OK-432 and Montanide ISA-51 in patients with cancers expressing the NY-ESO-1 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimi, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Midori; Uenaka, Akiko; Wada, Hisashi; Sato, Eiichi; Doki, Yuichiro; Nakajima, Jun; Seto, Yasuyuki; Yamatsuji, Tomoki; Naomoto, Yoshio; Shiraishi, Kenshiro; Takigawa, Nagio; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Oka, Mikio; Pan, Linda; Hoffman, Eric W; Old, Lloyd J; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2011-12-15

    We conducted a phase I clinical trial of a cancer vaccine using a 20-mer NY-ESO-1f peptide (NY-ESO-1 91-110) that includes multiple epitopes recognized by antibodies, and CD4 and CD8 T cells. Ten patients were immunized with 600 μg of NY-ESO-1f peptide mixed with 0.2 KE Picibanil OK-432 and 1.25 ml Montanide ISA-51. Primary end points of the study were safety and immune response. Subcutaneous injection of the NY-ESO-1f peptide vaccine was well tolerated. Vaccine-related adverse events observed were fever (Grade 1), injection-site reaction (Grade 1 or 2) and induration (Grade 2). Vaccination with the NY-ESO-1f peptide resulted in an increase or induction of NY-ESO-1 antibody responses in nine of ten patients. The sera reacted with recombinant NY-ESO-1 whole protein as well as the NY-ESO-1f peptide. An increase in CD4 and CD8 T cell responses was observed in nine of ten patients. Vaccine-induced CD4 and CD8 T cells responded to NY-ESO-1 91-108 in all patients with various HLA types with a less frequent response to neighboring peptides. The findings indicate that the 20-mer NY-ESO-1f peptide includes multiple epitopes recognized by CD4 and CD8 T cells with distinct specificity. Of ten patients, two with lung cancer and one with esophageal cancer showed stable disease. Our study shows that the NY-ESO-1f peptide vaccine was well tolerated and elicited humoral, CD4 and CD8 T cell responses in immunized patients. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  3. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  4. Plate-tectonic evolution of the western U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W.

    1987-01-01

    Changing interactions of lithospheric plates provide the framework for this review of the 3100 m.y. geological history of some 3 million km2 of mountains, deserts, plateaux and plains. The Precambrian to Neogene development of the western U.S.A. is outlined in terms of plate collisions, subduction events and deformation of lithospheric slabs, with some interpretations based on SE Asia and other regions of complex tectonics.-R.A.H.

  5. Plain carbon steel bipolar plates for PEMFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianli; SUN Juncai; TIAN Rujin; XU Jing

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates are a multifunctional component of PEMFC. Comparing with the machined graphite and stainless steels, the plain carbon steel is a very cheap commercial metal material. In this paper, the possibility of applying the plain carbon steels in the bipolar plate for PEMFC was exploited. In order to improve the corrosion resistance of the low carbon steel in the PEMFCs' environments,two surface modification processes was developed and then the electrochemical performances and interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of the surface modified plate of plain carbon steel were investigated. The results show that the surface modified steel plates have good corrosion resistance and relatively low contact resistance, and it may be a candidate material as bipolar plate of PEMFC.

  6. 铜绿假单胞菌NY3所产表面活性剂对原油降解的影响%Effects of rhamnolipid on oil degradation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain NY3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常虹; 蒋欣; 聂麦茜; 葛碧洲; 刘超; 杨琴; 周立辉; 樊晓宇; 孙超; 韦绒绒

    2013-01-01

    铜绿假单胞菌NY3是从石油污染土壤中分离出的一株能快速代谢疏水性化合物的菌种.研究了该菌产表面活性剂及对原油降解的作用.实验表明,在敞开体系中,投加82 mg/L NY3菌产的鼠李糖脂,240 h能使NY3对原油的降解率提高50%.投加甘油使NY3产鼠李糖脂与降解原油同步进行,与投加鼠李糖脂对原油降解的促进作用相近.投加9%甘油使NY3在168 h对原油的降解率提高43%.NY3菌能同时降解原油中的直链烷烃及菲(Pr)和芘(Ph)等多环芳烃.在敞开体系中用少量甘油使产鼠李糖脂和降解原油同步进行,节约处理费用.研究结果为NY3菌株在露天石油污染环境修复中的应用奠定了基础.%Pseudomonas aeruginosa NY3 , being able to metabolize hydrophobic compounds, was isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil samples. Effects of the rhamnolipid and its production on crude oil degradation by NY3 strain were discussed. The results showed that the rhamnolipid produced by NY3 strain could enhance crude oil biodegradation. Comparing with the controls, oil removal rate within 240 h enhanced 50% with 82 mg/ L rhamnolipid. Adding glycerol in NY3 degrading systems, the degradation of crude oil and the rhamnolipid production took place simultaneously, the instantly produced rhamnolipid also accelerated oil metabolism. Adding 9‰ glycerol, the crude oil removal rate by NY3 improved about 43% within 168 h. Phenanthrene (Ph) and py-rene ( Pr) containing in the crude oil could also be removed. The cost of the remediation of contaminated water body by NY3 strain can be decreased by using small amount of glycerol, instead of using rhamnolipid directly. The above results lay a foundation for NY3 strain applying to oil-spill clean-up.

  7. Prokaryotic expression, purification and identification of NY-ESO-1/GST fusion protein in E.coli%NY-ESO-1/GST融合蛋白在大肠杆菌的表达、纯化及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤蕾; 宋朝君; 孙元杰; 李娜; 魏玉英; 孙奕; 杨琨

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To construct an expression plasmid for NY-ESO-1 gene and identify the expression of recombinant protein NY-ESO-1/GST in E. coli. METHODS: NY-ESO-1 segment was amplified from the testis cDNA library by RT-PCR and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX4T-l downstream tagged by GST to construct the expression plasmid pGEX4Tl-NY-ESO-l. The recombinant vector was transformed to BL21 ( DE3) and NY-ESO-1/ GST fusion protein was induced expression by IPTG. The protein was purified by urea elution and identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. RESULTS: The NY-ESO-1 segment was successfully amplified and its sequence was identical with that published in GenBank. The BL21 (DE3) pLysS containing the pGEX-Tl-NY-ESO-1 expressed a M, 44 000 fusion protein under the induction of IPTG. The purity of the protein was 90%. Western blotting proved that NY-ESO-1/GST had a specific reaction with anti-GST mAb. CONCLUSION; The prokaryotic expression vector of NY-ESO-1 has been constructed and the fusion protein NY-ESO-1/GST of high purity is successfully expressed.%目的:构建肿瘤-睾丸抗原NY-ESO-1与GST融合基因的原核表达载体,在大肠杆菌中表达并对融合蛋白NY-ESO-1/GST进行纯化和初步鉴定.方法:设计针对NY-ESO-1的特异性引物,采用聚合酶链反应(PCR)从睾丸组织的cDNA文库扩增NY-ESO-1基因片段,经上下游引物所引入的EcoR I和Xho I双酶切后克隆人原核表达载体pGEX-4T1中GST标签的下游,构建重组表达载体pGEX-4T1-NY-ESO-1,并将该载体转化大肠杆菌BL21( DE3) pLysS中,IPTG诱导表达NYESO-1/GST融合蛋白,经不同浓度尿素洗脱纯化后,表达产物通过SDS-PAGE和Western blot法进行鉴定.结果:重组质粒经限制性内切酶EcoR I和Xho I双酶切鉴定和IPTG诱导表达NY-ESO-1/GST的SDS-PAGE分析表明,表达产物的相对分子质量(Mr)为44000,与理论值相符,并主要以包涵体形式存在,灰度扫描分析显示融合蛋白表

  8. Hydrogeochemical analysis for Tasuj plain aquifer, Iran

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ata Allah Nadiri; Asghar Asghari Moghaddam; Frank T-C Tsai; Elham Fijani

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the hydrogeochemical processes of groundwater in the Tasuj plain, Iran. The Tasuj plain is one of the 12 marginal plains around Urmia Lake which is currently under a critical ecological condition. In the last decades, the Tasuj plain aquifer suffered from severe groundwater level declination and caused degradation of groundwater quality. To better understand hydrogeochemical processes in the Tasuj plain, this study adopted graphical methods and multivariate statistical techniques to analyze groundwater samples. A total of 504 groundwater samples was obtained from 34 different locations (qanats, wells, and springs) over 12 years (1997–2009) and analyzed for 15 water quality parameters. From the results, the Piper diagram indicated four groundwater types and the Stiff diagram showed eight different sources of groundwater samples. The Durov diagram identified five major hydrogeochemical processes in the aquifer. However, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) identified five water types in the groundwater samples because HCA was able to analyze more chemical and physical data than graphical methods. The HCA result was checked by discriminant analysis and found consistency in all samples that were classified into correct groups. Using factor analysis, we identified three factors that accounted for 81.6% of the total variance of the dataset. Based on the high factor loadings of the variables, factors 1 and 2 reflected the natural hydrogeochemical processes and factor 3 explained the effect of agricultural fertilizers and human activities in the Tasuj plain. Dendrograms from 2000 to 2009 were studied to understand the temporal variation of groundwater quality. Comparing the distributions of groundwater types in 2000 and 2009, we found that the mixing zone was expanded. This may be due to artificial groundwater recharge in the recharge area and the effect of inverse ion exchange in the discharge area.

  9. Groundwater Discharge along a Channelized Coastal Plain Stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaSage, Danita M [Ky Dept for natural resources, Div of Mine Permits; Sexton, Joshua L [JL Sexton and Son; Mukherjee, Abhijit [Univ of Tx, Jackson School of Geosciences, Bur of Econ. Geology; Fryar, Alan E [Univ of KY, Dept of Earth and Geoligical Sciences; Greb, Stephen F [Univ of KY, KY Geological Survey

    2015-10-01

    In the Coastal Plain of the southeastern USA, streams have commonly been artificially channelized for flood control and agricultural drainage. However, groundwater discharge along such streams has received relatively little attention. Using a combination of stream- and spring-flow measurements, spring temperature measurements, temperature profiling along the stream-bed, and geologic mapping, we delineated zones of diffuse and focused discharge along Little Bayou Creek, a channelized, first-order perennial stream in western Kentucky. Seasonal variability in groundwater discharge mimics hydraulic-head fluctuations in a nearby monitoring well and spring-discharge fluctuations elsewhere in the region, and is likely to reflect seasonal variability in recharge. Diffuse discharge occurs where the stream is incised into the semi-confined regional gravel aquifer, which is comprised of the Mounds Gravel. Focused discharge occurs upstream where the channel appears to have intersected preferential pathways within the confining unit. Seasonal fluctuations in discharge from individual springs are repressed where piping results in bank collapse. Thereby, focused discharge can contribute to the morphological evolution of the stream channel.

  10. Drought Assessment in the Moldavian Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Liviu Ioan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Moldavian Plain, located in the North-Eastern part of Romania, has a temperate-continental climate with a nuance of excessivity in the precipitation regime. This paper aims to analyse droughts in the Moldavian Plain for the period 1961-2010, by using a classical method - the de Martonne Aridity Index, and two other less known indices developed in Romania and the Republic of Moldova. Among these indices, the Dry Spells Index demonstrates a increasing frequency of dry years in recent decades.

  11. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84 Section 110.84 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area extending northwesterly between Black Rock Channel and Bird Island Pier opposite the foot of Porter Avenue, bounded as follows: Beginning at...

  12. 77 FR 42510 - Notice of Inventory Completion: New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: New York University College of Dentistry, New York... College of Dentistry, New York, NY. The human remains were removed from Bronx County, NY. This notice is... was made by New York University College of Dentistry professional staff in consultation...

  13. 78 FR 62293 - Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    ... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Oyster Bay near Oyster Bay, NY for the...

  14. 78 FR 38310 - Kiwi Energy NY LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kiwi Energy NY LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Kiwi Energy NY LLC's application for market-based...

  15. Transfection of NY-ESO-1 specific TCR improves the specific cytotoxicity of human PBMC to NY-ESO-1 positive tumor cells%转染NY-ESO-1特异性TCR增强人PBMC对NY-ESO-1阳性肿瘤细胞的特异性细胞毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭佳; 田洲; 顾娜; 徐珩; 闾军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study whether NY-ESO-1-specific TCR gene transduced into human PBMC (Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell, PBMC) can improve its abilities of specifically recognizing and killing tumor cells. Methods pCDNA3. 1-ESO-TCR plasmid was electroporately transferred into PBMC separated from healthy people in vitro and confirmed by RT-PCR. The phenotype analysis after eletroporation was measured by flow cytometry method. The NY-ESO-1 specific peptide (pl57-165) was added into the culture of electroporated PBMC, the IFN-γ level secreted by electroporated PBMC was detected by ELISPOT assay. The specific cytotoxicity in vitro was detected by real time cell analysis (ACEA biosciences). Results The NY-ESO-1-specific TCR fragments in electroporated PBMC were detected by RT-PCR. The specific expression of NY-ESO-TCR in transferred PBMC was significantly higher than that in PBMC transfered with empty vector (P < 0. 05). The positive dots of IFN-γ secretion in transferred PBMC stimulated by peptide pl57-165 was significantly more than that in PBMC transfered with empty vector (P <0. 05); The specific cytotoxicity of transferred PBMC was obviously enhanced than PBMC transduced with empty vector. Conclusions The specific cytotoxicity of PBMC against NY-ESO-1 positive HepG2 cells is elevated by transduced PBMC with NY-ESO-1 specific TCR, which may stimulate more researches about adoptive immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.%目的 探讨体外转导NY-ESO-1特异性T细胞受体至人外周血淋巴细胞中,是否可增强转导后细胞体外特异性识别并杀伤肿瘤细胞的能力.方法 将NY-ESO-1特异性TCR质粒(pCDNA3.1-ESO-TCR)体外电转入新分离的正常人PBMC中,RT-PCR法鉴定转导是否成功;采用流式细胞仪分析转导后PBMC表型;用特异性NY-ESO-1b抗原肽(p157-165)刺激转导PBMC后,用ELISPOT法检测PBMC分泌IFN-γ的能力,用实时无标记动态细胞分析仪检测PBMC特异性细胞毒性作用.结果 电转后PBMC

  16. Retention of riverine sediment and nutrient loads by coastal plain floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, G.B.; Hupp, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the frequent citation of wetlands as effective regulators of water quality, few quantitative estimates exist for their cumulative retention of the annual river loads of nutrients or sediments. Here we report measurements of sediment accretion and associated carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus accumulation as sedimentation over feldspar marker horizons placed on floodplains of the non-tidal, freshwater Coastal Plain reaches of seven rivers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, USA. We then scale these accumulation rates to the entire extent of non-tidal floodplain in the Coastal Plain of each river, defined as riparian area extending from the Fall Line to the upper limit of tidal influence, and compare them to annual river loads. Floodplains accumulated a very large amount of material compared to their annual river loads of sediment (median among rivers = 119%), nitrogen (24%), and phosphorus (59%). Systems with larger floodplain areas and longer floodplain inundation retained greater proportions of riverine loads of nitrogen and phosphorus, but systems with larger riverine loads retained a smaller proportion of that load on floodplains. Although the source and long-term fate of deposited sediment and associated nutrients are uncertain, these fluxes represent the interception of large amounts of material that otherwise could have been exported downstream. Coastal Plain floodplain ecosystems are important regulators of sediment, carbon, and nutrient transport in watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay.

  17. Etnocentrismus v USA

    OpenAIRE

    Hronová, Jitka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the bachelor thesis "Ethnocentrism in the USA" is to find basic forms of ethnocentrism and to identify the ones that are in the USA. The Czech and American cultures are compared in the thesis via author's research. Then the rate of ethnocentrism in the USA is evaluated. Interviewing young people gives a current trend and an expectation of future course of the ethnocentrism.

  18. Multikulturalismus v USA

    OpenAIRE

    Smejkal, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this Bachelor thesis is to map out the historical development of multiculturalism in the USA and to deal with the current issues of this phenomenon. For instance, this thesis deals with the process of hispanization in the USA or with the so called affirmative action in the American society. The first part of this thesis explains the term multiculturalism in theory. The second part focuses on the history of the USA and their milestones connected with the development of multicu...

  19. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1980 to 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1980 to 1995, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  20. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1995 to 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1995 to 2000, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  1. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2005 to 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2005 to 2009, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  2. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2000 to 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2000 to 2005, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  3. A potential role for immunotherapy in thyroid cancer by enhancing NY-ESO-1 cancer antigen expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, Viswanath; Frederick, Dennie T; Bernasconi, Maria J; Wargo, Jennifer A; Parangi, Sareh

    2014-08-01

    NY-ESO-1 is one of the most immunogenic members of the cancer/testis antigen family and its levels can be increased after exposure to demethylating and deacetylating agents. This cytoplasmic antigen can serve as a potent target for cancer immunotherapy and yet has not been well studied in differentiated thyroid cancer cells. We studied the baseline expression of NY-ESO-1 messenger RNA and protein before and after exposure to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) (72 hours) in a panel of thyroid cancer cell lines using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. HLA-A2+, NY-ESO-1+ thyroid cell lines were then co-cultured with peripheral blood lymphocytes transduced with NY-ESO-1 specific T-cell receptor (TCR) and assayed for interferon-gamma and Granzyme-B release in the medium. SCID mice injected orthotopically with BCPAP cells were treated with DAC to evaluate for NY-ESO-1 gene expression in vivo. None of the thyroid cancer cell lines showed baseline expression of NY-ESO-1. Three cell lines, BCPAP, TPC-1, and 8505c, showed an increase in NY-ESO-1 gene expression with DAC treatment and were found to be HLA-A2 positive. DAC-treated target BCPAP and TPC-1 tumor cells with up-regulated NY-ESO-1 levels were able to mount an appropriate interferon-gamma and Granzyme-B response upon co-culture with the NY-ESO-1-TCR-transduced peripheral blood lymphocytes. In vivo DAC treatment was able to increase NY-ESO-1 expression in an orthotopic mouse model with BCPAP cells. Our data suggest that many differentiated thyroid cancer cells can be pressed to express immune antigens, which can then be utilized in TCR-based immunotherapeutic interventions.

  4. 76 FR 43259 - Foreign-Trade Zone 109-Watertown, NY, Application for Manufacturing Authority, North American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ...) with textile backing material for the U.S. market and export. The manufacturing process under FTZ..., North American Tapes, LLC, (Textile Athletic Tape), Watertown, NY A request has been submitted to the... textile fabrics (duty rates: 10.5, 14.9%). The facility can produce up to 12.5 million square meters of...

  5. 78 FR 51061 - Special Anchorage Areas; Port of New York, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... convenient access to public transportation, onshore shopping and amenities which facilitate interstate and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 110 RIN 1625-AA01 Special Anchorage Areas; Port of New York, NY AGENCY...

  6. 33 CFR 110.156 - Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y. 110.156 Section 110.156 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND....Y. (a) The anchorage grounds. Southward of a line 312 feet south of and parallel to the south...

  7. 78 FR 23845 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY AGENCY... the Smith Point Bridge, mile 6.1, across Narrow Bay, between Smith Point and Fire Island, New York. The deviation is necessary to facilitate the Smith Point Triathlon. This deviation allows the...

  8. 76 FR 60733 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY AGENCY... the Smith Point Bridge, 6.1, across Narrow Bay, between Smith Point and Fire Island, New York. The.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Smith Point Bridge, across Narrow Bay, mile 6.1, between Smith Point and...

  9. Structural and magnetic properties of nanocomposite iron-containing SiCxNy films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkarev, R. V.; Fainer, N. I.; Maurya, K. K.

    2017-02-01

    New ferromagnetic films with composition SiCxNyFez were synthesized using chemical vapor deposition technique. Films were deposited using ferrocene, 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and hydrogen gaseous mixture. Chemical and phase composition of the films were studied by FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction with grazing incidence (GI-XRD). FTIR spectra analysis confirmed the existence of Si-C and Si-N bonds. Graphite inclusions and amorphous carbon were determined by Raman spectra analysis. The surface of the SiCxNyFez films studied by SEM is covered by nanocrystallites of iron oxide Fe3O4 phase. The main purpose of GI-XRD analysis is to describe the layered structure of the films in detail. It was shown by GI-XRD study, that phase composition of the SiCxNyFez films varies from iron oxide Fe3O4 to iron silicide Fe3Si and silicon carbide SiC with the deposition temperature growing. It was established, that SiCxNyFez films are perspective for application in the spintronic field.

  10. 76 FR 77175 - New York Fun Factory Fireworks Display, Western Long Island Sound; Mamaroneck, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 New York Fun Factory Fireworks Display, Western Long... Island Sound in the vicinity of Mamaroneck, NY in support of the New York Fun Factory Fireworks display... Guard to define regulatory safety zones. On May 10, 2012 New York Fun Factory Events is sponsoring...

  11. Den digitale patientmappe - et bud på en ny form for sundhedskommunikation i fysioterapeutisk praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Lene

    2012-01-01

    Præsentation af et udviklingsprojekt, som jeg har deltaget i, hvor en ny form for sundhedskommunikation gennem en netbaseret digital patientmappe i fysioterapeutisk praksis har været afprøvet. Det overordnede mål for projektet var at bedre kommunikation, dokumentation og compliance for privatprak...

  12. 77 FR 74866 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: New York State Museum, Albany, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... belts. Seven of the wampum belts are on loan to the Seneca National Museum in Salamanca, NY, and one... Jemison on the Cattaraugus Reservation in New York. Mary Jemison was adopted by the Seneca as a child and chose to live her life as a Seneca. At the time of collection, the Five Nations Alliance Belt...

  13. 77 FR 30312 - Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge, Cayuga, Seneca, and Wayne Counties, NY; Draft Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... notice in the Federal Register (75 FR 25286; May 7, 2010). Montezuma NWR was established in 1938 to... Fish and Wildlife Service Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge, Cayuga, Seneca, and Wayne Counties, NY... assessment (draft CCP/EA) for Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), located in Cayuga, Seneca, and...

  14. 76 FR 3516 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Harlem River, New York City, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Harlem River, New York City, NY... of the 103rd Street (Wards Island) Bridge at mile 0.0, across the Harlem River, New York City, New... vessels, and commercial vessels of various sizes. The owner of the bridge, New York City Department of...

  15. 78 FR 35756 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Harlem River, New York City, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Harlem River, New York City, NY... of the Willis Avenue Bridge across the Harlem River, mile 1.5, at the Bronx, New York. The deviation... existing drawbridge operating regulations are found at 33 CFR 117.789(b)(2). The bridge owner, New York...

  16. 78 FR 23846 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, New York City, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, New York City, NY... of the Greenpoint Avenue Bridge across Newtown Creek, mile 1.3, at New York City, New York. The... are found at 33 CFR 117.801(g). The bridge owner, New York City Department of Transportation...

  17. 75 FR 36110 - Notice of Inventory Completion: New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: New York University College of Dentistry, New York... Dentistry, New York, NY. The human remains were removed from Broward and Levy Counties, FL, and an unknown... assessment of the human remains was made by the New York University College of Dentistry professional...

  18. 75 FR 33327 - Notice of Inventory Completion: New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: New York University College of Dentistry, New York... Dentistry, New York, NY. The human remains were removed from the Allred Bluff and Salts Bluff Rockshelters... assessment of the human remains was made by the New York University College of Dentistry professional...

  19. 75 FR 33329 - Notice of Inventory Completion: New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: New York University College of Dentistry, New York... Dentistry, New York, NY. The human remains were removed from Lovelock Cave, Churchill County, NV. This... remains was made by the New York University College of Dentistry professional staff in consultation...

  20. 78 FR 36301 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Oswego County, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... 0.85-mile rail line on CSXT's Northern Region, Albany Division, Fulton Subdivision, between milepost QMF 37.10 at the connection with CSXT's main line and milepost QMF 37.95 at the end of the track, in Oswego County, NY (the Line). The Line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 13126,...

  1. 78 FR 74009 - Safety Zone; Nike Fireworks, Upper New York Bay, Ellis Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Nike Fireworks, Upper New York Bay, Ellis Island, NY..., 2011 (76 FR 69614). ] Table 1 1. Nike Fireworks Ellis Launch site: A barge located Island Safety...

  2. 78 FR 71546 - Safety Zone; Belt Parkway Bridge Construction, Gerritsen Inlet, Brooklyn, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Belt Parkway Bridge Construction, Gerritsen Inlet, Brooklyn, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast... Belt Parkway Bridge. This proposed rule would allow the Coast Guard to prohibit all vessel traffic...

  3. 76 FR 4529 - Safety Zone; Underwater Hazard, Gravesend Bay, Brooklyn, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... 02'14'' W (NAD 83), approximately 70 yards southeast of the Verrazano Bridge Brooklyn tower. All... Bridge, Brooklyn, NY. This safety zone will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial...), approximately 70-yards southeast of the Verrazano Bridge Brooklyn tower. (b) Effective period. This regulation...

  4. 76 FR 34865 - Safety Zone; Rochester Harbor Festival, Genesee River, Rochester, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... impracticable and contrary to the public interest. Background and Purpose The Rochester Harbor Festival is an... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Rochester Harbor Festival, Genesee River... establishing a temporary safety zone on the Genesee River, Rochester, NY for the Rochester Harbor Festival...

  5. 77 FR 52058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY... completion of an inventory of human remains in the possession of the American Museum of Natural History, New... following sentence: Officials of the American Museum of Natural History have determined that, pursuant to...

  6. 76 FR 43712 - Notice of Inventory Completion: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The American Museum of Natural History... human remains may contact the American Museum of Natural History. Repatriation of the human remains...

  7. NY-ESO-1 expression in DCIS: A new predictor of good prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, R Charles; Caballero, Otavia L; Shousha, Sami; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Woodley-Barker, Laura; Wilhelm-Benartzi, Charlotte S; Neville, A Munro

    2017-03-01

    At present, it is difficult to predict which patients with ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS) will subsequently develop frank invasive breast cancer (IDC). A recent survey by our group has shown that NY-ESO-1 and MAGEA are both expressed in DCIS. This study was aimed at determining whether expression of these antigens was related to the later development of IDC. 14 of 42 (33%) of patients developed invasive breast cancer during the follow up period. Only one of those DCIS cases that relapsed was positive for NYESO-1 at diagnosis. In contrast, DCIS samples of 15 of the 28 (54%) of those patients who remained disease-free expressed NY-ESO-1. (Permutation chi square p=0.0033). We identified 42 patients with DCIS, and followed them up for more than 10 years. NY-ESO-1 and MAGEA were demonstrated by immunostaining as were CD8+ infiltrates on all sections together with the conventional markers, ER, PR, and HER2. Expression of NY-ESO-1 may predict those patients who will not subsequently develop invasive breast cancer and could therefore potentially be helpful in defining prognosis in patients with DCIS.

  8. 77 FR 46349 - Safety Zone; DeStefano Wedding Fireworks Display, Patchogue Bay, Patchogue, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... significant environmental impact from this proposed rule. List of Subjects in 33 CFR Part 165 Harbors, Marine... Bay'' restaurant in Patchogue, NY. This rule will be effective from 8:30 p.m. on November 3, 2012... Broadcast Notice to Mariners. 2. Impact on Small Entities Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C....

  9. 75 FR 13454 - Special Local Regulation, Fran Schnarr Open Water Championships, Huntington Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit...-2009-0520) in the Federal Register (74 FR 51243). No comments or requests for meetings were received... Championships, Huntington Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Supplemental Notice of proposed...

  10. NY Serpentis: SU UMa-type nova in the period gap with diversity of normal outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, Elena P.; Kato, Taichi; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Ohshima, Tomohito; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Antonyuk, Kirill A.; Sosnovskij, Aleksei A.; Baklanov, Alex V.; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Pit, Nikolaj V.; Nakata, Chikako; Masi, Gianluca; Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Andreev, Maksim V.; Kuznyetsova, Yuliana G.; Vasiliskov, Kirill A.

    2014-12-01

    We present a photometric study of NY Ser, an in-the-gap SU UMa-type nova, in 2002 and 2013. We determined the duration of its superoutburst and the mean period of its superhump are 18 d and 0.10458 d, respectively. We detected in 2013 that NY Ser showed two distinct states separated by a superoutburst. A state of rather infrequent normal outbursts lasted at least 44 d before the superoutburst, and a state of frequent outbursts started immediately after the superoutburst and lasted at least 34 d. Unlike a typical SU UMa star with a bimodal distribution of outburst duration, NY Ser displayed a diversity of normal outbursts. In the state of infrequent outbursts, we detected a wide ˜ 12 d outburst accompanied by 0.098 d orbital modulation but without superhumps ever established in NY Ser. We classified this as a "wide normal outburst." The orbital period was dominant both in quiescence and during normal outbursts in this state. In the state of the most frequent normal outbursts, the 0.10465 d positive superhump period was dominant and coexisted with the orbital modulation. In 2002 we detected the normal outburst of "intermediate" 5-6 d duration that was also accompanied by orbital modulations.

  11. 75 FR 15739 - International Business Machines Corporation: Armonk, NY; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines Corporation: Armonk, NY; Notice of... was initiated in response to a petition filed on May 21, 2009 on behalf of workers of International Business Machines Corporation, Armonk, New York. The petitioning group of workers is covered by...

  12. Nematodes from rocky grassland in Börzsöny Mountains, Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Kiss, M

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on investigations carried out on soil inhabiting nematodes living in andesitic rock regions ofBörzsöny Mountains. Seventeen species are listed. Heterodorus arcuatus (Thorne, 1939), new to the fauna of Hungary, isdescribed and illustrated in detail.

  13. Nematodes from rocky grassland in Börzsöny Mountains, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on investigations carried out on soil inhabiting nematodes living in andesitic rock regions ofBörzsöny Mountains. Seventeen species are listed. Heterodorus arcuatus (Thorne, 1939, new to the fauna of Hungary, isdescribed and illustrated in detail.

  14. 77 FR 41271 - Safety Zone; Newburgh to Beacon Swim, Newburgh, Hudson River, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register CFR Code of Federal Regulations NPRM... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Newburgh to Beacon Swim, Newburgh, Hudson... Newburgh, NY for the annual Newburgh Beacon Swim event. This temporary safety zone is necessary to...

  15. 77 FR 834 - Noise Exposure Map Update for Albany International Airport, Albany, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Update for Albany International Airport, Albany, NY... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the updated noise exposure maps submitted by the Albany.... 47501 et. seq (Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act) and 14 CFR part 150 are in compliance...

  16. 77 FR 51614 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Niagara County, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Abandonments to abandon a 0.1-mile rail line on its Northern Region, Albany Division, Niagara Subdivision, between milepost QDN 28.0 near North Avenue to the end of the track at milepost QDN 28.1, in Niagara Falls... Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption--in Niagara County, NY...

  17. 77 FR 41048 - Safety Zone; Hudson Valley Triathlon, Ulster Landing, Hudson River, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Hudson Valley Triathlon, Ulster Landing... Landing, NY for the 16th Annual Hudson Valley Triathlon swim event. This temporary safety zone is.... Regulatory History and Information The Hudson Valley Triathlon swim is an annual recurring event that has...

  18. 75 FR 11937 - Eagle Sportswear, Inc.; New York, NY; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Eagle Sportswear, Inc.; New York, NY; Notice of Termination of... response to a petition filed on December 4, 2009 by a company official on behalf of workers of...

  19. Influence of residual stress on the phase equilibrium of Ti(CxNy) thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Jin; Changrong Li; Xiaoyan Ma; Zhenmin Du; Weijing Zhang; J.-C. Tedenac

    2003-01-01

    In order to provide a theoretic basis for the research of Ti(CxNy) thin films, the thermodynamic database of Ti-C-N ternary system is established and the phase diagram sections are calculated. In addition to the assessed thermodynamic properties of Ti-C-N system, the influence of the residual strain energy of Ti(CxNy) thin films on the phase equilibria is analyzed. The classical formula for calculating the elastic strain energy is expressed into a Redlich-Kister form in order to perform the thermodynamic and equilibrium calculations using the Thermo-Calc software. Isothermal sections at 900 and 1100 K are calculated with this database and compared with those calculated without considering the residual stress. As a result, with the addition of strain energy δ-fcc Ti(CxNy) phase area shrinks. It is therefore concluded that with the influence of the residual stress in Ti(CxNy) thin solid film, the precipitation of pure δ film requires more precise control of composition.

  20. 77 FR 38492 - Safety Zone; Olcott Fireworks, Lake Ontario, Olcott, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Olcott Fireworks, Lake Ontario, Olcott, NY... temporary safety zone on Lake Ontario, Olcott, New York. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Ontario during the Olcott fireworks on July 3, 2012. The safety zone...

  1. Tšarterkool USA-s / Johannes Kiersch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiersch, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    24.-27. mainì 01 toimub Tallinnas EFFE 2001 (European Forum of Freedom in Education) konverents "Haridus tänases kodanikuühiskonnas." Konverentsil esineb ka Witteni Waldorf-pedagoogika Instituudi õppejõud Johannes Kiersch. Lähemalt tema artiklist USA-s populaarsust võitvate tsharterkoolide kohta, mis on riigi- ja erakooli vahevorm

  2. Necrotizing fasciitis : plain radiographic and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Dae; Park, Jeong Hee; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Lim, Jong Nam; Heo, Tae Haeng; Park, Dong Rib [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate the plain radiographic and CT findings of the necrotizing fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic findings of 4 cases with necrotizing fasciitis. Three cases were proven pathologically. We evaluated pattern and extent of the gas shadows in plain films. CT findings were analysed, with emphasis on : (a) gas pattern, (b) extent, (c) location and involved site, (d) associated focal abscess, and (e) swelling of the adjacent muscles. On plain radiographs, four cases showed streaky or mottled gas densities in the pelvis, three cases in the perineum, one case in the abdomen, and two cases in the thigh. On CT images, gas pattern was mottled and streaky appearance with swelling of the adjacent muscles. Gas shadows located in the extraperitoneal space in four cases, fascial layer in four cases, and subcutaneous layer in four cases. There were gas shadows in pelvic wall, perineum, abdominal wall, buttock, thigh, and scrotum. Focal low density lesion suggestive of focal abscess was not visualized. Plain radiography is useful for early diagnosis of the necrotizing fasciitis and CT is very useful for detection of precise location and extent of the disease. CT is also useful for differentiation of necrotizing fasciitis from focal abscess and cellulitis.

  3. Porosity Prediction of Plain Weft Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Owais Raza Siddiqui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wearing comfort of clothing is dependent on air permeability, moisture absorbency and wicking properties of fabric, which are related to the porosity of fabric. In this work, a plug-in is developed using Python script and incorporated in Abaqus/CAE for the prediction of porosity of plain weft knitted fabrics. The Plug-in is able to automatically generate 3D solid and multifilament weft knitted fabric models and accurately determine the porosity of fabrics in two steps. In this work, plain weft knitted fabrics made of monofilament, multifilament and spun yarn made of staple fibers were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the developed plug-in. In the case of staple fiber yarn, intra yarn porosity was considered in the calculation of porosity. The first step is to develop a 3D geometrical model of plain weft knitted fabric and the second step is to calculate the porosity of the fabric by using the geometrical parameter of 3D weft knitted fabric model generated in step one. The predicted porosity of plain weft knitted fabric is extracted in the second step and is displayed in the message area. The predicted results obtained from the plug-in have been compared with the experimental results obtained from previously developed models; they agreed well.

  4. The geologic story of the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    The Great Plains! The words alone create a sense of space and a feeling of destiny a challenge. But what exactly is this special part of Western America that contains so much of our history? How did it come to be? Why is it different?

  5. Pedogeographic regionalization of the Pomurje plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Lovrenčak

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the pedogeographic regionalization of the Pomurje plain (Northeast Slovenia. With regard to differences in parent material, landforms, and hydrographic characteristics, the soil cover is ranked into two pedogeographic regions. Each of them is furthermore divided into several subregions grouped together according to related soil groups.

  6. Great plains regional climate assessment technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Plains region (GP) plays important role in providing food and energy to the economy of the United States. Multiple climatic and non-climatic stressors put multiple sectors, livelihoods and communities at risk, including agriculture, water, ecosystems and rural and tribal communities. The G...

  7. Tumor-infiltrating T cells correlate with NY-ESO-1-specific autoantibodies in ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Milne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells are correlated with prolonged progression-free and overall survival in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. A significant fraction of EOC patients mount autoantibody responses to various tumor antigens, however the relationship between autoantibodies and tumor-infiltrating T cells has not been investigated in EOC or any other human cancer. We hypothesized that autoantibody and T cell responses may be correlated in EOC and directed toward the same antigens. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained matched serum and tumor tissue from 35 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Serum samples were assessed by ELISA for autoantibodies to the common tumor antigen NY-ESO-1. Tumor tissue was examined by immunohistochemistry for expression of NY-ESO-1, various T cell markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25, FoxP3, TIA-1 and Granzyme B and other immunological markers (CD20, MHC class I and MHC class II. Lymphocytic infiltrates varied widely among tumors and included cells positive for CD3, CD8, TIA-1, CD25, FoxP3 and CD4. Twenty-six percent (9/35 of patients demonstrated serum IgG autoantibodies to NY-ESO-1, which were positively correlated with expression of NY-ESO-1 antigen by tumor cells (r = 0.57, p = 0.0004. Autoantibodies to NY-ESO-1 were associated with increased tumor-infiltrating CD8+, CD4+ and FoxP3+ cells. In an individual HLA-A2+ patient with autoantibodies to NY-ESO-1, CD8+ T cells isolated from solid tumor and ascites were reactive to NY-ESO-1 by IFN-gamma ELISPOT and MHC class I pentamer staining. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that tumor-specific autoantibodies and tumor-infiltrating T cells are correlated in human cancer and can be directed against the same target antigen. This implies that autoantibodies may collaborate with tumor-infiltrating T cells to influence clinical outcomes in EOC. Furthermore, serological screening methods may prove useful for identifying clinically relevant

  8. Modelling middle pliocene warm climates of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, A.M.; Valdes, P.J.; Sellwood, B.W.; Kaplan, J.O.; Dowsett, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    The middle Pliocene warm period represents a unique time slice in which to model and understand climatic processes operating under a warm climatic regime. Palaeoclimatic model simulations, focussed on the United States of America (USA), for the middle Pliocene (ca 3 Ma) were generated using the USGS PRISM2 2?? ?? 2?? data set of boundary conditions and the UK Meteorological Office's HadAMS General Circulation Model (GCM). Model results suggest that conditions in the USA during the middle Pliocene can be characterised as annually warmer (by 2?? to 4??C), less seasonal, wetter (by a maximum of 4 to 8 mm/day) and with an absence of freezing winters over the central and southern Great Plains. A sensitivity experiment suggests that the main forcing mechanisms for surface temperature changes in near coastal areas are the imposed Pliocene sea surface temperatures (SST's). In interior regions, reduced Northern Hemisphere terrestrial ice, combined with less snow cover and a reduction in the elevation of the western cordillera of North America, generate atmospheric circulation changes and positive albedo feedbacks that raise surface temperatures. A complex set of climatic feedback mechanisms cause an enhancement of the hydrological cycle magnifying the moisture bearing westerly wind belt during the winter season (Dec., Jan., Feb.). Predictions produced by the model are in broad agreement with available geological evidence. However, the GCM appears to underestimate precipitation levels in the interior and central regions of the southern USA. Copyright: Palaeontological Association, 22 June 2001.

  9. Winter Activity of Coastal Plain Populations of Bat Species Affected by White-Nose Syndrome and Wind Energy Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grider, John F; Larsen, Angela L; Homyack, Jessica A; Kalcounis-Rueppell, Matina C

    2016-01-01

    Across the entire distribution of a species, populations may have variable responses to environmental perturbations. Many bat species experience mortality in large portions of their range during hibernation and along migratory paths to and from wintering grounds, from White-nose syndrome (WNS) and wind energy development, respectively. In some areas, warm temperatures may allow bats to remain active through winter, thus decreasing their susceptibility to WNS and/or mortality associated with migration to wintering grounds. These areas could act as a refugia and be important for the persistence of local populations. To determine if warmer temperatures affect bat activity, we compared year-round activity of bat populations in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of North Carolina, USA, two regions that differ in winter temperature. We established six recording stations, four along a 295-kilometer north-south transect in the Coastal Plain, and two in the Piedmont of North Carolina. We recorded bat activity over two years. We supplemented our recordings with mist-net data. Although bat activity was lower during winter at all sites, the odds of recording a bat during winter were higher at Coastal Plain sites when compared with Piedmont sites. Further, bats in the Piedmont had a lower level of winter activity compared to summer activity than bats in the Coastal Plain that had more similar levels of activity in the winter and summer. We found high bat species richness on the Coastal Plain in winter, with winter-active species including those known to hibernate throughout most of their range and others known to be long distance migrants. In particular, two species impacted by WNS, the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) and tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus), were present year round in the Coastal Plain. The tricolored bat was also present year-round in the Piedmont. In the Coastal Plain, the long distance migratory hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) was active in the

  10. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  11. The tubulin-bound conformation of paclitaxel: T-taxol vs "PTX-NY".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yutao; Alcaraz, Ana A; Snyder, James P

    2009-03-27

    Nearly 35 years after its discovery and 11 years after FDA approval of paclitaxel (PTX) as a breakthrough anticancer drug, the 3-D structure of the agent bound to its beta-tubulin target was proposed to be T-Taxol. The latter bioactive form has recently been challenged by the Ojima group with a structure, "PTX-NY" ("REDOR Taxol"), in which the C-13 side chain is proposed to adopt a different conformation and an alternative hydrogen-bonding pattern in the tubulin binding site. Previously, the two conformers were compared to show that only T-Taxol fits the PTX-derived electron crystallographic density. That work has been extended by molecular mechanics and quantum chemical methods to reveal that the PTX-NY conformation is relatively less stable, on average, by 10-11 kcal/mol. In agreement with NMR studies, an 11 ns molecular dynamics treatment for PTX in an explicit water pool locates T-Taxol along the trajectory, but not PTX-NY. Docking of various PTX conformers into the electron crystallographic binding site of tubulin demonstrates that PTX-NY cannot be accommodated unless the pocket is reorganized in violation of the experimental constraints. Finally, analysis of the structures of T-Taxol and PTX-NY for their capacity to predict the existence of superpotent PTX analogues discloses that only the former forecasts such analogues, as now established by the T-Taxol-inspired synthesis of bridged taxanes. In sum, all empirical criteria support T-Taxol as the bound conformation of PTX on beta-tubulin in microtubules.

  12. NY-BR-1 protein expression in breast carcinoma: a mammary gland differentiation antigen as target for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; Zürrer-Härdi, Ursina; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Storz, Martina; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Seifert, Burkhardt; Fehr, Mathias K; Fink, Daniel; Ferrone, Soldano; Pestalozzi, Bernhard; Jungbluth, Achim A; Chen, Yao-Tseng; Jäger, Dirk; Knuth, Alexander; Moch, Holger

    2007-11-01

    NY-BR-1 is a recently identified differentiation antigen of the mammary gland. To use NY-BR-1 for T-cell-based immunotherapy, analysis of its co-expression with HLA class I antigens is required. In the present tissue microarray study, primary breast cancers (n = 1,444), recurrences (n = 88), lymph node (n = 525) and distant metastases (n = 91) were studied for NY-BR-1 expression using a novel monoclonal antibody. NY-BR-1 expression was compared with prognosis, estrogen receptor, HER2-status, EGFR and HLA class I antigen expression. NY-BR-1 was more frequently expressed in grade 1 (82%) than in grade 2 (69%) and grade 3 (46%) carcinomas (P < 0.0001). Moreover, NY-BR-1 expression correlated directly with estrogen receptor expression (P < 0.0001) and inversely correlated with HER2-status and EGFR expression (P < 0.0001 for both). Considering high expression level of co-expression, 198/1,321 (15%) primary breast carcinomas and 4/65 (6%) distant metastases expressed NY-BR-1 and HLA class I, suggesting that active immunotherapy can be applied to about 10% of breast cancer patients. Survival analysis showed an association of NY-BR-1 expression with better patient outcome (P = 0.015). No difference between NY-BR-1 expression of primary tumors and metastases could be found, indicating that the presence of NY-BR-1 in metastases can be deduced from their corresponding primary. Forty-three paired biopsies taken from patients before and after chemotherapy suggest that NY-BR-1 expression is not influenced by preceding chemotherapy (kappa = 0.89, P < 0.0001). In summary, the co-expression of NY-BR-1 with HLA class I antigens and its expression in metastases without modification by chemotherapy suggest that NY-BR-1 targeted immunotherapy represents a viable strategy in addition to other targeted cancer drug therapies of breast cancer.

  13. Shrub and tree establishment on coal spoils in northern High Plains, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjugstad, A.J.

    1984-10-01

    Trickle irrigation, during establishment, increased survival two-fold for seven species of shrubs and trees planted on coal-mine spoil in the semiarid area of northeastern Wyoming. Increased survival of irrigated plants persisted for five years after initiation of this study, which included two growing and winter seasons after cessation of which included two growing and winter seasons after cessation of irrigation. Species included green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), Siberian peashrub (Caragana arborescens), American plum (Prunus americana), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum). 9 references, 3 tables.

  14. Importance of agricultural landscapes to nesting burrowing owls in the Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restani, M.; Davies, J.M.; Newton, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are the principle factors causing declines of grassland birds. Declines in burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) populations have been extensive and have been linked to habitat loss, primarily the decline of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. Development of habitat use models is a research priority and will aid conservation of owls inhabiting human-altered landscapes. From 2001 to 2004 we located 160 burrowing owl nests on prairie dog colonies on the Little Missouri National Grassland in North Dakota. We used multiple linear regression and Akaike's Information Criterion to estimate the relationship between cover type characteristics surrounding prairie dog colonies and (1) number of owl pairs per colony and (2) reproductive success. Models were developed for two spatial scales, within 600 m and 2,000 m radii of nests for cropland, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum), grassland, and prairie dog colonies. We also included number of patches as a metric of landscape fragmentation. Annually, fewer than 30% of prairie dog colonies were occupied by owls. None of the models at the 600 m scale explained variation in number of owl pairs or reproductive success. However, models at the 2,000 m scale did explain number of owl pairs and reproductive success. Models included cropland, crested wheatgrass, and prairie dog colonies. Grasslands were not included in any of the models and had low importance values, although percentage grassland surrounding colonies was high. Management that protects prairie dog colonies bordering cropland and crested wheatgrass should be implemented to maintain nesting habitat of burrowing owls. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. The Economic Impact of Universities in Non-Metropolitan Areas of the Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John

    2007-01-01

    Public universities cite their economic impact to help justify state financial support, but the literature offers no comprehensive theory that can guide analysis of such claims. This research used qualitative methodology to complement the ubiquitous economic impact studies, and showed that mission, leadership and geography determine how public…

  16. Climate Variability and Its Impact on Forest Hydrology on South Carolina Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaohua Dai; Devendra Amatya; Ge Sun; Carl Trettin; Changsheng Li; Harbin Li

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the changes in hydrology of coastal forested wetlands induced by climate change is fundamental for developing strategies to sustain their functions and services. This study examined 60 years of climatic observations and 30 years of hydrological data, collected at the Santee Experimental Forest (SEF) in coastal South Carolina. We also applied a physically-...

  17. Secondary forest succession following reproduction cutting on the Upper Coastal Plain of southeastern Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Cain; Michael G. Shelton

    2001-01-01

    To contribute to an understanding of forest management on secondary forest succession, we conducted vegetation surveys in a chronosequence of pine stands ranging in age from 1 to 59 years. Adjacent areas were compared at 1, 7, 12, and 17 years following two reproduction cutting methods (clearcuts or pine seed-tree cuts); a 59-year-old pine stand that...

  18. Patterns of landscape dynamics and land use systems in the Southeastern Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of topics focused on research accomplished in the southeastern US were presented at this talk given on January 28, 2016, at the Brown Bag colloquium hosted by the University of Georgia Department of Geography. Topics covered included: a study analyzing road network and landscape change in ...

  19. Landscape considerations of perennial biofuel feedstock production in conservation buffers of the Georgia Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    With global increases in the production of cellulosic biomass for fuel, or “biofuel,” concerns over potential negative effects of using land for biofuel production have promoted attention to concepts of agricultural landscape design that sustainably balance tradeoffs between food, fuel, fiber, and c...

  20. Soil nitrogen dynamics and leaching under conservation tillage in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation tillage (CsT) involves management that reduces soil erosion by maintaining crop residue cover on farm fields. Typically, both infiltration and soil organic matter increase over time with CsT practices. We compared the impact of a commonly used CsT practice, strip tillage (ST), to conven...

  1. 重组腺病毒载体pAd-NY-ESO-1-EGFP的构建及鉴定%Construction and Identification of Recombinant Adenovirns Vector Containing NY-ESO-1 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张又莉; 徐少勇; 王家宁; 黄永章; 王斌; 宋军; 郭凌郧

    2008-01-01

    目的:利用细菌内同源重组法构建含人肿瘤特异性抗原的腺病毒质粒.方法:设计NY-ESO-1 cDNA扩增引物,从pETl5b-NY-ESO-1质粒中扩增NY-ESO-1的DNA序列,与pShuttle-IRES-hrGFP-2进行连接,PCR和EcoRV酶切鉴定重组质粒pShuttle-NY-ESO-1-EGFP,经Pme I酶切线性化后,转化含pAdeasy-1的超感受态BJ5183大肠杆菌,细菌内同源重组法构建腺病毒质粒pAd-NY-ESO-1-EGFP;质粒经Pac I酶切鉴定,DNA测序.结果:线性化的pShuttle-NY-ESO-1-EGFP转化含pAdeasy-1的超感受态BJ5183大肠杆菌,重组质粒经酶切获得一大于23 kb的大片段和4.5kb的片段,PCR反应扩增出了340 bp的片段.结论:用细菌内同源重组法成功地构建了含NY-ESO-1的重组腺病毒质粒,为进行表达NY-ESO-1的重组腺病毒的制备及肿瘤特异性抗原NY-ESO-1的核酸疫苗在肿瘤方面的研究奠定了基础.

  2. TTÜ ja TÜ osalevad USA armee miljoniprojektides

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    TTÜ ja TÜ liitusid USA-s tegutseva meditsiinitehnoloogia ettevõtete konsortsiumiga. Nii jõuavad juhtivate Eesti kõrgkoolide teadmised USA armeesse, kes konsortsiumi kaudu innovaatilisi tooteid ja teenuseid sisse ostab

  3. TTÜ ja TÜ osalevad USA armee miljoniprojektides

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    TTÜ ja TÜ liitusid USA-s tegutseva meditsiinitehnoloogia ettevõtete konsortsiumiga. Nii jõuavad juhtivate Eesti kõrgkoolide teadmised USA armeesse, kes konsortsiumi kaudu innovaatilisi tooteid ja teenuseid sisse ostab

  4. Go.USA.gov URL Shortner API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Go.USA.gov REST API allows you interact with Go.USA.gov by shortening URLs, previewing long urls, and getting the number of clicks to a Go.USA.gov URL.. An API...

  5. Euroopa teadis USA salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    USA endise välisministri Colin Powelli sõnul pole see tema sõpradele Euroopas uudiseks, et USA on viinud vange riikidesse, kus tema seadused ei kehti. USA praeguse välisministri Condoleezza Rice'i sõnul on USA vange üle kuulanud väljaspool USA-d. USA Today kirjeldab Stare Kiejkuty küla Poolas, kus arvatavasti on olnud salavangla

  6. Euroopa teadis USA salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    USA endise välisministri Colin Powelli sõnul pole see tema sõpradele Euroopas uudiseks, et USA on viinud vange riikidesse, kus tema seadused ei kehti. USA praeguse välisministri Condoleezza Rice'i sõnul on USA vange üle kuulanud väljaspool USA-d. USA Today kirjeldab Stare Kiejkuty küla Poolas, kus arvatavasti on olnud salavangla

  7. Geomorphological development of Eastern Mongolian plain, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    khukhuudei, Ulambadrakh; otgonbayar, Orolzodmaa

    2016-04-01

    Several summaries and investigations of the geomorphological description and feature for Eastern Mongolian plain (EMP), the one of the largest geomorphological district, fully covering east side of Mongolia (Murzayev, 1949; Vlodavets, 1950, 1955; Marinov, Khasin, 1954; Marinov, 1966; Nikolayeva, 1971; Selivanov, 1972; Chichagov, 1974, 1976; Grigorov, 1975; Korjuyev, 1982; Syirnev, 1982, 1984) had been publishing continuously. But literature for geomorphology of EMP have been not appeared during over the past 20 years. However, we re-combine the geomorphological development of EMP, according to the results of many publications for surrounding regions of Russia and China and unpublished maps. Main morphology of EMP has the plain, containing with aeolian, fluvial and lacustrine landforms. Plain morphology defined that denudation plains to North Kherlen, South Kherlen, Baruun Urt, Uulbayan, Delgerekh and other which developed on the Paleozoic rocks, layered plain to Choibalsan, Tamsag, Ongon, Gert, Sumiin nuur and Torey- on the Late Cretaceous and Neogene sediments and accumulation plain with alluvial and lacustrine origin such as Menen, Buir nuur, Tamsagbulag, Khalzan and other. These plains of EMP related with tectonics and structure of region and inherited the development of the Mesozoic, particularly Late Mesozoic structure. Large basins of EMP are Tamsag, Choibalsan and Torey and other small basins - from 7-10 km to 25-30 km width and rather a several 10 km extend, cutting a basement. The origin of plain morphology for EMP is interpreted as two main stages of the geomorphological development model, based on geology. In first stage or Late Jurassic (?) - Lower Cretaceous period, there was developed rift basin, then, in second stage or since Late Cretaceous period, plain morphology originated from the intermountain basin that dominated by exogenic process and kept in current EMP area. Data relevant to the development history of EMP are following. 1. Rift volcanism

  8. Polymeric Structure and Host Toll-like Receptor 4 Dictate Immunogenicity of NY-ESO-1 Antigen in Vivo*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanan; Tian, Xiaoli; Leitner, Wolfgang W.; Aldridge, Michael E.; Zheng, Junying; Yu, Zhiya; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Weiss, Richard; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Xie, Chong; Sun, Ren; Cheng, Genhong; Zeng, Gang

    2011-01-01

    In search of intrinsic factors that contribute to the distinctively strong immunogenicity of a non-mutated cancer/testis antigen, we found that NY-ESO-1 forms polymeric structures through disulfide bonds. NY-ESO-1 binding to immature dendritic cells was dependent on its polymeric structure and involved Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) on the surface of immature dendritic cells in mouse and human. Gene gun-delivered plasmid encoding the wild-type NY-ESO-1 readily induced T cell-dependent antibody (Ab) responses in wild-type C57BL/10 mice but not TLR4-knock-out C57BL/10ScNJ mice. Disrupting polymeric structures of NY-ESO-1 by cysteine-to-serine (Cys-to-Ser) substitutions lead to diminished immunogenicity and altered TLR4-dependence in the induced Ab response. To demonstrate its adjuvant effect, NY-ESO-1 was fused with a major mugwort pollen allergen Art v 1 and a tumor-associated antigen, carbonic anhydrase 9. Plasmid DNA vaccines encoding the fusion genes generated robust immune responses against otherwise non-immunogenic targets in mice. Polymeric structure and TLR4 may play important roles in rendering NY-ESO-1 immunogenic and thus serve as a potent molecular adjuvant. NY-ESO-1 thus represents the first example of a cancer/testis antigen that is a also damage-associated molecular pattern. PMID:21900253

  9. Polymeric structure and host Toll-like receptor 4 dictate immunogenicity of NY-ESO-1 antigen in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanan; Tian, Xiaoli; Leitner, Wolfgang W; Aldridge, Michael E; Zheng, Junying; Yu, Zhiya; Restifo, Nicholas P; Weiss, Richard; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Xie, Chong; Sun, Ren; Cheng, Genhong; Zeng, Gang

    2011-10-28

    In search of intrinsic factors that contribute to the distinctively strong immunogenicity of a non-mutated cancer/testis antigen, we found that NY-ESO-1 forms polymeric structures through disulfide bonds. NY-ESO-1 binding to immature dendritic cells was dependent on its polymeric structure and involved Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) on the surface of immature dendritic cells in mouse and human. Gene gun-delivered plasmid encoding the wild-type NY-ESO-1 readily induced T cell-dependent antibody (Ab) responses in wild-type C57BL/10 mice but not TLR4-knock-out C57BL/10ScNJ mice. Disrupting polymeric structures of NY-ESO-1 by cysteine-to-serine (Cys-to-Ser) substitutions lead to diminished immunogenicity and altered TLR4-dependence in the induced Ab response. To demonstrate its adjuvant effect, NY-ESO-1 was fused with a major mugwort pollen allergen Art v 1 and a tumor-associated antigen, carbonic anhydrase 9. Plasmid DNA vaccines encoding the fusion genes generated robust immune responses against otherwise non-immunogenic targets in mice. Polymeric structure and TLR4 may play important roles in rendering NY-ESO-1 immunogenic and thus serve as a potent molecular adjuvant. NY-ESO-1 thus represents the first example of a cancer/testis antigen that is a also damage-associated molecular pattern.

  10. Change of ancient hydrology net in Northeast China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui QU; Yu CHU; Fenglong ZHANG; Fuli QI; Xiangkui YANG

    2006-01-01

    Comparing with lithofacies palaeogeography of several great plains, the authors analyzed four great plains in Quaternary diastrophism, the sedimentary facies, sedimentary environment and their evolution from the independent embryonic and river system of ancient Heilongjiang finally to the Halar highland, Songnen Plain, Sanjiang Plain, the Xingkai Lake Plain and various river systems, collected the unification outside the system of Heilongjiang River to release into the sea, south ancient Xialiao River finally piracy Dongliao River, Xialiao River had released into the sea the ancient water law vicissitude and the evolved rule.

  11. Parasites of prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis) and gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi) from the eastern high plains of New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaffenberger, G S; Jorgensen, N M; Woody, D D

    1989-04-01

    Three prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis) and two gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi) from the eastern high plains of New Mexico (USA) were examined for parasites. One cestode (Oochoristica osheroffi), and two nematode (Kalicephalus inermis and Physoloptera retusa) species were recovered from two infected rattlesnakes. One female gopher snake was infected with two nematode (K. inermis and Rhabdias spp.) and one mite (Entonyssus halli) species.

  12. Preclinical safety pharmacology study of a novel protein-based cancer vaccine CHP-NY-ESO-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Naozumi; Hoshiai, Kiyotaka; Takahashi, Yoshiyasu; Sakaguchi, Yasue; Kuno, Takayoshi; Hishida, Tadashi; Shiku, Hiroshi

    2008-05-23

    CHP-NY-ESO-1 is a novel therapeutic cancer vaccine consisting of a recombinant protein of cancer antigen NY-ESO-1 and a polysaccharide-based delivery system, cholesteryl pullulan. A pilot clinical study of CHP-NY-ESO-1 in cancer patients was previously conducted, and the adverse events related to this drug were observed to be limited to skin reactions at injection sites. To further establish the safety of CHP-NY-ESO-1, we studied the effects of its subcutaneous injection on vital functions such as the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and respiratory system using preclinical animal models. The effects of CHP-NY-ESO-1 on the cardiovascular system were investigated in dogs using a telemetry system for blood pressure and heart rate and the Holter monitoring for ambulatory electrocardiograms. No drug-related changes were observed in these parameters. The effect of CHP-NY-ESO-1 on the hERG-dependent potassium currents was also examined using in vitro cultured cell system, and no inhibition of hERG currents was observed. The effects of CHP-NY-ESO-1 on the central nervous system were examined in rats using functional observational battery method, and no drug-related changes were observed in home cage observations, open field observations, hand held observations, and perception and motor function observations. The effect of CHP-NY-ESO-1 on the respiratory system was investigated in rats by measuring tidal volume, minute volume and respiratory rate using whole-body plethysmograph method, and no significant changes were found in these parameters. These results indicate that CHP-NY-ESO-1 would not have any pharmacological effects on vital functions and support the safety of this cancer vaccine for clinical use.

  13. Enhancing whole-tumor cell vaccination by engaging innate immune system through NY-ESO-1/dendritic cell interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Le; Zheng, Junying; Nguyen, David H; Luong, Quang T; Zeng, Gang

    2013-10-01

    NY-ESO-1 is a cancer/germline antigen (Ag) with distinctively strong immunogenicity. We have previously demonstrated that NY-ESO-1 serves as an endogenous adjuvant by engaging dendritic cell (DC)-surface receptors of calreticulin (CRT) and toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. In the present study, NY-ESO-1 was investigated for its immunomodulatory roles as a molecular adjuvant in whole-tumor cell vaccines using the Renca kidney cancer model. Renca cells were genetically engineered to express NY-ESO-1 on the cell surface to enhance direct interactions with DC. The effect of ectopic cell-surface expression of NY-ESO-1 was investigated on tumor immunogenicity, DC activation, cytotoxic T lymphocytes against model tumor-associated Ags, and the effectiveness of the modified tumor cells as a therapeutic whole-cell vaccine. Cell-surface expression of NY-ESO-1 was able to reduce the tumor growth of Renca cells in BALB/c mice, although the modification did not alter cell proliferation rate in vitro. Directly engaging the innate immune system through NY-ESO-1 facilitated the interaction of tumor cells with DC, leading to enhanced DC activation and subsequent tumor-specific T-cell priming. When used as a therapeutic whole-cell vaccine, Renca cells with NY-ESO-1 on the surface mediated stronger inhibitory effects on tumor growth and metastasis compared with parental Renca or Renca cells expressing a control protein GFP on the surface. Augmented antitumor efficacy correlated with increased CD8 T-cell infiltration into tumors and decreased myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells in the spleen. As a cancer/germline Ag and as an immunomodulatory adjuvant through engaging innate immune receptors, NY-ESO-1 offers a unique opportunity for improved whole-tumor cell vaccinations upon the classic GM-CSF-engineered cell vaccines.

  14. NY-ESO-1 is a ubiquitous immunotherapeutic target antigen for patients with myxoid/round cell liposarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Seth M; Jungbluth, Achim A; Hoch, Benjamin L; Farrar, Erik A; Bleakley, Marie; Schneider, David J; Loggers, Elizabeth T; Rodler, Eve; Eary, Janet F; Conrad, Ernest U; Jones, Robin L; Yee, Cassian

    2012-09-15

    Myxoid/round cell liposarcoma (MRCL) is the second most common liposarcoma subtype, accounting for >33% of liposarcomas and approximately 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. Although MRCL is a chemosensitive subtype, patients with metastatic disease have a poor outcome. NY-ESO-1 is a cancer-testis antigen (also known as cancer germ cell antigen) that has been successfully targeted in vaccine trials and in adoptive T-cell therapy trials for the treatment of several solid tumors. The authors investigated the feasibility of targeting NY-ESO-1 in patients with MRCL by evaluating the prevalence of NY-ESO-1 expression in tumors using immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. NY-ESO-1-specific tumor recognition by NY-ESO-1-specific T-cells also was analyzed using a chromium release assay. A search of the University of Washington Sarcoma Tissue Bank identified paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 25 patients with MRCL. NY-ESO-1 expression was observed in every MRCL tumor assessed (100%); in 18 tumors (72%), staining was homogenous. In all but 2 tumors, staining was sufficiently robust (2+) that such patients would be eligible for clinical trials of NY-ESO-1-directed therapy. By using NY-ESO-1 specific, CD8-positive T-cells, the in vitro sensitivity of myxoid liposarcoma cell lines to antigen-specific lysis was demonstrated. The current results establish NY-ESO-1 as an important target antigen for the treatment of patients with MRCL. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  15. Effector memory and central memory NY-ESO-1-specific re-directed T cells for treatment of multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuberth, P C; Jakka, G; Jensen, S M; Wadle, A; Gautschi, F; Haley, D; Haile, S; Mischo, A; Held, G; Thiel, M; Tinguely, M; Bifulco, C B; Fox, B A; Renner, C; Petrausch, U

    2013-04-01

    The cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 is a potential target antigen for immune therapy expressed in a subset of patients with multiple myeloma. We generated chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) recognizing the immunodominant NY-ESO-1 peptide 157-165 in the context of HLA-A*02:01 to re-direct autologous CD8(+) T cells towards NY-ESO-1(+) myeloma cells. These re-directed T cells specifically lysed NY-ESO-1(157-165)/HLA-A*02:01-positive cells and secreted IFNγ. A total of 40% of CCR7(-) re-directed T cells had an effector memory phenotype and 5% a central memory phenotype. Based on CCR7 cell sorting, effector and memory CAR-positive T cells were separated and CCR7(+) memory cells demonstrated after antigen-specific re-stimulation downregulation of CCR7 as sign of differentiation towards effector cells accompanied by an increased secretion of memory signature cytokines such as IL-2. To evaluate NY-ESO-1 as potential target antigen, we screened 78 bone marrow biopsies of multiple myeloma patients where NY-ESO-1 protein was found to be expressed by immunohistochemistry in 9.7% of samples. Adoptively transferred NY-ESO-1-specific re-directed T cells protected mice against challenge with endogenously NY-ESO-1-positive myeloma cells in a xenograft model. In conclusion, re-directed effector- and central memory T cells specifically recognized NY-ESO-1(157-165)/ HLA-A*02:01-positive cells resulting in antigen-specific functionality in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Distinct expression patterns of the immunogenic differentiation antigen NY-BR-1 in normal breast, testis and their malignant counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; Zürrer-Härdi, Ursina; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Barghorn, André; Saller, Elisabeth; Frei, Claudia; Storz, Martina; Behnke, Silvia; Seifert, Burkhardt; Fehr, Mathias; Fink, Daniel; Rageth, Christoph; Linsenmeier, Claudia; Pestalozzi, Bernhard; Chen, Yao-Tseng; Knuth, Alexander; Jäger, Dirk; Moch, Holger

    2008-04-01

    NY-BR-1 is a differentiation antigen and a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. Its mRNA expression is restricted to breast, testis, prostate and breast cancer by RT-PCR. In this study, we correlated NY-BR-1 protein and mRNA expression on tissue microarrays of mammary, prostatic and testicular malignancies using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization with probes for exon 4-7 and 30-33. NY-BR-1 mRNA was confined to primary spermatocytes, suggesting a role in spermatogenesis. Exon 4-7 and 30-33 were equally expressed this cell type. However, NY-BR-1 was absent in all germ cell tumours analyzed (n = 475) and present in one of 56 (2%) prostate carcinomas. In breast, NY-BR-1 mRNA expression was detected in 307 of 442 (70%) primary carcinomas, with strong correlation to its protein expression (p < 0.0001). mRNA expression was significantly stronger and more frequently detected by the exon 30-33 probe than by the exon 4-7 probe (70% vs. 35%, p < 0.0001), indicating the presence of alternative splice variants that lack 5-prime sequences. A similar restricted mRNA pattern was also observed in the normal breast epithelium. NY-BR-1 protein and mRNA correlated significantly with estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) protein expression (p < 0.0001), with stronger association to NY-BR-1 mRNA than protein (odds ratio 7.7 compared to 4.6). We identified 4 estrogen response elements (ERE)-like sequences nearby the promoter region, suggesting that NY-BR-1 transcription might be controlled by ER alpha. Accordingly, analysis of matching pairs of primary tumors with their recurrences showed a marked decrease of NY-BR-1 expression in recurrences after tamoxifen treatment (p < 0.0001).

  17. MAGE-A3/4 and NY-ESO-1 antigens expression in metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujas, T; Marusic, Z; Peric Balja, M; Mijic, A; Kruslin, B; Tomas, D

    2011-03-21

    In the present study we analyzed immunohistochemical expression of MAGE-A 3/4 and NY-ESO-1 in 55 samples of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) and their respective lymph node metastases. To our knowledge this is the first study to assess and compare the expression of these antigens in ESCC lymph node metastases. Fifty (90.9%) primary ESCC were positive for MAGE-A 3/4 and 53 (96.6%) were positive for NY-ESO-1. MAGE-A 3/4 was expressed in all lymph node metastases and the intensity of expression was high in a majority of cases. NY-ESO-1 was negative in 2 (7.1%) lymph nodes metastases, while the reaction was predominantly moderate in the positive group. In primary tumors MAGE-A 3/4 showed a significantly higher intensity of expression compared to NY-ESO-1 (P=0.047), while in lymph node metastases the intensity of expression was not significantly different (P=0.387). Primary tumors with and without lymph node metastases showed no significant differences in MAGE-A 3/4 (P=0.672) and NY-ESO-1 (P=0.444) expression. Intensity of MAGE-A 3/4 (P=0.461) and NY-ESO-1 (P=0.414) expression in primary tumors was not significantly different compared to the expression in their respective lymph nodes metastases. Expression of MAGE-A 3/4 in primary tumors showed significant positive correlation with primary tumor expression of NY-ESO-1 (P=0.021) but no significant correlation with the expression of MAGE-A 3/4 in lymph node metastases (P=0.056). Expression of NY-ESO-1 in primary tumors showed significant positive correlation with the expression of NY-ESO-1 in lymph node metastases (P=0.001) and significant negative correlation with patients’ age (P<0.001). Expression of MAGE-A 3/4 and NY-ESO-1 in primary tumors and lymph node metastases showed no significant correlation with prognostic parameters such as tumor grade and TNM stage (P>0.05). We have shown different levels of MAGE-A 3/4 and NY-ESO-1 expression in almost all specimens of primary tumor and lymph node metastases

  18. Pepeljajev eesti näitlejatega USA-s

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Sasha Pepeljajevi tantsulavastust "Uksed" etendati USA rahvusvahelisel teatrifestivalil "Arts & Ideas". Vene-Eesti trupi Apparatus lavastus on pühendatud Daniil Harmsi 100. sünniaastapäevale ning põhineb tema töödel

  19. Pepeljajev eesti näitlejatega USA-s

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Sasha Pepeljajevi tantsulavastust "Uksed" etendati USA rahvusvahelisel teatrifestivalil "Arts & Ideas". Vene-Eesti trupi Apparatus lavastus on pühendatud Daniil Harmsi 100. sünniaastapäevale ning põhineb tema töödel

  20. Expression and clinical significance of NY-ESO-1 protein in human laryngeal squamous carcinoma%NY-ESO-1蛋白在喉鳞状细胞癌中表达的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田俊; 王斌全; 李建民; 皇甫辉; 温树信; 张艳廷

    2010-01-01

    目的 检测NY-ESO-1蛋白在喉鳞癌中的表达情况,探讨其作为喉癌免疫治疗靶标的实验依据及其与喉癌生物学行为的关系.方法 免疫组织化学PV-9000两步法检测69例喉鳞癌患者原发灶及其常规病理报告为阳性的121个颈淋巴结中NY-ESO-1的表达,同时采用Western blotting方法检测其在喉鳞癌标本的癌中心区、癌周0.5、1.0 cm及9例全喉切除术患者的喉正常黏膜组织(对照)中的表达.结果 69例喉鳞癌组织中,NY-ESO-1蛋白表达阳性率为43.48%(30/69),在癌中心区、癌周0.5、1.0cm中的表达逐渐下降(P<0.05),NY-ESO-1在对照组喉正常黏膜组织中无表达.NY-ESO-1蛋白在不同T分级、病理分级和不同颈淋巴结转移喉癌中的表达率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),颈转移淋巴结中NY-ESO-1的表达下调.结论 NY-ESO-1在喉鳞癌患者中特异性高表达,可能以某种方式参与了喉癌的发生、发展,是否能将其作为喉癌免疫治疗靶标有待深入研究.%Objective To detect the expression of Cancer-Testis antigen NY-ESO-1 in human laryngeal squamous carcinoma (LSC) and to explore its significance in immunotherapeutic application. Methods The expressions of NY-ESO-1 protein in the LSC and in the pathologically positive lymph nodes were detected by PV-9000 Immunohistochemistry. Western blotting was also employed to measure the expressions of NY-ESO-1 in the tumor core region(TC), the tissues at the sites of 0.5cm, 1.0cm away from LSC periphery and the distant normal larynx tissues. Results NY-ESO-1 protein expression was positive in 30 out of 69 (43.48 %) cases of LSC. The expression level of NY-ESO-1 protein were found to significantly decrease by tums in TC and corresponding adjacent tissues (P <0.01). None of the nine normal larynx tissues expressed NY-ESO-1 protein.It did not display an obvious correlation between the expression of NY-ESO-1 with T staging, pathological grading and lymph node metastasis (P

  1. NY-ESO-1 Protein Cancer Vaccine With Poly-ICLC and OK-432: Rapid and Strong Induction of NY-ESO-1-specific Immune Responses by Poly-ICLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeoka, Tomohira; Nagase, Hirotsugu; Kurose, Koji; Ohue, Yoshihiro; Yamasaki, Makoto; Takiguchi, Shuji; Sato, Eiichi; Isobe, Midori; Kanazawa, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Mitsunobu; Iwahori, Kota; Kawashima, Atsunari; Morimoto-Okazawa, Akiko; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Oka, Mikio; Pan, Linda; Venhaus, Ralph; Nakayama, Eiichi; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro; Wada, Hisashi

    2017-03-23

    We conducted a clinical trial of a cancer vaccine using NY-ESO-1 protein with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-poly-L-lysine carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC) and/or OK-432 against solid tumors. A total of 15 patients were sequentially enrolled in 4 cohorts. Patients in cohort 1 received NY-ESO-1 protein; cohort 2a received NY-ESO-1 protein+OK-432; cohort 2b received NY-ESO-1 protein+poly-ICLC; cohort 3 received NY-ESO-1 protein+OK-432+poly-ICLC with Montanide ISA-51. The endpoints of this trial were safety, NY-ESO-1 immune responses, and clinical response. Vaccine-related adverse events observed were fever and injection-site reaction (grade 1). Two patients showed stable disease after vaccination. NY-ESO-1 antibodies were observed in 4 patients at the baseline (sero-positive) and augmented in all patients after vaccination. Eleven patients showed a conversion of negative antibody responses at baseline to positive after vaccination (seroconversion). The seroconversions were observed in all 11 sero-negative patients by the fourth immunization; in particular, it was observed by the second immunization in patients with poly-ICLC, and these induced antibody responses were stronger than those in patients immunized without poly-ICLC. The number of NY-ESO-1-specific interferon (IFN)γ-producing T cells was increased in patients immunized with poly-ICLC and/or OK-432, and furthermore, the increase of IFNγ-producing CD8 T cells in patients immunized with poly-ICLC was significantly higher than that in patients without poly-ICLC. Nonspecific activations of T-cell or antigen presenting cells were not observed. Our present study showed that poly-ICLC is a promising adjuvant for cancer vaccines.

  2. Molecular cloning, prokaryotic expression and purification of human CT antigen NY-ESO-1%CT抗原NY-ESO-1基因克隆、表达及纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江华; 郑玉玲; 姜永强

    2007-01-01

    目的:利用大肠杆菌表达人CT抗原NY-ESO-1,对表达产物进行Western印迹鉴定和纯化,为今后利用其进行肿瘤疫苗的研究奠定基础.方法:通过全基因拼接获得NY-ESO-1基因,构建重组表达载体NY-ESO-1-pET28a(+),在大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中利用IPTG诱导获得表达,利用单克隆抗体进行Western印迹鉴定,通过Ni柱亲和纯化获得纯化蛋白.结果与结论:拼接的NY-ESO-1全基因经测序证明与GenBank中人的NY-ESO-l全基因完全相符;构建的原核表达载体NY-ESO-1-pET28a(+)可稳定地可溶性表达NY-ESO-1蛋白;经Ni柱亲和纯化获得较好的纯化结果;利用鼠抗人单克隆抗体对表达的蛋白进行验证,结果显示阳性.本研究成功利用原核表达系统实现了对CT抗原NY-ESO-1的可溶性表达.

  3. Occurrence of the megatoothed sharks (Lamniformes: Otodontidae in Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana J. Ehret

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Otodontidae include some of the largest sharks to ever live in the world’s oceans (i.e., Carcharocles megalodon. Here we report on Paleocene and Eocene occurrences of Otodus obliquus and Carcharocles auriculatus from Alabama, USA. Teeth of Otodus are rarely encountered in the Gulf Coastal Plain and this report is one of the first records for Alabama. Carcharocles auriculatus is more common in the Eocene deposits of Alabama, but its occurrence has been largely overlooked in the literature. We also refute the occurrence of the Oligocene Carcharocles angustidens in the state. Raised awareness and increased collecting of under-sampled geologic formations in Alabama will likely increase sample sizes of O. obliquus and C. auriculatus and also might unearth other otodontids, such as C. megalodon and C. chubutensis.

  4. Occurrence of the megatoothed sharks (Lamniformes: Otodontidae) in Alabama, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Dana J; Ebersole, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The Otodontidae include some of the largest sharks to ever live in the world's oceans (i.e., Carcharocles megalodon). Here we report on Paleocene and Eocene occurrences of Otodus obliquus and Carcharocles auriculatus from Alabama, USA. Teeth of Otodus are rarely encountered in the Gulf Coastal Plain and this report is one of the first records for Alabama. Carcharocles auriculatus is more common in the Eocene deposits of Alabama, but its occurrence has been largely overlooked in the literature. We also refute the occurrence of the Oligocene Carcharocles angustidens in the state. Raised awareness and increased collecting of under-sampled geologic formations in Alabama will likely increase sample sizes of O. obliquus and C. auriculatus and also might unearth other otodontids, such as C. megalodon and C. chubutensis.

  5. Chemical and geochemical composition of spring-summer Arctic aerosol collected at Ny Alesund, Svalbard Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udisti, Roberto; Becagli, Silvia; Caiazzo, Laura; Cappelletti, David; Giardi, Fabio; Grotti, Marco; Lucarelli, Franco; Moroni, Beatrice; Nava, Silvia; Severi, Mirko; Traversi, Rita

    2017-04-01

    Since March 2010, spring-summer (usually March - September) campaigns were continuously carried out at the Italian Gruvebadet Observatory, Ny Alesund, Svalbard Island. Aerosol was sampled by PM10 (daily) and 4-stage (4-day resolution) collector devices and size distribution was evaluated at 10 min resolution in the range 10 nm - 20 um (106 size classes by a TSI SMPS-APS integrated system). Six-year (2010-2015) PM10 and size-segregated (>10, 10-2.5, 2.5-1, 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.04.002. A. Bazzano et al., "Long-range transport of atmospheric lead reaching Ny Alesund: inter-annual and seasonal variations of potential source areas". Atmos. Environ., 2016, 139, 11-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.05.026.

  6. Ny krigsførelse i informationsalderen? Om ‘Revolution in Military Affairs’ og Irakkrigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Claus Hansen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Artiklen diskuterer, hvorvidt man efter Golfkrigen kan tale om en ‘Revolu- tion in Military Affairs’ – RMA – som nogle amerikanske krigsteoretikere hævder har fundet sted med anvendelsen af ny teknologi i moderne krigs- førelse. Forfatteren viser, hvordan moderne krigsstrategier har inkorpore- ret ny teknologi og mediebrug som bl.a. informationskrig, ‘Systems of Sys- tems’ og Network Centric Warfare. Forfatteren påpeger, at den strategiske anvendelse af informationsoperationer – herunder ‘embedded’ journalister – ikke har medført en demokratisering af nyhedsdækningen og heller ikke indebærer en øget sandhedsværdi. Afslutningsvis peger forfatteren på behovet for en ‘Revolution in Diplomatic Affairs’.

  7. Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol in a two-week campaign at Ny-(A)lesund

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC)in total suspended particle (TSP) were investigated at Ny-(A)lesund, Svalbard in a two-week campaign. The levels of OC and EC are 0.86 ±0.27 μgm-3 (mean±standard deviation) and 0. 19±0.10 μgm-3 , respectively. Back trajectory analysis of air masses arriving at Ny-(A)lesund reveals that long-range transport of polluted air play insignificant role in OC and EC levels, to which the potential influence of the local contamination were ascribed. The average OC/EC ratio is 5.41,suggesting the presence of the secondary organic aerosols. The estimated secondary organic carbon (SOC) in TSP is 0.59 μg/m3 , accounting for 64% of the total organic carbon.

  8. Dengue in Florida (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge R. Rey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Florida (USA, particularly the southern portion of the State, is in a precarious situation concerning arboviral diseases. The geographic location, climate, lifestyle, and the volume of travel and commerce are all conducive to arbovirus transmission. During the last decades, imported dengue cases have been regularly recorded in Florida, and the recent re-emergence of dengue as a major public health concern in the Americas has been accompanied by a steady increase in the number of imported cases. In 2009, there were 28 cases of locally transmitted dengue in Key West, and in 2010, 65 cases were reported. Local transmission was also reported in Martin County in 2013 (29 cases, and isolated locally transmitted cases were also reported from other counties in the last five years. Dengue control and prevention in the future will require close cooperation between mosquito control and public health agencies, citizens, community and government agencies, and medical professionals to reduce populations of the vectors and to condition citizens and visitors to take personal protection measures that minimize bites by infected mosquitoes.

  9. CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS ORBITING THE RAPIDLY PULSATING SUBDWARF B-TYPE BINARY NY Vir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, S.-B.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Dai, Z.-B.; He, J.-J. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China); Fernandez-Lajus, E. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Xiang, F.-Y., E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn [Physics Department, Xiangtan University, 411105 Xiangtan, Funan Province (China)

    2012-02-15

    We report here the tentative discovery of a Jovian planet in orbit around the rapidly pulsating subdwarf B-type (sdB-type) eclipsing binary NY Vir. By using newly determined eclipse times together with those collected from the literature, we detect that the observed-calculated (O - C) curve of NY Vir shows a small-amplitude cyclic variation with a period of 7.9 yr and a semiamplitude of 6.1 s, while it undergoes a downward parabolic change (revealing a period decrease at a rate of P-dot = -9.2 x 10{sup -12}). The periodic variation was analyzed for the light-travel-time effect via the presence of a third body. The mass of the tertiary companion was determined to be M{sub 3}sin i' = 2.3({+-} 0.3)M{sub Jupiter} when a total mass of 0.60 M{sub Sun} for NY Vir is adopted. This suggests that it is most probably a giant circumbinary planet orbiting NY Vir at a distance of about 3.3 astronomical units (AU). Since the rate of period decrease cannot be explained by true angular momentum loss caused by gravitational radiation or/and magnetic braking, the observed downward parabolic change in the O - C diagram may be only a part of a long-period (longer than 15 years) cyclic variation, which may reveal the presence of another Jovian planet ({approx}2.5 M{sub Jupiter}) in the system.

  10. Immunohistochemical assessment of NY-ESO-1 expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma resection specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Stephen J; Hng, Keng Ngee; Clark, Peter; Thistlethwaite, Fiona; Hawkins, Robert E; Ang, Yeng

    2014-04-14

    To assess NY-ESO-1 expression in a cohort of esophageal adenocarcinomas. A retrospective search of our tissue archive for esophageal resection specimens containing esophageal adenocarcinoma was performed, for cases which had previously been reported for diagnostic purposes, using the systematised nomenclature of human and veterinary medicine coding system. Original haematoxylin and eosin stained sections were reviewed, using light microscopy, to confirm classification and tumour differentiation. A total of 27 adenocarcinoma resection specimens were then assessed using immunohistochemistry for NY-ESO-1 expression: 4 well differentiated, 14 moderately differentiated, 4 moderate-poorly differentiated, and 5 poorly differentiated. Four out of a total of 27 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma examined (15%) displayed diffuse cytoplasmic and nuclear expression for NY-ESO-1. They displayed a heterogeneous and mosaic-type pattern of diffuse staining. Diffuse cytoplasmic staining was not identified in any of these structures: stroma, normal squamous epithelium, normal submucosal gland and duct, Barrett's esophagus (goblet cell), Barrett's esophagus (non-goblet cell) and high grade glandular dysplasia. All adenocarcinomas showed an unexpected dot-type pattern of staining at nuclear, paranuclear and cytoplasmic locations. Similar dot-type staining, with varying frequency and size of dots, was observed on examination of Barrett's metaplasia, esophageal submucosal gland acini and the large bowel negative control, predominantly at the crypt base. Furthermore, a prominent pattern of apical (luminal) cytoplasmic dot-type staining was observed in some cases of Barrett's metaplasia and also adenocarcinoma. A further morphological finding of interest was noted on examination of haematoxylin and eosin stained sections, as aggregates of lymphocytes were consistently noted to surround submucosal glands. We have demonstrated for the first time NY-ESO-1 expression by esophageal

  11. Designprocesser og arbejdsmiljø: Udvikling af ny teknologi til fødevareindustrien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    1999-01-01

    Dette papir handler om muligheder og betingelser for at inddrage arbejdsmiljøhensyn i designprocesser. Baggrunden for det er, at jeg har haft mulighed for at følge udviklingen af en ny maskine til fødevareindustrien næsten lige fra de grundlæggende idéer blev udviklet og foreløbig frem til i dag,...

  12. A novel murine T-cell receptor targeting NY-ESO-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Shannon F; Parkhurst, Maria R; Hong, Young; Zheng, Zhili; Feldman, Steven A; Rao, Mahadev; Abate-Daga, Daniel; Beard, Rachel E; Xu, Hui; Black, Mary A; Robbins, Paul F; Schrump, David A; Rosenberg, Steven A; Morgan, Richard A

    2014-04-01

    Cancer testis antigens, such as NY-ESO-1, are expressed in a variety of prevalent tumors and represent potential targets for T-cell receptor (TCR) gene therapy. DNA encoding a murine anti-NY-ESO-1 TCR gene (mTCR) was isolated from immunized HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice and inserted into a γ-retroviral vector. Two mTCR vectors were produced and used to transduce human PBL. Transduced cells were cocultured with tumor target cell lines and T2 cells pulsed with the NY-ESO-1 peptide, and assayed for cytokine release and cell lysis activity. The most active TCR construct was selected for production of a master cell bank for clinical use. mTCR-transduced PBL maintained TCR expression in short-term and long-term culture, ranging from 50% to 90% efficiency 7-11 days after stimulation and 46%-82% 10-20 days after restimulation. High levels of interferon-γ secretion were observed (1000-12000 pg/mL), in tumor coculture assays and recognition of peptide-pulsed cells was observed at 0.1 ng/mL, suggesting that the new mTCR had high avidity for antigen recognition. mTCR-transduced T cells also specifically lysed human tumor targets. In all assays, the mTCR was equivalent or better than the comparable human TCR. As the functional activity of TCR-transduced cells may be affected by the formation of mixed dimers, mTCRs, which are less likely to form mixed dimers with endogenous hTCRs, may be more effective in vivo. This new mTCR targeted to NY-ESO-1 represents a novel potential therapeutic option for adoptive cell-transfer therapy for a variety of malignancies.

  13. Formulation of Organic Fertilizer Standard in Jiaxing City Based on NY525-2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinfa; HUANG; Xiongwei; NI; Jianping; XIE; Yanping; SHI

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of research, analysis and argumentation, we conduct analysis and research on the current situation of quality of commercial organic fertilizer in Jiaxing City, and carry out the inspection and testing of organic matter indicators using the laboratory. Based on the standard of NY525-2012 Organic Fertilizer by the Ministry of Agriculture, this paper formulates the quality level indicators of local commercial organic fertilizer and adding specifications of raw materials.

  14. Archive of Datasonics SIS-1000 Boomer Subbottom Data Collected During USGS Cruise DIAN 97011 Long Island, NY Inner Shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This CD-ROM contains digital high resolution seismic reflection data collected during the USGS DIAN 97011 cruise. The coverage is the nearshore of Long Island, NY in...

  15. Archive of Datasonics SIS-1000 Boomer Subbottom Data Collected During USGS Cruise DIAN 97011 Long Island, NY Inner Shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This CD-ROM contains digital high resolution seismic reflection data collected during the USGS DIAN 97011 cruise. The coverage is the nearshore of Long Island, NY in...

  16. Archive of Datasonics SIS-1000 Boomer Subbottom Data Collected During USGS Cruise DIAN 97011 Long Island, NY Inner Shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This CD-ROM contains digital high resolution seismic reflection data collected during the USGS DIAN 97011 cruise. The coverage is the nearshore of Long Island, NY...

  17. Causes of sinks near Tucson, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, John P.; Pool, Donald R.; Konieczki, A. D.; Carpenter, Michael C.

    Land subsidence in the form of sinks has occurred on and near farmlands near Tucson, Pima County, Arizona, USA. The sinks occur in alluvial deposits along the flood plain of the Santa Cruz River, and have made farmlands dangerous and unsuitable for farming. More than 1700 sinks are confined to the flood plain of the Santa Cruz River and are grouped along two north-northwestward-trending bands that are approximately parallel to the river and other flood-plain drainages. An estimated 17,000m3 of sediment have been removed in the formation of the sinks. Thirteen trenches were dug to depths of 4-6m to characterize near-surface sediments in sink and nonsink areas. Sediments below about 2m included a large percentage of dispersive clays in sink areas. Sediments in nonsink areas contain a large component of medium- to coarse-grained, moderately to well sorted sand that probably fills a paleochannel. Electromagnetic surveys support the association of silts and clays in sink areas that are highly electrically conductive relative to sand in nonsink areas. Sinks probably are caused by the near-surface process of subsurface erosion of dispersive sediments along pre-existing cracks in predominantly silt and clay sediments. The pre-existing cracks probably result from desiccation or tension that developed during periods of water-table decline and channel incision during the past 100 years or in earlier periods. Résumé Des effondrements en forme d'entonnoir se sont produits sur et près d'exploitations agricoles de Pima (Arizona). Ces entonnoirs apparaissent dans les alluvions le long de la plaine d'inondation de la rivière Santa Cruz ; ils ont rendu ces terrains dangereux et inexploitables pour l'agriculture. Plus de 1700 entonnoirs existent dans la plaine d'inondation de la rivière Santa Cruz et sont groupés en deux bandes orientées nord-nord-ouest, approximativement parallèles à la rivière et aux autres chenaux de la plaine d'inondation. Un volume de sédiments estim

  18. Kate Bárány: a life of science, teaching, and service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaro, R John; Rao, Mrinalini C

    2012-12-01

    We celebrate the lives of Michael and Kate Bárány in this issue of the Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility. Kate and Michael died within weeks of each other in 2011. Joe Chalovich has written about Michael and we write about Kate. As emphasized by Joe, Kate, and Michael were remarkable individuals who survived the Holocaust, the Hungarian revolution, and emerged from as much adversity as one might imagine to become productive scientists, educators, citizens, and symbols of the durability of the human spirit. They present their own story in an essay (Bárány and Bárány 2000) published in a monograph "Selected Topics in the History of Biochemistry." Rather than repeating much of the list of scientific achievements chronicled in these papers, we focus here on Kate, especially in her role as an individual and partner in science, while at the same time being an accomplished teacher, and a champion of women in science.

  19. Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis of the Nyírlugos obsidian core depot find

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Kasztovszky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Nyírlugos obsidian core depot find is one of the most important lithic assemblages in the collection of the Hungarian National Museum (HNM. The original set comprised 12 giant obsidian cores, of which 11 are currently on the permanent archaeological exhibition of the HNM. One of the cores is known to be inDebrecen. The first publication attributed the hoard, on the strength of giant (flint blades known from the Early and Middle Copper Age Tiszapolgár and Bodrogkeresztúr cultures, to the Copper Age. In the light of recent finds it is more likely to belong to the Middle Neolithic period. The source area was defined as Tokaj Mts., about100 kmto the NW from Nyírlugos. The size and beauty of the exceptional pieces exclude any invasive analysis. Using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA, we can measure major chemical components and some key trace elements of stone artefacts with adequate accuracy to successfully determine provenance of obsidian. Recent methodological development also facilitated the study of relatively large objects like the Nyírlugos cores. The cores were individually measured by PGAA. The results show that the cores originate from the Carpathian 1 sources, most probably the Viničky variety (C1b. The study of the hoard as a batch is an important contribution to the assessment of prehistoric trade and allows us to reconsider the so-called Carpathian, especially Carpathian 1 (Slovakian sources.

  20. USA pelgab Hiina tehnoloogialuuret / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Hiina Ameerika-vastasest majandusluurest. USA luureameti andmetel on USA-s loodud üle kolme tuhande Hiina firma, kelle ülesandeks on tööstusliku või sõjalise tehnoloogia hankimine. Vt. samas: Hiina firmad ostavad üha suuremaid USA ettevõtteid

  1. Resiquimod as an Immunologic Adjuvant for NY-ESO-1 Protein Vaccination in Patients with High Risk Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnjatic, Sacha; Cruz, Crystal M.; Vengco, Isabelita; Hasan, Farah; Spadaccia, Meredith; Darvishian, Farbod; Chiriboga, Luis; Holman, Rose Marie; Escalon, Juliet; Muren, Caroline; Escano, Crystal; Yepes, Ethel; Sharpe, Dunbar; Vasilakos, John P.; Rolnitzsky, Linda; Goldberg, Judith; Mandeli, John; Adams, Sylvia; Jungbluth, Achim; Pan, Linda; Venhaus, Ralph; Ott, Patrick A.; Bhardwaj, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The TLR7/8 agonist, Resiquimod has been used as an immune adjuvant in cancer vaccines. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the cancer testis antigen NY-ESO-1 given in combination with Montanide with or without Resiquimod in high-risk melanoma patients. In Part I of the study, patients received 100ug full length NY-ESO-1 protein emulsified in 1.25mL Montanide (day 1) followed by topical application of 1000mg of 0.2% Resiquimod gel on days 1 and 3 (Cohort 1) versus days 1, 3, and 5 (Cohort 2) of a 21 day cycle. In Part II, patients were randomized to receive 100ug NY-ESO-1 protein plus Montanide (day 1) followed by topical application of placebo gel (Arm-A; N=8) or 1000mg of 0.2% Resiquimod gel (Arm-B; N=12) using the dosing regimen established in Part I. The vaccine regimens were generally well-tolerated. NY-ESO-1-specific humoral responses were induced or boosted in all patients, many of whom had high titer antibodies. In Part II, 16 of 20 patients in both arms had NY-ESO-1-specific CD4+ T-cell responses. CD8+ T-cell responses were only seen in 3 of 12 patients in Arm B. Patients with TLR7 SNP rs179008 had a greater likelihood of developing NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ responses. In conclusion, NY-ESO-1 protein in combination with Montanide with or without topical Resiquimod is safe and induces both antibody and CD4+ T-cell responses in the majority of patients; the small proportion of CD8+ T-cell responses suggests that the addition of topical Resiquimod to Montanide is not sufficient to induce consistent NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T-cell responses. PMID:25633712

  2. NY-ESO-1在喉鳞状细胞癌中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧; 凌红阳; 吴文璎; 郑玉双

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨喉鳞状细胞癌组织中NY-ESO-1蛋白表达及其临床意义.方法 免疫组化方法检测88例喉鳞状细胞癌组织(A组)和10例声带息肉组织(B组)NY-ESO-1蛋白的表达.A组再分为四个亚组,临床分期Ⅰ、Ⅱ期38例(A1组),临床分期Ⅲ、Ⅳ期50例(A2组);病理类型高、中分化60例(A3组),低分化28例(A4组).结果 A组NY-ESO-1蛋白表达水平高于B组(4598±2302 vs.0)(P<0.01).A1组NY-ESO-1表达水平高于A2组(8052±3810 vs.162±107)(P<0.05).A3组NY-ESO-1表达水平高于A4组(5090±1893 vs.211±201) (P<0.05).结论 NY-ESO-1有可能作为喉鳞癌早期诊断的新指标;NY-ESO-1表达阳性的高、中分化喉鳞癌患者可能可以选择NY-ESO-1疫苗作为辅助治疗.

  3. Immune escape from NY-ESO-1-specific T-cell therapy via loss of heterozygosity in the MHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klippel, Z K; Chou, J; Towlerton, A M; Voong, L N; Robbins, P; Bensinger, W I; Warren, E H

    2014-03-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy of tumors with T cells specific for the cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 has shown great promise in preclinical models and in early stage clinical trials. Tumor persistence or recurrence after NY-ESO-1-specific therapy occurs, however, and the mechanisms of recurrence remain poorly defined. In a murine xenograft model of NY-ESO-1(+) multiple myeloma, we observed tumor recurrence after adoptive transfer of CD8(+) T cells genetically redirected to the prototypic NY-ESO-1157-165 peptide presented by HLA-A*02:01. Analysis of the myeloma cells that had escaped from T-cell control revealed intact expression of NY-ESO-1 and B2M, but selective, complete loss of HLA-A*02:01 expression from the cell surface. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) involving the HLA-A locus was identified in the tumor cells, and further analysis revealed selective loss of the allele encoding HLA-A*02:01. Although LOH involving the MHC has not been described in myeloma patients with persistent or recurrent disease after immune therapies such as allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), it has been described in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia who relapsed after allogeneic HCT. These results suggest that MHC loss should be evaluated in patients with myeloma and other cancers who relapse after adoptive NY-ESO-1-specific T-cell therapy.

  4. A cancer vaccine induces expansion of NY-ESO-1-specific regulatory T cells in patients with advanced melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Lisa M; MacRaild, Sarah E; Zanker, Damien; Davis, Ian D; Cebon, Jonathan; Chen, Weisan

    2012-01-01

    Cancer vaccines are designed to expand tumor antigen-specific T cells with effector function. However, they may also inadvertently expand regulatory T cells (Treg), which could seriously hamper clinical efficacy. To address this possibility, we developed a novel assay to detect antigen-specific Treg based on down-regulation of surface CD3 following TCR engagement, and used this approach to screen for Treg specific to the NY-ESO-1 tumor antigen in melanoma patients treated with the NY-ESO-1/ISCOMATRIX™ cancer vaccine. All patients tested had Treg (CD25(bright) FoxP3(+) CD127(neg)) specific for at least one NY-ESO-1 epitope in the blood. Strikingly, comparison with pre-treatment samples revealed that many of these responses were induced or boosted by vaccination. The most frequently detected response was toward the HLA-DP4-restricted NY-ESO-1(157-170) epitope, which is also recognized by effector T cells. Notably, functional Treg specific for an HLA-DR-restricted epitope within the NY-ESO-1(115-132) peptide were also identified at high frequency in tumor tissue, suggesting that NY-ESO-1-specific Treg may suppress local anti-tumor immune responses. Together, our data provide compelling evidence for the ability of a cancer vaccine to expand tumor antigen-specific Treg in the setting of advanced cancer, a finding which should be given serious consideration in the design of future cancer vaccine clinical trials.

  5. Tetramer guided, cell sorter assisted production of clinical grade autologous NY-ESO-1 specific CD8(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Seth M; Jones, Robin L; Farrar, Erik A; Lai, Ivy P; Lee, Sylvia M; Cao, Jianhong; Pillarisetty, Venu G; Hoch, Benjamin L; Gullett, Ashley; Bleakley, Marie; Conrad, Ernest U; Eary, Janet F; Shibuya, Kendall C; Warren, Edus H; Carstens, Jason N; Heimfeld, Shelly; Riddell, Stanley R; Yee, Cassian

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive T cell therapy represents an attractive modality for the treatment of patients with cancer. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells have been used as a source of antigen specific T cells but the very low frequency of T cells recognizing commonly expressed antigens such as NY-ESO-1 limit the applicability of this approach to other solid tumors. To overcome this, we tested a strategy combining IL-21 modulation during in vitro stimulation with first-in-class use of tetramer-guided cell sorting to generate NY-ESO-1 specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). CTL generation was evaluated in 6 patients with NY-ESO-1 positive sarcomas, under clinical manufacturing conditions and characterized for phenotypic and functional properties. Following in vitro stimulation, T cells stained with NY-ESO-1 tetramer were enriched from frequencies as low as 0.4% to >90% after single pass through a clinical grade sorter. NY-ESO-1 specific T cells were generated from all 6 patients. The final products expanded on average 1200-fold to a total of 36 billion cells, were oligoclonal and contained 67-97% CD8(+), tetramer(+) T cells with a memory phenotype that recognized endogenous NY-ESO-1. This study represents the first series using tetramer-guided cell sorting to generate T cells for adoptive therapy. This approach, when used to target more broadly expressed tumor antigens such as WT-1 and additional Cancer-Testis antigens will enhance the scope and feasibility of adoptive T cell therapy.

  6. Factors Influencing Divergent Patterns of Phosphorus Availability in NY and PA Biogeochemical `Hotspots'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia, S. M.; Hofmeister, K.; Regan, J. M.; Buda, A. R.; Carrick, H. J.; Walter, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic alteration of the soil phosphorus (P) cycle leads to subsequent water quality issues in agricultural dominated watersheds. In the humid Northeastern United States (NE US), variably saturated areas can generate surface runoff that transports P and stimulates biogeochemical processes; these hydrologically dynamic locations are often called biogeochemical `hotspots'. Many studies have evaluated nitrogen and carbon cycling in biogeochemical hot spots but few have focused on P. We hypothesized seasonally wet parts of the landscape (i.e., hotspots) have smaller biologically available P pools because runoff events frequently carry away nutrients like P. To test this hypothesis, we generated soil wetness index (SWI) maps from soil (SURRGO) and elevation (LiDAR rescaled to 3 m) data and used these maps to direct seasonal soil sampling near Klingerstown, Pennsylvania (PA) and Ithaca, New York (NY). We collected 5cm deep soil samples in PA (bimonthly) and NY (monthly) along soil moisture gradients for a range of land cover types (forest, fallow, and cropped) from May through October. We measured soil moisture in the field and percent organic matter (OM), pH, and three increasingly strong soil P extractions (dilute-salt-extractable P, oxalate-extractable P, and total-extractable P) in the laboratory. Our results indicated a negative relationship between dilute-salt-extractable P concentrations and SWI in PA and no relationship between these same variables in NY. We also found positive relationships between each of the three P extractions in PA but only a positive relationship between oxalate-extractable P and total-extractable P in NY. Our findings in PA support our hypothesis; namely, less biologically available P (i.e. dilute-salt-extractable P) is found in wetter areas of the landscape. However, divergent P availability patterns in NY point to further complexities and confounding variables in our understanding in soil P processes. Further studies will look

  7. FrogwatchUSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droege, S.

    2002-01-01

    full text: Frogs and toads are perhaps the most approachable and available of all our wildlife. In many, if not most places, they are abundant. In wetter parts of the East, almost anyone outside on a warm rainy night in spring will hear their dream-like calls, bellows, trills and snores. Even in the deserts of the Southwest, a nocturnal trip after a summer monsoon will yield toads moving across the roads toward a cacophonous orgy of mating and calling in the roadside ditches and desert pools. Birds share with frogs and toads this same sense of presence in our daily lives. But the difference is that birds are like the attractive neighbor who just never gives you the time of day, while frogs are more like the troglodyte who appears regularly to chat, philosophize, and have a beer. Uninvited, frogs appear in our water gardens, toads are on our stoops in the morning, we catch them when we are kids, raise their babies in the aquarium, and feel sorry when we find we have run them over with the lawnmower. When concerns about declining populations of amphibians reached the mass media, the Secretaries' office became involved. In addition to using traditional research mechanisms to investigate the problem, the Secretary also wanted to involve the public directly. The combination of high public appeal and the relative ease with which frog calls can be learned made a large-scale monitoring program for frogs and toads possible. What emerged was a program called Frogwatch USA, modeled after a successful Canadian program with a similar name. A web site was created (www.frogwatch.org) that presented potential frogwatchers with directions and a way to register their site online as well as enter their data. Observers chose where to count frogs depending on what they felt was important. For some it was their backyard, others chose vulnerable wetlands in their neighborhoods, or spots on local refuges and parks. Initially funded at $8,000 a year and then after two years increased to

  8. Efficient in vivo priming by vaccination with recombinant NY-ESO-1 protein and CpG in antigen naive prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbach, Julia; Neumann, Antje; Atmaca, Akin; Wahle, Claudia; Brand, Kathrin; von Boehmer, Lotta; Knuth, Alexander; Bender, Armin; Ritter, Gerd; Old, Lloyd J; Jäger, Elke

    2011-02-15

    NY-ESO-1, one of the most immunogenic tumor antigens, is expressed in 15% to 25% of metastatic prostate cancers. The immunological and clinical effects of vaccination with recombinant NY-ESO-1 protein combined with CpG as adjuvant were evaluated. In a phase I clinical study, patients with advanced prostate cancer were vaccinated with recombinant NY-ESO-1 protein (100 μg) mixed with CpG 7909 (2.5 mg) every 3 weeks intradermally for 4 doses. Objectives of the study were the safety of the vaccine and changes of specific humoral and cellular immunological responses to NY-ESO-1 in relation to detectable NY-ESO-1 expression in the individual tumor. All 12 baseline sero-negative patients developed high-titer NY-ESO-1 antibody responses. B-cell epitope mapping identified NY-ESO-1 p91-110 to be recognized most frequently by vaccine-induced antibodies. Two patients developed significant antibody titers against the adjuvant CpG. NY-ESO-1-specific CD4+ and/or CD8+ T-cell responses were induced in 9 patients (69%). Five of these 9 patients did not express NY-ESO-1 in the autologous tumor. Postvaccine CD8+ T-cell clones recognized and lyzed HLA-matched tumor cell lines in an antigen-specific manner. Our data provide clear evidence for the capacity of NY-ESO-1 protein/CpG vaccine to induce integrated antigen-specific immune responses in vivo and to efficiently prime CD8+ T-cell responses in NY-ESO-1 antigen-negative patients. Our results may also support further clinical vaccination protocols with NY-ESO-1 protein not only focused on the treatment of existing cancer, but also to prevent further development of NY-ESO-1 positive cancers in vivo. ©2010 AACR.

  9. Suitable scale of Weigan River plain oasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU ShunJun; SONG YuDong; TIAN ChangYan; LI YueTan; LI XiuCang; CHEN XiaoBing

    2007-01-01

    Desert coexists with oasis in long time, and the existence and development of oasis system demand better oasis vegetation ecological system. Oasis scale of arid zone plain encircling water should be determined in case of desertification caused by land over-reclamation under the circumstance of water resources shortage. Steady oasis with virtuous circle must have appropriate land use structure for agriculture, forestry and graziery. The study on the suitable scale and developmental space of oasis will provide theoretical and applicable foundation for effective construction of oases. By analyzing the hydrothermal, water and soil balance, an optimal mathematical model has been established. Based on hydrometeorology data collected for years in Weigan River plain, and by the principle of water balance,a calculation has been made of the water resources for evapotranspiration and the optimal acreage of oasis and cultivated land, which shows that the water resources for evapotranspiration in the Weigan River plain oasis is 22.32×108 m3 and the optimal oasis acreage under the condition of conventional irrigation mode is 3716.06 km2, in which the suitable cultivated land acreage is 1564.79 km2. Under the condition of water-saving irrigation, the suitable oasis acreage is 5515.49 km2, in which the suitable cultivated land acreage is 2322.31 km2. The oasis area had reached 4123 km2, and the cultivated land acreage had reached 1507 km2 after the Agriculture Irrigation Drainage Water Project of World Bank Loan in Weigan River basin was finished in 1997. The oasis and cultivated land acreage will be more suitable, and the oasis scale can be enlarged moderately by means of water saving irrigation.

  10. Ages of plains volcanism on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Ernst; Jagert, Felix; Broz, Petr

    2010-05-01

    Plain-style volcanism [1] is widespread in the Tharsis and Elysium volcanic provinces on Mars, [2,3]. Detailed images and topographic data reveal the morphology and topography of clusters of low shields and associated lava flows. The landforms of plains volcanism on Mars have all well-known terrestrial analogues in basaltic volcanic regions, such as Hawaii, Iceland, and in particular the Snake River Plains [4]. The very gentle flank slopes (Ga - 2.9 Ga). Our results indicate that Late Amazonian volcanism is more widespread in Tharsis than previously recognized. Based on our results it appears possible that Mars is volcanologically not dead yet. Ongoing work investigates the volumes of erupted products and implications for the outgassing history and atmospheric evolution of Mars. [1] Greeley R. (1982) JGR 87, 2705-2712. [2] Plescia J. (1981) Icarus, 45, 586-601. [3] Hodges C.A. and Moore H.J. (1994) Atlas of volcanic features on Mars: USGS Prof. Paper 1534, 194 p. [4] Hauber E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 69-95. [5] Wilson L. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 28-46. [6] Vaucher, J. et al. (2009) Icarus 204, 418-442. [7] Baratoux D. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 47-68. [8] Bleacher J.E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 96-102. [9] Ivanov B.A. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 87-104. [10] Hartmann W.H. and Neukum G. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 165-194 [11] Kneissl T. et al. (2010) LPS XVI, submitted. [12] Michael, G.G. and Neukum G. (2010) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., in press. . [13] Malin M.C. et al. (2007) JGR 112, E05S04, doi: 10.1029/2006JE002808.

  11. Medicine Wheels of the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, David

    Medicine Wheels are unexplained aboriginal boulder configurations found primarily on hilltops and river valley vistas across the northwest Great Plains of North America. Their varied, complex designs have inspired diverse hypotheses concerning their meaning and purpose, including astronomical ones. While initial "observatory" speculations were unfounded, and quests to "decode" these structures remain unfulfilled and possibly misguided, the Medicine Wheels nevertheless represent a uniquely worthwhile case study in archaeoastronomical theory and method. In addition, emerging technologies for data acquisition and analysis pertinent to Medicine Wheels offer prospectively important new sight lines for the future of archaeoastronomy.

  12. Dose-dependent effects of NY-ESO-1 protein vaccine complexed with cholesteryl pullulan (CHP-NY-ESO-1) on immune responses and survival benefits of esophageal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Shinichi; Wada, Hisashi; Muro, Kei; Niwa, Yasumasa; Ueda, Shugo; Miyata, Hiroshi; Takiguchi, Shuji; Sugino, Sahoko H; Miyahara, Yoshihiro; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Imai, Naoko; Sato, Eiichi; Yamada, Tomomi; Osako, Masaharu; Ohnishi, Mami; Harada, Naozumi; Hishida, Tadashi; Doki, Yuichiro; Shiku, Hiroshi

    2013-10-05

    Cholesteryl pullulan (CHP) is a novel antigen delivery system for cancer vaccines. This study evaluated the safety, immune responses and clinical outcomes of patients who received the CHP-NY-ESO-1 complex vaccine, Drug code: IMF-001. Patients with advanced/metastatic esophageal cancer were enrolled and subcutaneously vaccinated with either 100 μg or 200 μg of NY-ESO-1 protein complexed with CHP. The primary endpoints were safety and humoral immune responses, and the secondary endpoint was clinical efficacy. A total of 25 patients were enrolled. Thirteen and twelve patients were repeatedly vaccinated with 100 μg or 200 μg of CHP-NY-ESO-1 with a median of 8 or 9.5 doses, respectively. No serious adverse events related to the vaccine were observed. Three out of 13 patients in the 100-μg cohort and 7 out of 12 patients in the 200-μg cohort were positive for anti-NY-ESO-1 antibodies at baseline. In the 100-μg cohort, an antibody response was observed in 5 out of 10 pre-antibody-negatives patients, and the antibody levels were augmented in 2 pre-antibody-positive patients after vaccination. In the 200-μg cohort, all 5 pre-antibody-negative patients became seropositive, and the antibody level was amplified in all 7 pre-antibody-positive patients. No tumor shrinkage was observed. The patients who received 200 μg of CHP-NY-ESO-1 survived longer than patients receiving 100 μg of CHP-NY-ESO-1, even those who exhibited unresponsiveness to previous therapies or had higher tumor burdens. The safety and immunogenicity of CHP-NY-ESO-1 vaccine were confirmed. The 200 μg dose more efficiently induced immune responses and suggested better survival benefits. (Clinical trial registration number NCT01003808).

  13. Induction of CD8 T-cell responses restricted to multiple HLA class I alleles in a cancer patient by immunization with a 20-mer NY-ESO-1f (NY-ESO-1 91-110) peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikawa, Shingo; Kakimi, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Midori; Kuzushima, Kiyotaka; Luescher, Immanuel; Ohue, Yoshihiro; Ikeuchi, Kazuhiro; Uenaka, Akiko; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Udono, Heiichiro; Oka, Mikio; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2013-01-15

    Immunogenicity of a long 20-mer NY-ESO-1f peptide vaccine was evaluated in a lung cancer patient TK-f01, immunized with the peptide with Picibanil OK-432 and Montanide ISA-51. We showed that internalization of the peptide was necessary to present CD8 T-cell epitopes on APC, contrasting with the direct presentation of the short epitope. CD8 T-cell responses restricted to all five HLA class I alleles were induced in the patient after the peptide vaccination. Clonal analysis showed that B*35:01 and B*52:01-restricted CD8 T-cell responses were the two dominant responses. The minimal epitopes recognized by A*24:02, B*35:01, B*52:01 and C*12:02-restricted CD8 T-cell clones were defined and peptide/HLA tetramers were produced. NY-ESO-1 91-101 on A*24:02, NY-ESO-1 92-102 on B*35:01, NY-ESO-1 96-104 on B*52:01 and NY-ESO-1 96-104 on C*12:02 were new epitopes first defined in this study. Identification of the A*24:02 epitope is highly relevant for studying the Japanese population because of its high expression frequency (60%). High affinity CD8 T-cells recognizing tumor cells naturally expressing the epitopes and matched HLA were induced at a significant level. The findings suggest the usefulness of a long 20-mer NY-ESO-1f peptide harboring multiple CD8 T-cell epitopes as an NY-ESO-1 vaccine. Characterization of CD8 T-cell responses in immunomonitoring using peptide/HLA tetramers revealed that multiple CD8 T-cell responses comprised the dominant response. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  14. 靶向克隆法构建NY-ESO-1基因的原核表达载体%Construction of NY-ESO-1 Gene Prokaryotic Expression Vector by LP Recco PCR Cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞远东; 徐少勇; 王斌; 王家宁; 黄永章

    2009-01-01

    目的:利用PCR产物靶向克隆法构建人癌-睾丸抗原NY-ESO-1的原核表达载体.方法:从人新鲜的食管癌组织中提取总RNA,通过RT-PCR技术扩增NY-ESO-1基因3'端的340 bp片段,采用靶向克隆法将目的基因插入到原核表达载体pET-15b中,得到重组表达质粒pET-15b-NY-ESO-1,经过筛选,挑选出阳性克隆进行Xho Ⅰ和BamHⅠ双酶切图谱分析、PCR检测和扩增产物核苷酸序列分析等,鉴定所构建的原核表达载体.结果:扩增得到NY-ESO-1基因片段,经测序证实与GenBank公布的序列一致,重组的质粒经过PCR,酶切鉴定获得了一个大小为340 bp的特征性片段,证明重组质粒中已成功的插入了目的基因NY-ESO-1.结论:靶向克隆法可快速、高效地构建人NY-ESO-1基因的原核表达载体,为制备pET-15b-NY-ESO-1融合蛋白奠定了基础.

  15. Backcasting the decline of a vulnerable Great Plains reproductive ecotype: identifying threats and conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Thomas A; Brewer, Shannon K; Grabowski, Timothy B; Mueller, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Conservation efforts for threatened or endangered species are challenging because the multi-scale factors that relate to their decline or inhibit their recovery are often unknown. To further exacerbate matters, the perceptions associated with the mechanisms of species decline are often viewed myopically rather than across the entire species range. We used over 80 years of fish presence data collected from the Great Plains and associated ecoregions of the United States, to investigate the relative influence of changing environmental factors on the historic and current truncated distributions of the Arkansas River shiner Notropis girardi. Arkansas River shiner represent a threatened reproductive ecotype considered especially well adapted to the harsh environmental extremes of the Great Plains. Historic (n = 163 records) and current (n = 47 records) species distribution models were constructed using a vector-based approach in MaxEnt by splitting the available data at a time when Arkansas River shiner dramatically declined. Discharge and stream order were significant predictors in both models; however, the shape of the relationship between the predictors and species presence varied between time periods. Drift distance (river fragment length available for ichthyoplankton downstream drift before meeting a barrier) was a more important predictor in the current model and indicated river segments 375-780 km had the highest probability of species presence. Performance for the historic and current models was high (area under the curve; AUC > 0.95); however, forecasting and backcasting to alternative time periods suggested less predictive power. Our results identify fragments that could be considered refuges for endemic plains fish species and we highlight significant environmental factors (e.g., discharge) that could be manipulated to aid recovery. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  16. A multidisciplinary analysis of groundwater declines and agricultural production in the High Plains Aquifer of Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, David R.; Bruss, Paul J.; Yang, Xiaoying; Staggenborg, Scott A.; Welch, Stephen M.; Apley, Michael D.

    2014-05-01

    The High Plains Aquifer provides groundwater for 30% of the irrigated agriculture in the USA. Within Kansas, groundwater supports the congressional district with highest market value of agriculture. And yet, over-pumping and associated groundwater declines threaten the long-term prospects. The groundwater portion of this study quantifies the availability of groundwater stores over the next 100 years. A water-use function is developed to quantify the historical and future impacts of irrigation on corn production. A relationship between corn consumption per head of cattle quantifies the herd size that can be supported by irrigated corn. Together, we project the impacts of changes in groundwater stores on corn and cattle production for the next century. Scenarios analyze the impacts of water savings today on current and future agriculture production. Reference: Steward, D. R., Bruss, P. J., Yang, X., Staggenborg, S. A., Welch, S. M. and M. D. Apley, Tapping unsustainable groundwater stores for agricultural production in the High Plains Aquifer of Kansas, projections to 2110, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(37) E3477-E3486, September 10, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1220351110

  17. Nitrate reduction during ground-water recharge, Southern High Plains, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryar, Alan E.; Macko, Stephen A.; Mullican, William F., III; Romanak, Katherine D.; Bennett, Philip C.

    2000-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid environments, artificial recharge or reuse of wastewater may be desirable for water conservation, but NO 3- contamination of underlying aquifers can result. On the semi-arid Southern High Plains (USA), industrial wastewater, sewage, and feedlot runoff have been retained in dozens of playas, depressions that focus recharge to the regionally important High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer. Analyses of ground water, playa-basin core extracts, and soil gas in an 860-km 2 area of Texas suggest that reduction during recharge limits NO 3- loading to ground water. Tritium and Cl - concentrations in ground water corroborate prior findings of focused recharge through playas and ditches. Typical δ15N values in ground water (>12.5‰) and correlations between δ15N and ln CNO -3-N suggest denitrification, but O 2 concentrations ≥3.24 mg l -1 indicate that NO 3- reduction in ground water is unlikely. The presence of denitrifying and NO 3--respiring bacteria in cores, typical soil-gas δ15N values water can still exceed drinking-water standards, as observed in the vicinity of one playa that received wastewater. Therefore, continued ground-water monitoring in the vicinity of other such basins is warranted.

  18. Combination of autoantibodies against NY-ESO-1 and viral capsid antigen immunoglobulin A for improved detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu-Hui; Xu, Yi-Wei; Qiu, Si-Qi; Hong, Chao-Qun; Zhai, Tian-Tian; Li, En-Min; Xu, Li-Yan

    2014-09-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in Southern China and Southeast Asia, and early detection remains a challenge. Autoantibodies have been found to precede the manifestations of symptomatic cancer by several months to years, making their identification of particular relevance for early detection. In the present study, the diagnostic value of serum autoantibodies against NY-ESO-1 in NPC patients was evaluated. The study included 112 patients with NPC and 138 normal controls. Serum levels of autoantibodies against NY-ESO-1 and classical Epstein-Barr virus marker, viral capsid antigen immunoglobulin A (VCA-IgA), were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Measurement of autoantibodies against NY-ESO-1 and VCA-IgA demonstrated a sensitivity/specificity of 42.9/94.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 33.7-52.6/89.4-97.8%] and 55.4/95.7% (95% CI, 45.7-64.7/90.4-98.2%), respectively. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve for autoantibodies against NY-ESO-1 (0.821; 95% CI, 0.771-0.871) was marginally lower than that for VCA-IgA (0.860; 95% CI, 0.810-0.910) in NPC. The combination of autoantibodies against NY-ESO-1 and VCA-IgA yielded an enhanced sensitivity of 80.4% (95% CI, 71.6-87.0%) and a specificity of 90.6% (95% CI, 84.1-94.7%). Moreover, detection of autoantibodies against NY-ESO-1 could differentiate early-stage NPC patients from normal controls. Our results suggest that autoantibodies against NY-ESO-1 may serve as a potential biomarker, as a supplement to VCA-IgA, for the screening and diagnosis of NPC.

  19. Cancer-testis antigen expression in synovial sarcoma: NY-ESO-1, PRAME, MAGEA4, and MAGEA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iura, Kunio; Maekawa, Akira; Kohashi, Kenichi; Ishii, Takeaki; Bekki, Hirofumi; Otsuka, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Harimaya, Katsumi; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Oda, Yoshinao

    2017-03-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is regarded as a relatively chemosensitive sarcoma, but the prognosis of advanced SSs remains poor. Here we identified highly expressed cancer-testis antigens that could be promising immunotherapy targets for SS, using a previously conducted cDNA microarray, and we assessed the clinicopathological or prognostic relationships of these antigens in SS. We compared the gene expression profiles of 11 SSs with those of 3 normal adipose tissues. Among the up-regulated cancer-testis antigens, we analyzed PRAME, MAGEA1, and MAGEA4 and another cancer-testis antigen (NY-ESO-1) together, by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction in 108 SSs. Immunohistochemically, NY-ESO-1, PRAME, MAGEA4, and MAGEA1 were positive in 66 (61%), 93 (86%), 89 (82%), and 16 (15%) of 108 SSs, respectively, and 104 (96%) of 108 SSs showed the immunohistochemical expression of at least 1 of NY-ESO-1, PRAME, and MAGEA4. Moreover, the high expression of at least 1 of these 3 antigens was observed in 83% of the SSs. High expression of NY-ESO-1 and MAGEA4 was significantly correlated with the presence of necrosis and advanced clinical stage. The immunohistochemical expression of these cancer-testis antigens was not correlated with prognosis, but the coexpression of NY-ESO-1, PRAME, and MAGEA4 was significantly associated with adverse prognosis. The real-time polymerase chain reaction results were closely related to the immunohistochemical results: NY-ESO-1 (P = .0019), PRAME (P = .039), MAGEA4 (P = .0149), and MAGEA1 (P = .0766). These data support the potential utility of NY-ESO-1, PRAME, and MAGEA4 as immunotherapy targets and ancillary prognostic parameters, suggesting the possible benefit of the combined use of these cancer-testis antigens as an SS immunotherapy target. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional autoantibodies against SSX-2 and NY-ESO-1 in multiple myeloma patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkens, Tim; Kobold, Sebastian; Cao, Yanran; Ristic, Marina; Schilling, Georgia; Tams, Sinje; Bartels, Britta Marlen; Templin, Julia; Bartels, Katrin; Hildebrandt, York; Yousef, Sara; Marx, Andreas; Haag, Friedrich; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Kröger, Nicolaus; Atanackovic, Djordje

    2014-11-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the malignancy with the most frequent expression of the highly immunogenic cancer-testis antigens (CTA), and we have performed the first analysis of longitudinal expression, immunological properties, and fine specificity of CTA-specific antibody responses in MM. Frequency and characteristics of antibody responses against cancer-testis antigens MAGE-A3, NY-ESO-1, PRAME, and SSX-2 were analyzed using peripheral blood (N = 1094) and bone marrow (N = 200) plasma samples from 194 MM patients. We found that antibody responses against CTA were surprisingly rare, only 2.6 and 3.1 % of patients evidenced NY-ESO-1- and SSX-2-specific antibodies, respectively. NY-ESO-1-specific responses were observed during disease progression, while anti-SSX-2 antibodies appeared after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and persisted during clinical remission. We found that NY-ESO-1- and SSX-2-specific antibodies were both capable of activating complement and increasing CTA uptake by antigen-presenting cells. SSX-2-specific antibodies were restricted to IgG3, NY-ESO-1 responses to IgG1 and IgG3. Remarkably, NY-ESO-1-positive sera recognized various non-contiguous regions, while SSX-2-specific responses were directed against a single 6mer epitope, SSX-2(85-90). We conclude that primary autoantibodies against intracellular MM-specific tumor antigens SSX-2 and NY-ESO-1 are rare but functional. While their contribution to disease control still remains unclear, our data demonstrate their theoretic ability to affect cellular anti-tumor immunity by formation and uptake of mono- and polyvalent immune complexes.

  1. Improving Web Page Readability by Plain Language

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Walayat; Ali, Arif

    2011-01-01

    In today's world anybody who wants to access any information the first choice is to use the web because it is the only source to provide easy and instant access to information. However web readers face many hurdles from web which includes load of web pages, text size, finding related information, spelling and grammar etc. However understanding of web pages written in English language creates great problems for non native readers who have basic knowledge of English. In this paper, we propose a plain language for a local language (Urdu) using English alphabets for web pages in Pakistan. For this purpose we developed two websites, one with a normal English fonts and other in a local language text scheme using English alphabets. We also conducted a questionnaire from 40 different users with a different level of English language fluency in Pakistan to gain the evidence of the practicality of our approach. The result shows that the proposed plain language text scheme using English alphabets improved the reading com...

  2. Plain Language Summary: Adult Sinusitis (Sinus Infection).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Leslie A; Walter, Lindsey M; Walsh, Sandra A; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Piccirillo, Jay F

    2015-08-01

    This plain language summary serves as an overview in explaining sinusitis (pronounced sign-you-side-tis). The purpose of this plain language summary is to provide patients with standard language explaining their condition in an easy-to-read format. This summary applies to those 18 years of age or older with sinusitis. The summary is featured as an FAQ (frequently asked question) format. The summary addresses how to manage and treat sinusitis symptoms. Adult sinusitis is often called a sinus infection. A healthcare provider may refer to a sinus infection as rhinosinusitis (pronounced rhi-no-sign-you-side-tis). This includes the nose as well as the sinuses in the name. A sinus infection is the swelling of the sinuses and nasal cavity.The summary is based on the published 2015 "Clinical Practice Guideline: Adult Sinusitis." The evidence-based guideline includes research to support more effective diagnosis and treatment of adult sinus infections. The guideline was developed as a quality improvement opportunity for managing sinus infections by creating clear recommendations to use in medical practice. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  3. Improving Web Page Readability by Plain Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walayat Hussain

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In todays world anybody who wants to access any information the first choice is to use the web because it is the only source to provide easy and instant access to information. However web readers face many hurdles from web which includes load of web pages, text size, finding related information, spelling and grammar etc. However understanding of web pages written in English language creates great problems for non native readers who have basic knowledge of English. In this paper, we propose a plain language for a local language (Urdu using English alphabets for web pages in Pakistan. For this purpose we developed two websites, one with a normal English fonts and other in a local language text scheme using English alphabets. We also conducted a questionnaire from 40 different users with a different level of English language fluency in Pakistan to gain the evidence of the practicality of our approach. The result shows that the proposed plain language text scheme using English alphabets improved the reading comprehension for non native English speakers in Pakistan.

  4. Creep of plain weave polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhishek

    Polymer matrix composites are increasingly used in various industrial sectors to reduce structural weight and improve performance. Woven (also known as textile) composites are one class of polymer matrix composites with increasing market share mostly due to their lightweight, their flexibility to form into desired shape, their mechanical properties and toughness. Due to the viscoelasticity of the polymer matrix, time-dependent degradation in modulus (creep) and strength (creep rupture) are two of the major mechanical properties required by engineers to design a structure reliably when using these materials. Unfortunately, creep and creep rupture of woven composites have received little attention by the research community and thus, there is a dire need to generate additional knowledge and prediction models, given the increasing market share of woven composites in load bearing structural applications. Currently, available creep models are limited in scope and have not been validated for any loading orientation and time period beyond the experimental time window. In this thesis, an analytical creep model, namely the Modified Equivalent Laminate Model (MELM), was developed to predict tensile creep of plain weave composites for any orientation of the load with respect to the orientation of the fill and warp fibers, using creep of unidirectional composites. The ability of the model to predict creep for any orientation of the load is a "first" in this area. The model was validated using an extensive experimental involving the tensile creep of plain weave composites under varying loading orientation and service conditions. Plain weave epoxy (F263)/ carbon fiber (T300) composite, currently used in aerospace applications, was procured as fabrics from Hexcel Corporation. Creep tests were conducted under two loading conditions: on-axis loading (0°) and off-axis loading (45°). Constant load creep, in the temperature range of 80-240°C and stress range of 1-70% UTS of the

  5. NY-ESO-1 Vaccination in Combination with Decitabine Induces Antigen-Specific T-Lymphocyte Responses in Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Elizabeth A; Srivastava, Pragya; Matsuzaki, Junko; Brumberger, Zachary; Wang, Eunice S; Kocent, Justin; Miller, Austin; Roloff, Gregory W; Wong, Hong Yuen; Paluch, Benjamin E; Lutgen-Dunckley, Linda G; Martens, Brandon L; Odunsi, Kunle; Karpf, Adam R; Hourigan, Christopher S; Nemeth, Michael J

    2017-09-25

    Treatment options are limited for patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The azanucleosides, azacitidine and decitabine, are front-line therapy for MDS that induce promoter demethylation and gene expression of the highly immunogenic tumor antigen NY-ESO-1. We demonstrated that AML patients receiving decitabine exhibit induction of NY-ESO-1 expression in circulating blasts. We hypothesized that vaccinating against NY-ESO-1 in MDS patients receiving decitabine would capitalize upon induced NY-ESO-1 expression in malignant myeloid cells to provoke an NY-ESO-1-specific-MDS directed cytotoxic T-cell immune response. In a phase I study, 9 MDS patients received an HLA unrestricted NY-ESO-1 vaccine (CDX-1401 + poly-ICLC) in a non-overlapping schedule every four weeks with standard dose decitabine. Analysis of samples serially obtained from the 7 patients who reached the end-of-study demonstrated induction of NY-ESO-1 expression in 7/7 patients and NY-ESO-1 specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte responses in 6/7 and 4/7 of the vaccinated patients respectively. Myeloid cells expressing NY-ESO-1, isolated from a patient at different time-points during decitabine therapy, were capable of activating a cytotoxic response from autologous NY-ESO-1-specific T-lymphocytes. Vaccine responses were associated with a detectable population of CD141Hi conventional dendritic cells, which are critical for the uptake of NY-ESO-1 vaccine and have a recognized role in anti-tumor immune responses. These data indicate that vaccination against induced NY-ESO-1 expression can produce an antigen-specific immune response in a relatively non-immunogenic myeloid cancer and highlight the potential for induced-antigen directed immunotherapy in a group of patients with limited options. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Håndværk og design; nyt fag, ny didaktik – et aktionsforskningsprojekt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Pedersen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Projektet tager afsæt i regeringens forslag om at sammenlægge fagene sløjd og håndarbejde til et nyt fag ”håndværk og design”. Det er projektets ambition at være dagsordensættende i forhold til udvikling af dette nye skolefag. Vi vil arbejde ud fra en aktionsforskningsmæssig tilgang. Det betyder, at vi ikke alene har til hensigt at etablere et ”objektivt” billede af, hvordan udvalgte skoler arbejder med at udvikle det ny fag ”håndværk og design”, men ønsker at påvirke udviklingen og dermed i fællesskab konstruere ny didaktisk teori. Som støtte for projektgruppens arbejde nedsættes en metodisk, didaktisk studiekreds, hvor projektgruppen modtager sparring fra erfarne forskere. Det er projektets sigte at undersøge og udvikle det ny fags didaktik med henblik på at generere visioner for bl.a. indholdsudvælgelse og læreformer i et fremtidsperspektiv for faget ”håndværk og design” i samspil mellem de ideer, viden og erfaringer forskerne har, den viden og erfaring de udvalgte forskende lærere har, samt de erfaringer og ideer, der opbygges i projektets praksisdele. Der arbejdes med eksemplariske forløb, som planlægges og efterbehandles i samarbejde mellem lærere og forskere. Dette samarbejde dokumenteres af lærerne og projektgruppens medlemmer i fællesskab. Her indgår fx undervisningsoplæg, materialer og genstande, evalueringsformer – og resultater samt fokusgruppe interview.Søkord: metod, sløjd, håndværk og design, aktionsforskning, folkeskolenURN:NBN:no-29962

  7. A hydrogeological investigation of the Yeşilyurt (Isparta-Sütçüler plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Taşdelen

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation area is almost 10 km in the north-west of Sütçüler country of Isparta and covers 60 km2 area. Firstly, detailed geological and hydrological investigation of Yeşilyurt Plain surface drainage area has been performed. Long term monitoring and analyses have been done for direction of hydrological investigation. An isohiyetal map was prepared for the investigation area. Water table maps were drawn by means of deep and shallow boreholes in the plain and flow direction was determined (October 2000. Water which was collected at boreholes was chemically analyzed to determine the characteristic of water for domestic use, irrigation and industrial purposes. In order to achieve this, the anion and cation concentrations, ionization abilities ionic activity, calcite dolomite sulphate saturation indexes and the partial pressures of dissolved CO2 were calculated and the results were interpreted. In addition, water has been classified according to chemical contend and use purpose by means of Wilcox, USA Salinity Laboratory, Piper and Schoeller diagrams and similarities in the origins of waters were investigated. During the study, a groundwater budget of Yeşilyurt Plain was prepared in the light of obtained data and optimum output of groundwater has been calculated.

  8. Eesti piloodid õpivad USA-s Black Hawkiga lendama

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Eesti õhujõudude helikopteripiloodid Rene Kallis ja Martin Noorsalu jäävad pärast väljaõpet kolmeks aastaks USA-sse teenima Marylandi üksuse juurde ning käivad selle aja jooksul ka missioonil Afganistanis

  9. Circles of the World: Traditional Art of the Plains Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Richard

    1985-01-01

    The art of the Plains Indians is discussed, and an art exhibition of their work to be held at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco from January 12 to April 29, 1985, is described. The exhibit shows and explains how Plains art served aspects of the Indians' traditional life. (RM)

  10. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  11. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... valuable for maintaining agricultural and forest products for food and fiber, fish and wildlife habitat... flood plain. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) flood insurance maps, other available... if the intended action is in the base flood plain by using HUD flood insurance maps, and other...

  12. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...

  13. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.107 Defective plain bearing box: General. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  14. comparison between sonographic and plain radiography in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-10-10

    Oct 10, 2003 ... Senior Lecturer, Department of Radiology, Makerere University, ... Plain radiography made a diagnosis in 85.5% of patients and did ... abdominal pain, abdominal distension, vomiting and ... major draw back with the use of ultrasound is that it is .... Plain abdominal film demonstrates non-specific gaseous.

  15. PLAINS GERBILS (GERBILLISCUS ROBUSTA) AS FOOD OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Its major food in the 1970's was found to be Gerbilliscus robusta ... Senzota – Plains Gerbils as Food of the Barn Owl in the Serengeti Plains … 102 reflected as ..... Magazine. March 04. And http://www.growingproduce.com/article/. 181150 ...

  16. 27 CFR 9.207 - Outer Coastal Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outer Coastal Plain. 9.207... Outer Coastal Plain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Outer Coastal Plain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Outer Coastal Plain” is a term of...

  17. Framtagning av ny lyftytrystning för gasturbin SGT-600/700

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Emma

    2008-01-01

    I detta Examensarbete har en ny lyftutrustning till gasturbin SGT-600/700 olika moduler tagits fram. Examensarbetet har utförts på Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB i Finspång på avdelningen GPTP (leverans gasturbin teknik package installation). Målet med arbetet har varit att skapa en lyftutrustning som är mer flexibel än den befintliga lyftutrustningen och klarar samlyft (lyft med hjälp av två kranar). Arbetet har utförts med hjälp av olika metoder som QFD, funktionsmedel-träd och morpho...

  18. Primes of the form x2+ny2 Fermat, class field theory, and complex multiplication

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, David A

    2014-01-01

    An exciting approach to the history and mathematics of number theory ". . . the author's style is totally lucid and very easy to read . . .the result is indeed a wonderful story." -Mathematical ReviewsWritten in a unique and accessible style for readers of varied mathematical backgrounds, the Second Edition of Primes of the Form p = x2+ ny2 details the history behind how Pierre de Fermat's work ultimately gave birth to quadratic reciprocity and the genus theory of quadratic forms. The book also illustrates how results of Euler and Gauss can be fully understood only in the context of class fi

  19. Boktrailern – : En kartläggning av en ny medieprodukt

    OpenAIRE

    Rybin, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    I detta examensarbete kartlägger jag en ny medieprodukt, boktrailern. En boktrailer är en audiovisuell reklam för en bok och härstammar från samt följer dels samma konventioner som den etablerade filmtrailertraditionen. I vissa fall kan boktrailern även ses som en självständig kortfilm. Boktrailern har uppkommit vid sekelskiftet och utvecklats som en följd av tre faktorer kopplade till tjugohundratalets teknologiska framsteg: 1. Verbal text är allt mer tvungen att förlita sig på ...

  20. Decitabine immunosensitizes human gliomas to NY-ESO-1 specific T lymphocyte targeting through the Fas/Fas Ligand pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The lack of effective treatments for gliomas makes them a significant health problem and highlights the need for the development of novel and innovative treatment approaches. Immunotherapy is an appealing strategy because of the potential ability for immune cells to traffic to and destroy infiltrating tumor cells. However, the absence of well-characterized, highly immunogenic tumor-rejection antigens (TRA) in gliomas has limited the implementation of targeted immune-based therapies. Methods We hypothesized that treatment with the demethylating agent, decitabine, would upregulate the expression of TRA on tumor cells, thereby facilitating enhanced surveillance by TRA-specific T cells. Results and Discussion Treatment of human glioma cells with decitabine increased the expression of NY-ESO-1 and other well characterized cancer testes antigens. The upregulation of NY-ESO-1 made these tumors susceptible to NY-ESO-1-specific T-cell recognition and lysis. Interestingly, decitabine treatment of T98 glioma cells also sensitized them to Fas-dependent apoptosis with an agonistic antibody, while a Fas blocking antibody could largely prevent the enhanced functional recognition by NY-ESO-1 specific T cells. Thus, decitabine treatment transformed a non-immunogenic glioma cell into an immunogenic target that was efficiently recognized by NY-ESO-1--specific T cells. Conclusions Such data supports the hypothesis that agents which alter epigenetic cellular processes may "immunosensitize" tumor cells to tumor-specific T cell-mediated lysis. PMID:22060015

  1. Isolation of a Halophilic Bacterium, Bacillus sp. Strain NY-6 for Organic Contaminants Removal in Saline Wastewater on Ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Gao; Zhenjiang Yu; Xiaohui Zhang; Dan Zhao; Fangbo Zhao

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine if certain strains of Bacillus bacteria,could survive in dry powder products and if so,could the bacteria degrade organic contaminants in saline wastewater on a ship.As part of the study,we isolated 7 domesticated strains named NY1,NY2,…,and NY7,the strain NY6 showed to have the best performance for organic matter degradation and could survive in dry powder more than 3 months.NY6 was identified as Bacillus aerius,based on the morphological and physic-chemical properties.Its optimal growth conditions were as follows:salinity was 2%; temperature was 37℃; pH was in 6.5-7.0; best ratio of C∶ N∶ P was 100∶5∶1.The capability of its dry powder for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal was 800mg COD/g in synthesized marine wastewater with 2% salinity.The spores in the dry powder were 1.972× 108 g1.

  2. Decitabine immunosensitizes human gliomas to NY-ESO-1 specific T lymphocyte targeting through the Fas/Fas Ligand pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konkankit Veerauo V

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of effective treatments for gliomas makes them a significant health problem and highlights the need for the development of novel and innovative treatment approaches. Immunotherapy is an appealing strategy because of the potential ability for immune cells to traffic to and destroy infiltrating tumor cells. However, the absence of well-characterized, highly immunogenic tumor-rejection antigens (TRA in gliomas has limited the implementation of targeted immune-based therapies. Methods We hypothesized that treatment with the demethylating agent, decitabine, would upregulate the expression of TRA on tumor cells, thereby facilitating enhanced surveillance by TRA-specific T cells. Results and Discussion Treatment of human glioma cells with decitabine increased the expression of NY-ESO-1 and other well characterized cancer testes antigens. The upregulation of NY-ESO-1 made these tumors susceptible to NY-ESO-1-specific T-cell recognition and lysis. Interestingly, decitabine treatment of T98 glioma cells also sensitized them to Fas-dependent apoptosis with an agonistic antibody, while a Fas blocking antibody could largely prevent the enhanced functional recognition by NY-ESO-1 specific T cells. Thus, decitabine treatment transformed a non-immunogenic glioma cell into an immunogenic target that was efficiently recognized by NY-ESO-1--specific T cells. Conclusions Such data supports the hypothesis that agents which alter epigenetic cellular processes may "immunosensitize" tumor cells to tumor-specific T cell-mediated lysis.

  3. Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum induces immune responses to cancer testis antigen NY-ESO-1 and maturation of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobergslien, Anne; Vasovic, Vlada; Mathiesen, Geir; Fredriksen, Lasse; Westby, Phuong; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Peng, Qian; Sioud, Mouldy

    2015-01-01

    Given their safe use in humans and inherent adjuvanticity, Lactic Acid Bacteria may offer several advantages over other mucosal delivery strategies for cancer vaccines. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immune responses in mice after oral immunization with Lactobacillus (L) plantarum WCFS1 expressing a cell-wall anchored tumor antigen NY-ESO-1. And to investigate the immunostimulatory potency of this new candidate vaccine on human dendritic cells (DCs). L. plantarum displaying NY-ESO-1 induced NY-ESO-1 specific antibodies and T-cell responses in mice. By contrast, L. plantarum displaying conserved proteins such as heat shock protein-27 and galectin-1, did not induce immunity, suggesting that immune tolerance to self-proteins cannot be broken by oral administration of L. plantarum. With respect to immunomodulation, immature DCs incubated with wild type or L. plantarum-NY-ESO-1 upregulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and secreted a large amount of interleukin (IL)-12, TNF-α, but not IL-4. Moreover, they upregulated the expression of immunosuppressive factors such as IL-10 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Although L. plantarum-matured DCs expressed inhibitory molecules, they stimulated allogeneic T cells in-vitro. Collectively, the data indicate that L. plantarum-NY-ESO-1 can evoke antigen-specific immunity upon oral administration and induce DC maturation, raising the potential of its use in cancer immunotherapies.

  4. Progress of NY ESO-1 in immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma%NY-ESO-1在原发性肝癌免疫治疗中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏士珊; 向晓星

    2010-01-01

    NY-ESO-1抗原是CT抗原家族中的重要成员,在原发性肝癌组织中广泛表达,是迄今发现的最具免疫原性的肿瘤抗原,能在NY-ESO-1表达阳性的肝癌患者体内诱导自发性体液免疫反应和特异性T细胞免疫反应.因此,NY-ESO-1被认为是较好的肿瘤候选疫苗,在原发性肝癌免疫治疗中较具发展潜力.

  5. USA presidendivalimistel eristus kolm kandidaati / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    USA presidendivalimiste eelvalimistel jätkavad tihedat rebimist demokraatidest senaatorid Hillary Clinton ja Barack Obama, vabariiklastest tõusis esile senaator John McCain. Vt. samas: USA eelvalimiste kalender

  6. Eesti ja USA sõlmisid kokkuleppe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Kaitseminister Margus Tsahkna ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suursaadik Eestis James Melville allkirjastasid Eesti ja USA kaitsekoostöö kokkuleppe, mis hakkab reguleerima Eestis viibivate USA relvajõudude liikmete, nende pereliikmete ja lepinglaste õiguslikku staatust

  7. Eesti ja USA sõlmisid kokkuleppe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Kaitseminister Margus Tsahkna ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suursaadik Eestis James Melville allkirjastasid Eesti ja USA kaitsekoostöö kokkuleppe, mis hakkab reguleerima Eestis viibivate USA relvajõudude liikmete, nende pereliikmete ja lepinglaste õiguslikku staatust

  8. Megainvesteering USA terasekompaniilt / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2000-01-01

    USA kompanii RUMA toob tänavu Muuga sadamasse ülisuure, ligi 2,2 miljardi kroonise välisinvesteeringu teraseterminali näol. Tabel: Välisinvesteeringute TOP 10. Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 29. märts lk. 4

  9. USA panustab keskkonda / Jeffrey Goldstein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldstein, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    USA uus energiapoliitika kava näeb ette bensiini tarbimise vähendamist järgneva 10 aasta jooksul 20%, mis omakorda vähendab ameeriklaste autodest eralduva süsihappegaasi heitmete kasvu ning vähendab sõltuvust naftast

  10. Myxomatosis on the Western Plains of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, F G; Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Shepherd, R C; Gocs, A

    1977-10-01

    Myxomatosis on the Western Plains is an enzootic disease in contrast with the epizootic pattern which is general in eastern Australia. The most unusual aspects are the presence of significant numbers of diseased rabbits throughout the winter and the continuously low percentage of rabbits with antibodies to myxoma virus. Climatic and topographic conditions are unsuited to the production of the high densities of mosquitoes necessary for widespread epizootics. Under these conditions the effects of less efficient methods of myxomatosis transmission are apparent. The unusual epidemiology of myxomatosis has resulted in selection for virulence of the virus similar to that which has occurred under summer epizootic conditions. All field strains are now in the mid range of virulence.

  11. Viking 2 Image of Mars Utopian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The boulder-strewn field of red rocks reaches to the horizon nearly two miles from Viking 2 on Mars' Utopian Plain. Scientists believe the colors of the Martian surface and sky in this photo represent their true colors. Fine particles of red dust have settled on spacecraft surfaces. The salmon color of the sky is caused by dust particles suspended in the atmosphere. Color calibration charts for the cameras are mounted at three locations on the spacecraft. Note the blue starfield and red stripes of the flag. The circular structure at top is the high-gain antenna, pointed toward Earth. Viking 2 landed September 3, 1976, some 4600 miles from its twin, Viking 1, which touched down on July 20.

  12. Myxomatosis on the Western Plains of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, F. G.; Edmonds, J. W.; Nolan, I. F.; Shepherd, R. C.; Gocs, A.

    1977-01-01

    Myxomatosis on the Western Plains is an enzootic disease in contrast with the epizootic pattern which is general in eastern Australia. The most unusual aspects are the presence of significant numbers of diseased rabbits throughout the winter and the continuously low percentage of rabbits with antibodies to myxoma virus. Climatic and topographic conditions are unsuited to the production of the high densities of mosquitoes necessary for widespread epizootics. Under these conditions the effects of less efficient methods of myxomatosis transmission are apparent. The unusual epidemiology of myxomatosis has resulted in selection for virulence of the virus similar to that which has occurred under summer epizootic conditions. All field strains are now in the mid range of virulence. PMID:20473

  13. Monuments culturels historiques dans la Plaine Roumaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORINA GRECU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail met en évidence le rôle de la position gé ographique dans le développement des objectifs culturels d’importance touristique et sci entifique locale, régionale ou nationale (les géosites culturels. Dans le développement des géos ites culturels de la Plaine Roumaine plusieurs étapes s’individualisent, avec des caractéristiques spécifiques: a l’étape prédaco-romaine avec les géosites néolithiques ; b l’étape daco-romaine , période dans laquelle des villes sont apparues le long des rivières allochtones (Argedava et du D anube (Turnu Magurele et Zimnicea ; c l’étape médiévale , à laquelle sont particulières les villes avec une spécificité architecturelle (Calafat, Braila et Galati et la capitale, Bucarest, fondée en 1459 ; d l’étape moderne des monuments d’une architecture nouvelle ; e l’étape contemporaine / socialiste (1948-1989 ; f l’étape actuelle (après 1989, caractérisée par un mélange d’architectures avec un impact sur l’évolution du phénomène touristique. La Plaine Roum aine, du à ses caractéristiques physico- géographiques et historiques, réunit une palette la rge de géosites culturels qui pourraient se transformer en vrais objectifs touristiques.

  14. PEROMBAKAN SENYAWA HIDROKARBON AROMATIS POLISIKLIK (NAFTALEN PADA KADAR TINGGI OLEH Pseudomonas NY-I (Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (Naphthalene at High Concentration by Pseudomonas NY-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanisworo Wijayaratih

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Naftalen merupakan salah satu senyawa hidrokarbon aromatis polisiklik (HAP yang banyak dijumpai dalam minyak bumi, batu bara dan hasil alam lainnya. Meskipun bukan senyawa xenobiotik, naftalen dapat menjadi persoalan yang serius karena penggunaannya yang luas dan penanganan yang tidak hati-hati. Naftalen diketahui bersifat mutagenik. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan isolat bakteri yang dapat merombak naftalen dan mempelajari kemampuannya merombak naftalen kadar tinggi dalam medium mineral (MM cair. Tanah yang tercemari minyak bumi dan sumber isolat diperoleh dari unit pengolah minyak Pertamina, Cilacap. Isolat dipreroleh melalui kultur diperkaya menggunakan naftalen. Jumlah naftalen yang ditambahkan ke dalam MM cair sebesar 907, 1362 dan 1813 ppm. Inkubasi dilakukan selama 28 hari dalam keadaan gelap. Parameter yang diamati meliputi: jumlah sel hidup dengan metode drop plate dan kadar naftalen sisa dengan menggunakan GC. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa isolat bakteri yang dipilih, teridentifikasi sebagai Pseudomonas NY-l. Dalam MM cair, naftalen pada semua konsentrasi terombak pada kecepatan yang mirip. Jumlah naftalen yang terombak adalah 777,3 ppm, 728,6 ppm dan 837,2 ppm dari konsentrasi awal berturut-turut sebesar 907, 1362, dan 1813 ppm.   ABSTRACT Naphthalene is one of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs, found in petroleum, coal and other natural products. although, it is nonxenobiotic, it could cause a serious problem when improperly used and handled. It is considered as a mutagenic compound. This study is primarily concerned with the isolation of bacteria that could utilize naphthalene and the investigation of its biodegradation ability of naphthalene in high concentration in liquid mineral media (MM. The contaminated soil and isolates were obtained from oil treatment unit, Pertamina, Cilacap. Bacterial isolation was conducted through enriched culture. Naphthalene was added to the liquid MM at the

  15. On the Diophantine equation (12n)x+(35n)y=(37n)z%关于丢番图方程(12n)x(35n)y=(37n)z

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志娟; 翁建欣

    2012-01-01

      Using the properties of congruences and the order of elements, we show that, for any positive integer n, the Diophantine equation (12n)x+(35n)y =(37n)z has no solution other than (x, y, z)=(2, 2, 2) in positive integers.%  运用同余及元素阶的性质,证明对任意正整数n,丢番图方程(12n)x+(35n)y=(37n)z仅有正整数解(x, y, z)=(2,2,2)。

  16. NY-ESO-1基因的原核表达、纯化和初步应用%The Prokaryotic Expression, Purification and Preliminary Application of Human NY-ESO-1 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文敏; 肖刚; 张萌; 谢丹; 郭爱林; 文剑明

    2005-01-01

    目的:克隆人NY-ESO-1基因,进行原核表达和分离纯化,并初步应用于肝癌患者血清NY-ESO-1抗体的检测.方法:通过RT-PCR技术从人肝癌组织中扩增NY-ESO-1基因片段,插入原核表达载体pGEX4T-1(+)中,构建重组表达质粒pGEX/ESO1,导入大肠杆菌BL21(DE3),诱导目的蛋白表达,经包涵体透析复性和GSTrap亲和层析纯化目的蛋白,Western blot鉴定.应用间接ELISA方法初步检测50例肝癌患者血清和20例正常人血清NY-ESO-1抗体的表达.结果:扩增得到NY-ESO-1基因3'端276bp片段,与GeneBank公布序列一致,构建的pGEX/ESO1原核表达质粒经IPTG诱导,在大肠杆菌中表达分子量约36kD的GST-ESO1融合蛋白,纯化后蛋白纯度为90%.50例肝细胞癌患者血清中4例检测到NY-ESO-1抗体(8%),正常人血清均为阴性.结论:成功构建pGEX/ESO1重组表达质粒,得到有活性的NY-ESO-1融合蛋白,对肝癌患者血清NY-ESO-1抗体的检测有一定的应用价值.

  17. Expression of NY-ESO-1 Gene in Human Bladder Cancer%NY-ESO-1基因在膀胱癌中的表达及临床意义的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慕文; 毕东滨; 金讯波; 马庆铮

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨NY-ESO-1的表达与膀胱癌分期分级的关系以及临床意义.方法 回顾性研究2001~2002年膀胱癌组织32例,其中男性24例,女性8例.正常膀胱粘膜对照取自耻骨上经膀胱前列腺切除术的良性前列腺增生的患者.阳性对照为正常睾丸组织.常规行RT-PCR方法检测膀胱癌组织及对照组等NY-ESO-1基因的表达,分析其表达与膀胱癌分期分级的关系以及临床意义.结果 NY-ESO-1 mRNA在32例膀胱癌组织中12例表达(37.5%),在正常膀胱粘膜上没有表达.肿瘤组织中PCR反应的产物与正常睾丸的表达产物一致.NY-ESO-1 mRNA的表达和膀胱癌的病理分级相关,有统计学差异(P<0.05).NY-ESO-1 mRNA的表达率随着肿瘤病理分级的增高而升高:G1期是0/3(0%);G2期是4/16(25%);G3期是8/13(61.54%).浸润性膀胱癌中NY-ESO-1 mRNA的表达与表浅性肿瘤的表达无显著性差异.结论 NY-ESO-1 mRNA在正常膀胱组织上没有表达,仅在正常睾丸组织和病理膀胱癌组织上有表达.NY-ESO-1 mRNA的表达率随着膀胱癌病理分级的增高而升高.

  18. The Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System: A GIS-based tool for assessing groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, David C.; Nardi, Mark R.; Staley, Andrew W.; Achmad, Grufron; Grace, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the source of drinking water for ∼1.4 million people in the Coastal Plain Province of Maryland (USA). In addition, groundwater is essential for commercial, industrial, and agricultural uses. Approximately 0.757 × 109 L d–1 (200 million gallons/d) were withdrawn in 2010. As a result of decades of withdrawals from the coastal plain confined aquifers, groundwater levels have declined by as much as 70 m (230 ft) from estimated prepumping levels. Other issues posing challenges to long-term groundwater sustainability include degraded water quality from both man-made and natural sources, reduced stream base flow, land subsidence, and changing recharge patterns (drought) caused by climate change. In Maryland, groundwater supply is managed primarily by the Maryland Department of the Environment, which seeks to balance reasonable use of the resource with long-term sustainability. The chief goal of groundwater management in Maryland is to ensure safe and adequate supplies for all current and future users through the implementation of appropriate usage, planning, and conservation policies. To assist in that effort, the geographic information system (GIS)–based Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System was developed as a tool to help water managers access and visualize groundwater data for use in the evaluation of groundwater allocation and use permits. The system, contained within an ESRI ArcMap desktop environment, includes both interpreted and basic data for 16 aquifers and 14 confining units. Data map layers include aquifer and ­confining unit layer surfaces, aquifer extents, borehole information, hydraulic properties, time-series groundwater-level data, well records, and geophysical and lithologic logs. The aquifer and confining unit layer surfaces were generated specifically for the GIS system. The system also contains select groundwater-quality data and map layers that quantify groundwater and surface-water withdrawals. The aquifer

  19. Sõda, mille USA on juba kaotanud / Mart Helme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Helme, Mart, 1949-

    2003-01-01

    USA pole suutnud Iraagi-vastase sõja vajalikkust põhjendada, arvavad paljud USA poliitikavaatlejad. Rängaks diplomaatiliseks eksimuseks peetakse USA kaitseministri Donald Rumsfeldi avaldust, et USA ei vaja kellegi abi sõjas

  20. Sõda, mille USA on juba kaotanud / Mart Helme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Helme, Mart, 1949-

    2003-01-01

    USA pole suutnud Iraagi-vastase sõja vajalikkust põhjendada, arvavad paljud USA poliitikavaatlejad. Rängaks diplomaatiliseks eksimuseks peetakse USA kaitseministri Donald Rumsfeldi avaldust, et USA ei vaja kellegi abi sõjas

  1. 77 FR 6587 - Startek USA, Inc. Alexandria, LA; Startek USA, Inc., Collinsville, VA; Amended Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Startek USA, Inc. Alexandria, LA; Startek USA, Inc., Collinsville, VA..., applicable to workers of StarTek USA, Inc., Alexandria, Louisiana. The workers are engaged in the supply of..., Virginia location of StarTek USA, Inc. supplied call center services such as sales and technical...

  2. Thermal infrared observations of near-Earth asteroid 2002 NY40

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, T G; Schuetz, O; Pravec, P; Siebenmorgen, R

    2004-01-01

    We obtained N-band observations of the Apollo asteroid 2002 NY40 during its close Earth fly-by in August 2002 with TIMMI2 at the ESO 3.6 m telescope. The photometric measurement allowed us to derive a radiometric diameter of 0.28+/-0.03 km and an albedo of 0.34+/-0.06 through the near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM) and a thermophysical model (TPM). The values are in agreement with results from radar data, visual and near-IR observations. In this first comparison between these two model approaches we found that the empirical NEATM beaming parameter $\\eta$=1.0 corresponds to a thermal inertia values of about 100 $\\mathrm{J m^{-2} s^{-0.5} K^{-1}}$ for a typical range of surface roughness, assuming an equator-on viewing angle. Our TPM analysis indicated that the surface of 2002 NY40 consists of rocky material with a thin or no dust regolith. The asteroid very likely has a prograde sense of rotation with a cold terminator at the time of our observations. Although both model approaches can fit the thermal sp...

  3. USA andis Gruusiale vastakaid signaale / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    USA välisministri Condoleezza Riceþi saabumisest Thbilisisse, et avaldada Gruusiale toetust. USA poolt antud soovitustest Gruusia president Mihhail Saakashvilile mitte jõudu kasutada ega alluda Venemaa provokatsioonidele ning hoiatustest sõjalise konflikti tagajärgede eest. USA analüütikute arvamusi

  4. USA andis Gruusiale vastakaid signaale / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    USA välisministri Condoleezza Riceþi saabumisest Thbilisisse, et avaldada Gruusiale toetust. USA poolt antud soovitustest Gruusia president Mihhail Saakashvilile mitte jõudu kasutada ega alluda Venemaa provokatsioonidele ning hoiatustest sõjalise konflikti tagajärgede eest. USA analüütikute arvamusi

  5. Tartu tudengist USA suurpanga asepresidendiks / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2007-01-01

    Killu Tõugu Sanborn on Tartu ülikooli bioloogiateaduskonnast USA maineka ülikooli doktoriks ja sealt 58 miljardi dollari suuruse kapitaliga Comerica panga tippjuhiks jõudnuna eestlase läbilöögi musternäide. Haridustee USA-s ja elukutse valikud, müügiesindajast riskikapitalistiks

  6. USA tippametnik ootab puutumatuselepet / Liis Jemmer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jemmer, Liis

    2003-01-01

    Videopressikonverentsil USA Tallinna saatkonnas ütles USA välisministri abi Lincoln P. Bloomfield, et tal on kahju, et EL avaldas Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa riikidele survet mitte sõlmida USA kodanikele Rahvusvahelise Kriminaalkohtu suhtes puutumatust andvaid lepinguid

  7. USA kaitsetollide vastu / Joseph E. Stiglitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stiglitz, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    USA poolt tollide kehtestamine imporditavale terasele on põhjustanud protesti. Riigid, eriti Euroopas, mis on võimelised USA-le vastu hakkama, peavad seda tegema nüüd. Karmide abinõude tarvitusele võtmine on nii nende kui ka USA huvides

  8. USA suursaadikuga Tallinna lahel / Katrin Kruss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruss, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    USA suursaadik Stanley Davis Phillips oma haridusteest, perekonnast, armastusest mere vastu, panusest isa Earl Phillipsi mööbliäri laiendamisse, golfiharrastusest, suursaadikute ettevalmistusest USA-s, suursaadiku residentsist Pirital ning uue saatkonnahoone otsingutest Tallinnas. Lisa: Stanley Davis Phillips

  9. USA suursaadikuga Tallinna lahel / Katrin Kruss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruss, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    USA suursaadik Stanley Davis Phillips oma haridusteest, perekonnast, armastusest mere vastu, panusest isa Earl Phillipsi mööbliäri laiendamisse, golfiharrastusest, suursaadikute ettevalmistusest USA-s, suursaadiku residentsist Pirital ning uue saatkonnahoone otsingutest Tallinnas. Lisa: Stanley Davis Phillips

  10. USA kaitsetollide vastu / Joseph E. Stiglitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stiglitz, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    USA poolt tollide kehtestamine imporditavale terasele on põhjustanud protesti. Riigid, eriti Euroopas, mis on võimelised USA-le vastu hakkama, peavad seda tegema nüüd. Karmide abinõude tarvitusele võtmine on nii nende kui ka USA huvides

  11. Evaluation of LAGE-1 and NY-ESO-1 expression in multiple myeloma patients to explore possible benefits of their homology for immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Fabricio; Vettore, Andre L; Inaoka, Riguel J; Karia, Bruno; Andrade, Valéria C C; Gnjatic, Sacha; Jungbluth, Achim A; Colleoni, Gisele W B

    2011-01-20

    Due to the high homology between the LAGE-1 and NY-ESO-1 proteins, we hypothesized that an anti-NY-ESO-1 vaccine might elicit LAGE-1 immunity and hence may be effective in multiple myeloma (MM) patients with LAGE-1-positive/NY-ESO-1-negative tumors. Therefore, we set out to evaluate LAGE-1 and NY-ESO-1 mRNA and protein expression in MM patients in a bid to evaluate possible benefits of their homology for immunotherapy. LAGE-1 (a and b isoforms) and NY-ESO-1 mRNA expression was studied in 18 normal tissues and 50 bone marrow MM samples by RT-PCR. LAGE-1 and NY-ESO-1 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 27 MM specimens using mAbs 219-510-23 and E978. Spontaneous serological immune response against both antigens was analyzed by ELISA in sera from 33 MM patients. LAGE-1 (a and b isoforms) was positive in 42% and NY-ESO-1 in 26% of the MM samples analyzed by RT-PCR. Both genes were found to be expressed in 18% of the cases, while at least one of the genes was found to be expressed in 50% of the cases. In LAGE-1 positive samples, 81% were positive for LAGE-1a and 19% were positive for both LAGE-1a and -1b. LAGE-1 and NY-ESO-1 protein expression could only be detected in two cases by IHC and there was a clear strong spontaneous antibody response to LAGE-1 and NY-ESO-1 in only one MM patient. In conclusion, LAGE-1a and NY-ESO-1 homology cannot be easily exploited in an anti-NY-ESO-1 vaccine given the low frequency of protein expression detected by IHC or serum analysis.

  12. Measurement of serum antibodies against NY-ESO-1 by ELISA: A guide for the treatment of specific immunotherapy for patients with advanced colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yan-Yan; Wang, Yu; Huang, Qian-Rong; Zheng, Guang-Shun; Jiao, Shun-Chang

    2014-10-01

    NY-ESO-1 has been identified as one of the most immunogenic antigens; thus, is a highly attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. The present study analyzed the expression of serum antibodies (Abs) against NY-ESO-1 in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC), with the aim of guiding the treatment of NY-ESO-1-based specific-immunotherapy for these patients. Furthermore, the present study was the first to evaluate the kinetic expression of anti-NY-ESO-1 Abs and investigate the possible influencing factors. A total of 239 serum samples from 155 pathologically confirmed patients with advanced CRC (stages III and IV) were collected. The presence of spontaneous Abs against NY-ESO-1 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results demonstrated that 24.5% (38/155) of the investigated patients were positive for NY-ESO-1-specific Abs. No statistically significant correlations were identified between the expression of anti-NY-ESO-1 Abs and clinicopathological parameters, including age and gender, location, grading, local infiltration, lymph node status, metastatic status and K-ras mutation status (P>0.05). In 59 patients, the kinetic expression of anti-NY-ESO-1 Abs was analyzed, of which 14 patients were initially positive and 45 patients were initially negative. Notably, 16/59 (27.1%) patients changed their expression status during the study period, and the initially positive patients were more likely to change compared with the initially negative patients (85.7 vs. 8.8%; PESO-1 by ELISA is an easy and feasible method. The high expression rate of NY-ESO-1-specific Abs in CRC patients indicates that measuring the levels of serum Abs against NY-ESO-1 may guide the treatment of NY-ESO-1-based specific immunotherapy for patients with advanced CRC.

  13. Integrated NY-ESO-1 antibody and CD8+ T-cell responses correlate with clinical benefit in advanced melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jianda; Adamow, Matthew; Ginsberg, Brian A; Rasalan, Teresa S; Ritter, Erika; Gallardo, Humilidad F; Xu, Yinyan; Pogoriler, Evelina; Terzulli, Stephanie L; Kuk, Deborah; Panageas, Katherine S; Ritter, Gerd; Sznol, Mario; Halaban, Ruth; Jungbluth, Achim A; Allison, James P; Old, Lloyd J; Wolchok, Jedd D; Gnjatic, Sacha

    2011-10-04

    Ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody against cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), has been shown to improve survival in patients with advanced metastatic melanoma. It also enhances immunity to NY-ESO-1, a cancer/testis antigen expressed in a subset of patients with melanoma. To characterize the association between immune response and clinical outcome, we first analyzed NY-ESO-1 serum antibody by ELISA in 144 ipilimumab-treated patients with melanoma and found 22 of 140 (16%) seropositive at baseline and 31 of 144 (22%) seropositive following treatment. These NY-ESO-1-seropositive patients had a greater likelihood of experiencing clinical benefit 24 wk after ipilimumab treatment than NY-ESO-1-seronegative patients (P = 0.02, relative risk = 1.8, two-tailed Fisher test). To understand why some patients with NY-ESO-1 antibody failed to experience clinical benefit, we analyzed NY-ESO-1-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses by intracellular multicytokine staining in 20 NY-ESO-1-seropositive patients and found a surprising dissociation between NY-ESO-1 antibody and CD8 responses in some patients. NY-ESO-1-seropositive patients with associated CD8(+) T cells experienced more frequent clinical benefit (10 of 13; 77%) than those with undetectable CD8(+) T-cell response (one of seven; 14%; P = 0.02; relative risk = 5.4, two-tailed Fisher test), as well as a significant survival advantage (P = 0.01; hazard ratio = 0.2, time-dependent Cox model). Together, our data suggest that integrated NY-ESO-1 immune responses may have predictive value for ipilimumab treatment and argue for prospective studies in patients with established NY-ESO-1 immunity. The current findings provide a strong rationale for the clinical use of modulators of immunosuppression with concurrent approaches to favor tumor antigen-specific immune responses, such as vaccines or adoptive transfer, in patients with cancer.

  14. Expression of NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1 cancer-testis antigens in hepatocellular carcinoma%NY-ESO-1和LAGE-1癌症-睾丸抗原在肝细胞癌的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文敏; 肖刚; 张萌; 郭爱林; 董愉; 文剑明

    2005-01-01

    目的检测NY-ESO-1和LAGE-1癌症-睾丸抗原在肝细胞癌中的表达,探讨其作为肝细胞癌免疫治疗靶标的可行性及其与肝癌生物学行为的关系.方法逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)和免疫组织化学EnVision二步法检测30例肝细胞癌新鲜标本NY-ESO-1和LAGE-1的表达;另将191例肝癌石蜡组织制成芯片观察NY-ESO-1蛋白在肝癌中的分布和表达.结果NY-ESO-1和LAGE-1基因mRNA在肝癌中的阳性表达率分别是33.3%(10/30)和16.7%(5/30),至少表达1种基因mRNA者为36.7%(11/30);NY-ESO-1蛋白主要分布在肝癌细胞胞质,有效标本中NY-ESO-1表达13.8%(24/174),小肝癌、中晚期肝癌、发生转移肝癌中的阳性表达率逐渐升高,分别为6.8%(3/44)、16.2%(21/130)、23.1%(12/52),不发生转移的肝癌仅为9.8%(12/122),其中转移组与无转移组之间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),全部病例癌组织与癌旁组织比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).NY-ESO-1蛋白的阳性表达与肿瘤大小无关,所有癌旁肝组织均未见NY-ESO-1和LAGE-1的mRNA和蛋白的表达.结论 NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1在肝细胞癌组织中的特异性表达提示其可作为肝细胞癌特异性免疫治疗潜在的靶标;NY-ESO-1在肝癌早期出现,随病情进展表达率逐步增高,转移患者最高,提示NY-ESO-1肽疫苗可能作为晚期肝癌患者治疗手段之一.

  15. Tobacco plain packaging: Evidence based policy or public health advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeganey, Neil; Russell, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    In December 2012, Australia became the first country to require all tobacco products be sold solely in standardised or 'plain' packaging, bereft of the manufacturers' trademarked branding and colours, although retaining large graphic and text health warnings. Following the publication of Sir Cyril Chantler's review of the evidence on the effects of plain tobacco packaging, the Ministers of the United Kingdom Parliament voted in March 2015 to implement similar legislation. Support for plain packaging derives from the belief that tobacco products sold in plain packs have reduced appeal and so are more likely to deter young people and non-smokers from starting tobacco use, and more likely to motivate smokers to quit and stay quit. This article considers why support for the plain packaging policy has grown among tobacco control researchers, public health advocates and government ministers, and reviews Australian survey data that speak to the possible introductory effect of plain packaging on smoking prevalence within Australia. The article concludes by emphasising the need for more detailed research to be undertaken before judging the capacity of the plain packaging policy to deliver the multitude of positive effects that have been claimed by its most ardent supporters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Resiquimod as an immunologic adjuvant for NY-ESO-1 protein vaccination in patients with high-risk melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabado, Rachel Lubong; Pavlick, Anna; Gnjatic, Sacha; Cruz, Crystal M; Vengco, Isabelita; Hasan, Farah; Spadaccia, Meredith; Darvishian, Farbod; Chiriboga, Luis; Holman, Rose Marie; Escalon, Juliet; Muren, Caroline; Escano, Crystal; Yepes, Ethel; Sharpe, Dunbar; Vasilakos, John P; Rolnitzsky, Linda; Goldberg, Judith D; Mandeli, John; Adams, Sylvia; Jungbluth, Achim; Pan, Linda; Venhaus, Ralph; Ott, Patrick A; Bhardwaj, Nina

    2015-03-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonist resiquimod has been used as an immune adjuvant in cancer vaccines. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the cancer testis antigen NY-ESO-1 given in combination with Montanide (Seppic) with or without resiquimod in patients with high-risk melanoma. In part I of the study, patients received 100 μg of full-length NY-ESO-1 protein emulsified in 1.25 mL of Montanide (day 1) followed by topical application of 1,000 mg of 0.2% resiquimod gel on days 1 and 3 (cohort 1) versus days 1, 3, and 5 (cohort 2) of a 21-day cycle. In part II, patients were randomized to receive 100-μg NY-ESO-1 protein plus Montanide (day 1) followed by topical application of placebo gel [(arm A; n = 8) or 1,000 mg of 0.2% resiquimod gel (arm B; n = 12)] using the dosing regimen established in part I. The vaccine regimens were generally well tolerated. NY-ESO-1-specific humoral responses were induced or boosted in all patients, many of whom had high titer antibodies. In part II, 16 of 20 patients in both arms had NY-ESO-1-specific CD4⁺ T-cell responses. CD8⁺ T-cell responses were only seen in 3 of 12 patients in arm B. Patients with TLR7 SNP rs179008 had a greater likelihood of developing NY-ESO-1-specific CD8⁺ responses. In conclusion, NY-ESO-1 protein in combination with Montanide with or without topical resiquimod is safe and induces both antibody and CD4⁺ T-cell responses in the majority of patients; the small proportion of CD8⁺ T-cell responses suggests that the addition of topical resiquimod to Montanide is not sufficient to induce consistent NY-ESO-1-specific CD8⁺ T-cell responses.

  17. AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors with Multi-MgxNy/GaN Buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with multi-MgxNy/GaN buffer. Compared with conventional HEMT devices with a low-temperature GaN buffer, smaller gate and source-drain leakage current could be achieved with this new buffer design. Consequently, the electron mobility was larger for the proposed device due to the reduction of defect density and the corresponding improvement of crystalline quality as result of using the multi-MgxNy/GaN buffer.

  18. Perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among Mexican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Seema; Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L; White, Christine M; Thrasher, James F

    2016-01-29

    Plain cigarette packaging, which seeks to remove all brand imagery and standardize the shape and size of cigarette packs, represents a novel policy measure to reduce the appeal of cigarettes. Plain packaging has been studied primarily in high-income countries like Australia and the UK. It is unknown whether the effects of plain packaging may differ in low-and-middle income countries with a shorter history of tobacco regulation, such as Mexico. An experimental study was conducted in Mexico City to examine perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among smoking and non-smoking Mexican adolescents (n = 359). Respondents were randomly assigned to a branded or plain pack condition and rated 12 cigarette packages for appeal, taste, harm to health and smoker-image traits. As a behavioral measure of appeal, respondents were offered (although not given) four cigarette packs (either branded or plain) and asked to select one to keep. The findings indicated that branded packs were perceived to be more appealing (β = 3.40, p < 0.001) and to contain better tasting cigarettes (β = 3.53, p < 0.001), but were not perceived as less harmful than plain packs. Participants rated people who smoke the branded packs as having relatively more positive smoker-image traits overall (β = 2.10, p < 0.001), with particularly strong differences found among non-smokers for the traits 'glamorous', 'stylish', 'popular' and 'sophisticated' (p < 0.001). No statistically significant difference was found for the proportion of youth that accepted when offered branded compared with plain packs. These results suggest that plain packaging may reduce brand appeal among Mexican youth, consistent with findings in high-income countries.

  19. Sustainable Authorship in Plain Text using Pandoc and Markdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Tenen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this tutorial, you will first learn the basics of Markdown—an easy to read and write markup syntax for plain text—as well as Pandoc, a command line tool that converts plain text into a number of beautifully formatted file types: PDF, .docx, HTML, LaTeX, slide decks, and more.1 With Pandoc as your digital typesetting tool, you can use Markdown syntax to add figures, a bibliography, formatting, and easily change citation styles from Chicago to MLA (for instance, all using plain text.

  20. Temperature Variation of Jiamusi Region in Sanjiang Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed at analysing the change characteristics of temperature in Jiamusi region of Sanjiang Plain.[Method] Based on temperature data of Jiamusi region in Sanjiang Plain from 1961 to 2010,including Jiamusi,Huanan,Fujin and Fuyuan station,we studied the change trends,abrupt climate change and abnormal years of temperature in Jiamusi region.[Result] Annual average temperature of Jiamusi region in Sanjiang Plain showed increasing trend,with the increase of 0.249-0.412 ℃/10 a.The order of an...

  1. Antigen-specific in vitro expansion of functional redirected NY-ESO-1-specific human CD8+ T-cells in a cell-free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakka, Gopinadh; Schuberth, Petra C; Thiel, Markus; Held, Gerhard; Stenner, Frank; Van Den Broek, Maries; Renner, Christoph; Mischo, Axel; Petrausch, Ulf

    2013-10-01

    Tumors can be targeted by the adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) redirected T-cells. Antigen-specific expansion protocols are needed to generate large quantities of redirected T-cells. We aimed to establish a protocol to expand functional active NY-ESO-1-specific redirected human CD8(+) T-cells. The anti-idiotypic Fab antibody A4 with specificity for HLA-A 0201/NY-ESO-1157-165 was tested by competition assays using a HLA-A 0201/NY-ESO-1157-165 tetramer. HLA-A 0201/NY-ESO-1157-165 redirected T-cells were generated, expanded and tested for CAR expression, cytokine release, in vitro cytolysis and protection against xenografted HLA-A 0201/NY-ESO-1157-165-positive multiple myeloma cells. A4 demonstrated antigen-specific binding to HLA-A 0201/NY-ESO-1157-165 redirected T-cells. Expansion with A4 resulted in 98% of HLA-A 0201/NY-ESO-1157-165 redirected T-cells. A4 induced strong proliferation, resulting in a 300-fold increase of redirected T-cells. After expansion protocols, redirected T-cells secreted Interleukin-2, (IL-2), interferon gamma (IFNγ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and lysed target cells in vitro and were protective in vivo. A4 expanded HLA-A 0201/NY-ESO-1157-165 redirected T-cells with preservation of antigen-specific function.

  2. A cancer/testis antigen, NY-SAR-35, induces EpCAM, CD44, and CD133, and activates ERK in HEK293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Myung-Ha; Kim, Ye-Rin; Bae, Jae-Ho; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Yull

    2017-03-04

    The cancer/testis (CT) antigen NY-SAR-35 gene is located on the X chromosome and is aberrantly expressed in various cancers but not in normal tissues, other than testes. Previously, we reported the expression of NY-SAR-35 enhanced cell growth, proliferation, and invasion in HEK293 and cancer cells. To extend understanding of the NY-SAR-35 gene, we used a next generation sequencing (NGS) approach. NY-SAR-35 expression induced growth, proliferation, metastasis, and stemness genes, as indicated by the up-regulations of CXCR4, EpCAM, CD133, and CD44, at the mRNA and protein levels. The expression of NY-SAR-35 in HEK293 cells significantly increased ERK phosphorylation, but not the phosphorylation of AKT. In HEK293/NY-SAR-35 cells, the expressions of pro-apoptotic proteins, including p53, Bax, and p21, were reduced and that of cyclin E was increased. Also, NY-SAR-35 increased the expressions of pluripotency genes (Nanog, Oct-4, and Sox2) and the ability of HEK293 cells to form colonies. Taken together, the present study indicates NY-SAR-35 functions as a CT antigen that triggers oncogenesis and self-renewal.

  3. Allorestricted T lymphocytes with a high avidity T-cell receptor towards NY-ESO-1 have potent anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krönig, Holger; Hofer, Kathrin; Conrad, Heinke; Guilaume, Philippe; Müller, Julia; Schiemann, Matthias; Lennerz, Volker; Cosma, Antonio; Peschel, Christian; Busch, Dirk H; Romero, Pedro; Bernhard, Helga

    2009-08-01

    The cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 has been targeted as a tumor-associated antigen by immunotherapeutical strategies, such as cancer vaccines. The prerequisite for a T-cell-based therapy is the induction of T cells capable of recognizing the NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cells. In this study, we generated human T lymphocytes directed against the immunodominant NY-ESO-1(157-165) epitope known to be naturally presented with HLA-A*0201. We succeeded to isolate autorestricted and allorestricted T lymphocytes with low, intermediate or high avidity TCRs against the NY-ESO-1 peptide. The avidity of the established CTL populations correlated with their capacity of lysing HLA-A2-positive, NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cell lines derived from different origins, e.g. melanoma and myeloma. The allorestricted NY-ESO-1-specific T lymphocytes displayed TCRs with the highest avidity and best anti-tumor recognition activity. TCRs derived from allorestricted, NY-ESO-1-specific T cells may be useful reagents for redirecting primary T cells by TCR gene transfer and, therefore, may facilitate the development of adoptive transfer regimens based on TCR-transduced T cells for the treatment of NY-ESO-1-expressing hematological malignancies and solid tumors.

  4. EPA Proposes to Add Dutchess County Creek, N.Y. to the Federal Superfund List, Sediment Contaminated with Mercury, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today proposed adding the Wappinger Creek in Dutchess County, N.Y. to its Superfund National Priorities List of the country's most hazardous waste sites. Sediment within the two mile long tidal port

  5. pCDNA3.1/NY-ESO-1真核表达质粒的构建及在肝癌细胞系HepG2中稳定高表达%To construct the eukaryotic expression plasmid pCDNA3.1/NY-ESO-1 and to establish a NY-ESO-1 highly expressed HepG2 cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐珩; 杨硕; 顾娜; 冯丹丹; 闾军; 汪思应

    2010-01-01

    目的 建立癌-睾丸抗原NY-ESO-1稳定表达的HepG2肝癌细胞系.方法 设计NY-ESO-1的引物,PCR法从NY-ESO-1阳性表达的睾丸癌组织中扩增出目的片段,克隆至T载体,双酶切后定向连入pCDNA3.1载体,构建pCDNA3.1/NY-ESO-1真核表达质粒.经酶切、PCR、测序检测其构建的正确性,脂质体转染法将重组质粒转入HepG2细胞,G418药物筛选出稳定转染的细胞系,RT-PCR法、间接免疫荧光法分别检测稳定转染HepG2细胞中NY-ESO-1基因、蛋白的表达水平.结果 构建的pCDNA3.1/NY-ESO-1质粒经酶切、测序等检验表明质粒构建成功,筛选获得稳定高表达NY-ESO-1的HepG2细胞.结论 构建了pCDNA3.1/NY-ESO-1真核表达质粒及稳定高表达NY-ESO-1的HepG2细胞株,为下一步以NY-ESO-1为靶标进行肝癌的抗原特异性免疫治疗研究奠定了实验基础.

  6. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task

  7. NY-ESO-1抗原的基础与临床研究进展%Current advances in basic and clinical study of NY-ESO-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞淦军

    2015-01-01

    NY-ESO-1是癌-睾丸抗原家族中的重要一员,在多种肿瘤组织中广泛表达,但在正常组织中几乎不表达.目前已经发现了20多个抗原表位,并在多种肿瘤患者体内检测到自发性免疫反应,包括体液和细胞免疫反应,NY-ESO-1的表达及体内自发性免疫应答被证实与肿瘤的诊断和预后有重要关联.NY-ESO-1被认为是肿瘤免疫治疗的理想靶抗原,以NY-ESO-1抗原为靶点的肿瘤治疗性疫苗、TCR基因修饰的T细胞、CAR修饰的T细胞等临床研究相继开展,展示了良好的前景.

  8. From single-site tantalum complexes to nanoparticles of TaxNy and TaOxNy supported on silica: elucidation of synthesis chemistry by dynamic nuclear polarization surface enhanced NMR spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Mohandas, Janet Chakkamadathil

    2017-06-08

    Air-stable catalysts consisting of tantalum nitride nanoparticles represented as a mixture of TaxNy and TaOxNy with diameters in the range of 0.5 to 3 nm supported on highly dehydroxylated silica were synthesized from TaMe5 (Me = methyl) and dimeric Ta-2(OMe)(10) with guidance by the principles of surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC). Characterization of the supported precursors and the supported nanoparticles formed from them was carried out by IR, NMR, UV-Vis, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies complemented with XRD and high-resolution TEM, with dynamic nuclear polarization surface enhanced NMR spectroscopy being especially helpful by providing enhanced intensities of the signals of H-1, C-13, Si-29, and N-15 at their natural abundances. The characterization data provide details of the synthesis chemistry, including evidence of (a) O-2 insertion into Ta-CH3 species on the support and (b) a binuclear to mononuclear transformation of species formed from Ta-2(OMe)(10) on the support. A catalytic test reaction, cyclooctene epoxidation, was used to probe the supported nanoparticles, with 30% H2O2 serving as the oxidant. The catalysts gave selectivities up to 98% for the epoxide at conversions as high as 99% with a 3.4 wt% loading of Ta present as TaxNy/TaOxNy.

  9. 5-Aza-CdR induced expression of NY-ESO-1 antigen in tumor cells%5-Aza-CdR诱导肿瘤细胞NY-ESO-1抗原的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈裕庆; 黄丽; 汪晓军; 张文敏

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨甲基化抑制剂5-氮杂-2'-脱氧胞苷(5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine,5-Aza-CdR)对肿瘤细胞中NY-ESO-1抗原表达的诱导作用.方法:常规培养人胃癌细胞株SGC-7901、人肝癌细胞株H2P和MHCC97-H、人结肠癌细胞株HT-29和LoVo及人脑胶质瘤细胞株U251,RT-PCR和免疫细胞化学法检测5-Aza-CdR作用前后肿瘤细胞中NY-ESO-1 mRNA和蛋白的表达.结果:RT-PCR与免疫细胞化学检测仅见胃癌SGC-7901细胞阳性表达NY-ESO-1,其余5株肿瘤细胞不表达NY-ESO-1.NY-ESO-1阴性的肝癌细胞株H2P、结肠癌细胞株LoVo及脑胶质瘤细胞株U251经5-Aza-CdR(终浓度分别为1、5和10 μmol/L)处理6 d后,细胞形态和生长速度均无明显改变,而NY-ESO-1 mRNA和蛋白均被诱导为阳性表达,并随5-Aza-CdR浓度增加而阳性表达逐渐增强.结论:5-Aza-CdR能诱导肝癌、结肠癌、脑胶质瘤等肿瘤细胞中NY-ESO-1抗原的表达,为肿瘤免疫治疗提供了一条新思路.

  10. The Great Plains IDEA Gerontology Program: An Online, Interinstitutional Graduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gregory F.

    2011-01-01

    The Great-Plains IDEA Gerontology Program is a graduate program developed and implemented by the Great Plains Interactive Distance Education Alliance (Great Plains IDEA). The Great Plains IDEA (Alliance) originated as a consortium of Colleges of Human Sciences ranging across the central United States. This Alliance's accomplishments have included…

  11. The Great Plains IDEA Gerontology Program: An Online, Interinstitutional Graduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gregory F.

    2011-01-01

    The Great-Plains IDEA Gerontology Program is a graduate program developed and implemented by the Great Plains Interactive Distance Education Alliance (Great Plains IDEA). The Great Plains IDEA (Alliance) originated as a consortium of Colleges of Human Sciences ranging across the central United States. This Alliance's accomplishments have included…

  12. Level III Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions for the Mississippi Alluvial Plain were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in...

  13. Level IV Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions for the Mississippi Alluvial Plain were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in...

  14. Snake River Plain Basin-fill aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Snake River Plain aquifer system, which includes both the basaltic and basin-fill aquifers. This dataset does not...

  15. Particulate Loads Caused by Wind Erosion in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Lawrence J.; Woodruff, Neil P.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the annual flux of suspended particulates caused by wind erosion in the Great Plains is estimated. This study demonstrated that climate causes wide variations in air pollution from wind erosion. (BT)

  16. Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was constructed by standardizing and extrapolating previous physiographic interpretations for areas within and...

  17. Subcropping Geology for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Subcropping geology for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was compiled and interpreted from available published sources. Formation contacts were interpolated across...

  18. Whooping crane stopover site use intensity within the Great Plains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Whooping cranes (Grus americana) of the Aransas- Wood Buffalo population migrate twice each year through the Great Plains in North America. Recovery activities for...

  19. Southern Great Plains rapid ecoregional assessment : Pre-assessment report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Pre-Assessment Report for the Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to document the selection process for and final list of...

  20. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car...

  1. Aerial Images of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain; 1974-1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is comprised of 10 aerial images of three different study areas on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain flown by NASA in 1974, 1977, 1979 and obtained from the...

  2. Vegetation - Carrizo Plain ER, 2005 - 2008 [ds561

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Vegetation Map of the Carrizo Plain Ecological Reserve, San Luis Obispo County, California was created by the California Department of Fish and Game (DFG)...

  3. Base of aquifer contours for the Northern High Plains aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Several pre-existing datasets that characterize portions of the Northern High Plains aquifer base were merged together in order to define the entire base of the...

  4. Analysis of High Plains Resource Risk and Economic Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dealy, Bern Caudill [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaneyfelt, Calvin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Braeton James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moreland, Barbara Denise [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the High Plains Aquifer is broadly recognized as is its vulnerability to continued overuse. T his study e xplore s how continued depletions of the High Plains Aquifer might impact both critical infrastructure and the economy at the local, r egional , and national scale. This analysis is conducted at the county level over a broad geographic region within the states of Kansas and Nebraska. In total , 140 counties that overlie the High Plains Aquifer in these two states are analyzed. The analysis utilizes future climate projections to estimate crop production. Current water use and management practices are projected into the future to explore their related impact on the High Plains Aquifer , barring any changes in water management practices, regulat ion, or policy. Finally, the impact of declining water levels and even exhaustion of groundwater resources are projected for specific sectors of the economy as well as particular elements of the region's critical infrastructure.

  5. 2003 Pearl River County, Mississippi Lidar: Flood Plain Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This lidar data was collected primarily for flood plain mapping within Pearl River County, MS. The data were processed into separate Bare Earth and First Surface...

  6. Comprehensive adipocytic and neurogenic tissue microarray analysis of NY-ESO-1 expression - a promising immunotherapy target in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and liposarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurell, Elizabeth; Vergara-Lluri, Maria E; Li, Yunfeng; Crompton, Joseph G; Singh, Arun; Bernthal, Nicholas; Wu, Hong; Eilber, Fritz C; Dry, Sarah M

    2016-11-08

    Immunotherapy targeting cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 shows promise for tumors with poor response to chemoradiation. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) and liposarcomas (LPS) are chemoresistant and have few effective treatment options. Materials Methods: Using a comprehensive tissue microarray (TMA) of both benign and malignant tumors in primary, recurrent, and metastatic samples, we examined NY-ESO-1 expression in peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST) and adipocytic tumors. The PNST TMA included 42 MPNSTs (spontaneous n = 26, NF1-associated n = 16), 35 neurofibromas (spontaneous n = 22, NF-1 associated n = 13), 11 schwannomas, and 18 normal nerves. The LPS TMA included 48 well-differentiated/dedifferentiated (WD/DD) LPS, 13 myxoid/round cell LPS, 3 pleomorphic LPS, 8 lipomas, 1 myelolipoma, and 3 normal adipocytic tissue samples. Stained in triplicate, NY-ESO-1 intensity and density were scored. NY-ESO-1 expression was exclusive to malignant tumors. 100% of myxoid/round cell LPS demonstrated NY-ESO-1 expression, while only 6% of WD/DD LPS showed protein expression, one of which was WD LPS. Of MPNST, 4/26 (15%) spontaneous and 2/16 (12%) NF1-associated MPNSTs demonstrated NY-ESO-1 expression. Strong NY-ESO-1 expression was observed in myxoid/round cell and dedifferentiated LPS, and MPNST in primary, neoadjuvant, and metastatic settings. We found higher prevalence of NY-ESO-1 expression in MPNSTs than previously reported, highlighting a subset of MPNST patients who may benefit from immunotherapy. This study expands our understanding of NY-ESO-1 in WD/DD LPS and is the first demonstration of staining in a WD LPS and metastatic/recurrent myxoid/round cell LPS. These results suggest immunotherapy targeting NY-ESO-1 may benefit patients with aggressive tumors resistant to conventional therapy.

  7. Treatment with 5-Aza-2'-Deoxycytidine Induces Expression of NY-ESO-1 and Facilitates Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Mediated Tumor Cell Killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klar, Agnes S; Gopinadh, Jakka; Kleber, Sascha; Wadle, Andreas; Renner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    NY-ESO-1 belongs to the cancer/testis antigen (CTA) family and represents an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. Its expression is induced in a variety of solid tumors via DNA demethylation of the promoter of CpG islands. However, NY-ESO-1 expression is usually very low or absent in some tumors such as breast cancer or multiple myeloma. Therefore, we established an optimized in vitro treatment protocol for up-regulation of NY-ESO-1 expression by tumor cells using the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC). We demonstrated de novo induction of NY-ESO-1 in MCF7 breast cancer cells and significantly increased expression in U266 multiple myeloma cells. This effect was time- and dose-dependent with the highest expression of NY-ESO-1 mRNA achieved by the incubation of 10 μM DAC for 72 hours. NY-ESO-1 activation was also confirmed at the protein level as shown by Western blot, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence staining. The detection and quantification of single NY-ESO-1 peptides presented at the tumor cell surface in the context of HLA-A*0201 molecules revealed an increase of 100% and 50% for MCF7 and U266 cells, respectively. Moreover, the enhanced expression of NY-ESO-1 derived peptides at the cell surface was accompanied by an increased specific lysis of MCF7 and U266 cells by HLA-A*0201/NY-ESO-1(157-165) peptide specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) CD8+ T cells. In addition, the killing activity of CAR T cells correlated with the secretion of higher IFN-gamma levels. These results indicate that NY-ESO-1 directed immunotherapy with specific CAR T cells might benefit from concomitant DAC treatment.

  8. Treatment with 5-Aza-2'-Deoxycytidine Induces Expression of NY-ESO-1 and Facilitates Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Mediated Tumor Cell Killing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S Klar

    Full Text Available NY-ESO-1 belongs to the cancer/testis antigen (CTA family and represents an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. Its expression is induced in a variety of solid tumors via DNA demethylation of the promoter of CpG islands. However, NY-ESO-1 expression is usually very low or absent in some tumors such as breast cancer or multiple myeloma. Therefore, we established an optimized in vitro treatment protocol for up-regulation of NY-ESO-1 expression by tumor cells using the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC.We demonstrated de novo induction of NY-ESO-1 in MCF7 breast cancer cells and significantly increased expression in U266 multiple myeloma cells. This effect was time- and dose-dependent with the highest expression of NY-ESO-1 mRNA achieved by the incubation of 10 μM DAC for 72 hours. NY-ESO-1 activation was also confirmed at the protein level as shown by Western blot, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence staining. The detection and quantification of single NY-ESO-1 peptides presented at the tumor cell surface in the context of HLA-A*0201 molecules revealed an increase of 100% and 50% for MCF7 and U266 cells, respectively. Moreover, the enhanced expression of NY-ESO-1 derived peptides at the cell surface was accompanied by an increased specific lysis of MCF7 and U266 cells by HLA-A*0201/NY-ESO-1(157-165 peptide specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR CD8+ T cells. In addition, the killing activity of CAR T cells correlated with the secretion of higher IFN-gamma levels.These results indicate that NY-ESO-1 directed immunotherapy with specific CAR T cells might benefit from concomitant DAC treatment.

  9. Bliv iværksætter ved at etablere en ny spin-off-virksomhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Ann Højbjerg; Evald, Majbritt Rostgaard; Jensen, Kent Wickstrøm;

    2007-01-01

    eller flere iværksættere kan arbejde med spin-off-aktiviteter. Redskabet er opdelt i syv trin. Hvert trin tager fat på konkrete aktiviteter, som erhvervskonsulenten i samarbejde med en iværksætter kan gennemføre for at blive mere bevidst om, hvordan en attraktiv forretningside kan omdannes til en ny...... potentiel spin-off-virksomhed. Denne del af rapporten er oplagt at tage fat på, uanset hvor meget erfaring og viden erhvervskonsulenten har om spin-off-aktiviteter. I indholdsfortegnelsen starter denne del af rapporten med afsnittet "Arbejdsmetoden for de syv trin: Den udførlige model" og ender efter...... gennemgangen af de syv trin. Anden del i rapporten er i indholdsfortegnelsen markeret med en ramme....

  10. Manufacturing of HfOxNy films using reactive magnetron sputtering for ISFET application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firek, Piotr; Wysokiński, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Hafnium Oxide-Nitride films were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering in O2/N2/Ar gas mixture. Deposition was planned according to Taguchi optimization method. Morphology of fabricated layers was tested using AFM technique (Ra=0.2÷1,0 nm). Thickness of HfOXNY films was measured using spectroscopic ellipsometry (t=45÷54 nm). Afterwards MIS structures were created by Al metallization process then layers were electrically characterised using I-V and C-V measurements. This allowed to calculate the electrical parameters of layers such as: flat-band voltage UFB, dielectric constant Ki, interface state trap density Dit and effective charge Qeff. Subsequently, deposited HfOxNy layers were annealed in PDA process (40 min 400 °C 100% N2) after which the electrical characterization was performed again.

  11. Bárány's theory is right, but incomplete. An experimental study in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wit, H P; Spoelstra, H A; Segenhout, J M

    1990-01-01

    The horizontal semicircular canal in pigeons was thermally stimulated with a miniature Peltier-element device. Sound evoked electric responses from the vestibular organ were modulated by the caloric stimulus. Experiments were performed under minimal influence of gravity, (horizontal canals in horizontal plane), and with the pigeons head tilted forwards or backwards. On the basis of the results it was concluded that the influence of gravity can be described by Bárány's convection theory. Extra effects are, however, present and they are most probably partly of mechanical origin (fluid expansion) and partly due to a direct influence of temperature on the vestibular receptors. Further experiments are needed to investigate the origin of these extra effects in more detail.

  12. Polar cloud observatory at Ny-Ålesund in GRENE Arctic Climate Change Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Takashi; Takano, Toshiaki; Shiobara, Masataka; Okamoto, Hajime; Koike, Makoto; Ukita, Jinro

    2016-04-01

    Cloud is one of the main processes in the climate system and especially a large feed back agent for Arctic warming amplification (Yoshimori et al., 2014). From this reason, observation of polar cloud has been emphasized and 95 GHz cloud profiling radar in high precision was established at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard in 2013 as one of the basic infrastructure in the GRENE (Green Network of Excellence Program) Arctic Climate Change Research Project. The radar, "FALCON-A", is a FM-CW (frequency modulated continuous wave) Doppler radar, developed for Arctic use by Chiba University (PI: T. Takano) in 2012, following its prototype, "FALCON-1" which was developed in 2006 (Takano et al., 2010). The specifications of the radar are, central frequency: 94.84 GHz; antenna power: 1 W; observation height: up to 15 km; range resolution: 48 m; beam width: 0.2 degree (15 m at 5 km); Doppler width: 3.2 m/s; time interval: 10 sec, and capable of archiving high sensitivity and high spatial and time resolution. An FM-CW type radar realizes similar sensitivity with much smaller parabolic antennas separated 1.4 m from each other used for transmitting and receiving the wave. Polarized Micro-Pulse Lidar (PMPL, Sigma Space MPL-4B-IDS), which is capable to measure the backscatter and depolarization ratio, has also been deployed to Ny-Ålesund in March 2012, and now operated to perform collocated measurements with FALCON-A. Simultaneous measurement data from collocated PMPL and FALCON-A are available for synergetic analyses of cloud microphysics. Cloud mycrophysics, such as effective radius of ice particles and ice water content, are obtained from the analysis based on algorithm, which is modified for ground-based measurements from Okamoto's retrieval algorithm for satellite based cloud profiling radar and lidar (CloudSat and CALIPSO; Okamoto et al., 2010). Results of two years will be shown in the presentation. Calibration is a point to derive radar reflectivity (dBZ) from original intensity data

  13. Observations of stratospheric ozone above Ny-Ålesund in the Arctic, 2010-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yuhan; SI Fuqi; LIU Wenqing; SUN Liguang; LIU Yi

    2015-01-01

    Stratosphere ozone depletion above the Arctic region has drawn increased attention recently. Here we present stratospheric ozone column densities above Ny-Ålesund in the Arctic during summer 2010 and 2011, based on a self-developed passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. By analyzing the received scattered solar spectrum, daily variations of ozone vertical column densities (VCDs) were obtained and correlated with satellite-borne ozone monitoring results and ozone sonde data. The comparisons showed good correlation, conifrming the feasibility of DOAS in high-latitude Arctic regions. The preliminary analysis also demonstrated that abnormal low-level ozone columns found in spring 2011 had negative impacts on total ozone column densities over the entire year. The loss of stratospheric ozone may be correlated with low stratospheric temperatures, where heterogeneous atmospheric reactions were active.

  14. QUEST-lærere fra Holstebro får ny naturfags”trailer” i spil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Troels; Sørensen, Allan; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund;

    2015-01-01

    Ungdomsskolen i Holstebro fik mulighed for at udstyre en ny naturfagstrailer til brug for kommunens naturfagslærere. I den forbindelse var det oplagt at anvende netværket fra to år i QUEST projektet. Derfor har naturfagslærere på efteruddannelse i QUEST målsat, designet og afprøvet undervisningsi...

  15. En ny historie om guld og svovl - guld-svovlbindingen i thiolers adsorption på guldnanopartikler og plane guldoverflader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Qijin; Ford, Michael J.; Halder, Arnab;

    2016-01-01

    En netop publiceret større australsk-dansk undersøgelse giver ny indsigt i, hvordan thioldækkede Au-overflader er opbygget. Det har betydning for design, syntese og dannelsesmekanismer for Au-nanopartikler og Au-overflader med skræddersyede fysiske og kemiske egenskaber....

  16. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal” when used in this section will mean all of the Black Rock Waterway, including Black Rock Lock, and...

  17. Nano-Crystallization of High-Entropy Amorphous NbTiAlSiWxNy Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High-entropy amorphous NbTiAlSiWxNy films (x = 0 or 1, i.e., NbTiAlSiNy and NbTiAlSiWNy were prepared by magnetron sputtering method in the atmosphere of a mixture of N2 + Ar (N2 + Ar = 24 standard cubic centimeter per minute (sccm, where N2 = 0, 4, and 8 sccm. All the as-deposited films present amorphous structures, which remain stable at 700 °C for over 24 h. After heat treatment at 1000 °C the films began to crystalize, and while the NbTiAlSiNy films (N2 = 4, 8 sccm exhibit a face-centered cubic (FCC structure, the NbTiAlSiW metallic films show a body-centered cubic (BCC structure and then transit into a FCC structure composed of nanoscaled particles with increasing nitrogen flow rate. The hardness and modulus of the as-deposited NbTiAlSiNy films reach maximum values of 20.5 GPa and 206.8 GPa, respectively. For the as-deposited NbTiAlSiWNy films, both modulus and hardness increased to maximum values of 13.6 GPa and 154.4 GPa, respectively, and then decrease as the N2 flow rate is increased. Both films could be potential candidates for protective coatings at high temperature.

  18. MAGE-A1, GAGE and NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigen expression during human gonadal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Ole;

    2007-01-01

    by single and double immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: We found that GAGE was expressed in the primordial germ cells of the gonadal primordium, whereas MAGE-A1 and NY-ESO-1 were first detected in germ cells of both testis and ovary after sexual differentiation was initiated. The number of positive germ...

  19. Expression of MAGE-A3, NY-ESO-1, LAGE-1 and PRAME in urothelial carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Zieger, K; Kissow Lildal, T;

    2012-01-01

    Background: The potential for cancer-testis (CT) antigens as targets for immunotherapy in cancer patients has been heavily investigated, and currently cancer vaccine trials based on the CT antigens, MAGE-A3 and NY-ESO-1, are being carried out. Methods: We used specific q-RT-PCR assays to analyse...... the expression of the CT genes MAGE-A3, NY-ESO-1 (CTAG1B), LAGE-1 (CTAG2) and PRAME in a panel of bladder tumours from 350 patients with long-term follow-up and detailed treatment information. Results: Overall, 43% of the tumours expressed MAGE-A3, 35% expressed NY-ESO-1, 27% expressed LAGE-1 and 20% expressed...... PRAME. In all, 56% of the tumours expressed at least one of the CT genes analysed. Univariate Cox regression analysis of CT gene expression in non-muscle-invasive tumours showed that expression of MAGE-A3 (P=0.026), LAGE-1 (P=0.001) and NY-ESO-1 (P=0.040) was significantly associated with a shorter...

  20. Development and Initial Validation of the NyTid Test: A Movement Assessment Tool for Compulsory School Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidén, Anna; Lundqvist, Carolina; Nyberg, Marie

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the development process and initial validation of the NyTid test, a process-oriented movement assessment tool for compulsory school pupils. A sample of 1,260 (627 girls and 633 boys; mean age of 14.39) Swedish school children participated in the study. In the first step, exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) were performed in…