WorldWideScience

Sample records for plain horizontal tubes

  1. Horizontal beam tubes in FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coors, D.; Vanvor, D.

    2001-01-01

    The new research reactor in Garching FRM-II is equipped with 10 leak tight horizontal beam tubes (BT1 - BT10), each of them consisting of a beam tube structure taking an insert with neutron channels. The design of all beam tube structures is similar whereas the inserts are adapted to the special requirements of the using of each beam tube. Inside the reflector tank the beam tube structures are shaped by the inner cones which are made of Al-alloy with circular and rectangular cross sections. They are located in the region of maximum neutron flux (exception BT10), they are directly connected to the flanges of the reflector tank, their lengths are about 1.5 m (exception BT10) and their axes are directed tagentially to the core centre thus contributing to a low γ-noise at the experiments. (orig.)

  2. Sea water desalination by horizontal tubes evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, H.K.; Mohit, M.

    1986-01-01

    Desalinated water supplies are one of the problems of the nuclear power plants located by the seas. This paper explains saline water desalination by a Horizontal Tube Evaporator (HTE) and compares it with flash evaporation. A thermo compressor research project using HTE method has been designed, constructed, and operated at the Esfahan Nuclear Technology Center ENTC. The poject's ultimate goal is to obtain empirical formulae based on data gathered during operation of the unit and its subsequent development towards design and construction of desalination plants on an industrial scale

  3. Sheared bioconvection in a horizontal tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croze, O. A.; Ashraf, E. E.; Bees, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    The recent interest in using microorganisms for biofuels is motivation enough to study bioconvection and cell dispersion in tubes subject to imposed flow. To optimize light and nutrient uptake, many microorganisms swim in directions biased by environmental cues (e.g. phototaxis in algae and chemotaxis in bacteria). Such taxes inevitably lead to accumulations of cells, which, as many microorganisms have a density different to the fluid, can induce hydrodynamic instabilites. The large-scale fluid flow and spectacular patterns that arise are termed bioconvection. However, the extent to which bioconvection is affected or suppressed by an imposed fluid flow and how bioconvection influences the mean flow profile and cell transport are open questions. This experimental study is the first to address these issues by quantifying the patterns due to suspensions of the gravitactic and gyrotactic green biflagellate alga Chlamydomonas in horizontal tubes subject to an imposed flow. With no flow, the dependence of the dominant pattern wavelength at pattern onset on cell concentration is established for three different tube diameters. For small imposed flows, the vertical plumes of cells are observed merely to bow in the direction of flow. For sufficiently high flow rates, the plumes progressively fragment into piecewise linear diagonal plumes, unexpectedly inclined at constant angles and translating at fixed speeds. The pattern wavelength generally grows with flow rate, with transitions at critical rates that depend on concentration. Even at high imposed flow rates, bioconvection is not wholly suppressed and perturbs the flow field.

  4. Boiling heat transfer on horizontal tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Nucleate boiling heat transfer characteristics for a tube in a bundle differ from that for a single tube in a pool and this difference is known as 'tube bundle effect.' There exist two bundle effects, positive and negative. The positive bundle effect enhances heat transfer due to convective flow induced by rising bubbles generated from the lower tubes, while the negative bundle effect deteriorates heat transfer due to vapor blanketing caused by accumulation of bubbles. Staggered tube bundles tested and found that the upper tubes in bundles have higher heat transfer coefficients than the lower tubes. The effects of various parameters such as pressure, tube geometry and oil contamination on heat transfer have been examined. Some workers attempted to clarify the mechanism of occurrence of 'bundle effect' by testing tube arrangements of small scale. All reported only enhancement in heat transfer but results showed the symptom of heat transfer deterioration at higher heat fluxes. As mentioned above, it has not been clarified so far even whether the 'tube bundle effect' should serve as enhancement or deterioration of heat transfer in nucleate boiling. In this study, experiments are performed in detail by using bundles of small scale, and effects of heat flux distribution, pressure and tube location are clarified. Furthermore, some consideration on the mechanisms of occurrence of 'tube bundle effect' is made and a method for prediction of heat transfer rate is proposed

  5. Composite Coiled Tubing for Extended Reach in Horizontal Oil Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costache, Andrei; Berggreen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Conventional steel coiled tubing cannot reach along the entire length of very long horizontal oil wells. A lighter and more buoyant coiled tube is made possible using composite materials. The high stiffness to weight ratio of fiber reinforced polymers, coupled with a lower coefficient of friction......, has the potential of greatly extending the reach in horizontal oil wells. This study shows how to design composite coiled tubing and gives a comprehensive discussion about the most influential parameters. Several solutions, using glass-fiber and carbon are considered. Finite element models are used...

  6. Falling film flow, heat transfer and breakdown on horizontal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.T.

    1980-11-01

    Knowledge of falling film flow and heat transfer characteristics on horizontal tubes is required in the assessment of certain CANDU reactor accident sequences for those CANDU reactors which use moderator dump as one of the shut-down mechanisms. In these reactors, subsequent cooling of the calandria tubes is provided by falling films produced by sprays. This report describes studies of falling film flow and heat transfer characteristics on horizontal tubes. Analyses using integral methods are given for laminar and turbulent flow, ignoring and accounting for momentum effects in the film. Preliminary experiments on film flow stability on horizontal tubes are described and various mechanisms of film breakdown are examined. The work described in this report shows that in LOCA with indefinitely delayed ECI in the NPD or Douglas Point (at 70 percent power) reactors, the falling films on the calandria tubes will not be disrupted by any of the mechanisms considered, provided that the pressure tubes do not sag onto the calandria tubes. However, should the pressure tubes sag onto the calandria tubes, film disruption will probably occur

  7. Falling film evaporation on a tube bundle with plain and enhanced tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habert, M.

    2009-04-01

    The complexities of two-phase flow and evaporation on a tube bundle present important problems in the design of heat exchangers and the understanding of the physical phenomena taking place. The development of structured surfaces to enhance boiling heat transfer and thus reduce the size of evaporators adds another level of complexity to the modeling of such heat exchangers. Horizontal falling film evaporators have the potential to be widely used in large refrigeration systems and heat pumps, in the petrochemical industry and for sea water desalination units, but there is a need to improve the understanding of falling film evaporation mechanisms to provide accurate thermal design methods. The characterization of the effect of enhanced surfaces on the boiling phenomena occurring in falling film evaporators is thus expected to increase and optimize the performance of a tube bundle. In this work, the existing LTCM falling film facility was modified and instrumented to perform falling film evaporation measurements on single tube row and a small tube bundle. Four types of tubes were tested including: a plain tube, an enhanced condensing tube (Gewa-C+LW) and two enhanced boiling tubes (Turbo-EDE2 and Gewa-B4) to extend the existing database. The current investigation includes results for two refrigerants, R134a and R236fa, at a saturation temperature of T sat = 5 °C, liquid film Reynolds numbers ranging from 0 to 3000, at heat fluxes between 20 and 60 kW/m² in pool boiling and falling film configurations. Measurements of the local heat transfer coefficient were obtained and utilized to improve the current prediction methods. Finally, the understanding of the physical phenomena governing the falling film evaporation of liquid refrigerants has been improved. Furthermore, a method for predicting the onset of dry patch formation has been developed and a local heat transfer prediction method for falling film evaporation based on a large experimental database has been proposed

  8. Condensation Analysis of Steam/Air Mixtures in Horizontal Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwon Yeong; Bae, Sung Won; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2008-01-01

    Perhaps the most common flow configuration in which a convective condensation occurs is a flow in a horizontal circular tube. This configuration is encountered in air-conditioning and refrigeration condensers as well as condensers in Rankine power cycles. Although a convective condensation is also sometimes contrived to occur in a co-current vertical downward flow, a horizontal flow is often preferred because the flow can be repeatedly passed through the heat exchanger core in a serpentine fashion without trapping liquid or vapor in the return bends. Many researchers have investigated a in-tube condensation for horizontal heat exchangers. However, almost all of them obtained tube section-averaged data without a noncondensable gas. Recently, Wu and Vierow have experimentally studied the condensation of steam in a horizontal heat exchanger with air present. In order to measure the condenser tube inner surface temperatures and to calculate the local heat fluxes, they developed an innovative thermocouple design that allowed for nonintrusive measurements. Here we developed a theoretical model using the heat and mass analogy to analyze a steam condensation with a noncondensable gas in horizontal tubes

  9. Nucleate boiling heat transfer on horizontal tubes in bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujital, Y.; Ohta, H.; Hidaka, S.; Nishikawa, K.

    1986-01-01

    In order to clarify the heat transfer mechanisms of the flooded type horizontal tube bundle evaporator, heat transfer characteristics of tube bundles of experimental scale which consist both of smooth and enhanced tubes were investigated in detail. The experiments of saturated nucleate boiling were performed by using Freon 113 under pressures 0.1 to 1 MPa, and the effects of various parameters, for example, bundle arrangement, heat flux, pressure on the characteristics of an individual tube are clarified. Experimental data is reproduced well by a proposed heat transfer model in which convective heat transfer coefficients due to rising bubbles are estimated as a function of their volumetric flow rate

  10. Destruction of the arid plains by tubing in Kalmykia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Chichagov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The expedition researches results of natural state after functioning of the water and oil extraction tubes on the territory of Kalmykia republic. It’s shown that any linear destroyment of the North-West Caspian plain makes complex activity of exogenic processes, main of which are: erosion, suffusion and deflation.

  11. A review on critical heat flux in horizontal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baburajan, P.K.; Gaikwad, Avinash; Prabhu, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    Coolant channels of PHWR during accident similar to loss of coolant accident (LOCA) may experience different flow transients with low pressure and low flow conditions. In the advanced PHWRs it is desired to have small amount of positive quality at the exit of the coolant channel to increase the thermal efficiency. Investigation on pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient under subcooled boiling condition is important in the design and operation of the PHWRs. Understanding of thermal hydraulic phenomena associated with horizontal flow is also important in the safety and accident management in these reactors. A detailed experimental investigation on the important thermal hydraulic phenomena of horizontal tubes under low pressure and low flow conditions is carried out. The phenomena covered in this work are measurement of diabatic single phase and subcooled boiling pressure drop and local heat transfer coefficients, steady state CHF, effect of upstream flow restrictions on flow transients and CHF, CHF under oscillatory flow and flow decreasing transients. A detailed literature review is carried out on CHF in horizontal channels to take stock of the works being carried out along with current state of the art and to justify the motivation for the experimental study. This paper presents the review of available literature on horizontal CHF with the results of the experimental work. (author)

  12. Maximum allowable heat flux for a submerged horizontal tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEligot, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    For application to industrial heating of large pools by immersed heat exchangers, the socalled maximum allowable (or open-quotes criticalclose quotes) heat flux is studied for unconfined tube bundles aligned horizontally in a pool without forced flow. In general, we are considering boiling after the pool reaches its saturation temperature rather than sub-cooled pool boiling which should occur during early stages of transient operation. A combination of literature review and simple approximate analysis has been used. To date our main conclusion is that estimates of q inch chf are highly uncertain for this configuration

  13. Condensation heat transfer of steam on a single horizontal tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, K. A.

    1983-06-01

    An experimental apparatus was designed, constructed and instrumented in an effort to systematically and carefully study the condensation heat-transfer coefficient on a single, horizontal tube. A smooth, thick-walled copper tube of length 133.5 mm, with an outside diameter of 15.9 mm and an inside diameter of 12.7 mm was instrumented with six wall thermocouples. The temperature rise across the test section was measured accurately using quartz crystal thermometers. The inside heat-transfer coefficient was determined using the Sieder-Tate correlation with leading coefficient of 0.029. Initial steam side data were taken at atmospheric pressure to test the data acquisition/reduction computer programs.

  14. Horizontal fissure on neonatal plain chest radiographs: clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konarzewska, J.; Zawadzka-Kepczynska, A.; Bianek-Bodzak, A.; Kawinska-Kilianczyk, A.; Domzalska-Popadiuk, I.

    2005-01-01

    Regardless of etiology, pleural fluid, even in small amounts, can be visualized on the neonatal chest x-ray picture within pulmonary fissures. It remains unclear whether a marked horizontal fissure unaccompanied by any other radiological symptoms is of diagnostic value or not. Ninety-one consecutive neonatal chest radiographs with marked horizontal fissure were retrospectively analyzed. The images were made between 1999 and 2005 on 69 newborns admitted to the Neonatology Department, Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Gdansk. Analysis of the radiographs was conducted independently by three radiologists based on the following criteria: fissure thickness (marked or thickened), bronchovascular markings (increased or normal), size and shape of the heart (normal or abnormal), presence or absence of pulmonary infiltration, atelectasis, and changes related to wet lung syndrome. Due to divergent interpretations, the ultimate interpretation was established by consensus in 25 cases. The radiological findings were compared with clinical data. The compatibility of the three independent interpreters was statistically significant (p<0.0001). Marked transverse fissure was the only radiological finding on 66 x-rays. In 63 cases (69.2%) the children were asymptomatic as well. In 3 cases (3.3%) clinical symptoms of respiratory tract infection occurred. On the other 25 images, horizontal fissure was accompanied by other radiological symptoms. Chest x-ray results corresponded with clinical symptoms in 24 cases (26.4%). One child (1.1%) with radiological evidence of wet lung syndrome did not present any typical clinical symptoms of it. Horizontal fissure noted on a neonatal chest x-ray seems to be of minor diagnostic value if not accompanied by any other radiological symptoms. (author)

  15. Comparative assessment of condensation models for horizontal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffrath, A.; Kruessenberg, A.K.; Lischke, W.; Gocht, U.; Fjodorow, A.

    1999-01-01

    The condensation in horizontal tubes plays an important role e.g. for the determination of the operation mode of horizontal steam generators of VVER reactors or passive safety systems for the next generation of nuclear power plants. Two different approaches (HOTKON and KONWAR) for modeling this process have been undertaken by Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) and University for Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz (HTWS) and implemented into the 1D-thermohydraulic code ATHLET, which is developed by the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH for the analysis of anticipated and abnormal transients in light water reactors. Although the improvements of the condensation models are developed for different applications (VVER steam generators - emergency condenser of the SWR1000) with strongly different operation conditions (e.g. the temperature difference over the tube wall in HORUS is up to 30 K and in NOKO up to 250 K, the heat flux density in HORUS is up to 40 kW/m 2 and in NOKO up to 1 GW/m 2 ) both models are now compared and assessed by Forschungszentrum Rossendorf FZR e.V. Therefore, post test calculations of selected HORUS experiments were performed with ATHLET/KONWAR and compared to existing ATHLET and ATHLET/HOTKON calculations of HTWS. It can be seen that the calculations with the extension KONWAR as well as HOTKON improve significantly the agreement between computational and experimental data. (orig.) [de

  16. Condensate subcooling near tube exit during horizontal in-tube condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, K.; Abe, N.; Ozeki, T.

    1992-01-01

    In-tube condensation is encountered in various applications for heat exchangers, such as domestic air-conditioning equipment, industrial air-cooled condensers, and moisture separator reheaters (MSRs) for nuclear power pants. Numerous research work has been conducted to predict the condensation heat transfer coefficient, and we have now enough information for thermal design of heat exchangers with horizontal in-tube condensation. Most of the research is analytical and/or experimental work in the annular or stratified flow regime, or experimental work on bulk condensation, i.e., from saturated vapor to complete condensation. On the other hand, there exist few data about the heat transfer phenomena in the very lower-quality region near the tube exit. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the condensation heat transfer phenomena near the tube exit experimentally and analytically, and to predict the degree of condensate subcooling

  17. Heat transfer during forced convection condensation inside horizontal tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, T.N. [M.M.M. Engineering College, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Varma, H.K.; Gupta, C.P. [Roorkee Univ., Uttar Pradesh (India). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on heat transfer behaviour during forced convection condensation inside a horizontal tube for wavy, semi-annular and annular flows. A qualitative study was made of the effect of various parameters - refrigerant mass flux, vapour quality, condensate film temperature drop and average vapour mass velocity - on average condensing-heat transfer coefficient. Akers-Rosson correlations have been found to predict the heat transfer coefficients within {+-} 25% for the entire range of data. A closer examination of the data revealed that the nature of the relation for the heat transfer coefficient changes from annular and semi-annular flow to wavy flow. Akers-Rosson correlations with changed constant and power have been recommended for the two flow regimes. (author)

  18. Heat transfer performance during in-tube condensation in horizontal smooth, micro-fin and herringbone tubes

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    M.Ing. An experimental investigation was conducted into the heat transfer characteristics of horizontal smooth, micro-fin and herringbone tubes during in-tube condensation. The study focused on the heat transfer coefficients of refrigerants R-22, R-134a and R-407C inside the three tubes. The herringbone tube results were compared to the smooth and micro-fin tube results. The average increase in the heat transfer coefficient when compared to the smooth tube was found to be as high as 322% w...

  19. Calculation of vapour bubble growth on the lower generatrix of horizontal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chajka, V.D.

    1987-01-01

    The known models of vapour bubble growth are compared with experimental data. Cinematographic study of vapour formation during water boiling was carried out with elements of horizontal tubes of copper 10, 16, 24, 34 and 70 mm in diameter under the pressure of 100 kPa and specific thermal loadings of 20 and 40 kW/m 2 . According to the experimental data the main volume of vapour phase is occupied by vapour bubbles from the lower part of the horizontal tube. Five stages of vapour bubble growth on the lower generatrix of the horizontal tube: nucleation, growth to the point of breaking off from nucleate centre, the breaking off from the nucleate centre, the tube surface flowing around during floating up, the breaking off from the tube surface, were singled out. The shape of vapour volume varied during the whole period of the bubble growth and it was mainly determined by the horizontal tube diameter. The change of vapour bubble radius in time is the function of the horizontal tube diameter. Comparison of the experimental data with the known models of vapour bubble growth has shown, that every stage of vapour bubble growth on the lower generatrix of the tube is determined by the complex of thermal and hydrodynamic conditions, the effect of which depends on the horizontal tube diameter

  20. A new accelerator tube and column for a horizontal 8 MV tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundquist, M.L.; Rathmell, R.D.; Raatz, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    A horizontal 8 MV tandem is being installed in an existing tank at Kyoto University in Japan. This NEC Model 8UDH is the largest horizontal Pelletron constructed to date. The terminal is charged by two Pelletron chains. The acceleration tube is a metal and ceramic construction made into tube sections with a length of 30 cm each. This tube design adds 27% more live ceramic than in the standard NEC tube design, which had heated apertures in 5 cm long shorted regions every 20 cm. The column structure and tube design are reviewed. (orig.)

  1. Flow condensation heat transfer coefficients of R22, R134a, R407C, and R410A inside plain and microfin tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Dongsoo; Cho, Youngmok; Park, Kiho [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-01-01

    Flow condensation heat transfer coefficients (HTCs) of R22, R134a, R407C, and R410A inside horizontal plain and microfin tubes of 9.52 mm outside diameter and 1 m length were measured at the condensation temperature of 40{sup o}C with mass fluxes of 100, 200, and 300 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1} and a heat flux of 7.7-7.9 kW m{sup -2}. For a plain tube, HTCs of R134a and R410A were similar to those of R22 while HTCs of R407C are 11-15% lower than those of R22. For a microfin tube, HTCs of R134a were similar to those of R22 while HTCs of R407C and R410A were 23-53% and 10-21% lower than those of R22. For a plain tube, our correlation agreed well with the present data for all refrigerants exhibiting a mean deviation of 11.6%. Finally, HTCs of a microfin tube were 2-3 times higher than those of a plain tube and the heat transfer enhancement factor decreased as the mass flux increased for all refrigerants tested. (Author)

  2. Evaporation of refrigerant HFC 407C on plain tubes or at an improved surface; Evaporation du refrigerant HFC 407C sur des tubes lisses ou a surface amelioree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuercher, O.; Favrat, D.; Thome, J. R.; Kattan, N.; Nidegger, E. [Ecole polytechnique federale, Lab. d` energetique industrielle, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1996-11-15

    The substitution of CFC refrigerants in refrigeration systems, heat pumps and organic Rankine cycles for heat recovery, requires good methods for predicting heat transfer of substitute fluids. The measurements in the LENI test facility (concentric tubes with water flowing in a counter-current flow) with HFC 407C, HFC 134a, HCFC 123, HFC 404a and HFC/HCFC 402A provide a new data bank for new refrigerants, and allow a coherent comparison with old refrigerants CFC 11, CFC 12, CFC/HCFC 502 and with existing correlations. The existing correlations were found to be inadequate. Because of this work, an improved flow pattern map and flow boiling model were developed, which resulted in a substantial progress in the accurate predict of heat transfer in plain, horizontal tubes for refrigerants without oil. The Kattan et al. correlation was programmed to calculate and compare predicted heat transfer coefficients to the new HFC 407C test data. The flow pattern map proposed by Kattan et al. was also programmed and compared to flow regimes observed for HFC 407C. It predicted the HFC 407C flow pattern data quite accurately. The original objective of the HFC 407C measurements was the validation of the Kattan et al. correlation applied to a zeotropic refrigerant blend. Local flow boiling heat transfer coefficients were measured for HFC 407C evaporating inside a microfin and a plain tube. In addition, microfin heat transfer augmentation relative to a plain tube was investigated. The presence of oil in the evaporator had a complex effect on heat transfer coefficients. Local flow boiling heat transfer coefficients were measured for refrigerant HFC 407C ester oil mixtures (Mobil EAL Arctic 68). A new thermodynamic approach for modeling mixtures of zeotropic refrigerant blends and lubricating oils was also developed. (author) figs., tabs., 14 refs.

  3. Heat transfer in a membrane assisted fluidised bed with immersed horizontal tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, S.A.R.K.; Volkers, S.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of gas permeation through horizontally immersed membrane tubes on the heat transfer characteristics in a membrane assisted fluidised bed was investigated experimentally. Local time-averaged heat transfer coefficients from copper tubes arranged in a staggered formation with the membrane

  4. Heat transfer in a membrane assisted fluidized bed with immersed horizontal tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, S.A.R.K.; Volkers, Sander; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of gas permeation through horizontally immersed membrane tubes on the heat transfer characteristics in a membrane assisted fluidized bed operated in the bubbling fluidization regime was investigated experimentally. Local time-averaged heat transfer coefficients from copper tubes arranged

  5. Flooding in a loop with a vertical and a horizontal tube connected by an elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Changqi

    1994-01-01

    The experimental research of flooding and flow-reverse in a test loop which a vertical and a horizontal tube connected by an elbow is introduced. According to the experimental results, the effects of the elbow on flooding and flow-reverse is analyzed. The experimental results is compared with the results obtained in vertical tubes. The effect of horizontal tube length and hysteresis in de-flooding are analyzed. Dimensionless parameters was used in data process. The correlations for predicting the flooding point, de-flooding point, completed carry up and flow reverse points are given

  6. Burnout in the horizontal tubes of a furnace waterwall panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.Y. Kamenetskii [All-Russia Research Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering (OAO VNIIAM), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    An experimental study of heat transfer that occurs in tubes nonuniformly heated over the perimeter at low velocities of subcooled water flowing in them is presented. Experiments with unsteady supply of heat made it possible to determine heat fluxes under burnout conditions. Unusually low values of critical heat fluxes were obtained under such conditions.

  7. Burnout in the horizontal tubes of a furnace waterwall panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetskii, B. Ya.

    2009-08-01

    An experimental study of heat transfer that occurs in tubes nonuniformly heated over the perimeter at low velocities of subcooled water flowing in them is presented. Experiments with unsteady supply of heat made it possible to determine heat fluxes under burnout conditions. Unusually low values of critical heat fluxes were obtained under such conditions.

  8. Experimental Study of Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in a Horizontal Microfin Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jian; Koyama, Shigeru; Momoki, Satoru

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study on flow boiling heat transfer in a horizontal microfin tube is conducted with pure refrigerants HFC134a, HCFC123 and HCFC22 using a water-heated double-tube type test section. The test microfin tube is a copper tube having the following dimensions: 8.37mm mean inside diameter, 0.168mm fin height, 60fin number and 18 degree of helix angle. The local heat transfer coefficients for both counter and parallel flows are measured in a range of heat flux of 1 to 93W/m^2, mass ve...

  9. Thermal design of horizontal tube boilers: numerical and experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, Robert

    1999-01-01

    This work concerns the thermal design of kettle re-boilers. Current methods are highly inaccurate, regarded to the correlations for external heat transfer coefficient at one tube scale, as well as to two-phase flow modelling at boiler scale. The aim of this work is to improve these thermal design methods. It contains an experimental investigation with typical operating conditions of such equipment: an hydrocarbon (n-pentane) with low mass flux. This investigation has lead to characterize the local flow pattern through void fraction measurements and, from this, to develop correlations for void fraction, pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient. The approach is original, since the developed correlations are based on the liquid velocity at minimum cross section area between tubes, as variable characterizing the hydrodynamic effects on pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient. These correlations are shown to give much better results than those suggested up to now in the literature, which are empirical transpositions from methods developed for inside tube flows. Furthermore, the numerical code MC3D has been applied using the correlations developed in this work, leading to a modelization of the two-phase flow in the boiler, which is a significant progress compared to current simplified methods. (author) [fr

  10. Research for rolling effects on flow pattern of gas-water flow in horizontal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Feng; Yan Changqi

    2007-01-01

    The flow pattern transition of two-phase flow is caused by the inertial force resulted from rolling and incline of horizontal tubes under rolling state. an experimental study on the flow patterns of gas-water flow was carried out in horizontal tubes under rolling state, which rolling period is 15 second and rolling angle is 10 degrees, and a pattern flow picture is shown. It was found that there are two flow patterns in one rolling period under some gas flux and water flux. (authors)

  11. Theoretical study of evaporation heat transfer in horizontal microfin tubes: stratified flow model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, H; Wang, Y S [Kyushu Univ., Inst. for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-08-01

    The stratified flow model of evaporation heat transfer in helically grooved, horizontal microfin tubes has been developed. The profile of stratified liquid was determined by a theoretical model previously developed for condensation in horizontal microfin tubes. For the region above the stratified liquid, the meniscus profile in the groove between adjacent fins was determined by a force balance between the gravity and surface tension forces. The thin film evaporation model was applied to predict heat transfer in the thin film region of the meniscus. Heat transfer through the stratified liquid was estimated by using an empirical correlation proposed by Mori et al. The theoretical predictions of the circumferential average heat transfer coefficient were compared with available experimental data for four tubes and three refrigerants. A good agreement was obtained for the region of Fr{sub 0}<2.5 as long as partial dry out of tube surface did not occur. (Author)

  12. Theoretical modeling of steam condensation in the presence of a noncondensable gas in horizontal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwon-Yeong; Kim, Moo Hwan; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2008-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed to investigate a steam condensation with a noncondensable gas in a horizontal tube. The heat transfer through the vapor/noncondensable gas mixture boundary layer consists of the sensible heat transfer and the latent heat transfer given up by the condensing vapor, and it must equal that from the condensate film to the tube wall. Therefore, the total heat transfer coefficient is given by the film, condensation and sensible heat transfer coefficients. The film heat transfer coefficients of the upper and lower portions of the tube were calculated separately from Rosson and Meyers (1965) correlation. The heat and mass transfer analogy was used to analyze the steam/noncondensable gas mixture boundary layer. Here, the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers in the gas phase were modified to incorporate the effects of condensate film roughness, suction, and developing flow. The predictions of the theoretical model for the experimental heat transfer coefficients at the top and bottom of the tube were reasonable. The calculated heat transfer coefficients at the top of the tube were higher than those at the bottom of it, as experimental results. As the temperature potential at the top of tube was lower than that at the bottom of it, the heat fluxes at the upper and lower portions of the tube were similar to each other. Generally speaking, however, the model predictions showed a good agreement with experimental data. The new empirical correlation proposed by Lee and Kim (2008) for the vertical tube was applied to the condensation of steam/noncondensable mixture in a horizontal tube. Nusselt theory and Chato correlation were used to calculate the heat transfer coefficients at top and bottom of the horizontal tube, respectively. The predictions of the new empirical correlation were good and very similar with the theoretical model. (author)

  13. Condensation of nano-refrigerant inside a horizontal tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darzi, Milad; Sadoughi, M. K.; Sheikholeslami, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, condensing pressure drop of refrigerant-based nanofluid inside a tube is studied. Isobutene was selected as the base fluid while CuO nanoparticles were utilized to prepare nano-refrigerant. However, for the feasibility of nanoparticle dispersion into the refrigerant, Polyester oil (POE) was utilized as lubricant oil and added to the pure refrigerant by 1% mass fraction. Various values of mass flux, vapor quality, concentration of nanoparticle are investigated. Results indicate that adding nanoparticles leads to enhance frictional pressure drop. Nanoparticles caused larger pressure drop penalty at relatively lower vapor qualities which may be attributed to the existing condensation flow pattern such that annular flow is less influenced by nanoparticles compared to intermittent flow regime.

  14. An experimental study of aerosol penetration through horizontal tubes and strom-type loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, F.S.; McFarland, A.R.; Anand, N.K.

    1996-01-01

    Because some designers of aerosol transport systems use the assumption that aerosol penetration through a system is maximized of the flow Reynolds number is 2,800, we have conducted tests to determine if such an assumption is appropriate. Although we do not believe that optimal performance of an aerosol sample transport system can be presented solely in terms of the Reynolds number, we have presented our results in terms of that parameter to compare our work with the results of an earlier study. Two types of experiments were performed. First, the penetration of liquid aerosol particles through horizontal tubes was experimentally investigated for a range of design and operational conditions. For a particle size of 10 μm aerodynamic diameter, the maximum penetration through a 6.7 mm diameter tube was associated with a Reynolds number of approximately 2,000; the maximum penetration through a tube of 15.9 mm occurred at a Reynolds number of about 3,000; and the maximum penetration through a 26.7 mm diameter tube occurred at about 4,000. It was also experimentally demonstrated that for a fixed flow rate through a horizontal tube, there is an optimum tube diameter for which the aerosol penetration is a maximum. An early study dealing with aerosol particle penetration through a 16.8 mm inside diameter loop of tubing (two vertical tubes, two horizontal tubes and three 90 degrees bends) suggested there was a fixed Reynolds number for optimal aerosol penetration independent of particle size. Those experiments were repeated here and the agreement with those tests is excellent. 16 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Nucleate boiling at the forced flow of binary non-azeotropic mixtures in horizontal tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezentseva N.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of experimental values of heat transfer coefficients obtained through investigation of nucleate boiling of the two-component non-azeotropic mixtures inside the horizontal smooth tubes by various authors is presented. In the zone of nucleate boiling, the experimental data are in good agreement with the calculation dependence.

  16. CFD in supercritical water-cooled nuclear reactor (SCWR) with horizontal tube bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi Shang, E-mail: zhi.shang@stfc.ac.uk [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lo, Simon, E-mail: simon.lo@uk.cd-adapco.com [CD-adapco, Trident House, Basil Hill Road, Didcot OX11 7HJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    The commercial CFD code STAR-CD 4.02 is used as a numerical simulation tool for flows in the supercritical water-cooled nuclear reactor (SCWR). The basic heat transfer element in the reactor core can be considered as round tubes and tube bundles. Reactors with vertical or horizontal flow in the core can be found. In a vertically oriented core, symmetric characters of flow and heat transfer can be found and two-dimensional analyses are often performed. However, in a horizontally oriented core the flow and heat transfer are fully three-dimensional due to the buoyancy effect. In this paper, horizontal tubes and tube bundles at SCWR conditions are studied. Special STAR-CD subroutines were developed by the authors to correctly represent the dramatic change in physical properties of the supercritical water with temperature. From the study of single round tubes, the Speziale quadratic non-linear high-Re k-{epsilon} turbulence model with the two-layer model for near wall treatment is found to produce the best results in comparison with experimental data. In tube bundle simulations, it is found that the temperature is higher in the top half of the bundle and the highest tube wall temperature is located at the outside tubes where the flow rate is the lowest. The secondary flows across the bundle are highly complex. Their main effect is to even out the temperature over the area within each individual recirculation region. Similar analysis could be useful in design and safety studies to obtain optimum fuel rod arrangement in a SCWR.

  17. CFD in supercritical water-cooled nuclear reactor (SCWR) with horizontal tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Zhi; Lo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The commercial CFD code STAR-CD 4.02 is used as a numerical simulation tool for flows in the supercritical water-cooled nuclear reactor (SCWR). The basic heat transfer element in the reactor core can be considered as round tubes and tube bundles. Reactors with vertical or horizontal flow in the core can be found. In vertically oriented core, symmetric characters of flow and heat transfer can be found and two-dimensional analyses are often performed. However, in horizontally oriented core the flow and heat transfer are fully three-dimensional due to the buoyancy effect. In this paper, horizontal tubes and tube bundles at SCWR conditions are studied. Special STAR-CD subroutines were developed by the authors to correctly represent the dramatic change in physical properties of the supercritical water with temperature. From the study of single round tubes, the Speziale quadratic non-linear high-Re k-ε turbulence model with the two-layer model for near wall treatment is found to produce the best results in comparison with experimental data. In tube bundle simulations, it is found that the temperature is higher in the top half of the bundle and the highest tube wall temperature is located at the outside tubes where the flow rate is the lowest. The secondary flows across the bundle are highly complex. Their main effect is to even out the temperature over the area within each individual recirculating region. Similar analysis could be useful in design and safety studies to obtain optimum fuel rod arrangement in a SCWR. (author)

  18. Experimental investigation of thermal-hydraulic performance of PCCS with horizontal tube heat exchangers: single U-tube test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hideo; Anoda, Yoshinari; Arai, Kenji; Kurita, Tomohisa

    2000-01-01

    JAERI and JAPC started a cooperative study to verify performance of a PCCS (Passive Containment Cooling System) using horizontal heat exchanger for next-generation BWR in 1998. A test facility with a horizontal single U-tube was constructed in JAERI in 1999 to investigate fundamental condensation behavior under influences of non-condensable gas. Preliminary pre-test analyses were performed using RELAP5/ MOD3.2.1.2 code to expect the experimental outcomes by incorporating a correlation for condensation degradation because of non-condensable gas by Ueno et al. for better prediction. Preliminary results from both experiments (shakedown) and pre-test analyses indicated that the PCCS using horizontal U-tube heat exchanger is promising. Steam generated under assumed severe accident conditions; steam generation rate approx. = 1% core power, non-condensable gas concentration of 1% and simulated containment vessel pressure of 0.7 MPa, was totally condensed with a small differential pressure across inlet and outlet plenum. Experimental data will be accumulated to develop models and correlations for a better prediction of responses of the PCCS using horizontal heat exchanger during postulated severe accidents. (author)

  19. Post-Dryout Heat Transfer to a Refrigerant Flowing in Horizontal Evaporator Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hideo; Yoshida, Suguru; Kakimoto, Yasushi; Ohishi, Katsumi; Fukuda, Kenichi

    Studies of the post-dryout heat transfer were made based on the experimental data for HFC-134a flowing in horizontal smooth and spiral1y grooved (micro-fin) tubes and the characteristics of the post-dryout heat transfer were c1arified. The heat transfer coefficient at medium and high mass flow rates in the smooth tube was lower than the single-phase heat transfer coefficient of the superheated vapor flow, of which mass flow rate was given on the assumption that the flow was in a thermodynamic equilibrium. A prediction method of post-dryout heat transfer coefficient was developed to reproduce the measurement satisfactorily for the smooth tube. The post dryout heat transfer in the micro-fin tube can be regarded approximately as a superheated vapor single-phase heat transfer.

  20. Condensation heat transfer of R22 and R410A in horizontal smooth and microfin tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man-Hoe; Shin, Joeng-Seob [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-09-01

    An experimental investigation of condensation heat transfer in 9.52 mm O.D. horizontal copper tubes was conducted using R22 and R410A. The test rig had a straight, horizontal test section with an active length of 0.92 m and was cooled by the heat transfer fluid (cold water) circulated in a surrounding annulus. Constant heat flux of 11.0 kW/m{sup 2} was maintained throughout the experiment and refrigerant quality varied from 0.9 to 0.1. The condensation test results at 45 {sup o}C were reported for 40-80 kg/h mass flow rate. The local and average condensation coefficients for seven microfin tubes were presented compared to those for a smooth tube. The average condensation coefficients of R22 and R410A for the microfin tubes were 1.7-3.19 and 1.7-2.94 times larger than those in smooth tube, respectively. (author)

  1. Evaporating heat transfer of R22 and R410A in horizontal smooth and microfin tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man-Hoe; Shin, Joeng-Seob [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-09-01

    An experimental investigation of evaporating heat transfer in 9.52 mm O.D. horizontal copper tubes was conducted. The refrigerants tested were R22 and the near-azeotropic mixture, R410A. The test rig had a straight, horizontal test section with an active length of 0.92 m and was heated by the heat transfer fluid (hot water) circulated in a surrounding annulus. Constant heat flux of 11.0 kW/m{sup 2} was maintained and refrigerant quality varied from 0.2 to 0.8.. The results were reported for evaporation at 15 {sup o}C in a 0.92 m long test section for 30-60 kg/h mass flow rate. The local and average heat transfer coefficients for seven microfin tubes were presented compared to those for a smooth tube. The average evaporation heat transfer coefficients of R22 and R410A for the microfin tubes were 1.86-3.27 and 1.64-2.99 times higher than those for the smooth tube, respectively. When compared to R22 at the same test conditions, the evaporating heat transfer coefficients for R410A were 97-129% of R22. (author)

  2. [Comparison of dentomaxillary pantomography and periapical radiographs with horizontal tube shift in localizing the impacted teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sun; Fan, Lin-feng

    2005-04-01

    To compare the clinic value between dentomaxillary pantomography and periapical radiographs in localization of the impacted teeth. 43 impacted teeth were localized with both dentomaxillary pantomography technique and periapical radiographs with horizontal tube shift which is clinically widely used. And a comparison between the two methods was carried out using Chi square test. Both dentomaxillary pantomography and periapical radiographs with horizontal tube shift can relatively precisely demonstrate the position of the impacted teeth. The percentage of the cases which the image and the result of surgery was consistent in the two methods was 93.02% and 95.35% (P>0.05) respectively. There was no statistical difference between the two groups. Dentomaxillary pantomography can precisely localize the impacted teeth.

  3. Assessment of horizontal in-tube condensation models using MARS code. Part I: Stratified flow condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong-Su [Department of Engineering Project, FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Bldg. 135-308, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon-Joon, E-mail: sjhong90@fnctech.com [Department of Engineering Project, FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Bldg. 135-308, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ju-Yeop; Seul, Kwang-Won [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Kuseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study collected 11 horizontal in-tube condensation models for stratified flow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study assessed the predictive capability of the models for steam condensation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Purdue-PCCS experiments were simulated using MARS code incorporated with models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cavallini et al. (2006) model predicts well the data for stratified flow condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of this study can be used to improve condensation model in RELAP5 or MARS. - Abstract: The accurate prediction of the horizontal in-tube condensation heat transfer is a primary concern in the optimum design and safety analysis of horizontal heat exchangers of passive safety systems such as the passive containment cooling system (PCCS), the emergency condenser system (ECS) and the passive auxiliary feed-water system (PAFS). It is essential to analyze and assess the predictive capability of the previous horizontal in-tube condensation models for each flow regime using various experimental data. This study assessed totally 11 condensation models for the stratified flow, one of the main flow regime encountered in the horizontal condenser, with the heat transfer data from the Purdue-PCCS experiment using the multi-dimensional analysis of reactor safety (MARS) code. From the assessments, it was found that the models by Akers and Rosson, Chato, Tandon et al., Sweeney and Chato, and Cavallini et al. (2002) under-predicted the data in the main condensation heat transfer region, on the contrary to this, the models by Rosson and Meyers, Jaster and Kosky, Fujii, Dobson and Chato, and Thome et al. similarly- or over-predicted the data, and especially, Cavallini et al. (2006) model shows good predictive capability for all test conditions. The results of this study can be used importantly to improve the condensation models in thermal hydraulic code, such as RELAP5 or MARS code.

  4. Limited utility of plain abdominal radiographs in evaluating intussusceptions secondary to long indwelling feeding tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult intussusception (AI is relatively rare and can be a difficult clinical diagnosis, often requiring cross-sectional imaging for confirmation. Unfortunately, intussusceptions in the setting of indwelling long enteral feeding tubes have been predominantly characterized in the pediatric population with minimal investigation in adults. We report three cases of AI in patients with long feeding catheters serving as anatomic lead points leading to intussusception diagnosed on cross-sectional imaging. We highlight the limited utility of the supine plain films for detection of AI, and it behooves the radiologist to hold a high index of suspicion if the patient has a long enteral catheter. Since the majority of these patients tend to be fairly ill and unable to stand for upright abdominal radiographs, in the setting of percutaneous feeding tubes, decubitus abdominal radiographs should always be obtained. These cases also highlight the importance of having a high clinical suspicion of intussusceptions in a patient presenting with abdominal pain in the setting of an enteral feeding tube. In post-operative patients, other factors can predispose the patient to intussusception, including adhesions. Another interesting feature in tube related AI is the reverse intussusception that may be seen with indwelling enteral tubes. Reverse intussusception is where the distal bowel telescopes into the proximal segment over the tube.

  5. Effect of surface roughness on heat transfer from horizontal immersed tubes in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewal, N.S.; Saxena, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental results of the total heat transfer coefficient between 12.7 mm dia copper tubes with four different rough surfaces and glass beads of three different sizes as taken in a 0.305 m x 0.305 m square fluidized bed as a function of fluidizing velocity are reported. The comparison of results for the rough and technically smooth tubes suggests that the heat transfer coefficient strongly depends on the ratio of pitch (P/sub f/) to the average particle diameter (d/sub p/), where P/sub f/ is the distance between the two corresponding points on consecutive threads or knurls. By the proper choice of (P/sub f//d/sub p/) ratio, the maximum total heat transfer coefficient for V-thread tubes (h/sub w/fb) can be increased by as much as 40 percent over the value for a smooth tube with the same outside diameter. However, for values of (P/sub f//d/sub p/) less than 0.95, the maximum heat transfer coefficient for the V-thread rough tubes is smaller than the smooth tube having the same outside diameter. The qualitative variation of the heat transfer coefficient for rough tubes with (P/sub f//d) is explained on the basis of the combined effect of contact geometry between the solid particles and the heat transfer surface, and the solids renewal rate at the surface. The present findings are critically compared with somewhat similar investigations from the literature on the heat transfer from horizontal or vertical rough tubes and tubes with small fins

  6. Condensation of refrigerants in horizontal microfin tubes: comparison of prediction methods for heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H S; Honda, H [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    2003-06-01

    A comparison was made between the predictions of previously proposed empirical correlations and theoretical model and available experimental data for the heat transfer coefficient during condensation of refrigerants in horizontal microfin tubes. The refrigerants tested were R11, R123, R134a, R22 and R410A. Experimental data for six tubes with the tube inside diameter at fin root of 6.49-8.8 8 mm, the fin height of 0.16-0.24 mm, fin pitch of 0.34-0.53 mm and helix angle of groove of 12-20{sup o} were adopted. The r.m.s. error of the predictions for all tubes and all refrigerants decreased in the order of the correlations proposed by Luu and Bergies [ASHRAE Trans. 86 (1980) 293], Cavallini et al. Condensation of new refrigerants inside smooth and enhanced tubes. In: Proc. 19th Int. Cong. Refrigeration, vol. IV, Hague, The Netherlands, 1995. p. 105-114, Shikazono et al. [Trans. Jap. Sco. Mech. Engrs. 64 (1995) 196], Kedzierski and Goncalves [J. Enhanced Heat Transfer 6 (1999) 16], Yu and Koyama [Yu J, Koyama S. Condensation heat transfer of pure refrigerants in microfin tubes. In: Proc. Int. Refrigeration Conference at Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, USA, 1998. p. 325-330], and the theoretical model proposed by Wang et al. [Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 45 (2002) 1513]. (author)

  7. Microstructure and properties of TP2 copper tube with La microalloying by horizontal continuous casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-hu Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The TP2 copper tube was prepared with La microalloying by horizontal continuous casting (HCC. The absorptivity of La and its effects on microstructure, tensile and corrosion properties of HCC TP2 copper tube were studied by means of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES, optical microscope (OM, scanning electron microscope (SEM and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results show that the absorptivity of La in the HCC TP2 copper tube is about 15% under antivacuum conditions due to the good chemical activities of La. The impurity elements in copper tube such as O, S, Pb and Si can be significantly reduced, and the average columnar dendrite spacing of the copper tube can also be reduced from 2.21 mm to 0.93 mm by adding La. The ultimate tensile strength and the elongation with and without La addition are almost unchanged. However, the annual corrosion rate of the HCC TP2 copper tube is reduced from 10.18 mm•a-1 to 9.37 mm•a-1 by the purification effect of trace La.

  8. Heat transfer correlations for evaporation of refrigerant mixtures flowing inside horizontal microfin tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan [School of Energy Engineering, Xi' an University of Science and Technology, 58 Yanta Street, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710054 (China); School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Yuan, Xiuling [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2008-11-15

    Based on the experimental results of R417A flowing inside horizontal microfin tubes, the present work deals with the development of prediction methods for evaporation heat transfer of refrigerant mixtures in microfin tube. The microfin model by Thome et al. is modified by adjusting the convective heat transfer term, and the other microfin model is developed by introducing the enhancement factor into the modified-Kattan model. The comparison of the calculations by several microfin models and the experimental results reveals that the new microfin models developed at the present study are in much better agreement with the experimental results with the reducing average deviation by 30-50% than the models by Thome et al. and Cavallini et al., and are recommended for the prediction of evaporation heat transfer coefficients for non-azeotropic refrigerant mixtures inside microfin tubes. (author)

  9. Heat transfer correlations for evaporation of refrigerant mixtures flowing inside horizontal microfin tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoyan, Zhang [School of Energy Engineering, Xi' an University of Science and Technology, 58 Yanta Street, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710054 (China); School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)], E-mail: gqzxy@sohu.com; Xiuling, Yuan [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2008-11-15

    Based on the experimental results of R417A flowing inside horizontal microfin tubes, the present work deals with the development of prediction methods for evaporation heat transfer of refrigerant mixtures in microfin tube. The microfin model by Thome et al. is modified by adjusting the convective heat transfer term, and the other microfin model is developed by introducing the enhancement factor into the modified-Kattan model. The comparison of the calculations by several microfin models and the experimental results reveals that the new microfin models developed at the present study are in much better agreement with the experimental results with the reducing average deviation by 30-50% than the models by Thome et al. and Cavallini et al., and are recommended for the prediction of evaporation heat transfer coefficients for non-azeotropic refrigerant mixtures inside microfin tubes.

  10. Heat transfer correlations for evaporation of refrigerant mixtures flowing inside horizontal microfin tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoyan; Yuan Xiuling

    2008-01-01

    Based on the experimental results of R417A flowing inside horizontal microfin tubes, the present work deals with the development of prediction methods for evaporation heat transfer of refrigerant mixtures in microfin tube. The microfin model by Thome et al. is modified by adjusting the convective heat transfer term, and the other microfin model is developed by introducing the enhancement factor into the modified-Kattan model. The comparison of the calculations by several microfin models and the experimental results reveals that the new microfin models developed at the present study are in much better agreement with the experimental results with the reducing average deviation by 30-50% than the models by Thome et al. and Cavallini et al., and are recommended for the prediction of evaporation heat transfer coefficients for non-azeotropic refrigerant mixtures inside microfin tubes

  11. Effects of roll waves on annular flow heat transfer at horizontal condenser tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masaya; Nakamura, Hideo; Anoda, Yoshinari; Sakashita, Akihiro

    2002-01-01

    Heat removal characteristic of a horizontal in-tube condensation heat exchanger is under investigation to be used for a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) of a next generation-type BWR. Flow regime observed at the inlet of the condenser tube was annular flow, and the local heat transfer rate was ∼20% larger than the prediction by the Dobson-Chato correlation. Roll waves were found to appear on the liquid film in the annular flow. The measured local condensation heat transfer rate was being closely related to the roll waves frequency. Based on these observations, a model is proposed which predicts the condensation heat transfer coefficient for annular flows around the tube inlet. The proposed model predicts well the influences of pressure, local gas-phase velocity and film thickness. (author)

  12. Establishment of Measurement Techniques for Sliding Bubble on a Horizontal Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yu-Na Kim; Park, Goon-Cherl; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic wall boiling model includes many parameters relevant with bubble behaviors, such as the bubble departure diameter, bubble lift-off diameter, bubble waiting time, etc. Although there have been a large number of studies investigating bubble behavior, the subjects of observation are almost bubbles on a plane or vertical tube. Since the bubble motion is highly influenced by the directions of gravitational force and the heating surfaces, it is expected that the bubble behavior on a horizontal tube is largely different from those on the other geometry. The heat exchanger of APR+ has horizontal U-tube configuration installed in a water pool, of which diameter is 50mm. The study aims to establish measurement techniques for sliding bubbles on a horizontal tube. The measurement parameters include the diameter, interface area, volume, and velocity of the bubble. Additionally, in order to analyze the force acting on the bubble, liquid velocity measurement method was proposed. This paper presents the procedure of the measurement; the phase separation technique, 3-D reconstruction technique, and velocity measurement techniques. For visualization of the sliding bubble behavior, bubble and liquid velocity measurement methods were established which use two high speed cameras and a continuous LASER for the PTV and PIV. Three steps for the bubble shape and velocity measurement (the phase separation, 3-D reconstruction, and velocity calculation), were successfully set up and verified. A PIV technique which uses two different time duration for two regions where the velocity difference is huge was proposed and tested. Using these methods, various information regarding a sliding bubble can be obtained such as bubble and liquid velocities, shape, volume, surface area etc

  13. Influence of stiffness on CHF for horizontal tubes under LPLF conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baburajan, P.K. [Nuclear Safety Analysis Division, AERB, Niyamak Bhavan, 400094 (India); Bisht, Govind Singh [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay, 400076 (India); Gaikwad, Avinash J. [Nuclear Safety Analysis Division, AERB, Niyamak Bhavan, 400094 (India); Prabhu, S.V., E-mail: svprabhu@iitb.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay, 400076 (India)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • Effect of stiffness on the CHF in horizontal tube under LPLF conditions is studied. • CHF increases with the increase in stiffness. • Correlation for the prediction of CHF as a function of stiffness is developed. • Correlation for mass flux at CHF in terms of stiffness and initial mass flux is given. • RELAP5 is capable of predicting the effect of stiffness on CHF. - Abstract: Studies reported in the past on critical heat flux (CHF) are mostly limited to vertical flow, large channel diameter, high pressure and high mass flux. Since horizontal flow is commonly encountered in boiler tubes, refrigerating equipments and nuclear reactor fuel channels (PHWR), there is a need to understand horizontal flow CHF, generate sufficient experimental database and to develop reliable predictive method. Few studies are reported on the effect of upstream flow restrictions on flow instabilities and CHF. The present work investigates the effect of upstream flow restriction on CHF in horizontal flow at near atmospheric pressure conditions. In the present study, stiffness is defined as the ratio of upstream flow restriction pressure drop to the test section pressure drop. The classification of a flow boiling system as soft or stiff on the basis of quantification of the stiffness is attempted. Experimental data shows an increase in the CHF with the increase in the stiffness for a given initial mass flux. A correlation for the prediction of CHF under various stiffness conditions is developed. A correlation is suggested to predict the mass flux at CHF as a function of stiffness and initial mass flux. Modeling and transient analysis of the stiffness effect on CHF is carried out using the thermal hydraulic system code RELAP5. The predicted phenomena are in agreement with the experimental observations.

  14. Method for confirming flow pattern of gas-water flow in horizontal tubes under rolling state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Feng; Yan Changqi

    2008-01-01

    An experimental study on the flow patterns of gas-water flow was carried out in horizontal tubes under rolling state. It was found that the pressure drop of two phase flow was with an obvious periodical characteristic. The flow pattern of the gas-water flow was distinguished according to the characteristics of the pressure drop in this paper. It was proved that the characteristics of the pressure drop can distinguish the flow pattern of gas-water flow correctly through comparing with the result of careful observation and high speed digital camera. (authors)

  15. New Correlation Methods of Evaporation Heat Transfer in Horizontal Microfine Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makishi, Osamu; Honda, Hiroshi

    A stratified flow model and an annular flow model of evaporation heat transfer in horizontal microfin tubes have been proposed. In the stratified flow model, the contributions of thin film evaporation and nucleate boiling in the groove above a stratified liquid were predicted by a previously reported numerical analysis and a newly developed correlation, respectively. The contributions of nucleate boiling and forced convection in the stratified liquid region were predicted by the new correlation and the Carnavos equation, respectively. In the annular flow model, the contributions of nucleate boiling and forced convection were predicted by the new correlation and the Carnavos equation in which the equivalent Reynolds number was introduced, respectively. A flow pattern transition criterion proposed by Kattan et al. was incorporated to predict the circumferential average heat transfer coefficient in the intermediate region by use of the two models. The predictions of the heat transfer coefficient compared well with available experimental data for ten tubes and four refrigerants.

  16. Heat transfer in the post-dryout region of vertical and horizontal tubes uniformly heated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastner, W.; Koehler, W.; Kraetzer, W.

    1983-11-01

    Increased knowledge of the heat transfer in the post-dryout region is required for novel design of environmentally acceptable power plant technologies (e.g. fluidized bed combustion) and further development of proved steam generators. In particular, the influence of tube orientation and diameter are of consequence. Relating to the onset of critical boiling conditions and the heat transfer in the post-dryout region these aspects were investigated performing 357 tests which cover the operating conditions of fossil fired steam generators. In certain regions of parameters significant differences of the heat transfer behaviour of horizontal and vertical steam generator tubes occured. The experimental results were analysed and compared with theoretical models which were taken from the literature or developed within the frame of this project. (orig.) [de

  17. Effect of liquid nitrogen flow rate on solidification of stagnant water in a horizontal tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    Five experiments are conducted to study the effect of liquid nitrogen flow rate on the solidification of stagnant water inside a horizontal stainless steel tube of inner diameter 19.6 cm and 12 mm thick. This tube simulates the down-comer of the nuclear reactor ET-R R-1. The apparatus design is mentioned more detail description. The results show that for the first experiment where the liquid nitrogen flow rate is 30 1/hr, the progress of solidification of water has stopped at a diameter of 12 cm. By increasing the flow rate from 30 1/hr to 40,50 and 60 1/hr, the time of freezing the water inside the tube is decreased from 86 to 67 and 60 minutes respectively. By increasing the liquid nitrogen flow rate to 70 1/hr, there is no much effect on the time of frozen. In all experiments, where the solidification is happened, the ice block formed inside the tube is subjected to a pressure of 3 at mg least, and is succeed to withstand this pressure without any leak. 7 figs

  18. Measurements of local liquid velocity and interfacial parameters of air-water bubbly flows in a horizontal tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jian; Zhang Mingyuan; Zhang Chaojie; Su Yuliang

    2002-01-01

    Distribution of local kinematic parameters of air-water bubbly flows in a horizontal tube with an ID of 35 mm was investigated. The local liquid velocity was measured with a cylindrical hot film probe, and local void fraction, bubble frequency and bubble velocity were measured with a double-sensor probe. It was found that the axial liquid velocity has a same profile as that of single liquid phase flow in the lower part of the tube, and it suffers a sudden reduction in the upper part of the tube. With increasing airflow rate, the liquid velocity would increase in the lower part of the tube, and further decrease at the upper part of the tube, respectively. Most bubbles are congested at the upper part of the tube, and the void fraction and bubble frequencies have similar profile and both are asymmetrical with the tube axis with their maximum values located near the upper tube wall

  19. Field synergy characteristics in condensation heat transfer with non-condensable gas over a horizontal tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxia Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Field synergy characteristics in condensation heat transfer with non-condensable gas (NCG over a horizontal tube were numerically simulated. Consequently, synergy angles between velocity and pressure or temperature gradient fields, gas film layer thickness, and induced velocity and shear stress on gas–liquid interface were obtained. Results show that synergy angles between velocity and temperature gradient fields are within 73.2°–88.7° and ascend slightly with the increment in mainstream velocity and that the synergy is poor. However, the synergy angle between velocity and pressure gradient fields decreases intensively with the increase in mainstream velocity at θ ≤ 30°, thereby improving the pressure loss. As NCG mass fraction increases, the gas film layer thickness enlarges and the induced velocity and shear stress on gas–liquid interface decreases. The synergy angles between velocity and temperature gradient fields increase, and the synergy angles between velocity and pressure gradient fields change at θ = 70°, decrease at θ 70°. When the horizontal tube circumference angle increases, the synergy angles between velocity and temperature or pressure gradient fields decrease, the synergy between velocity and pressure fields enhances, and the synergy between velocity and temperature fields degrades.

  20. Numerical investigation of supercritical LNG convective heat transfer in a horizontal serpentine tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chang-Liang; Ren, Jing-Jie; Dong, Wen-Ping; Bi, Ming-Shu

    2016-09-01

    The submerged combustion vaporizer (SCV) is indispensable general equipment for liquefied natural gas (LNG) receiving terminals. In this paper, numerical simulation was conducted to get insight into the flow and heat transfer characteristics of supercritical LNG on the tube-side of SCV. The SST model with enhanced wall treatment method was utilized to handle the coupled wall-to-LNG heat transfer. The thermal-physical properties of LNG under supercritical pressure were used for this study. After the validation of model and method, the effects of mass flux, outer wall temperature and inlet pressure on the heat transfer behaviors were discussed in detail. Then the non-uniformity heat transfer mechanism of supercritical LNG and effect of natural convection due to buoyancy change in the tube was discussed based on the numerical results. Moreover, different flow and heat transfer characteristics inside the bend tube sections were also analyzed. The obtained numerical results showed that the local surface heat transfer coefficient attained its peak value when the bulk LNG temperature approached the so-called pseudo-critical temperature. Higher mass flux could eliminate the heat transfer deteriorations due to the increase of turbulent diffusion. An increase of outer wall temperature had a significant influence on diminishing heat transfer ability of LNG. The maximum surface heat transfer coefficient strongly depended on inlet pressure. Bend tube sections could enhance the heat transfer due to secondary flow phenomenon. Furthermore, based on the current simulation results, a new dimensionless, semi-theoretical empirical correlation was developed for supercritical LNG convective heat transfer in a horizontal serpentine tube. The paper provided the mechanism of heat transfer for the design of high-efficiency SCV.

  1. Prediction of effective friction factors for single-phase flow in horizontal microfin tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H S; Rose, J W [University of London (United Kingdom). Queen Mary, Department of Engineering

    2004-12-01

    An experimental database, covering a wide range of tube and fin geometric dimensions, Reynolds number and including data for water, R11, and ethylene glycol has been compiled for friction factor for single-phase flow in spirally grooved, horizontal microfin tubes. The tubes (21 in all) had inside diameter at the fin root between 6.46 and 24.13 mm, fin height between 0.13 and 0.47 mm, fin pitch between 0.32 and 1.15 mm, and helix angle between 17 and 45 degrees. The Reynolds number ranged from 2.0x10{sup 3} to 1.63x10{sup 5}. Six earlier friction factor correlations, each based on restricted data sets, have been compared with the database as a whole. None was found to be in good agreement with all of the data. The Jensen and Vlakancic correlation was found to be the best and represents the database within {+-}21%. (author)

  2. Effect of crevice environment PH on corrosion damage of horizontal steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brozova, A.; Burda, J.; Splichal, K.

    2002-01-01

    In support of a project on lifetime calculation experiments were carried out to evaluate the resistance to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of steam generator tubes during operation. Estimations of the incubation period for crack initiation and the threshold K value, K Iscc , and the crack growth rate were made to predict evolution of damage in tube walls. The paper summarizes results of experiments of C ring specimen for the initiation testing and results of SENT (single edge notch tensile) specimen for the crack growth rate (CGR) testing. The specimens were exposed to concentrated environments at elevated temperatures simulating crevice environments in secondary side crevices in horizontal steam generators. The results show that the material of SG tubes is sensitive to transgranular environmentally assisted cracking in the three basic concentrated environments used, alkaline, neutral and acid. The most corrosive medium was the acid environment. The crack initiated practically immediately after acid environment exposure. The initiation process takes a long time in neutral and alkaline environments. The K Iscc values for environmentally assisted crack growth rate in alkaline and neutral concentrated environment were essentially the same. The crack growth rate was slightly higher for the neutral environment than for the alkaline one. Fracture patterns for the both environments were similar. (author)

  3. Experimental Investigation of Natural Convection into a Horizontal Annular Tube with Porous Medium Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Najeeb Shehab

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an experimental investigation has been done for heat transfer by natural-convection through a horizontal concentric annulus with porous media effects. The porous structure in gap spacing consists of a glass balls and replaced by plastic (PVC balls with different sizes. The outer surface of outer tube is isothermally cooled while the outer surface of inner tube is heated with constant heat flux condition. The inner tube is heated with different supplied electrical power levels. Four different radius ratios of annulus are used. The effects of porous media material, particles size and annulus radius ratio on heat dissipation in terms of average Nusselt number have been analyzed. The experimental results show that the average Nusselt number increases with increasing annulus radius ratio and particle diameter for same porous media material. Furthermore, two empirical correlations of average Nusselt number with average Rayleigh number for glass and PVC particles are developed. The present experimental results are compared with previously works and good correspondence is showed.

  4. Heat transfer to immersed horizontal tubes in gas fluidized bed dryers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonassen, Ola

    1999-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to construct heat pump fluidized bed dryers of the FHT type with improved dewatering capacity for a given size of the dryer. The use of heat exchangers immersed in the fluidized bed drying chambers is an important part of the FHT (Fluidized Bed High Temperature Heat Pump Dryer) concept. A pilot plant FHT dryer was built and successfully tested on fish meal raw material and seaweed. The plant included two fluidized bed drying chambers with immersed heat exchangers. The gain in water vapor of the drying air through the chambers was increased up to four times that of adiabatic drying. The energy saving concept was retained as a SMER ratio of 3.5 to 4.7 was measured in the same tests. Therefore optimization of the immersed heat exchangers was considered the most important single objective for this work. The optimization study of the heat exchangers was confined to the actual operating conditions for the dryers using: (1) Bubbling gas fluidized beds were used, (2) air as the only type of fluidising gas, (3) beds at atmospheric pressure, (4) bed temperatures below 100 {sup o}C, (5) fluidized particles of Geldart classes B and D, (6) horizontal tube banks for the immersed heat exchanger, and the influence of radiation heat transfer was ignored. The heat transfer study was confined to the fluidized bed side of the heat exchanger surface. It was concluded early in this work that the bubbles play a major role in generating the particle circulation inside the bed and hence also in heat transfer. Publications describing the most important bubble induced mechanisms contributing to high rates of heat transfer were found to be limited. Therefore the first part of this study was aimed at establishing a method for locating and measuring the size and rise velocity of bubbles inside the bed. The method established through this work using differential pressure measurements from two static pressure probes was used later in the study of heat transfer

  5. Heat transfer to immersed horizontal tubes in gas fluidized bed dryers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonassen, Ola

    1999-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to construct heat pump fluidized bed dryers of the FHT type with improved dewatering capacity for a given size of the dryer. The use of heat exchangers immersed in the fluidized bed drying chambers is an important part of the FHT (Fluidized Bed High Temperature Heat Pump Dryer) concept. A pilot plant FHT dryer was built and successfully tested on fish meal raw material and seaweed. The plant included two fluidized bed drying chambers with immersed heat exchangers. The gain in water vapor of the drying air through the chambers was increased up to four times that of adiabatic drying. The energy saving concept was retained as a SMER ratio of 3.5 to 4.7 was measured in the same tests. Therefore optimization of the immersed heat exchangers was considered the most important single objective for this work. The optimization study of the heat exchangers was confined to the actual operating conditions for the dryers using: (1) Bubbling gas fluidized beds were used, (2) air as the only type of fluidizing gas,(3) beds at atmospheric pressure, (4) bed temperatures below 100 {sup o}C, (5) fluidized particles of Geldart classes B and D, (6) horizontal tube banks for the immersed heat exchanger and the influence of radiation heat transfer was ignored. The heat transfer study was confined to the fluidized bed side of the heat exchanger surface. It was concluded early in this work that the bubbles play a major role in generating the particle circulation inside the bed and hence also in heat transfer. Publications describing the most important bubble induced mechanisms contributing to high rates of heat transfer were found to be limited. Therefore the first part of this study was aimed at establishing a method for locating and measuring the size and rise velocity of bubbles inside the bed. The method established through this work using differential pressure measurements from two static pressure probes was used later in the study of heat transfer

  6. Numerical Study on the Heat Transfer of Carbon Dioxide in Horizontal Straight Tubes under Supercritical Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Cooling heat transfer of supercritical CO2 in horizontal straight tubes with wall is numerically investigated by using FLUENT. The results show that almost all models are able to present the trend of heat transfer qualitatively, and the stand k−ε with enhanced wall treatment model shows the best agreement with the experimental data, followed by LB low Re turbulence model. Then further studies are discussed on velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions. The parameters which are defined as the criterion of buoyancy effect on convection heat transfer are introduced to judge the condition of the fluid. The relationships among the inlet temperature, outlet temperature, the mass flow rate, the heat flux and the diameter are discussed and the difference between the cooling and heating of CO2 are compared. PMID:27458729

  7. Effect of superficial velocity on vaporization pressure drop with propane in horizontal circular tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novianto, S.; Pamitran, A. S.; Nasruddin, Alhamid, M. I.

    2016-06-01

    Due to its friendly effect on the environment, natural refrigerants could be the best alternative refrigerant to replace conventional refrigerants. The present study was devoted to the effect of superficial velocity on vaporization pressure drop with propane in a horizontal circular tube with an inner diameter of 7.6 mm. The experiments were conditioned with 4 to 10 °C for saturation temperature, 9 to 20 kW/m2 for heat flux, and 250 to 380 kg/m2s for mass flux. It is shown here that increased heat flux may result in increasing vapor superficial velocity, and then increasing pressure drop. The present experimental results were evaluated with some existing correlations of pressure drop. The best prediction was evaluated by Lockhart-Martinelli (1949) with MARD 25.7%. In order to observe the experimental flow pattern, the present results were also mapped on the Wang flow pattern map.

  8. Numerical Study on the Heat Transfer of Carbon Dioxide in Horizontal Straight Tubes under Supercritical Pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yang

    Full Text Available Cooling heat transfer of supercritical CO2 in horizontal straight tubes with wall is numerically investigated by using FLUENT. The results show that almost all models are able to present the trend of heat transfer qualitatively, and the stand k-ε with enhanced wall treatment model shows the best agreement with the experimental data, followed by LB low Re turbulence model. Then further studies are discussed on velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions. The parameters which are defined as the criterion of buoyancy effect on convection heat transfer are introduced to judge the condition of the fluid. The relationships among the inlet temperature, outlet temperature, the mass flow rate, the heat flux and the diameter are discussed and the difference between the cooling and heating of CO2 are compared.

  9. Wintering bats of the upper Snake River Plain: occurrence in lava-tube caves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genter, D.L.

    1986-04-30

    Distribution and habitat selection of hibernating bats at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and adjacent area are reported. Exploration of over 30 lava-tube caves revealed that two species, Myotis leibii and Plecotus townsendii, hibernate in the upper Snake River Plain. Five species, M. lucifugus, M. evotis, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasionycteris noctivagans, and Lasiurus cinereus are considered migratory. Myotis leibii and P. townsendii hibernate throughout much of the area, occasionally in mixed-species groups. Myotis leibii uses the dark and protected regions of the cave, usually wedged into tiny pockets and crevices near or at the highest portion of the ceiling. Individuals of P. townsendii may be found at any height or depth in the cave. Temperature appears to be primary limiting factor in habitat selection. Myotis leibii was found in significantly cooler air temperatures than P. townsendii. Neither species tolerated continuous temperatures below 1.5 C. Relative humidity does not seem to be a significant factor in the distribution or habitat selection of the two species in lava-tube caves. 18 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  10. The effect of diameter on vertical and horizontal flow boiling crisis in a tube cooled by Freon-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merilo, M.; Ahmad, S.Y.

    1979-03-01

    The influence of test section orientation and diameter on flow boiling crisis occurring in tubes has been studied experimentally using Freon-12 as a coolant. At low mass flux the critical heat flux (CHF) was lower in horizontal flow than in vertical. As either the liquid or vapour velocity, or both, were increased the vertical and horizontal CHF results converged. Above a mass flux of 4 Mg.m -2 .s -1 the results were essentially identical. The effect of tube diameter on boiling crisis in general depends crucially on the parameters which are maintained constant when the comparison is made. (author)

  11. Reliability of horizontal and vertical tube shift techniques in the localisation of supernumerary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallineni, S K; Anthonappa, R P; King, N M

    2016-12-01

    To assess the reliability of the vertical tube shift technique (VTST) and horizontal tube shift technique (HTST) for the localisation of unerupted supernumerary teeth (ST) in the anterior region of the maxilla. A convenience sample of 83 patients who attended a major teaching hospital because of unerupted ST was selected. Only non-syndromic patients with ST and who had complete clinical and radiographic and surgical records were included in the study. Ten examiners independently rated the paired set of radiographs for each technique. Chi-square test, paired t test and kappa statistics were employed to assess the intra- and inter-examiner reliability. Paired sets of 1660 radiographs (830 pairs for each technique) were available for the analysis. The overall sensitivity for VTST and HTST was 80.6 and 72.1% respectively, with slight inter-examiner and good intra-examiner reliability. Statistically significant differences were evident between the two localisation techniques (p HTST in the anterior region of the maxilla.

  12. Evaporation heat transfer of carbon dioxide at low temperature inside a horizontal smooth tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung-In; Son, Chang-Hyo; Jung, Suk-Ho; Jeon, Min-Ju; Yang, Dong-Il

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the evaporation heat transfer coefficient of carbon dioxide at low temperature of -30 to -20 °C in a horizontal smooth tube was investigated experimentally. The test devices consist of mass flowmeter, pre-heater, magnetic gear pump, test section (evaporator), condenser and liquid receiver. Test section is made of cooper tube. Inner and outer diameter of the test section is 8 and 9.52 mm, respectively. The experiment is conducted at mass fluxes from 100 to 300 kg/m2 s, saturation temperature from -30 to -20 °C. The main results are summarized as follows: In case that the mass flux of carbon dioxide is 100 kg/m2 s, the evaporation heat transfer coefficient is almost constant regardless of vapor quality. In case of 200 and 300 kg/m2 s, the evaporation heat transfer coefficient increases steadily with increasing vapor quality. For the same mass flux, the evaporation heat transfer coefficient increases as the evaporation temperature of the refrigerant decreases. In comparison of heat transfer correlations with the experimental result, the evaporation heat transfer correlations do not predict them exactly. Therefore, more accurate heat transfer correlation than the previous one is required.

  13. Research of heat transfer of staggered horizontal bundles of finned tubes at free air convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilova, A. V.; Maryna, Z. G.; Samorodov, A. V.; Lvov, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    The study of free-convective processes is important because of the cooling problem in many machines and systems, where other ways of cooling are impossible or impractical. Natural convective processes are common in the steam turbine air condensers of electric power plants located within the city limits, in dry cooling towers of circulating water systems, in condensers cooled by air and water, in radiators cooling oil of power electric transformers, in emergency cooling systems of nuclear reactors, in solar power, as well as in air-cooling of power semiconductor energy converters. All this makes actual the synthesis of the results of theoretical and experimental research of free convection for heat exchangers with finned tube bundles. The results of the study of free-convection heat transfer for two-, three- and four-row staggered horizontal bundles of industrial bimetallic finned tubes with finning factor of 16.8 and equilateral tubes arrangement are presented. Cross and diagonal steps in the bundles are the same: 58; 61; 64; 70; 76; 86; 100 mm, which corresponds to the relative steps: 1.042; 1.096; 1.152; 1.258; 1.366; 1.545; 1.797. These steps are standardized for air coolers. An equation for calculating the free-convection heat transfer, taking into account the influence of geometrical parameters in the range of Rayleigh number from 30,000 to 350,000 with an average deviation of ± 4.8%, has been obtained. The relationship presented in the article allows designing a wide range of air coolers for various applications, working in the free convection modes.

  14. Bubble-assisted film evaporation correlation for saline water at sub-atmospheric pressures in horizontal-tube evaporator

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Myat, Aung; Chun, Won Gee; Ng, Kim Choon

    2013-01-01

    film boiling on horizontal tubes, but working at low pressures of 0.93-3.60 kPa (corresponding solution saturation temperatures of 279-300 K) as well as seawater salinity of 15,000 to 90,000 mg/l or ppm. Owing to a dearth of literature on film

  15. Heat transfer analysis and effects of feeding tubes arrangement, falling film behavior and backsplash on ice formation around horizontal tubes bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sait, Hani Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Ice shape around the tubes. • Effects of accumulation of ice around the tubes. • Effects of parallel and series tubes arrangements. • Effects of ice accumulated around the tube surfaces. • Effects of backsplash on ice formation. - Abstract: Excessive electrical load has recently get a lot of attention from electric companies specially in hot countries like Saudi Arabia, where air-conditioning load represents about 75% from the total electrical load. Energy storage by freezing is one of the methods that used to tackle this issue. Ice is formed around horizontal cold tubes that are subjected to falling film of water. Ice quantity is measured, photographed and studied. In this studied the coolant inside the tubes flows in series tube arrangement. The results are compared with previous study in which parallel arrangement was used. In addition the falling film behavior and the resulted backsplash are also investigated. A mathematical model to predict ice formation around the tube is proposed. Comparison of the results of the model with that of the experiments showed that the agreement between the two is acceptable. The results also show a quite reasonable quantity of ice is formed in a short time and the series arrangement is more efficient than parallel one. The falling film shapes and its backsplash has also affected the ice formation

  16. Characterization of Dosimetry of the BMRR Horizontal Thimble Tubes and Broad Beam Facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu,J.P.; Reciniello, R.N.; Holden, N.E.

    2008-05-05

    The Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor was a 5 mega-watt, light-water cooled and heavy-graphite moderated research facility. It has two shutter-equipped treatment rooms, three horizontally extended thimble tubes, and an ex-core broad beam facility. The three experimental thimbles, or activation ports, external to the reactor tank were designed for several uses, including the investigations on diagnostic and therapeutic methods using radioactive isotopes of very short half-life, the analysis of radiation exposure on tissue-equivalent materials using a collimated neutron beam, and the evaluation of dose effects on biological cells to improve medical treatment. At the broad beam facility where the distribution of thermal neutrons was essential uniform, a wide variety of mammalian whole-body exposures were studied using animals such as burros or mice. Also studied at the broad beam were whole-body phantom experiments, involving the use of a neutron or photon beam streaming through a screen to obtain the flux spectrum suitable for dose analysis on the sugar-urea-water mixture, a tissue-equivalent material. Calculations of the flux and the dose at beam ports based on Monte Carlo particle-transport code were performed, and measurements conducted at the same tally locations were made using bare or cadmium-covered gold foils. Analytical results, which show good agreement with measurement data, are presented in the paper.

  17. Cooling performance assessment of horizontal earth tube system and effect on planting in tropical greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkon, S.; Thepa, S.; Namprakai, P.; Pratinthong, N.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The cooling ability of HETS is studied for planting in tropical greenhouse. • The effective of system was moderate with COP more than 2.0. • Increasing diameter and air velocity increase COP more than other parameters. • The plant growth with HETS was significantly better than no-HETS plant. - Abstract: The benefit of geothermal energy is used by the horizontal earth tube system (HETS); which is not prevalent in tropical climate. This study evaluated geothermal cooling ability and parameters studied in Thailand by mathematical model. The measurement of the effect on plant cultivation was carried out in two identical greenhouses with 30 m 2 of greenhouse volume. The HETS supplied cooled air to the model greenhouse (MGH), and the plant growth results were compared to the growth results of a conventional greenhouse (CGH). The prediction demonstrated that the coefficient of performance (COP) in clear sky day would be more than 2.0 while in the experiment it was found to be moderately lower. The parameters study could be useful for implementation of a system for maximum performance. Two plants Dahlias and head lettuce were grown satisfactory. The qualities of the plants with the HETS were better than the non-cooled plants. In addition, the quality of production was affected by variations of microclimate in the greenhouses and solar intensity throughout the cultivation period

  18. Mechanistic multidimensional analysis of two-phase flow in horizontal tube with 90 deg elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tselishcheva, E.A.; Antal, St.P.; Podowski, M.Z.; Marshall, S.

    2007-01-01

    The development of modeling and simulation capabilities of two-phase flow and heat transfer is very important for the design, operation and safety of nuclear reactors. Whereas a significant progress in this field has been made over the recent years, further advancements are clearly needed for new concepts of advanced (Generation-IV in particular) reactors. Difficulties in analyzing gas/liquid flows are due to the fact that such two-phase mixtures can assume several different flow patterns, each characterized by flow-regime specific interfacial phenomena of mass, momentum and energy transfer. The level of difficulty increases even further in the case of a complex tube geometries and spatial orientations. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of the analysis of a two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe with a 90-degree elbow. The overall objective of the present work is the development of a 3-dimensional computational model of a two-phase high-Reynolds number turbulent flow. The overall new model has been encoded in the next-generation Computational Multiphase Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) computer code, NPHASE. The model has been tested parametrically and the results of NPHASE calculations have been compared against experimental data. It has been demonstrated that the proposed model is consistent both physically and numerically, the predictions are in a reasonable agreement with the measurements

  19. Coupling of standard condensing nuclear power stations to horizontal aluminium tubes multieffect distillation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adar, J.

    1977-01-01

    No large nuclear back-pressure turbines are available to-day. Standard condensing nuclear turbines could operate continuously with a back-pressure of up to 7'' Hg, exhausting huge amounts of steam at 56degC-64degC with a loss of electricity production of only 6%-10%. The horizontal aluminium tube multieffect distillation process developed by 'Israel Desalination Engineering Ltd' is very suitable for the use of such low-grade heat. A special flash-chamber loop constitutes a positive barrier against any possible contamination being carried over by the steam exhausted from the turbine to the desalination plant. The operation is designed to be flexible so that the power plant can be operated either in conjunction with the desalination plant or as a single purpose plant. Flow sheets, heat and mass balances have been prepared for eight different combinations of plants. Only standard equipment is being used in the power plant. The desalination plant consists of 6 to 12 parallel double lines, each of them similar to a large prototype now being designed. Water production varies between 50 and 123 MGD and water cost between 90 and 137 c/1000 gallons. Costs are based on actual bids

  20. The modelling of condensation in horizontal tubes and the comparison with experimental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryk Rafał

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The condensation in horizontal tubes plays an important role in determining the operation mode of passive safety systems of modern nuclear power plants. In this paper, two different approaches for modelling of this phenomenon are compared and verified against experimental data. The first approach is based on the flow regime map developed by Tandon. Depending on the regime, the heat transfer coefficient is calculated according to corresponding semi-empirical correlation. The second approach uses a general, fully empirical correlation proposed by Shah. Both models are developed with utilization of the object-oriented, equation-based Modelica language and the open-source Open-Modelica environment. The results are compared with data obtained during a large scale integral test, simulating a Loss of Coolant Accident scenario performed at the dedicated Integral Test Facility Karlstein (INKA which was built at the Components Testing Department of AREVA in Karlstein, Germany. The INKA facility was designed to test the performance of the passive safety systems of KERENA, the new AREVA boiling water reactor design. INKA represents the KERENA containment with a volume scaling of 1:24. Components heights and levels over the ground are in the full scale. The comparison of simulations results shows a good agreement.

  1. Experimental study on the minimum drag coefficient of supercritical pressure water in horizontal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Xianliang; Li, Huixiong; Guo, YuMeng; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Weiqiang; Zhang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The minimum drag coefficient phenomenon (MDC) has been observed and further investigated. • Effects of heat flux, mass flux and pressure to MDC have been discussed. • A series of comparisons between existing correlations and data have been conducted. • Two correlations of drag coefficient are proposed for isothermal and nonisothermal flow. - Abstract: Hydraulic resistance and its components are of great importance for understanding the turbulence nature of supercritical fluid and establishing prediction methods. Under supercritical pressures, the hydraulic resistance of the fluid exhibits a “pit” in the regions near its pseudo-critical point, which is hereafter called the minimum drag coefficient phenomenon. However, this special phenomenon was paid a little attention before. Hence systematical experiments have been carried out to investigate the hydraulic resistance of supercritical pressure water in both adiabatic and heated horizontal tubes. Parametric effects of heat flux, pressure and mass fluxes to drag coefficient are further compared. It is found that almost all of the existing correlations don’t agree well with the experimental data due to the insufficient consideration of thermal-properties near the pseudocritical point. Two correlations of the drag coefficients are finally proposed by introducing the new variable of the derivative of density with respect to temperature or Prandtl number, which can better predict the drag coefficient of isothermal and nonisothermal flow respectively.

  2. Heat and mass transfer prediction of binary refrigerant mixtures condensing in a horizontal microfin tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Shigeru; Yu, Jian; Ishibashi, Akira

    1999-07-01

    In the face of the phase-out of HCFC22 for its effect on globe environment, the alternative refrigerant has been paid attention in the refrigeration and heat pump industry. In the present stage, it is found that any pure refrigerant is not a good substitute of HCFC22 for the system in use. The authors have to use binary or ternary refrigerant mixtures as the substitute to meet industrial requirement. But until now, although the heat transfer characteristics of the refrigerant mixtures can be measured in experiments and predicted in some degree, the mass transfer characteristics in condensation process, which is a main part in most systems, can not be clarified by both experimental and theoretical methods. In the present study a non-equilibrium model for condensation of binary refrigerant mixtures inside a horizontal microfin tube is proposed. In this model it is assumed that the phase equilibrium is only established at the vapor-liquid interface, while the bulk vapor and the bulk liquid are in non-equilibrium in the same cross section. The mass transfer characteristic in vapor core is obtained from the analogy between mass and momentum transfer. In the liquid layer, the mass fraction distribution is neglected, but the mass transfer coefficient is treated as infinite that can keep a finite value for the mass transfer rate in liquid phase. From the calculation results compared with the experimental ones for the condensation of HFC134a/HCFC123 and HCFC22/CFC114 mixtures, it is found that the calculated heat flux distribution along the tube axis is in good agreement with that of experiment, and the calculated values of condensing length agree well with the experimental ones. Using the present model, the local mass faction distribution, the diffusion mass transfer rate and the mass transfer characteristics in both vapor and liquid phase are demonstrated. From these results, the effect of mass transfer resistance on condensation heat transfer characteristics for binary

  3. Visualization of two-phase gas-liquid flow regimes in horizontal and slightly-inclined circular tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Livia Alves [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: livia@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br; Cunha Filho, Jurandyr; Su, Jian [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Program], Emails: cunhafilho@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br; Faccini, Jose Luiz Horacio [Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br

    2010-07-01

    In this paper a flow visualization study was performed for two-phase gas-liquid flow in horizontal and slightly inclined tubes. The test section consists of a 2.54 cm inner diameter stainless steel circular tube, followed by a transparent acrylic tube with the same inner diameter. The working fluids were air and water, with liquid superficial velocities ranging from 0:11 to 3:28 m/s and gas superficial velocities ranging from 0:27 to 5:48 m/s. Flow visualization was executed for upward flow at 5 deg and 10 deg and downward flow at 2:5 deg, 5 deg and 10 deg, as well as for horizontal flow. The visualization technique consists of a high-speed digital camera that records images at rates of 125 and 250 frames per second of a concurrent air-water mixture through a transparent part of the tube. From the obtained images, the flow regimes were identified (except for annular flow), observing the effect of inclination angles on flow regime transition boundaries. Finally, the experimental results were compared with empirical and theoretical flow pattern maps available in literature. (author)

  4. Theoretical analysis of film condensation in horizontal microfin tubes; Microfin tsuki suihei kannai gyoshuku no riron kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, H; Wang, H [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study; Nozu, S [Okamaya Prefectural University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Computer Science and System Engineering

    2000-10-25

    A theoretical study has been made of film condensation in helically-grooved, horizontal microfin tubes. The annular flow regime and the stratified flow regime were considered. For the annular flow regime, a previously developed theoretical model was applied. For the stratified flow regime, the height of stratified condensate was estimated by a modified Taitel and Dukler model. For the upper part of the tube exposed to the vapor flow, numerical calculation of Laminar film condensation considering the combined effects of gravity and surface tension forces was conducted. The heat transfer coefficient at the lower part of the tube was estimated by an empirical equation for the internally finned tubes developed by Carnavos. The theoretical predictions of the circumferential average heat transfer coefficient by the two theoretical models were compared with available experimental data for four refrigerants and four tubes. Generally, the annular flow model gave a higher heat transfer coefficient than the stratified flow model in the high quality region, whereas the stratified flow model gave a higher heat transfer coefficient in the low quality region. For tubes with fin heights of 0.16 {approx} 0.24 mm, most of the experimental data agreed within {+-} 20% with the higher of the two theoretical predictions. (author)

  5. The evaluation of validity of the RELAP5/Mod3 flow regime map for horizontal small diameter tubes at low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agafonova, N. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Banati, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    RELAP5/MOD3 code was developed for Western type power water reactors with vertical steam generators. Thus, this code should be validated also for WWER design with horizontal steam generators. In application for horizontal steam generators the situation with two-phase flow inside small diameter tubes is possible when the first circuit pressure drops in accident below the pressure level in the boiling water. It is known that computer codes have not always modelled correctly the two-phase flow inside horizontal tubes at low pressures (less than 4-6 MPa). It may be the result of erroneous prediction of the flow regime. Correct prediction of the flow regime is especially important for the fully or partly stratified flow in horizontal tubes. The aim of this study is the attempt of verification of the flow regime map, which is used in the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code for two-phase flow in horizontal small diameter tubes. `Small diameter tube` means according RELAP5/MOD3 that the inner diameter of the tube is less (or equal) than 0.018 m. The inner tube diameter in horizontal steam generators is equal 0.013 m. (orig.). 19 refs.

  6. The evaluation of validity of the RELAP5/Mod3 flow regime map for horizontal small diameter tubes at low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agafonova, N [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Banati, J [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    RELAP5/MOD3 code was developed for Western type power water reactors with vertical steam generators. Thus, this code should be validated also for WWER design with horizontal steam generators. In application for horizontal steam generators the situation with two-phase flow inside small diameter tubes is possible when the first circuit pressure drops in accident below the pressure level in the boiling water. It is known that computer codes have not always modelled correctly the two-phase flow inside horizontal tubes at low pressures (less than 4-6 MPa). It may be the result of erroneous prediction of the flow regime. Correct prediction of the flow regime is especially important for the fully or partly stratified flow in horizontal tubes. The aim of this study is the attempt of verification of the flow regime map, which is used in the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code for two-phase flow in horizontal small diameter tubes. `Small diameter tube` means according RELAP5/MOD3 that the inner diameter of the tube is less (or equal) than 0.018 m. The inner tube diameter in horizontal steam generators is equal 0.013 m. (orig.). 19 refs.

  7. Measurement of subcooled boiling pressure drop and local heat transfer coefficient in horizontal tube under LPLF conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baburajan, P.K.; Bisht, G.S.; Gupta, S.K.; Prabhu, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Measured subcooled boiling pressure drop and local heat transfer coefficient in horizontal tubes. ► Infra-red thermal imaging is used for wall temperature measurement. ► Developed correlations for pressure drop and local heat transfer coefficient. -- Abstract: Horizontal flow is commonly encountered in boiler tubes, refrigerating equipments and nuclear reactor fuel channels of pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWR). Study of horizontal flow under low pressure and low flow (LPLF) conditions is important in understanding the nuclear core behavior during situations like LOCA (loss of coolant accidents). In the present work, local heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop are measured in a horizontal tube under LPLF conditions of subcooled boiling. Geometrical parameters covered in this study are diameter (5.5 mm, 7.5 mm and 9.5 mm) and length (550 mm, 750 mm and 1000 mm). The operating parameters varied are mass flux (450–935 kg/m 2 s) and inlet subcooling (29 °C, 50 °C and 70 °C). Infra-red thermography is used for the measurement of local wall temperature to estimate the heat transfer coefficient in single phase and two phase flows with water as the working medium at atmospheric pressure. Correlation for single phase diabatic pressure drop ratio (diabatic to adiabatic) as a function of viscosity ratio (wall temperature to fluid temperature) is presented. Correlation for pressure drop under subcooled boiling conditions as a function of Boiling number (Bo) and Jakob number (Ja) is obtained. Correlation for single phase heat transfer coefficient in the thermal developing region is presented as a function of Reynolds number (Re), Prandtl number (Pr) and z/d (ratio of axial length of the test section to diameter). Correlation for two phase heat transfer coefficient under subcooled boiling condition is developed as a function of boiling number (Bo), Jakob number (Ja) and Prandtl number (Pr)

  8. R404A condensing under forced flow conditions inside smooth, microfin and cross-hatched horizontal tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infante Ferreira, C A; Nan, X [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands). Laboratory for Refrigeration and Indoor Climate Control; Newell, T A; Chato, J C [University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    2003-06-01

    Two-phase heat transfer coefficient characteristics of R404A condensing under forced flow conditions inside smooth, microfin and cross-hatched horizontal tubes are experimentally investigated. Experimental parameters include a lubricating polyol ester oil concentration varied from 0 to 4%. The test runs were done at average inlet saturated condensing temperatures of 40{sup o}C. The inlet vapor was kept at saturation (quality = 1.0). The mass fluxes were between 200 and 600 kg/m{sup 2}s, and the heat fluxes were selected to obtain a quality of 0.0 at the outlet of the test section, varying from 5 to 45 kW/m{sup 2}. The heat transfer enhancement factor varied between 1.8 and 2.4 for both microfin and cross-hatched tubes. The larger values applied for larger mass fluxes for the cross-hatched tube and smaller mass fluxes for the microfin tube. Enhancement factors increased as oil concentration increased up to oil concentrations of 2%. For higher oil concentrations the enhancement decreased especially at high mass fluxes, the cross-hatched tube being less sensitive to oil contamination. Pressure drop in the test section increased by approximately 25% as the oil concentration increased from 0 to 4%. The results from the experiments are compared with those calculated from correlations reported in the literature. Moreover, modified correlations for the condensation heat transfer coefficient are proposed for practical applications. (author)

  9. Characteristics of two-phase flow pattern transitions and pressure drop of five refrigerants in horizontal circular small tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamitran, A.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Indonesia, Kampus Baru UI, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Choi, Kwang-Il [Graduate School, Chonnam National University, San 96-1, Dunduk-Dong, Yeosu, Chonnam 550-749 (Korea); Oh, Jong-Taek [Department of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineering, Chonnam National University, San 96-1, Dunduk-Dong, Yeosu, Chonnam 550-749 (Korea); Hrnjak, Pega [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, ACRC, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    An experimental investigation on the characteristics of two-phase flow pattern transitions and pressure drop of R-22, R-134a, R-410A, R-290 and R-744 in horizontal small stainless steel tubes of 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0 mm inner diameters is presented. Experimental data were obtained over a heat flux range of 5-40 kW/m{sup 2}, mass flux range of 50-600 kg/(m{sup 2} s), saturation temperature range of 0-15 C, and quality up to 1.0. Experimental data were evaluated with Wang et al. and Wojtan et al. [Wang, C.C., Chiang, C.S., Lu, D.C., 1997. Visual observation of two-phase flow pattern of R-22, R-134a, and R-407C in a 6.5-mm smooth tube. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 15, 395-405; Wojtan, L., Ursenbacher, T., Thome, J.R., 2005. Investigation of flow boiling in horizontal tubes: part I - a new diabatic two-phase flow pattern map. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 48, 2955-2969.] flow pattern maps. The effects of mass flux, heat flux, saturation temperature and inner tube diameter on the pressure drop of the working refrigerants are reported. The experimental pressure drop was compared with the predictions from some existing correlations. A new two-phase pressure drop model that is based on a superposition model for two-phase flow boiling of refrigerants in small tubes is presented. (author)

  10. Visualization of cross-sectional flow structure during condensation of steam in a slightly inclined horizontal tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puseya, Andree; Kim, H. [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, T. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    These flow characteristics called flow patterns still depend on a proper visualization technique in order to identify such local distribution. These proper distributions will have a dependence on the inclination of the tube as well, as it was demonstrated by Lips and Mayer. This work is focused on presenting an experimental investigation to visualize the cross sectional two-phase flow structure for condensation of steam in a horizontal tube and identify the liquid-gas interface using the axial-viewing technique. This innovative technique developed by Hewitt and more recently used in visualization works by Badie, permits the achievement to identify those systems in the area of interest by looking directly into the two-phase flow system during condensation of steam inside a pipe with technology such a high speed camera. An experimental work to visualize and locate the liquid-gas interface for steam condensation in horizontal tubes with slightly inclination was developed on this research The experimental results shows that the axial viewing technique works well with condensation phenomena and can be used for further developments in the field such as determination of liquid film geometry and calculation of void fraction.

  11. Technology of double casing tubes & a binary cycle system for hole cleaning for CBM multi-branch horizontal wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, the aeration-assisted cutting-carrying technology is faced with complexities in the drilling of CBM multi-branch horizontal wells. For example, the aerating pressure is hardly maintained, and the borehole instability may happen. In view of these prominent problems, the technology of double casing tubes & a binary cycle system suitable for CBM multi-branch horizontal wells was developed according to the Venturi principle by means of parasitic tube insufflation which is used for well control simulation system. Then, a multiphase flow finite element model was established for the fluid-cutting particle system in this drilling condition. This technology was tested in field. Double-casing tubes cementing is adopted in this technology and a jet generator is installed at the bottom of the inner casing. In the process of drilling, the drilling fluid injected through double intermediate casing annulus is converted by the jet generator into a high-efficiency steering water jet, which, together with the water jet generated by the bit nozzle, increases the fluid returning rate in the inner annulus space. It is indicated from simulation results that the cutting-carrying effect is the best when the included angle between the nozzle of the jet generator and the vertical direction is 30°. Besides, the influential laws of cutting size, primary cycle volume, accessory cycle volume and drilling velocity on hole cleaning are figured out. It is concluded that this technology increases the flow rate of drilling fluid in annulus space, the returning rate of drilling fluid significantly and the cutting-carrying capacity. It is currently one of the effective hole cleaning technologies for CBM multi-branch horizontal wells where fresh water is taken as the drilling fluid.

  12. Flow condensation pressure drop characteristics of R410A-oil mixture inside small diameter horizontal microfin tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiangchao; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Zhu, Yu [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gao, Yifeng [International Copper Association Shanghai Office, Shanghai 200020 (China); Deng, Bin [Institute of Heat Transfer Technology, Golden Dragon Precise Copper Tube Group Inc., Shanghai 200135 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Flow condensation pressure drop characteristics of R410A-oil mixture inside small diameter (5.0 mm and 4.0 mm O.D.) horizontal microfin tubes were investigated experimentally covering nominal oil concentrations from 0% to 5%. The research results indicate that, comparing with the frictional pressure drop of pure R410A, the frictional pressure drop of R410A-oil mixture may decrease by maximum of 18% when the vapor quality is lower than 0.6, and increase by maximum of 13% when the vapor quality is higher than 0.6. A new frictional pressure drop correlation for R410A-oil mixture flow condensation inside microfin tubes is developed based on the refrigerant-oil mixture properties, and can agree with 94% of the experimental data within a deviation of -30% to +30%. (author)

  13. Condensation of refrigerants in horizontal, spirally grooved microfin tubes: Numerical analysis of heat transfer in the annular flow regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozu, S; Honda, H

    2000-02-01

    A method is presented for estimating the condensation heat transfer coefficient in a horizontal, spirally grooved microfin tube. Based on the flow observation study performed by the authors, a laminar film condensation model in the annular flow regime is proposed. The model assumes that all the condensate flow occurs through the grooves. The condensate film is segmented into thin and thick film regions. In the thin film region formed on the fin surface, the condensate is assumed to be drained by the combined surface tension and vapor shear forces. In the thick film region formed in the groove, on the other hand, the condensate is assumed to be driven by the vapor shear force. The present and previous local heat transfer data including four fluids (CFC11, HCFC22, HCFC123, and HFCl34a) and three microfin tubes are found to agree with the present predictions to a mean absolute deviation of 15.1%.

  14. Heat transfer characteristics for evaporation of R417A flowing inside horizontal smooth and internally grooved tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoyan, Zhang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); School of Energy Engineering, Xi' an University of Science and Technology, 58 Yanta Street, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710054 (China)], E-mail: gqzxy@sohu.com; Xingqun, Zhang; Yunguang, Chen; Xiuling, Yuan [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2008-06-15

    The experimental study on evaporation heat transfer of R417A (R125/R134a/R600) flowing inside horizontal smooth and two internally grooved tubes with different geometrical parameters was conducted with the mass flow rate range from 176 to 344 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, heat flux from 11 to 32 kW m{sup -2}, evaporation temperature from 0 to 5.5 deg. C and vapor quality from 0.2 to 1. Based on the experimental results, the mechanism and role of the mass flow rate, heat flux, vapor quality and enhanced surface influencing the evaporation heat transfer coefficients were analyzed and discussed. In comparison to R22, the evaporation heat transfer coefficients for R417A were lower and much lower in the internally grooved tubes than in the smooth tube. The present experimental results are also compared with the existing correlations, and the modified Kattan model is found to be in much better agreement with the experimental results than the Kattan model. The Koyama and Wellsandt microfin models all tend to over predict the evaporation heat transfer coefficients rather strongly for R417A inside internally grooved tubes.

  15. Heat transfer characteristics for evaporation of R417A flowing inside horizontal smooth and internally grooved tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); School of Energy Engineering, Xi' an University of Science and Technology, 58 Yanta Street, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710054 (China); Zhang, Xingqun; Chen, Yunguang; Yuan, Xiuling [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2008-06-15

    The experimental study on evaporation heat transfer of R417A (R125/R134a/R600) flowing inside horizontal smooth and two internally grooved tubes with different geometrical parameters was conducted with the mass flow rate range from 176 to 344 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, heat flux from 11 to 32 kW m{sup -2}, evaporation temperature from 0 to 5.5{sup o}C and vapor quality from 0.2 to 1. Based on the experimental results, the mechanism and role of the mass flow rate, heat flux, vapor quality and enhanced surface influencing the evaporation heat transfer coefficients were analyzed and discussed. In comparison to R22, the evaporation heat transfer coefficients for R417A were lower and much lower in the internally grooved tubes than in the smooth tube. The present experimental results are also compared with the existing correlations, and the modified Kattan model is found to be in much better agreement with the experimental results than the Kattan model. The Koyama and Wellsandt microfin models all tend to over predict the evaporation heat transfer coefficients rather strongly for R417A inside internally grooved tubes. (author)

  16. Heat transfer characteristics for evaporation of R417A flowing inside horizontal smooth and internally grooved tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoyan; Zhang Xingqun; Chen Yunguang; Yuan Xiuling

    2008-01-01

    The experimental study on evaporation heat transfer of R417A (R125/R134a/R600) flowing inside horizontal smooth and two internally grooved tubes with different geometrical parameters was conducted with the mass flow rate range from 176 to 344 kg m -2 s -1 , heat flux from 11 to 32 kW m -2 , evaporation temperature from 0 to 5.5 deg. C and vapor quality from 0.2 to 1. Based on the experimental results, the mechanism and role of the mass flow rate, heat flux, vapor quality and enhanced surface influencing the evaporation heat transfer coefficients were analyzed and discussed. In comparison to R22, the evaporation heat transfer coefficients for R417A were lower and much lower in the internally grooved tubes than in the smooth tube. The present experimental results are also compared with the existing correlations, and the modified Kattan model is found to be in much better agreement with the experimental results than the Kattan model. The Koyama and Wellsandt microfin models all tend to over predict the evaporation heat transfer coefficients rather strongly for R417A inside internally grooved tubes

  17. Experimental Study on Cooling Heat Transfer of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Inside Horizontal Micro-Fin Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Ken; Higashiiu, Shinya; Ito, Daisuke; Koyama, Shigeru

    This paper deals with the experimental study on cooling heat transfer of supercritical carbon dioxide inside micro-fin tubes. The geometrical parameters in micro-fin tubes used in the present study are 6.02 mm in outer diameter, 4.76 mm to 5.11 mm in average inner diameter, 0.15 mm to 0.24 mm in fin height, 5 to 25 in helix angle, 46 to 52 in number of fins and 1.4 to 2.3 in area expansion ratio. Heat transfer coefficients were measured at 8-10 MPa in pressure, 360-690 kg/(m2•s) in mass velocity and 20-75 °C in CO2 temperature. The measured heat transfer coefficients of micro-fin tubes were 1.4 to 2 times higher than those of the smooth tube having 4.42 in inner diameter. The predicted heat transfer coefficients using the correlation equation, which was developed for single-phase turbulent fluid flow inside micro-fin-tubes, showed large deviations to the measured values. The new correlation to predict cooling heat transfer coefficient of supercritical carbon dioxide inside micro-fin tubes was developed taking into account the shape of fins based on experimental data empirically. This correlation equation agreed within ±20% of almost all of the experimental data.

  18. Counter-current flow in a vertical to horizontal tube with obstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tye, P.; Matuszkiewicz, A.; Teyssedou, A. [Institut de Genie Nucleaire, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents experimental results on counter-current flow and flooding in an elbow between a vertical and a horizontal run. The experimental technique used allowed not only the flooding limit to be determined, but also the entire partial delivery region to be studied as well. The influence that various size orifices placed in the horizontal run have on both the delivered liquid flow rates and on the flooding limits is also examined. It is observed that both the flooding limits and the delivered liquid flow rates decrease with decreasing orifice size. Further, it is also observed that the mechanisms that govern the partial delivery of the liquid are significantly different when an orifice is present in the horizontal leg as compared to the case when no orifice is present.

  19. Evaporation of R134a in a horizontal herringbone microfin tube: heat transfer and pressure drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellsandt, S; Vamling, L [Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden). Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science, Heat and Power Technology

    2005-09-01

    An experimental investigation of in-tube evaporation of R134a has been carried out for a 4 m long herringbone microfin tube with an outer diameter of 9.53 mm. Measured local heat transfer coefficients and pressure losses are reported for evaporation temperatures between -0.7 and 10.1 {sup o}C and mass flow rates between 162 and 366 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Results from this work are compared to experimental results from literature as well as predicted values from some available helical microfin correlations. Differences in heat transfer mechanisms between helical and herringbone microfin tubes are discussed, as heat transfer coefficients in the investigated herringbone tube tend to peak at lower vapour qualities compared to helical microfins. Correlations developed for helical microfin tubes generally predict experimental values within {+-}30% for vapour qualities below 50%. However, at higher qualities none of the correlations are able to reflect the early peak of heat transfer coefficients. Predicted pressure gradients reproduce measured values in general within {+-}20%. (author)

  20. Characterization of two-phase flow regimes in horizontal tubes using 81mKr tracer experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol, Jean; Leclerc, Jean Pierre; Berne, Philippe; Gousseau, Georges; Jallut, Christian; Tochon, Patrice; Clement, Patrice

    2008-10-01

    The diagnosis of heat exchangers on duty with respect to flow mal-distributions needs the development of non-intrusive inlet-outlet experimental techniques in order to perform an online fault diagnosis. Tracer experiments are an example of such techniques. They can be applied to mono-phase heat exchangers but also to multi-phase ones. In this case, the tracer experiments are more difficult to perform. In order to check for the capabilities of tracer experiments to be used for the flow mal-distribution diagnosis in the case of multi-phase heat exchangers, we present here a preliminary study on the simplest possible system: two-phase flows in a horizontal tube. (81m)Kr is used as gas tracer and properly collimated NaI (TI) crystal scintillators as detectors. The specific shape of the tracer response allows two-phase flow regimes to be characterized. Signal analysis allows the estimation of the gas phase real average velocity and consequently of the liquid phase real average velocity as well as of the volumetric void fraction. These results are compared successfully to those obtained with liquid phase tracer experiments previously presented by Oriol et al. 2007. Characterization of the two-phase flow regimes and liquid dispersion in horizontal and vertical tubes using coloured tracer and no intrusive optical detector. Chem. Eng. Sci. 63(1), 24-34, as well as to those given by correlations from literature.

  1. Characterization of two-phase flow regimes in horizontal tubes using 81mKr tracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriol, Jean; Leclerc, Jean Pierre; Berne, Philippe; Gousseau, Georges; Jallut, Christian; Tochon, Patrice; Clement, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of heat exchangers on duty with respect to flow mal-distributions needs the development of non-intrusive inlet-outlet experimental techniques in order to perform an online fault diagnosis. Tracer experiments are an example of such techniques. They can be applied to mono-phase heat exchangers but also to multi-phase ones. In this case, the tracer experiments are more difficult to perform. In order to check for the capabilities of tracer experiments to be used for the flow mal-distribution diagnosis in the case of multi-phase heat exchangers, we present here a preliminary study on the simplest possible system: two-phase flows in a horizontal tube. 81m Kr is used as gas tracer and properly collimated NaI (TI) crystal scintillators as detectors. The specific shape of the tracer response allows two-phase flow regimes to be characterized. Signal analysis allows the estimation of the gas phase real average velocity and consequently of the liquid phase real average velocity as well as of the volumetric void fraction. These results are compared successfully to those obtained with liquid phase tracer experiments previously presented by Oriol et al. 2007. Characterization of the two-phase flow regimes and liquid dispersion in horizontal and vertical tubes using coloured tracer and no intrusive optical detector. Chem. Eng. Sci. 63(1), 24-34, as well as to those given by correlations from literature

  2. Characterization of two-phase flow regimes in horizontal tubes using {sup 81m}Kr tracer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriol, Jean [LPAC, CEA Grenoble, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Leclerc, Jean Pierre [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique (LSGC), Nancy-Universite, CNRS, BP 20451, F-54001 Nancy (France)], E-mail: leclerc@ensic.inpl-nancy.fr; Berne, Philippe; Gousseau, Georges [L2T, CEA Grenoble, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Jallut, Christian [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, LAGEP, UMR CNRS 5007, ESCPE, 43 Bd du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Tochon, Patrice; Clement, Patrice [GRETh, CEA Grenoble, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-10-15

    The diagnosis of heat exchangers on duty with respect to flow mal-distributions needs the development of non-intrusive inlet-outlet experimental techniques in order to perform an online fault diagnosis. Tracer experiments are an example of such techniques. They can be applied to mono-phase heat exchangers but also to multi-phase ones. In this case, the tracer experiments are more difficult to perform. In order to check for the capabilities of tracer experiments to be used for the flow mal-distribution diagnosis in the case of multi-phase heat exchangers, we present here a preliminary study on the simplest possible system: two-phase flows in a horizontal tube. {sup 81m}Kr is used as gas tracer and properly collimated NaI (TI) crystal scintillators as detectors. The specific shape of the tracer response allows two-phase flow regimes to be characterized. Signal analysis allows the estimation of the gas phase real average velocity and consequently of the liquid phase real average velocity as well as of the volumetric void fraction. These results are compared successfully to those obtained with liquid phase tracer experiments previously presented by Oriol et al. 2007. Characterization of the two-phase flow regimes and liquid dispersion in horizontal and vertical tubes using coloured tracer and no intrusive optical detector. Chem. Eng. Sci. 63(1), 24-34, as well as to those given by correlations from literature.

  3. Experimental Study on Flow Boiling of Carbon Dioxide in a Horizontal Microfin Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Ken; Ikeda, Soshi; Koyama, Shigeru

    This paper deals with the experimental study on flow boiling heat transfer of carbon dioxide in a micro-fin tube. The geometrical parameters of micro-fin tube used in this study are 6.07 mm in outer diameter, 5.24 mm in average inner diameter, 0.256 mm in fin height, 20.4 in helix angle, 52 in number of grooves and 2.35 in area expansion ratio. Flow patterns and heat transfer coefficients were measured at 3-5 MPa in pressure, 300-540 kg/(m2s) in mass velocity and -5 to 15 °C in CO2 temperature. Flow patterns of wavy flow, slug flow and annular flow were observed. The measured heat transfer coefficients of micro-fin tube were 10-40 kW/(m2K). Heat transfer coefficients were strongly influenced by pressure.

  4. Abdominal Plain Film Before Gastrostomy Tube Placement to Predict Success of Percutaneous Endoscopic Procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruijsen, J. M.; de Bruin, A.; Sekema, G.; Koetse, H. A.; van Rheenen, P. F.

    Objectives: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube feeding is a convenient method for children requiring long-term enteral nutrition. Preoperative fitness of the majority of pediatric PEG candidates is graded as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status >= III, indicating

  5. An experimental study on two-phase pressure drop in small diameter horizontal, downward inclined and vertical tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autee Arun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of two-phase pressure drop in small diameter tubes orientated horizontally, vertically and at two other downward inclinations of θ= 300 and θ = 600 is described in this paper. Acrylic transparent tubes of internal diameters 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 mm with lengths of 400 mm were used as the test section. Air-water mixture was used as the working fluid. Two-phase pressure drop was measured and compared with the existing correlations. These correlations are commonly used for calculation of pressure drop in macro and mini-microchannels. It is observed that the existing correlations are inadequate in predicting the two-phase pressure drop in small diameter tubes. Based on the experimental data, a new correlation has been proposed for predicting the two-phase pressure drop. This correlation is developed by modification of Chisholm parameter C by incorporating different parameters. It was found that the proposed correlation predicted two-phase pressure drop at satisfactory level.

  6. An apparatus with a horizontal capillary tube intended for measurement of the surface tension of supercooled liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinš, Václav; Hošek, Jan; Hykl, Jiří; Hrubý, Jan

    2015-05-01

    New experimental apparatus for measurement of the surface tension of liquids under the metastable supercooled state has been designed and assembled in the study. The measuring technique is similar to the method employed by P.T. Hacker [NACA TN 2510] in 1951. A short liquid thread of the liquid sample was sucked inside a horizontal capillary tube partly placed in a temperature-controlled glass chamber. One end of the capillary tube was connected to a setup with inert gas which allowed for precise tuning of the gas overpressure in order of hundreds of Pa. The open end of the capillary tube was precisely grinded and polished before the measurement in order to assure planarity and perpendicularity of the outer surface. The liquid meniscus at the open end was illuminated by a laser beam and observed by a digital camera. Application of an increasing overpressure of the inert gas at the inner meniscus of the liquid thread caused variation of the outer meniscus such that it gradually changed from concave to flat and subsequently convex shape. The surface tension at the temperature of the inner meniscus could be evaluated from the overpressure corresponding to exactly planar outer meniscus. Detailed description of the new setup together with results of the preliminary tests is provided in the study.

  7. Evaluation of the individual tube current setting in electrocardiogram-gated cardiac computed tomography estimated from plain chest computed tomography using computed tomography automatic exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Junichi; Sakou, Toshio; Ohta, Yasutoshi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the tube current on a cardiac computed tomography (CT) from a plain chest CT using CT-automatic exposure control (CT-AEC), to obtain consistent image noise, and to optimize the scan tube current by individualizing the tube current. Sixty-five patients (Group A) underwent cardiac CT at fixed tube current. The mAs value for plain chest CT using CT-AEC (AEC value) and cardiac CT image noise were measured. The tube current needed to obtain the intended level of image noise in the cardiac CT was determined from their correlation. Another 65 patients (Group B) underwent cardiac CT with tube currents individually determined from the AEC value. Image noise was compared among Group A and B. Image noise of cardiac CT in Group B was 24.4±3.1 Hounsfield unit (HU) and was more uniform than in Group A (21.2±6.1 HU). The error with the desired image noise of 25 HU was lower in Group B (2.4%) than in Group A (15.2%). Individualized tube current selection based on AEC value thus provided consistent image noise and a scan tube current optimized for cardiac CT. (author)

  8. Contribution to the heat transfer analysis of substitute refrigerants in evaporator tubes with smooth or enhanced tube surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattan, N

    1997-12-31

    The substitution of CFC refrigerants in refrigeration systems, heat pumps and organic Rankine cycles for heat recovery, requests a good knowledge of heat transfer properties of substitute fluids. A new test facility has been built at the Laboratory for Industrial Energy Systems (LENI) to contribute to this international effort. It consists of two sets of concentric tubes allowing either annular or inside tube convective boiling with a counter current water flow heating to be studied. A new data base including heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop measurements for four new refrigerants (R123, R134A, R402A and R404A) and three older refrigerants (R11, R12 and R502) has been collected. Flow boiling measurements covered a broad range of mass velocities, vapor qualities and heat fluxes. Some of the tests included plain tubes and others enhanced surface tubes (microfilms from Wieland) in horizontal and vertical orientations. An improved Wilson plot technique, that covers both the transition and turbulent flow regimes of the water flowing in the annular channel for the inside tube boiling tests, is proposed to overcome the severe limitations of conventional Wilson plots, to improve accuracy and to facilitate data processing. Mean flow boiling heat transfer coefficients were measured for R12 and R134A evaporating inside a horizontal plain tube and for R11 and R123 evaporating inside a horizontal plain tube. Local flow boiling heat transfer coefficients were measured for : R134A, R123, R404A and R502 evaporating inside a horizontal plain tube, for R134A and R123 evaporating inside a horizontal microfin tube and for R134 evaporating inside a vertical microfin tube. In addition microfin heat transfer augmentation relative to plain tube test data was investigated. The measured heat transfer coefficients were compared to different existing inside tube flow boiling correlations. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  9. Heat transfer, pressure drop and flow patterns during flow boiling of R407C in a horizontal microfin tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollmann, P.; Spindler, K.; Müller-Steinhagen, H.

    2011-08-01

    The heat transfer, pressure drop and flow patterns during flow boiling of R407C in a horizontal microfin tube have been investigated. The microfin tube is made of copper with a total fin number of 55 and a helix angle of 15°. The fin height is 0.24 mm and the inner tube diameter at fin root is 8.95 mm. The test tube is 1 m long. It is heated electrically. The experiments have been performed at saturation temperatures between -30°C and +10°C. The mass flux was varied between 25 and 300 kg/m2/s, the heat flux from 20,000 W/m2 down to 1,000 W/m2. The vapour quality was kept constant at 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 at the inlet and 0.8, 1.0 at the outlet, respectively. The measured heat transfer coefficient is compared with the correlations of Cavallini et al., Shah as well as Zhang et al. Cavallini's correlation contains seven experimental constants. After fitting these constants to our measured values, the correlation achieves good agreement. The measured pressure drop is compared to the correlations of Pierre, Kuo and Wang as well as Müller-Steinhagen and Heck. The best agreement is achieved with the correlation of Kuo and Wang. Almost all values are calculated within an accuracy of ±30%. The flow regimes were observed. It is shown, that changes in the flow regime affect the heat transfer coefficient significantly.

  10. A comparison of fluoride-oxalate and plain (serum gel) tube on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A continuing problem in the accurate measurement of glucose is its decline in concentration due to erythrocytic glycolysis after sampling, transport and processing. Eliminating this problem requires the use of an anti-glycolytic agent that can be added to the sampling tubes without altering cellular integrity while measuring ...

  11. Measurement and analysis of the re-wetting front velocity during quench cooling of hot horizontal tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takrouri, Kifah, E-mail: takroukj@mcmaster.ca [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Luxat, John, E-mail: luxatj@mcmaster.ca [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Hamed, Mohamed [Thermal Processing Laboratory (TPL), Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Two phase flow & re-wetting front velocity were studied for quench of hot tubes. • The velocity decreased as temperature difference between tube and coolant decreased. • Increasing surface curvature was found to decrease the re-wetting front velocity. • Increasing tube thermal conductivity decreased the velocity. • Correlations were developed to predict the front velocity. - Abstract: When a liquid is put into contact with a hot dry surface, there exists a maximum temperature called the re-wetting temperature below which the liquid is in actual contact with the surface. Re-wetting occurs after destabilization of a vapor film that exists between the hot surface and the liquid. If re-wetting is established at a location on the hot surface, a wet patch appears at that location and starts to spread to cover and cool the entire surface. The outer edge of the wet patch is called the re-wetting front and can proceed only if the surface ahead of it cools down to the re-wetting temperature. Study of re-wetting heat transfer is very important in nuclear reactor safety for limiting the extent of core damage during the early stages of severe accidents after loss of coolant accidents LOCA and is essential for predicting the rate at which the coolant cools an overheated core. One of the important parameters in re-wetting cooling is the velocity at which the re-wetting front moves on the surface. In this study, experimental tests were carried out to investigate the re-wetting front velocity on hot horizontal cylindrical tubes being cooled by a vertical rectangular water multi-jet system. Effects of initial surface temperature in the range 400–740 °C, water subcooling in the range 15–80 °C and jet velocity in the range 0.17–1.43 m/s on the re-wetting front velocity were investigated. The two-phase flow behavior was observed by using a high-speed camera. The re-wetting front velocity was found to increase by increasing water subcooling, decreasing

  12. Two-phase heat transfer and pressure drop of LNG during saturated flow boiling in a horizontal tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Shi, Yumei

    2013-12-01

    Two-phase heat transfer and pressure drop of LNG (liquefied natural gas) have been measured in a horizontal smooth tube with an inner diameter of 8 mm. The experiments were conducted at inlet pressures from 0.3 to 0.7 MPa with a heat flux of 8-36 kW m-2, and mass flux of 49.2-201.8 kg m-2 s-1. The effect of vapor quality, inlet pressure, heat flux and mass flux on the heat transfer characteristic are discussed. The comparisons of the experimental data with the predicted value by existing correlations are analyzed. Zou et al. (2010) correlation shows the best accuracy with 24.1% RMS deviation among them. Moreover four frictional pressure drop methods are also chosen to compare with the experimental database.

  13. Demineralized water flow cancelling experiments with ice plug into high diameter horizontal tube (300 nominal diameter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyongyosi, T.; Valeca, S.; Corbescu, B.; Puiu, D.; Panaitescu, V. N.

    2015-01-01

    The isolation with ice plug of a high diameter horizontal pipeline section is a specific technique for repairs activities/ replacements of components owning to thermo-hydraulic installations working with liquid agents. The application of such technique don.t assumes stopping of the entire system. The ice plugging inside of the pipeline assumes using of a special device and of an own specific technology for application. The paper contains a brief description of the experimental technological facilities used, followed by setting off the main moments in evolution of two experimental tests carried out on the test section with 300 mm nominal diameter for demineralized water and, finally, by a brief results analysis and some conclusions. The paper is dedicated to the specialists working in the research and technological engineering. (authors)

  14. Indoor Solar Thermal Energy Saving Time with Phase Change Material in a Horizontal Shell and Finned-Tube Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Paria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental as well as numerical investigation was conducted on the melting/solidification processes of a stationary phase change material (PCM in a shell around a finned-tube heat exchanger system. The PCM was stored in the horizontal annular space between a shell and finned-tube where distilled water was employed as the heat transfer fluid (HTF. The focus of this study was on the behavior of PCM for storage (charging or melting and removal (discharging or solidification, as well as the effect of flow rate on the charged and discharged solar thermal energy. The impact of the Reynolds number was determined and the results were compared with each other to reveal the changes in amount of stored thermal energy with the variation of heat transfer fluid flow rates. The results showed that, by increasing the Reynolds number from 1000 to 2000, the total melting time decreases by 58%. The process of solidification also will speed up with increasing Reynolds number in the discharging process. The results also indicated that the fluctuation of gradient temperature decreased and became smooth with increasing Reynolds number. As a result, by increasing the Reynolds number in the charging process, the theoretical efficiency rises.

  15. Indoor solar thermal energy saving time with phase change material in a horizontal shell and finned-tube heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paria, S; Sarhan, A A D; Goodarzi, M S; Baradaran, S; Rahmanian, B; Yarmand, H; Alavi, M A; Kazi, S N; Metselaar, H S C

    2015-01-01

    An experimental as well as numerical investigation was conducted on the melting/solidification processes of a stationary phase change material (PCM) in a shell around a finned-tube heat exchanger system. The PCM was stored in the horizontal annular space between a shell and finned-tube where distilled water was employed as the heat transfer fluid (HTF). The focus of this study was on the behavior of PCM for storage (charging or melting) and removal (discharging or solidification), as well as the effect of flow rate on the charged and discharged solar thermal energy. The impact of the Reynolds number was determined and the results were compared with each other to reveal the changes in amount of stored thermal energy with the variation of heat transfer fluid flow rates. The results showed that, by increasing the Reynolds number from 1000 to 2000, the total melting time decreases by 58%. The process of solidification also will speed up with increasing Reynolds number in the discharging process. The results also indicated that the fluctuation of gradient temperature decreased and became smooth with increasing Reynolds number. As a result, by increasing the Reynolds number in the charging process, the theoretical efficiency rises.

  16. Numerical simulation and experimental results of horizontal tube falling film generator working in a NH3-LiNO3 absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, J.V.; Garcia-Valladares, O.; Gomez, V.H.; Best, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the work made at the Centro de Investigacion en Energia in the development of an absorption refrigeration system for cooling and refrigeration applications with a capacity of 10 kW. The single effect unit utilizes ammonia-lithium nitrate as working pair and it is air cooled. The generator is a falling film type with horizontal tubes where the heating oil flows inside the tube bank and the ammonia-lithium nitrate solution flows as a falling film on the tube outside, where it is heated and ammonia vapor is generated. The generator consists of tree columns and four rows per column of horizontal tubes. The system was tested at controlled conditions with heating oil obtained from an electric resistance heating loop. A numerical model of the horizontal falling film generator was developed that divided the system into three different thermal elements: the flow inside the tube, the heat conduction in the tube wall and the falling film solution flow. The mathematical model was tested and validated with experimental data and a study of the influence of the heat transfer coefficient for ammonia-lithium nitrate solution in the numerical model was carried out. A comparison between experimental and numerical data for the heat flux in the system and the temperature profiles in the oil and solution flows shown a good degree of correlation.

  17. Depressurization experiments on a plugged fibrous insulation in a horizontal pressure tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, H.; Weise, H.J.; Ennen, P.

    1977-08-01

    Hot gas ducts for high-temperature reactors with a helium turbine are subject to additional operational loads not caused by the gas temperature. They include vibrations, caused by high gas velocities or by the sound fields emitted from the turbine, and stresses, originating from fast, short-time pressure changes. Such pressure changes occur as a rule if the generator coupled with the turbine has to be disconnected from the grid. In order to avoid no-load operation of the turbine a bypass between HP and LP side of the turbine is opened. As a consequence of this measure a sudden pressure drop occurs in the free flow cross-section causing differential pressures within the insulation. As the size of these differential pressures depends on the insulating material, the density of plugging, the kind of internals, and on the position and size of the depressurization borings, the pressure distributions in the insulation were measured on a test tube for the HP channel. (orig./RW) [de

  18. Bubble-assisted film evaporation correlation for saline water at sub-atmospheric pressures in horizontal-tube evaporator

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2013-01-01

    In falling film evaporators, the overall heat transfer coefficient is controlled by film thickness, velocity, liquid properties and the temperature differential across the film layer. This article presents the heat transfer behavior for evaporative film boiling on horizontal tubes, but working at low pressures of 0.93-3.60 kPa (corresponding solution saturation temperatures of 279-300 K) as well as seawater salinity of 15,000 to 90,000 mg/l or ppm. Owing to a dearth of literature on film-boiling at these conditions, the article is motivated by the importance of evaporative film boiling in the desalination processes such as the multi-effect distillation (MED) or multi-stage flashing (MSF): It is observed that in addition to the above-mentioned parameters, evaporative heat transfer of seawater is affected by the emergence of micro-bubbles within the thin film layer, particularly when the liquid saturation temperatures drop below 298 K (3.1 kPa). Such micro bubbles are generated near to the tube wall surfaces and they enhanced the heat transfer by two or more folds when compared with the predictions of conventional evaporative film boiling. The appearance of micro-bubbles is attributed to the rapid increase in the specific volume of vapor, i.e., dv/dT, at low saturation temperature conditions. A new correlation is thus proposed in this article and it shows good agreement to the measured data with an experimental uncertainty of 8% and regression RMSE of 3.5%. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental investigation on TBAB clathrate hydrate slurry flows in a horizontal tube: Forced convective heat transfer behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenji, Song [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, CAS, No. 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, CAS, No. 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Rui, Xiao; Chong, Huang; Shihui, He; Kaijun, Dong; Ziping, Feng [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, CAS, No. 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, CAS, No. 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Tetra-n-butyl-ammonium bromide (TBAB) clathrate hydrate slurry (CHS) is one kind of secondary refrigerants, which is promising to be applied into air-conditioning or latent-heat transportation systems as a thermal storage or cold carrying medium for energy saving. It is a solid-liquid two phase mixture which is easy to produce and has high latent heat and good fluidity. In this paper, the heat transfer characteristics of TBAB slurry were investigated in a horizontal stainless steel tube under different solid mass fractions and flow velocities with constant heat flux. One velocity region of weakened heat transfer was found. Moreover, TBAB CHS was treated as a kind of Bingham fluids, and the influences of the solid particles, flow velocity and types of flow on the forced convective heat transfer coefficients of TBAB CHS were investigated. At last, criterial correlations of Nusselt number for laminar and turbulent flows in the form of power function were summarized, and the error with experimental results was within {+-}20%. (author)

  20. Measurement and correlation of frictional pressure drop of refrigerant-based nanofluid flow boiling inside a horizontal smooth tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Hao; Ding, Guoliang; Jiang, Weiting; Hu, Haitao [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gao, Yifeng [International Copper Association Shanghai Office, 381 Huaihaizhong Road, Shanghai 200020 (China)

    2009-11-15

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of nanoparticle on the frictional pressure drop characteristics of refrigerant-based nanofluid flow boiling inside a horizontal smooth tube, and to present a correlation for predicting the frictional pressure drop of refrigerant-based nanofluid. R113 refrigerant and CuO nanoparticle were used for preparing refrigerant-based nanofluid. Experimental conditions include mass fluxes from 100 to 200 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, heat fluxes from 3.08 to 6.16 kW m{sup -2}, inlet vapor qualities from 0.2 to 0.7, and mass fractions of nanoparticles from 0 to 0.5 wt%. The experimental results show that the frictional pressured drop of refrigerant-based nanofluid increases with the increase of the mass fraction of nanoparticles, and the maximum enhancement of frictional pressure drop is 20.8% under above conditions. A frictional pressure drop correlation for refrigerant-based nanofluid is proposed, and the predictions agree with 92% of the experimental data within the deviation of {+-}15%. (author)

  1. Theoretical Analysis of Effects of Wall Suction on Entropy Generation Rate in Laminar Condensate Layer on Horizontal Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Bou Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of wall suction on the entropy generation rate in a two-dimensional steady film condensation flow on a horizontal tube are investigated theoretically. In analyzing the liquid flow, the effects of both the gravitational force and the viscous force are taken into account. In addition, a film thickness reduction ratio, Sf, is introduced to evaluate the effect of wall suction on the thickness of the condensate layer. The analytical results show that, the entropy generation rate depends on the Jakob number Ja, the Rayleigh number Ra, the Brinkman number Br, the dimensionless temperature difference ψ, and the wall suction parameter Sw. In addition, it is shown that in the absence of wall suction, a closed-form correlation for the Nusselt number can be derived. Finally, it is shown that the dimensionless entropy generation due to heat transfer, NT, increases with an increasing suction parameter Sw, whereas the dimensionless entropy generation due to liquid film flow friction, NF, decreases.

  2. Experimental study of the condensation heat transfer characteristics of CO2 in a horizontal microfin tube with a diameter of 4.95 mm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Chang-Hyo; Oh, Hoo-Kyu

    2012-11-01

    The condensation heat transfer characteristics for CO2 flowing in a horizontal microfin tube were investigated by experiment with respect to condensation temperature and mass flux. The test section consists of a 2,400 mm long horizontal copper tube of 4.6 mm inner diameter. The experiments were conducted at refrigerant mass flux of 400-800 kg/m2s, and saturation temperature of 20-30 °C. The main experimental results showed that annular flow was highly dominated the majority of condensation flow in the horizontal microfin tube. The condensation heat transfer coefficient increases with decreasing saturation temperature and increasing mass flux. The experimental data were compared against previous heat transfer correlations. Most correlations failed to predict the experimental data. However, the correlation by Cavallini et al. showed relatively good agreement with experimental data in the microfin tube. Therefore, a new condensation heat transfer correlation is proposed with mean and average deviations of 3.14 and -7.6 %, respectively.

  3. MARS-KS Code Assessment for Condensation Heat Transfer in Horizontal Tube with the Presence of Non-Condensable Gas using Purdue Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Seong Su; Lee, Byung Chul; Park, Ju Yeop; Seul, Kwang Won

    2011-01-01

    In South Korea, advanced power reactor plus (APR+), as a Korean specific reactor, is currently under development for the export strategy. In order to raise competitiveness of the APR+ in the world market, it is necessary to develop the original technology for the improved technology, economics, and safety features. For this purpose, a passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) was adopted as an improved safety design concept of APR+: and then there have been many efforts to develop the PAFS. According to PAFS design concept, PAFS can completely replace the auxiliary feedwater system. When the design basis accident, in which feedwater is unavailable, occurs, the PAFS can remove the residual heat in the core and then prevent the core damage. In the PAFS with the horizontal type heat exchanger, two-phase natural circulation, condensation heat transfer in tube, boiling heat transfer in pool, natural convection in pool, etc. are considered as very important thermalhydraulic phenomena (see Fig. 1). Compared with the vertical heat exchanger from these phenomena, the major difference of the horizontal heat exchanger is the condensation heat transfer phenomena in the tube side. There have been many efforts to understand the condensation heat transfer with in the presence of NC gas in tube but most researches focused on the condensation heat transfer in vertical tube. Therefore the details of the condensation heat transfer in the presence of NC gas in horizontal condenser tubes are not well understood. In order to develop the safety evaluation system for APR+ PAFS, it is required to evaluate the capability and applicability of the MARS-KS code for modeling the condensation heat transfer in the horizontal tube with NC gas because many heat transfer correlations in MARS-KS are known to have much uncertainty. In particular, there is no reliable model for the condensation phenomena in horizontal tube with NC gas. In order to assess the MARS-KS code results and identify the

  4. Prediction of evaporation heat transfer coefficient based on gas-liquid two-phase annular flow regime in horizontal microfin tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yueshe; Wang Yanling; Wang, G.-X.; Honda, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    A physical model of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow regime is presented for predicting the enhanced evaporation heat transfer characteristics in horizontal microfin tubes. The model is based on the equivalence of a periodical distortion of the disturbance wave in the substrate layer. Corresponding to the stratified flow model proposed previously by authors, the dimensionless quantity Fr 0 = G/[gd e ρ v (ρ l - ρ v )] 0.5 may be used as a measure for determining the applicability of the present theoretical model, which was used to restrict the transition boundary between the stratified-wavy flow and the annular/intermittent flows. Comparison of the prediction of the circumferential average heat transfer coefficient with available experimental data for four tubes and three refrigerants reveals that a good agreement is obtained or the trend is better than that of the previously developed stratified flow model for Fr 0 > 4.0 as long as the partial dry out of tube does not occur. Obviously, the developed annular model is applicable and reliable for evaporation in horizontal microfin tubes under the case of high heat flux and high mass flux.

  5. Prediction of evaporation heat transfer coefficient based on gas-liquid two-phase annular flow regime in horizontal microfin tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yueshe, E-mail: wangys@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Yanling, Wang [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, G -X [Mechanical Engineering Department, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-3903 (United States); Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, 337 Kasuya-machi, Kasuya-gun, Kukuoka 811-2307 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    A physical model of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow regime is presented for predicting the enhanced evaporation heat transfer characteristics in horizontal microfin tubes. The model is based on the equivalence of a periodical distortion of the disturbance wave in the substrate layer. Corresponding to the stratified flow model proposed previously by authors, the dimensionless quantity Fr{sub 0} = G/[gd{sub e}{rho}{sub v}({rho}{sub l} - {rho}{sub v})]{sup 0.5} may be used as a measure for determining the applicability of the present theoretical model, which was used to restrict the transition boundary between the stratified-wavy flow and the annular/intermittent flows. Comparison of the prediction of the circumferential average heat transfer coefficient with available experimental data for four tubes and three refrigerants reveals that a good agreement is obtained or the trend is better than that of the previously developed stratified flow model for Fr{sub 0} > 4.0 as long as the partial dry out of tube does not occur. Obviously, the developed annular model is applicable and reliable for evaporation in horizontal microfin tubes under the case of high heat flux and high mass flux.

  6. Influence of oil on flow condensation heat transfer of R410A inside 4.18 mm and 1.6 mm inner diameter horizontal smooth tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiangchao; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Zhu, Yu.; Peng, Hao [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gao, Yifeng [International Copper Association Shanghai Office, Shanghai 200020 (China); Deng, Bin [Institute of Heat Transfer Technology, Golden Dragon Precise Copper Tube Group Inc., Shanghai 200135 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The influence of oil on condensation heat transfer of R410A inside 4.18 mm and 1.6 mm inner diameter horizontal smooth tubes is investigated experimentally. The experimental condensing temperature is 40 C, and nominal oil concentration range is from 0% to 5%. The test results indicate that the presence of oil deteriorates the heat transfer, and the deterioration effect becomes obvious with the increase of oil concentration. At oil concentration of 5%, the heat transfer coefficient decreases by maximum 24.9% and 28.5% for 4.18 mm and 1.6 mm tubes, respectively. A new correlation for heat transfer coefficients of R410A-oil mixture flow condensation inside smooth tubes is proposed, which agrees with all the experimental data within a deviation of -30% {proportional_to} +20%. (author)

  7. Thermal design of horizontal tube boilers. Numerical and experimental investigation; Modelisation thermique de bouilleurs a tubes horizontaux. Etude numerique et validation experimentale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, R.

    1999-11-26

    This work concerns the thermal design of kettle reboilers. Current methods are highly inaccurate, regarded to the correlations for external heat transfer coefficient at one tube scale, as well as to two-phase flow modelling at boiler scale. The aim of this work is to improve these thermal design methods. It contains an experimental investigation with typical operating conditions of such equipment: an hydrocarbon (n-pentane) with low mass flux. This investigation has lead to characterize the local flow pattern through void fraction measurements and, from this, to develop correlations for void fraction, pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient. The approach is original, since the developed correlations are based on the liquid velocity at minimum cross section area between tubes, as variable characterizing the hydrodynamic effects on pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient. These correlations are shown to give much better results than those suggested up to now in the literature, which are empirical transpositions from methods developed for inside tube flows. Furthermore, the numerical code MC3D has been applied using the correlations developed in this work, leading to a modeling of the two-phase flow in the boiler, which is a significant progress compared to current simplified methods. (author)

  8. Surface Tension of Supercooled Water: Inflection Point-Free Course down to 250 K Confirmed Using a Horizontal Capillary Tube

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinš, Václav; Hošek, Jan; Hykl, Jiří; Hrubý, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 11 (2017), s. 3823-3832 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-07129Y Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : horizontal technique * metastable liquid * supercooled Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics OBOR OECD: Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.323, year: 2016 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acs.jced.7b00519

  9. Numerical analysis on the condensation heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of the horizontal tubes of modular shell and tube-bundle heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Seung Hwan; Park, Hyung Gyu; Kim, Charn Jung; Park, Byung Kyu

    2001-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the heat and mass transfer and pressure drop characteristics in modular shell and tube bundle heat exchanger was carried out. Finite concept method based on FVM and κ-ε turbulent model were used for this analysis. Condensation heat transfer enhanced total heat transfer rate 4∼8% higher than that of dry heat exchanger. With increasing humid air inlet velocity, temperature and relative humidity, and with decreasing heat exchanger aspect ratio and cooling water velocity, total heat and mass transfer rate could be increased. Cooling water inlet velocity had little effect on total heat transfer

  10. Simulation of steam condensation in the presence of noncondensable gases in horizontal condenser tubes using RELAP5 for advanced nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Luiz Alberto; Torres, Walmir Maximo

    2009-01-01

    Horizontal heat exchangers are used in advanced light water nuclear reactors in their passive cooling systems, such as residual heat removal (RHRS) and passive containment cooling system (PCCS). Condensation studies of steam and noncondensable gases mixtures in these heat exchangers are very important due to the phenomena multidimensional nature and the condensate stratification effects. This work presents a comparison between simulation results and experimental data in steady state conditions for some inlet pressure, steam and noncondensable gases (air) inlet mass fractions. The test section is three meters long and consists of two concentric tubes containing pressure, temperature and flow rate sensors. The internal tube, called condenser, contains steam-air mixture flow and external tube is a counter current cooler with water flow rate at low temperature. This test section was modeled and simulations were performed with RELAP5 code. Experimental tests were carried out for 200 to 400 kPa inlet pressure and 5, 10, 15 and 20% of inlet air mass fractions. Comparisons between experimental data and simulation results are presented for 200 and 400 kPa pressure conditions and showed good agreement. However, for 400 kPa inlet steam pressure and inlet air mass fractions above 5%, the simulated temperatures are lower than the experimental data at the final third from the inlet condenser tube, indicating a code overestimation of heat transfer coefficient. New correlations for heat transfer coefficient in these steam-air conditions must be theoretical and experimentally studied and implemented in RELAP5 code for better representing the condensation phenomena. (author)

  11. Experimental investigation of quench and re-wetting temperatures of hot horizontal tubes well above the limiting temperature for solid–liquid contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takrouri, Kifah, E-mail: takroukj@mcmaster.ca [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Luxat, John, E-mail: luxatj@mcmaster.ca [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Hamed, Mohamed [Thermal Processing Laboratory (TPL), Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Quench and re-wetting temperatures were measured upon jet quenching of hot cylindrical tubes. • Correlations have been developed and provided good fit of data. • Quench and re-wetting temperatures were found to greatly depend on water subcooling. • Stagnation point showed higher quench and re-wetting temperatures than other locations. • Quench temperature decreased by increasing surface curvature and tube conductivity. • Re-wetting temperature is a weak function of both variables. - Abstract: Quench cooling of a hot dry surface involves the rapid decrease in surface temperature resulting from bringing the hot surface into sudden contact with a coolant at a lower temperature. Quench temperature is the onset of the rapid decrease in surface temperature and corresponds to the onset of destabilization of a vapor film that exists between the hot surface and the coolant. Situations involving quench cooling are encountered in a number of postulated accidents in Canada Deuterium Uranium CANDU reactors, such as the quench of a hot calandria tube in certain Loss of Coolant Accidents LOCA. If the calandria tube temperature is not reduced by initiation of quench heat transfer, then this may lead to subsequent fuel channel failure and for this accident knowledge of quench heat transfer characteristics is of great importance. In this study, a Water Quench Facility WQF has been designed and built at the Thermal Processing Laboratory TPL at McMaster University and a series of experimental tests were carried out to investigate the quench of hot horizontal tubes using a vertical rectangular water multi-jet system. The tubes were heated to a temperature between 380 and 780 °C then cooled to the jet temperature. The temperature variation with time in tube circumferential and axial directions was measured. The two-phase flow behavior and the propagation of the re-wetting front around and along the tubes were simultaneously observed using a high-speed camera

  12. Experimental study on heat transfer with condensation of vapors of pure nitrogen tetroxide with nitrogen oxide additions on a bundle of horizontal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batishcheva, T.M.; Derov, B.T.; Kolykhan, L.I.; Pulyaev, V.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of heat transfer during condensation of pure N 2 O 4 vapours and with NO admixtures on the outside surface of a bundle of horizontal tubes are considered. The tests with pure N 2 O 4 have been performed at pressures between 0.3-1.0 MPa in the range of thermal loads 22-121 kW/m 2 , temperature heads of 5-33 grades with complete condensation and evaporation. The content of admixtures boiling at high temperatures do not exceed 0.8%. A concentration of noncondensing nitrogen oxide in a gas phase have changed in the range of 3-27%. It is shown, that a concentration of noncondensible NO doesn't result in a considerable decrease of the heat transfer intensity as well as in the case of condensation of vapour-liquid mixtures. The generalized criterion relations are presented

  13. Evaporation of R407C and R410A in a horizontal herringbone microfin tube: heat transfer and pressure drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellsandt, S; Vamling, L [Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden). Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science, Heat and Power Technology

    2005-09-01

    An experimental investigation of in-tube evaporation of R410A and R407C has been carried out for a 4 m long herringbone microfin tube with an outer diameter of 9.53 mm. Measured local heat transfer coefficients and pressure losses are reported for evaporation temperatures for R410A and R407C between -2.2 and 9.5 {sup o}C and between -5.5 and 13.8 {sup o}C, respectively. Mass flow rates between 162 and 366 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1} have been investigated. Results from this work are compared to R134a data from an earlier work by the present authors, and also to predicted values from some available helical microfin correlations. Compared to R134a data, heat transfer coefficients for the investigated mixtures are generally lower, especially at low mass flow rates. No major effect of heat flux on heat transfer coefficients was found, with the exception of the high quality region. Predicted heat transfer coefficients from helical microfin correlations strongly overpredict the present data. Global pressure losses are predicted well, even though local deviations are found. (author)

  14. Condensation heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture in 5 mm and 4 mm outside diameter horizontal microfin tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiangchao; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Zhu, Yu [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gao, Yifeng [International Copper Association Shanghai Office, Shanghai 200020 (China); Deng, Bin [Institute of Heat Transfer Technology, Golden Dragon Precise Copper Tube Group Inc., Shanghai 200135 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Condensation heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture in 5 mm and 4 mm outside diameter horizontal microfin tubes were investigated experimentally. The experimental condensing temperature is 40 C, and nominal oil concentration range is from 0% to 5%. The test results indicate that the presence of oil deteriorates the heat transfer. The deterioration effect is negligible at nominal oil concentration of 1%, and becomes obvious with the increase of nominal oil concentration. At 5% nominal oil concentration, the heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture is found to have a maximum reduction of 25.1% and 23.8% for 5 mm and 4 mm tubes, respectively. The predictabilities of the existing condensation heat transfer correlations were verified with the experimental data, and Yu and Koyama correlation shows the best predictability. By replacing the pure refrigerant properties with the mixture's properties, Yu and Koyama correlation has a deviation of -15% to + 20% in predicting the local condensation heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture. (author)

  15. Experimental study on heat transfer enhancement of laminar ferrofluid flow in horizontal tube partially filled porous media under fixed parallel magnet bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikhnejad, Yahya; Hosseini, Reza, E-mail: hoseinir@aut.ac.ir; Saffar Avval, Majid

    2017-02-15

    In this study, steady state laminar ferroconvection through circular horizontal tube partially filled with porous media under constant heat flux is experimentally investigated. Transverse magnetic fields were applied on ferrofluid flow by two fixed parallel magnet bar positioned on a certain distance from beginning of the test section. The results show promising notable enhancement in heat transfer as a consequence of partially filled porous media and magnetic field, up to 2.2 and 1.4 fold enhancement were observed in heat transfer coefficient respectively. It was found that presence of both porous media and magnetic field simultaneously can highly improve heat transfer up to 2.4 fold. Porous media of course plays a major role in this configuration. Virtually, application of Magnetic field and porous media also insert higher pressure loss along the pipe which again porous media contribution is higher that magnetic field. - Highlights: • Porous media can improve the coefficient of heat transfer up to 2.2 fold. • Both porous media and Nano particles have undesired pressure drop effect. • Application of both porous media and magnetic field in ferrofluid flow will result in significant enhancement in heat transfer up to 2.4 fold. • Magnet bar effect is mainly restricted to approximately one fourth of the test section. • Diluted Ferrofluids 2%, results in over 1.4 fold enhancement in heat transfer coefficient.

  16. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY FOR HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT BY LAMINAR FORCED CONVECTION FROM HORIZONTAL AND INCLINED TUBE HEATED WITH CONSTANT HEAT FLUX, USING TWO TYPES OF POROUS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamir K. Jassem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An experimental forced laminar study was presented in this research for an air flowing through a circular channel for different angles ( ,30o,45o,60o, the channel was heated at constant heat flux , the channel also was packed with steel and glass spheres respectively . The tests were done for three values of Peclets number (2111.71,3945.42,4575.47 with changing the heat flux for each case and five times for each number.The results showed that the dimensionless temperature distribution  will decrease with increasing the dimensionless channel length for all cases with changing Peclet number, heat flux and inclination angles, and its lowest value will be for glass spheres at highest flux, while at lower flux for , and the decreasing in dimensionless temperature was closed for both types of packed at other inclination angles.The study declared that the local Nusselt number decreases with increasing the dimensionless length of the channel for both packeds and for different applied heat flux, also through this study it was declared that the average Nusselt increases as Peclet number increases for both packed. Its value for the glass spheres is greater than the steel spheres with percentage (98.3% at small Peclet, and percentage (97.2% at large Peclet number for the horizontal tube, and (98.3% at small Peclet number and (97.8% at large Peclet number at  .Through this study its was found that average Nusselt number increases along the channel as the heat flux increases, because the bulk temperature will increase as the flow proceeds toward the end of the channel , so the heat transfer coefficient will increase.  It was declared from this study that in the case of the steel packed the heat transfer will occur mainly by conduction, while in the case of glass packed the heat transfer will occur mainly by laminar forced convection, where the lowest Nusselt number (Nu=3.8 was found when the pipe is horizontal and lowest heat flux and lowest Peclet number.  

  17. Heat transfer and flow pattern during two-phase flow boiling of R-134a in horizontal smooth and microfin tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Minghuei; Lin, Tsunkuo; Tseng, Chyuanchyi [National Sun Yat Sen Univ., Taiwan (China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-09-01

    Flow pattern and heat transfer during evaporation in a 10.7 mm diameter smooth tube and a micro-fin tube are presented. The tubes were tested in the ranges of mass flux between 163 and 408 kg m{sup -2}s{sup -1} and heat flux between 2200 and 56 000 W m{sup -2}. The evaporation temperature was 6{sup o}C. Flow maps for both the tubes are plotted in the coordinates of mass flux and vapor quality. The relations of flow pattern and local heat transfer coefficient are discussed. The heat transfer coefficients for intermittent and annular flows in both the smooth tube and the micro-fin tube are shown to agree well with Gungor and Winterton's correlation with modified constants. (author)

  18. Three-dimensional numerical study of heat transfer characteristics of plain plate fin-and-tube heat exchangers from view point of field synergy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y.L.; Tao, W.Q.; Song, F.Q.; Zhang, W.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, 3-D numerical simulations were performed for laminar heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of plate fin-and-tube heat exchanger. The effects of five factors were examined: Re number, fin pitch, tube row number, spanwise and longitudinal tube pitch. The Reynolds number based on the tube diameter varied from 288 to 5000, the non-dimensional fin pitch based on the tube diameter varied from 0.04 to 0.5, the tube row number from 1 to 4, the spanwise tube pitch S 1 /d varies from 1.2 to 3, and the longitudinal tube pitch S 2 /d from 1.0 to 2.4. The numerical results were analyzed from the view point of field synergy principle, which says that the reduction of the intersection angle between velocity and fluid temperature gradient is the basic mechanism to enhance convective heat transfer. It is found that the effects of the five parameters on the heat transfer performance of the finned tube banks can be well described by the field synergy principle, i.e., the enhancement or deterioration of the convective heat transfer across the finned tube banks is inherently related to the variation of the intersection angle between the velocity and the fluid temperature gradient. It is also recommended that to further enhance the convective heat transfer, the enhancement techniques, such as slotting the fin, should be adopted mainly in the rear part of the fin where the synergy between local velocity and temperature gradient become worse

  19. Heat transfer during condensation of HFC-134a and R-404A inside of a horizontal smooth and micro-fin tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapali, S N [Govt. College of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shivaji Nagar, Pune, Maharashtra 411 005 (India); Patil, Pradeep A [AISSMS College of Engineering, Pune University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Kennedy Road, Near R.T.O., Pune, Maharashtra 411 001 (India)

    2010-11-15

    In recent small and medium capacity refrigeration systems, the condenser tubes are provided with micro-fins from inside. The vapour refrigerant at the compressor outlet and the condenser inlet is in superheat state. As it advances in the condenser it is in two phases and at the outlet it is in sub cooled liquid. The heat transfer coefficient (HTC) during condensation of HFC-134a and R-404A in a smooth (8.56 mm ID) and micro-fin tubes (8.96 mm ID) are experimentally investigated. Different from previous studies, the present experiments are performed for various condensing temperatures, with superheating and sub cooling and using hermetically sealed compressor. The test runs are done at average saturated condensing temperatures ranging from 35 C to 60 C. The mass fluxes are between 90 and 800 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The experimental results indicate that the average HTC increases with mass flux but decreases with increasing condensing temperature for both smooth and micro-fin tubes. The average condensation HTCs of HFC-134a and R-404A for the micro-fin tubes were 1.5-2.5 and 1.3-2 times larger than that in smooth tube respectively. The HTCs for R-404A are less than that of HFC-134a. New correlations based on the data gathered during the experimentation for predicting condensation HTCs are proposed for wide range of operating conditions. (author)

  20. Fabrication and characterization of novel gate-all-around polycrystalline silicon junctionless field-effect transistors with ultrathin horizontal tube-shape channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, You-Tai; Peng, Kang-Ping; Li, Pei-Wen; Lin, Horng-Chih

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we report on a novel fabrication process for the production of junctionless field-effect transistors with an ultrathin polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) tube channel in a gate-all-around (GAA) configuration. The core of the poly-Si tube channel is filled with either a silicon nitride or a silicon oxide layer, and the effects of the core layers on the device characteristics are evaluated. The devices show excellent switching performance, thanks to the combination of the ultrathin tube channel and the GAA structure. Hysteresis loops in the transfer characteristics of the nitride-core devices are observed, owing to the dynamic trapping of electrons in the nitride core.

  1. Non azeotrope mixing refrigerating fluids condensation outside of an horizontal tubes stack; Condensation de melanges non azeotropes de fluides frigorigenes a l'exterieur d'un faisceau de tubes horizontaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signe, J.Ch.

    1999-04-16

    The development of non-azeotrope mixing, as regular refrigerating fluids substitute, calls in question the experience for the design of refrigerating and cooling machinery. Studies to better understand these fluids behaviour are necessary. The aim of this thesis is the knowledge enlargement on the pure fluids and non azeotrope mixing condensation, outside of a tubes stack, and to simulate the heat transfers. The tubes stack is a condenser, type TEMA X often used in refrigerating machinery. The binary mixing HFC 134a-HFC23, allows a large sliding scale. (A.L.B.)

  2. Condensation of refrigerants in horizontal microfin tubes. Numerical analysis of heat transfer for annular flow regime; Reibai no microfin tsuki suihei kannai gyoshuku. Kanjoryu ryoiki ni okeru netsudentatsu no suchi kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozu, S [Okayama Prefectural University, Okayama (Japan); Honda, H [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1998-07-25

    A method for predicting the local heat transfer coefficient is presented for film condensation of vapor in a spirally grooved horizontal microfin-tube. Based on the flow observation study performed by the present authors, film flow model between fins in the annular flow regime is proposed. For the fin surface, laminar condensate film controlled by the combined effects of vapor shear and surface tension forces is analyzed. While, in the groove, thick condensate film driven by the vapor shear force is taken into consideration. A parameter which accounts for the transition from annular- to stratified flow regimes is also derived. The present and previous local heat transfer data for fluorocarbon refrigerants in the annular flow regime are found by the present numerical analysis to have a mean absolute deviation of 15.1 percent. 12 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Heat transfer characteristics of thermal energy storage for PCM (phase change material) melting in horizontal tube: Numerical and experimental investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aadmi, Moussa; Karkri, Mustapha; El Hammouti, Mimoun

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the experimental and numerical study of the storage and release of thermal heat during melting and solidification of PCM (phase change material). Heat transfer enhancement techniques such as the use of conductors like graphite and metal tubes have been proven to be effective. The material used for thermal energy storage systems is a composite based on epoxy resin loaded with metal hollow tubes filled with paraffin wax. Differential Scanning Calorimetry has been used for measurement of melting enthalpy and determination of heat capacity. The thermophysical properties of the prepared composite phase change material have been characterized using a new transient hot plate apparatus. The results have shown that most important thermal properties of these composites at the solid and liquid states are the ‘‘apparent’’ thermal conductivity, the heat storage capacity and the latent heat of fusion. These experimental results have been simulated using numerical Comsol ® Multiphysics 4.3 based models with success. The results of the experimental investigation are compared favorably with the numerical results and thus serve to validate the numerical approach. - Highlights: • Phase change materials based on cylindrical used as new energy storage system. • Thermophysical properties and the melting process of composites were investigated. • All experimental results have been simulated using Comsol ® Multiphysiques. • The ability to store and release the thermal energy were investigated. • Good improvement in the thermal conductivity of composites

  4. Horizontal Accelerator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...

  5. Determining the Surfactant Consistent with Concrete in order to Achieve the Maximum Possible Dispersion of Multi walled Carbon Nano tubes in Keeping the Plain Concrete Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adresi, M.; Hassani, A.; Javadian, S.; Tulliani, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A new surfactant combination compatible with concrete formulation is proposed to avoid unwanted air bubbles created during mixing process in the absence of a defoamer and to achieve the uniform and the maximum possible dispersion of multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) in water and subsequently in concrete. To achieve this goal, three steps have been defined: (1) concrete was made with different types and amount of surfactants containing a constant amount of MWCNTs (0.05 wt%) and the air bubbles were eliminated with a proper defoamer. (2) Finding a compatible surfactant with concrete compositions and eliminating unwanted air bubbles in the absence of a common defoamer are of fundamental importance to significantly increase concrete mechanical properties. In this step, the results showed that the poly carboxylate super plasticizer (SP-C) (as a compatible surfactant) dispersed MWCNTs worse than SDS/DTAB but unwanted air bubbles were removed, so the defoamer can be omitted in the mixing process. (3) To solve the problem, a new compatible surfactant composition was developed and different ratios of surfactants were tested and evaluated by means of performance criteria mentioned above. The results showed that the new surfactant composition (SDS and SP-C) can disperse MWCNTs around 24% more efficiently than the other surfactant compositions.

  6. Utopia Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    5 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dark-toned, cratered plain in southwest Utopia Planitia. Large, light-toned, windblown ripples reside on the floors of many of the depressions in the scene, including a long, linear, trough. Location near: 30.3oN, 255.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  7. Tube Length and Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ruktantichoke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study water flowed through a straight horizontal plastic tube placed at the bottom of a large tank of water. The effect of changing the length of tubing on the velocity of flow was investigated. It was found that the Hagen-Poiseuille Equation is valid when the effect of water entering the tube is accounted for.

  8. Evaluation of a new laser-resistant fabric and copper foil-wrapped endotracheal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosis, M B; Braverman, B; Caldarelli, D D

    1996-07-01

    The risk of an endotracheal tube's combustion during laser airway surgery necessitates the use of special anesthetic techniques and equipment to prevent this complication. This study was designed to evaluate the Laser-Trach(TM), a new laser-resistant rubber endotracheal tube for use during laser airway surgery. The Laser-Trach endotracheal tubes that were evaluated were size 6.0 mm internal diameter (ID) red rubber endotracheal tubes which had been commercially wrapped by Kendall-Sheridan (Mansfield, Mass.) with copper foil tape and overwrapped with fabric. The fabric layer was saturated with water prior to our tests, as recommended by the manufacturer. The Laser-Trach endotracheal tubes were compared with plain (bare) size 6.0 mm ID Rusch red rubber endotracheal tubes. The tubes under study were positioned horizontally on wet towels in air and had 5 L x min(-1) of oxygen flowing through them. They were subjected to continuous laser radiation at 40 W from either a CO2 or an Nd-YAG laser. The Nd-YAG laser was propagated via a 600-micron fiber bundle. Each laser was directed perpendicularly at the shaft of the endotracheal tube being studied, and its output was continued until a blowtorch fire occurred or 60 seconds had elapsed. Sixty seconds of CO2 laser fire did not ignite any of the eight Laser-Trach endotracheal tubes tested. However, blowtorch ignition of all eight bare rubber tubes tested occurred after 0.87 +/- 0.21 (mean +/- SD) seconds of CO2 laser fire. Nd-YAG laser contact with the Laser-Trach endotracheal tubes caused the perforation and blowtorch ignition of all eight tubes tested after 18.79 +/- 7.83 seconds. This was a significantly (Presistant to the C02 laser. However, this endotracheal tube is not recommended for use with the Nd-YAG laser.

  9. Condensation of refrigerant CFC 11 in horizontal microfin tubes. Proposal of a correlation equation for frictional pressure gradient; Reibai CFC11 no microfin tsuki suihei kannai gyoshuku. Atsuryoku koka no jikkenshiki no teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozu, S [Univ. of Okayama Prefecture, Okayama (Japan); Katayama, H [Mitsubishi Chemical Co., Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Nakata, H [Daikin Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Honda, H [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1996-09-25

    Local heat transfer and pressure drop measurements were made during condensation of CFC 11 in microfin tubes. A smooth tube and two microfin tubes with different fin dimensions were used. Flow observation study with use of an industrial bore-scope revealed that the condensate swirled along the grooves, and a thick condensate film covered fins in the lower part of the tube in the low quality region. Static pressure gradients in the microfin tubes were up to 70 percent larger than that in a smooth tube. A correlation equation for the local frictional pressure gradient was derived, in which the effect of refrigerant mass velocity was introduced on the basis of the flow regime consideration. The measured frictional pressure gradient data were found by the present method to have a mean absolute deviation of 8.3 percent. 24 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. The experiments of resonance tube method and resonator method ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Take a 50 ml measuring cylinder or a big test tube and hold it vertical using a stand. Add some water in the tube so that the horizontal surface of water is above the rounded bottom. Stick a strip of graph paper or ruler on the tube and mark a horizontal line corresponding to the water level. Keep the speaker pointing towards.

  11. Conceptual optimization using genetic algorithms for tube in tube structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pârv, Bianca Roxana; Hulea, Radu; Mojolic, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to optimize the tube in tube structural systems for tall buildings under the horizontal wind loads. It is well-known that the horizontal wind loads is the main criteria when choosing the structural system, the types and the dimensions of structural elements in the majority of tall buildings. Thus, the structural response of tall buildings under the horizontal wind loads will be analyzed for 40 story buildings and a total height of 120 meters; the horizontal dimensions will be 30m × 30m for the first two optimization problems and 15m × 15m for the third. The optimization problems will have the following as objective function the cross section area, as restrictions the displacement of the building< the admissible displacement (H/500), and as variables the cross section dimensions of the structural elements

  12. Horizontal steam generator thermal-hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubra, O. [SKODA Praha Company, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Doubek, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-09-01

    Horizontal steam generators are typical components of nuclear power plants with pressure water reactor type VVER. Thermal-hydraulic behavior of horizontal steam generators is very different from the vertical U-tube steam generator, which has been extensively studied for several years. To contribute to the understanding of the horizontal steam generator thermal-hydraulics a computer program for 3-D steady state analysis of the PGV-1000 steam generator has been developed. By means of this computer program, a detailed thermal-hydraulic and thermodynamic study of the horizontal steam generator PGV-1000 has been carried out and a set of important steam generator characteristics has been obtained. The 3-D distribution of the void fraction and 3-D level profile as functions of load and secondary side pressure have been investigated and secondary side volumes and masses as functions of load and pressure have been evaluated. Some of the interesting results of calculations are presented in the paper.

  13. Enhanced Evaporation and Condensation in Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroshi

    A state-of-the-art review of enhanced evaporation and condensation in horizontal microfin tubes and micro-channels that are used for air-conditioning and refrigeration applications is presented. The review covers the effects of flow pattern and geometrical parameters of the tubes on the heat transfer performance. Attention is paid to the effect of surface tension which leads to enhanced evaporation and condensation in the microfin tubes and micro-channels. A review of prior efforts to develop empirical correlations of the heat transfer coefficient and theoretical models for evaporation and condensation in the horizontal microfin tubes and micro-channels is also presented.

  14. A three-dimensional numerical study and comparison between the air side model and the air/water side model of a plain fin-and-tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrajo-Pelaez, R.; Ortega-Casanova, J.; Cejudo-Lopez, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    CFD is becoming an important heat exchanger research technique. It constitutes an inexpensive prediction method, avoiding the need of testing numerous prototypes. Current work in this field is mostly based on air flow models assuming constant temperature of fin-and-tube surface. The purpose of this paper is to present an enhanced model, whose innovation lies in considering additionally the water flow in the tubes and the conduction heat transfer through the fin and tubes, to demonstrate that the neglect of these two phenomena causes a simulation result accuracy reduction. 3-D Numerical simulations were accomplished to compare both an air side and an air/water side model. The influence of Reynolds number, fin pitch, tube diameter, fin length and fin thickness was studied. The exchanger performance was evaluated through two non-dimensional parameters: the air side Nusselt number and a friction factor. It was found that the influence of the five parameters over the mechanical and thermal efficiencies can be well reported using these non-dimensional coefficients. The results from the improved model showed more real temperature contours, with regard to those of the simplified model. Therefore, a higher accuracy of the heat transfer was achieved, yielding better predictions on the exchanger performance.

  15. Artificial urethral sphincters: Value of plain film radiography in evaluation of prosthesis malfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, S.C.; Hansen, M.E.; Webster, G.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    Case records were reviewed to determine the diagnostic efficacy of plain radiographs in the evaluation of inflatable artificial urethral sphincters. Of 84 patients with prostheses, 21 (25%) developed complications. Fluid leaks were found in 16 patients who presented with recurrent incontinence; plain radiographs demonstrated an interval decrease in balloon reservoir diameter. Kinked tubing, which was evident on plain films, caused acute urinary retention in three patients. However, plain radiographs failed to detect evidence of prosthesis erosion into the urethra in either of two patients with this complication. Although urethroscopy is needed to detect urethral erosion, plain radiographs are inexpensive and reliable in the initial evaluation of artifical sphincter malfunction

  16. Tube plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafred, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    The tube plug comprises a one piece mechanical plug having one open end and one closed end which is capable of being inserted in a heat exchange tube and internally expanded into contact with the inside surface of the heat exchange tube for preventing flow of a coolant through the heat exchange tube. The tube plug also comprises a groove extending around the outside circumference thereof which has an elastomeric material disposed in the groove for enhancing the seal between the tube plug and the tube

  17. Gastrostomy Tube (G-Tube)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any of these problems: a dislodged tube a blocked or clogged tube any signs of infection (including redness, swelling, or warmth at the tube site; discharge that's yellow, green, or foul-smelling; fever) excessive bleeding or drainage from the tube site severe abdominal pain lasting ...

  18. Local heat transfer coefficients during boiling of R22 and R407C in horizontal smooth and microfin tubes; Coefficients d'echange locaux au cours de l'ebullition du R22 et du R407C dans des tubes horizontaux, lisse ou micro-ailete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemand, M; Branescu, C; Haberschill, P [Centre de Thermique, INSA-CNRS, UMR 5008, Villeurbanne (France)

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to experimentally investigate forced convective boiling. The heat transfer coefficients of pure refrigerant R22 and non azeotropic refrigerant mixture R407C were measured in both a smooth tube and a microfin tube. The tests have been carried out with a uniform heat flux all along the tube length. The refrigerant mass flux was varied from 100 to 300 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1} and heat fluxes from 10 to 30 kW m{sup -2}. Local heat transfer coefficient depend strongly on heat flux at a low quality and on mass fluxes at a high quality. When compared to smooth tube, the microfin tubes exhibit a significant heat transfer enhancement, up to 180%. In comparison to R22, the R407C heat transfer coefficients of smooth and microfin tubes are 15 to 35% lower, respectively. The best heat transfer enhancement is obtained at low heat flux and mass flow rate. (Author)

  19. Measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow around horizontal tube bundle using SF6-water. Simulating high-pressure high-temperature gas-liquid two-phase flow of PWR/SG secondary coolant side at normal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Atsushi; Imai, Ryoj; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve prediction accuracy of analysis code used for design and development of industrial products, technology had been developed to create and evaluate constitutive equation incorporated in analysis code. The experimental facility for PWR/SG U tubes part was manufactured to measure local void fraction and gas-liquid interfacial velocity with forming gas-liquid upward two-phase flow simulating high-pressure high-temperature secondary coolant (water-steam) rising vertically around horizontal tube bundle. The experimental facility could reproduce flow field having gas-liquid density ratio equivalent to real system with no heating using SF6 (Sulfur Hexafluoride) gas at normal temperature and pressure less than 1 MPa, because gas-liquid density ratio, surface tension and gas-liquid viscosity ratio were important parameters to determine state of gas-liquid two-phase flow and gas-liquid density ratio was most influential. Void fraction was measured by two different methods of bi-optical probe and conductivity type probe. Test results of gas-liquid interfacial velocity vs. apparent velocity were in good agreement with existing empirical equation within 10% error, which could confirm integrity of experimental facility and appropriateness of measuring method so as to set up original constitutive equation in the future. (T. Tanaka)

  20. The Plains of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic plains units of various types comprise at least 80% of the surface of Venus. Though devoid of topographic splendor and, therefore often overlooked, these plains units house a spectacular array of volcanic, tectonic, and impact features. Here I propose that the plains hold the keys to understanding the resurfacing history of Venus and resolving the global stratigraphy debate. The quasi-random distribution of impact craters and the small number that have been conspicuously modified from the outside by plains-forming volcanism have led some to propose that Venus was catastrophically resurfaced around 725×375 Ma with little volcanism since. Challenges, however, hinge on interpretations of certain morphological characteristics of impact craters: For instance, Venusian impact craters exhibit either radar dark (smooth) floor deposits or bright, blocky floors. Bright floor craters (BFC) are typically 100-400 m deeper than dark floor craters (DFC). Furthermore, all 58 impact craters with ephemeral bright ejecta rays and/or distal parabolic ejecta patterns have bright floor deposits. This suggests that BFCs are younger, on average, than DFCs. These observations suggest that DFCs could be partially filled with lava during plains emplacement and, therefore, are not strictly younger than the plains units as widely held. Because the DFC group comprises ~80% of the total crater population on Venus the recalculated emplacement age of the plains would be ~145 Ma if DFCs are indeed volcanically modified during plains formation. Improved image and topographic data are required to measure stratigraphic and morphometric relationships and resolve this issue. Plains units are also home to an abundant and diverse set of volcanic features including steep-sided domes, shield fields, isolated volcanoes, collapse features and lava channels, some of which extend for 1000s of kilometers. The inferred viscosity range of plains-forming lavas, therefore, is immense, ranging from the

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF COILED TUBING STRESS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Matanović

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of coiled tubing is increasing rapidly with drilling of horizontal wells. To satisfy all requirements (larger mechanical stresses, larger fluid capacities the production of larger sizes and better material qualities was developed. Stresses due to axial forces and pressures that coiled tubing is subjected are close to its performance limits. So it is really important to know and understand the behaviour of coiled tubing to avoid its break, burst or collapse in the well.

  2. Effect of tube-support interaction on the dynamic responses of heat exchanger tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    Operating heat exchangers have experienced tube damages due to excessive flow-induced vibration. The relatively small inherent tube-to-baffle hole clearances associated with manufacturing tolerances in heat exchangers affect the tube vibrational characteristics. In attempting a theoretical analysis, questions arise as to the effects of tube-baffle impacting on dynamic responses. Experiments were performed to determine the effects of tube-baffle impacting in vertical/horizontal tube orientation, and in air/water medium on the vibrational characteristics (resonant frequencies, mode shapes, and damping) and displacement response amplitudes of a seven-span tube model. The tube and support conditions were prototypic, and overall length approximately one-third that of a straight tube segment of the steam generator designed for the CRBR. The test results were compared with the analytical results based on the multispan beam with ''knife-edge'' supports

  3. Vertical and horizontal subsidiarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Daniluk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article makes an attempt to analyze the principle of subsidiarity in its two main manifestations, namely vertical and horizontal, to outline the principles of relations between the state and regions within the vertical subsidiarity, and features a collaboration of the government and civil society within the horizontal subsidiarity. Scientists identify two types, or two levels of the subsidiarity principle: vertical subsidiarity and horizontal subsidiarity. First, vertical subsidiarity (or territorial concerning relations between the state and other levels of subnational government, such as regions and local authorities; second, horizontal subsidiarity (or functional concerns the relationship between state and citizen (and civil society. Vertical subsidiarity expressed in the context of the distribution of administrative responsibilities to the appropriate higher level lower levels relative to the state structure, ie giving more powers to local government. However, state intervention has subsidiary-lower action against local authorities in cases of insolvency last cope on their own, ie higher organisms intervene only if the duties are less authority is insufficient to achieve the goals. Horizontal subsidiarity is within the relationship between power and freedom, and is based on the assumption that the concern for the common good and the needs of common interest community, able to solve community members (as individuals and citizens’ associations and role of government, in accordance horizontal subsidiarity comes to attracting features subsidiarity assistance, programming, coordination and possibly control.

  4. Plains Energy Services Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Plains Energy Services Ltd. (Plains) is a two year old public company in the oil and gas service industry. It provides an integrated pool of services, concentrating on the life cycle of oil and gas wells as the driver for its expansion. Although the industry saw a marked decrease in well drilling activity for 1998, Plains was able to sustain a consistent income and cash flow because of its focus on ensuring access to the well during drilling, completion, production and abandonment. For 1998, revenue reached a record $93.3 million, an 85 per cent increase over 1997. This report presented Plain's major achievements for 1998. These included the completed construction of a technical, machining and manufacturing facility to enhance the development and implementation of technology and equipment among all business units. The company also introduced coiled tubing drilling services in the North American marketplace, as well as the first commercial version of a casing inspection tool. Plain's also introduced production logging through their wireline services business and applied for four new patents in relation to downhole tool development. In 1998, the company consolidated their operations into four divisions including consolidation of administration, benefits, banking and related overhead services. This report also described the company's efforts in addressing the year 2000 challenge. The company's consolidated financial statements were presented for the benefit of shareholders. These included statements of earnings and deficit, balance sheets, as well as statements of changes in financial position. Notes to the consolidated financial statements included highlights of significant accounting policies, changes in accounting policies, acquisitions, discontinued operations, and capital assets. tabs., figs

  5. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  6. Tietkens Plain karst - Maralinga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, J.M.

    1988-09-01

    The Tietkens Plain karst is located to the north of Maralinga village which is on the crest of the Ooldea Range on the north and east margin of the Nullarbor Plain in western South Australia. The geology of the carbonate rocks in the Maralinga area is summarised. On Tietkens Plain from 1955 to 1963 nuclear weapons tests dispersed radioactive materials over the Maralinga area. Six nuclear devices were detonated in the air and one was exploded a few metres below the surface. The effect such explosions have on the karst and the possible rate of recovery of its surface are discussed. This report is the record of a visit to the Maralinga area from the 15th -21st November 1986 which involved an inspection of the karst surface together with collection of water, soil and rock samples. Results of the measurements made in order to assess water quality and water contamination by radioactive nuclides are presented. The implications arising from the presence of radioactive materials on the surface and the possibility of their entering and contaminating the groundwater in the area are discussed in the context of the chemistry of uranium and plutonium. The potential for transmission of contaminants through groundwater conduits and aquifers in the dolomite is discussed. Evidence is produced to show that the caves of the Nullabor Plain are not contaminated at present and are unlikely to be so in the future. 21 refs., 2 figs. 3 tabs., ills

  7. Prediction of Heat Removal Capacity of Horizontal Condensation Heat Exchanger submerged in Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong-Su; Hong, Soon-Joon [FNC Tech., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung-Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    As representative passive safety systems, there are the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) of ESBWR, the emergency condenser system (ECS) of the SWR-1000, the passive auxiliary feed-water system (PAFS) of the APR+ and etc. During the nuclear power plant accidents, these passive safety systems can cool the nuclear system effectively via the heat transfer through the steam condensation, and then mitigate the accidents. For the optimum design and the safety analysis of the passive safety system, it is essential to predict the heat removal capacity of the heat exchanger well. The heat removal capacity of the horizontal condensation heat exchanger submerged in a pool is determined by a combination of a horizontal in-tube condensation heat transfer and a boiling heat transfer on the horizontal tube. Since most correlations proposed in the previous nuclear engineering field were developed for the vertical tube, there is a certain limit to apply these correlations to the horizontal tube. Therefore, this study developed the heat transfer model for the horizontal Ushaped condensation heat exchanger submerged in a pool to predict well the horizontal in-tube condensation heat transfer, the boiling heat transfer on the horizontal tube and the overall heat removal capacity of the heat exchanger using the best-estimate system analysis code, MARS.

  8. Source Terms for HFIR Beam Tube Shielding Analyses, and a Complete Shielding Analysis of the HB-3 Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucholz, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is in the midst of a massive upgrade program to enhance experimental facilities. The reactor presently has four horizontal experimental beam tubes, all of which will be replaced or redesigned. The HB-2 beam tube will be enlarged to support more guide tubes, while the HB-4 beam tube will soon include a cold neutron source

  9. Source Terms for HFIR Beam Tube Shielding Analyses, and a Complete Shielding Analysis of the HB-3 Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucholz, J.A.

    2000-07-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is in the midst of a massive upgrade program to enhance experimental facilities. The reactor presently has four horizontal experimental beam tubes, all of which will be replaced or redesigned. The HB-2 beam tube will be enlarged to support more guide tubes, while the HB-4 beam tube will soon include a cold neutron source.

  10. Horizontal violence in Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsimoulaki Evangelia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One’s effort to clarify the definition of horizontal labour violence is of great importance, due to the variety of definitions that are mentioned in the worldwide scientific literature. Furthermore, the reference of multiple forms of such violence herein the nurse professional group is challenging, as well. Another fact of great importance is that, any form of professional violence (horizontal violence, horizontal mobbing in the work place environment can be possibly escalated and include even physical abuse (Bullying, besides the psychological and emotional impact for the victim. The definitions of Horizontal violence, Mobbing and Bullying, include a repeated negative behaviour emanating from at least one “predator” towards at least one “victim”, with work status differences and the existence or lack of physical abuse (Bullying. Horizontal violence is a hostile, aggressive and harmful behaviour which is either overt or concealed and is pointed from an individual to another individual of the same working rank and causes intense emotional pain at the victim. The manifestations vary from humiliating tasks assignment or the victim’s efforts undermining to clearly aggressive behaviors (criticism, intimidation, sarcasm etc.. The reason behind this phenomenon is multifactorial extended not only towards the working environment but also to the personal characteristics of the “predator” as well as the possible “victim”. The researchers emphasize the high incidence of the phenomenon, as well as the cost that is induced by the violent behaviors to both the health professionals and the hospital. Finally, they point out the paradox of the presence of violence inside a system that is designed to promote health.

  11. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  12. Coolant rate distribution in horizontal steam generator under natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blagovechtchenski, A.; Leontieva, V.; Mitrioukhin, A.

    1997-01-01

    In the presentation the major factors determining the conditions of NCC (Natural Coolant Circulation) in the primary circuit and in particular conditions of coolant rate distribution on the horizontal tubes of PGV-1000 in NPP with VVER-1000 under NCC are considered

  13. Coolant rate distribution in horizontal steam generator under natural circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagovechtchenski, A.; Leontieva, V.; Mitrioukhin, A. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    In the presentation the major factors determining the conditions of NCC (Natural Coolant Circulation) in the primary circuit and in particular conditions of coolant rate distribution on the horizontal tubes of PGV-1000 in NPP with VVER-1000 under NCC are considered. 5 refs.

  14. Coolant rate distribution in horizontal steam generator under natural circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagovechtchenski, A; Leontieva, V; Mitrioukhin, A [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    In the presentation the major factors determining the conditions of NCC (Natural Coolant Circulation) in the primary circuit and in particular conditions of coolant rate distribution on the horizontal tubes of PGV-1000 in NPP with VVER-1000 under NCC are considered. 5 refs.

  15. Apparatus for inspecting and repairing a pressurized-water reactor's steam generator heat exchanger tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, O.; Roettger, H.; Kasti, H.; Hagen, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    Described is an apparatus provided for use with a pressurized-water reactor' steam generator having a manifold chamber enclosing the bottom side of a horizontal tube sheet having holes therethrough in which are mounted the tubes of a heat exchanger tube bundle. The manifold chamber has a manhole giving access to the tube's bottom side to permit internal inspection or repair of the tubes by registration of an end of a flexible guide conduit with the tube sheet holes and through which a flexible carrier can be guided for insertion via these holes in the tube sheet and through the tubes extending from the tube sheet's other side

  16. Steam generator tube extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, H.

    1985-05-01

    To enable tube examination on steam generators in service, Framatome has now developed a process for removing sections of steam generator tubes. Tube sections can be removed without being damaged for treating the tube section expanded in the tube sheet

  17. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  18. Effect of Tube Pitch on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of Vertical Tube Bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2016-01-01

    Summarizing the previous results it can be stated that heat transfer coefficients are highly dependent on the tube pitch and the heat flux of the relevant tube. The published results are mostly about the horizontal tubes. However, there are many heat exchangers consisting of vertical tubes like AP600. Therefore, the focus of the present study is an identification of the effects of a tube pitch as well as the heat flux of a relevant tube on the heat transfer of a tube bundle installed vertically. When the heat flux is increased many bubbles are generating due to the increase of the nucleation sites. The bubbles become coalescing with the nearby bubbles and generates big bunches of bubbles on the tube surface. This prevents the access of the liquid to the surface and deteriorates heat transfer. The bubble coalescence is competing with the mechanisms enhancing heat transfer. The pitch was varied from 28.5 mm to 95 mm and the heat flux of the nearby tube was changed from 0 to 90kW/m"2. The enhancement of the heat transfer is clearly observed when the heat flux of the nearby tube becomes larger and the heat flux of the upper tube is less than 40kW/m"2. The effect of the tube pitch on heat transfer is negligible as the value of DP/ is increased more than 4.

  19. Application of the Critical Heat Flux Look-Up Table to Large Diameter Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Nakla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The critical heat flux look-up table was applied to a large diameter tube, namely 67 mm inside diameter tube, to predict the occurrence of the phenomenon for both vertical and horizontal uniformly heated tubes. Water was considered as coolant. For the vertical tube, a diameter correction factor was directly applied to the 1995 critical heat flux look-up table. To predict the occurrence of critical heat flux in horizontal tube, an extra correction factor to account for flow stratification was applied. Both derived tables were used to predict the effect of high heat flux and tube blockage on critical heat flux occurrence in boiler tubes. Moreover, the horizontal tube look-up table was used to predict the safety limits of the operation of boiler for 50% allowable heat flux.

  20. Horizontal wells in subsurface remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losonsky, G.; Beljin, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on horizontal wells which offer an effective alternative to vertical wells in various environmental remediation technologies. Hydrogeological advantages of horizontal wells over vertical wells include a larger zone of influence, greater screen length, higher specific capacity and lower groundwater screen entrance velocity. Because of these advantages, horizontal wells can reduce treatment time and costs of groundwater recovery (pump-and-treat), in situ groundwater aeration (sparging) and soil gas extraction (vacuum extraction). Horizontal wells are also more effective than vertical wells in landfill leachate collection (under-drains), bioremediation, and horizontal grout injection

  1. Electron tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Motohiro [Hamamatsu, JP; Fukasawa, Atsuhito [Hamamatsu, JP; Arisaka, Katsushi [Los Angeles, CA; Wang, Hanguo [North Hills, CA

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  2. FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN A SOLAR COLLECTOR PANEL WITH HORIZONTAL FINS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work is to theoretically and experimentally investigate the flow and temperature distribution in a solar collector panel with an absorber consisting of horizontal fins. Fluid flow and heat transfer in the collector panel are studied by means of computational fluid dynamics...... (CFD) calculations. Further, experimental investigations of a 12.5 m² solar collector panel with 16 parallel connected horizontal fins are carried out. The flow distribution through the absorber is evaluated by means of temperature measurements on the backside of the absorber tubes. The measured...

  3. Transduced for determining if steam generator tubes are locked in at support plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    A nuclear steam generator is described which includes a vessel, means to introduce vaporizable fluid into the bottom portion of the vessel, an outlet near the top through which vapor is discharged, a horizontal tube sheet extending across the vessel, a plurality of U-shaped tubes, having each end secured to and extending through the tube sheet, means for introducing heating fluid to one end of each of the U-shaped tubes, means for removing heating fluid from the other end of each of the U-shaped tubes, tube support means positioned within the vessel for preventing tube vibration, the tube support means including horizontally positioned means closely surrounding, but slightly spaced from each tube, means through which access can be had to the vessel interior beneath the tube sheet when the steam generator is not in operation, and testing means for determining whether or not a tube is locked into a tube support means including a longitudinal member, with a first end located inside the tube to be tested, and a second end located outside of the tube, means for securing the first end of the member to the inside of the tube, means for heating a length of the longitudinal member, and an equal length of the tube, to an elevated temperature, and means for indicating movement of the second end of the longitudinal member away from the tube end, which would indicate that the tube is locked into the support means

  4. Chest tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... Be careful there are no kinks in your tube. The drainage system should always sit upright and be placed ...

  5. The characteristics of hydrogeochemical zonation of groundwater in inland plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin-yu, HOU; Li-ting, XING; Yi, YANG; Wen-jing, ZHANG; Guang-yao, CHI

    2018-05-01

    To find out the hydrochemical zoning of groundwaterin the inland plain, taking Jiyang plain as an example, based on mathematical statistics, ion ratio coefficient and isotopic analysis method, the characteristics of water chemical composition and its zoning at different depths of 500m were studied. The result shows: ①The groundwater flow system in the study area can be divided into local flow system, intermediate flow system and regional flow system. ②The hydrochemical type of shallow groundwater is complex. The hydrochemical types of middle confined water are mainly ClṡSO4—MgṡNa and SO4ṡCl—NaṡMg. The deep confined water is mainly HCO3. ③The TDS of shallow groundwater increases gradually along the direction of groundwater flow. ④The shallow saltwater and freshwater are alternately distributed in horizontal direction, and saltwater is distributed sporadically in the interfluve area with sporadic punctate or banded, and hydrochemical types are mainly ClṡSO4—NaṡMgṡCa. Conclusion: Groundwater in the study area is affected by complicated hydrogeochemical action, mainly in the form of filtration, cation exchange and evaporation. The inland plain area is characterized by hydrogeochemical zonation in horizontal and vertical.

  6. Analytical solution of velocity for ammonia-water horizontal falling-film flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Gao, Yide

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We built a new falling-film flow model that analyzed the film flow characteristics. • We have obtained a new formula of film thickness over the horizontal tube. • We derived analysis solution to analyze the effect of inertial force to velocity in the entrance region of liquid film. • It described the characters of the ammonia-waterfalling-film film over the horizontal tube. • It is good for falling-film absorption, generation and evaporation to optimizing the design parameters and further improving the capabilities. - Abstract: A new horizontal tube falling film velocity model was built and calculated to analyze the problem of film flow conditions. This model also analyzed the film thickness distribution in horizontal tube falling film flow and considered the effect of the inertial force on velocity. The film thickness and velocity profile can be obtained based on the principle of linear superposition, a method of separation of variables that introduces the effect of variable inertial force on the velocity profile in the process of falling-film absorption. The film flow condition and the film thickness distribution at different fluid Reynolds numbers (Re) and tube diameters were calculated and compared with the results of the Crank–Nicolson numerical solution under the same conditions. The results show that the film flow condition out of a horizontal tube and that the film thickness increases with the fluid Re. At a specific Re and suitable tube diameter, the horizontal tube reaches a more uniform film. Finally, the analysis results have similar trend with the experimental and numerical predicted data in literature.

  7. photomultiplier tubes

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  8. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  9. Almost horizontal turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolmogorov, A N

    2004-01-01

    The paper is published without modifications. Kolmogorov's manuscript was apparently prepared during his participation in one of expeditions of the ship 'D. Mendeleev' to the Atlantic Ocean (1969) or in a circumnavigation of the world (1971) organized by the Institute for Oceanology led at the time by A.S. Monin. As Kolmogorov himself wrote, the choice of the topic was stimulated by observations concerning '...meanders with horizontal sizes of hundreds of kilometers on a flow involving a layer of hundreds of meters, with subsequent disintegration of these meanders into vortices gradually decreasing in size to several kilometers'. In modern terminology, the paper is devoted to the problem of intensive mixing in pycnoclines, that is, thin layers of stratified fluid, caused by internal waves whose frequencies are less than the Brent-Vaeisaelae frequency. Here I would like to note two circumstances. The first is the scientific insight characteristic for Kolmogorov; this very approach was later reflected in numerous publications (see, for instance, the monograph by V.S. Modevich, V.I. Nikulin, and A.G. Stetsenko 'Dynamics of internal mixing in a stratified medium', Institute for Hydromechanics, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Naukova Dumka, Kiev 1988). The second, the more significant in my opinion, is the genuine intellectual curiosity and breadth of thought of this great thinker, who studied not only the most abstract mathematical constructions but also got his head out of the clouds with great interest to solve concrete applied problems

  10. A horizontal dilution refrigerator for polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isagawa, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Masaike, A.; Morimoto, K.

    1978-01-01

    A horizontal dilution refrigerator was constructed with a view to the spin frozen target and the deuteron polarized target. High cooling power at high temperature such as 3.7 mW at 400 mK serves for overcoming a heat load of microwave to polarize the nuclear spins in the target material. The cooling power at 50 mK was 50 μW, which is sufficient to hold the high nuclear polarization for long time. The lowest temperature reached was 26 mK. The refrigerator has rather simple heat exchangers, a long stainless steel double tube heat exchanger and two coaxial type heat exchangers with sintered copper. The mixing chamber is made of polytetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and demountable so that the target material can be easily put into it. (Auth.)

  11. Woodville Karst Plain, North Florida

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Map showing the largest mapped underwater cave systems and conduit flow paths confirmed by tracer testing relative to surface streams, sinkholes and potentiometric surface of the Florida aquifer in the Woodville Karst Plain, Florida

  12. Plain formation on Mercury: tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1980-01-01

    Four major plain units, plus intermediates, are distinguished on Mercury. The chronologic relationships between these plains indicate that plains formation was a permanent process on Mercury. Their location and morphology seem to indicate a possible volcanic origin for these plains. The relationships between tectonism and volcanism seems to indicate the global contraction is not the only tectonic process on Mercury. (Auth.)

  13. The root caused analysis of leakaged heat exchanger tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsudin, Shaiful Rizam; Salleh, M.A.A. Mohd; Rahmat, Azmi; Anuar, Mohd Arif; Harun, Mohd; Zayid, Hafizal; Noor, Mazlee Mohd

    2015-01-01

    AISI type 316L stainless steel was used as a heat exchanger tube material in an inter-cooler column. After less than a year of operation, severe corrosion failures occurred and a transverse opening leakage was observed on one of the heat exchanger tubes. The failed tube was carefully analyzed using various metallurgical laboratory equipments. The root cause of the tube leakage was believed due to the presence of horizontal micro and macro pores as a hydrogen gas entrapment during casting of the parent ingot. The overlapped and gaping pores formed notch on the shell side of the tube surface, and it increasingly evident when the use of a high-energy water-jet and metal brush as cleaning procedure results in an establishment of pitting type local-action corrosion cells penetrated the tube wall. As a result, corrosive fluid in the tube side dissolved into the cooling water, accelerating the corrosion process.

  14. Horizontal drilling under Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, R.

    2001-07-01

    Drilling oil wells under Lake Erie calls for horizontal drilling wells to be drilled from shore out into the pay-zone under the lake. The nature and characteristics of horizontal wells as compared to vertical wells are explored. Considerations that have to be taken into account in drilling horizontal wells are explained (the degree of curvature, drilling fluid quality, geosteering in the pay-zone, steering instrumentation, measurements while drilling (MWD), logging while drilling (LWD)). The concept and reasons for extended reach wells are outlined, along with characteristic features of multilateral wells.

  15. Impulse generation by detonation tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Marcia Ann

    Impulse generation with gaseous detonation requires conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy. This conversion process is well understood in rocket engines where the high pressure combustion products expand through a nozzle generating high velocity exhaust gases. The propulsion community is now focusing on advanced concepts that utilize non-traditional forms of combustion like detonation. Such a device is called a pulse detonation engine in which laboratory tests have proven that thrust can be achieved through continuous cyclic operation. Because of poor performance of straight detonation tubes compared to conventional propulsion systems and the success of using nozzles on rocket engines, the effect of nozzles on detonation tubes is being investigated. Although previous studies of detonation tube nozzles have suggested substantial benefits, up to now there has been no systematic investigations over a range of operating conditions and nozzle configurations. As a result, no models predicting the impulse when nozzles are used exist. This lack of data has severely limited the development and evaluation of models and simulations of nozzles on pulse detonation engines. The first experimental investigation measuring impulse by gaseous detonation in plain tubes and tubes with nozzles operating in varying environment pressures is presented. Converging, diverging, and converging-diverging nozzles were tested to determine the effect of divergence angle, nozzle length, and volumetric fill fraction on impulse. The largest increases in specific impulse, 72% at an environment pressure of 100 kPa and 43% at an environment pressure of 1.4 kPa, were measured with the largest diverging nozzle tested that had a 12° half angle and was 0.6 m long. Two regimes of nozzle operation that depend on the environment pressure are responsible for these increases and were first observed from these data. To augment this experimental investigation, all data in the literature regarding

  16. Eustachian tube patency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustachian tube patency refers to how much the eustachian tube is open. The eustachian tube runs between the middle ear and the throat. It controls the pressure behind the eardrum and middle ear space. This helps keep ...

  17. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  18. Quantitative analysis of bowel gas by plain abdominal radiograph combined with computer image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yan; Peng Kewen; Zhang Houde; Shen Bixian; Xiao Hanxin; Cai Juan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method for quantitative analysis of bowel gas by plain abdominal radiograph and computer graphics. Methods: Plain abdominal radiographs in supine position from 25 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 20 health controls were studied. A gastroenterologist and a radiologist independently conducted the following procedure on each radiograph. After the outline of bowel gas was traced by axe pen, the radiograph was digitized by a digital camera and transmitted to the computer with Histogram software. The total gas area was determined as the pixel value on images. The ratio of the bowel gas quantity to the pixel value in the region surrounded by a horizontal line tangential to the superior pubic symphysis margin, a horizontal line tangential to the tenth dorsal vertebra inferior margin, and the lateral line tangential to the right and left anteriosuperior iliac crest, was defined as the gas volume score (GVS). To examine the sequential reproducibility, a second plain abdominal radiograph was performed in 5 normal controls 1 week later, and the GVS were compared. Results: Bowel gas was easily identified on the plain abdominal radiograph. Both large and small intestine located in the selected region. Both observers could finish one radiographic measurement in less than 10 mins. The correlation coefficient between the two observers was 0.986. There was no statistical difference on GVS between the two sequential radiographs in 5 health controls. Conclusion: Quantification of bowel gas based on plain abdominal radiograph and computer is simple, rapid, and reliable

  19. An experimental study on accelerated fouling of aluminum oxide and ferric oxide particles in internally enhanced tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedin, Mohammad Zoynal; Kim, Nae Hyun [School of Mechanical System Engineering, Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This paper describes the results of accelerated particulate fouling tests performed on three enhanced tubes and a plain tube. The tests were performed using ferric oxide and aluminum oxide as foulant materials. Three enhanced tubes included 25 start, 10 start helically ribbed tubes and a ripple tube. Effects of the water velocity (0.9 to 1.8 m/s) and foulant concentration (750 to 2500 ppm) were investigated. At 750 ppm, the enhanced tubes fouled almost the same as the plain tube for the entire velocity range tested (0.9 to 1.8 m/s). The enhanced tube fouled faster than the plain tube for cases of high concentration combined with low velocities. Of the three enhanced tubes, the 25 start helically ribbed tube fouled faster than the ripple and the 10 start helically ribbed tubes. One thing to be noted is that the fouling concentrations used in the tests are significantly higher than would be expected in commercial heat exchangers. Also, the velocity range investigated is lower than would be expected in heat exchanger operation.

  20. Tube holding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A tube holding rig is described for the lateral support of tubes arranged in tight parcels in a heat exchanger. This tube holding rig includes not less than two tube supporting assemblies, with a space between them, located crosswise with respect to the tubes, each supporting assembly comprising a first set of parallel components in contact with the tubes, whilst a second set of components is also in contact with the tubes. These two sets of parts together define apertures through which the tubes pass [fr

  1. DNAPL migration in a coastal plain aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGuiseppi, W.H.; Jung, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    Soil and ground water at the Dover Gas Light Superfund Site, a former manufactured gas plant (1859 to 1948), are contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. Contaminants of concern include light aromatics, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), and heavy aromatics, including naphthalene, acenaphthylene, phenanthrene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Although ground-water contaminant levels are elevated near the site, only naphthalene and acenaphthylene are present within an order of magnitude of their solubility limits, indicating the possibility of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) in the subsurface. The unconfined Columbia Aquifer, which is characterized by interfingering and discontinuous sand, silt, and clay Coastal Plain deposits, overlies a clay aquitard at a depth of 60 feet. The ground water beneath the intermediate clay horizon exhibited little or no contamination, even immediately downgradient from the site. The relationship between the more permeable granular sand horizons and the less permeable interfingering clay zones controls the migration of both the aqueous-phase contamination and the DNAPL. A detailed horizontal and vertical characterization of the subsurface stratigraphy was critical to the accurate interpretation of the extent and magnitude of contamination and the identification and delineation of DNAPL zones

  2. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to the...

  3. Bender/Coiler for Tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Easy-to-use tool makes coils of tubing. Tubing to be bend clamped with stop post. Die positioned snugly against tubing. Operator turns handle to slide die along tubing, pushing tubing into spiral groove on mandrel.

  4. Orthorad - the online reference database of skeletal plain film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkmann, F.M.; Heberlein, C.; Greess, H.; Ketelsen, D.; Klose, K.J.; Grunewald, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: it is evident that there is a growing need for internet-based reference databases for reasons of practicability and due to the increasing use of reporting on digital workstations. The main advantages of online databases are expected with respect to plain film radiography and cross-sectional imaging. A reference database of skeletal plain film radiography was to be created using the Orthorad program. Materials and methods: the most important standard settings and special images of young and healthy adults in plain film radiography were collected over one year. All samples were approved for the Orthorad database by a board qualified radiologist. Based on the workflows of radiographers and radiologists, the records were organized by body part (http://www.idr.med.uni-erlangen.de/orthorad/orthorad.htm). This logical data structure will ensure that the tool serves as a source of information in two ways: On the one hand, the radiographer can access information on positioning, tube voltage and cassette format. On the other hand, the radiologist receives important knowledge regarding X-ray anatomy, reference data regarding the human skeleton, and information about the correct reporting for an image. (orig.)

  5. Usefulness of plain radiography for assessing hypouricemic treatment response in patients with tophaceous gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Young Sun; Cheon, Yun-Hong; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Ji-Min; Kim, Sang-Hyon; Lee, Won-Seok; Yoo, Wan-Hee; Lee, Sang-Il; Kim, Hyun-Ok

    2016-11-01

    To investigate whether plain radiography is useful for assessing the changes in gouty tophi size following hypouricemic therapy. Gout was diagnosed according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Before and after hypouricemic treatment, serum uric acid level was measured, and plain radiography was performed to measure gouty tophi size. The tophi were graded by measuring the maximum vertical and horizontal diameters, and they were scored by adding up the scores of the grades. The vertical diameter was measured on both sides of the proximal phalanges (PPs). The horizontal diameter was measured on the lateral side of the PPs. The maximum vertical diameter measurement was graded 0-4. The maximum horizontal diameter measurement was graded 0-3. Seven hundred first metatarsal phalangeal joints (MTPJ) of 350 patients with gout were assessed for gouty tophi. Tophi were observed using plain radiography in 174 MTPJs (24.9%) of 109 patients (31.1%). Follow-up plain radiography was performed in 60 of these patients. Before the treatment, the average serum uric acid level of these patients was 8.3 ± 1.9 mg/dL, and the average tophi score was 3.7 ± 2.5. After hypouricemic treatment, the uric acid level decreased to 5.9 ± 1.6 mg/dL (P < 0.05), and the average tophi score decreased to 1.5 ± 1.8 (P < 0.05). This new method for measuring gouty tophi using plain radiography may be useful for evaluating changes in gouty tophi size following hypouricemic treatment. © 2016 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Stackelberg equilibria and horizontal differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Lambertini, Luca

    1993-01-01

    This paper proposes a taxonomy of the Stackelberg equilibria emerging from a standard game of horizontal differentiation à la Hotelling in which the strategy set of the sellers in the location stage is the real axis. Repeated leadership appears the most advantageous position. Furthermore, this endogenously yields vertical differentiation between products at equilibrium.

  7. Horizontal Diplopia Following Upper Blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ortiz-Basso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diplopia is an infrequent complication after blepharoplasty. Most of the cases are in its vertical form due to trauma of the extraocular muscles. In this article, we present a case of horizontal diplopia following cosmetic upper blepharoplasty; we review the literature on this unexpected complication and offer some recommendations to avoid it.

  8. Changes in plain bearing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Koring, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    A unique fusion of theoretical and practical knowledge, Changes in Plain Bearing Technology, by Rolf Koring, covers a meaningful range of expertise in this field.Drawing from years of experience in design development, materials selection, and their correlation to real-life part failure, this title, co-published by SAE International and expert Verlag (Germany), concentrates on hydrodynamic bearings lined with white metals, also known as Babbits.Written under the assumption that even the most mature body of knowledge can be revisited and improved, Changes in Plain Bearing Technology is a courageous and focused approach to questioning accepted test results and looking at alternative material compounds, and their application suitability.The process, which leads to innovative answers on how the technology is transforming itself to respond to new market requirements, shows how interdisciplinary thinking can recognize new potential in long-established industrial modus operandi.Tackling the highly complex issue of co...

  9. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  10. Mechanistic multidimensional analysis of horizontal two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tselishcheva, Elena A.; Antal, Steven P.; Podowski, Michael Z.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of analysis of two-phase flow in horizontal tubes. Two flow situations have been considered: gas/liquid flow in a long straight pipe, and similar flow conditions in a pipe with 90 deg. elbow. The theoretical approach utilizes a multifield modeling concept. A complete three-dimensional two-phase flow model has been implemented in a state-of-the-art computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) computer code, NPHASE. The overall model has been tested parametrically. Also, the results of NPHASE simulations have been compared against experimental data for a pipe with 90 deg. elbow.

  11. Investigation of straitified and countercurrent flows in horizontal piping during a loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourteele, J.P.

    1980-06-01

    The ECTHOR program consists in a loop having as objective to study the flow regimes in horizontal pipings (stratification, countercurrent flows) in conditions representative of small break transients within commercial PWR. The ECTHOR tests are in process. Experimental results are already available and are presented in this paper: scaling problem, U tube experiments, hot leg experiments, high pressure tests

  12. Wireline tractor production logging experience in Australian horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Local, E.; Searight, T. L.

    1998-12-31

    Australian experiences with the development of new wireline tractor technology and its successful application to deploy production logging tools in horizontal wells was discussed. Dynamics of the tractor operations have been modelled and the model was validated with field data. The field data was also used to quantify borehole friction coefficients. Successful application in the field indicates that the tough tubing capability of the tractor, combined with its capacity to drive in large casing sizes, makes wireline deployment possible in a wide range of well completions. Work on a number of new applications such as the capability to negotiate complex downhole hardware, and to intervene in completions with widely differing tubing diameters, is in progress. 5 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  13. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A form of x-ray tube is described which provides satisfactory focussing of the electron beam when the beam extends for several feet from gun to target. Such a tube can be used for computerised tomographic scanning. (UK)

  14. Pressure tube type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komada, Masaoki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the safety of pressure tube type reactors by providing an additional ECCS system to an ordinary ECCS system and injecting heavy water in the reactor core tank into pressure tubes upon fractures of the tubes. Constitution: Upon fractures of pressure tubes, reduction of the pressure in the fractured tubes to the atmospheric pressure in confirmed and the electromagnetic valve is operated to completely isolate the pressure tubes from the fractured portion. Then, the heavy water in the reactor core tank flows into and spontaneously recycles through the pressure tubes to cool the fuels in the tube to prevent their meltdown. By additionally providing the separate ECCS system to the ordinary ECCS system, fuels can be cooled upon loss of coolant accidents to improve the safety of the reactors. (Moriyama, K.)

  15. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... KEY, 3 to 8 weeks after surgery. These feedings will help your child grow strong and healthy. ...

  16. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  17. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  18. The Winfrith horizontal impact rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, P.

    1985-12-01

    The Horizontal Impact Rig has been designed to allow studies of the impact of radioactive material transport containers and their associated transport vehicles and impact limiters, using large scale models, and to allow physically large missiles to be projected for studying the impact behaviour of metal and concrete structures. It provides an adequately rigid support structure for impact experiments with targets of large dimensions. Details of its design, instrumentation, performance prediction and construction are given. (U.K.)

  19. Atmospheric horizontal divergence and diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castans, M.

    1981-01-01

    The action of horizontal divergence on diffusion near the ground is established through.a very simple flow model. The shape of the well-known Pasquill-Gifford-Turner curves, that apparently take account in some way of divergence, is justified. The possibility of explaining the discre--pancies between the conventional straight line model and experimental results, mainly under low-wind-speed satable conditions, is considered. Some hints for further research are made. (auth.)

  20. An Inexpensive and Versatile Version of Kundt's Tube for Measuring the Speed of Sound in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacosta, Pangratios; Linscheid, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Experiments that measure the speed of sound in air are common in high schools and colleges. In the Kundt's tube experiment, a horizontal air column is adjusted until a resonance mode is achieved for a specific frequency of sound. When this happens, the cork dust in the tube is disturbed at the displacement antinode regions. The location of the…

  1. Evaluation of the Effect of Tube Pitch and Surface Alterations on Temperature Field at Sprinkled Tube Bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kracík Petr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water flowing on a sprinkled tube bundle forms three basic modes: It is the Droplet mode (liquid drips from one tube to another, the Jet mode (with an increasing flow rate droplets merge into a column and the Membrane (Sheet mode (with further increasing of falling film liquid flow rate columns merge and create sheets between the tubes. With sufficient flow rate sheets merge at this state and the tube bundle is completely covered by a thin liquid film. There are several factors influencing the individual mode types as well as heat transfer. Beside the above mentioned falling film liquid flow rate they are for instance tube diameters, tube pitches in a tube bundle or a physical condition of a falling film liquid. This paper presents a summary of data measured at atmospheric pressure at a tube bundle consisting of copper tubes of 12 milimeters diameter and of the studied tube length one meter. The tubes are positioned horizontally one above another with the tested pitches of 15, 20, 25 and 30 mm and there is a distribution tube placed above them with water flowing out. The thermal gradient of 15–40 has been tested with all pitches where the falling film liquid’s temperature at the inlet of the distribution tube was 15 °C. The liquid was heated during the flow through the exchanger and the temperature of the sprinkled (heater liquid at the inlet of the exchanger with a constant flow rate about 7.2 litres per minute was 40 °C. The tested flow of the falling film liquid ranged from 1.0 to 13.0 litres per minute. Sequences of 180 exposures have been recorded in partial flow rate stages by thermographic camera with record frequency of 30 Hz which were consequently assessed using the Matlab programme. This paper presents results achieved at the above mentioned pitches and at three types of tube bundle surfaces.

  2. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into a...

  3. comparative evaluation of pressure distribution between horizontal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This paper presents comparative analysis between the pressure behavior of ... Green and source function were used to evaluate the performance of horizontal well and ..... Superscript. ' derivative. D = dimensionless. h = horizontal. = change.

  4. Heat exchanger tube tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugel, G.

    1976-01-01

    Certain types of heat-exchangers have tubes opening through a tube sheet to a manifold having an access opening offset from alignment with the tube ends. A tool for inserting a device, such as for inspection or repair, is provided for use in such instances. The tool is formed by a flexible guide tube insertable through the access opening and having an inner end provided with a connector for connection with the opening of the tube in which the device is to be inserted, and an outer end which remains outside of the chamber, the guide tube having adequate length for this arrangement. A flexible transport hose for internally transporting the device slides inside of the guide tube. This hose is long enough to slide through the guide tube, into the heat-exchanger tube, and through the latter to the extent required for the use of the device. The guide tube must be bent to reach the end of the heat-exchanger tube and the latter may be constructed with a bend, the hose carrying anit-friction elements at interspaced locations along its length to make it possible for the hose to negotiate such bends while sliding to the location where the use of the device is required

  5. Experimental study on two-phase flow in horizontal duct using a visualization technique; Estudo experimental de escoamentos bifasicos em duto horizontal usando uma tecnica de visualizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Livia A.; Tomas, Bruno T.; Cunha Filho, Jurandyr S.; Su, Jian, E-mail: livia.alves.oliveira@gmail.co [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Faccini, Jose L.H. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper an experimental study is performed for visualization of water-air two phase flow, stratified and intermittent, in a 51 mm internal diameter circular section horizontal tube. The study consists in filming a water-air mixture passin by a transparent interval of the tube, using a high speed camera. After that, the obtained images are analysed frame after frame and then, data are extracted of weight of gas-liquid interfaces, length and gas bubbles speeds. Then, these data are verified with experimental and theoretical correlations available in the literature

  6. Charging and discharging characteristics of cool thermal energy storage system with horizontal pipes using water as phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sait, H.H.; Selim, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ice is formed around horizontal tubes. • Optimum solid ice releasing is found. • Freezing and releasing of ice are controlled by ice resistance, time and tubes spacing. - Abstract: An experimental investigation of ice formation on cold vertical banks of horizontal tubes subjected to falling-film– jet mode– is conducted. In the charging process, a set of internally cooled vertical banks of horizontal tubes of brine is subjected to a falling film of water. The formed ice is periodically observed, photographed and measured in falling-film jet mode at specific internal coolant (ethylene–glycol solution) flow rates and temperatures. In the discharge process, the same solution is heated and used internally to release ice. Different thicknesses of the released ice are observed and measured. The maximum quantity of released ice is obtained and the optimum ice formation is determined. The results indicate that the ice formation and the solid ice released are controlled by the thermal resistance of the ice, time and pitch between tubes. The maximum gained ice has a thickness that is approximately equal to half of the tube spacing between the tubes utilized, which is formed in approximately 45 min and released in 12.5 min. The variation in heating solution temperature has a slight effect on the gained ice and discharging time

  7. Bubble shape in horizontal and near horizontal intermittent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Hanyang; Guo, Liejin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The bubble shapes in intermittent flows are presented experimentally. • The nose-tail inversion phenomenon appears at a low Froude number in downward pipe. • Transition from plug to slug flow occurs when the bubble tail changes from staircase pattern to hydraulic jump. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study of the shape of isolated bubbles in horizontal and near horizontal intermittent flows. It is found that the shapes of the nose and body of bubble depend on the Froude number defined by gas/liquid mixture velocity in a pipe, whereas the shape of the back of bubble region depends on both the Froude number and bubble length. The photographic studies show that the transition from plug to slug flow occurs when the back of the bubble changes from staircase pattern to hydraulic jump with the increase of the Froude number and bubble length. The effect of pipe inclination on characteristics of bubble is significant: The bubble is inversely located in a downwardly inclined pipe when the Froude number is low, and the transition from plug flow to slug flow in an upward inclined pipe is more ready to occur compared with that in a downwardly inclined pipe

  8. Intercostal drainage tube or intracardiac drainage tube?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Anitha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although insertion of chest drain tubes is a common medical practice, there are risks associated with this procedure, especially when inexperienced physicians perform it. Wrong insertion of the tube has been known to cause morbidity and occasional mortality. We report a case where the left ventricle was accidentally punctured leading to near-exsanguination. This report is to highlight the need for experienced physicians to supervise the procedure and train the younger physician in the safe performance of the procedure.

  9. Intercostal drainage tube or intracardiac drainage tube?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, N; Kamath, S Ganesh; Khymdeit, Edison; Prabhu, Manjunath

    2016-01-01

    Although insertion of chest drain tubes is a common medical practice, there are risks associated with this procedure, especially when inexperienced physicians perform it. Wrong insertion of the tube has been known to cause morbidity and occasional mortality. We report a case where the left ventricle was accidentally punctured leading to near-exsanguination. This report is to highlight the need for experienced physicians to supervise the procedure and train the younger physician in the safe performance of the procedure.

  10. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos » NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: ...

  11. Split core experiments; Part I. Axial neutron flux distribution measurements in the reactor core with a central horizontal reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strugar, P; Raisic, N; Obradovic, D; Jovanovic, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1965-05-01

    A series of critical experiments were performed on the RB reactor in order to determine the thermal neutron flux increase in the central horizontal reflector formed by a split reactor core. The objectives of these experiments were to study the possibilities of improving the thermal neutron flux characteristics of the neutron beam in the horizontal beam tube of the RA research reactor. The construction of RA reactor enables to split the core in two, to form a central horizontal reflector in front of the beam tube. This is achieved by replacing 2% enriched uranium slugs in the fuel channel by dummy aluminium slugs. The purpose of the first series of experiments was to study the gain in thermal neutron component inside the horizontal reflector and the loss of reactivity as a function of the lattice pitch and central reflector thickness.

  12. Environmental restoration using horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.; Hazen, T.C.; Corey, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. The test successfully removed approximately 7250 kg of contaminants. A large amount of characterization and monitoring data was collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restorations that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems

  13. Pediatric cuffed endotracheal tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endotracheal intubation in children is usually performed utilizing uncuffed endotracheal tubes for conduct of anesthesia as well as for prolonged ventilation in critical care units. However, uncuffed tubes may require multiple changes to avoid excessive air leak, with subsequent environmental pollution making the technique uneconomical. In addition, monitoring of ventilatory parameters, exhaled volumes, and end-expiratory gases may be unreliable. All these problems can be avoided by use of cuffed endotracheal tubes. Besides, cuffed endotracheal tubes may be of advantage in special situations like laparoscopic surgery and in surgical conditions at risk of aspiration. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans in children have found the narrowest portion of larynx at rima glottides. Cuffed endotracheal tubes, therefore, will form a complete seal with low cuff pressure of <15 cm H 2 O without any increase in airway complications. Till recently, the use of cuffed endotracheal tubes was limited by variations in the tube design marketed by different manufacturers. The introduction of a new cuffed endotracheal tube in the market with improved tracheal sealing characteristics may encourage increased safe use of these tubes in clinical practice. A literature search using search words "cuffed endotracheal tube" and "children" from 1980 to January 2012 in PUBMED was conducted. Based on the search, the advantages and potential benefits of cuffed ETT are reviewed in this article.

  14. Plateaus and sinuous ridges as the fingerprints of lava flow inflation in the Eastern Tharsis Plains of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Orr, Tim R.; de Wet, Andrew P.; Zimbelman, James R.; Hamilton, Christopher W.; Brent Garry, W.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Williams, David A.

    2017-08-01

    The Tharsis Montes rift aprons are composed of outpourings of lava from chaotic terrains to the northeast and southwest flank of each volcano. Sinuous and branching channel networks that are present on the rift aprons suggest the possibility of fluvial processes in their development, or erosion by rapidly emplaced lavas, but the style of lava flow emplacement throughout rift apron development is not clearly understood. To better characterize the style of lava emplacement and role of fluvial processes in rift apron development, we conducted morphological mapping of the Pavonis Mons southwest rift apron and the eastern Tharsis plains using images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), Context Camera (CTX), Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) along with the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Precision Experiment Data Records (PEDRs) and gridded data. Our approach was to: (1) search for depositional fans at the slope break between the rift apron and adjacent low slope plains; (2) determine if there is evidence that previously formed deposits might have been buried by plains units; (3) characterize the Tharsis plains morphologies east of Pavonis Mons; and (4) assess their relationship to the rift apron units. We have not identified topographically significant depositional fans, nor did we observe evidence to suggest that plains units have buried older rift apron units. Flow features associated with the rift apron are observed to continue across the slope break onto the plains. In this area, the plains are composed of a variety of small fissures and low shield vents around which broad channel-fed and tube-fed flows have been identified. We also find broad, flat-topped plateaus and sinuous ridges mixed among the channels, tubes and vents. Flat-topped plateaus and sinuous ridges are morphologies that are analogous to those observed on the coastal plain of Hawai'i, where lava

  15. Horizontal gene transfer in chromalveolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Debashish

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT, the non-genealogical transfer of genetic material between different organisms, is considered a potentially important mechanism of genome evolution in eukaryotes. Using phylogenomic analyses of expressed sequence tag (EST data generated from a clonal cell line of a free living dinoflagellate alga Karenia brevis, we investigated the impact of HGT on genome evolution in unicellular chromalveolate protists. Results We identified 16 proteins that have originated in chromalveolates through ancient HGTs before the divergence of the genera Karenia and Karlodinium and one protein that was derived through a more recent HGT. Detailed analysis of the phylogeny and distribution of identified proteins demonstrates that eight have resulted from independent HGTs in several eukaryotic lineages. Conclusion Recurring intra- and interdomain gene exchange provides an important source of genetic novelty not only in parasitic taxa as previously demonstrated but as we show here, also in free-living protists. Investigating the tempo and mode of evolution of horizontally transferred genes in protists will therefore advance our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in eukaryotes.

  16. Equipment for inspection and carrying out repairs, if required, for tube bundles of steam raising units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugel, G.

    1976-01-01

    The equipment solves the problem of being able to inspect and possibly to repair U-tubes of a vertical steam raising unit standing on a tube floor, without draining the primary medium and bringing the test equipment and tools into the inside of the boiler first. This is achieved by leaving a considerable part of the equipment permanently in the hemispherical space under the tube floor and operating it from the outside, on the other side of the concrete shielding. An inspection tube is threaded in turn horizontally through a concrete shield, a tube duct in the heat insulation of the steam raising unit, and through a hole in the hemispherical space under the tube floor into this space. The end of an angle tube can be moved axially from outside the concrete shield and can be rotated in a semicircle above the tube axis. By interposing a, for example, 12 part distributor with 12 short, differently bent tubes 12 adjacent tubes opening into the tube floor can be controlled and tested, by axial movement of the angle tube together with the distributor, e.g. 4 x 12 other U tubes. A turbulent flow sensor, for example, can be introduced through the angle tube and distributor. In the non-operational condition the equipment is moved into a recess via a supporting angle and stopped there. (ORU) [de

  17. Improved waterflooding efficiency by horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popa, C. G. [Petroleum and Gas Univ., Ploesti (Romania); Clipea, M. [SNP Petrom SA, ICPT Campina (Romania)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of well pattern involving the use of horizontal wells on the overall efficiency of the waterflooding process was analyzed. Three different scenarios were examined: (1) a pattern of using two parallel horizontal wells, one for injection, the other for production, (2) a pattern of one horizontal well for water injection and several vertical wells for production, and (3) a pattern of using vertical wells for injection and one horizontal well for production. In each case, the waterflooding process was simulated using a two phase two dimensional numerical model. Results showed that the pressure loss along the horizontal section had a large influence on the sweep efficiency whether the horizontal well was used for injection or production. Overall, the most successful combination appeared to be using vertical wells for injection and horizontal wells for production. 4 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs.

  18. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  19. Categorising YouTube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC) of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigation processes on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube......’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition...... and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within...

  20. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1983-08-01

    A review of the performance of steam generator tubes in 110 water-cooled nuclear power reactors showed that tubes were plugged at 46 (42 percent) of the reactors. The number of tubes removed from service increased from 1900 (0.14 percent) in 1980 to 4692 (0.30 percent) in 1981. The leading causes of tube failures were stress corrosion cracking from the primary side, stress corrosion cracking (or intergranular attack) from the secondary side and pitting corrosion. The lowest incidence of corrosion-induced defects from the secondary side occurred in reactors that used all-volatile treatment since start-up. At one reactor a large number of degraded tubes were repaired by sleeving which is expected to become an important method of tube repair in the future

  1. Groundwater Hydrochemical Zoning in Inland Plains and its Genetic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liting Xing

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pore water in inland plain areas, generally having poor water quality, contain complex hydrochemical properties. In order to examine groundwater chemical composition formation characteristics, groundwater in the Jiyang area of Lubei Plain was studied using stratified monitoring of drilling, analysis of water level and water quality, isotope analysis, ion ratio coefficient and isothermal adsorption experiments, hydrochemical characteristics, and analysis of variations in different shallow depths. Results show that: (1 Numerous hydrochemistry types are present in the diving. Along with the direction of groundwater flow, total dissolved solids (TDS of diving in the study area generally increases and the hydrochemical type changes from the HCO3 type to the HCO3·SO4 type, Cl·HCO3 type and the Cl·SO4 type. (2 Shallow brackish water and freshwater in the horizontal direction are alternately distributed, and shallow brackish water is distributed in the area between old channels, showing sporadic spots or bands, whose hydrochemistry type is predominantly Cl·SO4-Na·Mg·Ca. (3 Affected by the sedimentary environment, hydrodynamic conditions and other factors; diving, middle brackish water and deep freshwater are vertically deposited in the study area. The dynamics of middle brackish water quality are stable due to the sedimentary environment and clay deposits. The hydrochemistry types of middle brackish water are mainly Cl·SO4-Mg·Na and SO4·Cl-Na·Mg, while the deep confined water is dominated by HCO3. (4 The optimal adsorption isotherms of Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in groundwater from clay, with a thickness raging from 6–112 m, conformed to the Henry equation and the Langmuir equation. The retardation of Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in groundwater differed with differing depths of the clay deposit. The trend of change in retardation strength correlates strongly with the TDS of groundwater. Groundwater in the inland plain area is affected by complicated

  2. Rectangular drift tube characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, D.S.; Musienko, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    Results on the study of the characteristics of a 50 x 100 mm aluminium drift tube are presented. The tube was filled with argon-methane and argon-isobutane mixtures. With 16 per cent methane concentration the largest deviation from a linear relation between the drift time and the drift path over 50 mm is less than 2 mm. The tube filled with argon-isobutane mixture is capable of operating in a limited streamer mode

  3. Two-phase flow field simulation of horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiee, Ataollah; Kamalinia, Amir Hossein; Hadad, Kamal [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The analysis of steam generators as an interface between primary and secondary circuits in light water nuclear power plants is crucial in terms of safety and design issues. VVER-1000 nuclear power plants use horizontal steam generators which demand a detailed thermal hydraulics investigation in order to predict their behavior during normal and transient operational conditions. Two phase flow field simulation on adjacent tube bundles is important in obtaining logical numerical results. However, the complexity of the tube bundles, due to geometry and arrangement, makes it complicated. Employment of porous media is suggested to simplify numerical modeling. This study presents the use of porous media to simulate the tube bundles within a general-purpose computational fluid dynamics code. Solved governing equations are generalized phase continuity, momentum, and energy equations. Boundary conditions, as one of the main challenges in this numerical analysis, are optimized. The model has been verified and tuned by simple two-dimensional geometry. It is shown that the obtained vapor volume fraction near the cold and hot collectors predict the experimental results more accurately than in previous studies.

  4. Categorising YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC) of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigation processes on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a...

  5. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susuki, Akira; Murata, Shigeto; Minato, Akihiko.

    1993-01-01

    In a pressure tube reactor, a reactor core is constituted by arranging more than two units of a minimum unit combination of a moderator sealing pipe containing a calandria tube having moderators there between and a calandria tube and moderators. The upper header and a lower header of the calandria tank containing moderators are communicated by way of the moderator sealing tube. Further, a gravitationally dropping mechanism is disposed for injecting neutron absorbing liquid to a calandria gas injection portion. A ratio between a moderator volume and a fuel volume is defined as a function of the inner diameter of the moderator sealing tube, the outer diameter of the calandria tube and the diameter of fuel pellets, and has no influence to intervals of a pressure tube lattice. The interval of the pressure tube lattice is enlarged without increasing the size of the pressure tube, to improve production efficiency of the reactor and set a coolant void coefficient more negative, thereby enabling to improve self controllability and safety. Further, the reactor scram can be conducted by injecting neutron absorbing liquid. (N.H.)

  6. Heated Tube Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Heated Tube Facility at NASA GRC investigates cooling issues by simulating conditions characteristic of rocket engine thrust chambers and high speed airbreathing...

  7. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1984-10-01

    A review of the performance of steam generator tubes in 116 water-cooled nuclear power reactors showed that tubes were plugged at 54 (46 percent) of the reactors. The number of tubes removed from service decreased from 4 692 (0.30 percent) in 1981 to 3 222 (0.20 percent) in 1982. The leading causes of tube failures were stress corrosion cracking from the primary side, stress corrosion cracking (or intergranular attack) from the secondary side and pitting corrosion. The lowest incidence of corrosion-induced defects from the secondary side occurred in reactors that have used only volatile treatment, with or without condensate demineralization

  8. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Tapping, R.L.; Stipan, L.

    1992-03-01

    A survey of steam generator operating experience for 1986 has been carried out for 184 pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors, and 1 water-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor. Tubes were plugged at 75 of the reactors (40.5%). In 1986, 3737 tubes were plugged (0.14% of those in service) and 3148 tubes were repaired by sleeving. A small number of reactors accounted for the bulk of the plugged tubes, a phenomenon consistent with previous years. For 1986, the available tubesheet sludge data for 38 reactors has been compiled into tabular form, and sludge/deposit data will be incorporated into all future surveys

  9. Steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvinen, A.; Jokiniemi, J.K.; Laehde, A.; Routamo, T.; Lundstroem, P.; Tuomisto, H.; Dienstbier, J.; Guentay, S.; Suckow, D.; Dehbi, A.; Slootman, M.; Herranz, L.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.

    2005-01-01

    The steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) scenarios project was carried out in the EU 5th framework programme in the field of nuclear safety during years 2000-2002. The first objective of the project was to generate a comprehensive database on fission product retention in a steam generator. The second objective was to verify and develop predictive models to support accident management interventions in steam generator tube rupture sequences, which either directly lead to severe accident conditions or are induced by other sequences leading to severe accidents. The models developed for fission product retention were to be included in severe accident codes. In addition, it was shown that existing models for turbulent deposition, which is the dominating deposition mechanism in dry conditions and at high flow rates, contain large uncertainties. The results of the project are applicable to various pressurised water reactors, including vertical steam generators (western PWR) and horizontal steam generators (VVER)

  10. Explorando nuevos horizontes en NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, G. L.

    A pesar de la incesante expansión del Universo iniciada con el Big Bang 14 mil millones de años atrás, nuestro Universo se siente cada día más cercano. La inquebrantable vocación de la humanidad por descubrir nuevos horizontes ha permitido el acercamiento de civilizaciones en nuestro planeta y nos ha permitido conocer nuestro lugar en el Universo como nunca antes. En este artículo presento una breve sinopsis de nuestro trabajo que se relaciona con diversas investigaciones con implicaciones astrobiológicas, desde el origen de los ingredientes de la "sopa de la vida", hasta la evolución y composición de la atmósfera de Marte.

  11. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor having a reactor vessel, a reactor guard vessel, a thermal insulation shell and a horizontal seismic restraint, a restraint is described comprising: a. a first ring on the wall of the reactor vessel; b. a second ring on the wall of the reactor guard vessel in alignment with the first ring; c. a first block attached to the second ring proximate the first ring so as to provide a predetermined clearance between the first block and the first ring which is reduced to zero during thermal expansion; d. motion limit means extending through an aperture in the thermal insulation shell in alignment with the second ring and the first block; the e. a second block attached to the motion limit means proximate the second ring and in alignment the first block so as to provide a predetermined clearance between the second block and the second ring which is reduced to zero during thermal expansion

  12. WWER Steam Generators Tubing Performance and Aging Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trunov, Nikolay B.; Davidenko, Stanislav E.; Grigoriev, Vladimir A.; Popadchuk, Valery S.; Brykov, Sergery I.; Karzov, Georgy P.

    2006-01-01

    At WWER NPPs the horizontal steam generators (SGs), are used that differ in design concept from vertical SGs mostly used at western NPPs. Reliable operation of SG heat-exchanging tubes is the crucial worldwide problem for NPP of various types. According to the operation feedback the water chemistry is the governing factor affecting operability of SG tubing. The secondary side corrosion is considered to be the main mechanism of SG heat-exchanging tubes damage at WWER plants. To make the assessment of the tubing integrity the combination of pressure tests and eddy-current tests is used. Assessment of the tubing performance is an important part of SG life extension practice. The given paper deals with the description of the tube testing strategy and the approach to tube integrity assessment based on deterministic and probabilistic methods of fracture mechanics. Requirements for eddy-current test are given as well. Practice of condition monitoring and implementing the database on steam generators operation are presented. The approach to tubes plugging criteria is described. The research activities on corrosion mechanism studies and residual lifetime evaluation are mentioned. (authors)

  13. Steam generator tube failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service

  14. Bond strength tests between silicon wafers and duran tubes (fusion bonded fluidic interconnects)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazal, I.; Berenschot, Johan W.; de Boer, J.H.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2005-01-01

    The fusion bond strength of glass tubes with standard silicon wafers is presented. Experiments with plain silicon wafers and those coated with silicon oxide and silicon nitride are presented. Results obtained are discussed in terms of homogeneity and strength of fusion bond. High pressure testing

  15. Development of Empirical Correlation to Calculate Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of Tandem Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myeong-Gie [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The heat exchanging tubes are in vertical alignment. For the cases, the upper tube is affected by the lower tube. Since heat transfer is closely related to the conditions of tube surface, bundle geometry, and liquid, lots of studies have been carried out for the several decades to investigate the combined effects of those factors on pool boiling heat transfer. One of the most important parameters in the analysis of a tube array is the pitch ( P ) between tubes. Many researchers have been investigated its effect on heat transfer enhancement for the tube bundles and the tandem tubes. The effect of a tube array on heat transfer enhancement was also studied for application to the flooded evaporators. Cornwell and Schuller studied the sliding bubbles by high speed photography to account the enhancement of heat transfer observed at the upper tubes of a bundle. The study by Memory et al. shows the effects of the enhanced surface and oil adds to the heat transfer of tube bundles. They identified that, for the structured and porous bundles, oil addition leads to a steady decrease in performance. The flow boiling of n-pentane across a horizontal tube bundle was investigated experimentally by Roser et al. They identified that convective evaporation played a significant part of the total heat transfer. The fouling of the tube bundle under pool boiling was also studied by Malayeri et al. They identified that the mechanisms of fouling on the middle and top heater substantially differ from those at the bottom heater.

  16. Climate variability and Great Plains agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Katz, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The ways in which inhabitants of the Great Plains, including Indians, early settlers, and 20th century farmers, have adapted to climate changes on the Great Plains are explored. The climate of the Great Plains, because of its variability and extremes, can be very stressful to plants, animals and people. It is suggested that agriculture and society on the Great Plains have, during the last century, become less vulnerable to the stresses imposed by climate. Opinions as to the sustainability of agriculture on the Great Plains vary substantially. Lockeretz (1981) suggests that large scale, high cost technologies have stressed farmers by creating surpluses and by requiring large investments. Opie (1989) sees irrigation as a climate substitute, however he stresses that the Ogallala aquifer must inevitably become depleted. Deborah and Frank Popper (1987) believe that farming on the Plains is unsustainable, and destruction of shelterbelts, out-migration of the rural population and environmental problems will lead to total collapse. With global warming, water in the Great Plains is expected to become scarcer, and although improvements in irrigation efficiency may slow depletion of the Ogallala aquifer, ultimately the acreage under irrigation must decrease to levels that can be sustained by natural recharge and reliable surface flows. 23 refs., 2 figs

  17. Method for shaping polyethylene tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Method forms polyethylene plastic tubing into configurations previously only possible with metal tubing. By using polyethylene in place of copper or stain less steel tubing inlow pressure systems, fabrication costs are significantly reduced. Polyethylene tubing can be used whenever low pressure tubing is needed in oil operations, aircraft and space applications, powerplants, and testing laboratories.

  18. Pyrotechnic Tubing Connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Thomas J.; Yang, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Tool forms mechanical seal at joint without levers or hydraulic apparatus. Proposed tool intended for use in outer space used on Earth by heavily garbed workers to join tubing in difficult environments. Called Pyrotool, used with Lokring (or equivalent) fittings. Piston slides in cylinder when pushed by gas from detonating pyrotechnic charge. Impulse of piston compresses fittings, sealing around butting ends of tubes.

  19. Natural convection heat transfer from a vertical circular tube sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharne, S.P.; Gaitonde, U.N.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine natural convection heat transfer coefficients (a) on a plain vertical circular plate, and (b) on a similar plate with a square array of non-conducting tubes fixed in it. The experiments were carried out using air as the heat transfer medium. The diameter of the brass plates used was 350 mm. The diameter of the bakelite tubes used was 19.2 mm. The range of Rayleigh numbers was from 1.06x10 8 to 1.66x10 8 . The results show that the heat transfer coefficients in case (a) are very close to those obtained using standard correlations for vertical flat plates, whereas for case (b) the heat transfer coefficients are at least 50 percent higher than those predicted by the Churchill-Chu correlation. It is hence concluded that the disturbance to boundary layer caused by the presence of tubes enhances the heat transfer coefficient significantly. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  20. Experimental study on two-phase flow in horizontal duct using a visualization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Livia A.; Tomas, Bruno T.; Cunha Filho, Jurandyr S.; Su, Jian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an experimental study is performed for visualization of water-air two phase flow, stratified and intermittent, in a 51 mm internal diameter circular section horizontal tube. The study consists in filming a water-air mixture passin by a transparent interval of the tube, using a high speed camera. After that, the obtained images are analysed frame after frame and then, data are extracted of weight of gas-liquid interfaces, length and gas bubbles speeds. Then, these data are verified with experimental and theoretical correlations available in the literature

  1. Penetrating particles in horizontal air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlenberg, J.; Boehm, E.

    1975-01-01

    Particle density and arrival time of muons has been measured in Horizontal Air Showers. 5,600 showers have been recorded in 7,800 hours. Using stringent selection criteria 155 showers have been found horizontal (zenith angle larger 70 0 ) in the size range 4.1 > lg N > 5.5. The muons observed in these showers can be explained by purely electromagnetic origin of horizontal showers. (orig.) [de

  2. Molybdenum Tube Characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaux II, Miles Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Usov, Igor Olegovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-07

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques have been utilized to produce free-standing molybdenum tubes with the end goal of nuclear fuel clad applications. In order to produce tubes with properties desirable for this application, deposition rates were lowered requiring long deposition durations on the order of 50 hours. Standard CVD methods as well as fluidized-bed CVD (FBCVD) methods were applied towards these objectives. Characterization of the tubes produced in this manner revealed material suitable for fuel clad applications, but lacking necessary uniformity across the length of the tubes. The production of freestanding Mo tubes that possess the desired properties across their entire length represents an engineering challenge that can be overcome in a next iteration of the deposition system.

  3. First Research Coordination Meeting on Prediction of Axial and Radial Creep in HWR Pressure Tubes. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Pressure tube deformation is a critical aging issue in operating Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs). According to the service year, horizontal pressure tubes have three kinds of deformation: diametral creep leading to the flow bypass and the penalty to critical heat flux for fuel rods, longitudinal creep leading to the interference of feeder pipes and/or with fuelling machine, and sagging leading to the interference with in-core components and potential contact between the pressure tube and calandria tube. The CRP scope includes the establishment of a database for pressure tube deformation, microstructure characterization of pressure tube materials collected from HWRs currently operating in Member States and development of a prediction model for pressure tube deformation

  4. The root caused analysis of leakaged heat exchanger tube; Ursachenanalyse einer Leckage an einem Waermeuebertraegerrohr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsudin, Shaiful Rizam; Salleh, M.A.A. Mohd; Rahmat, Azmi; Anuar, Mohd Arif [Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP) (Malaysia). Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CEGeoGTech); Harun, Mohd; Zayid, Hafizal [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Selangor (Malaysia). Industry Technology Div.; Noor, Mazlee Mohd [Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP) (Malaysia). School of Materials Engineering

    2015-05-01

    AISI type 316L stainless steel was used as a heat exchanger tube material in an inter-cooler column. After less than a year of operation, severe corrosion failures occurred and a transverse opening leakage was observed on one of the heat exchanger tubes. The failed tube was carefully analyzed using various metallurgical laboratory equipments. The root cause of the tube leakage was believed due to the presence of horizontal micro and macro pores as a hydrogen gas entrapment during casting of the parent ingot. The overlapped and gaping pores formed notch on the shell side of the tube surface, and it increasingly evident when the use of a high-energy water-jet and metal brush as cleaning procedure results in an establishment of pitting type local-action corrosion cells penetrated the tube wall. As a result, corrosive fluid in the tube side dissolved into the cooling water, accelerating the corrosion process.

  5. Chemical placement in heterogeneous and long reach horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalker, Robert; Wahid, Fazrie; Graham, Gordon M.

    2006-03-15

    The effective placement of chemical squeeze treatments in heterogeneous wells and long reach horizontal wells has proved a significant challenge, with various factors including heterogeneity, crossflow and pressure gradients between otherwise non-communicating zones within the well, all contributing to an uneven placement of the scale squeeze treatment into the reservoir. Current methods to circumvent these problems often rely on extremely expensive coiled tubing operations, staged diversion (temporary shut off) treatments or by designing treatments to deliberately overdose some zones in order to gain placement in other (e.g. low permeability) zones. Moreover for deepwater sub sea horizontal wells the costs associated with ''spot'' treating along the length of horizontal wells by coil tubing tractor operations can often be prohibitively expensive. For other very near well bore treatments such as acid stimulation a number of self diverting strategies including gelled acid treatments, staged viscoelastic surfactant treatments and foams have been applied in field treatments with some success. However the properties which make such treatments applicable for acid stimulation may also make them inappropriate for bullhead scale squeeze treatments. Recent work by the current authors has however indicated the possible benefits of using modified injection fluids to aid uniform scale inhibitor placement in such wells in order to effect more even placement. In summary this paper will describe the various options available for achieving self diversion and describes the potential drawbacks associated with the viscous placement fluids commonly used for acid simulation techniques. In addition, various simulation packages commonly used for scale related calculations are reviewed and their limitations, primarily due to the inherent assumptions made and input parameters used, for modelling squeeze treatments using such modified fluids are described. The paper

  6. Acute diaphragmatic paralysis caused by chest-tube trauma to phrenic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahum, E.; Ben-Ari, J.; Schonfeld, T. [Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqva (Israel); Horev, G. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqva (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2001-06-01

    A 3{sup 1}/{sub 2}-year-old child developed unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis after chest drain insertion. Plain chest X-ray demonstrated paravertebral positioning of the chest-tube tip, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed hematomas in the region of the chest-tube tip and the phrenic nerve fibers. The trauma to the phrenic nerve was apparently secondary to malposition of the chest tube. This is a rare complication and has been reported mainly in neonates. Radiologists should notify the treating physicians that the correct position of a chest drain tip is at least 2 cm distant from the vertebrae. (orig.)

  7. Acute diaphragmatic paralysis caused by chest-tube trauma to phrenic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahum, E.; Ben-Ari, J.; Schonfeld, T.; Horev, G.

    2001-01-01

    A 3 1 / 2 -year-old child developed unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis after chest drain insertion. Plain chest X-ray demonstrated paravertebral positioning of the chest-tube tip, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed hematomas in the region of the chest-tube tip and the phrenic nerve fibers. The trauma to the phrenic nerve was apparently secondary to malposition of the chest tube. This is a rare complication and has been reported mainly in neonates. Radiologists should notify the treating physicians that the correct position of a chest drain tip is at least 2 cm distant from the vertebrae. (orig.)

  8. Vertical and horizontal access configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spampinato, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    A number of configuration features and maintenance operations are influenced by the choice of whether a design is based on vertical or horizontal access for replacing reactor components. The features which are impacted most include the first wall/blanket segmentation, the poloidal field coil locations, the toroidal field coil number and size, access port size for in-vessel components, and facilities. Since either configuration can be made to work, the choice between the two is not clear cut because both have certain advantages. It is apparent that there are large cost benefits in the poloidal field coil system for ideal coil locations for high elongation plasmas and marginal savings for the INTOR case. If we assume that a new tokamak design will require a higher plasma elongation, the recommendation is to arrange the poloidal field coils in a cost-effective manner while providing reasonable midplane access for heating interfaces and test modules. If a new design study is not based on a high elongation plasma, it still appears prudent to consider this approach so that in-vessel maintenance can be accomplished without moving very massive structures such as the bulk shield. 10 refs., 29 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Horizontal vortex single chamber hydroturbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Antonio Zarate-Orrego

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó una máquina con alta resistencia de forma para extraer energía de una quebrada, río o corriente marina, y generar electricidad. Sin instrumentos adecuados, la investigación fue cualitativa. Se supuso que si aun así funcionaba, su comportamiento podía mejorar suavizándose la forma. El aparato tiene una tobera semi-convergente de paredes planas, una cámara de vórtice cilíndrica y un rodete. Capta agua por su sección mayor y la descarga tangencialmente por su sección menor en la cámara de vórtice; ésta tiene un orificio en una de sus paredes laterales. Así forma un vórtice horizontal que hace girar un rodete cuyo eje acciona un generador eléctrico. El trabajo experimental realizado mostró que sí es posible producir energía eléctrica con este dispositivo pese a las condiciones adversas en que se ensayó.

  10. Horizontal gene transfer between bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia

    2007-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) refers to the acquisition of foreign genes by organisms. The occurrence of HGT among bacteria in the environment is assumed to have implications in the risk assessment of genetically modified bacteria which are released into the environment. First, introduced genetic sequences from a genetically modified bacterium could be transferred to indigenous micro-organisms and alter their genome and subsequently their ecological niche. Second, the genetically modified bacterium released into the environment might capture mobile genetic elements (MGE) from indigenous micro-organisms which could extend its ecological potential. Thus, for a risk assessment it is important to understand the extent of HGT and genome plasticity of bacteria in the environment. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge on HGT between bacteria as a crucial mechanism contributing to bacterial adaptability and diversity. In view of the use of GM crops and microbes in agricultural settings, in this mini-review we focus particularly on the presence and role of MGE in soil and plant-associated bacteria and the factors affecting gene transfer.

  11. Seismic echo character northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreery, C.J.; Laine, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Latest efforts in echo-character mapping of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain have discerned variations in thickness in a near-surface sedimentary sequence which has been designated seismic unit A. This unit probably represents the last episode of progradation of the Hatteras Deep Sea Fan in the southern part of the study area, and has infilled probable paleochannels from the Wilmington Canyon and Sohm Gap in the north. Unit A thins to a minimum in the central part of the plain, where older sediments come within 1 meter of the surface. Variations in the character of the surface reflector probably represent differing degrees of microtopography developed on a Late Pleistocene surface overlain by Holocene sediments. With the exception of one area identified as a relict surface outcropping in the western plain, this microtopography seems related to present-day thalweg locations on the abyssal plain. 11 references, 13 figures

  12. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  13. flexural improvement of plain concrete beams strengthened

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muhammad Nura Isa

    Results show significant improvement in both stiffness and load bearing capacity of plain concrete ... Various methods have been developed to increase their strength capacity by using .... obtained by carrying out uniaxial direct tensile strength.

  14. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa | Cornelius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defining the concept 'plain language' has been hugely problematic since the origins of the socalled Plain Language Movement in the 1970s in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Definitions of 'plain language' abound, yet James (2008: 6) warns, in relation to plain language practitioners, that “we can't yet call ...

  15. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR...

  16. Heat transfer performance of condenser tubes in an MSF desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galal, T.; Kalendar, A.; Al Saftawi, A.; Zedan, M.

    2010-01-01

    The present research examines the amount of condensed fresh water off the outer-side surface of heat exchangers in an MSF system. The quantitative modeling of condensed water on the outer surface of comparable tubes, enhanced and plain, in a simulated MSF technique is investigated. An adapted simulation design on a test-rig facility, accounting for the condenser tubing in actual industrial desalination plate-form, is used with corrugated and smooth aluminum-brass material tubes 1100mm long and 23mm bore. A single phase flow of authentic brine water that typifies real fouling is utilized to simulate the actual environmental life of a multi-stage flashing desalination system, with coolant flow velocity 0.1 m/s in the two delineated types of condenser tubing. It is demonstrated that the condensate water amount from the specified enhanced tube is about 1.22 times the condensate water amount from the smooth tube, adaptive for 140 running hours under deliberated constrains. The topic covers a comparative analysis of thermal performance. Comparing results with fresh water confirm the effect of fouling on significantly lowering the value of the overall heat transfer coefficient versus time. Fouling resistance R f is reported with the critical coolant flow speed of 0.1 m/s. Comparison between the fouling resistance for both smooth and corrugated tubes versus time is performed. The fouling thermal resistance of the corrugated tube is 0.56 of the fouling thermal resistance of the smooth tube after140 running hours of the experiment are concluded. Overall, in the case of real brine, results prove that heat performance for the corrugated tube is superior to the plain tube over the studied time period (140 hrs) for the chosen range of flow speeds

  17. Automation in tube finishing bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Satyadev, B.; Raghuraman, S.; Syama Sundara Rao, B.

    1997-01-01

    Automation concept in tube finishing bay, introduced after the final pass annealing of PHWR tubes resulted in integration of number of sub-systems in synchronisation with each other to produce final cut fuel tubes of specified length, tube finish etc. The tube finishing bay which was physically segregated into four distinct areas: 1. tube spreader and stacking area, 2. I.D. sand blasting area, 3. end conditioning, wad blowing, end capping and O.D. wet grinding area, 4. tube inspection, tube cutting and stacking area has been studied

  18. The Process of Horizontal Differentiation: Two Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daft, Richard L.; Bradshaw, Patricia J.

    1980-01-01

    Explores the process of horizontal differentiation by examining events leading to the establishment of 30 new departments in five universities. Two types of horizontal differentiation processes--administrative and academic--were observed and each was associated with different organizational conditions. (Author/IRT)

  19. Horizontal drilling assessment in Western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catania, Peter; Wilson, Malcolm

    1999-01-01

    The first horizontal well was drilled in Saskatchewan in 1987. Since then, the number of horizontal wells drilled has escalated rapidly, averaging approximately 500 per year since 1993. When combined with horizontal wells drilled in Alberta, the major Canadian oil-producing province, the total number drilled in 1995 was 978. This total exceeds the National Energy Board (NEB) projected maximum of 816 wells per year. The NEB projections were based on a break-even point for the drilling of horizontal wells of a return of CDN $285,000 using a discount rate of 15%. This corresponded to a cumulative production from each individual well of some 11,000 m 3 . The introduction of a royalty-free production volume of 12,000 m 3 per horizontal well in Saskatchewan was instrumental in stimulating the rapid expansion in the use of horizontal wells and helping Canada to exceed the forecasted drilling level. Within Saskatchewan, daily production from 1964 active horizontal wells is in excess of 20,000 m 3 . Comparative analysis indicates that the average daily production per well has increased from approximately by 40% with the advent of horizontal wells. In total production terms, provincial production has increased from 11.7 million cubic metres in 1989 to 20.9 million m 3 in 1996. This represents an increase of almost 79% based primarily on the extensive use of horizontal wells. In 1996, horizontal wells produced 36% of the province's oil from 12% of the active wells. In the southeastern producing areas of Saskatchewan, the Williston Basin, declining oil-production has jumped 100%, with horizontal wells accounting for approximately 50% of total regional production. Pay zones in this areas, as in most of the province, tend to be relatively thin, with net pay frequently less that 5 m. The modest investment of some CDN $5 million in government research funding 10 years ago to stimulate the development of horizontal wells, combined with a favourable royalty structure, has been at

  20. Optimization of friction welding by taguchi and ANOVA method on commercial aluminium tube to Al 2025 tube plate with backing block using an external tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanna, S.; Kumaraswamidhs, L. A.; Kumaran, S. Senthil

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to optimize the Friction welding of tube to tube plate using an external tool (FWTPET) with clearance fit of commercial aluminum tube to Al 2025 tube plate using an external tool. Conventional frictional welding is suitable to weld only symmetrical joints either tube to tube or rod to rod but in this research with the help of external tool, the welding has been done by unsymmetrical shape of tube to tube plate also. In this investigation, the various welding parameters such as tool rotating speed (rpm), projection of tube (mm) and depth of cut (mm) are determined according to the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. The two conditions were considered in this process to examine this experiment; where condition 1 is flat plate with plain tube Without holes [WOH] on the circumference of the surface and condition 2 is flat plate with plane tube has holes on its circumference of the surface With holes [WH]. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was utilized to find the most significant control factors which will yield better joint strength. Besides, the most influential process parameter has been determined using statistical Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Finally, the comparison of each result has been done for conditions by means percentage of contribution and regression analysis. The general regression equation is formulated and better strength is obtained and it is validated by means of confirmation test. It was observed that value of optimal welded joint strength for both tube without holes and tube with holes are to be 319.485 MPa and 264.825 MPa, respectively.

  1. Optimization of friction welding by taguchi and ANOVA method on commercial aluminium tube to Al 2025 tube plate with backing block using an external tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanna, S.; Kumaraswamidhs, L. A. [Indian Institute of Technology, Dhanbad (India); Kumaran, S. Senthil [RVS School of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul (India)

    2016-05-15

    The aim of the present work is to optimize the Friction welding of tube to tube plate using an external tool (FWTPET) with clearance fit of commercial aluminum tube to Al 2025 tube plate using an external tool. Conventional frictional welding is suitable to weld only symmetrical joints either tube to tube or rod to rod but in this research with the help of external tool, the welding has been done by unsymmetrical shape of tube to tube plate also. In this investigation, the various welding parameters such as tool rotating speed (rpm), projection of tube (mm) and depth of cut (mm) are determined according to the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. The two conditions were considered in this process to examine this experiment; where condition 1 is flat plate with plain tube Without holes [WOH] on the circumference of the surface and condition 2 is flat plate with plane tube has holes on its circumference of the surface With holes [WH]. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was utilized to find the most significant control factors which will yield better joint strength. Besides, the most influential process parameter has been determined using statistical Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Finally, the comparison of each result has been done for conditions by means percentage of contribution and regression analysis. The general regression equation is formulated and better strength is obtained and it is validated by means of confirmation test. It was observed that value of optimal welded joint strength for both tube without holes and tube with holes are to be 319.485 MPa and 264.825 MPa, respectively.

  2. Helically coiled tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    In a heat exchanger such as a steam generator for a nuclear reactor, two or more bundles of helically coiled tubes are arranged in series with the tubes in each bundle integrally continuing through the tube bundles arranged in series therewith. Pitch values for the tubing in any pair of tube bundles, taken transverse to the path of the reactor coolant flow about the tubes, are selected as a ratio of two unequal integers to permit efficient operation of each tube bundle while maintaining the various tube bundles of the heat exchanger within a compact envelope. Preferably, the helix angle and tube pitch parallel to the path of coolant flow are constant for all tubes in a single bundle so that the tubes are of approximately the same length within each bundle

  3. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1982-04-01

    The performance of steam generator tubes in water-cooled nuclear power reactors has been reviewed for 1980. Tube defects occurred at 38% of the 97 reactors surveyed. This is a marginal improvement over 1979 when defects occurred at 41% of the reactors. The number of failed tubes was also lower, 0.14% of the tubes in service in 1980 compared with 0.20% of those in service in 1979. Analysis of the causes of these failures indicates that stress corrosion cracking was the leading failure mechanism. Reactors that used all-volatile treatment of secondary water, with or without full-flow condensate demineralization since start-up showed the lowest incidence of corrosion-related defects

  4. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webley, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The object of the invention described is to provide an X-ray tube providing a scanned X-ray output which does not require a scanned electron beam. This is obtained by an X-ray tube including an anode which is rotatable about an axis, and a source of a beam of energy, for example an electron beam, arranged to impinge on a surface of the anode to generate X-radiation substantially at the region of incidence on the anode surface. The anode is rotatable about the axis to move the region of incidence over the surface. The anode is so shaped that the rotation causes the region of incidence to move in a predetermined manner relative to fixed parts of the tube so that the generated X-radiation is scanned in a predetermined manner relative to the tube. (UK)

  5. Fuel assembly guide tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is directed toward a nuclear fuel assembly guide tube arrangement which restrains spacer grid movement due to coolant flow and which offers secondary means for supporting a fuel assembly during handling and transfer operations

  6. Bull Moose Tube Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Bull Moose Tube Company, a business located at 1819 Clarkson Road, Chesterfield, MO, 63017, for alleged violations at the facility located at 406 East Industrial Drive,

  7. Tracheostomy tube - eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trach - eating ... take your first bites. Certain factors may make eating or swallowing harder, such as: Changes in the ... easier to swallow. Suction the tracheostomy tube before eating. This will keep you from coughing while eating, ...

  8. Horizontal Heat Exchanger Design and Analysis for Passive Heat Removal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierow, Karen

    2005-08-29

    This report describes a three-year project to investigate the major factors of horizontal heat exchanger performance in passive containment heat removal from a light water reactor following a design basis accident LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). The heat exchanger studied in this work may be used in advanced and innovative reactors, in which passive heat removal systems are adopted to improve safety and reliability The application of horizontal tube-bundle condensers to passive containment heat removal is new. In order to show the feasibility of horizontal heat exchangers for passive containment cooling, the following aspects were investigated: 1. the condensation heat transfer characteristics when the incoming fluid contains noncondensable gases 2. the effectiveness of condensate draining in the horizontal orientation 3. the conditions that may lead to unstable condenser operation or highly degraded performance 4. multi-tube behavior with the associated secondary-side effects This project consisted of two experimental investigations and analytical model development for incorporation into industry safety codes such as TRAC and RELAP. A physical understanding of the flow and heat transfer phenomena was obtained and reflected in the analysis models. Two gradute students (one funded by the program) and seven undergraduate students obtained research experience as a part of this program.

  9. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 3. Appendices, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouradian, E. M.

    1983-12-31

    Thermal analyses for the preliminary design phase of the Receiver of the Carrizo Plains Solar Power Plant are presented. The sodium reference operating conditions (T/sub in/ = 610/sup 0/F, T/sub out/ = 1050/sup 0/F) have been considered. Included are: Nominal flux distribution on receiver panal, Energy input to tubes, Axial temperature distribution; sodium and tubes, Sodium flow distribution, Sodium pressure drop, orifice calculations, Temperature distribution in tube cut (R-0), Backface structure, and Nonuniform sodium outlet temperature. Transient conditions and panel front face heat losses are not considered. These are to be addressed in a subsequent design phase. Also to be considered later are the design conditions as variations from the nominal reference (operating) condition. An addendum, designated Appendix C, has been included describing panel heat losses, panel temperature distribution, and tube-manifold joint thermal model.

  10. Streak tube development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinrichs, C.K.; Estrella, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    A research program for the development of a high-speed, high-resolution streak image tube is described. This is one task in the development of a streak camera system with digital electronic readout, whose primary application is for diagnostics in underground nuclear testing. This program is concerned with the development of a high-resolution streak image tube compatible with x-ray input and electronic digital output. The tube must be capable of time resolution down to 100 psec and spatial resolution to provide greater than 1000 resolution elements across the cathode (much greater than presently available). Another objective is to develop the capability to make design changes in tube configurations to meet different experimental requirements. A demountable prototype streak tube was constructed, mounted on an optical bench, and placed in a vacuum system. Initial measurements of the tube resolution with an undeflected image show a resolution of 32 line pairs per millimeter over a cathode diameter of one inch, which is consistent with the predictions of the computer simulations. With the initial set of unoptmized deflection plates, the resolution pattern appeared to remain unchanged for static deflections of +- 1/2-inch, a total streak length of one inch, also consistent with the computer simulations. A passively mode-locked frequency-doubled dye laser is being developed as an ultraviolet pulsed light source to measure dynamic tube resolution during streaking. A sweep circuit to provide the deflection voltage in the prototype tube has been designed and constructed and provides a relatively linear ramp voltage with ramp durations adjustable between 10 and 1000 nsec

  11. Researching YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Arthurs, Jane; Drakopoulou, Sophia; Gandini, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    ‘Researching YouTube’ introduces the special issue of Convergence which arose out of an international academic conference on YouTube that was held in London at Middlesex University in September 2016. The conference aimed to generate a robust overview of YouTube’s changing character and significance after its first ten years of development by creating a productive dialogue between speakers from different disciplines and cultures, and between YouTube-specific research and wider debates in media...

  12. Tubing crimping pliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, G.T.

    1981-02-27

    The disclosure relates to pliers and more particularly to pliers for crimping two or more pieces of copper tubing together prior to their being permanently joined by brazing, soldering or the like. A die containing spring-loaded pins rotates within a cammed ring in the head of the pliers. As the die rotates, the pins force a crimp on tubing held within the pliers.

  13. Importance of drill string assembly swivel in horizontal drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Tasak

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A part of the drill string – the swivel (rotational connector – accomplishes an important task in the horizontal drilling. Its malfunctioning makes it impossible to draw in ( install large diameter and length pipelines. The causes of the connector break-down during the horizontal drilling are investigated in the paper. The drilling has been made for twenty inches gas pipeline installation during reaming operations. A trouble was encountered making good work conditions of a system consisting of the drilling machine drill string reamer swivel tube shield of Cardan joint and the gas pipeline 500 m long. In this case, the swivel brokes down and the planned operation was not finished. The assessment of improper drilling conditions, selection of operation system components, and drilling parameters and the insufficient technological supervising have created an excessive risk of failure. A proper application of technical analysis would considerably decrease the hazard of failure which cause large costs, delays and decrease of confidence to the drilling contractor and pipeline installation.

  14. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Osamu; Kumasaka, Katsuyuki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To remove the heat of reactor core using a great amount of moderators at the periphery of the reactor core as coolants. Constitution: Heat of a reactor core is removed by disposing a spontaneous recycling cooling device for cooling moderators in a moderator tank, without using additional power driven equipments. That is, a spontaneous recycling cooling device for cooling the moderators in the moderator tank is disposed. Further, the gap between the inner wall of a pressure tube guide pipe disposed through the vertical direction of a moderator tank and the outer wall of a pressure tube inserted through the guide pipe is made smaller than the rupture distortion caused by the thermal expansion upon overheating of the pressure tube and greater than the minimum gap required for heat shiels between the pressure tube and the pressure tube guide pipe during usual operation. In this way, even if such an accident as can not using a coolant cooling device comprising power driven equipment should occur in the pressure tube type reactor, the rise in the temperature of the reactor core can be retarded to obtain a margin with time. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Research on horizontal displacement monitoring of deep soil based on a distributed optical fibre sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodi; Wang, Yuan; Sun, Yangyang; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhang, Zhenglin; You, Zewei; Ma, Yuan

    2018-01-01

    The traditional measurement method for the horizontal displacement of deep soil usually uses an inclinometer for piecewise measurement and then generates an artificial reading, which takes a long time and often contains errors; in addition, the anti-jamming and long-term stability of the inclinometer is poor. In this paper, a technique for monitoring horizontal displacement based on distributed optical fibres is introduced. The relationship between the strain and the deflection was described by a theoretical model, and the strain distribution of the inclinometer tube was measured by the cables laid on its surface so that the deflection of the inclinometer tube could be calculated by the difference algorithm and regarded as the horizontal displacement of deep soil. The horizontal displacement monitoring technology of deep soil based on distributed optical fibre sensors developed in this paper not only overcame the shortcomings of traditional inclinometer technology to realize automatic real-time monitoring but also allowed for distributed measurement. The experiment was similar to the expected engineering situations, and the deflection calculated from the strain was compared with an inclinometer. The results demonstrated that the relative error between the distributed optical fibre sensors and the inclinometer was less than 8.0%, and the results also verified both the feasibility of using distributed optical fibre to monitor the horizontal displacement of soil as well as the rationality of the theoretical model and difference algorithm. The application of distributed optical fibre in monitoring the horizontal displacement of deep soil in the engineering of foundation pits and slopes can more accurately evaluate the safety of engineering during construction.

  16. Tube spacer grid for a heat-exchanger tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidl, H.

    1976-01-01

    A tube spacer grid for a heat-exchanger tube bundle is formed by an annular grid frame having a groove formed in its inner surface in which the interspaced grid bars have their ends positioned and held in interspaced relationship by short sections of tubes passed through holes axially formed in the grid frame so that the tubes are positioned between the ends of the grid bars in the grooves. The tube sections may be cut from the same tubes used to form the tube bundle. 5 claims, 3 drawing figures

  17. Investigations of post-dryout heat transfer in case of vertical and horizontal pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnittger, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental studies are presented of the heat transfer behaviour of a post dry-out flows in directly heated tubes of 6 m length. The wall temperatures of the tube are measured by thermocouples, which are distributed radially and axially on the outer tube surface. The vapor temperature is determined by a probe at the exit of the tube R 12 is used as a working fluid. Based on the experimental temperature distribution, the influence on pressure, massflow-density, and on specific thermal surface load had been studied. As a result, the heat transfer behaviour is dominated in a broad parameter range by thermal non-equilibrium conditions between the phases. Under these conditions the heat is transfered mainly from the tube wall to the vapor and from the vapor to the droplets. The strong wall temperature decrease observed at higher pressures and specific thermal surface loads after the dryout is not explained by a contact between the droplets and the tube wall, but by the decay of the droplets in the boundary layer of the wall. The non-uniform wall-temperature distribution of the horizontal tube and the lower evaporation rate compared with a vertical tube are explained by a non-uniform vapor temperature - and droplet distribution over the tube cross-section. A model is proposed for the calculation of the wall temperatures, which accounts for all these individual effects. This model can also be applied in the case of water as is demonstrated by a comparison with respective experimental results from the literature. (orig.) [de

  18. Novel Design for Centrifugal Countercurrent Chromatography: II. Studies on Novel Geometries of Zigzag Toroidal Tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

    2009-01-01

    The toroidal column using a zigzag pattern has been improved in both retention of the stationary phase and peak resolution. To further improve the retention of stationary phase and peak resolution, a series of novel geometric designs of tubing (plain, mid-clamping, flattened and flat-twisted tubing) was evaluated their performance in CCC. The results showed that the tubing which was flattened vertically against centrifugal force (vert-flattened tubing) produced the best peak resolution among them. Using vert-flattened tubing a series of experiments was performed to study the effects of column capacity and sample size. The results indicated that a 0.25 ml capacity column is ideal for analysis of small amount samples. PMID:20454530

  19. Numerical Simulation and Optimization of the Melting Process of Phase Change Material inside Horizontal Annulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiwei Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Latent heat storage (LHS technologies adopting phase change materials (PCMs are increasingly being used to bridge the spatiotemporal mismatch between energy production and demand, especially in industries like solar power, where strong cyclic fluctuations exist. The shell-and-tube configuration is among the most prevalent ones in LHS and thus draws special attention from researchers. This paper presents numerical investigations on the melting of PCM, a paraffin blend RT27, inside a horizontal annulus. The volume of fluid model was adopted to permit density changes with the solidification/melting model wherein natural convection was taken into account. The eccentricity and diameter of the inner tube, sub-cooling degree of the PCM, and the heating-surface temperature were considered as variables for study. Through the evaluation of the melting time and exergy efficiency, the optimal parameters of the horizontal annulus were obtained. The results showed that the higher the heating boundary temperature, the earlier the convection appeared and the shorter the melting time. Also, the different eccentricity and diameters of the inner tube influenced the annulus tube interior temperature distribution, which in turn determined the strength and distribution of the resulting natural convection, resulting in varying melting rates.

  20. Eddy current proximity measurement of perpendicular tubes from within pressure tubes in CANDU nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, P. F. D.; Underhill, P. R.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T. W.

    2018-04-01

    Fuel channels in CANDU® (CANada Deuterium Uranium) nuclear reactors consist of two non-concentric tubes; an inner pressure tube (PT) and a larger diameter calandria tube (CT). Up to 400 horizontally mounted fuel channels are contained within a calandria vessel, which also holds the heavy water moderator. Certain fuel channels pass perpendicularly over horizontally oriented tubes (nozzles) that are part of the reactor's liquid injection shutdown system (LISS). Due to sag, these fuel channels are at risk of coming into contact with the LISS nozzles. In the event of contact between the LISS nozzle and CT, flow-induced vibrations from within the moderator could lead to fretting and deformation of the CT. LISS nozzle proximity to CTs is currently measured optically from within the calandria vessel, but from outside the fuel channels. Measurement by an independent means would provide confidence in optical results and supplement cases where optical observations are not possible. Separation of PT and CT, known as gap, is monitored from within the PT using a transmit-receive eddy current probe. Investigation of the eddy current based gap probe as a tool to also measure proximity of LISS nozzles was carried out experimentally in this work. Eddy current response as a function of LISS-PT proximity was recorded. When PT-CT gap, PT wall thickness, PT resistivity and probe lift-off variations were not present this dependence could be used to determine the LISS-PT proximity. This method has the potential to provide LISS-CT proximity using existing gap measurement data. Obtaining LISS nozzle proximity at multiple inspection intervals could be used to provide an estimate of the time to LISS-CT contact, and thereby provide a means of optimizing maintenance schedules.

  1. On the heat transfer in the pool boiling at tightly finned steel tubes; Zum Waermeuebergang beim Behaeltersieden an eng berippten Stahlrohren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bujok, Patrick; Wang, Yabai; Luke, Andrea [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik

    2012-07-01

    Process-integrated energy efficiency in power plants and process plants can only be achieved with new innovative apparatus concepts. There exist no sufficient reference applications, no data to assist in interpretation a well as no certificates of operational safety for these apparatus concepts. Thus, these concepts are not applied despite of the significant energetic advantages. Under this aspect, industrial companies (plant fabricators, plant operators and engineering offices) and five universities have affiliated to a multi-institutional project in order to explore unused opportunities on the integration of heat. The Department of Technical Thermodynamics at the University of Kassel (Federal Republic of Germany) regards to apparatuses which effectively and securely transfer a heat flow at especially low differences of temperatures between the heat dissipating and heat absorbing side of an evaporator with structured ducts. It has been known for many decades that ribbed structures are one of the most efficient methods to transfer heat. Ribbed ducts in heat exchangers are used in the refrigeration technology as well as in the technology of air conditioning. Nevertheless, plain tubes still are the technical standard in the chemical and process industry. The objective of this research project consists of a presentation of macrostructures and microstructures which can be produced efficiently with regard to the heat transfer, at a relatively low cost as well as in large quantities with a consistent structure. Furthermore, a substantial database for the design of evaporators with such surface textures is set up. Thus, evaporators being produced by the project partner Wieland-Werke AG (Ulm, Federal Republic of Germany) were investigated on a laboratory scale as well as in small tube bundles. Subsequently, selected structures were applied in the technical centre of the project partner Linde AG (Pullach, Federal Republic of Germany) in order to validate the transferability

  2. Experimental verification of the horizontal steam generator boil-off transfer degradation at natural circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyvaerinen, J. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Kouhia, J. [VTT Energy, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation summarises the highlights of experimental results obtained for VVER type horizontal steam generator heat transfer, primary side flow pattern, and mixing in the hot collector during secondary side boil-off with primary at single-phase natural circulation. The experiments were performed using the PACTEL facility with Large Diameter (LD) steam generator models, with collector instrumentation designed specifically for these tests. The key findings are as follows: (1) the primary to secondary heat transfer degrades as the secondary water inventory is depleted, following closely the wetted tube area; (2) a circulatory flow pattern exists in the tube bundle, resulting in reversed flow (from cold to the hot collector) in the lower part of the tube bundle, and continuous flow through the upper part, including the tubes that have already dried out; and (3) mixing of the hot leg flow entering the hot collector and reversed, cold, tube flow remains confined within the collector itself, extending only a row or two above the elevation at which tube flow reversal has taken place. 6 refs.

  3. Experimental verification of the horizontal steam generator boil-off transfer degradation at natural circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyvaerinen, J [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Kouhia, J [VTT Energy, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The presentation summarises the highlights of experimental results obtained for VVER type horizontal steam generator heat transfer, primary side flow pattern, and mixing in the hot collector during secondary side boil-off with primary at single-phase natural circulation. The experiments were performed using the PACTEL facility with Large Diameter (LD) steam generator models, with collector instrumentation designed specifically for these tests. The key findings are as follows: (1) the primary to secondary heat transfer degrades as the secondary water inventory is depleted, following closely the wetted tube area; (2) a circulatory flow pattern exists in the tube bundle, resulting in reversed flow (from cold to the hot collector) in the lower part of the tube bundle, and continuous flow through the upper part, including the tubes that have already dried out; and (3) mixing of the hot leg flow entering the hot collector and reversed, cold, tube flow remains confined within the collector itself, extending only a row or two above the elevation at which tube flow reversal has taken place. 6 refs.

  4. Experimental verification of the horizontal steam generator boil-off transfer degradation at natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyvaerinen, J.; Kouhia, J.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation summarises the highlights of experimental results obtained for VVER type horizontal steam generator heat transfer, primary side flow pattern, and mixing in the hot collector during secondary side boil-off with primary at single-phase natural circulation. The experiments were performed using the PACTEL facility with Large Diameter (LD) steam generator models, with collector instrumentation designed specifically for these tests. The key findings are as follows: (1) the primary to secondary heat transfer degrades as the secondary water inventory is depleted, following closely the wetted tube area; (2) a circulatory flow pattern exists in the tube bundle, resulting in reversed flow (from cold to the hot collector) in the lower part of the tube bundle, and continuous flow through the upper part, including the tubes that have already dried out; and (3) mixing of the hot leg flow entering the hot collector and reversed, cold, tube flow remains confined within the collector itself, extending only a row or two above the elevation at which tube flow reversal has taken place

  5. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI YouTube Videos >> NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract ...

  6. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI YouTube Videos » NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract ...

  7. Heat Transfer Enhancement Studies in a Circular Tube Fitted with Right-Left Helical Inserts with Spacer

    OpenAIRE

    P. K. Nagarajan; P. Sivashanmugam

    2011-01-01

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of circular tube fitted with 300 right-left helical screw inserts with 100 mm spacer of different twist ratio has been presented for laminar and turbulent flow.. The experimental data obtained were compared with those obtained from plain tube published data. The heat transfer coefficient enhancement for 300 RL inserts with 100 mm spacer is quite comparable with for 300 R-L inserts. Performance evalu...

  8. PACTEL: Experiments on the behaviour of the new horizontal steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouhia, J.; Riikonen, V.; Purhonen, H. [VTT Energy, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Experiments were performed to study the behaviour of the PACTEL facility, a medium scale integral test loop simulating VVER 440 pressurized water reactors. The study focused on the operation of the new horizontal steam generator model installed in PACTEL. Three experiments were conducted: a small-break test to observe the steam generator behaviour over a range of primary coolant inventories, a hot leg loop seal experiment to study the cyclic behaviour of a loop seal and a loss of secondary side feedwater test to examine the effect of uncovered tubes in the steam generator. A reverse flow was observed in the lower part of the U-tube bundle of the steam generator during natural circulation. The flow reversal point dropped when the tubes uncovered, during secondary inventory reduction. (orig.). 5 refs.

  9. PACTEL: Experiments on the behaviour of the new horizontal steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouhia, J; Riikonen, V; Purhonen, H [VTT Energy, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Experiments were performed to study the behaviour of the PACTEL facility, a medium scale integral test loop simulating VVER 440 pressurized water reactors. The study focused on the operation of the new horizontal steam generator model installed in PACTEL. Three experiments were conducted: a small-break test to observe the steam generator behaviour over a range of primary coolant inventories, a hot leg loop seal experiment to study the cyclic behaviour of a loop seal and a loss of secondary side feedwater test to examine the effect of uncovered tubes in the steam generator. A reverse flow was observed in the lower part of the U-tube bundle of the steam generator during natural circulation. The flow reversal point dropped when the tubes uncovered, during secondary inventory reduction. (orig.). 5 refs.

  10. Reliability Based Geometric Design of Horizontal Circular Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbongshi, Pabitra; Kalita, Kuldeep

    2018-06-01

    Geometric design of horizontal circular curve primarily involves with radius of the curve and stopping sight distance at the curve section. Minimum radius is decided based on lateral thrust exerted on the vehicles and the minimum stopping sight distance is provided to maintain the safety in longitudinal direction of vehicles. Available sight distance at site can be regulated by changing the radius and middle ordinate at the curve section. Both radius and sight distance depend on design speed. Speed of vehicles at any road section is a variable parameter and therefore, normally the 98th percentile speed is taken as the design speed. This work presents a probabilistic approach for evaluating stopping sight distance, considering the variability of all input parameters of sight distance. It is observed that the 98th percentile sight distance value is much lower than the sight distance corresponding to 98th percentile speed. The distribution of sight distance parameter is also studied and found to follow a lognormal distribution. Finally, the reliability based design charts are presented for both plain and hill regions, and considering the effect of lateral thrust.

  11. Reliability Based Geometric Design of Horizontal Circular Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbongshi, Pabitra; Kalita, Kuldeep

    2018-03-01

    Geometric design of horizontal circular curve primarily involves with radius of the curve and stopping sight distance at the curve section. Minimum radius is decided based on lateral thrust exerted on the vehicles and the minimum stopping sight distance is provided to maintain the safety in longitudinal direction of vehicles. Available sight distance at site can be regulated by changing the radius and middle ordinate at the curve section. Both radius and sight distance depend on design speed. Speed of vehicles at any road section is a variable parameter and therefore, normally the 98th percentile speed is taken as the design speed. This work presents a probabilistic approach for evaluating stopping sight distance, considering the variability of all input parameters of sight distance. It is observed that the 98th percentile sight distance value is much lower than the sight distance corresponding to 98th percentile speed. The distribution of sight distance parameter is also studied and found to follow a lognormal distribution. Finally, the reliability based design charts are presented for both plain and hill regions, and considering the effect of lateral thrust.

  12. Tube plug removal machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    In a nuclear steam generator wherein some faulty tubes have been isolated by mechanical plugging, to remove a selected plug without damaging the associated tube, a plug removal machine is used. The machine drills into a plug portion with a tap drill bit having a drill portion a tap portion and a threaded portion, engaging that plug portion with the threaded portion after the drilled hole has been threaded by the tap portion thereof, and removing a portion of the plug in the tube with a counterbore drill bit mounted concentrically about the tap drill bit. A trip pin and trip spline disengage the tap drill bit from the motor. The counterbore drill bit is thereafter self-centered with respect to the tube and plug about the now stationary tap drill bit. After a portion of the plug has been removed by the counterbore drill bit, pulling on the top drill bit by grippers on slots will remove the remaining plug portion from the tube. (author)

  13. Categorising YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mosebo Simonsen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigationprocesses on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within the interacting relationship of new and old genres are discussed. It is argued that the utility of a conventional categorical system is primarily of analytical and theoretical interest rather than as a practical instrument.

  14. Measuring of tube expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogeleer, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    The expansion of the primary tubes or sleeves of the steam generator of a nuclear reactor plant are measured while the tubes or sleeves are being expanded. A primary tube or sleeve is expanded by high pressure of water which flows through a channel in an expander body. The water is supplied through an elongated conductor and is introduced through a connector on the shank connected to the conductor at its outer end. A wire extends through the mandrel and through the conductor to the end of the connector. At its inner end the wire is connected to a tapered pin which is subject to counteracting forces produced by the pressure of the water. The force on the side where the wire is connected to the conductor is smaller than on the opposite side. The tapered pin is moved in the direction of the higher force and extrudes the wire outwardly of the conductor. The tapered surface of the tapered pin engages transverse captive plungers which are maintained in engagement with the expanding tube or sleeve as they are moved outwardly by the tapered pin. The wire and the connector extend out of the generator and, at its outer end, the wire is connected to an indicator which measures the extent to which the wire is moved by the tapered pin, thus measuring the expansion of the tube or sleeve as it progresses

  15. Two and dimensional heat analysis inside a high pressure electrical discharge tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghanajafi, C.; Dehghani, A. R.; Fallah Abbasi, M.

    2005-01-01

    This article represents the heat transfer analysis for a horizontal high pressure mercury steam tube. To get a more realistic numerical simulation, heat radiation at different wavelength width bands, has been used besides convection and conduction heat transfer. The analysis for different gases with different pressure in two and three dimensional cases has been investigated and the results compared with empirical and semi empirical values. The effect of the environmental temperature on the arc tube temperature is also studied

  16. Theory and design of heat exchanger : shell and tube condenser and reboiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Ui Dong

    1996-02-01

    This book gives descriptions of shell and tube heat exchanger including from, sorts, structure like shell and shell side, channel, and sliding bar, basic design of heat exchanger, flow-induced vibration, shell side condenser, tube side condenser and design of basic structure of condenser by types, selection of reboiler type, kettle type reboiler, internal reboiler, pump through reboiler, design of reboiler like kettle and internal reboiler, and horizontal and vertical thermosyphon reboiler.

  17. Productivity and injectivity of horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Khalid

    2000-03-06

    One of the key issues addressed was pressure drop in long horizontal wells and its influence on well performance. Very little information is available in the literature on flow in pipes with influx through pipe walls. Virtually all of this work has been in small diameter pipes and with single-phase flow. In order to address this problem new experimental data on flow in horizontal and near horizontal wells have been obtained. Experiments were conducted at an industrial facility on typical 6 1/8 ID, 100 feet long horizontal well model. The new data along with available information in the literature have been used to develop new correlations and mechanistic models. Thus it is now possible to predict, within reasonable accuracy, the effect of influx through the well on pressure drop in the well.

  18. Horizontal cooperation in transport and logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with horizontal cooperation in transport and logistics. It contains a comprehensive discussion of the available academic literature on this topic, many practical examples, and an empirical investigation of opportunities and impediments. Furthermore, three enabling concepts for

  19. Local pool boiling heat transfer on a 3 Degree inclined tube surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms of pool boiling heat transfer have been studied for a long time. Recently, it has been widely investigated in nuclear power plants for the purpose of acquiring inherent safety functions in case of no power supply. To design more efficient heat exchangers, effects of several parameters on heat transfer must be studied in detail. One of the major issues is variation in local heat transfer coefficients on a tube. Lance and Myers reported that the type of boiling liquid can change the trend of local heat transfer coefficients along the tube periphery. Lance and Myers said that as the liquid is methanol the maximum local heat transfer coefficient was observed at the tube bottom while the maximum was at the tube sides as the boiling liquid was n hexane. Corn well and Einarsson reported that the maximum local heat transfer coefficient was observed at the tube bottom, as the boiling liquid was R113. Corn well and Houston explained the reason of the difference in local heat transfer coefficients along the tube circumference with introducing effects of sliding bubbles on heat transfer. According to Gu pta et al., the maximum and the minimum local heat transfer coefficients were observed at the bottom and top regions of the tube circumference, respectively, using a tube bundle and water. Kang also reported the similar results using a single horizontal tube and water. However, the maximum heat transfer coefficient was observed at the angle of 45 deg. Sateesh et al. investigated variations in local heat transfer coefficients along a tube periphery as the inclination angle was changed. Summarizing the published results, some parts are still remaining to be investigated in detail. Although pool boiling analysis on a nearly horizontal tube is necessary for the design of the advanced power reactor plus, no previous results are published yet. Therefore, the present study is aimed to study variations in local pool boiling heat transfer coefficients for a 3 degree inclined

  20. Stratigraphy of the Martian northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars are roughly defined as the large continuous region of lowlands that lies below Martian datum, plus higher areas within the region that were built up by volcanism, sedimentation, tectonism, and impacts. These northern lowlands span about 50 x 10(exp 6) km(sup 2) or 35 percent of the planet's surface. The age and origin of the lowlands continue to be debated by proponents of impact and tectonic explanations. Geologic mapping and topical studies indicate that volcanic, fluvial, and eolian deposition have played major roles in the infilling of this vast depression. Periglacial, glacial, fluvial, eolian, tectonic, and impact processes have locally modified the surface. Because of the northern plains' complex history of sedimentation and modification, much of their stratigraphy was obscured. Thus the stratigraphy developed is necessarily vague and provisional: it is based on various clues from within the lowlands as well as from highland areas within and bordering the plains. The results are summarized.

  1. Advanced evacuated tube collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, W. W.; Hull, J. R.; Winston, R.; Ogallagher, J.

    1985-04-01

    The essence of the design concept for these new collectors is the integration of moderate levels of nonimaging concentration inside the evacuated tube itself. This permanently protects the reflection surfaces and allows the use of highly reflecting front surface mirrors with reflectances greater than 95%. Previous fabrication and long term testing of a proof-of-concept prototype has established the technical success of the concept. Present work is directed toward the development of a manufacturable unit that will be suitable for the widest possible range of applications. Design alternatives include scaling up the original prototype's tube diameter from 5 cm to 10 cm, using an internal shaped metal concentrating reflector, using a variety of profile shapes to minimize so-called gap losses and accommodate both single ended and double-ended flow geometries, and allowing the use of heat pipes for the absorber tube.

  2. Square through tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akita, Junji; Honma, Toei.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a square through tube involving thermal movement in pipelines such as water supply pump driving turbine exhaust pipe (square-shaped), which is wide in freedom with respect to shape and dimension thereof for efficient installation at site. Structure: In a through tube to be airtightly retained for purpose of decontamination in an atomic power plant, comprising a seal rubber plate, a band and a bolt and a nut for securing said plate, the seal rubber plate being worked into the desired shape so that it may be placed in intimate contact with the concrete floor surface by utilization of elasticity of rubber, thereby providing airtightness at a corner portion of the square tube. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. SG tube identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogstraten, P. van

    1994-01-01

    A ''Tracker'' system is described which is designed to identify any tube in a reactor steam generator quickly and safely. Occupational radiation doses to maintenance workers are reduced by using a Tracker and emergency down times are shortened. The system employs a television camera and light source in a stainless steel box with a large window. Both the camera and spotlight can be panned and tilted to reach any point on the tubesheet and are remotely controlled. An operator at a safe working distance can identify any tube visible on a real time video by comparison with the tubesheet pattern stored earlier in the computer memory. The identified tube can then be spotlighted and dealt with quickly by a maintenance worker inside the channel head. (UK)

  4. Numerical simulation of fluid flow and heat transfer in enhanced copper tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M M; Zhen, T; Kadir, A K

    2013-01-01

    Inner grooved tube is enhanced with grooves by increasing the inner surface area. Due to its high efficiency of heat transfer, it is used widely in power generation, air conditioning and many other applications. Heat exchanger is one of the example that uses inner grooved tube to enhance rate heat transfer. Precision in production of inner grooved copper tube is very important because it affects the tube's performance due to various tube parameters. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out analysis in optimizing tube performance prior to production in order to avoid unnecessary loss. The analysis can be carried out either through experimentation or numerical simulation. However, experimental study is too costly and takes longer time in gathering necessary information. Therefore, numerical simulation is conducted instead of experimental research. Firstly, the model of inner grooved tube was generated using SOLIDWORKS. Then it was imported into GAMBIT for healing, followed by meshing, boundary types and zones settings. Next, simulation was done in FLUENT where all the boundary conditions are set. The simulation results were observed and compared with published experimental results. It showed that heat transfer enhancement in range of 649.66% to 917.22% of inner grooved tube compared to plain tube.

  5. Numerical simulation of fluid flow and heat transfer in enhanced copper tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Zhen, T.; Kadir, A. K.

    2013-06-01

    Inner grooved tube is enhanced with grooves by increasing the inner surface area. Due to its high efficiency of heat transfer, it is used widely in power generation, air conditioning and many other applications. Heat exchanger is one of the example that uses inner grooved tube to enhance rate heat transfer. Precision in production of inner grooved copper tube is very important because it affects the tube's performance due to various tube parameters. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out analysis in optimizing tube performance prior to production in order to avoid unnecessary loss. The analysis can be carried out either through experimentation or numerical simulation. However, experimental study is too costly and takes longer time in gathering necessary information. Therefore, numerical simulation is conducted instead of experimental research. Firstly, the model of inner grooved tube was generated using SOLIDWORKS. Then it was imported into GAMBIT for healing, followed by meshing, boundary types and zones settings. Next, simulation was done in FLUENT where all the boundary conditions are set. The simulation results were observed and compared with published experimental results. It showed that heat transfer enhancement in range of 649.66% to 917.22% of inner grooved tube compared to plain tube.

  6. 3D-Printed Broadband Dielectric Tube Terahertz Waveguide with Anti-Reflection Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Dominik Walter; Leonhardt, Rainer

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate broadband, low loss, and close-to-zero dispersion guidance of terahertz (THz) radiation in a dielectric tube with an anti-reflection structure (AR-tube waveguide) in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.0 THz. The anti-reflection structure (ARS) consists of close-packed cones in a hexagonal lattice arranged on the outer surface of the tube cladding. The feature size of the ARS is in the order of the wavelength between 0.2 and 1.0 THz. The waveguides are fabricated with the versatile and cost efficient 3D-printing method. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) measurements as well as 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations (FDTD) are performed to extensively characterize the AR-tube waveguides. Spectrograms, attenuation spectra, effective phase refractive indices, and the group-velocity dispersion parameters β 2 of the AR-tube waveguides are presented. Both the experimental and numerical results confirm the extended bandwidth and smaller group-velocity dispersion of the AR-tube waveguide compared to a low loss plain dielectric tube THz waveguide. The AR-tube waveguide prototypes show an attenuation spectrum close to the theoretical limit given by the infinite cladding tube waveguide.

  7. Structural integrity evaluations of CANDU pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radu, Vasile

    2003-01-01

    The core of a CANDU-6 pressurized heavy water reactor consists of some hundred horizontal pressure tubes that are manufactured from a Zr-2.5%Nb alloy and which contain the fuel bundles. These tubes are susceptible to a damaging phenomenon known as Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC). The Zr-2.5%Nb alloy is susceptible to DHC phenomenon when there is diffusion of hydrogen atoms to a service-induced flaws, followed by the hydride platelets formation on the certain crystallographic planes in the matrix material. Finally, the development of hydride regions at the flaw-tip will happened. These hydride regions are able to fracture under stress-temperature conditions (DHC initiation) and the cracks can extend and grow by DHC mechanism. Some studies have been focused on the potential to initiate DHC at the blunt flaws in a CANDU reactor pressure tube and a methodology for structural integrity evaluation was developed. The methodology based on the Failure Assessment Diagrams (FAD's) consists in an integrated graphical plot, where the fracture failure and plastic collapse are simultaneously evaluated by means of two non-dimensional variables (K r and L r ). These two variables represent the ratio of the applied value of either stress or stress intensity factor and the resistance parameter of corresponding magnitude (yield stress or fracture toughness, respectively). Once the plotting plane is determined by the variables K r and L r , the procedure defines a critical failure line that establishes the safe area. The paper will demonstrate the possibility to perform structural integrity evaluations by means of Failure Assessment Diagrams for flaws occurring in CANDU pressure tubes. (author)

  8. An experimental investigation on the airside performance of fin-and-tube heat exchangers having slit fins under wet condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nae Hyun; Kim, Tae Hun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the heat transfer and friction characteristics of the 5.3 mm O.D. slit-finned heat exchangers under wet condition have been experimentally investigated. Plain-finned heat exchangers having the same 5.3 mm O.D. tubes are also tested for comparison purpose. The effect of fin pitch on j and f factor is negligible. Slit fin samples yield higher j and f factors than plain fin samples. For one row configuration, the average f factor ratio between slit fin sample and plain fin sample is 2.18. The ratio increases to 2.41 for two row configuration, and to 2.65 for three row configuration. As for the j factor, the ratios are approximately the same (1.61, 1.70 and 1.71 for one, two and three row configuration). Both j and f factor increase as the number of tube row decreases. The same trend is observed for the plain fin samples. At high Reynolds numbers, the j/f ratios of the slit fin are approximately the same as those of the plain fin. At low Reynolds numbers, the j/f ratios of the slit fin are smaller than those of plain fin. Data are compared with existing correlations.

  9. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TUBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutz, E.C.

    1958-04-15

    The manufacture of thin-walled uranium tubing by the hot-piercing techique is described. Uranium billets are preheated to a temperature above 780 d C. The heated billet is fed to a station where it is engaged on its external surface by three convex-surfaced rotating rollers which are set at an angle to the axis of the billet to produce a surface friction force in one direction to force the billet over a piercing mandrel. While being formed around the mandrel and before losing the desired shape, the tube thus formed is cooled by a water spray.

  10. Guide tube sleeve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attix, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The invention increases the operating capacity of a nuclear reactor by causing a modification in the flow pattern of the coolant which enhances the coolant's effectiveness. The apparatus provides a thin-walled tubular sleeve closely surrounding but not attached to the exterior surface of a guide tube in a fuel assembly. The wall of the sleeve has tabs projecting outwardly into adjacent flow channels. The sleeve is attached to the wall of a cellular void through which passes the guide tube associated with said sleeve. The tabs increase the flow of water in the channel and thus increase the heat transfer

  11. Coastal geomorphology of the Martian northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Saunders, Stephen R.; Pieri, David C.; Schneeberger, Dale M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers the question of the formation of the outflow channels and valley networks discovered on the Martian northern plains during the Mariner 9 mission. Parker and Saunders (1987) and Parker et al. (1987, 1989) data are used to describe key features common both in the lower reaches of the outflow channels and within and along the margins of the entire northern plains. It is suggested, that of the geological processes capable of producing similar morphologies on earth, lacustrine or marine deposition and subsequent periglacial modification offer the simplest and most consistent explanation for the suit of features found on Mars.

  12. Pressure tube type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To prevent excessive heat generation due to radiation of a pressure tube vessel. Structure: A pressure tube encasing therein a core comprises a dual construction comprising inner and outer tubes coaxially disposed. High speed cooling water is passed through the inner tube for cooling. In addition, in the outer periphery of said outer tube there is provided a forced cooling tube disposed coaxially thereto, into which cooling fluid, for example, such as moderator or reflector is forcibly passed. This forced cooling tube has its outer periphery surrounded by the vessel into which moderator or reflector is fed. By the provision of the dual construction of the pressure tube and the forced cooling tube, the vessel may be prevented from heat generation. (Ikeda, J.)

  13. Heat transfer behaviors in round tube with conical ring inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promvonge, P.

    2008-01-01

    To increase convection heat transfer in a uniform heat flux tube by a passive method, several conical rings used as turbulators are mounted over the test tube. The effects of the conical ring turbulator inserts on the heat transfer rate and friction factor are experimentally investigated in the present work. Conical rings with three different diameter ratios of the ring to tube diameter (d/D = 0.5, 0.6, 0.7) are introduced in the tests, and for each ratio, the rings are placed with three different arrangements (converging conical ring, referred to as CR array, diverging conical ring, DR array and converging-diverging conical ring, CDR array). In the experiment, cold air at ambient condition for Reynolds numbers in a range of 6000-26,000 is passed through the uniform heat flux circular tube. It is found that the ring to tube diameter ratio and the ring arrays provide a significant effect on the thermal performance of the test tube. The experimental results demonstrate that the use of conical ring inserts leads to a higher heat transfer rate than that of the plain surface tube, and the DR array yields a better heat transfer than the others. The results are also correlated in the form of Nusselt number as a function of Reynolds number, Prandtl number and diameter ratio. An augmentation of up to 197%, 333%, and 237% in Nusselt number is obtained in the turbulent flow for the CR, DR and CDR arrays, respectively, although the effect of using the conical ring causes a substantial increase in friction factor

  14. Mechanical and mathematical models of multi-stage horizontal fracturing strings and their application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanghua Lian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multi-stage SRV fracturing in horizontal wells is a new technology developed at home and abroad in recent years to effectively develop shale gas or low-permeability reservoirs, but on the other hand makes the mechanical environment of fracturing strings more complicated at the same time. In view of this, based on the loading features of tubing strings during the multi-stage fracturing of a horizontal well, mechanical models were established for three working cases of multiple packer setting, open differential-pressure sliding sleeve, and open ball-injection sliding sleeve under a hold-down packer. Moreover, mathematical models were respectively built for the above three cases. According to the Lame formula and Von Mises stress calculation formula for the thick-walled cylinder in the theory of elastic mechanics, a mathematical model was also established to calculate the equivalent stress for tubing string safety evaluation when the fracturing string was under the combined action of inner pressure, external squeezing force and axial stress, and another mathematical model was built for the mechanical strength and safety evaluation of multi-stage fracturing strings. In addition, a practical software was developed for the mechanical safety evaluation of horizontal well multi-stage fracturing strings according to the mathematical model developed for the mechanical calculation of the multi-packer string in horizontal wells. The research results were applied and verified in a gas well of Tahe Oilfield in the Tarim Basin with excellent effects, providing a theoretical basis and a simple and reliable technical means for optimal design and safety evaluation of safe operational parameters of multi-stage fracturing strings in horizontal wells.

  15. Double wall steam generator tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padden, T.R.; Uber, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    Double-walled steam generator tubing for the steam generators of a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor prevents sliding between the surfaces due to a mechanical interlock. Forces resulting from differential thermal expansion between the outer tube and the inner tube are insufficient in magnitude to cause shearing of base metal. The interlock is formed by jointly drawing the tubing, with the inside wall of the outer tube being already formed with grooves. The drawing causes the outer wall of the inner tube to form corrugations locking with the grooves. (author)

  16. Moored current meter data from the Madeira Abyssal Plain (GME). 1. deployment (1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    Near bottom current have been measured at three closely spaced sites in the N.E. Atlantic for 13 months. Locations were selected in the Great Meteor East study site area, near 31 0 30'N 25 0 W, one on the abyssal plain, one on top of a small abyssal hill about 400 m high and one on its flank just above the plain. Current meters were moored 10, 100, and 1000 m above the local bottom (5438 m, 5398 m and 4999 m) in January 1984 and recovered in February 1985. This report displays the characteristics of the currents in numerous tables and figures. In the mean they ar found to be very weak and though adjacent moorings are separated by only 12 km and 27 km the year-long current directions differ radically. Current variations are principally due to semi-diurnal tides, inertial oscillations and eddies the latter of which migrate over the moorings. The tidal energy meets expectations as does the eddy energy with magnitude 2-3 cm 2 s -2 . Horizontal (isopycnal) diffusivity is estimated as about 2x10 2 m 2 s -1 . Currents 10 m above the bottom exceed 10 cm/s least frequently on the plain and most frequently at the hill-foot. The influence of the hill is surprisingly large. At all three sites the strongest currents are found near the sea bed. Speeds also show a Weibull distribution and rough 50 year return currents are inferred. (author)

  17. Tube-dwelling invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hölker, Franz; Vanni, Michael J.; Kuiper, Jan J.; Meile, Christof; Grossart, Hans Peter; Stief, Peter; Adrian, Rita; Lorke, Andreas; Dellwig, Olaf; Brand, Andreas; Hupfer, Michael; Mooij, Wolf M.; Nützmann, Gunnar; Lewandowski, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    There is ample evidence that tube-dwelling invertebrates such as chironomids significantly alter multiple important ecosystem functions, particularly in shallow lakes. Chironomids pump large water volumes, and associated suspended and dissolved substances, through the sediment and thereby compete

  18. Cladding tube manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, R.; Jeong, Y. H.; Baek, B. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, S. J.; Choi, B. K.; Kim, J. M.

    1999-04-01

    This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report A lloy Development for High Burnup Cladding . Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs

  19. Thoughts on accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators

  20. Tracheostomy tube - speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with others. However, you can learn how to speak with a tracheostomy tube. It just takes practice. There ... If it is hard to speak with a trach in place, special devices can help you learn to create sounds. One-way valves, called speaking valves, are placed ...

  1. Thoughts of accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators

  2. Cladding tube manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, R. [Kraftwerk Union AG, Mulheim (Germany); Jeong, Y.H.; Baek, B.J.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, S.J.; Choi, B.K.; Kim, J.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report 'Alloy Development for High Burnup Cladding.' Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs.

  3. Frictional pressure drop of high pressure steam-water two-phase flow in internally helical ribbed tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingkuan, C.; Xuanzheng, C.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that the internally helical ribbed tubes are effective in suppressing the dry-out in boiling tubes at high pressures, so they are widely used as furnace water wall tubes in modern large steam power boilers. Design of the boilers requires the data on frictional pressure drop characteristics of the ribbed tubes, but they are not sufficient now. This paper describes the experimental results on the adiabatic frictional pressure drop in both horizontal ribbed tubes with measured mean inside diameter of 11.69 mm and 35.42 mm at high pressure from 10 to 21 MPa, mass flow rate from 350 to 3800 kg/m/sup 2/s and steam quality from 0 to 1 in our high pressure electrically heated water loop. Simultaneously, both smooth tubes under the same conditions for comparison. Based on the tests the correlation for determining the frictional pressure drop of internally ribbed tubes are proposed

  4. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    dimensions that are “characteristically human [and take the form of] the logical, the historical, ... the philosopher Cicero (James 2008: 3), are still important in plain language work: invention ... databases, help files, content management systems, etc., that essentially serve the same ...... From a talent to a scientific discipline.

  5. Porosity Prediction of Plain Weft Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Owais Raza Siddiqui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wearing comfort of clothing is dependent on air permeability, moisture absorbency and wicking properties of fabric, which are related to the porosity of fabric. In this work, a plug-in is developed using Python script and incorporated in Abaqus/CAE for the prediction of porosity of plain weft knitted fabrics. The Plug-in is able to automatically generate 3D solid and multifilament weft knitted fabric models and accurately determine the porosity of fabrics in two steps. In this work, plain weft knitted fabrics made of monofilament, multifilament and spun yarn made of staple fibers were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the developed plug-in. In the case of staple fiber yarn, intra yarn porosity was considered in the calculation of porosity. The first step is to develop a 3D geometrical model of plain weft knitted fabric and the second step is to calculate the porosity of the fabric by using the geometrical parameter of 3D weft knitted fabric model generated in step one. The predicted porosity of plain weft knitted fabric is extracted in the second step and is displayed in the message area. The predicted results obtained from the plug-in have been compared with the experimental results obtained from previously developed models; they agreed well.

  6. Necrotizing fasciitis : plain radiographic and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Dae; Park, Jeong Hee; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Lim, Jong Nam; Heo, Tae Haeng; Park, Dong Rib [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate the plain radiographic and CT findings of the necrotizing fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic findings of 4 cases with necrotizing fasciitis. Three cases were proven pathologically. We evaluated pattern and extent of the gas shadows in plain films. CT findings were analysed, with emphasis on : (a) gas pattern, (b) extent, (c) location and involved site, (d) associated focal abscess, and (e) swelling of the adjacent muscles. On plain radiographs, four cases showed streaky or mottled gas densities in the pelvis, three cases in the perineum, one case in the abdomen, and two cases in the thigh. On CT images, gas pattern was mottled and streaky appearance with swelling of the adjacent muscles. Gas shadows located in the extraperitoneal space in four cases, fascial layer in four cases, and subcutaneous layer in four cases. There were gas shadows in pelvic wall, perineum, abdominal wall, buttock, thigh, and scrotum. Focal low density lesion suggestive of focal abscess was not visualized. Plain radiography is useful for early diagnosis of the necrotizing fasciitis and CT is very useful for detection of precise location and extent of the disease. CT is also useful for differentiation of necrotizing fasciitis from focal abscess and cellulitis.

  7. Cardiac Arrest Following Spinal Anaesthesia With Plain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year old woman who was admitted for an elective caesarean section. After preoperative evaluation and premedication she received a spinal anaesthesia in the L3-4 interspace with plain bupivacaine 0.5%. After being replaced in the supine ...

  8. Radiocesium in wheat of the Po plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.; Malvicini, A.

    1988-01-01

    The Cs-137 measurements of many wheat samples, which was cultivated in Po plain during 1986 and 1987, are reported. A relationship is also shown between the quantity of Cs-137, which is contained in total fall-out, and that in the wheat by direct deposition

  9. Second chance for the plains bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Curtis H.; Aune, K.; Boyd, D.; Derr, James N.; Forrest, Steven C.; Gates, C. Cormack; Gogan, Peter J.; Grassel, Shaun M.; Halbert, Natalie D.; Kunkel, Kyran; Redford, Kent

    2007-01-01

    Before European settlement the plains bison (Bison bison bison) numbered in the tens of millions across most of the temperate region of North America. Within the span of a few decades during the mid- to late-1800s its numbers were reduced by hunting and other factors to a few hundred. The plight of the plains bison led to one of the first major movements in North America to save an endangered species. A few individuals and the American Bison Society rescued the remaining animals. Attempts to hybridize cattle and bison when bison numbers were low resulted in extensive cattle gene introgression in bison. Today, though approximately 500,000 plains bison exist in North America, few are free of cattle gene introgression, 96% are subject to anthropogenic selection for commodity production, and only 4% are in herds managed primarily for conservation purposes. Small herd size, artificial selection, cattle-gene introgression, and other factors threaten the diversity and integrity of the bison genome. In addition, the bison is for all practical purposes ecologically extinct across its former range, with multiple consequences for grassland biodiversity. Urgent measures are needed to conserve the wild bison genome and to restore the ecological role of bison in grassland ecosystems. Socioeconomic trends in the Great Plains, combined with new information about bison conservation needs and new conservation initiatives by both the public and public sectors, have set the stage for significant progress in bison conservation over the next few years.

  10. Great plains regional climate assessment technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Plains region (GP) plays important role in providing food and energy to the economy of the United States. Multiple climatic and non-climatic stressors put multiple sectors, livelihoods and communities at risk, including agriculture, water, ecosystems and rural and tribal communities. The G...

  11. Sunspots and the physics of magnetic flux tubes. II. Aerodynamic drag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, E.N.

    1979-01-01

    The aerodynamic drag on a slender flux tube stretched vertically across a convective cell may push the flux tube into the updrafts or into the downdrafts, depending on the density stratification of the convecting fluid and the asymmetry of the fluid motions. The drag is approximately proportional to the local kinetic energy density, so the density stratification weights the drag in favor of the upper layers where the density is low, tending to push the vertical tube into the downdrafts. If, however, the horizontal motions in the convective cell are concentrated toward the bottom of the cell, they may dominate over the upper layers, pushing the tube into the updrafts. In the simple, idealized circumstance of a vertical tube extending across a fluid of uniform density in a convective cell that is symmetric about its midplane, the net aerodynamic drag vanishes in lowest order. The higher order contributions, including the deflection of the tube, then provide a nonvanishing force pushing the tube into a stable equilibrium midway between the updraft and the downdraft.It is pointed out that in the strongly stratified convective zone of the Sun, a downdraft herds flux tubes together into a cluster, while an updraft disperses them. To account for the observed strong cohesion of the cluster of flux tubes that make up a sunspot, we propose a downdraft of the order 2 km s - 1 through the cluster of seprate tubes beneath the sunspot

  12. Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, A.; Rohini, S.; Naveen, A.; Haritha, A.; Reddy, Krishnanjeneya

    2010-01-01

    Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician’s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. Part I was the radiographic evaluation of 150 orthopantomographs (OPGs) (of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and seeking periodontal care), which were digitized and read using the AutoCAD 2006 software. All the periodontitis-affected teeth were categorized as teeth with vertical defects (if the defect angle was ≤45° and defect depth was ≥3 mm) or as having horizontal bone loss. Part II of the study comprised search of the literature on treatment modalities for horizontal and vertical bone loss in four selected periodontal journals. Results: Out of the 150 OPGs studied, 54 (36%) OPGs showed one or more vertical defects. Totally, 3,371 teeth were studied, out of which horizontal bone loss was found in 3,107 (92.2%) teeth, and vertical defects were found only in 264 (7.8%) of the teeth, which was statistically significant (P<.001). Search of the selected journals revealed 477 papers have addressed the treatment modalities for vertical and horizontal types of bone loss specifically. Out of the 477 papers, 461 (96.3%) have addressed vertical bone loss, and 18 (3.7%) have addressed treatment options for horizontal bone loss. Two papers have addressed both types of bone loss and are included in both categories. Conclusion: Horizontal bone loss is more prevalent than vertical bone loss but has been sidelined by researchers as very few papers have been published on the subject of regenerative treatment modalities for

  13. Horizontal well impact on heavy oil supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, B.; Bielecki, J.; Hu, J.; Wall, B.; Drummond, K.

    1993-01-01

    Horizontal wells can take advantage of gravity drainage mechanisms, which can be important in conventional heavy oil and bitumen recovery. Horizontal drilling will impact on the development of established conventional heavy oil pools by infill drilling and application of enhanced recovery techniques. There will also be an impact on the development of extensions to established and newly discovered heavy oil pools, as well as a major impact on development of bitumen resources. To assess the impact of horizontal drilling on heavy oil supply, high-impact and low-impact scenarios were evaluated under specified oil-price assumptions for four heavy oil areas in Saskatchewan and Alberta. Horizontal well potential for infill drilling, waterflood projects, and thermal projects was assessed and estimates were made of such developments as reserves additions and heavy oil development wells under the two scenarios. In the low case, projected supply of conventional heavy oil and bitumen stabilizes at a level in the 90,000-94,000 m 3 /d after 1994. In the high case, overall supply continuously grows from 80,000 m 3 /d in 1992 to 140,000 m 3 /d in 2002. Through application of horizontal drilling, reserves additions in western Canada could be improved by ca 100 million m 3 by 2002. 14 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Heat transfer from a tube bank with mass transfer in a duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouri, A.; Lavasani, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation on heat transfer coefficient is present from three horizontal tubes in a vertical array in a duct for 500 D <6000. A mass transfer measuring technique based on psychrometry chart is used to determine heat transfer coefficient. The diameter of the tubes is 11 mm each spaced 40 mm apart and in-line pitch ratio varies in the range 0.055< D/W<0.22. The experimental results show that the Nusselt number of each tube increases by increasing D/W. Also the increase of the second the Nusselt number is more than that of the third one

  15. Simulation of Evacuated Tube Collector and Storage of Hybrid Air-conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ahmed Abdulhussain

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The CFD transient simulation of superheating the refrigerant R410 through the heat exchange with the evacuated tube water heating system of the hybrid split air conditioner that is subjected to solar radiation of constant intensity with the contribution of fan accelerated air is performed by the ANSYS-CFX code. The comparison with experimental work showed a minimum percentage error 8% of the predicted refrigerant evaporative heat transfer with storage tank horizontal tubing. In addition, the results denoted high absorption rate for the evacuated tubes, reducing highly reversed heat transmission for the circulated water. 

  16. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1977-01-01

    Being redied for installation, those at the right are for tank 1, those on the left for tank 2. Contrary to Linac 1, which had drift-tubes supported on stems, here the tubes are suspended, for better mechanical stability.

  17. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia ... *PDF files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. This website is maintained by the ...

  18. Tubing For Sampling Hydrazine Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Josh; Taffe, Patricia S.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Wyatt, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    Report evaluates flexible tubing used for transporting such hypergolic vapors as those of hydrazines for quantitative analysis. Describes experiments in which variety of tubing materials, chosen for their known compatibility with hydrazine, flexibility, and resistance to heat.

  19. Prospects for stronger calandria tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ells, C.E.; Coleman, C.E.; Hosbons, R.R.; Ibrahim, E.F.; Doubt, G.L.

    1990-12-01

    The CANDU calandria tubes, made of seam welded and annealed Zircaloy-2, have given exemplary service in-reactor. Although not designed as a system pressure containment, calandria tubes may remain intact even in the face of pressure tube rupture. One such incident at Pickering Unit 2 demonstrated the economic advantage of such an outcome, and a case can be made for increasing the probability that other calandria tubes would perform in a similar fashion. Various methods of obtaining stronger calandria tubes are available, and reviewed here. When the tubes are internally pressurized, the weld is the weak section of the tube. Increasing the oxygen concentration in the starting sheet, and thickening the weld, are promising routes to a stronger tube

  20. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and bearing...

  1. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... user how alternative land use decisions may affect the aquatic and terrestial ecosystems, human safety... Flood-plain management. Through proper planning, flood plains can be managed to reduce the threat to... encourages sound flood-plain management decisions by land users. (a) Policy—(1) General. NRCS provides...

  2. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing. 215.111 Section 215.111... § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has a plain bearing— (a) That is missing, cracked, or broken; (b) On which the bearing liner— (1) Is...

  3. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not located...

  4. Two-phase flow and pressure drop in T-junctions with horizontal run and vertical branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsaounis, A.

    1987-01-01

    Visual observations of single- and two-phase dividing flow and pressure drop measurements were performed in T-junctions with horizontal run and vertical branch. Both tees used were geometrically similar, in a scale of 1:4. The measurements were performed for plug/slug and stratified flow pattern regime in horizontal tube. Based on the single-phase form-resistance pressure drop correlation of Gardel a corresponded calculation model was developed for the two-phase flow verified by the own measurements. (orig.) [de

  5. Expansion lyre-shaped tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andro, Jean.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates the expansion lyre-shaped tube portions formed in dudgeoned tubular bundles between two bottom plates. An expansion lyre comprises at least two sets of tubes of unequal lengths coplanar and symmetrical with respect to the main tube axis, with connecting portions between the tubes forming said sets. The invention applies to apparatus such as heat exchangers, heaters, superheaters or breeders [fr

  6. HORIZONTAL WELL DRILL-IN FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of horizontal driling is to place a drain-hole for a long distance within the pay zone to enhance productivity or injectivity. In drilling horizontal wells, more serious problems appear than in drilling vertical wells. These problems are: poor hole cleaning, excessive torque and drag, hole filling, pipe stucking, wellbore instability, loss of circulation, formation damage, poor cement job, and difficulties at logging jobs. From that reason, successful drilling and production of horizontal well depends largely on the fluid used during drilling and completion phases. Several new fluids, that fulfill some or all of required properties (hole cleaning, cutting suspension, good lubrication, and relative low formation damage, are presented in this paper.

  7. Horizontal bridges in polar dielectric liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woisetschläger, Jakob; Wexler, Adam D.; Holler, Gert; Eisenhut, Mathias; Gatterer, Karl; Fuchs, Elmar C.

    2012-01-01

    When a high-voltage direct-current is applied to two beakers filled with polar liquid dielectrica like water or methanol, a horizontal bridge forms between the two beakers. By repeating a version of Pellat's experiment, it is shown that a horizontal bridge is stable by the action of electrohydrodynamic pressure. Thus, the static and dynamic properties of the phenomenon called a `floating water bridge' can be explained by the gradient of Maxwell pressure, replenishing the liquid within the bridge against any drainage mechanism. It is also shown that a number of liquids can form stable and long horizontal bridges. The stability of such a connection, and the asymmetry in mass flow through such bridges caused by the formation of ion clouds in the vicinity of the electrodes, is also discussed by two further experiments.

  8. Horizontal bridges in polar dielectric liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woisetschlaeger, Jakob [Graz University of Technology, Experimental Turbomachinery Research and Optical Measurement Group, Institute for Thermal Turbomachinery and Machine Dynamics, Graz (Austria); Wexler, Adam D.; Fuchs, Elmar C. [Wetsus, Center of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Holler, Gert [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz (Austria); Eisenhut, Mathias [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Food Chemistry, Graz (Austria); Gatterer, Karl [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Graz (Austria)

    2012-01-15

    When a high-voltage direct-current is applied to two beakers filled with polar liquid dielectrica like water or methanol, a horizontal bridge forms between the two beakers. By repeating a version of Pellat's experiment, it is shown that a horizontal bridge is stable by the action of electrohydrodynamic pressure. Thus, the static and dynamic properties of the phenomenon called a 'floating water bridge' can be explained by the gradient of Maxwell pressure, replenishing the liquid within the bridge against any drainage mechanism. It is also shown that a number of liquids can form stable and long horizontal bridges. The stability of such a connection, and the asymmetry in mass flow through such bridges caused by the formation of ion clouds in the vicinity of the electrodes, is also discussed by two further experiments. (orig.)

  9. Reconsideration of data and correlations for plate finned-tube heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otović, Milena; Mihailović, Miloš; Genić, Srbislav; Jaćimović, Branislav; Milovančević, Uroš; Marković, Saša

    2018-04-01

    This paper deals with heat exchangers having plain finned tubes in staggered (triangular) pattern. The objective of this paper is to provide the heat transfer and friction factor correlation which can be used in engineering practice. For this purpose, the experimental data of several (most cited) authors who deal with this type of heat exchangers are used. The new correlations are established to predict the air-side heat transfer coefficient and friction factor as a function of the Reynolds number and geometric variables of the heat exchanger - tube diameter, tube pitch, fin spacing, tube rows, etc. In those correlations the characteristic dimension in Reynolds number is calculated by using the new parameter - volumetric porosity. Also, there are given the errors of those correlations.

  10. Experimental and analytical study of two-phase pressure drops during evaporation in horizontal tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Quibén, Jesús; Thome, John Richard

    2007-01-01

    Two-phase flow of gases and liquids or vapors and liquids in pipes, channels, equipment, etc. is frequently encountered in industry and has been studied intensively for many years. The reliable prediction of pressure drop in two-phase flow is thereby an important aim. Because of the complexity of these types of flow, empirical or semiempirical relationships are only of limited reliability and pressure drops predicted using leading methods may differ by up to 100%. In order to improve predicti...

  11. Heat transfer between a fluidized bed and an immersed horizontal tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, D.E.; Figliola, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Reliable predictions will require a better understanding of the heat transfer mechanisms and bed hydrodynamics in the neighborhood of the submerged surface. In this investigation measurements of the instantaneous heat transfer between a submerged surface and a gas fluidized bed operating in the bubbling regime are presented. The experimental results are compared to existing predictive models for the particle convective and the overall heat transfer coefficients. For the range of particle size and flow velocity studied, the particle convective component of heat transfer dominates the overall heat transfer between the bed and the submerged surface. Experimental studies into particle size distribution effects on heat transfer suggest that mixtures augment the bed to surface heat transfer. Documentation of bed particle size distribution is necessary if heat transfer data are to be compared or predicted

  12. Experimental study on the hydrodynamic effects of gas permeation through horizontal membrane tubes in fluidized beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de J.F.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Fluidized Bed Membrane Reactors gain worldwide increasing interest for various applications. Nevertheless, fundamental research on the hydrodynamics of these reactors is required in order to improve the predictive capabilities of numerical models and to improve reactor performance. This study

  13. New flow boiling heat transfer model for hydrocarbons evaporating inside horizontal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G. F.; Gong, M. Q.; Wu, J. F.; Zou, X.; Wang, S.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbons have high thermodynamic performances, belong to the group of natural refrigerants, and they are the main components in mixture Joule-Thomson low temperature refrigerators (MJTR). New evaluations of nucleate boiling contribution and nucleate boiling suppression factor in flow boiling heat transfer have been proposed for hydrocarbons. A forced convection heat transfer enhancement factor correlation incorporating liquid velocity has also been proposed. In addition, the comparisons of the new model and other classic models were made to evaluate its accuracy in heat transfer prediction

  14. Further Studies in Filmwise Condensation of Steam on Horizontal Finned Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    8217; OUITPUT 7(0C. ’AD AFE02 ALSZ ’,IS !IZ7 ,’hiTPiT ’ 7 097 AcCA . ~2 1 ENiTER 709;Etp !’S OU~TPUtT 70 ’AC S -2’ 1 NPUIT "CONlNE’C~T tifOl A.C L.PjC l...Ptczit1Pvap1 GAUGEc 2077 Ptezt2P-v~ p2 ITRANSDUCER 2080’ CORECION FOR AIR CONTAMNATION 20SI P~pPvp2*1 .E-3 ITRANSDUCER IN P 20Z P-~~1 -3 ISAT. PRESSU’RE IN P

  15. A self propelled drilling system for hard-rock, horizontal and coiled tube drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biglin, D.; Wassell, M.

    1997-12-31

    Several advancements are needed to improve the efficiency and reliability of both hard rock drilling and extended reach drilling. This paper will present a Self Propelled Drilling System (SPDS) which can grip the borehole wall in order to provide a stable platform for the application of weight on bit (WOB) and resisting the reactive torque created by the downhole drilling motor, bit and formation interaction. The system will also dampen the damaging effects of drill string vibration. This tool employs two hydraulically activated anchors (front and rear) to grip the borehole wall, and a two-way thrust mandrel to apply both the drilling force to the bit, and a retraction force to pull the drill string into the hole. Forward drilling motion will commence by sequencing the anchor pistons and thrust mandrel to allow the tool to walk in a stepping motion. The SPDS has a microprocessor to control valve timing, sensing and communication functions. An optional Measurement While Drilling (MWD) interface can provide two-way communication of critical operating parameters such as hydraulic pressure and piston location. This information can then be telemetered to the surface, or used downhole to autonomously control system parameters such as anchor and thrust force or damping characteristics.

  16. High Velocity Horizontal Motions at the Edge of Sunspot Penumbrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenaar-Daggett, Hermance J.; Shine, R.

    2010-05-01

    The outer edges of sunspot penumbrae have long been noted as a region of interesting dynamics including formation of MMFs, extensions and retractions of the penumbral tips, fast moving (2-3 km/s) bright features dubbed"streakers", and localized regions of high speed downflows interpreted as Evershed "sinks". Using 30s cadence movies of high spatial resolution G band and Ca II H images taken by the Hinode SOT/FPP instrument from 5-7 Jan 2007, we have been investigating the penumbra around a sunspot in AR 10933. In addition to the expected phenomena, we also see occasional small dark crescent-shaped features with high horizontal velocities (6.5 km/s) in G band movies. These appear to be emitted from penumbral tips. They travel about 1.5 Mm developing a bright wake that evolves into a slower moving (1-2 km/s) bright feature. In some cases, there may be an earlier outward propagating disturbance within the penumbra. We have also analyzed available Fe 6302 Stokes V images to obtain information on the magnetic field. Although only lower resolution 6302 images made with a slower cadence are available for these particular data sets, we can establish that the features have the opposite magnetic polarity of the sunspot. This observation may be in agreement with simulations showing that a horizontal flux tube develops crests that move outward with a velocity as large as 10 km/s. This work was supported by NASA contract NNM07AA01C.

  17. Settling time of dental x-ray tube head after positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol; Wang, Se Myung; Koh, Chang Sung

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce a method of obtaining the oscillation graphs of the dental x-ray tube heads relative to time using an accelerometer. An Accelerometer, Piezotron type 8704B25 (Kistler Instrument Co., Amherst, NY, USA) was utilized to measure the horizontal oscillation of the x-ray tube head immediately after positioning the tube head for an intraoral radiograph. The signal from the sensor was transferred to a dynamic signal analyzer, which displayed the magnitude of the acceleration on the Y-axis and time lapse on the X-axis. The horizontal oscillation of the tube head was measured relative to time, and the settling time was also determined on the basis of the acceleration graphs for 6 wall type, 5 floor-fixed type, and 4 mobile type dental x-ray machines. The oscillation graphs showed that tube head movement decreased rapidly over time. The settling time varied with x-ray machine types. Wall-type x-ray machines had a settling time of up to 6 seconds, 5 seconds for fixed floor-types, and 11 seconds for the mobile-types. Using an accelerometer, we obtained the oscillation graphs of the dental x-ray tube head relative to time. The oscillation graph with time can guide the operator to decide upon the optimum exposure moment after xray tube head positioning for better radiographic resolution.

  18. Settling time of dental x-ray tube head after positioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Se Myung; Koh, Chang Sung [Department of Mechatronics, Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    The aim of this study was to introduce a method of obtaining the oscillation graphs of the dental x-ray tube heads relative to time using an accelerometer. An Accelerometer, Piezotron type 8704B25 (Kistler Instrument Co., Amherst, NY, USA) was utilized to measure the horizontal oscillation of the x-ray tube head immediately after positioning the tube head for an intraoral radiograph. The signal from the sensor was transferred to a dynamic signal analyzer, which displayed the magnitude of the acceleration on the Y-axis and time lapse on the X-axis. The horizontal oscillation of the tube head was measured relative to time, and the settling time was also determined on the basis of the acceleration graphs for 6 wall type, 5 floor-fixed type, and 4 mobile type dental x-ray machines. The oscillation graphs showed that tube head movement decreased rapidly over time. The settling time varied with x-ray machine types. Wall-type x-ray machines had a settling time of up to 6 seconds, 5 seconds for fixed floor-types, and 11 seconds for the mobile-types. Using an accelerometer, we obtained the oscillation graphs of the dental x-ray tube head relative to time. The oscillation graph with time can guide the operator to decide upon the optimum exposure moment after xray tube head positioning for better radiographic resolution.

  19. Chest tube insertion - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest tubes are inserted to drain blood, fluid, or air and allow full expansion of the lungs. The tube is placed in the pleural space. The area where the tube will be inserted is numbed (local anesthesia). The patient may also be sedated. The chest ...

  20. Tubing cutter for tight spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girala, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    Cutter requires few short swings of handle to rotate its cutting edge full 360 around tube. It will cut tubing installed in confined space that prevents free movement of conventional cutter. Cutter is snapped onto tube and held in place by spring-loaded clamp. Screw ratchet advances cutting wheel.

  1. Quasistatic analysis on configuration of two-phase flow in Y-shaped tubes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Hua; Wang, Xiaoping; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the two-phase flow in a horizontally placed Y-shaped tube with different Young's angle and width in each branch. By using a quasistatic approach, we can determine the specific contact position and the equilibrium contact angle

  2. Heavy crude production from shallow formations: long horizontal wells versus horizontal fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valko, P.; Economides, M. J. [Texas A and M Univ., TX (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The feasibility of producing heavy oil from shallow formations using either horizontal wells or short horizontal wells fractured horizontally is demonstrated. The problem of optimum proppant placement is solved in two steps. In step one, the finite productivity performance is considered in general terms showing that the performance is a function of two dimensionless parameters. Following derivation of optimum conditions, the solution is applied to the horizontal fracture consideration. The limiting factor is that to create an effective finite conductivity fracture, the dimensionless fracture conductivity must be on the order of unity, a fracture that is difficult to realize in higher permeability formations. The best candidates for the suggested configuration are shallow or moderate formations, or formations otherwise proven to accept horizontal fractures, and formations with low permeability/viscosity ratio. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs., 2 appendices.

  3. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, H. [ed.] [IVO Group, Vantaa (Finland); Purhonen, H. [ed.] [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kouhia, V. [ed.] [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries.

  4. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, H [ed.; IVO Group, Vantaa (Finland); Purhonen, H [ed.; VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kouhia, V [ed.; Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries.

  5. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomisto, H.; Purhonen, H.; Kouhia, V.

    1997-01-01

    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries

  6. Heat Exchanger Tube to Tube Sheet Joints Corrosion Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iancu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the studies made by the authors above the tube to tube sheet fittings of heat exchanger with fixed covers from hydrofining oil reforming unit. Tube fittings are critical zones for heat exchangers failures. On a device made from material tube and tube sheet at real joints dimensions were establish axial compression force and traction force at which tube is extracted from expanded joint. Were used two shapes joints with two types of fittings surfaces, one with smooth hole of tube sheet and other in which on boring surface we made a groove. From extracted expanded tube zones were made samples for corrosion tests in order to establish the corrosion rate, corrosion potential and corrosion current in working mediums such as hydrofining oil and industrial water at different temperatures. The corrosion rate values and the temperature influence are important to evaluate joints durability and also the results obtained shows that the boring tube sheet shape with a groove on hole tube shape presents a better corrosion behavior then the shape with smooth hole tube sheet.

  7. Caffeinated Tube Food Effect on Pilot Performance During a 9-Hour, Simulated Nighttime U-2 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    first dose), 02:00, 04:00 (second dose), and 06:00. Each dose of tube food contained either caffeinated chocolate pudding (200 mg) or plain chocolate ...on alertness and mood . Psychopharmacol- ogy 1993; 112:359–65. 19. Smith AP. Effects of caffeine on human behaviour. Food Cosmet Toxicol 2002; 40:1243...Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 19 Jun 2002 – 1 Sep 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Caffeinated Tube Food Effect on Pilot Performance During a

  8. YouTube Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riendeau, Diane

    2012-09-01

    To date, this column has presented videos to show in class, Don Mathieson from Tulsa Community College suggested that YouTube could be used in another fashion. In Don's experience, his students are not always prepared for the mathematic rigor of his course. Even at the high school level, math can be a barrier for physics students. Walid Shihabi, a colleague of Don's, decided to compile a list of YouTube videos that his students could watch to relearn basic mathematics. I thought this sounded like a fantastic idea and a great service to the students. Walid graciously agreed to share his list and I have reproduced a large portion of it below.

  9. Neutron image intensifier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verat, M.; Rougeot, H.; Driard, B.

    1983-01-01

    The most frequently used techniques in neutron radiography employ a neutron converter consisting of either a scintillator or a thin metal sheet. The radiation created by the neutrons exposes a photographic film that is in contact with the converter: in the direct method, the film is exposed during the time that the object is irradiated with neutrons; in the transfer method, the film is exposed after the irradiation of the object with neutrons. In industrial non-destructive testing, when many identical objects have to be checked, these techniques have several disadvantages. Non-destructive testing systems without these disadvantages can be constructed around neutron-image intensifier tubes. A description and the operating characteristics of neutron-image intensifier tubes are given. (Auth.)

  10. Tube coupling device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William N. (Inventor); Hein, Leopold A. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A first annular ring of a tube coupling device has a keyed opening sized to fit around the nut region of a male coupling, and a second annular ring has a keyed opening sized to fit around the nut of a female coupling. Each ring has mating ratchet teeth and these rings are biased together, thereby engaging these teeth and preventing rotation of these rings. This in turn prevents the rotation of the male nut region with respect to the female nut. For tube-to-bulkhead locking, one facet of one ring is notched, and a pin is pressed into an opening in the bulkhead. This pin is sized to fit within one of the notches in the ring, thereby preventing rotation of this ring with respect to the bulkhead.

  11. PEG Tube Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarshi Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG has been used for providing enteral access to patients who require long-term enteral nutrition for years. Although generally considered safe, PEG tube placement can be associated with many immediate and delayed complications. Buried bumper syndrome (BBS is one of the uncommon and late complications of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG placement. It occurs when the internal bumper of the PEG tube erodes into the gastric wall and lodges itself between the gastric wall and skin. This can lead to a variety of additional complications such as wound infection, peritonitis, and necrotizing fasciitis. We present here a case of buried bumper syndrome which caused extensive necrosis of the anterior abdominal wall.

  12. Condensation of pure and near-azeotropic refrigerants in microfin tubes: A new computational procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallini, A; Del Col, D; Mancin, S; Rossetto, L [Dipartimento di Fisica Tecnica, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, Padova 35131 (Italy)

    2009-01-15

    Microfin tubes are widely used in air cooled and water cooled heat exchangers for heat pump and refrigeration applications during condensation or evaporation of refrigerants. In order to design heat exchangers and to optimize heat transfer surfaces, accurate procedures for computing pressure drops and heat transfer coefficients are necessary. This paper presents a new simple model for the prediction of the heat transfer coefficient to be applied to condensation in horizontal microfin tubes of halogenated and natural refrigerants, pure fluids or nearly azeotropic mixtures. The updated model accounts for refrigerant physical properties, two-phase flow patterns in microfin tubes and geometrical characteristics of the tubes. It is validated against a data bank of 3115 experimental heat transfer coefficients measured in different independent laboratories all over the world including diverse inside tube geometries and different condensing refrigerants among which R22, R134a, R123, R410A and CO{sub 2}. (author)

  13. Summary of the Snake River plain Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in Idaho and eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Regional aquifers underlying the 15,600-square-mile Snake River Plain in southern Idaho and eastern Oregon was studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis program. The largest and most productive aquifers in the Snake River Plain are composed of Quaternary basalt of the Snake River Group, which underlies most of the 10,8000-square-mile eastern plain. Aquifer tests and simulation indicate that transmissivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer in the eastern plain commonly ranges from about 100,000 to 1,000,000 feet squared per day. However, transmissivity of the total aquifer thickness may be as much as 10 million feet squared per day. Specific yield of the upper 200 feet of the aquifer ranges from about 0.01 to 0.20. Average horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer ranges from less than 100 to 9,000 feet per day. Values may be one to several orders of magnitude higher in parts in individual flows, such as flow tops. Vertical hydraulic conductivity is probably several orders of magnitude lower than horizontal hydraulic conductivity and is generally related to the number of joints. Pillow lava in ancestral Snake River channels has the highest hydraulic conductivity of all rock types. Hydraulic conductivity of the basalt decreases with depth because of secondary filling of voids with calcite and silica. An estimated 80 to 120 million acre-feet of water is believed to be stored in the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer in the eastern plain. The most productive aquifers in the 4,800-square-mile western plain are alluvial sand and gravel in the Boise River valley. Although aquifer tests indicate that transmissivity of alluvium in the Boise River valley ranges from 5,000 to 160,000 feet squared per day, simulation suggests that average transmissivity of the upper 500 feet is generally less than 20,000 feet squared per day. Vertically averaged horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper

  14. Recurrent inspection of tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.

    1984-01-01

    Recommendations concerning the selection of areas for the inspection of tubes have been outlined. The aim is to focus the control on the regions which are important for the safety and where damage is supposed to take place. The number of zones will depend on the risk factors as judged by experts. The localizing will be based upon probable damaging mechanisms. A certain number of areas should be chosen at random. (G.B.)

  15. Cathode ray tube screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockayne, B.; Robbins, D.J.; Glasper, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    An improved cathode ray tube screen is described which consists of a single- or a poly-crystalline slice of a material such as yttrium aluminium garnet in which dopants such as Tb 3 + , Eu 3 + , Ce 3 + or Tm 3 + are ion implanted to different depths or in different areas of the screen. Annealing the screen removes lattice damage caused by the ion implanting and assists the diffusion of the dopant into the crystal. (U.K.)

  16. Cathode ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A cathode ray tube comprises two electron lens means in combination to crossover the electron beam at a second crossover between the two electron lens means with one of the two lens means having a variable voltage applied thereto to control the location of the beam crossover in order to focus the beam onto a display screen at any location away from the screen center. (Auth.)

  17. Fabrication of seamless calandria tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.; Phanibabu, C.; Bhaskara Rao, C.V.; Kalidas, R.; Ganguly, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Calandria tube is a large diameter, thin walled zircaloy-4 tube and is an important structural component of PHWR type of reactors. These tubes are lifetime components and remain during the full life of the reactor. Calandria tubes are classified as extremely thin walled tubes with a diameter to wall thickness ratio of around 96. Such thin walled tubes are conventionally produced by seam welded route comprising of extrusion of slabs followed by a series of hot and rolling passes, shaping into O-shape and eventual welding. An alternative and superior method of fabricating the calandria tubes, the seamless route, has been developed, which involves hot extrusion of mother blanks followed by three successive cold pilger reductions. Eccentricity correction of the extruded blanks is carried out on a special purpose grinding equipment to bring the wall thickness variation within permissible limits. Predominant wall thickness reductions are given during cold pilgering to ensure high Q-factor values. The texture in the finished tubes could be closely, controlled with an average f r value of 0.65. Pilgering parameters and tube guiding system have been specially designed to facilities rolling of thin walled tubes. Seamless calandria tubes have distinct advantages over welded tubes. In addition to the absence of weld, they are dimensionally more stable, lighter in weight and possess uniform grains with superior grain size. The cycle time from billet to finished product is substantially reduced and the product is amenable to high level of quality assurance. The most significant feature of the seamless route is its material recovery over welded route. Residual stresses measured in the tubes indicate that these are negligible and uniform along the length of the tube. In view of their superior quality, the first charge of seamless calandria tubes will be rolled into the first 500 MWe Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor at Tarapur

  18. CRL X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed. (authors)

  19. Chenier plain development: feedbacks between waves, mud and sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardin, W.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Cheniers are sandy ridges parallel to the coast established by high energy waves. Here we discuss Chenier plains ontogeny through dimensional analysis and numerical results from the morphodynamic model Delft3D-SWAN. Our results show that wave energy and shelf slope play an important role in the formation of Chenier plains. In our numerical experiments waves affect Chenier plain development in three ways: by winnowing sediment from the mudflat, by eroding mud and accumulating sand over the beach during extreme wave events. We further show that different sediment characteristics and wave climates can lead to three alternative coastal landscapes: strand plains, mudflats, or the more complex Chenier plains. Low inner-shelf slopes are the most favorable for strand plain and Chenier plain formation, while high slopes decrease the likelihood of mudflat development and preservation.

  20. Effluent salinity of pipe drains and tube-wells : a case study from the Indus plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelleners, T.J.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: anisotropy, aquifer, desalinization, effluent salinity, groundwater, irrigation, salt-water upconing, soil salinity, stream-function, subsurface drainage

    Irrigated agriculture in arid and semi-arid zones often suffers from waterlogging and salinity problems.

  1. Heat transfer coefficient correlation for convective boiling inside plain and micro fin tubes using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picanco, Marco Antonio Silva; Bandarra Filho, Enio Pedone; Passos, Julio Cesar

    2006-01-01

    Two-phase flow heat transfer has been exhaustively studied over recent years. However, in this field several questions remain unanswered. Heat transfer coefficient prediction related to nucleate and convective boiling have been studied using different approaches, numerical, analytical and experimental. In this work, an experimental analysis, data representation and heat transfer coefficient prediction on two-phase heat transfer on nucleate and convective boiling are presented. An empirical correlation is obtained based on genetic algorithms search engine over a dimensional analysis of the two-phase flow heat transfer problem. (author)

  2. Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovtcharova, I. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-31

    In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.

  3. Third international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Third International Seminar on Horizontal Steam Generators held on October 18-20, 1994 in Lappeenranta, consisted of six sessions dealing with the topics: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents, feedwater collector replacement and discussion of VVER-440 steam generator safety issues.

  4. Third international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Third International Seminar on Horizontal Steam Generators held on October 18-20, 1994 in Lappeenranta, consisted of six sessions dealing with the topics: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents, feedwater collector replacement and discussion of VVER-440 steam generator safety issues

  5. Electroluminescence from completely horizontally oriented dye molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komino, Takeshi [Education Center for Global Leaders in Molecular System for Devices, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Sagara, Yuta [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Oki, Yuji [Japan Science and Technology Agency, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Nakamura, Nozomi [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Fujimoto, Hiroshi [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Fukuoka i" 3-Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (i3-OPERA), Fukuoka 819-0388 (Japan); and others

    2016-06-13

    A complete horizontal molecular orientation of a linear-shaped thermally activated delayed fluorescent guest emitter 2,6-bis(4-(10Hphenoxazin-10-yl)phenyl)benzo[1,2-d:5,4-d′] bis(oxazole) (cis-BOX2) was obtained in a glassy host matrix by vapor deposition. The orientational order of cis-BOX2 depended on the combination of deposition temperature and the type of host matrix. Complete horizontal orientation was obtained when a thin film with cis-BOX2 doped in a 4,4′-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1′-biphenyl (CBP) host matrix was fabricated at 200 K. The ultimate orientation of guest molecules originates from not only the kinetic relaxation but also the kinetic stability of the deposited guest molecules on the film surface during film growth. Utilizing the ultimate orientation, a highly efficient organic light-emitting diode with the external quantum efficiency of 33.4 ± 2.0% was realized. The thermal stability of the horizontal orientation of cis-BOX2 was governed by the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) of the CBP host matrix; the horizontal orientation was stable unless the film was annealed above T{sub g}.

  6. Rectifying Horizontal Inequalities: Lessons from African Conflict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and demonstrate the link between horizontal inequalities and conflict. Section two will ... the US race riots in the 1960's and the 2005 Paris riots to the genocides that .... be seen as a combination of ethnic fighting between the black population.

  7. Flow mapping for ESS horizontal target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Y.; Kikura, H.; Taishi, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Flow behaviour for ESS horizontal target is studied experimentally using two dimensional water model. A velocity field of stationary flow in reaction zone has been obtained. Three dimensional effect was also studied as a spanwise flow structure. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  8. Determinants Of Vertical And Horizontal Export Diversification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also reveals domestic investment plays an important role to enhance vertical as well as horizontal export diversification for East Asia, while it only ... resource-based industries and gradually shift production and exports from customary products to more dynamic ones by developing competitive advantage in the ...

  9. Modelling Nitrogen Transformation in Horizontal Subsurface Flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mathematical model was developed to permit dynamic simulation of nitrogen interaction in a pilot horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland receiving effluents from primary facultative pond. The system was planted with Phragmites mauritianus, which was provided with root zone depth of 75 cm. The root zone was ...

  10. Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovtcharova, I [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.

  11. Third international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The Third International Seminar on Horizontal Steam Generators held on October 18-20, 1994 in Lappeenranta, consisted of six sessions dealing with the topics: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents, feedwater collector replacement and discussion of VVER-440 steam generator safety issues.

  12. The horizontal plane appearances of scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illés, Tamás S.; Burkus, Máté; Somoskeőy, Szabolcs

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two-/three-dimen......Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two...... cases of a normal spine and a thoracic scoliosis are presented. Results: For a normal spine, vector projections in the transverse plane are aligned with the posterior-anterior anatomical axis. For a scoliotic spine, vector projections in the horizontal plane provide information on the lateral...... decompensation of the spine and the lateral displacement of vertebrae. In the horizontal plane view, vertebral rotation and projections of the sagittal curves can also be analyzed simultaneously. Conclusions: The use of posterior-anterior vertebral vector facilitates the understanding of the 3D nature...

  13. Cues for localization in the horizontal plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jakob; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    manipulated in HRTFs used for binaural synthesis of sound in the horizontal plane. The manipulation of cues resulted in HRTFs with cues ranging from correct combinations of spectral information and ITDs to combinations with severely conflicting cues. Both the ITD and the spectral information seem...

  14. Evaluation of horizontal magnification on panoramic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Raoof

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study evaluated the horizontal magnification of images taken from adults and pediatrics with PM 2002 CC Planmeca analogue machine. Materials and Methods: A series of 120 panoramic radiographs were obtained of 60 adults and 60 pediatrics. For all patients, negative impressions were used to make positive casts of the teeth. A caliper was used to measure the maximum mesiodistal length of the buccal surface of all teeth except canines on both casts and radiographs. The horizontal magnification factor was calculated for incisor, premolar, and molar regions by dividing the values obtained from the casts by the values obtained from the radiographs. Statistical Analysis: Independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: The results indicated that with regard to adults, maxillary and mandibular incisor regions, unlike the other two sessions, didn′t show significant difference of the mean magnification of horizontal dimension (P = 0.5. In pediatrics, the comparison between mean magnification factors of all subgroups showed significant difference (P < 0.0001. Despite the adults′ radiographs, the results of pediatrics′ radiographs showed significantly higher magnification than the index listed by the manufacturer of the radiographic machine used. Conclusion: The present study results point to the fact that PM 2002 CC Proline panoramic machine makes possible precise measurements on radiographs of adults′ jaws in the horizontal dimension.

  15. Microdischarges in DC accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Thorn, R.

    1978-07-01

    Voltage tests on the Daresbury ceramic/titanium accelerator tube have shown that microdischarges play an important role in the conditioning process. It has been found that the voltage onset for microdischarges in a tube is dependent on the surface contamination of the electrodes and the tube geometry (in particular the tube length). This geometrical effect can be related to the trajectories of secondary ions emitted from the electrode surfaces. Sensitive diagnostic techniques have been developed to study the mass and energy distribution of ions emitted along the axis of the tube during these predischarges. The energy distribution of protons (and H - ions) can be related to the origins of the discharges in the tube. Detailed results are presented for a particular tube geometry. (author)

  16. Staged fracturing of horizontal shale gas wells with temporary plugging by sand filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to downhole complexities, shale-gas horizontal well fracturing in the Sichuan Basin suffered from casing deformation and failure to apply the technique of cable-conveyed perforation bridge plug. In view of these problems, a new technique of staged volume fracturing with temporary plugging by sand filling is employed. Based on theoretical analyses and field tests, a design of optimized parameters of coiled tubing-conveyed multi-cluster sand-blasting perforation and temporary plugging by sand filling was proposed. It was applied in the horizontal Well ZJ-1 in which casing deformation occurred. The following results are achieved in field operations. First, this technique enables selective staged fracturing in horizontal sections. Second, this technique can realize massive staged fracturing credibly without mechanical plugging, with the operating efficiency equivalent to the conventional bridge plug staged fracturing. Third, full-hole is preserved after fracturing, thus it is possible to directly conduct an open flow test without time consumption of a wiper trip. The staged volume fracturing with temporary plugging by sand filling facilitated the 14-stage fracturing in Well ZJ-1, with similar SRV to that achieved by conventional bridge plug staged fracturing and higher gas yield than neighboring wells on the same well pad. Thus, a new and effective technique is presented in multi-cluster staged volume fracturing of shale gas horizontal wells.

  17. A new flooding scheme by horizontal well in thin heavy oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.; Zhang, H.; Wang, M. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China). MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering ; Wang, Z. [Shengli Oil Field Co. (China). Dept. of Science and Technology]|[SINOPEC, Shengli (China)

    2008-10-15

    This paper presented a new flooding scheme for single horizontal wells that could improve recovery from thin marginal heavy oil reservoirs or from offshore reservoirs. The scheme involved the use of a multiple tubing string completion in a single wellbore. Special packers were installed within the long completion horizontal interval to establish an injection zone and a production zone. The new flooding scheme also involved simultaneous injection and production. Numerical simulation of the reservoir was used to determine the thickness of the formation and the lower limitation for different viscosities and the optimum time to start steam flooding after steam soaking by economic oil/steam ratio. The peak recovery efficiency of steam flooding was shown to occur when the length of separation section ratio is 0.15 to 0.2. It was concluded that high thermal efficiency in horizontal wells with long completion intervals can be maintained by alternating between steam soaking and steam flooding. Suitable alternation time to steam flooding is a seventh cycle for horizontal wells. Water cut and pressure difference will increase the steam injection rate, and thereby improve the oil production rate. The suitable injection rate for steam flooding is 2.4 t/d.ha.h because of its slow pressure change. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Expansion mechanisms for indigenously developed horizontal honing machines (Paper No. 06)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, G.S.K.; Devarajan, N.

    1987-02-01

    Coolant channel components for nuclear reactors require scratch free and smooth interior surfaces in addition to control on size. This calls for finish machining by honing process. At the time when these were required to be made, there were no manufacturers in India who were making honing machines especially of horizontal type. In order to meet this requirement, Central Workshops of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre developed and manufactured two horizontal honing machines which can handle tubes upto three metres in length. One of the machines has been so made to accommodate jobs upto six metres in length. Stone expansion mechanisms used in these machines were of automatic hydraulic type combined with a mechanical expansion device. Details of these mechanisms have been discussed in this paper. (author). 3 figs

  19. CVD-grown horizontally aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes: synthesis routes and growth mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Imad; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Warner, Jamie H; Büchner, Bernd; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Rümmeli, Mark H

    2012-07-09

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have attractive electrical and physical properties, which make them very promising for use in various applications. For some applications however, in particular those involving electronics, SWCNTs need to be synthesized with a high degree of control with respect to yield, length, alignment, diameter, and chirality. With this in mind, a great deal of effort is being directed to the precision control of vertically and horizontally aligned nanotubes. In this review the focus is on the latter, horizontally aligned tubes grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The reader is provided with an in-depth review of the established vapor deposition orientation techniques. Detailed discussions on the characterization routes, growth parameters, and growth mechanisms are also provided. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN A SOLAR COLLECTOR PANEL WITH HORIZONTAL ABSORBER STRIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to theoretically and experimentally investigate the flow and temperature distribution in a solar collector panel with an absorber consisting of horizontal strips. Fluid flow and heat transfer in the collector panel are studied by means of computational fluid dynamics...... (CFD) calculations. Further, experimental investigations of a 12.5 m² solar collector panel with 16 parallel connected horizontal fins are carried out. The flow distribution through the absorber is evaluated by means of temperature measurements on the backside of the absorber tubes. The measured...... collector fluid, and by increased collector tilt and inlet temperature, the flow distribution gets worse resulting in a decreased collector efficiency and an increased risk of boiling in the upper part of the collector panel. Keywords: Solar collector; Flow distribution; Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD...

  1. Flow distribution in a solar collector panel with horizontally inclined absorber strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to theoretically and experimentally investigate the flow and temperature distribution in a solar collector panel with an absorber consisting of horizontally inclined strips. Fluid flow and heat transfer in the collector panel are studied by means of computational fluid...... dynamics (CFD) calculations. Further, experimental investigations of a 12.5 m(2) solar collector panel with 16 parallel connected horizontal fins are carried out. The flow distribution through the absorber is evaluated by means of temperature measurements on the backside of the absorber tubes. The measured...... rate, properties of solar collector fluid, solar collector fluid inlet temperature and collector tilt angle are shown. The flow distribution through the absorber fins is uniform if high flow rates are used. By decreased flow rate and decreased content of glycol in the glycol/water mixture used as solar...

  2. Heat exchanger for cooling a liquid metal with air, including panels of identical tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaval, C.

    1985-01-01

    The heat exchanger includes panels of identical tubes, each one comprising two horizontal collectors situated at the vertical of each other and a group of vertical tubes for cooling arranged in a horizontal parallelepiped casing opened on two of its opposite sides. The air flows from the inlet to the outlet face of the casing. The panels of tubes are arranged side by side so that their outlet faces form a prismatic surface of which the height is vertical and the inner space communicates with a vertical axis chimney. Each one of the panels is hanging from a fixed structure by means of articulated fasteners, by means of its upper collector only. The invention applies, more particularly, for cooling the primary sodium of fast neutron reactors after they are stopped [fr

  3. Ultrasonic inspection of tube to tube plate welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telford, D.W.; Peat, T.S.

    1985-01-01

    To monitor the deterioration of a weld between a tube and tube plate which has been repaired by a repair sleeve inside the tube and brazed at one end to the tube, ultrasound from a crystal at the end of a rod is launched, in the form of Lamb-type waves, into the tube through the braze and allowed to travel along the tube to the weld and be reflected back along the tube. The technique may also be used for the type of heat exchanger in which, during construction, the tubes are welded to the tube plate via external sleeves in which case the ultrasound is used in a similar manner to inspect the sleeve/tube plate weld. an electromagnetic transducer may be used to generate the ultrasound. The ultrasonic head comprising the crystal and an acoustic baffle is mounted on a Perspex (RTM) rod which may be rotated by a stepping motor. Echo signals from the region of deterioration may be isolated by use of a time gate in the receiver. The device primarily detects circumferentially orientated cracks, and may be used in heat exchangers in nuclear power plants. (author)

  4. Genetics, medicine, and the Plain people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kevin A; Puffenberger, Erik G

    2009-01-01

    The Old Order Amish and Old Order Mennonite populations of Pennsylvania are descended from Swiss Anabaptist immigrants who came to the New World in the early eighteenth century. Today they live in many small endogamous demes across North America. Genetically, these demes have dissimilar allele frequencies and disease spectra owing to unique founders. Biological and social aspects of Old Order communities make them ideal for studies in population genetics and genomic medicine, and over the last 40 years, advances in genomic science coincided with investigational studies in Plain populations. Newer molecular genetic technologies are sufficiently informative, rapid, and flexible to use in a clinical setting, and we have successfully integrated these tools into a rural pediatric practice. Our studies with the Pennsylvania Plain communities show that population-specific genetic knowledge provides a powerful framework in which to prevent disease, reduce medical costs, and create new insights into human biology.

  5. Paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain, Northern coast of Santa Catarina, SC, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Maria Cristina de; Angulo, Rodolfo Jose; angulo@geologia.ufpr.br; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to characterize the paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain during the Quaternary and to compare this evolution with other proposed models. To reach the objectives the area was mapped in scale 1:50.000, sub-surface information were obtained from geotechnical drillings and paleosea-levels were inferred by radiocarbon dating performed on vermetids tubes, wood fragments and shells of Anomalocardia brasiliana samples. The paleosea-level reconstructions are consistent with the sea level curve proposed in previous works. The evolution model for the Itapoa coastal plain proposed in this work is similar to the model proposed for the coastal plain of Paranagua. The paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain can be summarized as: formation of fans during Lower Miocene, with sea level similar or lower than the present one; island-barrier formation during the Upper Pleistocene transgression maximum; formation of extensive regressive barriers and later dissection by a rectangular pattern drainage system, during sea level low stand; island barrier formation during the Holocene transgression maximum, with inlets associated to the present mouth of Sai-Mirim and Sai-Guacu rivers; formation of extensive regressive barriers during falling sea level period. During the Holocene regression, spits grew northward, moving northward the estuarine inlets as well. This drift direction is the same that was suggested for Parana and Santa Catarina north coast. During regression until present the Sai-Mirim River has eroded the Holocene barrier inland portion, that probably caused the erosion of most of the Holocene transgressive barrier-islands. (author)

  6. Refrigerant charge, pressure drop, and condensation heat transfer in flattened tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M J; Newell, T A; Chato, J C [University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Infante Ferreira, C A [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands). Laboratory for Refrigeration and Indoor Climate Control

    2003-06-01

    Horizontal smooth and microfinned copper tubes with an approximate diameter of 9 mm were successively flattened in order to determine changes in flow field characteristics as a round tube is altered into a flattened tube profile. Refrigerants R134a and R410A were investigated over a mass flux range from 75 to 400 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -}2{sup 1} and a quality range from approximately 10-80%. For a given refrigerant mass flow rate, the results show that a significant reduction in refrigerant charge is possible. Pressure drop results show increases of pressure drop at a given mass flux and quality as a tube profile is flattened. Heat transfer results indicate enhancement of the condensation heat transfer coefficient as a tube is flattened. Flattened tubes with an 18{sup o} helix angle displayed the highest heat transfer coefficients. Smooth tubes and axial microfin tubes displayed similar levels of heat transfer enhancement. Heat transfer enhancement is dependent on the mass flux, quality and tube profile. (author)

  7. The examination of the ruptured Zircaloy-2 pressure tube from Pickering NGS Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheadle, B.A.; Smith, A.D.; Baskin, C.C.

    1985-07-01

    On 1983 August 01 a Zircaloy-2 pressure tube in Pickering NGS Unit 2 ruptured. All the fuel channel components, the fuel bundles, pressure tube, end fittings, garter springs and calandria tubes were shipped to Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories for examination to determine the cause of the rupture. The examination showed that the rupture initiated at a series of hydride blisters on the outside surface of the pressure tube. The blisters formed because of the garter spring spacers between the pressure tube and calandria tube was about one metre out of position. This allowed the horizontal pressure tube to sag by creep and touch the cool calandria tube. The resulting thermal gradients in the pressure tube concentrated the hydrogen and deuterium at the cool zones and blisters of solid hydride formed. Cracks initiated at several of the blisters and linked together to form a partial through wall critical crack which initiated the final rupture. The video presentation shows how the examination of the fuel channel components was conducted in underwater bays and shielded cells and explains the sequence of events that caused the rupture

  8. Liquid-Nitrogen Test for Blocked Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, W. R.

    1984-01-01

    Nondestructive test identifies obstructed tube in array of parallel tubes. Trickle of liquid nitrogen allowed to flow through tube array until array accumulates substantial formation of frost from moisture in air. Flow stopped and warm air introduced into inlet manifold to heat tubes in array. Tubes still frosted after others defrosted identified as obstructed tubes. Applications include inspection of flow systems having parallel legs.

  9. Ages of plains volcanism on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Ernst; Jagert, Felix; Broz, Petr

    2010-05-01

    Plain-style volcanism [1] is widespread in the Tharsis and Elysium volcanic provinces on Mars, [2,3]. Detailed images and topographic data reveal the morphology and topography of clusters of low shields and associated lava flows. The landforms of plains volcanism on Mars have all well-known terrestrial analogues in basaltic volcanic regions, such as Hawaii, Iceland, and in particular the Snake River Plains [4]. The very gentle flank slopes (J. (1981) Icarus, 45, 586-601. [3] Hodges C.A. and Moore H.J. (1994) Atlas of volcanic features on Mars: USGS Prof. Paper 1534, 194 p. [4] Hauber E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 69-95. [5] Wilson L. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 28-46. [6] Vaucher, J. et al. (2009) Icarus 204, 418-442. [7] Baratoux D. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 47-68. [8] Bleacher J.E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 96-102. [9] Ivanov B.A. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 87-104. [10] Hartmann W.H. and Neukum G. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 165-194 [11] Kneissl T. et al. (2010) LPS XVI, submitted. [12] Michael, G.G. and Neukum G. (2010) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., in press. . [13] Malin M.C. et al. (2007) JGR 112, E05S04, doi: 10.1029/2006JE002808.

  10. The Effect of Fin Pitch on Fluid Elastic Instability of Tube Arrays Subjected to Cross Flow of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sandeep Rangrao; Pavitran, Sampat

    2018-02-01

    Failure of tubes in shell and tube exchangers is attributed to flow induced vibrations of such tubes. There are different excitations mechanisms due to which flow induced vibration occurs and among such mechanisms, fluid elastic instability is the most prominent one as it causes the most violent vibrations and may lead to rapid tube failures within short time. Fluid elastic instability is the fluid-structure interaction phenomenon which occurs when energy input by the fluid force exceeds energy expended in damping. This point is referred as instability threshold and corresponding velocity is referred as critical velocity. Once flow velocity exceeds critical flow velocity, the vibration amplitude increases very rapidly with flow velocity. An experimental program is carried out to determine the critical velocity at instability for plain and finned tube arrays subjected to cross flow of water. The tube array geometry is parallel triangular with cantilever end condition and pitch ratios considered are 2.6 and 2.1. The objective of research is to determine the effect of increase in pitch ratio on instability threshold for plain tube arrays and to assess the effect of addition of fins as well as increase in fin density on instability threshold for finned tube arrays. Plain tube array with two different pitch ratios; 2.1 and 2.6 and finned tube arrays with same pitch ratio; 2.6 but with two different fin pitches; such as fine (10 fpi) and coarse (4 fpi) are considered for the experimentation. Connors' equation that relates critical velocity at instability to different parameters, on which instability depends, has been used as the basis for analysis and the concept of effective diameter is used for the present investigation. The modal parameters are first suitably modified using natural frequency reduction setup that is already designed and developed to reduce natural frequency and hence to achieve experimental simulation of fluid elastic instability within the limited

  11. Effects of Dihedral Angle on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer from Two Tubes in Vertical Alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myeong-Gie [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    One of the major issues in pool boiling heat transfer is a tube arrangement. The upper tube is affected by the lower tube and the enhancement of the heat transfer on the upper tube is estimated by the bundle effect ( h{sub r} ). It is defined as the ratio of the heat transfer coefficient ( h{sub b} ) for an upper tube in a bundle with lower tubes activated to that for the same tube activated alone in the bundle. Since heat transfer is related with the conditions of a tube surface, bundle geometries, and a liquid type, lots of studies have been carried out for the combinations of those parameters. The most effective parameter must be the tube pitch. Many researchers have been investigated its effect on heat transfer enhancement for the tube bundles and the tandem tubes. The heat transfer on the upper tube of the tubes is enhanced compared with the single tube. The upper tube within a tube bundle can significantly increase nucleate boiling heat transfer compared to the lower tubes at moderate heat fluxes. At high heat fluxes these influences disappear and the data merge onto the pool boiling curve of a single tube. It was explained that the major influential factor is the convective effects due to the fluid velocity and the rising bubbles. They used microstructure-R134a or FC-3184 combinations and identified that the increase in the heat flux of the lower tube decreased the superheat ( ∆T{sub sat} ) of the upper tube. The passive condensers adopted in SWR1000 and APR+ has U-type tubes. Those tubes are slightly inclined from the horizontal to prevent the occurrence of the water hammer. Since the pitch between the upper and lower tubes is varying along the tube length, the results for the fixed pitch are not applicable to the analysis of these condensers. Although there are lots of studies introducing results for the effects of inclination angle on pool boiling heat transfer, no results are treating the angle between two tubes. Therefore, the present study is aimed

  12. Tubing misconnections: normalization of deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Debora; Symes, Lene; Guenter, Peggi; Graves, Krisanne

    2011-06-01

    Accidental connection of an enteral system to an intravenous (IV) system frequently results in the death of the patient. Misconnections are commonly attributed to the presence of universal connectors found in the majority of patient care tubing systems. Universal connectors allow for tubing misconnections between physiologically incompatible systems. The purpose of this review of case studies of tubing misconnections and of current expert recommendations for safe tubing connections was to answer the following questions: In tubing connections that have the potential for misconnections between enteral and IV tubing, what are the threats to safety? What are patient outcomes following misconnections between enteral and IV tubing? What are the current recommendations for preventing misconnections between enteral and IV tubing? Following an extensive literature search and guided by 2 models of threats and errors, the authors analyzed case studies and expert opinions to identify technical, organizational, and human errors; patient-related threats; patient outcomes; and recommendations. A total of 116 case studies were found in 34 publications. Each involved misconnections of tubes carrying feedings, intended for enteral routes, to IV lines. Overwhelmingly, the recommendations were for redesign to eliminate universal connectors and prevent misconnections. Other recommendations were made, but the analysis indicates they would not prevent all misconnections. This review of the published case studies and current expert recommendations supports a redesign of connectors to ensure incompatibility between enteral and IV systems. Despite the cumulative evidence, little progress has been made to safeguard patients from tubing misconnections.

  13. On the radiometric measurement of the density distribution occuring at the horizontal hydraulic transport of solid matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedde, E.; Weber, M.

    1977-01-01

    In order to estimate the phenomena of the flow in horizontal hydraulic transport of solid matter, measuring the density structure along the vertical pipe diameter is of vital interest for basic investigations. The measurement technology in mixed flows of solid matter and water is very difficult and therefore only few publications on characteristic flow profiles in horizontal pipes are known. In a research programme advanced by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft investigations were made on the possibility to measure the density profile by means of plain measuring equipment based upon radiometrics. In this paper a combination of a nuclear radiometric polar and parallel scanning method is shown to be suitable for this kind of measurements. (orig.) [de

  14. Experimental observation of thermal-hydraulic behavior in PCCS horizontal heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masaya; Nakamura, Hideo; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Rumi; Tokuma, Hideaki

    2003-01-01

    A series of thermal-hydraulic experiments have been performed using a prototypical-scale experimental facility simulating a horizontal heat exchanger of a Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) for next generation BWRs. The influences of multi-dimensional boiling flow in secondary water pool on primary flow in parallel tubes are investigated. The experimental results at postulated accident conditions; 0.7 MPa, steam flow rate equivalent to 1% core power with 1% non-condensable gas, show that steam condensation completes in almost the same heat transfer length in all the instrumented tubes. The secondary heat transfer coefficient is relatively small at the lower portion in the tube bundle when the flow regime is bubbly flow, and increases with elevation as the flow regime turns into churn-like flow. The primary steam flow distribution among tubes is rather insensitive to such a variation in the secondary heat transfer coefficient, since the contribution of the secondary heat transfer to the local heat resistance is 30% or less at postulated accident conditions. The influence of steam flow rate is insensitive too, while the contribution of the secondary heat transfer coefficient increases at low pressure conditions. (author)

  15. Limitations of quantitative bone-mass measurements using assessments of first-order statistics of grey-level histograms in plain radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouloulias, V.E.; Matsopoulos, G.; Kouvaris, J.R.; Antypas, C.; Uzunoglu, N.C.; Varela, M.N.; Metafa, A.; Sandilos, P.; Vlahos, L.J. [Areteion Univ. Hospital, Athens (Greece). Radiology Dept.

    2004-04-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the quality assurance of image-processing techniques in plain radiographs of skeletal structures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-two patients were studied, each with one osteolytic metastasis. Accuracy and precision of tube voltage and timer were confirmed. The mean value of grey-level histograms in plain radiographs (MVGLHs) was assessed. The deviation was monitored after five sets of sequential X-rays retaining the same settings for each radiograph. RESULTS: Deviation was significantly higher in anatomical areas of thorax (21.2%) and abdomen (42.4%), while the consistency of MVGLH for weight-bearing bones was satisfactory with a maximum deviation of 2.9% (P<0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test). CONCLUSION: Assessment of MVGLH in plain radiographs is a reliable method for the extremities and generally for regions without superimposed movable tissues.

  16. Limitations of quantitative bone-mass measurements using assessments of first-order statistics of grey-level histograms in plain radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouloulias, V.E.; Matsopoulos, G.; Kouvaris, J.R.; Antypas, C.; Uzunoglu, N.C.; Varela, M.N.; Metafa, A.; Sandilos, P.; Vlahos, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the quality assurance of image-processing techniques in plain radiographs of skeletal structures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-two patients were studied, each with one osteolytic metastasis. Accuracy and precision of tube voltage and timer were confirmed. The mean value of grey-level histograms in plain radiographs (MVGLHs) was assessed. The deviation was monitored after five sets of sequential X-rays retaining the same settings for each radiograph. RESULTS: Deviation was significantly higher in anatomical areas of thorax (21.2%) and abdomen (42.4%), while the consistency of MVGLH for weight-bearing bones was satisfactory with a maximum deviation of 2.9% (P<0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test). CONCLUSION: Assessment of MVGLH in plain radiographs is a reliable method for the extremities and generally for regions without superimposed movable tissues

  17. AMPTRACT: an algebraic model for computing pressure tube circumferential and steam temperature transients under stratified channel coolant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulshani, P.; So, C.B.

    1986-10-01

    In a number of postulated accident scenarios in a CANDU reactor, some of the horizontal fuel channels are predicted to experience periods of stratified channel coolant condition which can lead to a circumferential temperature gradient around the pressure tube. To study pressure tube strain and integrity under stratified flow channel conditions, it is, necessary to determine the pressure tube circumferential temperature distribution. This paper presents an algebraic model, called AMPTRACT (Algebraic Model for Pressure Tube TRAnsient Circumferential Temperature), developed to give the transient temperature distribution in a closed form. AMPTRACT models the following modes of heat transfer: radiation from the outermost elements to the pressure tube and from the pressure to calandria tube, convection between the fuel elements and the pressure tube and superheated steam, and circumferential conduction from the exposed to submerged part of the pressure tube. An iterative procedure is used to solve the mass and energy equations in closed form for axial steam and fuel-sheath transient temperature distributions. The one-dimensional conduction equation is then solved to obtain the pressure tube circumferential transient temperature distribution in a cosine series expansion. In the limit of large times and in the absence of convection and radiation to the calandria tube, the predicted pressure tube temperature distribution reduces identically to a parabolic profile. In this limit, however, radiation cannot be ignored because the temperatures are generally high. Convection and radiation tend to flatten the parabolic distribution

  18. Fluid-elastic instability in tube arrays subjected to air-water and steam-water cross-flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, D.; Dhir, V. K.; Catton, I.

    2009-10-01

    Flow induced vibrations in heat exchanger tubes have led to numerous accidents and economic losses in the past. Efforts have been made to systematically study the cause of these vibrations and develop remedial design criteria for their avoidance. In this research, experiments were systematically carried out with air-water and steam-water cross-flow over horizontal tubes. A normal square tube array of pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.4 was used in the experiments. The tubes were suspended from piano wires and strain gauges were used to measure the vibrations. Tubes made of aluminum; stainless steel and brass were systematically tested by maintaining approximately the same stiffness in the tube-wire systems. Instability was clearly seen in single phase and two-phase flow and the critical flow velocity was found to be proportional to tube mass. The present study shows that fully flexible arrays become unstable at a lower flow velocity when compared to a single flexible tube surrounded by rigid tubes. It is also found that tubes are more stable in steam-water flow as compared to air-water flow. Nucleate boiling on the tube surface is also found to have a stabilizing effect on fluid-elastic instability.

  19. Sealed ion accelerator tubes (survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsik, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    The first publications on developing commercial models of small-scale sealed accelerator tubes in which neutrons are generated appeared in the foreign press in 1954 to 1957; they were very brief and were advertising-oriented. The tubes were designed for neutron logging of oil wells instead of ampule neutron sources (Po + Be, Ra + Be). Later, instruments of this type began to be called neutron tubes from the resulting neutron radiation that they gave off. In Soviet Union a neutron tube was developed in 1958 in connection with the development of the pulsed neutron-neutron method of studying the geological profile of oil wells. At that time the tube developed was intended, in the view of its inventors, to replace standard isotope sources with constant neutron yield. A fairly detailed survey of neutron tubes was made in the studies. 8 refs., 8 figs

  20. Steam generator tube integrity program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Muscara, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new research program on steam generator tubing degradation is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at Argonne National Laboratory. This program is intended to support a performance-based steam generator tube integrity rule. Critical areas addressed by the program include evaluation of the processes used for the in-service inspection of steam generator tubes and recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of inspections; validation and improvement of correlations for evaluating integrity and leakage of degraded steam generator tubes, and validation and improvement of correlations and models for predicting degradation in steam generator tubes as aging occurs. The studies will focus on mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing, however, tests will also be performed on replacement materials such as thermally-treated Alloy 600 or 690. An overview of the technical work planned for the program is given

  1. Free compression tube. Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Ioan

    2012-11-01

    During the flight of vehicles, their propulsion energy must overcome gravity, to ensure the displacement of air masses on vehicle trajectory, to cover both energy losses from the friction between a solid surface and the air and also the kinetic energy of reflected air masses due to the impact with the flying vehicle. The flight optimization by increasing speed and reducing fuel consumption has directed research in the aerodynamics field. The flying vehicles shapes obtained through studies in the wind tunnel provide the optimization of the impact with the air masses and the airflow along the vehicle. By energy balance studies for vehicles in flight, the author Ioan Rusu directed his research in reducing the energy lost at vehicle impact with air masses. In this respect as compared to classical solutions for building flight vehicles aerodynamic surfaces which reduce the impact and friction with air masses, Ioan Rusu has invented a device which he named free compression tube for rockets, registered with the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks of Romania, OSIM, deposit f 2011 0352. Mounted in front of flight vehicles it eliminates significantly the impact and friction of air masses with the vehicle solid. The air masses come into contact with the air inside the free compression tube and the air-solid friction is eliminated and replaced by air to air friction.

  2. Tube leak detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Bunji; Takamura, Koichi; Matsuda, Shigehiro; Kiyosawa, Shun-ichi; Asami, Toru; Yamada, Hiroshi; Naruse, Shin-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention detects occurrence of leakage in a steam generator, a steam heating tube, or a heat exchanger of a nuclear power plant. Namely, an vibration sensor is disposed at the rear end of a rod-like supersonic resonance member. A node portion for the vibrations of the resonance member is held by a holding member and attached to a wall surface of a can such as a boiler. With such a constitution, the resonance member is resonated by supersonic waves generated upon leakage of the tube. The vibrations are measured by the vibration sensor at the rear end. Presence of leakage is detected by utilizing one or more of resonance frequencies. Since the device adopts a resonance phenomenon, a conduction efficiency of the vibrations is high, thereby enabling to detect leakage at high sensitivity. In addition, the supersonic wave resonance member has its top end directly protruded into a pressure vessel such as a boiler by using a metal or a ceramic which is excellent in heat and pressure resistance. Accordingly, the sound of leak can be detected efficiently. (I.S.)

  3. Shock tube Multiphase Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, John; Allen, Roy; Paudel, Manoj; Young, Calvin; Musick, Ben; McFarland, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    Shock driven multiphase instabilities (SDMI) are unique physical phenomena that have far-reaching practical applications in engineering and science. The instability is present in high energy explosions, scramjet combustors, and supernovae events. The SDMI arises when a multiphase interface is impulsively accelerated by the passage of a shockwave. It is similar in development to the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability however, particle-to-gas coupling is the driving mechanism of the SDMI. As particle effects such as lag and phase change become more prominent, the SDMI's development begins to significantly deviate from the RM instability. We have developed an experiment for studying the SDMI in our shock tube facility. In our experiments, a multiphase interface is created using a laminar jet and flowed into the shock tube where it is accelerated by the passage of a planar shockwave. The interface development is captured using CCD cameras synchronized with planar laser illumination. This talk will give an overview of new experiments conducted to examine the development of a shocked cylindrical multiphase interface. The effects of Atwood number, particle size, and a second acceleration (reshock) of the interface will be discussed.

  4. Pressure tube reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natori, Hisahide.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the electrical power generation efficiency in a pressure tube reactor in which coolants and moderators are separated by feedwater heating with heat generated in heavy water and by decreasing the amount of steams to be extracted from the turbine. Constitution: A heat exchanger and a heavy water cooler are additionally provided to a conventional pressure tube reactor. The heat exchanger is disposed at the pre-stage of a low pressure feedwater heater series. High temperature heavy water heated in the core is passed through the primary side of the exchanger, while feedwater is passed through the secondary side. The cooler is disposed on the downstream of the heat exchanger in the flowing direction of the heavy water, in which heavy water from the heat exchanger is passed through the primary side and the auxiliary equipment cooling water is sent to the secondary side thereof. Accordingly, since extraction of heating steams is no more necessary, the steam can be used for the rotation of the turbine, and the electrical power generation efficiency can be improved. (Seki, T.)

  5. Simulations and experiments of laminar heat transfer for Therminol heat transfer fluids in a rifled tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Weiguo; Ren, Depeng; Ye, Qing; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Huilin; Wang, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Predicted laminar Nusselt number using regression correlation of Therminol-55 heat transfer fluid is in agreement with experiments in the rifled tube. - Highlights: • Heat transfer coefficient and friction factor are measured and predicted in the rifled tube. • Correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor are proposed. • The roughness height of 0.425 mm in transition SST model is suggested as an input parameter. • k–kl–ω transition and transition SST models are recommended for laminar–turbulent transition. • Thermal enhancement factor and synergy angle are predicted in the rifled tube. - Abstract: Simulations and experiments of flow and heat transfer behavior of Therminol-55 heat transfer fluid have been conducted in a horizontal rifled tube with outer diameter and inner diameter 25.0 and 20.0 mm, pitch and rib height of 12.0 and 1.0 mm, respectively. Numerical simulations of three-dimensional flow behavior of Therminol-55 heat transfer fluid are carried out using FLUENT code in the rifled tube. Experimental results show that the heat transfer and thermal performance of Therminol-55 heat transfer fluid in the rifled tube are considerably improved compared to those of the smooth tube. The Nusselt number increases with the increase of Reynolds number, and is from 3.5 to 5.1 times over the smooth tube. Also, the pressure drop results reveal that the average friction factor of the ribbed tube is in a range of 2.2 and 4.2 times over the smooth tube. Predictive Nusselt number and friction factor correlations have been presented. The numerical results show that the laminar flow model is valid only at lower Reynolds number in the developed laminar flow of rifled tube. The k–kl–ω transition model and transition SST model with roughness of 0.425 mm are recommended for the predictions of transition process from laminar to turbulent flow in the rifled tube.

  6. Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study of the phenomenon of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. The measurements were made for opening ratios L/D ranging from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length of the opening...... and the diameter of the opening, respectively. The basic nature of airflow through single-sided openings, including airflow rate, air velocity, temperature difference between the rooms and the dimensions of the horizontal openings, were measured. A bi-directional airflow rate was measured using the constant...... quite well with the Epstein's formula ratio are presented. In some cases the measured airflow rates fit quite well with the Epstein's formula but in other cases the measured data show clear deviations from the Epstein's formula. Thus, revised formulas for natural ventilation are proposed....

  7. Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Li, Zhigang

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study of the phenomenon of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. The measurements were made for opening ratios L/D ranging from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length of the opening...... and the diameter of the opening, respectively. The basic nature of airflow through single-sided openings, including airflow rate, air velocity, temperature difference between the rooms and the dimensions of the horizontal openings, were measured. A bi-directional airflow rate was measured using the constant...... quite well with the Epstein's formula but in other cases the measured data show clear deviations from the Epstein's formula. Thus, revised formulas for natural ventilation are proposed....

  8. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Larry E.; McInnes, Ian D.; Massey, John V.

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  9. Improving horizontal completions on heterogeneous tight shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Rivera, Roberto; Deenadayalu, Chaitanya; Chertov, Maxim; Novalo Hartanto, Ricardo; Gathogo, Patrick [Schlumberger (United States); Kunjir, Rahul [University of Utah (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Evaluation of the two formation characteristics conducive to economic well production is important when tight shale formation characterization and completion design are being considered. This paper presents the basic understanding required to improve the efficiency of horizontal completions in oil and gas producing shales. Guidelines are defined for effective perforation and fracturing to improve the efficiency and sustainability of horizontal completions using extensive laboratory characterization of mechanical properties on core, core/log integration and continuous mapping of these properties by logging-while-drilling (LWD) methods. The objective is to improve completion design efficiency. This is accomplished by suitable selection of perforation intervals based on an understanding of the relevant physical processes and rock characterization. Conditions at two reservoir regions, the near-wellbore and the far-wellbore, are outlined and are essential to completion design. From the study, it can be concluded that tight shales are strongly anisotropic and cannot be approximated using isotropic models.

  10. Formation evaluation of a horizontal well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najia, W.K.; Habib, K.H.; Asada, J.

    1991-01-01

    In Upper Zakum Field, the interest in horizontal drilling has continued. A second horizontal well was drilled during the second half of 1989. This necessitated running logging tools for well control and to evaluate the reservoir characteristics. The logging tool selected for this well is that of Sperry-Sun. Tools configuration and tolerance were found to fulfil SADCO's requirements and specifications. This paper reports on the services produced which included Measurement While Drilling (MWD) directional services and RLL (Recorded Lithology Logging). The RLL services cover Dual Gamma Ray (DGR), Electromagnetic Wave Resistivity (EWR) and Compensated Neutron Porosity (CN porosity). All the RLL tools were an integrated part of the Bottom Hole Drilling Assembly. Data acquired while surveying was recorded in a recording sub down-hole and retrieved when the tools were up at the surface. A PC assisted quick look interpretation was carried out using Archie's equation in shale free limestone to calculate: Effective porosity, Water Saturation and, Bulk water volume

  11. Conservative management of displaced horizontal root fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kunhappan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injuries of teeth are the main cause of emergency treatment in dental practice. Radicular fractures in permanent teeth are uncommon, being only 0.5-7% of the cases. Horizontal root fractures are more frequently observed in the maxillary anterior region of young male patients and vary in severity from enamel fractures to avulsions. Fracture occurs often in the middle-third of the root followed by apical and coronal third. The present case report describes a clinical case of a horizontal root fracture located at the middle third of a maxillary left-central incisor treated endodontically after approximating fracture segment with the help of orthodontic appliance. After 6 months follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic with normal periodontal health.

  12. Active vibration suppression of helicopter horizontal stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquemani, Simone; Cazzulani, Gabriele; Resta, Ferruccio

    2017-04-01

    Helicopters are among the most complex machines ever made. While ensuring high performance from the aeronautical point of view, they are not very comfortable due to vibration mainly created by the main rotor and by the interaction with the surrounding air. One of the most solicited structural elements of the vehicle are the horizontal stabilizers. These elements are particularly stressed because of their composite structure which, while guaranteeing lightness and strength, is characterized by a low damping. This work makes a preliminary analysis on the dynamics of the structure and proposes different solutions to actively suppress vibrations. Among them, the best in terms of the relationship between performance and weight / complexity of the system is that based on inertial actuators mounted on the inside of the horizontal stabilizers. The work addresses the issue of the design of the device and its use in the stabilizer from both the numerical and the experimental points of view.

  13. Surgical treatment for paralytic horizontal strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhou*

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the effect of surgery for paralytic horizontal strabismus and the paralytic horizontal strabismus performed by Jensen procedure with antagonist muscle of paralytic muscle recession and medial or lateral rectus extra large resection/recession.METHODS: Fifteen cases(17 eyeswith complete or nearly complete paralytic horizontal strabismus from January 2005 to August. 2014 in our hospital were assessed retrospectively,7 eyes of 7 cases with treatment group A were performed Jensen procedure combined antagonist muscle of paralytic muscle recession, 10 eyes of 8 cases with treatment group B were performed medial or lateral rectus extra large resection/recession. seventeen eyes of 15 cases with an average of 21±8.71mo follow-up were observed.RESULTS: All 17 eyes of 15 cases after the operation obtained satisfied effects, 16 eyes of 14 cases obtained ideal long-term effect. One eye of a patient with a 6mo follow-up was undercorrected of 30△. We found a varying degree of postoperative improvement in visual function. There was a significant reduction in the strabismus angle for distance and near(t=28.71, Pt=36.21, Pt=17.96, Pt=9.20,PCONCLUSION: Jensen procedure combined antagonist muscle of paralytic muscle recession and medial or lateral rectus extra large resection/recession is a safe and successful method of treatment in complete or nearly complete paralysis horizontal strabismus. Patients achieve orthophoria, improvement of the motor ability, and larger field of binocular single vision for long time.

  14. Search for horizontal bosons at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, C.H.; Deshpande, N.G.; Gunion, J.F.; Haber, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    The production process anti p p → l - l' + + X, where the leptons belong to two different generations and X refers to spectator jets, provides a clear signature for horizontal (generation-changing) bosons when the leptons are emitted nearly back-to-back and p/sub T//sup miss/ = 0. Cross sections and p/sub T/ distributions for each lepton are presented, and discovery limits on M/sub H/ are extracted for several different channels

  15. Improving steamflood effectiveness by horizontal producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, B. [Wintershall AG, Barnstorf (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    The Emlichheim oilfield is located in North-West-Germany on the Dutch-German border being the Southern downdip part of the Schoonebeek anticline. The field was discovered in 1943 and came on production in 1944. Since production startup, Wintershall operates the field as owner of the concession (90% share of interest) in a joint venture with Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH (10%). For more than 50 years an average crude oil production of 150.000 t/year has been maintained. Starting with huff ''n'' puff and hot water flooding in the late 60's, the first steam flood project was implemented in 1981. Further steamflood projects started in 1989, 1992, 1993, 1994 and 1998 in different areas of the field. Until 1997, only vertical production wells were drilled in the field. Wellbore stability seemed to be a major problem for drilling horizontal wells in the unconsolidated sandstone reservoir at that time. In 1999 an innovative steamflood project was started with three newly drilled horizontal producers surrounding a vertical steam injector. First results are showing a significant improvement in the performance as compared to the earlier projects and offer new chances for further development of the field. Today, the field could no longer be operated without the steam projects as roughly 95% of the field production is coming from thermal EOR. This paper gives a brief overview of the field and its production history, the planning and realization of a current steamflood project using horizontal well technology as well as its performance compared to the earlier projects. It also describes the experience of drilling horizontal wells in the unconsolidated sandstone. A brief outlook to the future field development is given. (orig.)

  16. Horizontal infiltration and trace element measurements for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory investigations of horizontal infiltration were carried out on three Zaria soils (Samaru, Tudun Wada and the Kubanni river basin Fadama wet-land soils) in Nigeria, which are principally alfisols. Diffusivity was found to be -77.5 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1, -8.4 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1 and -117.0 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1 respectively for the ...

  17. Cues for localization in the horizontal plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jakob; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Spatial localization of sound is often described as unconscious evaluation of cues given by the interaural time difference (ITD) and the spectral information of the sound that reaches the two ears. Our present knowledge suggests the hypothesis that the ITD roughly determines the cone of the perce...... independently in HRTFs used for binaural synthesis. The ITD seems to be dominant for localization in the horizontal plane even when the spectral information is severely degraded....

  18. Horizontal vibrations of piles in a centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdin, B.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is the study of soil dynamics for important structures like nuclear power plants, offshore platforms, dams etc. Experimental results of horizontal vibrations on a pile partially anchored in a soil scale model put into a centrifuge are presented. Mechanical similitude conditions from equilibrium equations or rheologic laws are described. After a description of testing equipment (centrifuge, electrodynamic excitator) experimental results are interpreted with a model. Non-linearities on frequency response curves are characterized [fr

  19. Measurements of electrically exploded tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.W.; Hartman, C.W.; Munger, R.H.; Gullickson, R.L.; Trimble, D.O.; Cheng, D.Y.

    1975-01-01

    The dynamics of electrically exploded tubes were investigated, principally by means of current measurements and flash x-ray pictures. The pinch effect was observed on the tube motion. Pileup of the imploding tube metal was seen on axis. An approximate analytical model can be roughly fitted to the data, but a more complete fit can be obtained with detailed numerical codes. Application of the results to the planning of future gas-embedded Z-pinch experiments is discussed. (U.S.)

  20. An experimental investigation on air-side performances of finned tube heat exchangers for indirect air-cooling tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Xueping

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A tremendous quantity of water can be saved if the air cooling system is used, comparing with the ordinary water-cooling technology. In this study, two kinds of finned tube heat exchangers in an indirect air-cooling tower are experimentally studied, which are a plain finned oval-tube heat exchanger and a wavy-finned flat-tube heat exchanger in a cross flow of air. Four different air inlet angles (90°, 60 °, 45°, and 30° are tested separately to obtain the heat transfer and resistance performance. Then the air-side experimental correlations of the Nusselt number and friction factor are acquired. The comprehensive heat transfer performances for two finned tube heat exchangers under four air inlet angles are compared. For the plain finned oval-tube heat exchanger, the vertical angle (90° has the worst performance while 45° and 30° has the best performance at small ReDc and at large ReDc, respectively. For the wavy-finned flat-tube heat exchanger, the worst performance occurred at 60°, while the best performance occurred at 45° and 90° at small ReDc and at large ReDc, respectively. From the comparative results, it can be found that the air inlet angle has completely different effects on the comprehensive heat transfer performance for the heat exchangers with different structures.

  1. Natural convection in horizontal fluid layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo-Antilla, A.J.

    1977-02-01

    The experimental work includes developing and using a thermal convection cell to obtain measurements of the heat flux and turbulent core temperature of a horizontal layer of fluid heated internally and subject to both stabilizing and destabilizing temperature differences. The ranges of Rayleigh numbers tested were 10 7 equal to or less than R/sub I/ equal to or less than 10 13 and -10 10 equal to or less than R/sub E/ equal to or less than 10 10 . Power integral methods were found to be adequate for interpolating and extrapolating the data. The theoretical work consists of the derivation, solution and use of the mean field equations for study of thermally driven convection in horizontal layers of infinite extent. The equations were derived by a separation of variables technique where the horizontal directions were described by periodic structures and the vertical being some function of z. The derivation resulted in a coupled set of momentum and energy equations. The equations were simplified by using the infinite Prandtl number limit and neglecting direct intermodal interaction. Solutions to these equations are used to predict the existence of multi-wavenumber flows at all supercritical Rayleigh numbers. Subsequent inspection of existing experimental photographs of convecting fluids confirms their existence. The onset of time dependence is found to coincide with the onset of the second convective mode. Each mode is found to consist of two wavenumbers and typically the velocity and temperature fields of the right modal branch are found to be out of phase

  2. Thermal transient analysis applied to horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duong, A.N. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery process used to recover bitumen and heavy oil. This paper presented a newly developed model to estimate cooling time and formation thermal diffusivity by using a thermal transient analysis along the horizontal wellbore under a steam heating process. This radial conduction heating model provides information on the heat influx distribution along a horizontal wellbore or elongated steam chamber, and is therefore important for determining the effectiveness of the heating process in the start-up phase in SAGD. Net heat flux estimation in the target formation during start-up can be difficult to measure because of uncertainties regarding heat loss in the vertical section; steam quality along the horizontal segment; distribution of steam along the wellbore; operational conditions; and additional effects of convection heating. The newly presented model can be considered analogous to pressure transient analysis of a buildup after a constant pressure drawdown. The model is based on an assumption of an infinite-acting system. This paper also proposed a new concept of a heating ring to measure the heat storage in the heated bitumen at the time of testing. Field observations were used to demonstrate how the model can be used to save heat energy, conserve steam and enhance bitumen recovery. 18 refs., 14 figs., 2 appendices.

  3. Vertical and horizontal seismometric observations of tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambotte, S.; Rivera, L.; Hinderer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tidal signals have been largely studied with gravimeters, strainmeters and tiltmeters, but can also be retrieved from digital records of the output of long-period seismometers, such as STS-1, particularly if they are properly isolated. Horizontal components are often noisier than the vertical ones, due to sensitivity to tilt at long periods. Hence, horizontal components are often disturbed by local effects such as topography, geology and cavity effects, which imply a strain-tilt coupling. We use series of data (duration larger than 1 month) from several permanent broadband seismological stations to examine these disturbances. We search a minimal set of observable signals (tilts, horizontal and vertical displacements, strains, gravity) necessary to reconstruct the seismological record. Such analysis gives a set of coefficients (per component for each studied station), which are stable over years and then can be used systematically to correct data from these disturbances without needing heavy numerical computation. A special attention is devoted to ocean loading for stations close to oceans (e.g. Matsushiro station in Japon (MAJO)), and to pressure correction when barometric data are available. Interesting observations are made for vertical seismometric components; in particular, we found a pressure admittance between pressure and data 10 times larger than for gravimeters for periods larger than 1 day, while this admittance reaches the usual value of -3.5 nm/s 2/mbar for periods below 3 h. This observation may be due to instrumental noise, but the exact mechanism is not yet understood.

  4. Failure analysis of boiler tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, K.; Siddiqui, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Boiler tubes are energy conversion components where heat energy is used to convert water into high pressure superheated steam, which is then delivered to a turbine for electric power generation in thermal power plants or to run plant and machineries in a process or manufacturing industry. It was reported that one of the tubes of a fire-tube boiler used in a local industry had leakage after the formation of pits at the external surface of the tube. The inner side of the fire tube was working with hot flue gasses with a pressure of 10 Kg/cm/sup 2/ and temperature 225 degree C. The outside of the tube was surrounded by feed water. The purpose of this study was to determine the cause of pits developed at the external surface of the failed boiler tube sample. In the present work boiler tube samples of steel grade ASTM AI61/ASTM A192 were analyzed using metallographic analysis, chemical analysis, and mechanical testing. It was concluded that the appearance of defects on the boiler tube sample indicates cavitation type corrosion failure. Cavitation damage superficially resembled pitting, but surface appeared considerably rougher and had many closely spaced pits. (author)

  5. Radiation-resistant camera tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Takao; Manabe, Sohei; Makishima, Yasuhiro

    1982-01-01

    It was a long time ago that Toshiba launched on manufacturing black-and-white radiation-resistant camera tubes employing nonbrowning face-plate glass for ITV cameras used in nuclear power plants. Now in compliance with the increasing demand in nuclear power field, the Company is at grips with the development of radiation-resistant single color-camera tubes incorporating a color-stripe filter for color ITV cameras used under radiation environment. Herein represented are the results of experiments on characteristics of materials for single color-camera tubes and prospects for commercialization of the tubes. (author)

  6. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed.

  7. Bacterial Biofilms in Jones Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Eric S; Hauck, Matthew J; Kirk Harris, Jonathan; Robertson, Charles E; Dailey, Roger A

    To investigate the presence and microbiology of bacterial biofilms on Jones tubes (JTs) by direct visualization with scanning electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of representative JTs, and to correlate these findings with inflammation and/or infection related to the JT. In this study, prospective case series were performed. JTs were recovered from consecutive patients presenting to clinic for routine cleaning or recurrent irritation/infection. Four tubes were processed for scanning electron microscopy alone to visualize evidence of biofilms. Two tubes underwent PCR alone for bacterial quantification. One tube was divided in half and sent for scanning electron microscopy and PCR. Symptoms related to the JTs were recorded at the time of recovery. Seven tubes were obtained. Five underwent SEM, and 3 out of 5 showed evidence of biofilms (60%). Two of the 3 biofilms demonstrated cocci and the third revealed rods. Three tubes underwent PCR. The predominant bacteria identified were Pseudomonadales (39%), Pseudomonas (16%), and Staphylococcus (14%). Three of the 7 patients (43%) reported irritation and discharge at presentation. Two symptomatic patients, whose tubes were imaged only, revealed biofilms. The third symptomatic patient's tube underwent PCR only, showing predominantly Staphylococcus (56%) and Haemophilus (36%) species. Two of the 4 asymptomatic patients also showed biofilms. All symptomatic patients improved rapidly after tube exchange and steroid antibiotic drops. Bacterial biofilms were variably present on JTs, and did not always correlate with patients' symptoms. Nevertheless, routine JT cleaning is recommended to treat and possibly prevent inflammation caused by biofilms.

  8. Grooved tube plug rolls in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausser, P.

    1991-01-01

    The removable plugs used to date by the Power Generation Group (KWU) of Siemens to seal defective steam generator tubes have a good track record. Their sealing principle is based on the elastic tensioning of three seal disks against the inside wall of the tube. Now a further removable plug is available -a roll-in plug with a metal-coated surface. It is particularly suitable for use in the roller-expanded zone of the tubes at the tube sheet. The plugs can be used in both Siemens-KWU steam generators and in steam generators manufactured in compliance with the guidelines of the ASME Code. (author)

  9. Learning from YouTube [Video Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    YouTube is a mess. YouTube is for amateurs. YouTube dissolves the real. YouTube is host to inconceivable combos. YouTube is best for corporate-made community. YouTube is badly baked. These are a few of the things Media Studies professor Alexandra Juhasz (and her class) learned about YouTube when she set out to investigate what actually happens…

  10. Lithosphere stress changes due to groundwater unloading in North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yajin; Zhang, Huai; Shi, Yaolin

    2015-04-01

    During the past 50 years, excessive groundwater pumping has led to the continuous decline of groundwater table in North China Plain, which becomes one of the global hotspots of groundwater depletion. Over most of the rural areas of the plain, the shallow aquifer has experienced a water-table decline of more than 15m, with greater declines up to 50m in most urban centres, such as Beijing, Tangshan, Shijiangzhuang and so forth in 1960-2000. The entire groundwater depletion area covers a total area of approximately 56,273 km2 , more than 40% of the North China Plain. The vast area of enormous groundwater exploitation in North China Plain will definitely unload the lithosphere and create stress perturbations, the problem is if the stresses change large enough to affect tectonic activities. In this essay, we set up a 3 dimensional numerical visco-elastic model to discuss the effect of groundwater over-pumping on the lithosphere deformation and stress state in North China Plain. Based on the records of total groundwater-table decline during 1960-2010 in North China Plain, we estimate the accumulated deformation and lithosphere stress due to unloading of human-induced groundwater depletion. The area in the model ranges from 34° To 42°N, and 112° To 119°E, including the major groundwater depression cones in North China Plain. According to the simulating result, the maximum surface vertical uplift caused by groundwater unloading is 8cm. Meanwhile cumulative horizontal crustal stress changes near the surface goes up to 100kPa, and up to 40kPa at 15km depth where most earthquakes occurred in this area. The tectonic compressive stress rate is about 0.25kPa per year. Therefore, the stress changes due to groundwater pumping is significant compared with the tectonic driven stress changes. As China developed rapidly since 1978, the groundwater table mainly declined after 1978. Taking the earthquake catalog in the vicinity of groundwater depression zone into consideration, we

  11. Radiocarbon dating of sediment cores from Hachinohe, the Kamikita Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitoki, Eri; Nakamura, Toshio; Matsumoto, Yui; Tsuji, Sei-ichiro; Fujine, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated stratigraphy and chronology by analyses of Holocene sediments and radiocarbon dating of sediment cores from the Kamikita Plain. On the Kamikita Plain, which faces the Pacific coast of Northeast Japan, marine and fluvial terraces covered with tephras derived from Towada and Hakkoda volcanoes are well developed. We clarified that Towada Chuseri tephra and fluvial deposits consisted of volcanic sediments influenced an alluvial depositional system in the Kamikita Plain after a maximum of the Jomon Transgression. (author)

  12. Hyperdensity liver tumor on plain CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Shozo; Hanaguri, Katsuro [Kochi Municipal Central Hospital (Japan); Shimizu, Masahumi; Sako, Masao; Harada, Yasushi

    1984-12-01

    Most liver tumors on plain CT have been recognized as low density or iso-density masses. Sometimes calcified high density masses were shown on plain CT in case of cysts or metastatic liver tumors. However, hyperdensity mass of the liver on CT, of which the density was a little higher than surrounding tissues, was very rare. Recently 7 patients with hyperdensity liver masses on plain CT were experienced: 6 hepatocellular carcinomas and 1 hepatic cavernous hemangioma. A single hyperdensity mass was shown in 4 patients, a hyperdensity mass of multiple hepatic tumors was shown in 2 patients, and some hyperdensity masses of multiple hepatic tumors were shown in 1 patient. Lesions are classified in 3 types according to the appearance of hyperdensity masses: diffuse hyperdensity all over the mass, ring like hyperdensity, creascent like hyperdensity. Intravenous contrast enhancement was performed in 2 patients: one with a primary hepatocellular carcinoma, and another with a hepatic cavernous hemangioma. In the former case the tumor margin had changed unclear, in the latter case the tumor was markedly enhanced. Our results revealed that hyperdensity liver tumors were divided into 2 types: One type, shown in a cavernous hemangioma with fatty liver, demonstrated relative hyperdensity due to lower density of the surrounding tissue. Another type, shown in 6 hepatocellular carcinomas, showed hyperdensity since the density of the tumor was hyperdensity relative to the surrounding tissue of the liver. It was suggested that the tumor with the latter type had been strongly probable of malignant one, and been recommended to receive further examination. Cause of hyperdensity was thought to be due to hemorrhage, though microcalcification could not be denyed. In Japan, no hyperdensity liver tumor had been reported partly due to a wide window width with which CT photographs were taken.

  13. Precipitation Dynamical Downscaling Over the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Ming; Xue, Ming; McPherson, Renee A.; Martin, Elinor; Rosendahl, Derek H.; Qiao, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Detailed, regional climate projections, particularly for precipitation, are critical for many applications. Accurate precipitation downscaling in the United States Great Plains remains a great challenge for most Regional Climate Models, particularly for warm months. Most previous dynamic downscaling simulations significantly underestimate warm-season precipitation in the region. This study aims to achieve a better precipitation downscaling in the Great Plains with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. To this end, WRF simulations with different physics schemes and nudging strategies are first conducted for a representative warm season. Results show that different cumulus schemes lead to more pronounced difference in simulated precipitation than other tested physics schemes. Simply choosing different physics schemes is not enough to alleviate the dry bias over the southern Great Plains, which is related to an anticyclonic circulation anomaly over the central and western parts of continental U.S. in the simulations. Spectral nudging emerges as an effective solution for alleviating the precipitation bias. Spectral nudging ensures that large and synoptic-scale circulations are faithfully reproduced while still allowing WRF to develop small-scale dynamics, thus effectively suppressing the large-scale circulation anomaly in the downscaling. As a result, a better precipitation downscaling is achieved. With the carefully validated configurations, WRF downscaling is conducted for 1980-2015. The downscaling captures well the spatial distribution of monthly climatology precipitation and the monthly/yearly variability, showing improvement over at least two previously published precipitation downscaling studies. With the improved precipitation downscaling, a better hydrological simulation over the trans-state Oologah watershed is also achieved.

  14. Analytical study of condensation heat transfer on titanium tube with super-hydrophobic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Dae Yun; Park, Hyun Gyu; Lee, Kwon Yeong [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    There are many nuclear or fossil power plants which occupy more than 85% among entire power plants in the world. These plants release heat through condenser into nature. The condenser is an important component for cooling the working fluid after the turbine. Its performance is related with material and size of its tubes. To have good performance or to reduce condenser size, it is important to increase condensation heat transfer coefficient on condenser tubes. Ma et al. executed heat transfer experiment in dropwise condensation with non-condensable gas, and studied how the amount of air and pressure difference affect condensation heat transfer coefficient. The more non-condensable gas existed, the condensation heat transfer coefficient was decreased. Shen et al. studied condensation heat transfer at horizontal bundle tubes. Several variables such as coolant velocity, saturated pressure, and surface conditions were studied. As a result, surface modified brass tube and stainless tube showed higher condensation heat transfer coefficient as much as 1.3 and 1.4 times comparing with their bare tubes, in 70 kPa vacuum condition respectively. Rausch et al. studied dropwise condensation on ion-implanted titanium surface. Experimental study is performed to evaluate the performance of surface modified titanium tube in vacuum state. SAM coating is used to make super-hydrophobic surface of titanium tube. Preliminary analysis were performed considering filmwise and dropwise condensations, respectively. Experiment facility is almost prepared and the test result will be shown soon.

  15. Assesment of integrity of WWER steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splichal, K.; Brozova, A.; Zdarek, J.

    1992-01-01

    Full text: The leak rates measurement project was held to give experimental data enabling the Czechoslovak Atomic Agency Inspection to decree the change in the Technical Specification allowable limit of steam generator activity release on secondary side. The WWER types of nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia have horizontal steam generators. The tubes studying in frame of the project belong to steam generator WWER- 440 type, the diameter of tube is 16 mm, the wall thickness 1.4 mm. The subject of the project was the measurement of service leak rates of typical in service cracks. Secondary side stress corrosion cracks were determined as the typical crack created in service condition. These cracks were prepared in tubes artificially by exposition in chloride environment accompanied by an internal stress. The experimental device consisted of a pressure vessel connected with pressure water loop, a cooling vessel for leakage medium and a measuring vessel. The leak rates were determined as a slope of plots the leakage volume - time. Inside the pressure vessel the steam generator operation environment was simulated. It means: primary side of tube 12.5 MPa, Z90 deg. C, secondary side -4.6MPa, 250 deg. C, water service quality. We observed reduce of leak rate in course of time in each experiment. We suppose the tubes were stopped up by deposits formed in manufacturing of crack and in experiment. Our opinion has been proved by fractography. Project results in recommendation for in service leak rate limit based on safety factors with respect to critical crack lengths and for determination of tube plugging criteria. (author)

  16. Tube to tube excursive instability - sensitivities and transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.; Layland, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    A simple basic analysis of excursive instability in a boiler tube shows how it depends upon operating conditions and physical properties. A detailed mathematical model of an AGR boiler is used to conduct a steady state parameter sensitivity survey. It is possible from this basis to anticipate the effects of changes in operating conditions and changes in design parameters upon tube to tube stability. Dynamic responses of tubes operating near the stability threshold are examined using a mathematical model. Simulated excursions are triggered by imparting small abrupt pressure changes on the boiler inlet pressure. The influences of the magnitude of the pressure change, waterside friction factor and gas side coupling between tubes are examined. (author)

  17. Plain film diagnosis of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.V. Jr.; Torres, W.E.; Clements, J.L. Jr.; Gedgaudas-McClees, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    One of the first examinations obtained routinely in abdominal radiography is the plain radiograph of the abdomen. The liver occupies anywhere from 15 to 30 percent of the area on such examinations. Thus, it is important to pay particular attention to the region of the liver and obtain as much information as possible from these films. The purpose of this chapter is to review the normal radiographic anatomy and pathology. Also, pathologic calcifications, gas collections, unusual collections of fat, and the systemic manifestations of hepatic disease are discussed within this chapter

  18. Independent tube verification and dynamic tracking in et inspection of nuclear steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiongzi, Li; Zhongxue, Gan; Lance, Fitzgibbons

    2001-01-01

    The full text follows. In the examination of pressure boundary tubes in steam generators of commercial pressurized water nuclear power plants (PWR's), it is critical to know exactly which particular tube is being accessed. There are no definitive landmarks or markings on the individual tubes. Today this is done manually, it is tedious, and interrupts the normal inspection work, and is difficult due to the presence of water on the tube surface, plug ends instead of tube openings in the field of view, and varying lighting quality. In order to eliminate the human error and increase the efficiency of operation, there is a need to identify tube position during the inspection process, independent of robot encoder position and motion. A process based on a Cognex MVS-8200 system and its application function package has been developed to independently identify tube locations. ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power's Outage Services group, USPPL in collaboration with ABB Power Plant Laboratories' Advanced Computers and Controls department has developed a new vision-based Independent Tube Verification system (GENESIS-ITVS-TM ). The system employ's a model-based tube-shape detection algorithm and dynamic tracking methodology to detect the true tool position and its offsets from identified tube location. GENESIS-ITVS-TM is an automatic Independent Tube Verification System (ITVS). Independent tube verification is a tube validation technique using computer vision, and not using any robot position parameters. This process independently counts the tubes in the horizontal and vertical axes of the plane of the steam generator tube sheet as the work tool is moved. Thus it knows the true position in the steam generator, given a known starting point. This is analogous to the operator's method of counting tubes for verification, but it is automated. GENESIS-ITVS-TM works independent of the robot position, velocity, or acceleration. The tube position information is solely obtained from

  19. Jose Cabrera (Zorita) tube examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchirka, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Jose Cabrera (Zorita) tube examination procedures are discussed. This plant continues to use phosphate water chemistry (sodium/phosphate ratio = 2.1). Three hot leg tube segments were pulled from the Jose Cabera (Zorita) plant in 1985. One tube had a field EC indication on the OD at the first tube support plate and the other two had field EC indications on their ID about 3 inches above the bottom of the tube sheet. All three tubes were initially sent to Battelle for preliminary NDE and decontamination. Segments of two tubes were sent to Westinghouse for destructive examination. The results of the laboratory eddy current and radiographic examinations are given. The results of the visual examinations are also given. The tube with OD indications was destructively examined and shallow intergranular pitting and intergranular attack, up to 2 mils deep, were found on the OD in the tube sheet region. Local areas of IGA, up to 5 mils deep, were found on the OD within the tube support plate region. A summary of this information together with supporting micrographs is given. It was hypothesized that a caustic crevice environment was the cause of this mild degradation. Shallow areas of thinning or wastage, up to 3 mils, were found just above the top of the tube sheet in the sludge pile region. Even more shallow wastage was found at the edges of support plate locations. This wastage is believed to be the remnant of early plant chemistry when a higher sodium/phosphate ratio and higher phosphate concentration were allowed

  20. Tube for irradiation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehrich, K.; Vogt, H.

    1979-01-01

    This patent describes a tube for irradiation equipment for limiting an emergent beam, with a baseplate, possessing a central aperture, intended for attaching to the equipment, as well as four carrier plates, each of which possesses a limiting edge and a sliding edge located at right angles thereto. The carrier plates are located parallel to the baseplate, the limiting edge of each carrier plate resting against the sliding edge of the adjacent carrier plate and each of the two mutually opposite pairs of carrier plates being displaceable, parallel to the direction of its sliding edges and symmetrically to the center of the transmission aperture, for the purpose of continuously varying the transmission aperture defined by the limiting edges, during which displacement each of the displaced carrier plates carries with it the carrier plate, resting against the limiting edge of the former plate, parallel to the direction of the limiting edge of the latter plate. 8 claims

  1. Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad K Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma (PFTC is rare and accounts for about 0.3% of all gynecologic cancers. Less than 1500 cases have been reported in the literature. It arises in postmenopausal women and typically presents with abdominal pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding and watery discharge. However, a correct diagnosis is rarely achieved preoperative, and in many cases, the diagnosis is made after incidental surgery for unrelated conditions commonly being ovarian carcinoma . Compared with ovarian carcinoma, PFTC more often presents at early stages, but it has a worse prognosis. PFTC is usually managed in the same manner as ovarian cancer. We report a case of Left PFTC that presented as Left ovarian mass, and we briefly review the literature.

  2. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Fujino, Michihira.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To equalize heavy water flow distribution by providing a nozzle for externally injecting heavy water from a vibration preventive plate to the upper portion to feed the heavy water in a pressure tube reactor and swallowing up heavy water in a calandria tank to supply the heavy water to the reactor core above the vibration preventive plate. Constitution: A moderator injection nozzle is mounted on the inner wall of a calandria tank. Heavy water is externally injected above the vibration preventive plate, and heavy water in the calandria tank is swallowed up to supply the heavy water to the core reactor above the vibration preventive plate. Therefore, the heavy water flow distribution can be equalized over the entire reactor core, and the distribution of neutron absorber dissolved in the heavy water is equalized. (Yoshihara, H.)

  3. A New Resonance Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Alan

    2017-12-01

    The measurement of the speed of sound in air with the resonance tube is a popular experiment that often yields accurate results. One approach is to hold a vibrating tuning fork over an air column that is partially immersed in water. The column is raised and lowered in the water until the generated standing wave produces resonance: this occurs at the point where sound is perceived to have maximum loudness, or at the point where the amplitude of the standing wave has maximum value, namely an antinode. An antinode coincides with the position of the tuning fork, beyond the end of the air column, which consequently introduces an end correction. One way to minimize this end correction is to measure the distance between consecutive antinodes.

  4. Horizontal Multinational Firms, Vertical Multinational Firms and Domestic Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Emami Namini (Julian); H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe build a dynamic general equilibrium model with 2 countries, horizontal and vertical multinational activity and endogenous domestic and foreign investment. It is found that horizontal multinational activity always leads to a complementary relationship between domestic and foreign

  5. Implications of Nash Bargaining for Horizontal Industry Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Richard E. Just; Siddhartha Mitra; Sinaia Netanyahu

    2005-01-01

    This article shows how horizontal industry integration can arise from transferable asymmetry of technologies and endowments. The Nash bargaining solution suggests that greater technological diversity among coordinating parties yields greater gains from horizontal integration. The framework fits the case where a firm with a superior technology franchises the technology by horizontal integration. The results appear to fit hog production where integration has been primarily horizontal and, in pa...

  6. Study of the Local Horizon. (Spanish Title: Estudio del Horizonte Local.) Estudo do Horizonte Local

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2009-12-01

    The study of the horizon is fundamental to easy the first observations of the students at any education center. A simple model, to be developed in each center, allows to easy the study and comprehension of the rudiments of astronomy. The constructed model is presented in turn as a simple equatorial clock, other models (horizontal and vertical) may be constructed starting from it. El estudio del horizonte es fundamental para poder facilitar las primeras observaciones de los alumnos en un centro educativo. Un simple modelo, que debe realizarse para cada centro, nos permite facilitar el estudio y la comprensión de los primeros rudimentos astronómicos. El modelo construido se presenta a su vez como un sencillo modelo de reloj ecuatorial y a partir de él se pueden construir otros modelos (horizontal y vertical). O estudo do horizonte é fundamental para facilitar as primeiras observações dos alunos num centro educativo. Um modelo simples, que deve ser feito para cada centro, permite facilitar o estudo e a compreensão dos primeiros rudimentos astronômicos. O modelo construído apresenta-se, por sua vez, como um modelo simples de relógio equatorial e a partir dele pode-se construir outros modelos (horizontal e vertical)

  7. Improper tube fixation causing a leaky cuff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Babita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaking endotracheal tube cuffs are common problems in intensive care units. We report a case wherein the inflation tube was damaged by the adhesive plaster used for tube fixation and resulted in leaking endotracheal tube cuff. We also give some suggestions regarding the tube fixation and some remedial measures for damaged inflation system.

  8. Characterization of tube support alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaia, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The involvement and relationship of carbon steel corrosion products in the tube denting phenomenon promoted an intensive research effort to: 1) understand, reproduce, and arrest the denting process, and 2) evaluate alternative tube support materials to provide additional corrosion resistance. The paper summarizes a corrosion testing program for the verification of type 405 stainless steel under acid or all volatile treatment conditions

  9. Radioisotope study of Eustachian tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rossi, G.; Campioni, P.; Vaccaro, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope studies of Eustachian tube are suggested in the preoperative phase of tympanoplasty, in order to assess tubal drainage and secretion. The use of gamma camera fitted to a computer allowed the AA, to calculate some semi-quantitative parameters for an exact assessment of the radioactivity transit from the tympanic cass up to the pharyngeal cavity, throughout the Eustachian tube. (orig.) [de

  10. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract Convergence ... is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this ...

  11. Tubing Cutter is Activated Hydraulically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsmith, D. G.; Richardson, J. I.

    1983-01-01

    Hydraulically-actuated tubing cutter severs tubing when operator squeezes handle grip. "Gooseneck" extension enables cutter to be used in areas where accessiblity is limited. Cutter has potential as flight-line tool and is useful in automobile and fire rescue work.

  12. Flaming on YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, Peter J.; Heuvelman, A.; Verleur, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this explorative study, flaming on YouTube was studied using surveys of YouTube users. Flaming is defined as displaying hostility by insulting, swearing or using otherwise offensive language. Three general conclusions were drawn. First, although many users said that they themselves do not flame,

  13. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on Social Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, ...

  14. Flowmeter with silicon flow tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Dijkstra, Marcel; Haneveld, J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2009-01-01

    A flowmeter comprising a system chip with a silicon substrate provided on a carrier, in an opening whereof at least one silicon flow tube is provided for transporting a medium whose flow rate is to be measured, said tube having two ends that issue via a wall of the opening into channels coated with

  15. Improved guide tube bulge tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaill, R.E.; Phillips, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    A guide tube bulge tool for securing control rod guide tubes to a fuel assembly grid, includes a cylinder having several flexible tines each of which is equipped with a semispherical radially outwardly extending projection. A tapered ram fits into the cylinder so as to force the tines outwardly when the ram is pulled into the cylinder while supporting the other tines. (UK)

  16. Thermohydraulic performance comparision of compound inserts for a turbulent flow through a circular tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapse Arvind A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of three different passive inserts are experimentally investigated for individual and compound insertion. Insert cross-section is altered along the length of test section for compound insertion. Test runs were conducted in a concentric circular tube in tube heat exchanger in the Reynolds number range of 8000 to 32000 with water as a working fluid. Enhancements in Nusselt number and friction factors are reported to be in the range of 38-234% and 55-524%, respectively, over plain tube. The average performance ratios based on equal pumping power are also reported and found in the range of 0.63-1.53. Based on experimental results, optimum combination for compound insertion is proposed.

  17. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareg, Walter F.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for confining molten metal with a horizontal alternating magnetic field. In particular, this invention employs a magnet that can produce a horizontal alternating magnetic field to confine a molten metal at the edges of parallel horizontal rollers as a solid metal sheet is cast by counter-rotation of the rollers.

  18. GABA sensitivity of spectrally classified horizontal cells in goldfish retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.; Kamermans, M.; Negishi, K.; Spekreijse, H.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the GABA sensitivity of horizontal cells in the isolated goldfish retina. After the glutamatergic input to the horizontal cells was blocked with DNQX, GABA depolarized the monophasic and biphasic horizontal cells. The pharmacology of these GABA-induced depolarizations was tested with the

  19. Kinetic Analysis of Horizontal Plyometric Exercise Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossow, Andrew J; Ebben, William P

    2018-05-01

    Kossow, AJ, DeChiara, TG, Neahous, SM, and Ebben, WP. Kinetic analysis of horizontal plyometric exercise intensity. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1222-1229, 2018-Plyometric exercises are frequently performed as part of a strength and conditioning program. Most studies assessed the kinetics of plyometric exercises primarily performed in the vertical plane. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the multiplanar kinetic characteristics of a variety of plyometric exercises, which have a significant horizontal component. This study also sought to assess sex differences in the intensity progression of these exercises. Ten men and 10 women served as subjects. The subjects performed a variety of plyometric exercises including the double-leg hop, standing long jump, single-leg standing long jump, bounding, skipping, power skipping, cone hops, and 45.72-cm hurdle hops. Subjects also performed the countermovement jump for comparison. All plyometric exercises were evaluated using a force platform. Dependent variables included the landing rate of force development and landing ground reaction forces for each exercise in the vertical, frontal, and sagittal planes. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance with repeated-measures for plyometric exercise type demonstrated main effects for exercise type for all dependent variables (p ≤ 0.001). There was no significant interaction between plyometric exercise type and sex for any of the variable assessed. Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons identified a number of differences between the plyometric exercises for the dependent variables assessed (p ≤ 0.05). These findings should be used to guide practitioners in the progression of plyometric exercise intensity, and thus program design, for those who require significant horizontal power in their sport.

  20. Horizontal well geosteering: planning, monitoring and geosteering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottahedeh, R.

    2008-11-15

    The geosteering process should not be seen as a process solely designated for the most expensive or highest profile horizontal wells. It can be regarded as another tool for improving the odds of success by remaining in the productive zone for longer periods of drilling. Also, it can be used to optimize the positioning of a horizontal wellbore in the sweet spots within the reservoir. The current process has been successfully applied to large infill drilling programs at over 40 wells for heavy oil, tight gas, conventional oil and gas plays and for Mannville coalbed methane (CBM) in Alberta. The service has been provided irrespective of location, as long as the Wellsite Information Transfer Standard Markup Language (WITSML)/Pason Satellite service is available. Exploration and production (E&P) companies are continuously being driven to reduce the cost per barrel of oil equivalent (BOE). E&P needs and technologies related to advanced and accurate directional drilling, communication of vital data in real-time through the internet, as well as reduced cycle time associated with advanced forward-looking 3D geo-modelling and visualization technologies, are currently converging. The motivation to reduce costs has been responsible for advancing the horizontal well geosteering process by incorporating the Measurement While Drilling (MWD) tool into mainstream drilling practices. The universal economic benefits gained can be found in all resource play types (conventional oil and gas, heavy oil, tight gas and coalbed methane). It is important to note that the process described here is essentially collaborative. For best results, there must be cooperation between the E&P operational geologist, wellsite geologist, directional driller and geo-modelling staff, as well as the engineering consultants involved in the project (i.e. the team as a whole).