WorldWideScience

Sample records for plain green cover

  1. High plains cover crop research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some recent statements have been made about the benefits of growing cover crops in mixtures as compared with single-species plantings of cover crops. Those stated benefits have included greatly reduced water use, enhanced soil microbiological activity, increased biomass productivity, and enhanced wa...

  2. Green's conjecture for general covers

    CERN Document Server

    Aprodu, Marian

    2011-01-01

    We establish Green's syzygy conjecture for classes of covers of curves of higher Clifford dimension. These curves have an infinite number of minimal pencils, in particular they do not verify a well-known Brill-Noether theoretic sufficient condition that implies Green's conjecture. Secondly, we study syzygies of curves with a fixed point free involution and prove that sections of Nikulin surfaces of minimal Picard number 9, verify the classical Green Conjecture but fail the Prym-Green Conjecture on syzygies of Prym-canonical curves. This provides an explicit locus in the moduli space R_g where Green's Conjecture is known to hold.

  3. Forests and Forest Cover - Green Infrastructure Gaps

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — These data provide restoration value rankings and ecological attributes associated with green infrastructure gaps. The Green Infrastructure Assessment was developed...

  4. Land cover changes associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin; Northern Great Plains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M; Kim, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    The Williston Basin in the Northern Great Plains has experienced rapid energy development since 2000. To evaluate the land cover changes resulting from recent (2000-2015) development, the area and previous land cover of all well pads (pads) constructed during this time were determined, the amount of disturbed and reclaimed land adjacent to pads was estimated, land cover changes were analyzed over time for three different well types, and the effects from future development were predicted. The previous land cover of the 12,990ha converted to pads was predominately agricultural (49.5%) or prairie (47.4%) with lesser amounts of developed (2.3%), aquatic (0.5%), and forest (0.4%). Additionally, 12,121ha has likely been disturbed and reclaimed. The area required per gas well remained constant through time while the land required per oil well increased initially and then decreased as development first shifted from conventional to unconventional drilling and then to multi-bore pads. For non-oil-and-gas wells (i.e. stratigraphic test wells, water wells, and injection wells), the area per well increased through time likely due to increased produced water disposal requirements. Future land cover change is expected to be 2.7 times greater than recent development with much of the development occurring in five counties in the core Bakken development area. Direct land cover change and disturbance from recent and expected development are predicted to affect 0.4% of the landscape across the basin; however, in the core Bakken development area, 2.3% of the landscape will be affected including 2.1% of the remaining grassland. Although future development will result in significant land cover change, evolving industry practices and proactive siting decisions, such as development along energy corridors and placing pads in areas previously altered by human activity, have the potential to reduce the ecological effects of future energy development in the Williston Basin.

  5. Land cover changes associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin; Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M.; Kim, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The Williston Basin in the Northern Great Plains has experienced rapid energy development since 2000. To evaluate the land cover changes resulting from recent (2000 – 2015) development, the area and previous land cover of all well pads (pads) constructed during this time was determined, the amount of disturbed and reclaimed land adjacent to pads was estimated, land cover changes were analyzed over time for three different well types, and the effects from future development were predicted. The previous land cover of the 12,990 ha converted to pads was predominately agricultural (49.5%) or prairie (47.4%) with lesser amounts of developed (2.3%), aquatic (0.5%), and forest (0.4%). Additionally, 12,121 ha have likely been disturbed and reclaimed. The area required per gas well remained constant through time while the land required per oil well increased initially and then decreased as development first shifted from conventional to unconventional drilling and then to multi-bore pads. For non-oil-and- gas wells (i.e. stratigraphic test wells, water wells, injection wells, etc.), the area per well increased through time likely due to increased produced water disposal requirements. Future land cover change is expected to be 2.7 times greater than recent development with much of the development occurring in five counties in the core Bakken development area. Direct land cover change and disturbance from recent and expected development are predicted to affect 0.4% of the landscape across the basin; however, in the core Bakken development area, 2.3% of the landscape will be affected including 2.1% of the remaining grassland. Although future development will result in significant land cover change, evolving industry practices and proactive siting decisions, such as development along energy corridors and placing pads in areas previously altered by human activity, have the potential to reduce the ecological effects of future energy development in the Williston Basin.

  6. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Green Bay, WI Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) dataset comprises 936 km2 around the city of Green Bay, surrounding towns, tribal lands and rural areas in...

  7. EnviroAtlas -- Green Bay, Wisconsin -- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Green Bay, WI one meter-scale urban land cover (LC) dataset comprises 936 km2 around the city of Green Bay, surrounding towns, tribal lands and rural areas in...

  8. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Green Bay, WI one meter-scale urban land cover (LC) dataset comprises 936 km2 around the city of Green Bay, surrounding towns, tribal lands and rural areas in...

  9. The dream of a green economy: cover story

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musvoto, Constansia D

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available by agriculture (an agricultural green economy) is particularly highlighted as offering potential solutions to current social, economic and environmental challenges which humanity faces. These challenges include food insecurity, climate change and increasing...

  10. Estimation of green water footprint of animal feed for beef cattle production in Southern Great Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Kannan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our study is to safeguard and promote regional beef production while mitigating its environmental footprint. Conducting a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA including green water footprint (GWF is one of the objectives. This manuscript describes the estimation of GWF of animal feed crops including grasses of native range and introduced pasture, winter pasture and small grains typical to Southern Great Plains. The estimates are based on modeled evapotranspiration from Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX model under Nutrient Tracking Tool (NTT framework. NTT simulated crop growth, water balance, animal grazing, and manure management using 47 years of weather data from 1960. Our results aggregated by county indicate grasses in the native range and field crops used as winter pasture show smaller GWF than grasses in the introduced pasture and small grains. Animal stocking rate appears to be directly correlated with water requirement to produce a unit quantity of forage.

  11. Building green covering for a sustainable use of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Campiotti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the growth of the cities increased built and paved areas, energy use and heat generation. The phenomenon of urban warming, called urban heat island, influences negatively outdoor comfort conditions, pollutants concentration, energy demand for air conditioning, as well as increases environmental impact due to the demand of energy generation. A sustainable technology for improving the energy efficiency of buildings is the use of green roofs and walls in order to reduce the energy consumption for conditioning in summer and improve the thermal insulation in winter. The use of green roofs and walls can contribute to mitigate the phenomenon of heat island, the emissions of greenhouse gases, and the storm water runoff affecting human thermal comfort, air quality and energy use of the buildings. Recently, a number of municipalities started to adopt regulations and constructive benefits for renovated and new buildings which incorporate green roofs and walls. The aim of this paper is to describe the green roofs and walls plant technology.

  12. Vegetation type classification and vegetation cover percentage estimation in urban green zone using pleiades imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisakti, Bambang

    2017-01-01

    Open green space in the urban area has aims to maintain the availability of land as a water catchment area, creating aspects of urban planning through a balance between the natural environment and the built environment that are useful for the public needs. Local governments have to make the green zone plan map and monitor the green space changes in their territory. Medium and high resolution satellite imageries have been widely utilized to map and monitor the changes of vegetation cover as an indicator of green space area. This paper describes the use of pleaides imagery to classify vegetation types and estimate vegetation cover percentage in the green zone. Vegetation cover was mapped using a combination of NDVI and blue band. Furthermore, vegetation types in the green space were classified using unsupervised and supervised (ISODATA and MLEN) methods. Vegetation types in the study area were divided into sparse vegetation, low-medium vegetation and medium-high vegetation. The classification accuracies were 97.9% and 98.9% for unsupervised and supervised method respectively. The vegetation cover percentage was determined by calculating the ratio between the vegetation type area and the green zone area. These information are useful to support green zone management activities.

  13. Remote Sensing of Fractional Green Vegetation Cover Using Spatially-Interpolated Endmembers

    OpenAIRE

    Ryutaro Tateishi; Brian Johnson; Toshiyuki Kobayashi

    2012-01-01

    Fractional green vegetation cover (FVC) is a useful parameter for many environmental and climate-related applications. A common approach for estimating FVC involves the linear unmixing of two spectral endmembers in a remote sensing image; bare soil and green vegetation. The spectral properties of these two endmembers are typically determined based on field measurements, estimated using additional data sources (e.g., soil databases or land cover maps), or extracted directly from the imagery. M...

  14. ANWR progress report FY87: Accuracy assessment of Landsat land cover maps of the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Accuracy assessments of two versions of Landsat-assisted land cover maps were conducted on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Ground...

  15. Decoupling factors affecting plant diversity and cover on extensive green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIvor, J Scott; Margolis, Liat; Puncher, Curtis L; Carver Matthews, Benjamin J

    2013-11-30

    Supplemental irrigation systems are often specified on green roofs to ensure plant cover and growth, both important components of green roof performance and aesthetics. Properties of the growing media environment too can alter the assemblage of plant species able to thrive. In this study we determine how plant cover, above ground biomass and species diversity are influenced by irrigation and growing media. Grass and forb vegetative cover and biomass were significantly greater in organic based growing media but there was no effect of supplemental irrigation, with two warm season grasses dominating in those treatments receiving no supplemental irrigation. On the other hand, plant diversity declined without irrigation in organic media, and having no irrigation in inorganic growing media resulted in almost a complete loss of cover. Sedum biomass was less in inorganic growing media treatments and species dominance shifted when growing media organic content increased. Our results demonstrate that supplemental irrigation is required to maintain plant diversity on an extensive green roof, but not necessarily plant cover or biomass. These results provide evidence that planting extensive green roofs with a mix of plant species can ensure the survival of some species; maintaining cover and biomass when supplemental irrigation is turned off to conserve water, or during extreme drought.

  16. Spatially explicit land-use and land-cover scenarios for the Great Plains of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, Terry L.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Bouchard, Michelle A.; Reker, Ryan R.; Bennett, Stacie L.; Sleeter, Rachel R.; Kanengieter, Ronald L.; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2012-01-01

    The Great Plains of the United States has undergone extensive land-use and land-cover change in the past 150 years, with much of the once vast native grasslands and wetlands converted to agricultural crops, and much of the unbroken prairie now heavily grazed. Future land-use change in the region could have dramatic impacts on ecological resources and processes. A scenario-based modeling framework is needed to support the analysis of potential land-use change in an uncertain future, and to mitigate potentially negative future impacts on ecosystem processes. We developed a scenario-based modeling framework to analyze potential future land-use change in the Great Plains. A unique scenario construction process, using an integrated modeling framework, historical data, workshops, and expert knowledge, was used to develop quantitative demand for future land-use change for four IPCC scenarios at the ecoregion level. The FORE-SCE model ingested the scenario information and produced spatially explicit land-use maps for the region at relatively fine spatial and thematic resolutions. Spatial modeling of the four scenarios provided spatial patterns of land-use change consistent with underlying assumptions and processes associated with each scenario. Economically oriented scenarios were characterized by significant loss of natural land covers and expansion of agricultural and urban land uses. Environmentally oriented scenarios experienced modest declines in natural land covers to slight increases. Model results were assessed for quantity and allocation disagreement between each scenario pair. In conjunction with the U.S. Geological Survey's Biological Carbon Sequestration project, the scenario-based modeling framework used for the Great Plains is now being applied to the entire United States.

  17. The Effect of Land Cover/Land Use Changes on the Regional Climate of the USA High Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Mutiibwa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the detection of the signatures of land use/land cover (LULC changes on the regional climate of the US High Plains. We used the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI as a proxy of LULC changes and atmospheric CO2 concentrations as a proxy of greenhouse gases. An enhanced signal processing procedure was developed to detect the signatures of LULC changes by integrating autoregression and moving average (ARMA modeling and optimal fingerprinting technique. The results, which are representative of the average spatial signatures of climate response to LULC change forcing on the regional climate of the High Plains during the 26 years of the study period (1981–2006, show a significant cooling effect on the regional temperatures during the summer season. The cooling effect was attributed to probable evaporative cooling originating from the increasing extensive irrigation in the region. The external forcing of atmospheric CO2 was included in the study to suppress the radiative warming effect of greenhouse gases, thus, enhancing the LULC change signal. The results show that the greenhouse gas radiative warming effect in the region is significant, but weak, compared to the LULC change signal. The study demonstrates the regional climatic impact of anthropogenic induced atmospheric-biosphere interaction attributed to LULC change, which is an additional and important climate forcing in addition to greenhouse gas radiative forcing in High Plains region.

  18. Land-Cover Change in the Central Irregular Plains, 1973-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, Krista A.

    2009-01-01

    Spearheaded by the Geographic Analysis and Monitoring Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Land Cover Trends is a research project focused on understanding the rates, trends, causes, and consequences of contemporary United States land-use and land-cover change. Using the EPA Level III ecoregions as the geographic framework, scientists process geospatial data collected between 1973 and 2000 to characterize ecosystem responses to land-use changes. The 27-year study period was divided into five temporal periods: 1973-1980, 1980-1986, 1986-1992, 1992-2000 and 1973-2000. General land-cover classes for these periods were interpreted from Landsat Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery to categorize land-cover change and evaluate using a modified Anderson Land Use Land Cover Classification System for image interpretation. The rates of land-cover change are estimated using a stratified, random sampling of 10-kilometer (km) by 10-km blocks allocated within each ecoregion. For each sample block, satellite images are used to interpret land-cover change. Additionally, historical aerial photographs from similar timeframes and other ancillary data such as census statistics and published literature are used. The sample block data are then incorporated into statistical analyses to generate an overall change matrix for the ecoregion. These change statistics are applicable for different levels of scale, including total change for the individual sample blocks and change estimates for the entire ecoregion. The results illustrate that there is no single profile of land-cover change but instead point to geographic variability that results from land uses within ecoregions continuously adapting to various factors including environmental, technological, and socioeconomic.

  19. Remote Sensing of Fractional Green Vegetation Cover Using Spatially-Interpolated Endmembers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutaro Tateishi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fractional green vegetation cover (FVC is a useful parameter for many environmental and climate-related applications. A common approach for estimating FVC involves the linear unmixing of two spectral endmembers in a remote sensing image; bare soil and green vegetation. The spectral properties of these two endmembers are typically determined based on field measurements, estimated using additional data sources (e.g., soil databases or land cover maps, or extracted directly from the imagery. Most FVC estimation approaches do not consider that the spectral properties of endmembers may vary across space. However, due to local differences in climate, soil type, vegetation species, etc., the spectral characteristics of soil and green vegetation may exhibit positive spatial autocorrelation. When this is the case, it may be useful to take these local variations into account for estimating FVC. In this study, spatial interpolation (Inverse Distance Weighting and Ordinary Kriging was used to predict variations in the spectral characteristics of bare soil and green vegetation across space. When the spatially-interpolated values were used in place of scene-invariant endmember values to estimate FVC in an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER image, the accuracy of FVC estimates increased, providing evidence that it may be useful to consider the effects of spatial autocorrelation for spectral mixture analysis.

  20. Effects of green manure cover crops on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Li, Nian-Jhen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Tang, Li-Cheng; Chi, Hsin

    2014-06-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.) is an important pest of numerous agro-economic crops, including green manure cover crops. In Taiwan, sesbania (Sesbanin roxburghii Merr.), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), and rapeseed (Brassicae campestris L. variety chinensis) are the most popular green manure crops; sesbania and sunn hemp are commonly planted in warm seasons, whereas rapeseed is grown in the winter. In this study, life-table data for S. litura reared on these three green manures were collected to evaluate their roles as refuges of this pest. The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase of S. litura were the highest when reared on sesbania (1428.1 offspring, 0.2327 d(-1), 1.2621 d(-1)), followed by sunn hemp (778.4 offspring, 0.2070 d(-1), 1.2300 d(-1)) and rapeseed (737.6 offspring, 0.2040 d(-1), 1.2263 d(-1)). The high growth rates on these green manure crops show that they can serve as potential breeding sites for S. litura. Population projection demonstrated the rapid growth of S. litura on sesbania, sunn hemp, and rapeseed as well. Because most growers have traditionally ignored pest management in green manure fields, the mass emergence of S. litura in these fields may cause unexpected infestations in nearby vegetable, corn, and peanut crops. This study shows that the use of green manures as sources of nutrients should be critically reassessed and an area-wide pest management program should be instituted by taking the population of S. litura in green manure fields into consideration.

  1. Morphology, composition, age and spatial extent of a layered superficial formation covering the plains around Valles Marineris, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Deit, L.; Bourgeois, O.; Le Mouélic, S.; Quantin-Nataf, C.; Mège, D.; Sotin, C.; Massé, M.; Sarago, V.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction An extensive light-toned layered formation covers the plains surrounding Valles Marineris on Mars. It is particularly visible south of Ius Chasma and of Melas Chasma [1], southwest of Juventae Chasma [2,3], north of Tithonium Chasma and west of Ganges Chasma. Some deposits of this formation may be enriched in hydrated silicates such as hydrated glasses, chalcedony, opal or other hydrated Si-rich phases according to CRISM data [1]. From an analysis of HRSC, THEMIS, MOC, HiRISE, MOLA PEDR, OMEGA and CRISM data, we discuss the morphology, the composition, the age, the spatial extent and the emplacement processes of these layered deposits (LDs). Here we focus on two regions where the LDs are particularly spectacular: Ganges Chasma and Juventae Chasma. Regional map We have compiled a regional map of the LDs around Valles Marineris (orange in Fig. 1a). In some cases their spatial extent is unclear due to their being covered either by dark material or by dust that appears yellow on IRB color HiRISE images (Fig 1b). Dashed contours on Fig. 1a outline these poorly constrained boundaries, whereas plain contours correspond to regions where the stratigraphic contact between the LDs and the underlying basement is unambiguous. The light-toned LDs are located stratigraphically and topographically above the basaltic basement that constitutes the plains surrounding Valles Marineris. The total thickness of the LDs does not exceed a hundred meters on average. They consist of subparallel light-toned layers of various thicknesses that are apparently interbedded with darker beds (Fig. 1b). This difference in albedo can be due to variations in mineralogical composition, topographic slope, roughness, grain size or state of erosion of the different layers, or to partial covering of certain layers by a dark mantle. Ganges Chasma West of Ganges Chasma, the LDs rest topographically and stratigraphically above the Noachian plains that have been defined as the Npl2 unit [4] (Fig. 1

  2. Vegetative cover and PAHs accumulation in soils of urban green space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chi; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Jiao, Wentao

    2012-02-01

    We investigated how urban land uses influence soil accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the urban green spaces composed of different vegetative cover. How did soil properties, urbanization history, and population density affect the outcomes were also considered. Soils examined were obtained at 97 green spaces inside the Beijing metropolis. PAH contents of the soils were influenced most significantly by their proximity to point source of industries such as the coal combustion installations. Beyond the influence circle of industrial emissions, land use classifications had no significant effect on the extent of PAH accumulation in soils. Instead, the nature of vegetative covers affected PAH contents of the soils. Tree-shrub-herb and woodland settings trapped more airborne PAH and soils under these vegetative patterns accumulated more PAHs than those of the grassland. Urbanization history, population density and soil properties had no apparent impact on PAHs accumulations in soils of urban green space. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Remotely sensed vicennial changes of green phytomass, Salix cover, and leaf turnover in a sedge-shrub tundra, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, K.; Kim, Y.; Tsuyuzaki, S.; Watanabe, M.; Kadosaki, G.; Sawada, Y.; Ishikawa, M.; Fukuda, M.

    2007-12-01

    We obtained the relationship between spectral indices, green phytomass, Salix - non-Salix ratio, and leaf turnover in a sedge-shrub tundra, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), Alaska based on the field observations of spectral reflectance and phytomass, and we used Landsat TM images acquired in July of 1986, 1994, and 2006 and the time series of NOAA AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) for evaluating the vicennial changes. 51% of Beaufort coastal plain, Alaska was occupied by lowland moist sedge-shrub tundra, lowland wet sedge tundra, riverine moist sedge-shrub tundra, and riverine wet sedge tundra, where willow shrubs and sedges dominate. We set a 50-m × 50-m plot located on the floodplain of Jago River in ANWR. Shrub (Salix lanata L.) and sedge (Carex bigelowii Torr.) dominated in the plot. Ten 0.5-m × 0.5-m quadrates (Salix} quadrates) were set on the Salix cover and ten 0.5-m × 0.5-m quadrates (non-Salix quadrates) were set on the ground that was not covered with Salix lanata. Salix lanata in each of the Salix quadrates was harvested, and the leaf area index (LAI) and the oven-dried weights of the photosynthetic (leaf) and non-photosynthetic parts were measured. After harvesting Salix, other green plants were harvested and the oven-dried weights of the plants were measured. The Salix quadrates were spectrally measured with a spectroradiometer at a wavelength of 350 - 2500 nm before and after harvesting Salix and after harvesting other green plants. Non-Salix quadrates were also spectrally measured with the spectroradiometer. The coefficients of determination (R2) of the green phytomass, Salix - non-Salix ratio, and leaf turnover estimations from the spectral indices were 0.63, 0.57, and 0.79, respectively. These estimations were used for evaluating the vicennial changes using the satellite data.

  4. Estimating Cotton Nitrogen Nutrition Status Using Leaf Greenness and Ground Cover Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrah Melissa Muharam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessing nitrogen (N status is important from economic and environmental standpoints. To date, many spectral indices to estimate cotton chlorophyll or N content have been purely developed using statistical analysis approach where they are often subject to site-specific problems. This study describes and tests a novel method of utilizing physical characteristics of N-fertilized cotton and combining field spectral measurements made at different spatial scales as an approach to estimate in-season chlorophyll or leaf N content of field-grown cotton. In this study, leaf greenness estimated from spectral measurements made at the individual leaf, canopy and scene levels was combined with percent ground cover to produce three different indices, named TCCLeaf, TCCCanopy, and TCCScene. These indices worked best for estimating leaf N at early flowering, but not for chlorophyll content. Of the three indices, TCCLeaf showed the best ability to estimate leaf N (R2 = 0.89. These results suggest that the use of green and red-edge wavelengths derived at the leaf scale is best for estimating leaf greenness. TCCCanopy had a slightly lower R2 value than TCCLeaf (0.76, suggesting that the utilization of yellow and red-edge wavelengths obtained at the canopy level could be used as an alternative to estimate leaf N in the absence of leaf spectral information. The relationship between TCCScene and leaf N was the lowest (R2 = 0.50, indicating that the estimation of canopy greenness from scene measurements needs improvement. Results from this study confirmed the potential of these indices as efficient methods for estimating in-season leaf N status of cotton.

  5. User's Guide for the Land-Cover map of the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A landcover map of the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Alaska was produced using LANOSA T Thematic Mapper satellite imagery,...

  6. Remote sensing and GIS-based integrated analysis of land cover change in Duzce plain and its surroundings (north western Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikiel, Cercis; Ustaoglu, Beyza; Dutucu, Ayse Atalay; Kilic, Derya Evrim

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to research natural land cover change caused by the permanent effects of human activities in Duzce plain and its surroundings, and to determine the current status of the land cover. For this purpose, two Landsat TM images were used in the study for the years 1987 and 2010. These images are analysed by using data image processing techniques in ERDAS Imagine©10.0 and ArcGIS©10.0 software. Land cover change nomenclature is classified according to the Coordination of Information on the Environment Level 2 Classification (1--urban fabric, 2--industrial, commercial and transport units, 3--heterogeneous agricultural areas, 4--forests, and 5--inland wetlands). Furthermore, the image analysis results are confirmed by the field research. According to the results, a decrease of 33.5 % was recorded in forest areas from 24,840.7 to 16,529.0 ha; an increase of 11.2 % was recorded in heterogeneous agricultural areas from 47,702.7 to 53,051.7 ha. Natural vegetation, which is the large part of land cover in the research area, has been changing rapidly because of rapid urbanisation and agricultural activities. As a result, it is concluded that significant changes have occurred on the natural land cover between the years 1987 and 2010 in the Duzce plain and its surroundings.

  7. Screening Green Manure Cover Crops for their Allelopathic Effects on Some Important Weeds Found in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runzika, M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Weed control is a serious problem in smallholder conservation agriculture farming areas in Zimbabwe. Green Manure Cover Crops (GMCCs, which improve soil fertility and reduce weeds through allelopathy, are likely to reduce the cost of weed control in these areas. A laboratory study was conducted at the University of Zimbabwe to investigate the effect of extracts of eleven GMCCs on the germination percentage, radicle and plumule length of Bidens pilosa, Eleusine indica and Pennisatum glaucum (pearl millet. A green house experiment was also done to determine the allelopathic potential of these GMCC extracts applied as soil incorporated residues on the emergence and dry matter production of E. indica, B. pilosa and Acanthospermum hispidum. GMCC extracts significantly reduced germination, radicle and plumule length of Pennisatum glaucum (P < 0.05 except for Crotalaria grahamiana and Raphanus sativas which had no effect on germination of Pearl millet. The emergence and dry matter of B. pilosa, E. indica and A. hispidum were significantly reduced by these legumes (P < 0.05 with the exception of common vetch (Vicia sativa which stimulated the emergence of A. hispidum. Most of the legumes that were used in this study have allelopathic effects on B. pilosa, E. indica and A. hispidum.

  8. Ly$\\alpha$ emission from Green Peas: the role of circumgalactic gas density, covering, and kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, Alaina; Martin, Crystal; Erb, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    We report Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph observations of the Ly$\\alpha$ emission and interstellar absorption lines in a sample of ten star-forming galaxies at z~0.2. Selected on the basis of high equivalent width optical emission lines, the sample, dubbed "Green Peas," make some of the best analogs for young galaxies in an early Universe. We detect Ly$\\alpha$ emission in all ten galaxies, and 9/10 show double-peaked line profiles suggestive of low H I column density. We measure Ly$\\alpha$/H$\\alpha$ flux ratios of 0.5-5.6, implying that 5% to 60% of Ly$\\alpha$ photons escape the galaxies. These data confirm previous findings that low-ionization metal absorption (LIS) lines are weaker when Ly$\\alpha$ escape fraction and equivalent width are higher. However, contrary to previously favored interpretations of this trend, increased Ly$\\alpha$ output cannot be the result of a varying H I covering: the Lyman absorption lines (Ly$\\beta$ and higher) show a covering fraction near unity for gas with N...

  9. Continuous evaluation of land cover restoration of tsunami struck plains in Japan by using several kinds of optical satellite image in time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, H.

    2015-09-01

    The Mw 9.0 earthquake that struck Japan in 2011 was followed by a large-scale tsunami in the Tohoku region. The damage in the coastal plane was extensively displayed through many satellite images. Furthermore, satellite imaging is requested for the ongoing evaluation of the restoration process. The reconstruction of the urban structure, farmlands, grassland, and coastal forest that collapsed under the large tsunami requires effective long-term monitoring. Moreover, the post-tsunami land cover dynamics can be effectively modeled using time-constrained satellite data to establish a prognosis method for the mitigation of future tsunami impact. However, the remote satellite capture of a long-term restoration process is compromised by accumulating spatial resolution effects and seasonal influences. Therefore, it is necessary to devise a method for data selection and dataset structure. In the present study, the restoration processes were investigated in four years following the disaster in a part of the Sendai plain, northeast Japan, from same-season satellite images acquired by different optical sensors. Coastal plains struck by the tsunami are evaluated through land-cover classification processing using the clustering method. The changes in land cover are analyzed from time-series optical images acquired by Landsat-5/TM, 7/ETM+, 8/OLI, EO-1/ALI, and ALOS-1/AVNIR-2. The study reveals several characteristics of the change in the inundation area and signs of artificial and natural restoration.

  10. Pricing rainbow, green, blue and grey water: tree cover and geopolitics of climatic teleconnections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordwijk, van M.; Namirembe, S.; Catacutan, D.; Williamson, D.; Gebrekirstos, A.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric moisture (“rainbow water”) is the source of all green, blue and grey water flows. Current water-related legislation and policies have moved beyond blue (water allocation) and grey (waste water treatment) water concerns to incorporate the green water concept of additional water use by fas

  11. Pricing rainbow, green, blue and grey water: tree cover and geopolitics of climatic teleconnections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordwijk, van M.; Namirembe, S.; Catacutan, D.; Williamson, D.; Gebrekirstos, A.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric moisture (“rainbow water”) is the source of all green, blue and grey water flows. Current water-related legislation and policies have moved beyond blue (water allocation) and grey (waste water treatment) water concerns to incorporate the green water concept of additional water use by fas

  12. Nutrient cycling potential of camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz.) as a cover crop in the US Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Marisol; Samarappuli, Dulan

    2017-04-01

    Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.] is an industrial oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family with multiple uses. Currently, camelina is not used as a cover crop, but it has the potential to be used as such in maize-soybean-wheat cropping systems. The objectives of this study were to determine the agronomic performance and nutrient scavenging potential of winter camelina in comparison with other common cover crops. Experiments were conducted in Fargo, ND in 2015 and 2016, and in Prosper, ND in 2015. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. The main plot was the sowing date and the subplot were camelina cultivars as well as other common cover crops in the area. Sowing dates were targeted to 15 August and September 1, although the final dates varied slightly each year. Biomass yield, N content of the biomass N uptake and P uptake was evaluated. Winter camelina N and P uptake ranged between 21 and 30.5 kg N ha-1 and 3.4 to 5.3 kg P ha-1. The nutrient scavenging potential of winter camelina was similar to other cover crops although slightly lower than turnip (Brassica rapa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars which had significantly higher P uptake than winter camelina and the other cover crops in the study. An evaluation of spring regrowth and cover indicated that only rye, winter camelina, and pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) survived the winter, although a few plants of triticale (x Trticosecale Witt.) and rape were found on a few plots. Because of the high variability on the plots there were no significant differences among the surviving cover crops on soil coverage. The soil coverage for rye cultivars was 25 and 35% and for camelina cv. Bison was 27%.In 2016, biomass yield was not significant for sowing date, cultivars, or their interaction. Winter camelina cultivars biomass yield fluctuated between 1.15 and 2.33 Mg dry matter ha-1 on the first sowing

  13. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  14. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010) Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The Green Bay, WI one...

  15. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Land Cover by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of each block group that is classified as impervious, forest, and green space. Forest is combination of trees and...

  16. EnviroAtlas -- Green Bay, Wisconsin -- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010) Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The Green Bay, WI one...

  17. Remote sensing and GIS for land use/cover mapping and integrated land management: case from the middle Ganga plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R B SINGH; Dilip KUMAR

    2012-01-01

    In India,land resources have reached a critical stage due to the rapidly growing population.This challenge requires an integrated approach toward hamessing land resources,while taking into account the vulnerable environmental conditions.Remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) based technologies may be applied to an area in order to generate a sustainable development plan that is optimally suited to the terrain and to the productive potential of the local resources.The present study area is a part of the middle Ganga plain,known as Son-Karamnasa interfluve,in India.Alternative land use systems and the integration of livestock enterprises with the agricultural system have been suggested for land resources management.The objective of this paper is to prepare a land resource development plan in order to increase the productivity of land for sustainable development.The present study will contribute necessary input for policy makers to improve the socio-economic and environmental conditions of the region.

  18. Water use, growth and yield of green gram under rainfed upland crop sequences in Gangetic Plains of Indian sub-tropics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different crop sequences on water use, growth and yield of green gram (Vigna radiata (L) Wilezek) during 1992-93 and 1993-94 under rainfed upland condition in Indo-Gangetic plains of West Bengal. Green gram sown in the month of March as pre-rainy (summer) season crop, as and when the winter crops vacated the land, produced highest dry matter of 372 gm-2 which was significantly highest in black gram-yellow sarson sequence.The results of the field experimentation revealed that green gram gave highest grain yield to the extent of 10.80 q/ha when sown after black gram (rainy season) followed by yellow sarson (winter season) while the crop produced 10.63 q/ha under sesame-yellow sarson sequence. Highest water use of 267mm was achieved in green gram under black gram-yellow sarson sequence and the crop gave water use efficiency of 4.07 kg ha-1mm-1 under black gram-yellow sarson sequences.

  19. Effect of land cover and green space on land surface temperature of a fast growing economic region in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, A.; Kanniah, K. D.; Ho, C. H.

    2015-10-01

    Green space must be increased in the development of new cities as green space can moderate temperature in the cities. In this study we estimated the land surface temperature (LST) and established relationships between LST and land cover and various vegetation and urban surface indices in the Iskandar Malaysia (IM) region. IM is one of the emerging economic gateways of Malaysia, and is envisaged to transform into a metropolis by 2025. This change may cause increased temperature in IM and therefore we conducted a study by using Landsat 5 image covering the study region (2,217 km2) to estimate LST, classify different land covers and calculate spectral indices. Results show that urban surface had highest LST (24.49 °C) and the lowest temperature was recorded in, forest, rubber and water bodies ( 20.69 to 21.02°C). Oil palm plantations showed intermediate mean LST values with 21.65 °C. We further investigated the relationship between vegetation and build up densities with temperature. We extracted 1000 collocated pure pixels of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI), Urban Index (UI) and LST in the study area. Results show a strong and significant negative correlation with (R2= -0.74 and -0.79) respectively between NDVI, NDWI and LST . Meanwhile a strong positive correlation (R2=0.8 and 0.86) exists between NDBI, UI and LST. These results show the importance of increasing green cover in urban environment to combat any adverse effects of climate change.

  20. It`s slim with a plain green cover: Australia`s management plan for polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brotherton, P.D. [Sustainable Solutions Pty Ltd/Australian Conservation Foundation, Victoria (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    In November 1995, the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC, the Council of State and National Environment Ministers) adopted a National Management Plan for PCBs. This was a significant milestone in the very long saga of Australian efforts to develop public policy and management structures for dealing with persistent organochlorine wastes. The author was part of a four-person consultation panel that carried out a public involvement program to assist and inform the process of developing the National Management Plan. The program involved, among other things, visiting every state and territory of Australia at least twice. This paper describes the development and delivery of the public involvement program, including ongoing interactions with Governments. The latter is often a complex (and many would say an unduly complex) matter in the federal system, where primary responsibility for waste management resides in the individual state/territory jurisdictions. The paper also attempts to draw lessons from the process. While some participants learned and acted upon some of these lessons quite early in the process, other participants (particularly governments) took longer to realize their importance and thus took longer to refrain from actions that might be regarded as not keeping faith with the activities they had set in process. Finally, the lessons learned here are contrasted with those drawn by participants in the process that led to the establishment and expansion of the Swan Hills facility in Alberta. While the outcomes of the Australian and Albertan processes appear to be very different, a number of the essential lessons to be drawn from the two processes are virtually identical. 13 refs.

  1. Dynamic Analysis of Land Cover in Four-Lake Area of Jianghan Plain Based on MODIS-EVI Time Series Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Wei-bin; XUE Lian; XIONG Qin-xue

    2012-01-01

    According to the time series data of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) in Four-Lake Area of Jianghan Plain during the period 2001-2007, we use Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS) to conduct cloud removing processing, and calculate the sum of square N of time series value of each pixel. The pixels with N>0.25 are classified as vegetation coverage area; the pixels with N<0.25 are classified as non-vegetation coverage area. As to vegetation coverage area, we use the second-order difference method to judge the frequency of peak value of EVI time series data. Within one year, the vegetation coverage area with peak value happening 1 time is woodland and grassland; the vegetation coverage area with peak value happening 2 times is arable land; the vegetation coverage area with peak value happening 3 times or more is vegetable land. Supervised classification method is used to identify cities, towns, water area in non-vegetation coverage area and woodland, grassland in vegetation coverage area. We draw the land cover classification diagram of Four-Lake Area in the period 2001-2007. In comparison with the land cover classification based on multitemporal ETM data in 2001, the difference of area of arable land is within 10%. Using MODIS-EVI data, we can rapidly and efficiently conduct land cover classification with low cost. The dynamic analysis results indicate that the area of arable land is in the process of declining, while the area of other cover types shows an increasing trend.

  2. Assessing the effectiveness of winter cover crop on nitrate reduction in two-paired sub-basins on the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Yeo, I. Y.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Mccarty, G.; Hively, W. D.; Lang, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) have been widely adopted to improve water quality throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW). Winter cover crops (WCC) use has been highlighted for the reduction of nitrate leaching over the fallow season. Although various WCC practices are currently conducted in local croplands, the water quality improvement benefits of WCC have not been studied thoroughly at the watershed scale. The objective of this study is to assess the long-term impacts of WCC on reducing nitrate loadings using a processed-based watershed model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Remote sensing based estimates of WCC biomass will be used to calibrate plant growth processes of SWAT and its nutrient cycling. The study will be undertaken in two-paired agricultural watersheds in the Coastal Plain of CBW. Multiple WCC practice scenarios will be prepared to investigate how nitrate loading varies with crop species, planting dates, and implementation areas. The performance of WCC on two-paired watersheds will be compared in order to understand the effects of different watershed characteristics on nitrate uptake by crops. The results will demonstrate the nitrate reduction efficiency of different WCC practices and identify the targeting area for WCC implementation at the watershed scale. This study will not only integrate remote sensing data into the physically based model but also extend our understandings of WCC functions. This will provide key information for effective conservation decision making. Key words: Water quality, Chesapeake Bay Watershed, Winter Cover Crop, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)

  3. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Tree Cover Configuration and Connectivity, Water Background

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset categorizes forest land cover into structural elements (e.g. core, edge, connector, etc.). In this community, forest is trees & forest...

  4. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Riparian Buffer Land Cover by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of different land cover types within 15- and 50-meters of hydrologically connected streams, rivers, and other water...

  5. Effects of over-winter green cover on soil solution nitrate concentrations beneath tillage land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premrov, Alina; Coxon, Catherine E; Hackett, Richard; Kirwan, Laura; Richards, Karl G

    2014-02-01

    There is a growing need to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural systems to increase food production while reducing negative environmental impacts. The efficacy of vegetation cover for reducing nitrate leaching in tillage systems during fallow periods has been widely investigated. Nitrate leaching reductions by natural regeneration (i.e. growth of weeds and crop volunteers) have been investigated to a lesser extent than reductions by planted cover crops. This study compares the efficacy of natural regeneration and a sown cover crop (mustard) relative to no vegetative cover under both a reduced tillage system and conventional plough-based system as potential mitigation measures for reducing over-winter soil solution nitrate concentrations. The study was conducted over three winter fallow seasons on well drained soil, highly susceptible to leaching, under temperate maritime climatic conditions. Mustard cover crop under both reduced tillage and conventional ploughing was observed to be an effective measure for significantly reducing nitrate concentrations. Natural regeneration under reduced tillage was found to significantly reduce the soil solution nitrate concentrations. This was not the case for the natural regeneration under conventional ploughing. The improved efficacy of natural regeneration under reduced tillage could be a consequence of potential stimulation of seedling germination by the autumn reduced tillage practices and improved over-winter plant growth. There was no significant effect of tillage practices on nitrate concentrations. This study shows that over winter covers of mustard and natural regeneration, under reduced tillage, are effective measures for reducing nitrate concentrations in free draining temperate soils.

  6. Green social cooperatives in Italy: a practical way to cover the three pillars of sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Osti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an introductory description of Italian green social cooperatives which are democratic nonprofit organizations specializing in the provision of environmental services. The background to this topic is the literature on the “third sector,” usually called social entrepreneurship, and the “sociology of environment,” mainly that part concerned with consumption and lifestyles. Green social cooperatives are a concrete attempt to unify the three pillars of sustainability. The analysis is divided into two parts. The first part highlights the challenges that the environmental crisis raises for social enterprises and considers three dimensions in particular: work integration, generalized or linear exchange, and the theory of the commons. The discussion reveals mismatches between the urgency of moving toward a sustainable world and the competences of social enterprises. The second part examines this asymmetry and uses the social cooperative, the main empirical expression of social enterprise in Italy, as its point of departure. The article proposes a typology with which to frame green social cooperatives and employs a qualitative approach to outline a concrete case for each type. The result is the emergence of a social area, at present decidedly underdeveloped and undersized, but with considerable potential for job creation and environmental services. The analysis demonstrates that social enterprises are interesting hybrids of economic and social sustainability, but to promote the environmental pillar of sustainability they must combine work and habitation (or production and consumption according to a logic of sufficiency.

  7. Influence of green top cover for soil protection ins Spanish olives trees. Root tensile strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A.; Casanova, C.; Solar, C.; Sobrino, E.; Delgado, M.; Miralles, H. R.; Martin, S. J.

    2009-07-01

    Natural development of certain top living covers is the best way for soil protection under arid climate conditions. a number of certain gramineas was experimental field trial for 5 years looking for soil cover protection and adaptability under the olives tree rows. Olives trees are a fully expanded crop in spain occupying 2.5 million of hectares. Is very interesting crop because one ha of pre-treated olive tree pruned residues will produce 0.3 t of ethanol (Cara, C. et al. 2007). (Author)

  8. The reasons for the color green fluorite Mehmandooye cover using UV spectroscopy and XRF results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzadeh, Sara; Zahiri, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Fluorite mineral or fluorine with chemical formula CaF2 is most important mineralfluor in nature. This mineral crystallization to colors yellow, green, pink, blue, purple, colorless and sometimes black andin cubic system crystallized.assemi transparent and glass with polished.fluoritethe purity include 48/9% fluoreand 51/9% calcium. How the creation colors in minerals different greatly indebted to Kurt Nassau research from Bell Labs, Murray Hill, New Jersey.almostall the mechanisms that cause color in minerals, are the result of the interaction of light waves with the electrons The main factors affecting the color generation include the following: 1)the presence of a constructive element inherent (essential ingredient mineral composition) 2)The presence of a minor impurities (such a element as involved in latticesolid solution) 3) appearancedefects in the crystal structure 4) There are some physical boundaries with distances very small and delicate, like blades out of the solution (which may be the play of colors or Chatvyansy) 5) Mixing mechanical impurities dispersed in a host mineral Based on the results of the analysis, XRF and UV spectrum and also based on the results of ICP, because the color green fluorite examined, the focus color (F_center) and also the presence of some elementsintermediate (such as Y (yttrium). [1] Bill, H., Calas, G. Color centres associated rare earth ions and the origin of coloration in natural fluorites// PhysChem Min, (1978), v 3, pp. 117-131.

  9. Assessment of the AquaCrop model for use in simulation of irrigated winter wheat canopy cover, biomass, and grain yield in the North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-liang Jin

    Full Text Available Improving winter wheat water use efficiency in the North China Plain (NCP, China is essential in light of current irrigation water shortages. In this study, the AquaCrop model was used to calibrate, and validate winter wheat crop performance under various planting dates and irrigation application rates. All experiments were conducted at the Xiaotangshan experimental site in Beijing, China, during seasons of 2008/2009, 2009/2010, 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. This model was first calibrated using data from 2008/2009 and 2009/2010, and subsequently validated using data from 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. The results showed that the simulated canopy cover (CC, biomass yield (BY and grain yield (GY were consistent with the measured CC, BY and GY, with corresponding coefficients of determination (R(2 of 0.93, 0.91 and 0.93, respectively. In addition, relationships between BY, GY and transpiration (T, (R(2 = 0.57 and 0.71, respectively was observed. These results suggest that frequent irrigation with a small amount of water significantly improved BY and GY. Collectively, these results indicate that the AquaCrop model can be used in the evaluation of various winter wheat irrigation strategies. The AquaCrop model predicted winter wheat CC, BY and GY with acceptable accuracy. Therefore, we concluded that AquaCrop is a useful decision-making tool for use in efforts to optimize wheat winter planting dates, and irrigation strategies.

  10. Assessment of the AquaCrop model for use in simulation of irrigated winter wheat canopy cover, biomass, and grain yield in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiu-liang; Feng, Hai-kuan; Zhu, Xin-kai; Li, Zhen-hai; Song, Sen-nan; Song, Xiao-yu; Yang, Gui-Jun; Xu, Xin-gang; Guo, Wen-shan

    2014-01-01

    Improving winter wheat water use efficiency in the North China Plain (NCP), China is essential in light of current irrigation water shortages. In this study, the AquaCrop model was used to calibrate, and validate winter wheat crop performance under various planting dates and irrigation application rates. All experiments were conducted at the Xiaotangshan experimental site in Beijing, China, during seasons of 2008/2009, 2009/2010, 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. This model was first calibrated using data from 2008/2009 and 2009/2010, and subsequently validated using data from 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. The results showed that the simulated canopy cover (CC), biomass yield (BY) and grain yield (GY) were consistent with the measured CC, BY and GY, with corresponding coefficients of determination (R(2)) of 0.93, 0.91 and 0.93, respectively. In addition, relationships between BY, GY and transpiration (T), (R(2) = 0.57 and 0.71, respectively) was observed. These results suggest that frequent irrigation with a small amount of water significantly improved BY and GY. Collectively, these results indicate that the AquaCrop model can be used in the evaluation of various winter wheat irrigation strategies. The AquaCrop model predicted winter wheat CC, BY and GY with acceptable accuracy. Therefore, we concluded that AquaCrop is a useful decision-making tool for use in efforts to optimize wheat winter planting dates, and irrigation strategies.

  11. Phenotypic Plasticity of Life History Characteristics:Quantitative Analysis of Delayed Reproduction of Green Foxtail (Setaria viridis) in the Songnen Plain of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Yan Li; Yun-Fei Yang

    2008-01-01

    Green foxtail (Setaria viridis L,) is a common weed species in temperate regions. Research on the effect of delayed reproduction on the phenotypic plasticity and regularity of the vegetative and reproductive growth is of vital significance for understanding population regulation and control of the weed in the growing season, Green foxtail seeds were sown every 10 days from 25 June to 24 August of 2004. The growth and production metrics were measured via harvesting tufts and statistical analysis was carried out. The results showed that the reproductive tillers, seed number, seed biomass and one thousand-seed weight of plants at the first sowing (25 June) approximately increased 28.8, 7827.0, 1104.0 and 12.3 times compared with that at the last sowing (24 August), respectively. Total tillers, reproductive tillers and height increased linearly as the reproductive period delayed, however, biomass increased exponentially. Quadratic equations best explained the relationships between the delayed reproductive period and seed number, Inflorescence length, one thousand-seed weight, seed biomass. Based on the quantity and quality of seed production, weeding young seedlings emerging before July can be the most effective weed-control strategy in the Songnen Plain.

  12. Physical properties of soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas and associated green vegetation covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian José Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. is a sustainable option for biodiesel production due to its adaptation to different agro-ecological conditions and its high content of non-edible oil grains. The possibility of its cultivation in degraded low fertility soils makes the physic nut attractive to the Paraíba do Sul Valley region. This study evaluated physical attributes and water processes of an Oxisol which had been previously used for livestock and later converted to experimental farming. The soil was intercropped with perennial herbaceous legumes (Arachis pintoi and Calopogonio muconoides in place of the original cover of Brachiaria brizantha, largely cultivated in the region. We determined the soil texture, the levels of saturation and water retention, soil resistance to root penetration and the basic infiltration rate of water into the soil (VIB. The soil resistance to root penetration in B. brizantha ranged from high to moderate at 30 cm depth, while the addition of perennial herbaceous legumes as cover crops intercropped with Jatropha reduced this resistance and increased the average soil VIB from 4 mm h-1 (B. brizantha to 33 mm h-1. We conclude that the association of herbaceous legumes with Jatropha contributed to the improvement of the soil’s physical properties.

  13. Antioxidant and antiradical activities in extracts of hazelnut kernel (Corylus avellana L.) and hazelnut green leafy cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Karamać, Magdalena; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2006-06-28

    Phenolic compounds in the aqueous systems were extracted, from hazelnut kernel (HK) and hazelnut green leafy cover (HGLC), with 80% (v/v) ethanol (HKe and HGLCe) or 80% (v/v) acetone (HKa and HGLCa). The extracts were examined for their phenolic and condensed tannin contents and phenolic acid profiles (free and esterified fractions) as well as antioxidant and antiradical activities by total antioxidant activity (TAA), antioxidant activity in a beta-carotene-linoleate model system, scavenging of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical, and reducing power. Significant differences (p HGLCe > HKa > HKe. These results suggest that both 80% ethanol and acetone are capable of extracting phenolics, but 80% acetone was a more effective solvent for the extraction process. HGLC exhibited stronger antioxidant and antiradical activities than HK itself in both extracts and could potentially be considered as an inexpensive source of natural antioxidants.

  14. Permafrost thaw and fire history: implications of boreal tree cover changes on land surface properties and turbulent energy fluxes in the Taiga Plains, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Oliver; Helbig, Manuel; Payette, Fanny; Wischnewski, Karoline; Kljun, Natascha; Chasmer, Laura; Pappas, Christoforos; Detto, Matteo; Baltzer, Jennifer; Quinton, William; Marsh, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Given their large areal coverage, high carbon densities, and unique land surface properties and disturbance regimes (e.g., wildfires), the world's boreal forests are integral components of the global and regional climate systems. A large portion of boreal forests contain permafrost, i.e., perennially cryotic ground. In the Taiga Plains ecozone in northwestern Canada, the northernmost boreal forests grow on cold (100 m) continuous permafrost (>90 % in areal extent). More southerly boreal forests occur in areas with discontinuous (>50 - 90 % in areal extent), sporadic (>10 - 50 % in areal extent) and isolated permafrost (fire history, and permafrost and drainage characteristics, we show that in low-lying, poorly-drained areas along the southern fringe of permafrost, thawing induces widespread decreases in PTC and dominates over PTC increases due to post-fire regrowth. In contrast, PTC appears to be slightly increasing in the central and northern Taiga Plains with more stable discontinuous and continuous permafrost, respectively. While these increases are partly explained by post-fire regrowth, more favourable growing conditions may also contribute to increasing PTC. To better understand the implications of permafrost thaw on land surface properties (e.g., aerodynamic conductance for heat [ga] and surface conductance for water vapour [gs]), and the turbulent fluxes of latent (LE) and sensible heat (H) along the southern fringe of permafrost, we examined nested eddy covariance flux measurements made at two nearby locations at Scotty Creek (61°18' N; 121°18' W) starting May 2013. The low-lying, poorly-drained southern portion of this 152 km2-watershed contains rapidly thawing sporadic permafrost resulting in a highly dynamic mosaic dominated by decreasing forested permafrost peat plateaus, and increasing permafrost-free wetlands. The spatial heterogeneities within the eddy covariance flux footprints (forest/wetland vs. wetland) were resolved with a two

  15. Green

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙继山

    2005-01-01

    The Green Games-this is a Chinese promise to the world. Green it has to be when the Olympic Games are opened at a spectacular venue in the north of Beijing in 2008. However, those who live in the capital still worry whether it will be possible to turn the rather polluted city. into a green or even half-green city. But time and again, China has proved that this kind of huge challenge can be met. Nevertheless,this time around it is a tough call indeed and a little over three years are left to execute and complete an audacious task.

  16. Study of growth and development features of ten ground cover plants in Kish Island green space in warm season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shooshtarian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Having special ecological condition, Kish Island has a restricted range of native species of ornamental plants. Expansion of urban green space in this Island is great of importance due to its outstanding touristy position in the South of Iran. The purpose of this study was to investigate the growth and development of groundcover plants planted in four different regions of Kish Island and to recommend the most suitable and adaptable species for each region. Ten groundcover species included Festuca ovina L., Glaucium flavum Crantz., Frankenia thymifolia Desf., Sedum spurium Bieb., Sedum acre L., .Potentilla verna L., Carpobrotus acinaciformis (L. L. Bolus., Achillea millefolium L., Alternanthera dentata Moench. and Lampranthus spectabilis Haw. Evaluation of growth and development had been made by measurement of morphological characteristics such as height, covering area, leaf number and area, dry and fresh total weights and visual scoring. Physiological traits included proline and chlorophyll contents evaluated. This study was designed in factorial layout based on completely randomized blocks design with six replicates. Results showed that in terms of indices such as covering area, visual quality, height, total weight, and chlorophyll content, Pavioon and Sadaf plants had the most and the worst performances, respectively in comparison to other regions’ plants. Based on evaluated characteristics, C. acinaciformis, L. spectabilis and F. thymifolia had the most expansion and growth in all quadruplet regions and are recommend for planting in Kish Island and similar climates.

  17. Residual Tensile Property of Plain Woven Jute Fiber/Poly(Lactic Acid Green Composites during Thermal Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Katogi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the residual tensile properties of plain woven jute fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid (PLA during thermal cycling. Temperature ranges of thermal cycling tests were 35–45 °C and 35–55 °C. The maximum number of cycles was 103 cycles. The quasi-static tensile tests of jute fiber, PLA, and composite were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Thermal mechanical analyses of jute fiber and PLA were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Results led to the following conclusions. For temperatures of 35–45 °C, tensile strength of composite at 103 cycles decreased 10% compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. For temperatures of 35–55 °C, tensile strength and Young’s modulus of composite at 103 cycles decreased 15% and 10%, respectively, compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. Tensile properties and the coefficient of linear expansion of PLA and jute fiber remained almost unchanged after thermal cycling tests. From observation of a fracture surface, the length of fiber pull out in the fracture surface of composite at 103 cycles was longer than that of composite at 0 cycles. Therefore, tensile properties of the composite during thermal cycling were decreased, probably because of the decrease of interfacial adhesion between the fiber and resin.

  18. Color discrimination in halobacteria: spectroscopic characterization of a second sensory receptor covering the blue-green region of the spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, E K; Bogomolni, R A; Scherrer, P; Hess, B; Stoeckenius, W

    1986-10-01

    Halobacterium halobium is attracted by green and red light and repelled by blue-green and shorter wavelength light. a photochromic, rhodopsin-like protein in the cell membrane, sensory rhodopsin sR587, has been identified as the receptor for the long-wavelength and near-UV stimuli. Discrepancies between the action spectrum for the repellent effect of blue light and the absorption spectrum of sR587 and its photocycle intermediate S373 strongly suggest the existence of an additional photoreceptor for the blue region of the spectrum. Transient light-induced absorbance changes in intact cells and cell membranes show, in addition to sR587, the presence of a second photoactive pigment with maximal absorption near 480 nm. It undergoes a cyclic photoreaction with a half-time of 150 msec. One intermediate state with maximal absorption near 360 nm has been resolved. The spectral properties of the new pigment are consistent with a function as the postulated photoreceptor for the repellent effect of blue light. The phototactic reactions and both pigments are absent when retinal synthesis is blocked; both can be restored by the addition of retinal. These results confirm and extend similar observations by Takahashi et al. [Takahashi, T., Tomioka, H., Kamo, N. & Kobatake, Y. (1985) FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 28, 161-164]. The archaeobacterium H. halobium thus uses two different mechanisms for color discrimination; it uses two rhodopsin-like receptors with different spectral sensitivities and also the photochromicity of at least one of these receptors to distinguish between three regions covering the visible and near-UV spectrum.

  19. greening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utpal

    Results reveal that sodium sulphite method of DNA isolation provided higher yield and ... rescence tests with monoclonal antibodies and DNA-DNA hybridization with .... Validation of PCR for detection of greening bacterium. Following the ...

  20. Indicative properties on snow cover based on the results of experimental studies in the winter 2011/12 in the central part of the East European Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kitaev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and regional differences in the snow formation were studied in different landscapes of the central part of the East European Plain – within reserves in the Moscow and Tver’ regions (south-north direction; the study period is the winter 2011/12. The observed increase of snow storage in 1.3–1.5 times in the direction south-north is connected, apparently. The difference in the five-day appearance of snow cover maximum is related to differences in regional winter air temperature. Throughout the snow depth and snow storage in spruce are smaller than in deciduous forest – in the ratio of 0.81 in south area and 0.93 in north area; in spruce the large part of solid precipitation is intercepted by the crowns pine trees. Snow stratigraphy at south areas has four layers, six layers at the north area are more variable in snow density and snow storage. Perhaps, gravitational conversion is more noticeable due to larger snow depth. Snow density and snow storage at the open areas are more heterogeneous than in the forest. This is due to sharp fluctuations in air temperature, wind transport and compaction of snow, evaporation from the snow surface. The stratigraphy of snow also reflects the history of winter changes of air temperature and snow accumulation. Common feature for reserves at south and north is the availability of layers with maximum snow storage in the middle of the snow thickness, which were formed during the air temperature drops to the lowest seasonal values in period with increase of snow depth to maximum. Formation of depth hoar in snow thickness are touched everywhere the bottom and middle layers, respectively, it was formed both before and during the period with minimal air temperature. Thus, the results of experimental studies confirm the significance of the differences of individual components of the landscape setting. Analytical conclusions are largely qualitative in nature due to the lack to date of initial information, and

  1. Land Cover Mapping for the Development of Green House Gas (GHG) Inventories in the Eastern and Southern Africa Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakhayanga, J. A.; Oduor, P.; Korme, T.; Farah, H.; Limaye, A. S.; Irwin, D.; Artis, G.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities are responsible for the largest share of green house gas (GHG) emissions. Research has shown that greenhouse gases cause radioactive forcing in the stratosphere, leading to ozone depletion. Different land cover types act as sources or sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2), the most dominant GHG.Under the oversight of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region countries are developing Sustainable National GHG Inventory Management Systems. While the countries in the ESA region are making substantial progress in setting up GHG inventories, there remains significant constraints in the development of quality and sustainable National GHG Inventory Systems. For instance, there are fundamental challenges in capacity building and technology transfer, which can affect timely and consistent reporting on the land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) component of the GHG inventory development. SERVIR Eastern and Southern Africa is a partnership project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), an intergovernmental organization in Africa, with 21 member states in the ESA region. With support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), SERVIR ESA is implementing the GHG Project in 9 countries. The main deliverables of the project are land cover maps for the years 2000 and 2010 (also 1990 for Malawi and Rwanda), and related technical reports, as well as technical training in land cover mapping using replicable methodologies. Landsat imagery which is freely available forms the main component of earth observation input data, in addition to ancillary data collected from each country. Supervised classification using maximum likelihood algorithm is applied to the Landsat images. The work is completed for the initial 6 countries (Malawi, Zambia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Botswana, and

  2. Biodiversity of green algae covering artificial hard substrate surfaces in a suburban environment: a case study using molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, Christine; Hoppert, Michael; Mudimu, Opayi; Friedl, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    In Middle European suburban environments green algae often cover open surfaces of artificial hard substrates. Microscopy reveals the Apatococcus/Desmococcus morphotype predominant over smaller coccoid forms. Adverse conditions such as limited water availability connected with high PAR and UV irradiance may narrow the algal diversity to a few specialists in these subaerial habitats. We used rRNA gene cloning/sequencing from both DNA extracts of the biofilms without culturing as well as cultures, for the unambiguous determination of the algal composition and to assess the algal diversity more comprehensively. The culture independent approach revealed mainly just two genera (Apatococcus, Trebouxia) for all study sites and five molecular operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for a particular study site, which based on microscopic observation was the one with the highest morphological diversity. The culture approach, however, revealed seven additional OTUs from five genera (Chloroidium, Coccomyxa, Coenochloris, Pabia, Klebsormidium) and an unidentified trebouxiophyte lineage for that same site; only two OTUs were shared by both approaches. Two OTUs or species were recovered for which references have been isolated only from Antarctica so far. However, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence differences among them supported they are representing distinct populations of the same species. Within Apatococcus five clearly distinct groups of ITS sequences, each putatively representing a distinct species, were recovered with three or four such ITS types co-occurring at the same study site. Except for the streptophyte Klebsormidium only members of Trebouxiophyceae were detected suggesting these algae may be particularly well-adapted to subaerial habitats.

  3. Analysis and Mapping of the Spectral Characteristics of Fractional Green Cover in Saline Wetlands (NE Spain Using Field and Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Domínguez-Beisiegel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Inland saline wetlands are complex systems undergoing continuous changes in moisture and salinity and are especially vulnerable to human pressures. Remote sensing is helpful to identify vegetation change in semi-arid wetlands and to assess wetland degradation. Remote sensing-based monitoring requires identification of the spectral characteristics of soils and vegetation and their correspondence with the vegetation cover and soil conditions. We studied the spectral characteristics of soils and vegetation of saline wetlands in Monegros, NE Spain, through field and satellite images. Radiometric and complementary field measurements in two field surveys in 2007 and 2008 were collected in selected sites deemed as representative of different soil moisture, soil color, type of vegetation, and density. Despite the high local variability, we identified good relationships between field spectral data and Quickbird images. A methodology was established for mapping the fraction of vegetation cover in Monegros and other semi-arid areas. Estimating vegetation cover in arid wetlands is conditioned by the soil background and by the occurrence of dry and senescent vegetation accompanying the green component of perennial salt-tolerant plants. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI was appropriate to map the distribution of the vegetation cover if the green and yellow-green parts of the plants are considered.

  4. Including land cover change in analysis of greenness trends using all available Landsat 5, 7, and 8 images: A case study from Guangzhou, China (2000–2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhe; Fu, Yingchun; Woodcock, Curtis; Olofsson, Pontus; Vogelmann, James; Holden, Christopher; Wang, Min; Dai, Shu; Yu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing has proven a useful way of evaluating long-term trends in vegetation “greenness” through the use of vegetation indices like Normalized Differences Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). In particular, analyses of greenness trends have been performed for large areas (continents, for example) in an attempt to understand vegetation response to climate. These studies have been most often used coarse resolution sensors like Moderate Resolution Image Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). However, trends in greenness are also important at more local scales, particularly in and around cities as vegetation offers a variety of valuable ecosystem services ranging from minimizing air pollution to mitigating urban heat island effects. To explore the ability to monitor greenness trends in and around cities, this paper presents a new way for analyzing greenness trends based on all available Landsat 5, 7, and 8 images and applies it to Guangzhou, China. This method is capable of including the effects of land cover change in the evaluation of greenness trends by separating the effects of abrupt and gradual changes, and providing information on the timing of greenness trends.

  5. Understanding long-term (1982-2013) patterns and trends in winter wheat spring green-up date over the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sisi; Mo, Xingguo; Liu, Zhengjia; Baig, Muhammad Hasan Ali; Chi, Wenfeng

    2017-05-01

    Monitoring the spring green-up date (GUD) has grown in importance for crop management and food security. However, most satellite-based GUD models are associated with a high degree of uncertainty when applied to croplands. In this study, we introduced an improved GUD algorithm to extract GUD data for 32 years (1982-2013) for the winter wheat croplands on the North China Plain (NCP), using the third-generation normalized difference vegetation index form Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS3g NDVI). The spatial and temporal variations in GUD with the effects of the pre-season climate and soil moisture conditions on GUD were comprehensively investigated. Our results showed that a higher correlation coefficient (r = 0.44, p wheat area on the NCP, with significant advances in 37.8% of the area (p < 0.05). GUD occurred later at high altitudes and in coastal areas than in inland areas. At the interannual scale, the average GUD advanced from DOY 76.9 in the 1980s (average 1982-1989) to DOY 73.2 in the 1990s (average 1991-1999), and to DOY 70.3 after 2000 (average 2000-2013), indicating an average advance of 1.8 days/decade (r = 0.35, p < 0.05). Although GUD is mainly controlled by the pre-season temperature, our findings underline that the effect of the pre-season soil moisture on GUD should also be considered. The improved GUD algorithm and satellite-based long-term GUD data are helpful for improving the representation of GUD in terrestrial ecosystem models and enhancing crop management efficiency.

  6. Spring green-up date derived from GIMMS3g and SPOT-VGT NDVI of winter wheat cropland in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengjia; Wu, Chaoyang; Liu, Yansui; Wang, Xiaoyue; Fang, Bin; Yuan, Wenping; Ge, Quansheng

    2017-08-01

    Satellite temporal resolution affects the fitting accuracy of vegetation growth curves. However, there are few studies that evaluate the impact of different satellite data (including temporal resolution and time series change) on spring green-up date (GUD) extraction. In this study, four GUD algorithms and two different temporal resolution satellite data (GIMMS3g during 1982-2013 and SPOT-VGT during 1999-2013) were used to investigate winter wheat GUD in the North China Plain. Four GUD algorithms included logistic-NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index), logistic-cumNDVI (cumulative NDVI), polynomial-NDVI and polynomial-cumNDVI algorithms. All algorithms and data were first regrouped into eight controlled cases. At site scale, we evaluated the performance of each case using correlation coefficient (r), bias and root mean square error (RMSE). We further compared spatial patterns and inter-annual trends of GUD inferred from different algorithms, and then analyzed the difference between GIMMS3g-based GUD and SPOT-VGT-based GUD. Our results showed that all satellite-based GUD were correlated with observations with r ranging from 0.32 to 0.57 (p < 0.01). SPOT-VGT-based GUD generally had better correlations with observed GUD than those of GIMMS3g. Spatially, SPOT-VGT-based GUD performed more reasonable spatial distributions. Inter-annual regional averaged satellite-based GUD presented overall advanced trends during 1982-2013 (0.3-2.0 days/decade) while delayed trends were observed during 1999-2013 (1.7-7.4 days/decade for GIMMS3g and 3.8-7.4 days/decade for SPOT-VGT). However, their significance levels were highly dependent on the data and algorithms used. Our findings suggest cautions on previous results of inter-annual variability of phenology from a single data/method.

  7. ASPECTS CONCERNING THE EVOLUTION OF SOME COMPONENTS OF EDAPHIC COVER PRODUCTIVITY FROM LOW PLAIN OF BANAT, GALAŢCA-BEREGSĂU INTERFLUVE (BEGA VECHE)

    OpenAIRE

    D. Tarau; D. Dicu; R. Bertici; D. Dologa; M. Racovicean

    2012-01-01

    The research goal is the accumulation of scientific data on the chemical, physical and hydrophysical soils characteristics, necessary to support a methodology for monitoring their quality through a complex firm approach of climatic, edaphic, physical and geographical conditions of Banat low plain. The importance of this paper stands in existence in the area of an old tradition of cultivation of cereals and their utilization, especially for raising pigs, the natural conditions of space is cons...

  8. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  9. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  10. Simulation of the Basin Effects in the Po Plain During the Emilia-Romagna Seismic Sequence (2012) Using Empirical Green's Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Alain; Causse, Mathieu; Courboulex, Françoise; Traversa, Paola

    2016-06-01

    The two main earthquakes that occurred in 2012 (May 20 and 29) in the Reggio-Emiliano region (Northern Italy) were relatively small (Mw 6.1 and Mw 5.9) but they generated unexpected damages in a large area around the epicenter. On some stations, the observed seismic levels exceeded design levels recommended by the EC8 seismic code for buildings and civil engineering works. The ground motions generated by the two mainshocks have specific characteristics: the waveforms are mainly controlled by surface waves generated by the deep sedimentary Po plain, by local site effects and also, on some stations, by non-linear behaviors. In this particular context, we test the ability of an empirical Green's function (EGF) simulation approach to reproduce the recorded seismograms in a large frequency band without any knowledge of the underground medium. We focus on the possibility to reproduce the strong surface waves generated by the basin at distances between 25 and 90 km. We choose to work on the second mainshock of the sequence (Mw 5.9), which occurred on May 29, 2012, because it is better recorded by the seismological networks than the May 20th first mainshock. We use a k-2 kinematic source model to generate a set of 100 slip distributions on the fault plane and choose the recordings of a close-by Mw 3.9 event as EGF. We then generate a set of broad-band seismograms (from 0.2 to 35 Hz) and compare them to the mainshock signals at 15 stations (Seismograms, Fourier spectra, PGA, PGV, duration, Stockwell Transforms) at epicentral distances from 5 to 160 km. We find that the main specific features of the signals are very well reproduced for all the stations within and beyond the basin. Nevertheless, at nearby stations, the PGA values are over-evaluated, which could be explained by the fact that non- linear effects are not taken into account in the simulation process. A better fit was found for a position of the nucleation point to the bottom west of the fault, that suggest a

  11. Effects of Green Space and Land Use/Land Cover on Urban Heat Island in a Subtropical Mega-city in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, G. Y.; Li, X.; Li, H.; Guo, Q.

    2014-12-01

    With the quick expansion of urban in size and population, its urban heat island intensity (UHII, expressed as the temperature difference between urban and rural areas) increased rapidly. However, very few studies could quantitatively reveal the effects of green space and land use/land cover (LULC) on urban thermal environment because of lacking of the detailed measurement. This study focuses on quantifying the effects of green space and LULC on urban Heat Island (UHI) in Shenzhen, a mega subtropical city in China. Extensive measurements (air temperature and humidity) were made by mobile traverse method in a transect of 8 km in length, where a variety of LULC types were included. Measurements were carried out at 2 hours interval for 2 years (totally repeated for 7011 times). According to LULC types, we selected 5 different LULC types for studying, including water body, village in the city, shopping center (commercial area), urban green space (well-vegetated area) and suburb (forest). The main conclusions are obtained as follows: (1) The temperature difference between the 5 different urban landscapes is obvious, i.e. shopping center > village in the city > urban water body > urban green space > suburb; (2) Air temperature and UHII decreases linearly with the increase of green space in urban; (3) Green space and water body in urban have obvious effects to reduce the air temperature by evapotranspiration. Compared to the commercial areas, urban water body can relieve the IUHI by 0.9℃, while the urban green space can relieve the IUHI by 1.57℃. The cooling effect of the urban green space is better than that of the urban water body; (4) Periodic activity of human being has obvious effects on urban air temperature. The UHII on Saturday and Sunday are higher than that from Monday to Friday, respectively higher for 0.65, 0.57, 0.26 and 0.21℃. Thursday and Friday have the minimum air temperature and UHII. These results indicate that increase in urban evapotranspiration

  12. Green manuring effect of pure and mixed barley - hairy vetch winter cover crops on maize and processing tomato N nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosti, Giacomo; Benincasa, Paolo; Farneselli, Michela;

    2012-01-01

    with the appropriate critical N dilution curves. The results highlight the effectiveness of mixtures for the management of the winter cover crop practice. In the two considered years, the species proportion influences the aboveground biomass (ranging from 2.90 to 5.94 Mg ha-1) and N accumulation (ranging from 73......Adopting mixtures between legumes and non legumes can be an efficient tool to merge the advantages of the single species in the fall-sown cover crop practice. Nevertheless there is a lack of information on how the species proportion may affect N accumulation and C/N of the cover crops and how...... tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Cover crop N accumulation and C/N ratio were monitored during the whole growing cycle, and CO2 flux from the soil was measured after their incorporation into the soil. N status of the following cash crops was evaluated by comparing the observed data...

  13. ASPECTS CONCERNING THE EVOLUTION OF SOME COMPONENTS OF EDAPHIC COVER PRODUCTIVITY FROM LOW PLAIN OF BANAT, GALAŢCA-BEREGSĂU INTERFLUVE (BEGA VECHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tarau

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is the accumulation of scientific data on the chemical, physical and hydrophysical soils characteristics, necessary to support a methodology for monitoring their quality through a complex firm approach of climatic, edaphic, physical and geographical conditions of Banat low plain. The importance of this paper stands in existence in the area of an old tradition of cultivation of cereals and their utilization, especially for raising pigs, the natural conditions of space is considered favorable for the development of agro-food sector in all aspects. The coverage refers to an area of 81336 ha of which 74489 ha agricultural land belonging to a number of eight local government units (UAT in the Timis county, where the farms of SC SMITHFIELD FERME SRL are located. The research of ecopedological conditions, data ordering and processing was done according to the Methodology of pedological studies elaboration; (vol I, II, III, developed by ICPA Bucharest in 1987 and the Romanian System of Soil Taxonomy (SRTS-2003. It offers basic knowledge and methodological elements for evaluation and characterization of natural and anthropogenic resources, in the hope that the information presented will arouse interest so that the decision maker, so in the near future agricultural research and practice with environmental protection, to strive for development interdisciplinary studies, not being able to talk about a healthy environment without a healthy soil.

  14. Quantifying the effect of land use and land cover change on green water and blue water in northern part of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of land use and land cover changes on hydrological process in northern parts of China, a distributed hydrological model was developed and applied in the Laohahe catchment. The direct evaporation from the intercepted water, potential canopy transpiration and potential soil evaporation were computed using a physically-based two-source potential evapotranspiration model, which would be regarded as input to the distributed hydrological model for the computation of actual evaportranspiration. Runoff generation was based on mixed runoff mechanisms of infiltration excess runoff and saturation excess runoff and the Muskingum-Cunge method was adopted for flow routing. The land cover data were available for 1980, 1989, 1996 and 1999. Daily streamflow measurements were available from 1964 to 2005 and were divided into 4 periods: 1964–1979, 1980–1989, 1990–1999 and 2000–2005, based on the land cover scenarios. The distributed hydrological model was coupled with a two-source potential evaportranspiration model for simulating daily runoff. The result of runoff simulation showed that the saturation excess runoff generation was dominant in the catchment. Model parameters were calibrated using hydrometeorological and land cover data corresponding to the same period. Streamflow simulation was conducted for each period under these four land cover scenarios. The results showed that the change of land use and land cover had a significant influence on evapotranspiration and runoff. The land cover data showed that forest land and water body had decreased from 1980 through 1999 and farm land and grass land had increased. This change caused the vegetation interception evaporation and vegetation transpiration to decrease, whereas the soil evaporation tended to increase. Thus the green water decreased but the blue water increased over the Laohahe catchment. This result was inconsistent with the fact that runoff ratio had a

  15. Green manuring effect of pure and mixed barley - hairy vetch winter cover crops on maize and processing tomato N nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosti, Giacomo; Benincasa, Paolo; Farneselli, Michela

    2012-01-01

    Adopting mixtures between legumes and non legumes can be an efficient tool to merge the advantages of the single species in the fall-sown cover crop practice. Nevertheless there is a lack of information on how the species proportion may affect N accumulation and C/N of the cover crops and how...... tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Cover crop N accumulation and C/N ratio were monitored during the whole growing cycle, and CO2 flux from the soil was measured after their incorporation into the soil. N status of the following cash crops was evaluated by comparing the observed data...... be important to take the characteristics of the following cash crop into account....

  16. Land-Cover and Imperviousness Data for Regional Areas near Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; and Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin - 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, James A.; Pearson, Daniel K.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the processing and results of land-cover and impervious surface derivation for parts of three metropolitan areas being studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems (EUSE). The data were derived primarily from Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite imagery from the period 1999-2002, and are provided as 30-meter resolution raster datasets. Data were produced to a standard consistent with data being produced as part of the USGS National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Program, and were derived in cooperation with, and assistance from, NLCD01 personnel. The data were intended as surrogates for NLCD01 data because of the EUSE Program's time-critical need for updated land-cover for parts of the United States that would not be available in time from the NLCD01 Program. Six datasets are described in this report: separate land-cover (15-class categorical data) and imperviousness (0-100 percent continuous data) raster datasets for parts of the general Denver, Colorado area (South Platte River Basin), Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas area (Trinity River Basin), and Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin area (Western Lake Michigan Drainages).

  17. Qualitative attributes and postharvest conservation of green ears of maize grown on different cover crops in organic no-till system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Favarato

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Postharvest quality of sweet maize varies depending on the type of seed, soil, quality of fertilizer, climatic conditions, and stage of maturation. This study aimed to evaluate the post-harvest quality and shelf life of green ears of maize grown on three soil covers in organic no-till sytem. The study was conducted in the municipality of Domingos Martins, ES (20° 22'16.91" S and 41° 03' 41.83" W. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with six replications and five treatments, consisting of three cover crops in organic no-till system: black-oat straw, white lupin, oat/lupin intercrop and two systems, organic and conventional, without straw. Maize double hybrid AG-1051 was sown in a spacing of 1.00 x 0.20 m. The variables evaluated included relative percentage of grain, straw and cob, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, grain moisture and shelf life. The use of different straws in the organic no-till system does not influence the postharvest quality of green ears. Ears packed in polystyrene trays with plastic film are suitable for marketing until the fifth day of storage at room temperature.

  18. Tectonic and regional metamorphic implications of the discovery of Middle Ordovician conodonts in cover rocks east of the Green Mountain massif, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, N.M.; Harris, A.G.; Walsh, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    Middle Ordovician (late Arenigian - early Caradocian) conodonts were recovered from a dolostone lens in carbonaceous schist 30 m below the base of the Pinney Hollow Formation in the Eastern Cover sequence near West Bridgewater, Vermont. These are the first reported fossils from the metamorphic cover sequence rocks east of the Green Mountain, Berkshire, and Housatonic massifs of western New England. The conodonts are recrystallized, coated with graphitic matter, thermally altered to a color alteration index (CAI) of at least 5, and tectonically deformed. The faunule is nearly monospecific, consisting of abundant Periodon aculeatus Hadding? and rare Protopanderodus. The preponderance of Periodon and the absence of warm, shallow-water species characteristic of the North American Midcontinent Conodont Province suggest a slope or basin depositional setting. The conodont-bearing carbonaceous schist is traceable 3 km southeast to the Plymouth area, where it had been designated the uppermost member of the Plymouth Formation, previously regarded as Early Cambrian in age. The age and structural position of the carbonaceous schist above dolostones of the Plymouth Formation but below the Pinney Hollow Formation (upper Proterozoic and Lower Cambrian?) suggest that this unit may be correlative or time transgressive with the Ira Formation, which underlies the Taconic allochthons in the Vermont Valley. Such a correlation supports the concept of placing the western limit of the root zone of the Taconic allochthons beneath the Pinney Hollow Formation. An approximate absolute age assignment for the conodont-bearing rock is between 470 and 454 Ma. This suggests that dynamothermal metamorphism during the Taconian orogeny on the east flank of the Green Mountains was younger than early Caradocian, which is in accord with the middle Caradocian age of the Ira Formation west of the Green Mountain massif.

  19. Simulation of green roof runoff under different substrate depths and vegetation covers by coupling a simple conceptual and a physically based hydrological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulis, Konstantinos X; Valiantzas, John D; Ntoulas, Nikolaos; Kargas, George; Nektarios, Panayiotis A

    2017-09-15

    In spite of the well-known green roof benefits, their widespread adoption in the management practices of urban drainage systems requires the use of adequate analytical and modelling tools. In the current study, green roof runoff modeling was accomplished by developing, testing, and jointly using a simple conceptual model and a physically based numerical simulation model utilizing HYDRUS-1D software. The use of such an approach combines the advantages of the conceptual model, namely simplicity, low computational requirements, and ability to be easily integrated in decision support tools with the capacity of the physically based simulation model to be easily transferred in conditions and locations other than those used for calibrating and validating it. The proposed approach was evaluated with an experimental dataset that included various green roof covers (either succulent plants - Sedum sediforme, or xerophytic plants - Origanum onites, or bare substrate without any vegetation) and two substrate depths (either 8 cm or 16 cm). Both the physically based and the conceptual models matched very closely the observed hydrographs. In general, the conceptual model performed better than the physically based simulation model but the overall performance of both models was sufficient in most cases as it is revealed by the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency index which was generally greater than 0.70. Finally, it was showcased how a physically based and a simple conceptual model can be jointly used to allow the use of the simple conceptual model for a wider set of conditions than the available experimental data and in order to support green roof design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing quality and quantity of groundwater DOC in relation to plant export from different over-winter green-cover treatments in tillage farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premrov, Alina; Coxon, Catherine; Hackett, Richard; Richards, Karl

    2010-05-01

    The biogeochemistry of nitrogen is often connected to carbon and C/N dynamics. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) electron donor availability can be related to groundwater denitrification (Buss, et al. 2005). Therefore groundwater nitrate attenuation processes are also frequently linked to carbon availability. In recent years the role of over-winter green cover in tillage farming has been studied extensively. Nevertheless further research on the biogeochemical effect of green cover on soil/sediment and groundwater quality is still needed. In particular plant roots are known to exude different types of organic compounds, but their role in groundwater quality has not been investigated in depth. According to Cannavo et al. (2004a,b), in addition to quantity, the quality of water-extractable soil organic matter (e.g. molecular size/weight) has also an important role for microbial activity. In this study we investigate the effect of over-winter green-cover on potential DOC export to shallow groundwater (2 - 5 m below ground level), located on tillage land in Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland. The experiment includes three over-winter green-cover treatments: natural green-cover, mustard and no-cover (sprayed with herbicide following harvest); and is underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer. The site is equipped with 4 shallow piezometers per treatment (total no. of piezometers is 20, including treatments and surrounding piezometers). In addition to monitoring the quantity of DOC concentrations in shallow groundwater under different green cover treatments over time, an attempt was made to evaluate the quality of dissolved organic matter in shallow groundwater using Excitation Emission Fluorescence Matrix (EEFM) profiles obtained from analyses performed on a Varian Fluorescence Spectrophotometer of a single batch of samples (from all 20 installed piezometers in September 2009). To evaluate the quality of dissolved organic matter in shallow groundwater, computation of the

  1. A broadband ultrafast transient absorption spectrometer covering the range from near-infrared (NIR) down to green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidhammer, Uli; Jeunesse, Pierre; Stresing, Gerhard; Mostafavi, Mehran

    2014-01-01

    We present a new development for pump-probe absorption spectroscopy that allows the simultaneous measurement from the green part of the visible spectrum (510 nm) over the whole near-infrared range to >1600 nm, corresponding to 0.77-2.40 eV. The system is based on a sub-picosecond supercontinuum generated in bulk material used as a broadband probe that is dispersed with a custom-made prism spectrometer and detected by an InGaAs array with extended sensitivity to the visible. Two versions, with and without probe referencing, are implemented for operation at laser repetition rates of a few hertz and kilohertz, respectively. After presentation of the optical configuration of the spectrometer, its performance is characterized and further illustrated on two time scales, with the ultrafast radiolysis of isopropanol induced by a picosecond electron pulse and with the instantaneous response of a BK7 plate to a femtosecond light pulse. The photophysics of the dye IR-140 is resolved from the femto- to picosecond regime. Stable and easy day-to-day routine use of the spectrometer also can be achieved in non-optical laboratory surroundings. For operation in a hazardous environment, the optical probe beams can be transported to the detector unit by optical fibers.

  2. Plains Traveler

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    10 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust devil traveling across a plain west-southwest of Schiaparelli Crater, in far eastern Sinus Meridiani. The dust devil is casting a shadow toward the northeast, just south (below) of an egg-shaped crater. Location near: 6.4oS, 349.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  3. Utopia Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    5 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dark-toned, cratered plain in southwest Utopia Planitia. Large, light-toned, windblown ripples reside on the floors of many of the depressions in the scene, including a long, linear, trough. Location near: 30.3oN, 255.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  4. Green roofs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs are roofs that have been covered with a growing medium, creating a habitat on what would otherwise be a bland, lifeless surface. It is for this reason that green roofs are sometimes call 'vegetated' or 'living' roofs (Cantor 2008). A...

  5. Land-cover effects on the fate and transport of surface-applied antibiotics and 17-beta-estradiol on a sandy outwash plain, Anoka County, Minnesota, 2008–09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Jared J.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Rose, Peter J.; Elliott, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    A plot-scale field experiment on a sandy outwash plain in Anoka County in east-central Minnesota was used to investigate the fate and transport of two antibiotics, sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and a hormone, 17-beta-estradiol (17BE), in four land-cover types: bare soil, corn, hay, and prairie. The SMZ, SMX, and 17BE were applied to the surface of five plots of each land-cover type in May 2008 and again in April 2009. The cumulative application rate was 16.8 milligrams per square meter (mg/m2) for each antibiotic and 0.6 mg/m2 for 17BE. Concentrations of each chemical in plant-tissue, soil, soil-water, and groundwater samples were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Soil-water and groundwater sampling events were scheduled to capture the transport of SMZ, SMX, and 17BE during two growing seasons. Soil and plant-tissue sampling events were scheduled to identify the fate of the parent chemicals of SMZ, SMX, and 17BE in these matrices after two chemical applications. Areal concentrations (mg/m2) of SMZ and SMX in soil tended to decrease in prairie plots in the 8 weeks after the second chemical application, from April 2009 to June 2009, but not in other land-cover types. During these same 8 weeks, prairie plots produced more aboveground biomass and had extracted more water from the upper 125 centimeters of the soil profile compared to all other land-cover types. Areal concentrations of SMZ and SMX in prairie plant tissue did not explain the temporal changes in areal concentrations of these chemicals in soil. The areal concentrations of SMZ and SMX in the aboveground plant tissues in June 2009 and August 2009 were much lower, generally two to three orders of magnitude, than the areal concentrations of these chemicals in soil. Pooling all treatment plot data, the median areal concentration of SMZ and SMX in plant tissues was 0.01 and 0.10 percent of the applied chemical mass compared to 22 and 12 percent in soil

  6. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  7. Revisiting Plain Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the plain language movement and its origins. Reviews past and current resources related to plain language writing. Examines criticism of the movement while examining past and current plain language literature, with particular attention to the information design field. (SR)

  8. DS-777 Annual Model-Backcasted Land-Use/Land-Cover Rasters from 1949 to 2008 for the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Estimates of land use categories are an essential component for computing the water budget of the High Plains aquifer. These raster land-use data represent yearly...

  9. An Experiment on Prevention of Fruit Green Return for Summer Orange with Fruit Bagging and Plastic Film Covering%果实套袋与树冠盖膜防止夏橙果实返绿试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢柱雄; 王宣英; 李全德; 廖延华

    2011-01-01

    An experiment on prevention of fruit green return for summer orange with fruit bagging and plastic film covering had been held. The results showed that, the effect on prevention of fruit green return for fruit bagging treatment was extremely remarkable. It would provide a reliable basis for further study of fruit bagging and effectively prevent summer orange fruit green returning.%对夏橙进行田间果实套袋与树冠盖膜防止夏橙果实返绿试验。结果表明,果实套袋处理防止果实返绿效果极其显著,为进一步研究果实套袋、有效防止夏橙果实返绿提供可靠依据。

  10. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  11. Green roof Malta

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In Malta, buildings cover one third of the Island, leaving greenery in the dirt track. Green roofs are one way to bring plants back to urban areas with loads of benefits. Antoine Gatt, who manages the LifeMedGreenRoof project at the University of Malta, tells us more. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/green-roof-malta/

  12. Fitomassa de adubos verdes e cobertura do solo na região do Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais = Biomass of green manure and soil cover in the region of Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais-Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evander Alves Ferreira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A adubação verde constitui prática cultural de relevante impacto positivo em sistemas de produção agrícola que visam o uso sustentável da terra. Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar o desempenho de seis leguminosas utilizadas para adubação verde, quanto à produtividade de fitomassa, cobertura do solo e uso da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa na região conhecida como Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha em Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido entre os meses de março a outubro de 2010, em delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os adubos verdes utilizados foram: crotalária (Crotalariaspectabilis, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, feijão-guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan, lab-lab (Lablab purpureus, mucuna-anã (Mucuna deenringiana e tremoço-branco (Lupinus albus L.. Os adubos verdes apresentaram elevadas produções de fitomassa, mas com diferentes picos de cobertura do solo e interceptação da radiação. Os maiores acúmulos de matéria seca e fresca foram observados pela crotalária seguido pelo feijão-guandu-anão. Entre as espécies estudadas, o feijão-de-porco é aque apresentou maior período vegetativo, representando elevado potencial para recobrimento do solo, destacando-se também na interceptação de radiação fotossinteticamente ativa.Green manuring is a positive practice that reduces the impact on agricultural production systems aimed at sustainable land use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of six legumes used for green manure, the productivity of biomass, land cover and use of photosynthetic active radiation in the region of the Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The experiment was conducted during March to October, 2010 in randomized block design with four replications. Green manures were used: Crotalaria spectabilis, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Lablab purpureus, Mucuna deenringiana and Lupinus albus. Green manures had high yields of biomass

  13. Pedogeographic regionalization of the Pomurje plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Lovrenčak

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the pedogeographic regionalization of the Pomurje plain (Northeast Slovenia. With regard to differences in parent material, landforms, and hydrographic characteristics, the soil cover is ranked into two pedogeographic regions. Each of them is furthermore divided into several subregions grouped together according to related soil groups.

  14. 覆盖番茄渣对青黄玉米秸秆青贮品质的影响%The Effect of Tomato Pomace as Silage Cover on Quality of Green or Yellow Corn Straw Silages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    早热古丽·热合曼; 热沙来提汗·买买提; 哈斯亚提·托逊江; 哈丽代·热合木江; 艾买提·吐拉甫; 艾比布拉·伊马木

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨覆盖番茄渣对不带穗青、黄玉米秸秆青贮发酵品质和营养成分的影响.[方法]分别用青、黄玉米秸秆青贮调制时用等量番茄渣覆盖,讨论覆盖番茄渣对玉米秸秆发酵品质和营养价值的改善作用.[结果]番茄渣覆盖后提高了青、黄玉米秸秆青贮的乳酸含量及乳酸在总酸中的比例以及秸秆青贮的粗蛋白质(CP)含量和干物质消化率(in vitro).特别是添加尿素并覆盖番茄渣对黄玉米秸秆的CP含量和干物质消化率有显著提高,分别达到13.89%和76.80%.[结论]覆盖番茄渣的青贮改善玉米秸秆青贮发酵品质,提高CP含量和消化率,对黄玉米秸秆青贮的改善作用尤为明显.%[Objective]:This experiment aims to explore the use of tomato pomace as green or yellow corn straw silage cover and investigate its effect on fermentation quality,nutrient and in vitro dry matter digestibility of straw silages.[Method] Green or yellow corn straw silage with/without tomato pomace were used in silagecover at a ratio of 50:50 on fresh matter basis to investigate the fermentation quality and nutrients of both corn straw silages.[Result] The use of tomato pomace as silage cover can improve the silage fermentation quality of green and yellow corn straw increase lactic acid concentration and the ration in total acids; and crude protein (CP) content and the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD).Especially,the improving effect was greater in yellow corn straw silage.Supplementation urea with tomato pomace to cover yellow corn straw increased CP content and dry matter digestion by 13.89% and 76.80%,respectively.[Conclusion] The use of tomato pomace as silage cover can improve the silage fermentation quality,CP content and the IVDMD of corn straw,especially improve the quality of yellow corn straw silage.

  15. Influence, in organic cultivation of eggplant, of the doses of nitrogen and soil green cover on the incidence of Corythaica cyathicollis in different periods of the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul de Lucena Duarte Ribeiro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Solanum melongena L., eggplant, is a culture that suffers many problems through pests, being a host of diverse species of bacteria, fungi, mites and insects. The “chinch bug”, Corythaica cyathicollis (Costa, 1864 (Hemiptera, Tingidae is known to cause serious damage to the culture. This research was conducted in August of 2005, at the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ. The aim was to evaluate the effects of different doses of nitrogen (50, 100, 200 and 300kg/ha, different soil coverings (grass and Arachis pintoi, and periods of the day (morning, afternoon, evening on the population of the insect C. cyathycollis associated with the culture of S. melongena under organic system production. The delineation was in randomized blocks, with 12 treatments and 4 replications. Interaction was not verified among the studied factors (doses of nitrogen, soil covering and period of the day, but it was observed that the use of soil covering and low doses of nitrogen caused a reduction in the number of insect. The majority of insects were found during the period of the morning (39.2%.

  16. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure can be defined as the design and development of infrastructure that works with natural systems in the performance of its functions. Green infrastructure recognises the importance of the natural environment in land use planning...

  17. 基于 SWMM 模型的平原河网城市地区连续性模拟研究%The Continuity Simulation Rsearch on Plain City with Densely Covered River Based on SWMM Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    针对传统的设计暴雨模拟方法在城市排涝计算中存在的不足,结合滨江平原河网城市化地区河网与管网同时排水的特点,提出了基于SWM M模型的连续模拟的设计方法。采用SWM M模型对某研究区域内的水力要素进行概化,通过输入连续数年的雨量资料,可以输出河道设计断面连续的水位过程,再利用SWM M 中的统计模块对连续过程进行分割并统计分析,可以得到河道设计断面的水位频率关系。根据连续模拟得到的水位频率曲线可以求出某一重现期下的设计水位,然后与用实测水位进行频率计算得到的水位进行对比,发现有较好的适用性。这样,在没有实测水位资料的情况下,可以根据连续模拟直接推求满足需要的设计洪水事件。%With regard to the deficiencies in the traditional single simulation method that exists in urban drainage design ,this paper proposes continuous simulation method after integrating with simultaneous river and pipe network drainage in Riverside Plain City . The method proposed in this paper is based on SWMM model which is adopted to generalize the hydraulic elements of the study area . By inputting the data of rainfall information of consecutive years ,you can output continuous level of the river's designed cross-sec‐tion .Afterwards ,it is divided and analyzed by using the SWMM statistical module leading to river level frequency relationship curve .We can get a water level in a return period according to the simulated continuous water level frequency curve ,then we com‐pare it with frequency calculated measured water level water level .It has good applicability .Thus ,if we don't have measured water level data ,we can directly meet the needs of the design flooding events based on continuous simulation .

  18. An integrated spectral-textural approach for environmental change monitoring and assessment: analyzing the dynamics of green covers in a highly developing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakieh, Yousef; Gholipour, Mostafa; Salmanmahiny, Abdolrassoul

    2016-04-01

    The present study compares the effectiveness of two common preclassification change detection (CD) methods that use two-dimensional data space of spectral-textural (S-T) change information. The methods are principal component analysis (PCA) and change vector analysis (CVA) in the Gorgan Township area, Golestn Province, Iran. A series of texture-based information was calculated mainly to separate those land use/land cover (LULC) conversions that are spectrally indistinguishable and also to provide a basis for automatic classification of S-T data space. Both methods were evaluated in terms of accuracy and the required time and expertise. Having the two-dimensional S-T data space generated, support vector machine (SVM) classifier was implemented to automatically extract changed pixels and the receiving operator characteristic (ROC) was employed to assess the accuracy of the output. According to the results, the study area has witnessed substantial mutual transformations between various LULCs among agricultural lands were the most dynamic category in the region. The PCA method applied to the S-T information achieved a ROC of 0.90-indicating an acceptable performance-while the S-T CVA method achieved a lower value of 0.75. The S-T PCA method was considerably less time-consuming and less expertise demanding as well as more accurate in our study area.

  19. SYBR Green实时荧光PCR方法检测广谱人乳头瘤病毒的方法建立%Establishment of SYBR Green Real-time Fluorescence PCR Assay covering a broad range of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐平; 章晓鹰; 张慧敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a novel Real-time fluorescence PCR assay for simultaneous detection of a broad range of HPV. Genotypes. Methods Instead of universal specific PCR primers and specific probe,degenerate PCR primers and SYBR Green stain were used in novel Real-time fluorescence PCR assay,positive rates were compared with the kits(13 high-risk and 6 low-risk)used in clinical diagnosis,meanwhile,detected rate were compared between SYBR Green Real-time Fluorescence PCR and degenerate PCR. Results Detected rate of SYBR Green Real-time fluorescence PCR was 69 percent among the 100 positive case from cervical swab samples detected by the kits,but the kits showed negative results for 40 positive case of cutaneous warts detected by methods of SYBR Green Real-time Fluorescence PCR. Positive rates of SYBR Green Real-time Fluorescence PCR for 90 cervical type and 60 cutaneous type consist with degenerate PCR(Kappa=0. 907). Conclusion Compared with the kits used in clinical, SYBR Green Real-time Fluorescence PCR covered a wide types of HPV genotypes including cutaneous types and cervical types. It also has high efficiency,quick and simple features than degenerate PCR. However,it is satisfactory for clinical and research.%目的 建立实时荧光PCR方法以检测广谱人乳头瘤病毒.方法 该实时荧光PCR方法利用了degenerate PCR引物与非特异性的SYBR Green染料替代通常使用的PCR特异性引物与探针,并与市售高危13型、低危6型试剂盒以及degenerate PCR方法进行比较.结果 对于用高危13型试剂盒及低危6型试剂盒检测的100例黏膜型人乳头瘤病毒阳性标本,用SYBR Green实时荧光PCR方法检出的阳性数为69例,敏感性为69%,相反,用SYBR Green实时荧光PCR方法检测出的40例皮肤型人乳头瘤病毒阳性标本,用高危13型试剂盒以及低危6型试剂盒检测均为阴性;对于用SYBR Green实时荧光PCR方法及degenerate PCR方法检测的90例黏膜型、60例皮肤型标本,其

  20. Green corridors basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the concept of ‘green corridors’ as a means to develop integrated, efficient and environmentally friendly transportation of freight between major hubs and by relative long distances. The basis of this material is work conducted in the context of the EU...... SuperGreen project, which aimed at advancing the green corridor concept through a benchmarking exercise involving Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The chapter discusses the available definitions of green corridors and identifies the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from any other...... efficient surface transportation corridor. After providing examples of green corridor projects in Europe, it focuses on the KPIs that have been proposed by various projects for monitoring the performance of a freight corridor. Emphasis is given to the SuperGreen KPIs, covering the economic, technical...

  1. The Plains of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic plains units of various types comprise at least 80% of the surface of Venus. Though devoid of topographic splendor and, therefore often overlooked, these plains units house a spectacular array of volcanic, tectonic, and impact features. Here I propose that the plains hold the keys to understanding the resurfacing history of Venus and resolving the global stratigraphy debate. The quasi-random distribution of impact craters and the small number that have been conspicuously modified from the outside by plains-forming volcanism have led some to propose that Venus was catastrophically resurfaced around 725×375 Ma with little volcanism since. Challenges, however, hinge on interpretations of certain morphological characteristics of impact craters: For instance, Venusian impact craters exhibit either radar dark (smooth) floor deposits or bright, blocky floors. Bright floor craters (BFC) are typically 100-400 m deeper than dark floor craters (DFC). Furthermore, all 58 impact craters with ephemeral bright ejecta rays and/or distal parabolic ejecta patterns have bright floor deposits. This suggests that BFCs are younger, on average, than DFCs. These observations suggest that DFCs could be partially filled with lava during plains emplacement and, therefore, are not strictly younger than the plains units as widely held. Because the DFC group comprises ~80% of the total crater population on Venus the recalculated emplacement age of the plains would be ~145 Ma if DFCs are indeed volcanically modified during plains formation. Improved image and topographic data are required to measure stratigraphic and morphometric relationships and resolve this issue. Plains units are also home to an abundant and diverse set of volcanic features including steep-sided domes, shield fields, isolated volcanoes, collapse features and lava channels, some of which extend for 1000s of kilometers. The inferred viscosity range of plains-forming lavas, therefore, is immense, ranging from the

  2. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  3. Green economy and related concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loiseau, Eleonore; Saikku, Laura; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils; Hansjürgens, Bernd; Pitkänen, Kati; Leskinen, Pekka; Kuikman, Peter; Thomsen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    For the last ten years, the notion of a green economy has become increasingly attractive to policy makers. However, green economy covers a lot of diverse concepts and its links with sustainability are not always clear. In this article, we focus on definitions of green economy and related concepts

  4. Digital map of aquifer boundary for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the extent of the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The extent of the High Plains aquifer covers 174,000 square...

  5. The Effect of Green Cover on Tree and Soil Physical Properties of Red Globe Vineyards%行间生草对红地球葡萄园树体及土壤物理性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏志峰; 郭景南; 高登涛; 杨朝选; 范庆锦

    2012-01-01

    Under the condition of high temperature in Summer, the effects of weed clearing and green cover with white clover on tree and soil physical properties of red globe vineyards were comparatively studied, in order to provid a theoretical basis for green grasses of the vineyard. The results showed that weeding green grasses of vineyards had an effect on chlorophyll,leaf area.in-ternode length and stem diameter,which increaseed 2. 33%,0. 55%,7. 69% and 6. 25%,respectively. However the effect was not significant. Under the high temperatures in Summer, weeding green grasses lowered the temperature significantly from the ground surface in the depth of 10 cm at 14:00-16:00,and the soil volumetric water content among the soil depth field in 0 - 10 cm was significantly higher than that at weed clearing place. Also,in the depth 30-40 cm range,field water capacity is slightly lower than that at the weed clearing area. Weeding grasses reduced the soil bulk density to 9. 49% and increased four percent of the total porosity;grasses also lowered the temperature of grape leaves and stomatal conductance. Clearly,vineyard orchard grass not only improved the micro-climate but also improved soil physical properties, and promoted root growth and absorption which were conducive to the growth and development of vines.%在夏季高温条件下,研究了葡萄园行间清耕及行间生白三叶草对红地球葡萄园树体生长及土壤物理性状的影响,为葡萄园行间生草提供试验依据.结果表明:生草处理的葡萄叶绿素(SPAD值)、叶面积、节间长、节间粗分别为35.53、366.80 cm2、13.03 cm、1.275 cm,比渍耕增加2.33%、0.55%、7.69%、6.25%,但差异不显著;夏季高温条件下,14:00-16:00时,生草处理对地表至地下10 cm处的降温效果显著;生草处理0~10 cm土壤容积含水量明显高于清耕处理,而30~40 cm土壤容积含水量又略低于清耕处理;生草使土壤容重降低9.49%,总孔隙度提高4个

  6. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  7. About green political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.

  8. DS-777 Annual Model-Forecasted Land-Use/Land-Cover Rasters from 2009 to 2050 for the A2 Climate Scenario for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Estimates of area and aerial extent of land-use categories are an essential component for computing the water budget of the High Plains aquifer. These raster...

  9. DS-777 Annual Model-Forecasted Land-Use/Land-Cover Rasters from 2009 to 2050 for the B2 Climate Scenario for the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Estimates of area and aerial extent of land use categories are an essential component for computing the water budget of the High Plains aquifer. These raster...

  10. Green roofs; Les toitures vegetalisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seghier, C.

    2006-03-15

    Impervious surface coverage keeps spreading in cities. Streets, sidewalks, parking lots and roofs are waterproof, meaning greater amounts of water to channel and treat and higher flood risks during heavy rainfalls. Green roofing can play a key part in addressing this alarming issue. There are three types of green roofs: extensive, semi-intensive and intensive. The extensive green roof technique uses a thin soil covering with a variety of species providing year-round plant coverage. The plants are not necessarily horticultural in which case routine maintenance is minimal. No watering is needed. Usually extensive green roofs create an ecosystem. The semi-intensive green roof technique uses a soil covering of average thickness and serves to create decorative roofing. Although maintenance is moderate, watering is essential. The intensive green roof technique produces a terrace roof garden. Another advantage of green roofs is they increase the life cycle of the sealing. Roof sealing protection may see the span of its life cycle, now at about fifteen years, doubled if the building has a green roof. planning professionals still know very little about green roofing solutions. Yet, green roofing provides unquestionable ecological qualities and thermal and acoustic performance that have proven to be environmentally friendly. Yet France lags behind northern European countries in green roofing. The Germans, Swiss, Austrians, Scandinavians and Dutch have been using the technique for more than twenty years. (A.L.B.)

  11. Terrestrial bird populations and habitat use on coastal plain tundra of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers terrestrial bird populations and habitat use on the coastal plain tundra of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Bird census plots were monitored....

  12. Regional dynamics of grassland change in the western Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the contemporary land-cover changes in two western Great Plains ecoregions between 1973 and 2000. Agriculture and other land uses can have a substantial effect on grassland cover that varies regionally depending on the primary driving forces of change. In order to better understand change, the rates, types, and causes of land conversion were examined for 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000 using Landsat satellite data and a statistical sampling strategy. The overall estimated rate of land-cover change between 1973 and 2000 was 7.4% in the Northwestern Great Plains and 11.5% in the Western High Plains. Trends in both ecoregions have similarities, although the dynamics of change differ temporally depending on driving forces. Between 1973 and 1986, grassland cover declined when economic opportunity drove an expansion of agriculture. Between 1986 and 2000, grassland expanded as public policy and a combination of socioeconomic factors drove a conversion from agriculture to grassland. ?? 2007 Copyright by the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

  13. Green walls in Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R. [Sharp and Diamond Landscape Architecture Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    With the renewed interest in design for microclimate control and energy conservation, many cities are implementing clean air initiatives and sustainable planning policies to mitigate the effects of urban climate and the urban heat island effect. Green roofs, sky courts and green walls must be thoughtfully designed to withstand severe conditions such as moisture stress, extremes in temperature, tropical storms and strong desiccating winds. This paper focused on the installation of green wall systems. There are 2 general types of green walls systems, namely facade greening and living walls. Green facades are trellis systems where climbing plants can grow vertically without attaching to the surface of the building. Living walls are part of a building envelope system where plants are actually planted and grown in a wall system. A modular G-SKY Green Wall Panel was installed at the Aquaquest Learning Centre at the Vancouver Aquarium in Stanley Park in September 2006. This green wall panel, which was originally developed in Japan, incorporates many innovative features in the building envelope. It provides an exterior wall covered with 8 species of plants native to the Coastal Temperate Rain Forest. The living wall is irrigated by rainwater collected from the roof, stored in an underground cistern and fed through a drip irrigation system. From a habitat perspective, the building imitates an escarpment. Installation, support systems, irrigation, replacement of modules and maintenance are included in the complete wall system. Living walls reduce the surface temperature of buildings by as much as 10 degrees C when covered with vegetation and a growing medium. The project team is anticipating LEED gold certification under the United States-Canada Green Building Council. It was concluded that this technology of vegetated building envelopes is applicable for acoustical control at airports, biofiltration of indoor air, greywater treatment, and urban agriculture and vertical

  14. Development of a high spectral resolution surface albedo product for the ARM Southern Great Plains Central Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Gaustad, Krista L.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Long, Charles N.; Delamere, Jennifer

    2011-09-01

    We present a method for identifying dominant surface type and estimating high spectral resolution surface albedo at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma for use in radiative transfer calculations. Given a set of 6-channel narrowband visible and near-infrared irradiance measurements from upward and downward looking multi-filter radiometers (MFRs), four different surface types (snow-covered, green vegetation, partial vegetation, non-vegetated) can be identified. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is used to distinguish between vegetated and non-vegetated surfaces, and a scaled NDVI index is used to estimate the percentage of green vegetation in partially vegetated surfaces. Based on libraries of spectral albedo measurements, a piecewise continuous function is developed to estimate the high spectral resolution surface albedo for each surface type given the MFR albedo values as input. For partially vegetated surfaces, the albedo is estimated as a linear combination of the green vegetation and non-vegetated surface albedo values. The estimated albedo values are evaluated through comparison to high spectral resolution albedo measurements taken during several Intensive Observational Periods (IOPs) and through comparison of the integrated spectral albedo values to observed broadband albedo measurements. The estimated spectral albedo values agree well with observations for the visible wavelengths constrained by the MFR measurements, but have larger biases and variability at longer wavelengths. Additional MFR channels at 1100 nm and/or 1600 nm would help constrain the high resolution spectral albedo in the near infrared region.

  15. Geomorphological development of Eastern Mongolian plain, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    khukhuudei, Ulambadrakh; otgonbayar, Orolzodmaa

    2016-04-01

    Several summaries and investigations of the geomorphological description and feature for Eastern Mongolian plain (EMP), the one of the largest geomorphological district, fully covering east side of Mongolia (Murzayev, 1949; Vlodavets, 1950, 1955; Marinov, Khasin, 1954; Marinov, 1966; Nikolayeva, 1971; Selivanov, 1972; Chichagov, 1974, 1976; Grigorov, 1975; Korjuyev, 1982; Syirnev, 1982, 1984) had been publishing continuously. But literature for geomorphology of EMP have been not appeared during over the past 20 years. However, we re-combine the geomorphological development of EMP, according to the results of many publications for surrounding regions of Russia and China and unpublished maps. Main morphology of EMP has the plain, containing with aeolian, fluvial and lacustrine landforms. Plain morphology defined that denudation plains to North Kherlen, South Kherlen, Baruun Urt, Uulbayan, Delgerekh and other which developed on the Paleozoic rocks, layered plain to Choibalsan, Tamsag, Ongon, Gert, Sumiin nuur and Torey- on the Late Cretaceous and Neogene sediments and accumulation plain with alluvial and lacustrine origin such as Menen, Buir nuur, Tamsagbulag, Khalzan and other. These plains of EMP related with tectonics and structure of region and inherited the development of the Mesozoic, particularly Late Mesozoic structure. Large basins of EMP are Tamsag, Choibalsan and Torey and other small basins - from 7-10 km to 25-30 km width and rather a several 10 km extend, cutting a basement. The origin of plain morphology for EMP is interpreted as two main stages of the geomorphological development model, based on geology. In first stage or Late Jurassic (?) - Lower Cretaceous period, there was developed rift basin, then, in second stage or since Late Cretaceous period, plain morphology originated from the intermountain basin that dominated by exogenic process and kept in current EMP area. Data relevant to the development history of EMP are following. 1. Rift volcanism

  16. Specific yield, High Plains aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents specific-yield ranges in the High Plains aquifer of the United States. The High Plains aquifer underlies 112.6 million acres (176,000...

  17. Governmental policies drive the LUCC trajectories in the Jianghan Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhi; Shao, Qihui; Li, Rendong; Song, Mingjie; Zhou, Yong

    2013-12-01

    The prosperity of farmers is closely tied to governmental policies. The Jianghan Plain is an important region for commodity grains, cotton and edible oil for China. The trajectories of land use and land cover change (LUCC) of the study area from 1995 to 2010 were studied based on the LUCC database of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The LUCC was characterised by a continuous decrease of arable land and continuous increase of waters and construction land. The LUCC was obviously concurrent with the implementation of related national policies. The transition to construction land was ever well controlled by 'Notice regarding the further strengthening of land management and arable land protection' promulgated in 1997. However, it flourished again with the 'Rise of Central China Strategy' taking effect since 2006. The transition of construction land to others reflects an uncommon trend, which must be strengthened with the strict implementation of the overall plan, which imposes a limited acreage quota of construction land to each district. The policies were quite contradictory to the transition of waters. LUCC related to waters is most active, which was driven by both natural forces and national policies. Just after the devastating flood of 1998, the state council of China put forward the Green Policy to govern the major rivers. As to the study area, it is mainly to 'push over dykes to let flood through and return farmland to lakes'. In 2004, the Grain Direct Subsidy Policy was implemented, which, along with the surge in the price of rice, resulted in a strengthening trend of conversion of ponds to paddy fields.

  18. Green chemistry: principles and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Paul; Eghbali, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Green Chemistry is a relatively new emerging field that strives to work at the molecular level to achieve sustainability. The field has received widespread interest in the past decade due to its ability to harness chemical innovation to meet environmental and economic goals simultaneously. Green Chemistry has a framework of a cohesive set of Twelve Principles, which have been systematically surveyed in this critical review. This article covers the concepts of design and the scientific philosophy of Green Chemistry with a set of illustrative examples. Future trends in Green Chemistry are discussed with the challenge of using the Principles as a cohesive design system (93 references).

  19. Cover Crop Chart: An Intuitive Educational Resource for Extension Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, Mark A.; Johnson, Holly; Archer, David; Hendrickson, John; Nichols, Kristine; Schmer, Marty; Tanaka, Don

    2013-01-01

    Interest in cover crops by agricultural producers has increased the need for information regarding the suitability of crops for addressing different production and natural resource goals. To help address this need, staff at the USDA-ARS Northern Great Plains Research Laboratory developed a decision aid called the Cover Crop Chart (CCC). Visually…

  20. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  1. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7917.2014v19n1p158 Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  2. Cover Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuning; Ruben; Lehn; Renz; Garcia; Ksenofontov; Gütlich; Wegelius; Rissanen

    2000-07-17

    The cover picture shows how both, fine arts and science, avail themselves of a system of intertwined symbolic and iconic languages. They make use of a common set of abstracted signs to report on their results. Thus, already in 1925, Wassily Kandinsky painted a masterpiece (bottom), which now, 75 years later, might be regarded as a blueprint for a scientific project. In his painting, Kandinsky pictured a grid-shaped sign that resembles in effect an actual molecular switch. Apparently following an enigmatic protocol, the groups of Lehn and Gütlich (see p. 2504 ff. for more details) constructed a grid-type inorganic architecture that operates as a three-level magnetic switch (center) triggered by three external perturbations (p, T, hnu). The switching principle is based on the spin-crossover phenomenon of Fe(II) ions and can be monitored by Mössbauer spectroscopy (left) and magnetic measurements (rear). Maybe not by chance, the English translation of the title of the painting "signs" is a homonym of "science", since both presented works are a product of the insatiable curiosity of man and his untiring desire to recognize his existence.

  3. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  4. Plain and Integral: An Interview with Karen Kho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Reams

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Karen Kho describes her work in the Alameda County Green Building Program. She covers the application of an integral framework to working with a variety of stakeholders in the residential building industry. This work includes a stakeholder analysis, rating program, educational materials and guidelines. How the program expanded beyond Alameda County is also covered.

  5. Green facades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Winden, J.; Smits, E.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. Knowledge of living organisms applied in buildings can prevent crucial designer mistakes. Therefore this manual provides information on vegetated facades. Green facade, vertical green, green wall, vertical g

  6. Green in software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Calero Munoz, Coral

    2015-01-01

    This is the first book that presents a comprehensive overview of sustainability aspects in software engineering. Its format follows the structure of the SWEBOK and covers the key areas involved in the incorporation of green aspects in software engineering, encompassing topics from requirement elicitation to quality assurance and maintenance, while also considering professional practices and economic aspects. The book consists of thirteen chapters, which are structured in five parts. First the "Introduction" gives an overview of the primary general concepts related to Green IT, discussing wha

  7. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  8. Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system in Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina.

  9. DEMOGRAPHIC VULNERABILITIES IN TECUCI PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Adrian ŞORCARU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on analyzing and mapping 8 indicators considered to best reflect the demographic vulnerability in Tecuci Plain in the year 2010 and proposes a model of aggregation which finally allows us to distinguish three major types of demographic vulnerability (low, medium and high. Mapping the final values also shows significant disparities in the territorial administrative units that broadly overlap the plain, the most vulnerable being Tecuci city and the peripheral communes, towards Vrancea and Vaslui Counties.

  10. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  11. Green Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  12. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...... variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...... is made to estimate the global cost of drought....

  13. Investigations of interior Arctic coastal plain avifauna in National Petroleum Reserve of Alaska: 1977 Singiluk final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document covers the investigations of interior Arctic coastal plains avifauna in national petroleum reserve of Alaska. The effects of petroleum development on...

  14. Minimizing Climate Change Impacts through the Application of Green Building Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Baharuddin

    2014-01-01

    The presentation explains the climate change and the role of green building in minimising the impact of climate change. The presentation covers the emerging issues, sustainable building, green building certification which covers: sustainable site, water efficiency, energy and

  15. The Cell Walls of Green Algae: A Journey through Evolution and Diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Domozych, David S; Ciancia, Marina; Fangel, Jonatan U; Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Ulvskov, Peter; Willats, William G T

    2012-01-01

    .... The extracellular coverings of green algae including cell walls are also diverse. A recent surge of research in green algal cell walls fueled by new emerging technologies has revealed new and critical insight concerning these coverings...

  16. Green Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU LING

    2010-01-01

    @@ World Expo's China Pavilion is a large crimson building,but it's green at heart.The pavilion,a magnificent symbol of Chinese culture,is also a "green landmark" on the world stage,thanks to German company Siemens' energy-saving solutions.

  17. Green consumerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...... and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also...

  18. Green thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Green components of thermodynamics were identified and general aspects of green practices associated with thermodynamics were assessed. Energy uses associated with fossil fuels were reviewed. Green energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal and hydropower were discussed, as well as biomass plantations. Ethanol production practices were reviewed. Conservation practices in the United States were outlined. Energy efficiency and exergy analyses were discussed. Energy intensity measurements and insulation products for houses were also reviewed. Five case studies were presented to illustrate aspects of green thermodynamics: (1) light in a classroom; (2) fuel saved by low-resistance tires; and (3) savings with high-efficiency motors; (4) renewable energy; and (5) replacing a valve with a turbine at a cryogenic manufacturing facility. It was concluded that the main principles of green thermodynamics are to ensure that all material and energy inputs minimize the depletion of energy resources; prevent waste; and improve or innovate technologies that achieve sustainability. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. Green consumerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...... and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also...

  20. Green chemistry: highly selective biocatalytic hydrolysis of nitrile compounds

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brady, D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Brady5_2006.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 39048 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Brady5_2006.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Green Chemistry: Highly... on the environment. This trend is reflected in the collective term, ‘Green Chemistry’1. One of the leading technologies in this area is the use of enzymes and whole microorganisms as biological catalysts. Biocatalysis can be used in aqueous solutions at near...

  1. Green chemistry: highly selective biocatalytic hydrolysis of nitrile compounds

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brady, D

    2006-02-28

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Brady_2006.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 18987 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Brady_2006.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Green Chemistry: highly selective... biocatalytic hydrolysis of nitrile compounds CSIR Conference Dr Dean Brady Research Fellow (Biosciences) 28 February 2006 Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za The need for Green Chemistry • On average 300 kg of chemicals...

  2. Saturated thickness, High Plains aquifer, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents the saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer of the United States, 2009, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  3. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  4. Green commercial building insurance in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu Xin Ou; Chew, Boon Cheong; Loo, Heoy Shin; Tan, Lay Hong

    2017-03-01

    Green building construction is growing tremendously globally even in Malaysia. Currently, there are approximate 636 buildings have registered and to be certified with Green Building Index. Among these buildings, 45 buildings have already fulfilled the requirements and fully certified. The other buildings still under provisional certification stage. Malaysia had adopted Green Building Index in 2009 to support a move to promote green building concept. Malaysia starts to move towards green building because Malaysian construction and building industry realizes that both energy consumed and waste produced are reduced without irreversible impacts to ecosystems. Consequently, insurance companies such as Fireman's Fund from America has started the green building insurance policies for their green building in the year of 2006, while Malaysia still remain the coverage for green buildings using conventional property insurance. There are lacks of efforts to be seen from insurance companies to propose green building insurance for these green buildings. There are a few factors which can take into consideration for insurance companies to start the very first green building insurance in Malaysia. Although there are challenges, some efficient strategies have been identified to overcome the problems. The methods used in this research topic is qualitative research. The results obtained shows that green commercial building insurance has a huge business opportunity in Malaysia because the number of green commercial buildings are increasing tremendously in Malaysia. It is a favor to implement green building insurance in Malaysia. Furthermore, insurance companies can consider to add in extra coverage in standard building policy to provide extra protection for non-certified green buildings which have the intention to rebuilt in green when damage happens. Generally, it is very important to introduce green commercial buildings insurance into Malaysia so that all of the green commercial

  5. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  6. Greening infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ), transport (typically roads, rail and airports), and telecommunications. The focus of this chapter will be on greening bulk services and roads. Despite the importance of infrastructure to economic growth and social wellbeing, many countries struggle to meet...

  7. Green Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... devil's claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, horse chestnut, Panax ginseng, psyllium, Siberian ginseng, and others.Herbs and ... herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, and others.IronCertain components of green coffee ...

  8. Green Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  9. Behaviorally Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2016-01-01

    or services and alternatives that are potentially damaging to the environment but less expensive? The answer may well depend on the default rule. Indeed, green default rules may be a more effective tool for altering outcomes than large economic incentives. The underlying reasons include the powers...... of suggestion, inertia, and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green...... defaults, choice architects should consider consumer welfare and a wide range of other costs and benefits. Sometimes that assessment will argue strongly in favor of green defaults, particularly when both economic and environmental considerations point in their direction. But when choice architects lack...

  10. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    environmentally-friendly products or services and alternatives that are potentially damaging to the environment but less expensive? The answer may well depend on the default rule. Indeed, green default rules may well be a more effective tool for altering outcomes than large economic incentives. The underlying...... reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...... to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green defaults, choice architects should consider both consumer welfare and a wide range of other costs and benefits. Sometimes that assessment will argue strongly in favor of green defaults, particularly when both economic and environmental considerations point...

  11. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    environmentally-friendly products or services and alternatives that are potentially damaging to the environment but less expensive? The answer may well depend on the default rule. Indeed, green default rules may well be a more effective tool for altering outcomes than large economic incentives. The underlying...... reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...... to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green defaults, choice architects should consider both consumer welfare and a wide range of other costs and benefits. Sometimes that assessment will argue strongly in favor of green defaults, particularly when both economic and environmental considerations point...

  12. Green Kidz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto, Melina; Daryai-Hansen, Petra; Arcuri, Maria Emilia;

    2016-01-01

    Projektet "Green Kidz. Intercultural environmental citizenship in the English language classroom in Argentina and Denmark" er en del af et internationalt udviklingsprojekt, der er ledet af Michael Byram, Durham University. Projektet belyser, hvordan interkulturelt medborgerskab kan styrkes i...

  13. Green towers and green walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R. [Sharp and Diamond Landscape Architecture and Planning, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    North American cities face many major environmental and health issues such as urban heat island effect, the intensity of storms, microclimate around buildings, imperviousness of sites, poor air quality and increases in respiratory disease. Several new technologies are starting to address global impacts and community level issues as well as the personal health and comfort of building occupants. These include green towers, living walls, vegetated rooftops and ecological site developments. This paper examined these forms of eco-development and presented their benefits. It discussed green walls in Japan; green towers in Malaysia, Singapore and Great Britain; green facades of climbing plants; active living walls in Canada; and passive living walls in France and Canada. It also discussed thermal walls; thematic walls; vertical gardens and structured wildlife habitat. Last, it presented testing, monitoring, research and conclusions. The Centre for the Advancement of Green Roof Technology is setting up a program to test thermal performance, to assess plant survival and to monitor green walls at the British Columbia Institute of Technology in Vancouver, Canada as much of the research out of Japan is only available in Japanese script. It was concluded that green architecture can provide shade, food, rainwater, shelter for wildlife and mimic natural systems. 15 refs.

  14. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  15. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  16. GREEN ROOFS — A GROWING TREND

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most interesting stormwater control systems under evaluation by EPA are “green roofs”. Green roofs are vegetative covers applied to building roofs to slow, or totally absorb, rainfall runoff during storms. While the concept of over-planted roofs is very ancient, the go...

  17. Development of a high spectral resolution surface albedo product for the ARM Southern Great Plains central facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Delamere

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a method for identifying dominant surface type and estimating high spectral resolution surface albedo at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM facility at the Southern Great Plains (SGP site in Oklahoma for use in radiative transfer calculations. Given a set of 6-channel narrowband visible and near-infrared irradiance measurements from upward and downward looking multi-filter radiometers (MFRs, four different surface types (snow-covered, green vegetation, partial vegetation, non-vegetated can be identified. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI is used to distinguish between vegetated and non-vegetated surfaces, and a scaled NDVI index is used to estimate the percentage of green vegetation in partially vegetated surfaces. Based on libraries of spectral albedo measurements, a piecewise continuous function is developed to estimate the high spectral resolution surface albedo for each surface type given the MFR albedo values as input. For partially vegetated surfaces, the albedo is estimated as a linear combination of the green vegetation and non-vegetated surface albedo values. The estimated albedo values are evaluated through comparison to high spectral resolution albedo measurements taken during several Intensive Observational Periods (IOPs and through comparison of the integrated spectral albedo values to observed broadband albedo measurements. The estimated spectral albedo values agree well with observations for the visible wavelengths constrained by the MFR measurements, but have larger biases and variability at longer wavelengths. Additional MFR channels at 1100 nm and/or 1600 nm would help constrain the high resolution spectral albedo in the near infrared region.

  18. Detailed Analysis of the Intra-Ejecta Dark Plains of Caloris Basin, Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Debra L.; Seelos, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    The Caloris basin on Mercury is floored by light-toned plains and surrounded by an annulus of dark-toned material interpreted to be ejecta blocks and smooth, dark, ridged plains. Strangely, preliminary crater counts indicate that these intra-ejecta dark plains are younger than the light-toned plains within the Caloris basin. This would imply a second, younger plains emplacement event, possibly involving lower albedo material volcanics, which resurfaced the original ejecta deposit. On the other hand, the dark plains may be pre-Caloris light plains covered by a thin layer of dark ejecta. Another alternative to the hypothesis of young, dark volcanism is the possibility that previous crater counts have not thoroughly distinguished between superposed craters (fresh) and partly-buried craters (old) and therefore have not accurately determined the ages of the Caloris units. This abstract outlines the tasks associated with a new mapping project of the Caloris basin, intended to improve our knowledge of the geology and geologic history of the basin, and thus facilitate an understanding of the thermal evolution of this region of Mercury.

  19. Late Quaternary geology of the Lower Central Plain, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsakul, Sin

    2000-08-01

    The Lower Central Plain or Chao Phraya Plain, located in the upper Gulf of Thailand, has an average elevation of 2 m above the present mean sea level. It is a fault bounded basin developed in the Plio-Pleistocene epoch. Consequently, the basin has been filled with Quaternary sediment reaching a thickness of almost 2000 m, of which only the upper 300 m is known. The Pleistocene deposits of the Lower Central Plain represent a complex interplay of alluvial, fluvial and deltaic environments of the Chao Phraya River and its tributaries. The upper sequence of sand and stiff clay with iron-oxide concretions on the surface was deposited in a fluviatile environment subjected to a regressive period in the late Pleistocene. The term "Chao Phraya delta" is used to define the landform where the Chao Phraya River interacted with marine processes as the sea level changed during the Holocene transgression. These strata indicated that the Holocene sea reached its maximum height of 4 m above the present mean sea level around 6000 years B.P.; from then on sea level fluctuated until it reached its present level around 1500 years B.P. This complex sea level history has caused the progradation of tidal flat, and tide-dominated delta deposits, consisting of soft marine clay, that covered the Lower Central Plain to an average depth of 15 m in the Bangkok area. The soft marine clay or Bangkok clay is the most important unit in the stratigraphic sequence in terms of land subsidence in the Lower Central Plain. Evidence of coastal erosion is also considerable in the low tidal flat area on the west bank of the Chao Phraya River mouth and adjacent coast.

  20. Green Tea and Bone Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in elderly men and women. Epidemiological evidence has shown association between tea consumption and age-related bone loss in elderly men and women. The aim of this review is to provide a systemic review of green tea and bone health to cover the following topi...

  1. Green tax reform in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1994-01-01

    Energy, transport and fuel taxes in Denmark have, since the late 1970s, been among the highest in the OECD, and raise already more than 30 billion DKK annually to cover 10-12 per cent of the state household: a share that will be increased over the next five years with new green taxes. Furthermore...

  2. Green and lean management

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J

    2017-01-01

    This book focusses on the challenges and changes organizational management faces in an era when the need to develop environmentally aware processes meets high levels of competition. It covers the synergetic effects, how re-use, recycling, waste reduction, and other sustainable production strategies can add value, low costs and time of production. Sustainable business behavior is not only an environmental perspective on management, but more and more contains an organizational perspective. Taking into account these issues, green and lean management appears as the way managers can drive their employees to continuously improve the management processes that add value to the organization and costumers. This book provides information on principles, strategies, models, and applications of green and lean management, and at the same time communicates the latest research activity relating to this scientific field world-wide.

  3. Plain Polynomial Arithmetic on GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisul Haque, Sardar; Moreno Maza, Marc

    2012-10-01

    As for serial code on CPUs, parallel code on GPUs for dense polynomial arithmetic relies on a combination of asymptotically fast and plain algorithms. Those are employed for data of large and small size, respectively. Parallelizing both types of algorithms is required in order to achieve peak performances. In this paper, we show that the plain dense polynomial multiplication can be efficiently parallelized on GPUs. Remarkably, it outperforms (highly optimized) FFT-based multiplication up to degree 212 while on CPU the same threshold is usually at 26. We also report on a GPU implementation of the Euclidean Algorithm which is both work-efficient and runs in linear time for input polynomials up to degree 218 thus showing the performance of the GCD algorithm based on systolic arrays.

  4. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  5. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  6. Green networking

    CERN Document Server

    Krief, Francine

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on green networking, which is an important topic for the scientific community composed of engineers, academics, researchers and industrialists working in the networking field. Reducing the environmental impact of the communications infrastructure has become essential with the ever increasing cost of energy and the need for reducing global CO2 emissions to protect our environment.Recent advances and future directions in green networking are presented in this book, including energy efficient networks (wired networks, wireless networks, mobile networks), adaptive networ

  7. Identification of thick sedimentary plains north of Hellas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salese, Francesco; Mangold, Nicolas; Ansan, Veronique; Carter, John; Ody, Anouck; Poulet, François; Ori, Gian Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the origin and timing of intercrater plains is crucial to understand the Martian history in relation with endogenic and/or exogenic cycles. Intercrater plains north of Hellas basin on Mars are thought to have hosted different sedimentary environments during the Late Noachian/Early Hesperian, and they offer a well-preserved insight into the regional geological history of Mars. Our new geologic mapping of the intercrater plains north of Hellas Basin is based on the rich data set from MRO and Mars Express and provides new insights into the region's geological history. These findings appear to constrain the interpretation of the nature and age of intercrater plains in this region, although we acknowledge that for example the source of the sedimentary deposits must be subject to further analysis. The northern part of Hellas basin displays topographically flat area, which was characterized during the Late Noachian by sedimentary deposition and later, in the Late Hesperian, by fissural volcanism. The map and crater retention ages enable us to interpret the geologic history of the region. The stratigraphically lower unit is represented by crustal outcrops. Across most of the region, the sedimentary unit covers the basement and is eroded into mesas, erosional windows and perched by fresh craters. Intercrater plains' sedimentary deposits north of Hellas display horizontal light-toned layered rich in Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates and local crossbedding stratification. The Noachian sedimentary deposits of the intercrater plains north of Hellas are locally covered by Hesperian lava flows, showing that intercrater plains are sedimentary and volcanic in origin. We found different erosional (regional and local) surfaces, at HiRISE scale inside sediments due to local erosional windows and at CTX scale we found two important regional erosional surfaces. The oldest between crustal outcrops and sediments, which is likely Middle Noachian in age and the youngest between sediments

  8. What Medicare Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Part A covers Medicare Part A hospital insurance covers inpatient hospital care, skilled nursing facility, hospice, lab tests, surgery, ... Medicare Covers Drug Coverage (Part D) Supplements & Other Insurance Claims & ... doctors, providers, hospitals & plans Where can I get covered medical items? ...

  9. Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  10. Green Victory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Award-winning solar energy project benefits millions of people in underdeveloped areas The world’s leading green en- ergy prize, Ashden Award for Sustainable Energy, announced on June 19 that China’s Renewable Energy Development Project (REDP) was among its latest recipients. The REDP

  11. Green Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ It seems all happened in a moment.White clouds float in blue sky,green trees are decorated by colorful flags with warm smiling images,and the building are taking a brand new appearance...Some magic must has been done to Beijing:it turns to a cleaner,healthier and more beautiful city.

  12. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought...

  13. Groundwater Modeling of the Texas High Plains using Modflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, J. E.; Gowda, P. H.; Misra, D.; Marek, T.; Howell, T. A.

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and calibrate a groundwater model for a 4-county area in the Texas High Plains of the Ogallala Aquifer Region. This study is a major component of a comprehensive regional analysis of groundwater depletion in the Ogallala Aquifer Region with the purpose of understanding short- and long-term effects of existing and alternative land use scenarios on groundwater changes. A comprehensive geographic information system (GIS) database was developed for this purpose that included a recent land cover map. This 2008 land cover map was developed using Landsat satellite imagery with ground-truth points for Dallam, Sherman, Hartley, and Moore Counties in Texas. Other GIS layers included aquifer elevation contours, surficial geology, hydraulic conductivity contours, saturated thickness areas, well locations and piezometric heads, aquifer discharge and recharge areas, topography, hydrographic data, ecological regions, and soil type data. The hydrologic simulations were done using MODFLOW. Anticipated outcomes from this modeling effort include the effect of change in land use/land cover on sustainability of the aquifer life in the study region. Our results will be used to develop strategies to conserve groundwater in the Ogallala Aquifer beneath Central High Plains and improve regional water planning.

  14. IIMPLICATIONS OF INVASION BY JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA ON SMALL MAMMALS IN THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in landscape cover in the Great Plains are resulting from the range expansion and invasion of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). By altering the landscape and local vegetation, red cedar is changing the structure and function of habitat for small mammals. We examin...

  15. IMPLICATIONS OF INVASION BY JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA ON SMALL MAMMALS IN THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in landscape cover in the Great Plains are resulting from the range expansion and invasion of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). By altering the landscape and local vegetation, red cedar is changing the structure and function of habitat for small mammals. We exam...

  16. Cover crop-based ecological weed management: exploration and optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: organic farming, ecologically-based weed management, cover crops, green manure, allelopathy, Secale cereale, Brassica napus, Medicago sativa Cover crop-based ecological weed management: exploration and optimization. In organic farming systems, weed control is recognized as one of the mai

  17. Cover crop-based ecological weed management: exploration and optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: organic farming, ecologically-based weed management, cover crops, green manure, allelopathy, Secale cereale, Brassica napus, Medicago sativa Cover crop-based ecological weed management: exploration and optimization. In organic farming systems, weed control is recognized as one of the

  18. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  19. Green toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  20. Compositional evolution of lava plains in the Syria-Thaumasia Block, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Xiao, Long

    2014-05-01

    Tharsis is the most prominent volcanic province on Mars, yet the compositions of lava flows and how composition relates to the development of Tharsis are poorly known. Most of Tharsis is covered with air-fall dust, which inhibits spectroscopic determination of lava mineralogy. The Syria-Thaumasia Block (STB) is a complex tectono-volcanic province closely related to the Tharsis bulge. The lava plains of STB have different emplacement ages, which provide an opportunity to examine whether magma composition changed with the evolution of Tharsis. In this study, we assessed the lava plains using Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data. Using derived physical properties, we targeted dust-free regions from four different-aged geological units' surfaces and determined the mineralogical composition by modeling the average TES surface spectrum from each of the four surfaces. All units have similar mineralogy but the younger two units have elevated abundance of high-SiO2 phases. The spatial distribution of wrinkle ridges indicates lava plains of unit HNr (older ridged plains material) and Hr (younger ridged plains material) were emplaced before the rise of Tharsis, whereas Hsl (flows of lower member) and Hsu (upper member) were emplaced after Tharsis uplift was initiated. We show that the magma composition differed in the lava plains of STB after the uplift of Tharsis. This study further characterizes early martian magma composition and evolution.

  1. Grass cover crop and tillage method on watermelon production on porous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Cogn.] production in the Southern Plains is often on well-drained soil, which makes conservation of water difficult. Established cover crops can conserve moisture, but it needs to be determined what cover and tillage method provides the most benefit to watermel...

  2. METRIC Estimated ET Evaluation on the Semiarid Southern High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, J. L.; Gowda, P. H.; Colaizzi, P. D.; Evett, S. R.; Howell, T. A.; Copeland, K.

    2007-05-01

    Declining groundwater levels in the Southern High Plains of the United States, and the fact that agriculture in this region uses more than 90% of groundwater withdrawals, combine to increase the demand for efficient agricultural water use. Accurate regional evapotranspiration (ET) maps would provide valuable information on crop water use. In this study, we applied METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution using Internalized Calibration), a remote sensing based ET algorithm, and micrometeorological data measured at a grass reference ET weather station maintained by the Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration Network (TXHPET). For this purpose, a Landsat Thematic Mapper image covering a major portion of the Southern High Plains (parts of Texas Panhandle and northeastern New Mexico) was acquired for 23 July 2006 at 11:26 AM CST. Comprehensive ground-truth data were collected to develop a detailed land use map showing major crops grown in the region. Performance of the METRIC model was evaluated using measured ET data on five weighing lysimeters at Bushland, TX [35 Deg. 11' N, 102 Deg. 06' W; 1,170 m elevation MSL] managed by the Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS. Lysimeter-measured ET rates varied from 2.4 to 7.8 mm/d. Good agreement was found between the remote sensing based ET and measured ET. Comparison of estimated daily mapped ET values with lysimetric measurements had an accuracy within 9% of the measured ET (r2 = 0.89) with a mean square error of 0.9 mm/d. The use of METRIC for advective conditions of the Southern High Plains is promising; however, more evaluation is needed for different agroclimatological conditions.

  3. Sky cover from MFRSR observations: cumulus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their model clear-sky counterparts are two main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumulus clouds. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumulus clouds. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  4. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  5. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  6. Exit and Paradise Creek Braid Plain Kilometers, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of points designating braid plain kilometers, or distance along the braid plain centerline, for the 2012 active braid plain of Exit Creek and...

  7. Young adult smokers' perceptions of plain packaging: a pilot naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Crawford; Mackintosh, Anne Marie; Hastings, Gerard; Ford, Allison

    2011-09-01

    To explore the impact, if any, that using plain (non-branded) cigarette packs in real-life settings has on young adult smokers. Naturalistic-type research was employed, where smokers used brown 'plain' packs for 2 weeks and their regular packs for 2 weeks, in real-life settings. Participants were recruited in Glasgow, Scotland. Of the 140 smokers aged 18-35 years who participated in the naturalistic study, 48 correctly completed and returned all questionnaires. Over the 4-week study period, participants completed a questionnaire twice a week assessing pack perceptions and feelings, feelings about smoking, salience of health warnings and smoking-related behaviours. A subsample of 18 participated in a post-study interview, which employed a semistructured topic guide to assess perceptions and experiences of using plain packs. Trends in the data show that in comparison with branded packaging, plain packaging increased negative perceptions and feelings about the pack and about smoking. Plain packaging also increased avoidant behaviour (hiding the pack, covering the pack), certain smoking cessation behaviours, such as smoking less around others and forgoing cigarettes, and thinking about quitting. Almost half (n=8) of those in the post-study interview, predominantly women (n=6), reported that the use of plain packs had either increased avoidant behaviour or reduced consumption. This pilot naturalistic study suggests that plain packaging could potentially help reduce tobacco consumption among some young adult smokers, and women in particular. Employing an innovative research methodology, the findings of this study are consistent with, and indeed support, past plain packaging research.

  8. Green building handbook: Green pavement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available (as is often experienced in South African locations). Green storm water runoff management mimics nature using man-made elements such as pervious pavement, soakaways, ponds, and gently sloping channels (swales) to attenuate and treat urban runoff...; Pollution from overflowing latrines, soakaways and sewers, causing faecal pollution and disease; Cross contamination of water supplies; Wet soils leading to ideal conditions for worm infections; Providing habitats for vectors (mosquitoes and snails...

  9. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... such as lowpermeability clay soils and geomembranes are required. The avoidance of water input to organic waste may impede the microbial stabilization processes including gas generation. Therefore watertight top covers may be in conflict with the purposes of reactor landfills (see Chapter 10.6). At some sites covers...... sometimes are made to include components for recirculation of landfill leachate (see Section 10.9.2 for more details). The top cover is an important factor in the water management of landfills. Details about water infiltration through top covers and its influence on the hydrology of the landfill is covered...

  10. Estimating canopy fuel parameters for Atlantic Coastal Plain forest types.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2007-01-15

    Abstract It is necessary to quantify forest canopy characteristics to assess crown fire hazard, prioritize treatment areas, and design treatments to reduce crown fire potential. A number of fire behavior models such as FARSITE, FIRETEC, and NEXUS require as input four particular canopy fuel parameters: 1) canopy cover, 2) stand height, 3) crown base height, and 4) canopy bulk density. These canopy characteristics must be mapped across the landscape at high spatial resolution to accurately simulate crown fire. Currently no models exist to forecast these four canopy parameters for forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a region that supports millions of acres of loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine forests as well as pine-broadleaf forests and mixed species broadleaf forests. Many forest cover types are recognized, too many to efficiently model. For expediency, forests of the Savannah River Site are categorized as belonging to 1 of 7 broad forest type groups, based on composition: 1) loblolly pine, 2) longleaf pine, 3) slash pine, 4) pine-hardwood, 5) hardwood-pine, 6) hardwoods, and 7) cypress-tupelo. These 7 broad forest types typify forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain region, from Maryland to Florida.

  11. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2004-10-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  12. Planetary plains: subsidence and warping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G.

    fabric of oceanic floors. Short, medium wave undulations of Pacific's floor (A. Cazenave et al., 1992; D. McAdoo & K. Marks, 1992) present lineations underlining its whole shape. NE lineations predominate on its northern sub-basin, NW lineations on its southern one. They cross at the equatorial zone and together with some other directions give a pattern resembling that observed on the venusian surface. The venusian regional plains typically deformed by wrinkle ridges show interesting similarities to volcanic plains on the Moon and Mars [3]. A subsidence along with warpings can squeeze out some "superfluous" material to surface through planetary scale fissures. This material builds mid-oceanic ridges and huge Hawaii volcano. The Cassini Regio on Iapetus is crossed in the equatorial plain by the dark ridge in some places high 20 km. References: [1] Kochemasov G. G. (2004) Mars and Earth: two dichotomies - one cause. In Workshop on "Hemispheres 1 apart: the origin and modification of the martian crustal dichotomy", LPI Contribution # 1203, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, p. 37. [2] Kochemasov G.G.(1999) Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr. v.1, #3, p.700 . [3] Basilevsky A.T., Head J.W. (2006) Impact craters on regional plains in Venus: Age relations with wrinkle ridges and implications for the geological evolution of Venus // JGR, v.111, EO3006, doi: 10.1029/2005JE002473, 2006. 2

  13. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-01-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  14. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-01-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  15. Green shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    Findings suggesting that consumers buy “green” products, such as organic foods, for selfish reasons are usually accepted at face value. In this article, the author argues that the evidence backing this claim is questionable and that it reflects post hoc rationalizations and self-presentation biases......’s beliefs about intangible private benefits in a way that justifies (bolsters) one’s purchasing decision. A survey study among a representative sample of approximately 4,000 respondents from four European countries (Denmark, Germany, United Kingdom, and Italy) confirmed that this is exactly what “green...

  16. Using high resolution imagery to detect woody vegetation and land-cover change over 50 years in the Sahel of Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiekermann, Raphael; Brandt, Martin; Samimi, Cyrus

    2013-04-01

    The Sahel region has been acclaimed as one of the "hot spots" of global environmental change in the last decades. The degradation of the environmental conditions was accelerated by prolonged droughts in the region during the 1970s and 1980s and an overall decrease in annual precipitation. The resulting loss of woody vegetation cover was often considered as irreversible desertification. Recent findings, based on small-scaled analyses of satellite images, show an increase of vegetation greenness over most parts of the Sahel since the mid-1980s. However, due to a lack of detailed regional studies, it remains largely unclear if this is a return to pre-drought conditions or a transformation of land cover to a new equilibrium state. This study intends to use remote sensing techniques, supplemented by ground truth data to compare the pre-drought woody vegetation and land cover with the current situation. High resolution panchromatic Corona imagery of 1967 and multispectral RapidEye imagery of 2011 form the basis of this regional scaled study, which includes parts of the Dogon Plateau and the Seno Plains in the Sahel of Mali. The feature extraction and classification operations included in ERDAS Imagine Objective are used in an object-oriented approach in combination with spectral properties to analyse the datasets and map millions of individual trees and large shrubs. Results indicate number of trees per hectare as well as woody vegetation coverage in percent per hectare for both 1967 and 2011. Additionally, the land-cover change during the past half century is assessed followed by an analysis of current and past woody vegetation densities in relation to land-cover classes. Results show a significant increase of cultivated land, in particular in the Seno Plains, a reduction of dense natural woody vegetation as well as an increase of trees on farmer's fields on the Dogon Plateau. Our results show that neither the desertification paradigm nor the greening paradigm can be

  17. GREEN TEA FESTIVAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ What is the green tea? The green tea belongs to the type of non-fermenting tea, with a quality feature of "clear tea infusion with green leaves"; this type of tea has the biggest output in China, and the basic processing procedure of the green tea is divided into three steps: heating, rubbing and drying. According to the different processing technologies, the green tea is divided into fried green tea, baked green tea, steamed green tea and dried green tea. The steamed green tea is to heat the tea by steaming; to heat the tea by pan-frying can be divided into frying, baking and drying, which is called heating by frying, heating by baking and heating by drying. West LakeLongjing, Xinyang Maojian, Bi Luochun, and Sanbeixiang belong to fried green tea; Mount Huang Maofeng, Youjiyuluo, and Luhai pekoe belong to baked green tea;Enshiyulu belongs to steamed green tea.

  18. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  19. Green urbanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Fikfak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and other culture-based types of small business, which are the leitmotif in the planning of the Europark Ruardi, are becoming the guiding motif in the spatial development of urban centres that are influenced by dynamic transformation processes. The system should build upon the exploitation of both local and regional environmental features. This would encourage the quest for special environmental features, with an emphasis on their conservation, i.e. sustainable development, and connections in a wider context.The Europark is seen as a new strategic point of the Zasavje Region (the region of the central Sava Valley, which is linked to other important points in a region relevant for tourism. Due to the "smallness" of the region and/or the proximity of such points, development can be fast and effective. The interaction of different activities in space yields endless opportunities for users, who choose their own goals and priorities in the use of space. Four theme areas of the Europark area planning are envisaged. The organisation of activities is based on the composition of the mosaic field patterns, where green fields intertwine with areas of different, existing and new, urban functions. The fields of urban and recreation programmes are connected with a network of green areas and walking trails, along which theme park settings are arranged.

  20. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...... the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... however, top covers may be the only environmental protection measure. In some landfill regulations (for instance the Subtitle D landfills receiving municipal solid waste in the USA) it is required to minimize infiltration into the waste layers. Therefore top covers containing liner components...

  1. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O' Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  2. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  3. Saturated Domino Coverings

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, Andrew; Ryba, Alex

    2011-01-01

    A domino covering of a board is saturated if no domino is redundant. We introduce the concept of a fragment tiling and show that a minimal fragment tiling always corresponds to a maximal saturated domino covering. The size of a minimal fragment tiling is the domination number of the board. We define a class of regular boards and show that for these boards the domination number gives the size of a minimal X-pentomino covering. Natural sequences that count maximal saturated domino coverings of square and rectangular boards are obtained. These include the new sequences A193764, A193765, A193766, A193767, and A193768 of OEIS.

  4. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  5. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  6. CATASTROPHIC ECO-ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN THE SONGNEN PLAIN, NORTHEASTERN CHINA SINCE 1900S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-xia; WAN Zhong-juan; YU Shao-peng; LUO Xin-zheng; SUN Guang-you

    2004-01-01

    Although the Songnen Plain in the northeastern China was developed relatively late in the temperate zone of the world, its eco-environment has changed greatly. This paper analyzes the changes of land cover and the rates and trends ofdesertification during the past 100 years in the Songnen Plain. According to the macroscopic analysis, we find that the eco-environment in the plain has reached to the threshold of catastrophic change since the 1950s. The Thom Needle Catastrophic Model was used to determine and validate this conclusion. Human activities, including large-scale construction projects, such as huge dams and dikes, and excessive grazing were the primary factors contributing to regional eco-environmental catastrophe. And irrational reclamation of the wilderness also affected the eco-environmental change. The results reveal the complex human-land interactions.

  7. Geomorphology and flood-plain vegetation of the Sprague and lower Sycan Rivers, Klamath Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, James E.; McDowell, Patricia F.; Lind, Pollyanna; Rasmussen, Christine G.; Keith, Mackenzie K.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides information on channel and flood-plain processes and historical trends to guide effective restoration and monitoring strategies for the Sprague River Basin, a primary tributary (via the lower Williamson River) of Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. The study area covered the lower, alluvial segments of the Sprague River system, including the lower parts of the Sycan River, North Fork Sprague River, South Fork Sprague River, and the entire main-stem Sprague River between the confluence of the North Fork Sprague and the South Fork Sprague Rivers and its confluence with the Williamson River at Chiloquin, Oregon. The study included mapping and stratigraphic analysis of flood-plain deposits and flanking features; evaluation of historical records, maps and photographs; mapping and analysis of flood-plain and channel characteristics (including morphologic and vegetation conditions); and a 2006 survey of depositional features left by high flows during the winter and spring of 2005–06.

  8. Green's functions potential fields on surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Melnikov, Yuri A

    2017-01-01

    This book is comprehensive in its classical mathematical physics presentation, providing the reader with detailed instructions for obtaining Green's functions from scratch. Green's functions is an instrument easily accessible to practitioners who are engaged in design and exploitation of machines and structures in modern engineering practice. To date, there are no books available on the market that are devoted to the Green's function formalism for equations covered in this volume. The reader, with an undergraduate background in applied mathematics, can become an active user of the Green's function approach. For the first time, Green's functions are discussed for a specific class of problems dealing with potential fields induced in thin-wall structures and therefore, the reader will have first-hand access to a novel issue. This Work is accessible to researchers in applied mathematics, mechanics, and relevant disciplines such as engineering, as well as to upper level undergraduates and graduate students.

  9. Different shades of green on small islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tiago

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many small islands exist as tourism destinations worldwide. In the 1990s, the growth of environmental consciousness led some small islands to question their mass tourism offers and to refocus on more sustainable propositions. However, it remains unclear whether hospitality firms see these sustainability related efforts as drivers of success and whether tourists value this dimension when choosing or recommending a destination. This study chose a small island destination to address these questions using data covering firm and tourism perceptions of green products. The results show that tourists tend to value green efforts with different intensities, corresponding to three segments: Light Green, Green, and Super Green. These findings should help hotels adjust their communication strategies and develop new services. Further, destination marketing organizations can devise a consistent destination strategy, integrating all stakeholders by including their most valued concepts.

  10. Whillans Ice Plain Stick Slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovsky, B.; Dunham, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Concern about future sea level rise motivates the study of fast flowing ice. The Whillans Ice Plain (WIP) region of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is notable for decelerating from previously fast motion during the instrumental record. Since most ice flux in Antarctica occurs through ice streams, understanding the conditions that cause ice stream stagnation is of basic importance in understanding the continent's contribution to future sea level rise. Although recent progress has been made in understanding the relationship between basal conditions and ice stream motion, direct observation of the temporal variation in subglacial conditions during ice stream stagnation has remained elusive. The Whillans Ice Plain flows to the sea mostly by way of stick-slip motion. We present numerical simulations of this stick-slip motion that capture the inertial dynamics, seismic waves, and the evolution of sliding with rate- and state-dependent basal friction. Large scale stick-slip behavior is tidally modulated and encompasses the entire WIP. Sliding initiates within one of several locked regions and then propagates outward with low average rupture velocity (~ 200 m/s). Sliding accelerates over a period of 200 s attain values as large as 65 m/d. From Newton's second law, this acceleration is ~ T / (rho H) for average shear stress drop T, ice thickness H, and ice density rho. This implies a 3 Pa stress drop that must be reconciled with the final stress drop of 300 Pa inferred from the total slip and fault dimensions. A possible explanation of this apparent discrepancy is that deceleration of the ice is associated with a substantial decrease in traction within rate-strengthening regions of the bed. During these large-scale sliding events, m-scale patches at the bed produce rapid (20 Hz) stick-slip motion. Each small event occurs over ~ 1/100 s, produces ~ 40 microns of slip, and gives rise to a spectacular form of seismic tremor. Variation between successive tremor episodes allows us

  11. Green Roofs and Green Building Rating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental benefits for green building from the Leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED and Ecology, Energy, Waste, and Health (EEWH rating systems have been extensively investigated; however, the effect of green roofs on the credit-earning mechanisms is relatively unexplored. This study is concerned with the environmental benefits of green roofs with respect to sustainability, stormwater control, energy savings, and water resources. We focused on the relationship between green coverage and the credits of the rating systems, evaluated the credits efficiency, and performed cost analysis. As an example, we used a university building in Keelung, Northern Taiwan. The findings suggest that with EEWH, the proposed green coverage is 50–75%, whereas with LEED, the proposed green coverage is 100%. These findings have implications for the application of green roofs in green building.

  12. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    . Architectural green could signify green architecture with inclusive interrelations between green and space, built and unbuilt, inside and outside. The aim of the term is to reflect a new focus in green architecture – its architectural performance. Ecological issues are not underestimated or ignored, but so far...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One...... is not limited to the architecture of pavilions and can be applied in other architectural forms and functions. The paper ends by questioning the potential of architectural green in urbanity....

  13. The green building envelope: vertical greening

    OpenAIRE

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve the environment in urban areas and is becoming a key design consideration in modern building developments. Vertical greening of structures offers large surfaces with vegetation and at the same time...

  14. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  15. Land Cover Characterization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long heritage of leadership and innovation in land use and land cover mapping. The USGS Anderson system defined the principles for land use and land cover mapping that have been the model both nationally and internationally for more than 20 years. The Land Cover Characterization Program (LCCP) is founded on the premise that the Nation's needs for land cover and land use data are diverse and increasingly sophisticated. The range of projects, programs, and organizations that use land cover data to meet their planning, management, development, and assessment objectives has expanded significantly. The reasons for this are numerous, and include the improved capabilities provided by geographic information systems, better and more data-intensive analytic models, and increasing requirements for improved information for decision making. The overall goals of the LCCP are to:

  16. Land Cover Trends Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  17. Flat covers of modules

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jinzhong

    1996-01-01

    Since the injective envelope and projective cover were defined by Eckmann and Bas in the 1960s, they have had great influence on the development of homological algebra, ring theory and module theory. In the 1980s, Enochs introduced the flat cover and conjectured that every module has such a cover over any ring. This book provides the uniform methods and systematic treatment to study general envelopes and covers with the emphasis on the existence of flat cover. It shows that Enochs' conjecture is true for a large variety of interesting rings, and then presents the applications of the results. Readers with reasonable knowledge in rings and modules will not have difficulty in reading this book. It is suitable as a reference book and textbook for researchers and graduate students who have an interest in this field.

  18. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44...

  19. Estimated historical distribution of grassland communities of the Southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Gordon C.; Manier, Daniel J.; Carr, Natasha B.; Callan, Ramana; Leinwand, Ian I.F.; Assal, Timothy J.; Burris, Lucy; Ignizio, Drew A.

    2016-12-07

    The purpose of this project was to map the estimated distribution of grassland communities of the Southern Great Plains prior to Euro-American settlement. The Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA), under the direction of the Bureau of Land Management and the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative, includes four ecoregions: the High Plains, Central Great Plains, Southwestern Tablelands, and the Nebraska Sand Hills. The REA advisors and stakeholders determined that the mapping accuracy of available national land-cover maps was insufficient in many areas to adequately address management questions for the REA. Based on the recommendation of the REA stakeholders, we estimated the potential historical distribution of 10 grassland communities within the Southern Great Plains project area using data on soils, climate, and vegetation from the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) including the Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) and Ecological Site Information System (ESIS). The dominant grassland communities of the Southern Great Plains addressed as conservation elements for the REA area are shortgrass, mixed-grass, and sand prairies. We also mapped tall-grass, mid-grass, northwest mixed-grass, and cool season bunchgrass prairies, saline and foothill grasslands, and semi-desert grassland and steppe. Grassland communities were primarily defined using the annual productivity of dominant species in the ESIS data. The historical grassland community classification was linked to the SSURGO data using vegetation types associated with the predominant component of mapped soil units as defined in the ESIS data. We augmented NRCS data with Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools (LANDFIRE) Biophysical Settings classifications 1) where NRCS data were unavailable and 2) where fifth-level watersheds intersected the boundary of the High Plains ecoregion in Wyoming. Spatial data representing the estimated historical distribution of

  20. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  1. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Lisa S. Botnen

    2005-07-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership characterization work is nearing completion, and most remaining efforts are related to finalizing work products. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) has developed a Topical Report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region''. Task 3 (Public Outreach) has developed an informational Public Television program entitled ''Nature in the Balance'', about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The program was completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in this quarter. Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) efforts are nearing completion, and data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation are being incorporated into a series of topical reports. The expansion of the Decision Support System Geographic Information System database has continued with the development of a ''save bookmark'' feature that allows users to save a map from the system easily. A feature that allows users to develop a report that summarizes CO{sub 2} sequestration parameters was also developed. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options and developing economic estimates for important regional CO{sub 2} sequestration strategies.

  2. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-04-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) and provided information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 2 efforts also included preparation of a draft topical report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region'', which is nearing completion. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The video will be completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in the next quarter. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. The addition of the Canadian province of Alberta to the PCOR Partnership region expanded the decision support system (DSS) geographic information system database. Task 5 screened and qualitatively assessed sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  3. The green building envelope: vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  4. LAND SUITABILITY SCENARIOS FOR ARID COASTAL PLAINS USING GIS MODELING: SOUTHWESTERN SINAI COASTAL PLAIN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Wahid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Site selection analysis was carried out to find the best suitable lands for development activities in an example of promising coastal plains, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Two GIS models were developed to represent two scenarios of land use suitability in the study area using GIS Multi Criteria Analysis Modeling. The factors contributed in the analysis are the Topography, Land cover, Existing Land use, Flash flood index, Drainage lines and Water points. The first scenario was to classify the area according to various gradual ranges of suitability. According to this scenario, the area is classified into five classes of suitability. The percentage of suitability values are 51.16, 6.13, 22.32, 18.49 and 1.89% for unsuitable, least suitable, low suitable, suitable and high suitable, respectively. The second scenario is developed for a particular kind of land use planning; tourism and recreation projects. The suitability map of this scenario was classified into five values. Unsuitable areas represent 51.18% of the study area, least suitable 16.67%, low suitable 22.85%, suitable 8.61%, and high suitable 0.68%. The best area for locating development projects is the area surrounding El-Tor City and close to the coast. This area could be an urban extension of El-Tor City with more economical and environmental management.

  5. LAND SUITABILITY SCENARIOS FOR ARID COASTAL PLAINS USING GIS MODELING: SOUTHWESTERN SINAI COASTAL PLAIN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Wahid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Site selection analysis was carried out to find the best suitable lands for development activities in an example of promising coastal plains, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Two GIS models were developed to represent two scenarios of land use suitability in the study area using GIS Multi Criteria Analysis Modeling. The factors contributed in the analysis are the Topography, Land cover, Existing Land use, Flash flood index, Drainage lines and Water points. The first scenario was to classify the area according to various gradual ranges of suitability. According to this scenario, the area is classified into five classes of suitability. The percentage of suitability values are 51.16, 6.13, 22.32, 18.49 and 1.89% for unsuitable, least suitable, low suitable, suitable and high suitable, respectively. The second scenario is developed for a particular kind of land use planning; tourism and recreation projects. The suitability map of this scenario was classified into five values. Unsuitable areas represent 51.18% of the study area, least suitable 16.67%, low suitable 22.85%, suitable 8.61%, and high suitable 0.68%. The best area for locating development projects is the area surrounding El-Tor City and close to the coast. This area could be an urban extension of El-Tor City with more economical and environmental management.

  6. The Determinants of Green Radical and Incremental Innovation Performance: Green Shared Vision, Green Absorptive Capacity, and Green Organizational Ambidexterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new concept, green organisational ambidexterity, that integrates green exploration learning and green exploitation learning simultaneously. Besides, this study argues that the antecedents of green organisational ambidexterity are green shared vision and green absorptive capacity and its consequents are green radical innovation performance and green incremental innovation performance. The results demonstrate that green exploration learning partially mediates the positive relationships between green radical innovation performance and its two antecedents—green shared vision and green absorptive capacity. In addition, this study indicates that green exploitation learning partially mediates the positive relationships between green incremental innovation performance and its two antecedents—green shared vision and green absorptive capacity. Hence, firms have to increase their green shared vision, green absorptive capacity, and green organisational ambidexterity to raise their green radical innovation performance and green incremental innovation performance.

  7. Age determinations and Earth-based multispectral observations of lunar light plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    1993-01-01

    The history of light plains still remains doubtful, but there are good arguments - mainly obtained by age determinations and supported by multispectral observations - for an endogenic (magmatic) instead of an (exclusively) impact related origin. Light plains are characterized by smooth areas with an albedo lower than the surrounding highlands (12 - 13 percent), but significantly higher than maria (5 - 6 percent). Before Apollo 16 a volcanic source has been supposed, but analysis of returned samples (highly brecciated and metamorphosed rocks) favored an impact ejecta related origin. Among the currently discussed models are formation by ejecta sedimentation from multi-ringed basins, formation by secondary and tertiary cratering action of ballistically ejected material during the formation of multi-ringed basins, in situ formation by impact melt of large events, and premare (crypto-) volcanism basalts covered by a thin ejecta cover; younger impacts penetrated the ejecta surface to create the dark haloed craters. To find arguments in favor or against these ideas the chronology of light plains is of major importance. Obviously a genetic relationship between the evolution of light plains and the basin forming impacts can be possible only if the events of emplacement features happened simultaneously.

  8. Geodatabase compilation of hydrogeologic, remote sensing, and water-budget-component data for the High Plains aquifer, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Natalie A.; Gonzales-Bradford, Sophia L.; Flynn, Amanda T.; Qi, Sharon L.; Peterson, Steven M.; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Ryter, Derek W.; Sohl, Terry L.; Senay, Gabriel B.

    2013-01-01

    geodatabases: (1) base data from a groundwater-flow model; (2) hydrogeology and hydraulic properties data; and (3) groundwater-flow model data to be used as calibration targets. The remote sensing data for this study were developed by the U. S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center and include historical and predicted land-use/land-cover data and actual evapotranspiration data by using remotely sensed temperature data. The water-budget-component data contains selected raster data from maps in the “Selected Approaches to Estimate Water-Budget Components of the High Plains, 1940 Through 1949 and 2000 Through 2009” report completed in 2011 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2011/5183/). Federal Geographic Data Committee compliant metadata were created for each spatial and tabular data layer in the geodatabases.

  9. Alluvial plain dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto

    2016-05-01

    Alluvial plains are formed with sediments that rivers deposit on the adjacent flood-basin, mainly through crevasse splays and avulsions. These result from a combination of processes, some of which push the river towards the crevasse threshold, while others act as triggers. Based on the floodplain sedimentation patterns of large rivers in the southern Amazonian foreland basin, it has been suggested that alluvial plain sediment accumulation is primarily the result of river crevasse splays and sheet sands triggered by above-normal precipitation events due to La Niña. However, more than 90 % of the Amazonian river network is made of small rivers and it is unknown whether small river floodplain sedimentation is influenced by the ENSO cycle as well. Using Landsat images from 1984 to 2014, here I analyse the behaviour of all 12 tributaries of the Río Mamoré with a catchment in the Andes. I show that these are very active rivers and that the frequency of crevasses is not linked to ENSO activity. The data suggest that most of the sediments eroded from the Andes by the tributaries of the Mamoré are deposited in the alluvial plains, before reaching the parent river. The mid-to-late Holocene paleo-channels of these rivers are located tens of kilometres further away from the Andes than the modern crevasses. I conclude that the frequency of crevasses is controlled by intrabasinal processes that act on a yearly to decadal timescale, while the average location of the crevasses is controlled by climatic or neo-tectonic events that act on a millennial scale. Finally, I discuss the implications of river dynamics on rural livelihoods and biodiversity in the Llanos de Moxos, a seasonally flooded savannah covering most of the southern Amazonian foreland basin and the world's largest RAMSAR site.

  10. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  11. The Greening of Work: How Green Is Green Enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Räikkönen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's constantly deepening environmental problems have brought about the need to remold current work cultures along the lines of green thinking. However, profound differences still prevail between the different strands of green thought and practice with regard to the greening of work. The main purpose of this paper is to look in more detail at the arguments and implications of two differing positions, namely `environmentalism´ and `ecologism´. The ideas of corporate social responsibility, green jobs, and downshifting are chosen as objects for closer scrutiny. A critical examination of these contemporary discourses leads to the conclusion that at least so far, they all remain within the confines of environmentalism: no radical changes are presupposed in the current ways of working or in our relationship with the non-human world. Viewed from the perspective of ecologism, the studied greening efforts remain too reformist and anthropocentric to be capable of making work truly `green´.

  12. Green chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płotka, Justyna; Tobiszewski, Marek; Sulej, Anna Maria; Kupska, Magdalena; Górecki, Tadeusz; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-09-13

    Analysis of organic compounds in samples characterized by different composition of the matrix is very important in many areas. A vast majority of organic compound determinations are performed using gas or liquid chromatographic methods. It is thus very important that these methods have negligible environmental impact. Chromatographic techniques have the potential to be greener at all steps of the analysis, from sample collection and preparation to separation and final determination. The paper summarizes the approaches used to accomplish the goals of green chromatography. While complete elimination of sample preparation would be an ideal approach, it is not always practical. Solventless extraction techniques offer a very good alternative. Where solvents must be used, the focus should be on the minimization of their consumption. The approaches used to make chromatographic separations greener differ depending on the type of chromatography. In gas chromatography it is advisable to move away from using helium as the carrier gas because it is a non-renewable resource. GC separations using low thermal mass technology can be greener because of energy savings offered by this technology. In liquid chromatography the focus should be on the reduction of solvent consumption and replacement of toxic and environmentally hazardous solvents with more benign alternatives. Multidimensional separation techniques have the potential to make the analysis greener in both GC and LC. The environmental impact of the method is often determined by the location of the instrument with respect to the sample collection point.

  13. Green nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoff B.

    2011-10-01

    Nanotechnology, in particular nanophotonics, is proving essential to achieving green outcomes of sustainability and renewable energy at the scales needed. Coatings, composites and polymeric structures used in windows, roof and wall coatings, energy storage, insulation and other components in energy efficient buildings will increasingly involve nanostructure, as will solar cells. Nanostructures have the potential to revolutionize thermoelectric power and may one day provide efficient refrigerant free cooling. Nanomaterials enable optimization of optical, opto-electrical and thermal responses to this urgent task. Optical harmonization of material responses to environmental energy flows involves (i) large changes in spectral response over limited wavelength bands (ii) tailoring to environmental dynamics. The latter includes engineering angle of incidence dependencies and switchable (or chromogenic) responses. Nanomaterials can be made at sufficient scale and low enough cost to be both economic and to have a high impact on a short time scale. Issues to be addressed include human safety and property changes induced during manufacture, handling and outdoor use. Unexpected bonuses have arisen in this work, for example the savings and environmental benefits of cool roofs extend beyond the more obvious benefit of reduced heat flows from the roof into the building.

  14. Green roofs provide habitat for urban bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Parkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding bat use of human-altered habitat is critical for developing effective conservation plans for this ecologically important taxon. Green roofs, building rooftops covered in growing medium and vegetation, are increasingly important conservation tools that make use of underutilized space to provide breeding and foraging grounds for urban wildlife. Green roofs are especially important in highly urbanized areas such as New York City (NYC, which has more rooftops (34% than green space (13%. To date, no studies have examined the extent to which North American bats utilize urban green roofs. To investigate the role of green roofs in supporting urban bats, we monitored bat activity using ultrasonic recorders on four green and four conventional roofs located in highly developed areas of NYC, which were paired to control for location, height, and local variability in surrounding habitat and species diversity. We then identified bat vocalizations on these recordings to the species level. We documented the presence of five of nine possible bat species over both roof types: Lasiurus borealis, L. cinereus, L. noctivagans, P. subflavus,andE. fuscus. Of the bat calls that could be identified to the species level, 66% were from L. borealis. Overall levels of bat activity were higher over green roofs than over conventional roofs. This study provides evidence that, in addition to well documented ecosystem benefits, urban green roofs contribute to urban habitat availability for several North American bat species.

  15. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  16. Percent of Impervious Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  17. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  18. GAP Land Cover - Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a simple image of the original detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of...

  19. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  20. Projected 2020 Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Projected 2020 land cover was developed to provide one scenario of development in the year 2020. It was used to generate several metrics to compare to 1992 metrics...

  1. Association between Greenness, Urbanicity, and Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisu, Keita; Holford, Theodore R.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Background More than half of the world's population lives in urban environments. Due to urban related factors (e.g. higher air pollution), urban residents may face higher risk of adverse health outcomes, while access to green space could benefit health. Purpose We explored associations between urban and green land-use and birth weight. Methods Connecticut, U.S., birth certificate data (2000-2006) were acquired (n=239,811), and land-use data were obtained from the National Land Cover Database. We focused on three land-uses; urban space, urban open space, and green space (i.e. forest, shrub, herbaceous, and cultivated land). We estimated fractions of greenness and urbanicity within 250 m from residence. A linear mixed effects model was conducted for birth weight and a logistic mixed effects model for low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA). Results An interquartile range (IQR) increment in the fraction of green space within 250 m of residence was associated with 3.2g (95% Confidence Interval [0.4, 6.0]) higher birth weight. Similarly, an IQR increase in green space was associated with 7.6% [2.6, 12.4] decreased risk of LBW. Exposure to urban space was negatively correlated with green space (Pearson correlation = −0.88), and it showed negative association with birth outcomes. Results were generally robust with different buffer sizes and controlling for fine particles (PM2.5) and traffic. Conclusions We found protective associations by green space on birth outcomes. Increasing green space and/or reducing urban space (e.g. the greening of city environments) may reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes such as LBW and SGA. Populations living in urban environments will grow in the next half century, and allocation of green space among urban areas may play a critical role for public health in urban planning. PMID:26546769

  2. Application of flood index in monitoring Flood-plain ecosystems (by the example of the Middle Ob flood-plain)

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotnov, V. P.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of regional hydroecological monitoring has been developed for the flood-plain of the Middle Ob. Its object is to control the state of flood-plain ecosystem productivity for organization of scientific, regional-adopted and ecologically regulated nature management. For this purpose hydroecological zoning of flood-plain territory performed, the most representative stations of water-gauge observations for each flood-plain zone organized, the scheme of flood-plain flooding was prepared...

  3. The European GreenBuilding Projects Catalogue 2014

    OpenAIRE

    BERTOLDI PAOLO; Cuniberti, Barbara; De Luca, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In 2005 the European Commission launched the GreenBuilding Programme (GBP). GreenBuilding is a voluntary programme aiming at improving the energy efficiency of non-residential buildings in Europe on voluntary basis. The programme addresses owners of non-residential buildings to realise cost-effective measures which enhance the energy efficiency of their buildings in one or more technical services. The programme covers both existing and new buildings. The GreenBuilding Programme reached its 8t...

  4. Mapping land cover gradients through analysis of hyper-temporal NDVI imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, A.; de Bie, C.A.J.M.; Skidmore, A.K.; Scarrott, R.G.; Hamad, A.A.; Venus, V.; Lymberakis, P.

    2013-01-01

    The green cover of the earth exhibits various spatial gradients that represent gradual changes in space of vegetation density and/or in species composition. To date, land cover mapping methods differentiate at best, mapping units with different cover densities and/or species compositions, but typica

  5. Mapping land cover gradients through analysis of hyper-temporal NDVI imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, A.; Bie, de C.A.J.M.; Skidmore, A.K.; Scarrott, R.G.; Hamad, A.A.; Venus, V.; Lymberakis, P.

    2013-01-01

    The green cover of the earth exhibits various spatial gradients that represent gradual changes in space of vegetation density and/or in species composition. To date, land cover mapping methods differentiate at best, mapping units with different cover densities and/or species compositions, but typica

  6. History of greenness mapping at the EROS data center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beek, Carolyn; Vandersnick, Richard

    1993-01-01

    In 1987, the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC)installed a system to acquire, process, and distribute advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite image data collected over North America. Using this system, the EDC began an experimental greenness mapping program as part of the U.S. Agency for the International Development Famine Early Warning System. The program used the greenness information derived from AVHRR data to identify potential outbreaks of locusts and grasshoppers in the Sahelian region of Africa. In 1988, the EDC began greenness mapping projects in Africa and the northern Great Plains of the United States. In 1989, the system was augmented to acquire AVHRR information for the rest of the world. As a result, the greenness mapping program was able to collect data for fire danger assessment, agricultural assessment, and land characterization. Illustrations of each of the mapping projects trace the chronology of the greenness mapping program at the EDC. Displays represent the initial activity in Africa and the transition of the north Great Plains project to the current conterminous U.S. project. The program's expansion to include Alaska, Eurasia, a prototype North America data set, and ultimately, an experimental global land 1-km product is also shown. The poster describes major technical advances in data processing, the development of derivative products, the magnitude of the data volume of each level, and major applications.

  7. Antiviral effects of green tea ( Camellia sinensis ) against pathogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Materials and Methods: We performed a search using the key words “green tea” AND “antiviral” covering the last 10 years. ... Conclusion: A detailed information on the antiviral activity of green tea in a number of different viruses show a promising future as a popular ...

  8. Multi-stakeholder involvement and urban green space performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azadi, Hossein; Ho, Peter; Hafni, Erni; Zarafshani, Kiumars; Witlox, Frank

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the main factors influencing urban green space performance. Therefore, a conceptual framework on the relations of multi-stakeholder involvement (MSI) and the performance was conducted by a mixed-method approach. The study covered all urban green space projects (UGSPs)

  9. Multi-stakeholder involvement and urban green space performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azadi, Hossein; Ho, Peter; Hafni, Erni; Zarafshani, Kiumars; Witlox, Frank

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the main factors influencing urban green space performance. Therefore, a conceptual framework on the relations of multi-stakeholder involvement (MSI) and the performance was conducted by a mixed-method approach. The study covered all urban green space projects (UGSPs) pu

  10. ANWR progress report number FY84-11: Ecology of brown bears inhabiting the coastal plain and adjacent foothills and mountains of the northeastern portion of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report covers the ecology of brown bears inhabiting the coastal plain and adjacent foothills and mountains of the northeastern portion of the Arctic National...

  11. The Benefits and Functions of Green Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnush Khoshmanesh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Green architecture or sustainable architecture is one of the new architectural approaches receiving much attention in recent years by many contemporary designers around the world. This architecture is based on the concepts of sustainable development and attempts to coordinate with environment as one of the basic needs in the present world. Now, 2% of dry area of the world is dedicated to cities and city dwellers apply ¾ of natural resources. By development of urbanization, natural resources are reduced considerably. Therefore, green roof technology as one of the advanced techniques of green space with the problems of application of vegetation units, they are economical and can be a good alternative for urban parks. Green roof is not only a surface covered with green, but also it is a live surface of growing plants in soil layer above roof. This covering is with root barrier and a drainage layer under it and dry resistant plants grow in it. Green roofs are also called “living roofs”.

  12. The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679 159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  13. Study on Regulars of Decompostion and Nutrients Releasing of Green Manure Ploughed in Cotton Field in North Plain of China%华北地区棉田翻压冬绿肥腐解及养分释放规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁东峰; 马卫萍; 孙文彦; 李志杰; 王来清; 曹卫东

    2011-01-01

    利用尼龙网袋,研究了油菜、毛叶苕子、冬牧70黑麦翻压于棉花田间15 ~ 20 cm土层,腐解及养分释放规律.研究表明,绿肥翻压43 d内干物重显著降低,前3d腐解速度最快,后降低趋势变缓.翻压43 d时油菜、毛叶苕子、冬牧70黑麦腐解率达到81.7%,77.5%,62.2%;翻压113 d时腐解率分别达到89.6%,89.5%,76.2%.翻压21d内氮释放较快,3个品种氮矿化率都达到60%以上.磷在整个翻压期内释放较为平缓,翻压113 d时油菜、毛叶苕子、冬牧70黑麦磷矿化率分别达到89.6%,86.5%,75.6%.钾在翻压前期迅速释放,翻压9d后,油菜、毛叶苕子、冬牧70黑麦钾的矿化率分别为94.5%,93.2%,91.9%.翻压前21 d,绿肥碳含量显著降低,以后逐渐缓慢,翻压113 d后油菜、毛叶苕子、冬牧70黑麦碳矿化率为93.4%,91.3%,81.9%.在翻压前15 d,冬牧70黑麦C/N呈上升趋势,其他两品种C/N变化不显著.%This experiment studied on the decay process and nutrition release regulars of green manure ploughed in cotton field(15 -20 cm soil layer) and green manure were installed in nilong dilly bag. Green manure included winter 70 rye,winter rape,and hairy vetch. The results showed that;dry matter weight of green manure decreased significantly dring 0-43 days incubation, decomposing speed were most fast in the first three days, then more and more slowly. After 43 days incubation,decomposition rate of winter rape,hairy vetch and winter 70 rye at 81.7% ,77.5% ,62.2% ,and after 113 days incubation at 89.6% ,89.5% ,76.2% .respectively. Nitrogen released fast in the first 21 days,after 21 days incubation,N-mineralization rates of three green manure were all greater than 60% . Phosphorous released gently during the whole ploughing days,after 113 days incubation,P-mineralization rates of winter rape,hairy vetch and winter 70 rye at 89. 6% ,86. 5% ,75. 6% Respectively. Potassium released fast in the first 9 days, K

  14. Evaluating the "greenness" of chemical processes and products in the pharmaceutical industry--a green metrics primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-González, Concepción; Constable, David J C; Ponder, Celia S

    2012-02-21

    This tutorial review presents an overview of the main metrics that have been used to test and compare the 'greenness' of processes and products, primarily in the pharmaceutical industry. The green metrics cover areas of resources, materials, processing, cleaning, life cycle assessment, renewability, amongst others. Application examples of these metrics are also presented to illustrate key points and concepts.

  15. Innovation : green mines, green energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisch, B.; Ednie, H. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    Natural Resources Canada has recently launched a program to investigate the possibility of remediating tailings impoundment areas with wastes from other industries in order to grow energy crops for biofuel production. A pilot program will be initiated at Ontario mine sites within the next year. The program will cover tailings ponds with organic waste materials from industrial sources, in which energy crops such as canola, soy or corn will be planted to provide feedstock for the production of biofuels. The program could represent a major contribution from the mining industry towards local biofuel production, greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, and sustainable development. Many communities in Canada have shown an interest in producing biofuels, and many cities are now faced with increasing pressure to divert organic wastes from local landfills. The utilization of clean, composted municipal wastes on mine tailings could provide long-term disposal options for many municipalities. However, adding a thick cover of organic material over the tailings will alter redox conditions near the tailings surface, which may in turn affect metal mobility. It is expected that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) levels will increase in the tailings drainage water that is sent to the water treatment facility. Laboratory studies are currently being conducted to evaluate the effect of adding both 20 cm and 1 m of paper mill biosolids to tailings, and a bench-scale evaluation of the potential consequences of increased DOC on effluent treatability and toxicity is also being conducted. It was concluded that after the pilot program has demonstrated the project's technical feasibility, future work will focus on community education and improving financial benefits. 2 figs.

  16. Climate under cover

    CERN Document Server

    Takakura, Tadashi

    2002-01-01

    1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films trig...

  17. Green Roofs and Green Building Rating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liaw; Chao-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    The environmental benefits for green building from the Leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) and Ecology, Energy, Waste, and Health (EEWH) rating systems have been extensively investigated; however, the effect of green roofs on the credit-earning mechanisms is relatively unexplored. This study is concerned with the environmental benefits of green roofs with respect to sustainability, stormwater control, energy savings, and water resources. We focused on the relationsh...

  18. Greening and “un”greening Adelaide, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy M. Robinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The original design for Adelaide, the capital city of the state of South Australia, incorporated a green belt (known as the Park Lands around the city centre, itself laid out on a one square mile (2.59 km2 grid and including five large public squares. The Park Lands provided a barrier to urban sprawl and covered approximately 9.31 km2, of which 1.53 km2 has been used subsequently for cultural institutions, railways, cemeteries, sporting facilities and other constructions. In addressing issues of greening pertaining to Adelaide, the Park Lands and its management represents a core element in the evolving history of the city's growth. This paper will consider some of the contradictions within this growth, examining the changing attitudes of government and the populace to the Park Lands and also to the increasing sprawl of the city. It can be argued that this sprawl has been antithetical to maintenance of biodiversity and principles of “greening”, not only during the main phase of expansion in the 1960s and 1970s but also in recent years when planned development on prime farmland and other “green” areas is contributing to problems for provision of transport infrastructure and generally reducing capacity for sustainability. The potential for conflict between the desire to maintain biodiversity versus protection for the growing number of people moving into bushfire risk areas is just one of several examples of problems arising as a result of a relaxed attitude to low-density expansion. In examining these problems the paper will present maps of the changing footprint of Adelaide and will elaborate new “greening” initiatives that include green roofs, new systems of water harvesting, community-supported agriculture and schemes directly aimed at creating low-carbon living. A consistent theme will be the contradictions within plans for the city between greening and “un”greening.

  19. Reusable pipe flange covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, James Elliott (Simpsonville, SC); Perez, Julieta (Houston, TX)

    2001-01-01

    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  20. Plain carbon steel bipolar plates for PEMFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianli; SUN Juncai; TIAN Rujin; XU Jing

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates are a multifunctional component of PEMFC. Comparing with the machined graphite and stainless steels, the plain carbon steel is a very cheap commercial metal material. In this paper, the possibility of applying the plain carbon steels in the bipolar plate for PEMFC was exploited. In order to improve the corrosion resistance of the low carbon steel in the PEMFCs' environments,two surface modification processes was developed and then the electrochemical performances and interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of the surface modified plate of plain carbon steel were investigated. The results show that the surface modified steel plates have good corrosion resistance and relatively low contact resistance, and it may be a candidate material as bipolar plate of PEMFC.

  1. Green Tribology Biomimetics, Energy Conservation and Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2012-01-01

    Tribology is the study of friction, wear and lubrication. Recently, the concept of “green tribology” as “the science and technology of the tribological aspects of ecological balance and of environmental and biological impacts” was introduced. The field of green tribology includes tribological technology that mimics living nature (biomimetic surfaces) and thus is expected to be environmentally friendly, the control of friction and wear that is of importance for energy conservation and conversion, environmental aspects of lubrication and surface modification techniques, and tribological aspects of green applications such as wind-power turbines or solar panels. This book is the first comprehensive volume on green tribology. The chapters are prepared by leading experts in their fields and cover such topics as biomimetics, environmentally friendly lubrication, tribology of wind turbines and renewable sources of energy, and ecological impact of new technologies of surface treatment.

  2. Green tribology. Biomimetics, energy conservation and sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosonovsky, Michael [Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Bhushan, Bharat (eds.) [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (US). Nanoprobe Lab. for Bio- and Nanotechnology and Biomimetics (NLB2)

    2012-07-01

    Tribology is the study of friction, wear and lubrication. Recently, the concept of ''green tribology'' as ''the science and technology of the tribological aspects of ecological balance and of environmental and biological impacts'' was introduced. The field of green tribology includes tribological technology that mimics living nature (biomimetic surfaces) and thus is expected to be environmentally friendly, the control of friction and wear that is of importance for energy conservation and conversion, environmental aspects of lubrication and surface modification techniques, and tribological aspects of green applications such as wind-power turbines or solar panels. This book is the first comprehensive volume on green tribology. The chapters are prepared by leading experts in their fields and cover such topics as biomimetics, environmentally friendly lubrication, tribology of wind turbines and renewable sources of energy, and ecological impact of new technologies of surface treatment. (orig.)

  3. Thermal insulation performance of green roof systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, Serdar; Morgan, Susan; Retzlaff, William; Once, Orcun [southern Illinois University (United States)], e-mail: scelik@siue.edu, e-mail: smorgan@siue.edu, e-mail: wretzla@siue.edu, e-mail: oonce@siue.edu

    2011-07-01

    With the increasing costs of energy, good building insulation has become increasingly important. Among existing insulation techniques is the green roof system, which consists of covering the roof of a building envelop with plants. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of vegetation type and growth media on the thermal performance of green roof systems. Twelve different green roof samples were made with 4 different growth media and 3 sedum types. Temperature at the sample base was recorded every 15 minutes for 3 years; the insulation behavior was then analysed. Results showed that the insulation characteristics were achieved with a combination of haydite and sedum sexangulare. This study demonstrated that the choice of growth media and vegetation is important to the green roof system's performance; further research is required to better understand the interactions between growth media and plant roots.

  4. Hydrogeochemical analysis for Tasuj plain aquifer, Iran

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ata Allah Nadiri; Asghar Asghari Moghaddam; Frank T-C Tsai; Elham Fijani

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the hydrogeochemical processes of groundwater in the Tasuj plain, Iran. The Tasuj plain is one of the 12 marginal plains around Urmia Lake which is currently under a critical ecological condition. In the last decades, the Tasuj plain aquifer suffered from severe groundwater level declination and caused degradation of groundwater quality. To better understand hydrogeochemical processes in the Tasuj plain, this study adopted graphical methods and multivariate statistical techniques to analyze groundwater samples. A total of 504 groundwater samples was obtained from 34 different locations (qanats, wells, and springs) over 12 years (1997–2009) and analyzed for 15 water quality parameters. From the results, the Piper diagram indicated four groundwater types and the Stiff diagram showed eight different sources of groundwater samples. The Durov diagram identified five major hydrogeochemical processes in the aquifer. However, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) identified five water types in the groundwater samples because HCA was able to analyze more chemical and physical data than graphical methods. The HCA result was checked by discriminant analysis and found consistency in all samples that were classified into correct groups. Using factor analysis, we identified three factors that accounted for 81.6% of the total variance of the dataset. Based on the high factor loadings of the variables, factors 1 and 2 reflected the natural hydrogeochemical processes and factor 3 explained the effect of agricultural fertilizers and human activities in the Tasuj plain. Dendrograms from 2000 to 2009 were studied to understand the temporal variation of groundwater quality. Comparing the distributions of groundwater types in 2000 and 2009, we found that the mixing zone was expanded. This may be due to artificial groundwater recharge in the recharge area and the effect of inverse ion exchange in the discharge area.

  5. Land and Land-use Change in the Climate Sensitive High Plains: An Automated Approach with Landsat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Alexander F.; Williams, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The High Plains is an economically important and climatologically sensitive region of the United States and Canada. The High Plains contain 100,000 sq km of Holocene sand dunes and sand sheets that are currently stabilized by natural vegetation. Droughts and the larger threat of global warming are climate phenomena that could cause depletion of natural vegetation and make this region susceptible to sand dune reactivation. The original proposal was directed toward the use of Landsat TM data to establish the state and ongoing changes of the surface in the 1.2 million sq. km, semi-arid High Plains region of the central US, A key objective was to develop a model to predict the reactivation of the 100,000 sq. km of Holocene dunes found on the High Plains during an extended drought. At least one Landsat 5 image per year for 1985, 1988 and 1996 was obtained for 32 scenes on the High Plains to coincide with wet and dry years. Additional Landsat 7 data were acquired for 1999 and 2000 primarily for Colorado and Nebraska. As luck would have it, there was no severe drought during the study period 1985-2000. Attention was focused on developing methods for mapping dry vs. green vegetation on sparsely vegetated rangelands in sandy soils, since these were the areas most susceptible to surface reactivation during a drought.

  6. Drought Assessment in the Moldavian Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Liviu Ioan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Moldavian Plain, located in the North-Eastern part of Romania, has a temperate-continental climate with a nuance of excessivity in the precipitation regime. This paper aims to analyse droughts in the Moldavian Plain for the period 1961-2010, by using a classical method - the de Martonne Aridity Index, and two other less known indices developed in Romania and the Republic of Moldova. Among these indices, the Dry Spells Index demonstrates a increasing frequency of dry years in recent decades.

  7. 76 FR 24291 - Proposed National Marketing Agreement Regulating Leafy Green Vegetables; Recommended Decision and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... National Marketing Agreement Regulating Leafy Green Vegetables; Recommended Decision and Opportunity To... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 970 Proposed National Marketing Agreement Regulating Leafy Green...) under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 to cover the handling of fresh leafy green...

  8. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  9. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  10. Covering All Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The day a school opens its doors for the first time, the flooring will be new and untarnished. When the flooring is in such pristine condition, many flooring materials--carpeting, vinyl, terrazzo, wood or some other surface--will look good. But school and university planners who decide what kind of material covers the floors of their facilities…

  11. CORINE Land Cover 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael

    "CORINE land cover" er en fælleseuropæisk kortlægning af arealanvendelse/arealdække. Arealanvendelse/arealdække er i Danmark kortlagt efter CORINE metode og klasseopdeling med satellitbilleder fra 3 forskellige tidsperioder, fra begyndelsen af 1990'erne (CLC90), fra år 2000 (CLC2000) og fra år 2006...

  12. CORINE Land Cover 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael

    "CORINE land cover" er en fælleseuropæisk kortlægning af arealanvendelse/arealdække. Arealanvendelse/arealdække er i Danmark kortlagt efter CORINE metode og klasseopdeling med satellitbilleder fra 3 forskellige tidsperioder, fra begyndelsen af 1990'erne (CLC90), fra år 2000 (CLC2000) og fra år 2006...

  13. Lixiviação de potássio da palha de espécies de cobertura de solo de acordo com a quantidade de chuva aplicada Potassium leaching from green cover crop residues as affected by rainfall amount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Rosolem

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Os restos vegetais deixados na superfície do solo em sistemas de semeadura direta, além de proteger o solo da erosão, constituem considerável reserva de nutrientes que podem ser disponibilizados para a cultura principal, subseqüente. Avaliou-se a lixiviação de K da palha de seis espécies vegetais com potencial de uso como plantas para cobertura do solo de acordo com a quantidade de chuva recebida após o manejo. Milheto (Pennisetum americanum, var. BN-2, sorgo de guiné (Sorghum vulgare, aveia preta (Avena strigosa, triticale (Triticum secale, crotalária juncea (Crotalaria juncea e braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens foram cultivados em vasos com terra, em casa de vegetação, em Botucatu (SP. Aos 45 dias da emergência, as plantas foram cortadas na altura do colo, secas em estufa e submetidas a chuvas simuladas de 4,4, 8,7, 17,4, 34,9 e 69,8 mm, considerando uma quantidade de palha equivalente a 8,0 t ha-1. A máxima retenção de água pela palha corresponde a uma lâmina de até 3,0 mm, independentemente da espécie, praticamente não ocorrendo lixiviação do potássio com chuvas da ordem de 5 mm. A máxima liberação de K por unidade de chuva ocorre com lâminas de até 20 mm, decrescendo a partir deste ponto. A quantidade de K liberado da palha logo após o manejo depende da espécie vegetal, não ultrapassando, no entanto, 24 kg ha-1 com chuvas da ordem de 70 mm, apresentando correlação positiva com a concentração do nutriente no tecido vegetal. O triticale e a aveia são mais eficientes na ciclagem do potássio.Besides protecting soil from erosion, plant residues left on the soil surface by green cover crops in no-till cropping systems represent a considerable nutrient source of nutrients that can be made available for the following crop. Potassium leaching from the straw of six cover crop species was evaluated, in relation to the amount of rain on the residues. Pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum, guinea sorghum (Sorghum

  14. Green tax reform in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1994-01-01

    Energy, transport and fuel taxes in Denmark have, since the late 1970s, been among the highest in the OECD, and raise already more than 30 billion DKK annually to cover 10-12 per cent of the state household: a share that will be increased over the next five years with new green taxes. Furthermore......, Denmark is currently the only country within the European Union which has introduced a tax on CO2; although Germany and the Netherlands are also considering doing so, the Danish CO2 tax has been effective since 1 January 1993....

  15. Fluvial adjustments to soil erosion and plant cover changes in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beguería, S.; López-Moreno, J.I.; Gómez-Villar, A.; Rubio, V.; Lana-Renault, N.; García-Ruiz, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Until the middle of the 20th Century, Pyrenean rivers were characterized by braided channels, unstable sedimentary structures and an almost complete lack of plant cover in the alluvial plain, due to the high sediment yield in hillslopes and the occurrence of frequent and intense flooding. This was p

  16. Cover crop effects on soil microbial communities and enzyme activity in semiarid agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare a fallow-winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation to several cover crop-winter wheat rotations under dryland and irrigated conditions in the semiarid US High Plains. We carried out a study that included two sites (Sidney, NE, and Akron, CO), and three s...

  17. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  18. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Woodbine, IA land cover (LC) data and map were generated from USDA NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) four band (red, green, blue and near...

  19. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Durham, NC Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) data was generated from USDA NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) four band (red, green, blue...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Tampa, FL Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) data was generated from USDA NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) four band (red, green, blue...

  1. EnviroAtlas - Milwaukee, WI - Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover Data (MULC) Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Milwaukee, WI Meter Urban Land Cover (MULC) data and map were generated from USDA NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) four band (red, green,...

  2. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Portland, ME Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) data was generated from USDA NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) four band (red, green,...

  3. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Portland, ME land cover map was generated from USDA NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) four band (red, green, blue and near infrared)...

  4. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Phoenix, AZ land cover (LC) data and map were generated from USDA NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) four band (red, green, blue and...

  5. EnviroAtlas -Tampa, FL- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Tampa, FL land cover map was generated from USDA NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) four band (red, green, blue and near infrared) aerial...

  6. EnviroAtlas -Durham, NC- One Meter Resolution Urban Area Land Cover Map (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Durham, NC land cover map was generated from USDA NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) four band (red, green, blue and near infrared) aerial...

  7. EnviroAtlas -Milwaukee, WI- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Milwaukee, WI land cover data and map were generated from USDA NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) four band (red, green, blue and near...

  8. Biotransformation of malachite green by Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 463.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, J P; Govindwar, S P

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, use of microbial biomass for decolourization of textile industry wastewater is becoming a promising alternative in which some bacteria and fungi are used to replace present treatment processes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 463 decolourized the triphenylmethane dyes (malachite green, cotton blue, methyl violet and crystal violet) by biosorption, showing different decolourization patterns. However, malachite green decolourized by biosorption at the initial stage and further biodegradation occurred, about 85% in plain distilled water within 7 h, and about 95.5% in 5% glucose medium within 4 h, under aerobic conditions and at room temperature. Decolourization of malachite green depends on various conditions, such as concentration of dye, concentration of cells, composition of medium and agitation. HPLC, UV-VIS, FTIR and TLC analysis of samples extracted with ethyl acetate from decolourized culture flasks confirmed the biodegradation of malachite green into several metabolites. A study of the enzymes responsible for the biodegradation of malachite green in the control and cells obtained after decolourization showed the activities of laccase, lignin peroxidase, NADH-DCIP reductase, malachite green reductase and aminopyrine N-demethylase in control cells. A significant increase in the activities of NADH-DCIP reductase and MG reductase was observed in the cells obtained after decolourization, indicating a major involvement of reductases in malachite green degradation.

  9. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1980 to 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1980 to 1995, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  10. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1995 to 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1995 to 2000, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  11. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2005 to 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2005 to 2009, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  12. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2000 to 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2000 to 2005, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  13. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  14. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  15. Green Power Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  16. Green Power Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  17. What Is Green Power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  18. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  19. Impact of plain packaging of cigarettes on the risk perception of Uruguayan smokers: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey E; Ares, Gastón; Gerstenblüth, Mariana; Machin, Leandro; Triunfo, Patricia

    2017-09-08

    Uruguay, a South American country of 3.4 million inhabitants that has already banned tobacco advertising, prohibited such terms as light, mild and low-tar and required graphic warnings covering 80% of cigarette packs, is considering the imposition of plain, standardised packaging. We conducted an experimental choice-based conjoint analysis of the impact of alternative cigarette package designs on the risk perceptions of 180 adult current Uruguayan smokers. We compared plain packaging, with a standardised brand description and the dark brown background colour required on Australian cigarette packages, to two controls: the current package design with distinctive brand elements and colours; and a modified package design, with distinctive brand elements and the dark brown background colour. Graphic warnings were also varied. Plain packaging significantly reduced the probability of perceiving the stimulus cigarettes as less harmful in comparison to the current package design (OR 0.398, 95% CI 0.333 to 0.476, pdesign (OR 0.729, 95% CI 0.626 to 0.849, p<0.001). Plain packaging enhanced the perceived risk of cigarette products even in a highly regulated setting such as Uruguay. Both the elimination of distinctive brand elements and the use of Australia's dark brown background colour contributed to the observed effect. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Necrotizing fasciitis : plain radiographic and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Dae; Park, Jeong Hee; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Lim, Jong Nam; Heo, Tae Haeng; Park, Dong Rib [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate the plain radiographic and CT findings of the necrotizing fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic findings of 4 cases with necrotizing fasciitis. Three cases were proven pathologically. We evaluated pattern and extent of the gas shadows in plain films. CT findings were analysed, with emphasis on : (a) gas pattern, (b) extent, (c) location and involved site, (d) associated focal abscess, and (e) swelling of the adjacent muscles. On plain radiographs, four cases showed streaky or mottled gas densities in the pelvis, three cases in the perineum, one case in the abdomen, and two cases in the thigh. On CT images, gas pattern was mottled and streaky appearance with swelling of the adjacent muscles. Gas shadows located in the extraperitoneal space in four cases, fascial layer in four cases, and subcutaneous layer in four cases. There were gas shadows in pelvic wall, perineum, abdominal wall, buttock, thigh, and scrotum. Focal low density lesion suggestive of focal abscess was not visualized. Plain radiography is useful for early diagnosis of the necrotizing fasciitis and CT is very useful for detection of precise location and extent of the disease. CT is also useful for differentiation of necrotizing fasciitis from focal abscess and cellulitis.

  1. Porosity Prediction of Plain Weft Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Owais Raza Siddiqui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wearing comfort of clothing is dependent on air permeability, moisture absorbency and wicking properties of fabric, which are related to the porosity of fabric. In this work, a plug-in is developed using Python script and incorporated in Abaqus/CAE for the prediction of porosity of plain weft knitted fabrics. The Plug-in is able to automatically generate 3D solid and multifilament weft knitted fabric models and accurately determine the porosity of fabrics in two steps. In this work, plain weft knitted fabrics made of monofilament, multifilament and spun yarn made of staple fibers were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the developed plug-in. In the case of staple fiber yarn, intra yarn porosity was considered in the calculation of porosity. The first step is to develop a 3D geometrical model of plain weft knitted fabric and the second step is to calculate the porosity of the fabric by using the geometrical parameter of 3D weft knitted fabric model generated in step one. The predicted porosity of plain weft knitted fabric is extracted in the second step and is displayed in the message area. The predicted results obtained from the plug-in have been compared with the experimental results obtained from previously developed models; they agreed well.

  2. The geologic story of the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    The Great Plains! The words alone create a sense of space and a feeling of destiny a challenge. But what exactly is this special part of Western America that contains so much of our history? How did it come to be? Why is it different?

  3. Great plains regional climate assessment technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Plains region (GP) plays important role in providing food and energy to the economy of the United States. Multiple climatic and non-climatic stressors put multiple sectors, livelihoods and communities at risk, including agriculture, water, ecosystems and rural and tribal communities. The G...

  4. Singular coverings of toposes

    CERN Document Server

    Bunge, Marta

    2006-01-01

    The self-contained theory of certain singular coverings of toposes called complete spreads, that is presented in this volume, is a field of interest to topologists working in knot theory, as well as to various categorists. It extends the complete spreads in topology due to R. H. Fox (1957) but, unlike the classical theory, it emphasizes an unexpected connection with topos distributions in the sense of F. W. Lawvere (1983). The constructions, though often motivated by classical theories, are sometimes quite different from them. Special classes of distributions and of complete spreads, inspired respectively by functional analysis and topology, are studied. Among the former are the probability distributions; the branched coverings are singled out amongst the latter. This volume may also be used as a textbook for an advanced one-year graduate course introducing topos theory with an emphasis on geometric applications. Throughout the authors emphasize open problems. Several routine proofs are left as exercises, but...

  5. On directed coverings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth

    In [1], we study coverings in the setting of directed topology. Unfortunately, there is a condition missing in the definition of a directed covering. Some of the results in [1] require this extra condition and in fact it was claimed to follow from the original definition. It is the purpose...... of this note to give the right definition and point out how this affects the statements in that paper. Moreover, we give an example of a dicovering in the sense of [1], which does not satisfy the extra condition. Fortunately, with the extra condition, the subsequent results are now correct. [1] L. Fajstrup......, Dicovering spaces, Homology Homotopy Appl. 5 (2003), no. 2, 1-17....

  6. Concrete cover cracking due to uniform reinforcement corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Anders Ole Stubbe; Michel, Alexander; Geiker, Mette Rica;

    2013-01-01

    is calculated using literature data on corrosion rate and Faraday’s law. The parameters varied comprise reinforcement diameter, concrete cover thickness and concrete material properties, viz. concrete tensile strength and ductility (plain concrete and fibre reinforced concrete). Results obtained from......Service life design (SLD) is an important tool for civil engineers to ensure that the structural integrity and functionality of the structure is not compromised within a given time frame, i.e. the service life. In SLD of reinforced concrete structures, reinforcement corrosion is of major concern...... and reinforcement de-passivation is a frequently used limit state. The present paper investigates an alternative limit state: corrosion-induced cover cracking. Results from numerical simulations of concrete cover cracking due to reinforcement corrosion are presented. The potential additional service life...

  7. Covering R-trees

    CERN Document Server

    Berestovskii, V N

    2007-01-01

    We show that every inner metric space X is the metric quotient of a complete R-tree via a free isometric action, which we call the covering R-tree of X. The quotient mapping is a weak submetry (hence, open) and light. In the case of compact 1-dimensional geodesic space X, the free isometric action is via a subgroup of the fundamental group of X. In particular, the Sierpin'ski gasket and carpet, and the Menger sponge all have the same covering R-tree, which is complete and has at each point valency equal to the continuum. This latter R-tree is of particular interest because it is "universal" in at least two senses: First, every R-tree of valency at most the continuum can be isometrically embedded in it. Second, every Peano continuum is the image of it via an open light mapping. We provide a sketch of our previous construction of the uniform universal cover in the special case of inner metric spaces, the properties of which are used in the proof.

  8. The green agenda

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This business guide to Green IT was written to introduce, to a business audience, the opposing groups and the key climate change concepts, to provide an overview of a Green IT strategy and to set out a straightforward, bottom line-orientated Green IT action plan.

  9. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  10. The Green Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  11. EPA's Green Roof Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  12. What Is Green?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrandt, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Green is a question with varying answers and sometimes no answer at all. It is a question of location, resources, people, environment, and money. As green really has no end point, a teacher's goal should be to teach students to question and consider green. In this article, the author provides several useful metrics to help technology teachers…

  13. The Green Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  14. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  15. Contrasting soils and landscapes of the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewich, H.W.; Pavich, M.J.; Buell, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    sequences that can be correlated along valleys for tens of kilometers. Coastal Plain soils are typically as thick as 2 to 8 m, have high sand content throughout, and have sandy epipedons. These epipedons consist of both A and E horizons and are 1 to 4 m thick. In Coastal Plain soils, the boundaries are transitional between the solum and the underlying parent material and between weathered and unweathered parent material. Infiltration rates for Coastal Plain soils are typically higher at 13-28 cm/h, than are those for Piedmont soils. Indeed, for unconsolidated quartz sand, rates may exceed 50 cm/h. Water moves directly from the soil into the parent material through intergranularpores with only minor channelization along macropores, joints, and fractures. The comparatively high infiltration capacity results in relatively low surface runoff, and correspondingly less erosion than on the Piedmont uplands. Due to differences in Piedmont and Coastal Plain erosion rates, topographic inversion is common along the Fall Zone; surfaces on Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Coastal Plain are higher than erosional surfaces on regolith weathered from late Precambrian to early Paleozoic crystalline rocks of the Piedmont. Isotopic, paleontologic, and soil data indicate that Coastal Plain surficial deposits are post-middle Miocene to Holocene in age, but most are from 5 to 2 Ma. Thus, the relatively uneroded surfaces comprise a Pliocene landscape. In the eastern third of the Coastal Plain, deposits that are less than 3.5 Ma include alluvial terraces, marine terraces and barrier/back-barrier complexes as morphostratigraphic units that cover thousands of square kilometers. Isotopic and soil data indicate that eastern Piedmont soils range from late Pliocene to Pleistocene in age, but are predominantly less than 2 Ma old. Thus, the eroded uplands of the Piedmont "peneplain" comprise a Pleistocene landscape. ?? 1990.

  16. Factors Influencing Arthropod Diversity on Green Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracha Y. Schindler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs have potential for providing substantial habitat to plants, birds, and arthropod species that are not well supported by other urban habitats. Whereas the plants on a typical green roof are chosen and planted by people, the arthropods that colonize it can serve as an indicator of the ability of this novel habitat to support a diverse community of organisms. The goal of this observational study was to determine which physical characteristics of a roof or characteristics of its vegetation correlate with arthropod diversity on the roof. We intensively sampled the number of insect families on one roof with pitfall traps and also measured the soil arthropod species richness on six green roofs in the Boston, MA area. We found that the number of arthropod species in soil, and arthropod families in pitfall traps, was positively correlated with living vegetation cover. The number of arthropod species was not significantly correlated with plant diversity, green roof size, distance from the ground, or distance to the nearest vegetated habitat from the roof. Our results suggest that vegetation cover may be more important than vegetation diversity for roof arthropod diversity, at least for the first few years after establishment. Additionally, we found that even green roofs that are small and isolated can support a community of arthropods that include important functional groups of the soil food web.

  17. Weed suppression by green manure in an agroecological system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Maria Garicoix Recalde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Green manure promotes efficient suppression of weeds, but green manure species can exhibit distinct behaviors, depending on the environmental conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of soil mulching and weed suppression by spring/summer green manure species grown in the spring/summer season, at different growth stages and after management (cut, for 90 days during the cassava crop cycle. The study was carried out in the 2010/2011 season, in a system managed under agroecological principles. The treatments consisted of different green manure species and arrangements: Crotalaria juncea, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia brasiliensis, Canavalia ensiformis, Pennisetum americanum, Crotalaria juncea and Pennisetum americanum intercropped; Mucuna aterrima, Sorghum bicolor, a mixture of all the green manures in study and a control plot under fallow. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. The evaluations of the soil cover either by the green manures or weeds were performed at 45, 90 and 105 days after the emergence of the green manures. The cassava crop was planted under reduced tillage system at 11 days after the cut of the green manures. The percentage of soil covered by weeds and the dry matter produced were evaluated at 30, 60 and 90 days after planting. The results showed that the green manures had a suppressive effect on weeds during their life cycle, as well as during the first months after its management (cut, composing the mulch.

  18. The Land Surface Temperature Impact to Land Cover Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, I.; Abu Samah, A.; Fauzi, R.; Noor, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land cover type is an important signature that is usually used to understand the interaction between the ground surfaces with the local temperature. Various land cover types such as high density built up areas, vegetation, bare land and water bodies are areas where heat signature are measured using remote sensing image. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of land surface temperature on land cover types. The objectives are 1) to analyse the mean temperature for each land cover types and 2) to analyse the relationship of temperature variation within land cover types: built up area, green area, forest, water bodies and bare land. The method used in this research was supervised classification for land cover map and mono window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) extraction. The statistical analysis of post hoc Tukey test was used on an image captured on five available images. A pixel-based change detection was applied to the temperature and land cover images. The result of post hoc Tukey test for the images showed that these land cover types: built up-green, built up-forest, built up-water bodies have caused significant difference in the temperature variation. However, built up-bare land did not show significant impact at p<0.05. These findings show that green areas appears to have a lower temperature difference, which is between 2° to 3° Celsius compared to urban areas. The findings also show that the average temperature and the built up percentage has a moderate correlation with R2 = 0.53. The environmental implications of these interactions can provide some insights for future land use planning in the region.

  19. Covered Clause Elimination

    CERN Document Server

    Heule, Marijn; Biere, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Generalizing the novel clause elimination procedures developed in [M. Heule, M. J\\"arvisalo, and A. Biere. Clause elimination procedures for CNF formulas. In Proc. LPAR-17, volume 6397 of LNCS, pages 357-371. Springer, 2010.], we introduce explicit (CCE), hidden (HCCE), and asymmetric (ACCE) variants of a procedure that eliminates covered clauses from CNF formulas. We show that these procedures are more effective in reducing CNF formulas than the respective variants of blocked clause elimination, and may hence be interesting as new preprocessing/simplification techniques for SAT solving.

  20. Change of ancient hydrology net in Northeast China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui QU; Yu CHU; Fenglong ZHANG; Fuli QI; Xiangkui YANG

    2006-01-01

    Comparing with lithofacies palaeogeography of several great plains, the authors analyzed four great plains in Quaternary diastrophism, the sedimentary facies, sedimentary environment and their evolution from the independent embryonic and river system of ancient Heilongjiang finally to the Halar highland, Songnen Plain, Sanjiang Plain, the Xingkai Lake Plain and various river systems, collected the unification outside the system of Heilongjiang River to release into the sea, south ancient Xialiao River finally piracy Dongliao River, Xialiao River had released into the sea the ancient water law vicissitude and the evolved rule.

  1. CARBON DYNAMICS OF WETLAND IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Chang-chun; WANG Yi-yong; WANG Yue-si; YAN Bai-xing; WANG De-xuan; ZHAO Zhi-chun; LOU Yan-jing

    2003-01-01

    Methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission was measured from mires in the Sanjiang Plain,Northeast China, by using a static chamber technique during free snow-covered periods. The seasonal mean emission of CH4 was 12.4mg/(m2.h) and the emission range of CO2 was 8.7-16.6g/(m2.d) (gross CO2 flux) during plant growth period. CO2 emission rate in the day was stronger than that at night, and the daily peak appears at 19:00. The mire plants in the Sanjiang Plain begin to sprout at the end of April. The aboveground biomass of the mire plants in-creased from zero to the peak from July to September and showed single peak form. The aboveground biomass of Carex lasiocarpa (464.8g/m2) was lower than that of Deyeuxia playphylla (530.8g/m2), but the underground biomass was higher than that of Deyeuxia platyphylla. Gross CO2 flux showed the significance positive correlation relation-ship with plant biomass. Gross CO2 flux and CH4 emission were also correlated with soil temperature (0-5cm) and water temperature. However, the highest CH4 emission rate lagged behind the highest soil temperature in the root area during plant growth period. The data also indicated that wet and warm conditions during the early spring led to greater value of CH4 emission flux. Inundation is the necessary condition for the existence of methane bacteria, but there is no significant positive correlation between the inundation depth and CH4 emission rate in this region. Within the same growing season and under the same inundation condition, the variations of CH4 emission rate could be markedly different.

  2. Magnetostratigraphic and paleoclimatic studies on the Red Earth Formation from the Chengdu Plain in Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO ZhiZhong; QIAO YanSong; WANG Yan; FU JianLi; WANG ShuBing; LI ChaoZhu; YAO HaiTao; JIANG FuChu

    2007-01-01

    Two red earth sections from the Chengdu Plain in Sichuan Province are dated using geomagnetic methods. The Brunhes/Matuyama (B/M) reversal boundary is recognized within the upper parts of the two sections, and the Jaramillo normal subzone occurs in the middle-lower parts of the vermiculated red soil (VRS), which indicate that the parent material for the VRS deposited in the middle Quaternary.Sedimentologic and geochemical studies suggest that the Chengdu Clay and part of the parent material for the VRS are of aeolian origin. Pollen analysis indicates that the Chengdu Plain was mainly covered by needle-leaved forest with a cool to cool temperate humid climate when the parent material for the VRS deposited. The relatively cool to cool temperate climatic condition in the Chengdu Plain in the middle Quaternary, which may be caused by the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, was a response to the geo-environmental changes of global significance.

  3. Magnetostratigraphic and paleoclimatic studies on the Red Earth Formation from the Chengdu Plain in Sichuan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two red earth sections from the Chengdu Plain in Sichuan Province are dated using geomagnetic methods. The Brunhes/Matuyama (B/M) reversal boundary is recognized within the upper parts of the two sections,and the Jaramillo normal subzone occurs in the middle-lower parts of the vermiculated red soil (VRS),which indicate that the parent material for the VRS deposited in the middle Quaternary. Sedimentologic and geochemical studies suggest that the Chengdu Clay and part of the parent material for the VRS are of aeolian origin. Pollen analysis indicates that the Chengdu Plain was mainly covered by needle-leaved forest with a cool to cool temperate humid climate when the parent material for the VRS deposited. The relatively cool to cool temperate climatic condition in the Chengdu Plain in the middle Quaternary,which may be caused by the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau,was a response to the geo-environmental changes of global significance.

  4. Albedo and estimates of net radiation for green beans under polyethylene cover and field conditions Albedo e estimativas do saldo de radiação em feijão-vagem sob cobertura de plástico e ambiente externo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leonaldo de Souza

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the albedo (r and estimates of net radiation and global solar irradiance for green beans crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivated in greenhouse with cover of polyethylene and field conditions, in Botucatu, SP, Brazil (22º 54' S; 48º 27' W; 850 m. The solar global irradiance (Rg and solar reflected radiation (Rr were used to estimate the albedo through the ratio between Rr and Rg. The diurnal curves of albedo were obtained for days with clear sky and partially cloudy conditions, for different phenological stages of the crop. The albedo ranged with the solar elevation, the environment and the phenological stages. The cloudiness range have almost no influence on the albedo diurnal amount. The estimation of radiation were made by linear regression, using the global solar irradiance (Rg and net short-waves radiation (Rc as independent variables. All estimates of radiation showed better adjustment for specific phenological periods compared to the entire crop growing cycle. The net radiation in the greenhouse has been estimated by the global solar irradiance measured at field conditions.Este trabalho objetivou determinar o albedo (r no espectro solar e estimar o saldo de radiação, em ambientes cultivados com feijão-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L., em condições de campo e em casa de vegetação com cobertura de polietileno, em Botucatu, SP, (22º 54' S; 48º 27' W; 850 m. A irradiância solar global (Rg e a radiação solar refletida (Rr foram utilizadas na determinação do albedo através da razão entre Rr e Rg. Curvas diurnas de r foram traçadas para dias com céu parcialmente nublado e claro, em fases fenológicas da cultura. Os valores do albedo diurno, obtidos através dos totais de radiações, foram utilizados para analisar a variação desse índice durante o ciclo da cultura, nos dois ambientes. O albedo variou com a elevação solar, o ambiente e as fases fenológicas da cultura. A variação de nebulosidade

  5. Design and monitoring of several cubicles with traditional construction equipment (insulating) and novel (green PCMs, covers and facades) in the University of Lleida; Diseno y monitorizacion de varios cubiculos con materiales de construccion tradicionales (aislantes) y novedosos (PCMs, cubiertas y fachadas verdes) en la Universidad de Lleida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano, M.; Castell, A.; Castellon, C.; Martorell, I.; Perez, G.; Cabeza, L. F.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a new experimental facility of house-like cubicles in the University of Lleida. This installation allows to evaluate in a more realistic way the energy enhancements given by a variety of construction materials, both traditional (insulation) and innovative (PCMs, green roofs and green facades, etc.). This study includes the cubicles characteristics, the selected constructive solutions (concrete, brick, alveolar brick, etc.), the implemented instrumentation, and some preliminary results comparing the thermal behaviour of a reference cubicle, made of a double facade of brick and no insulation, with the demand of the other cubicles, which contain insulation, PCMs or both. (Author)

  6. A new GIS approach for reconstructing and mapping dynamic late Holocene coastal plain palaeogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierik, H. J.; Cohen, K. M.; Stouthamer, E.

    2016-10-01

    The geomorphological development of Holocene coastal plains around the world has been studied since the beginning of the twentieth century from various disciplines, resulting in large amounts of data. However, the overwhelming quantities and heterogeneous nature of this data have caused the divided knowledge to remain inconsistent and fragmented. To keep improving the understanding of coastal plain geomorphology and geology, cataloguing of data and integration of knowledge are essential. In this paper we present a GIS that incorporates the accumulated data of the Netherlands' coastal plain and functions as a storage and integration tool for coastal plain mapped data. The GIS stores redigitised architectural elements (beach barriers, tidal channels, intertidal flats, supratidal flats, and coastal fresh water peat) from earlier mappings in separate map layers. A coupled catalogue-style database stores the dating information of these elements, besides references to source studies and annotations regarding changed insights. Using scripts, the system automatically establishes palaeogeographical maps for any chosen moment, combining the above mapping and dating information. In our approach, we strip the information to architectural element level, and we separate mapping from dating information, serving the automatic generation of time slice maps. It enables a workflow in which the maker can iteratively regenerate maps, which speeds up fine-tuning and thus the quality of palaeogeographical reconstruction. The GIS currently covers the late Holocene coastal plain development of the Netherlands. This period witnessed widespread renewed flooding along the southern North Sea coast, coinciding with large-scale reclamation and human occupation. Our GIS method is generic and can be expanded and adapted to allow faster integrated processing of growing amounts of data for many coastal areas and other large urbanising lowlands around the world. It allows maintaining actual data

  7. Geology of the Gusev cratered plains from the Spirit rover transverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Crumpler, L. S.; Grant, J. A.; Greeley, R.; Cabrol, N. A.; Parker, T. J.; Rice, J. W.; Ward, J. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Moersch, J. E.; Fergason, R. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Castaño, A.; Castaño, R.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Li, R.; Bell, J. F.; Squyres, S. W.

    2006-01-01

    The cratered plains of Gusev traversed by Spirit are generally low-relief rocky plains dominated by impact and eolian processes. Ubiquitous shallow, soil-filled, circular depressions, called hollows, are modified impact craters. Rocks are dark, fine-grained basalts, and the upper 10 m of the cratered plains appears to be an impact-generated regolith developed over intact basalt flows. Systematic field observations across the cratered plains identified vesicular clasts and rare scoria similar to original lava flow tops, consistent with an upper inflated surface of lava flows with adjacent collapse depressions. Crater and hollow morphometry are consistent with most being secondaries. The size-frequency distribution of rocks >0.1 m diameter generally follows exponential functions similar to other landing sites for total rock abundances of 5-35%. Systematic clast counts show that areas with higher rock abundance and more large rocks have higher thermal inertia. Plains with lower thermal inertia have fewer rocks and substantially more pebbles that are well sorted and evenly spaced, similar to a desert pavement or lag. Eolian bed forms (ripples and wind tails) have coarse surface lags, and many are dust covered and thus likely inactive. Deflation of the surface ~5-25 cm likely exposed two-toned rocks and elevated ventifacts and transported fines into craters creating the hollows. This observed redistribution yields extremely slow average erosion rates of ~0.03 nm/yr and argues for very little long-term net change of the surface and a dry and desiccating environment similar to today's since the Hesperian (or ~3 Ga).

  8. Geology of the Gusec cratered plains from the Spirit rover transverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Crumpler, L. S.; Grant, J. A.; Greely, R.; Cabrol, N. A.; Parker, T. J.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Ward, J. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Moersch, J. E.; Fergason, J. F.; Christensen, P. R.; Castano, A.; Castano, R.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Li, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.

    2006-01-01

    The cratered plains of Gusev traversed by Spirit are generally low-relief rocky plains dominated by impact and eolian processes. Ubiquitous shallow, soil-filled, circular depressions, called hollows, are modified impact craters. Rocks are dark, fine-grained basalts, and the upper 10 m of the cratered plains appears to be an impact-generated regolith developed over intact basalt flows. Systematic field observations across the cratered plains identified vesicular clasts and rare scoria similar to original lava flow tops, consistent with an upper inflated surface of lava flows with adjacent collapse depressions. Crater and hollow morphometry are consistent with most being secondaries. The size frequency distribution of rocks >0.1 m diameter generally follows exponential functions similar to other landing sites for total rock abundances of 5-35%. Systematic clast counts show that areas with higher rock abundance and more large rocks have higher thermal inertia. Plains with lower thermal inertia have fewer rocks and substantially more pebbles that are well sorted and evenly spaced, similar to a desert pavement or lag. Eolian bed forms (ripples and wind tails) have coarse surface lags, and many are dust covered and thus likely inactive. Deflation of the surface _5-25 cm likely exposed two-toned rocks and elevated ventifacts and transported fines into craters creating the hollows. This observed redistribution yields extremely slow average erosion rates of _0.03 nm/yr and argues for very little long-term net change of the surface and a dry and desiccating environment similar to today's since the Hesperian (or _3 Ga).

  9. Habitat relationships with fish assemblages in minimally disturbed Great Plains regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, John R.; Paukert, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of local environmental influences on the structure of fish assemblages were evaluated from 159 sites in two regions of the Great Plains with limited anthropogenic disturbance. These regions offered an opportunity to evaluate the structure and variation of streams and fish assemblages within the Great Plains. We used canonical correspondence analyses to determine the influence of environmental conditions on species abundances, species occurrences and assemblage characteristics. Analysis of regions separately indicated that similar environmental factors structured streams and fish assemblages, despite differences in environmental conditions and species composition between regions. Variance in fish abundance and assemblage characteristics from both regions was best explained by metrics of stream size and associated metrics (width, depth, conductivity and instream cover). Our results provide a framework and reference for conditions and assemblage structure in North American prairie streams.

  10. Remote sensing to monitor cover crop adoption in southeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, Wells; Sjoerd Duiker,; Greg McCarty,; Prabhakara, Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    In the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, winter cereal cover crops are often planted in rotation with summer crops to reduce the loss of nutrients and sediment from agricultural systems. Cover crops can also improve soil health, control weeds and pests, supplement forage needs, and support resilient cropping systems. In southeastern Pennsylvania, cover crops can be successfully established following corn (Zea mays L.) silage harvest and are strongly promoted for use in this niche. They are also planted following corn grain, soybean (Glycine max L.), and vegetable harvest. In Pennsylvania, the use of winter cover crops for agricultural conservation has been supported through a combination of outreach, regulation, and incentives. On-farm implementation is thought to be increasing, but the actual extent of cover crops is not well quantified. Satellite imagery can be used to map green winter cover crop vegetation on agricultural fields and, when integrated with additional remote sensing data products, can be used to evaluate wintertime vegetative groundcover following specific summer crops. This study used Landsat and SPOT (System Probatoire d’ Observation de la Terre) satellite imagery, in combination with the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer, to evaluate the extent and amount of green wintertime vegetation on agricultural fields in four Pennsylvania counties (Berks, Lebanon, Lancaster, and York) from 2010 to 2013. In December of 2010, a windshield survey was conducted to collect baseline data on winter cover crop implementation, with particular focus on identifying corn harvested for silage (expected earlier harvest date and lower levels of crop residue), versus for grain (expected later harvest date and higher levels of crop residue). Satellite spectral indices were successfully used to detect both the amount of green vegetative groundcover and the amount of crop residue on the surveyed fields. Analysis of wintertime satellite imagery

  11. Green Streets: Urban Green and Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelt, Kathryn; McLafferty, Sara

    2017-07-13

    Recent scholarship points to a protective association between green space and birth outcomes as well a positive relationship between blue space and wellbeing. We add to this body of literature by exploring the relationship between expectant mothers' exposure to green and blue spaces and adverse birth outcomes in New York City. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the NYC Street Tree Census, and access to major green spaces served as measures of greenness, while proximity to waterfront areas represented access to blue space. Associations between these factors and adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth, term birthweight, term low birthweight, and small for gestational age, were evaluated via mixed-effects linear and logistic regression models. The analyses were conducted separately for women living in deprived neighborhoods to test for differential effects on mothers in these areas. The results indicate that women in deprived neighborhoods suffer from higher rates adverse birth outcomes and lower levels of residential greenness. In adjusted models, a significant inverse association between nearby street trees and the odds of preterm birth was found for all women. However, we did not identify a consistent significant relationship between adverse birth outcomes and NDVI, access to major green spaces, or waterfront access when individual covariates were taken into account.

  12. Global Greening Is Firm, Drivers Are Mixed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, P.; Meyfroidt, P.; Ausubel, J. H.; Graven, H. D.; Birdsey, R.; Posch, M.; Wernick, I.; Myneni, R. B.; Stenberg, P.

    2015-12-01

    Evidence for global greening is converging, asserting an increase in CO2 uptake and biomass of the terrestrial biosphere. Global greening refers to global net increases in the area of green canopy, stocks of carbon, and the duration of the growing season. The growing seasons in general have prolonged while the stock of biomass carbon has increased and the rate of deforestation has decelerated, although these trends are mixed in the Tropics. Evidence for these trends comes from firm empirical data obtained through atmospheric CO2 observations, remote sensing, forest inventories and land use statistics. The drivers of global greening cannot be assessed based only on unambiguous empirical measurements. They include spatially and temporally heterogeneous combinations of changing land use and management - including green revolution and increasing yields, afforestation, forest protection and management, and abandonment of agricultural land -, changes in the global environment (increased CO2, warmer temperatures and longer growing seasons in the northern latitudes, acceleration of the global nitrogen cycle), and shifts in demand for forest and farm products. The global trade of biomass-derived commodities affects the link between consumption patterns and the land cover impact. Global greening confirms the immediacy of global change and may be associated with more or less biodiversity and diverse environmental and human consequences depending on local circumstances. Understanding causes, mechanisms, and implications of global greening requires integrated analyses spanning land use and management, demand for products of the terrestrial biosphere, and the atmosphere and climate. Understanding the pace and drivers of global greening matters crucially for assessing the future of the terrestrial C sink; ecological, economic, social, and cultural assessments of the bio-economy; and the preservation of ecosystems.

  13. Covering walks in graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Fujie, Futaba

    2014-01-01

    Covering Walks  in Graphs is aimed at researchers and graduate students in the graph theory community and provides a comprehensive treatment on measures of two well studied graphical properties, namely Hamiltonicity and traversability in graphs. This text looks into the famous Kӧnigsberg Bridge Problem, the Chinese Postman Problem, the Icosian Game and the Traveling Salesman Problem as well as well-known mathematicians who were involved in these problems. The concepts of different spanning walks with examples and present classical results on Hamiltonian numbers and upper Hamiltonian numbers of graphs are described; in some cases, the authors provide proofs of these results to illustrate the beauty and complexity of this area of research. Two new concepts of traceable numbers of graphs and traceable numbers of vertices of a graph which were inspired by and closely related to Hamiltonian numbers are introduced. Results are illustrated on these two concepts and the relationship between traceable concepts and...

  14. Land Use and Land Cover - Montana Land Cover Framework 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This statewide land cover theme is a baseline digital map of Montana's natural and human land cover. The baseline map is adapted from the Northwest ReGAP project...

  15. Green growth in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ravensbeck, Lars; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and economic growth have gained a substantial amount of attention over the last decade. Hence, in order to unite the two fields of interest, the concept of green growth has evolved. The concept of green growth focuses on how to achieve growth in environment-dependent sectors, without...... harming the environment. Fishery is an environment-dependent sector and it has been argued that there is no potential for green growth in the sector owing to global overexploitation, leaving no scope for production growth. The purpose of this paper is to explain what green growth is and to develop...... a conceptual framework. Furthermore, the aim is to show that a large green growth potential actually exists in fisheries and to show how this potential can be achieved. The potential green growth appears as value-added instead of production growth. The potential can be achieved by reducing overcapacity...

  16. Greening America's Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical assistance program to help cities and towns develop an implementable vision of distinctive, environmentally friendly neighborhoods using green infrastructure and other sustainable design strategies.

  17. Establishing green roof infrastructure through environmental policy instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  18. Establishing Green Roof Infrastructure Through Environmental Policy Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  19. Assessment of damage in 'green' composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Paweł H.; Ostachowicz, Wiesław M.; Touchard, Fabienne; Boustie, Michel; Chocinski-Arnault, Laurence; Pascual Gonzalez, Pedro; Berthe, Laurent; de Vasconcellos, Davi; Sorrentino, Luigi

    2017-04-01

    The behaviour of eco-composites, when subjected to laser or mechanical impact loadings, is not well known yet. A research was proposed looking at the behaviour of `green' and synthetic composites under impact loading. The study was focused on composites reinforced with short, medium and long fibres. Short fibre composites were made of spruce fibres and ABS. The fibres were used both as received and after a thermal treatment. Another set of samples was made of 60 mm-long flax fibres. Two types of thermoplastic polymers were used as matrices: polypropylene and polylactide. Also a woven eco-composite was investigated. It was made of plain woven hemp fabric impregnated with epoxy resin. A fully synthetic woven composite, used as reference laminate for comparison with `green' composites, was prepared by using a plain weave woven glass fabric impregnated with epoxy resin. Mechanical impacts were performed by means of a falling dart impact testing machine. The specimens were tested at different impact energy levels (from 1J to 5J) by keeping constant the mass of the impactor and varying the drop height. Laser impact tests were performed by means of a high power laser shock facility. All the samples were tested at six different laser shock intensities, keeping constant the shock diameter and the pulse duration. Six assessment techniques were employed in order to analyse and compare impact damages: eye observation, back face relief, terahertz spectroscopy, laser vibrometry, X-ray micro-tomography and microscopic observations. Different damage detection thresholds for each material and technique were obtained.

  20. Unusual blooms of green Noctiluca miliaris (Dinophyceae) in the Arabian Sea during the winter monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gomes, H.R.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Parab, S.G.; Goes, J.I.; Pednekar, S.; Al-Azri, A.R.N.; Thoppil, P.G.

    stream_size 74927 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Geophys_Monogr_Ser_185_347.pdf.txt stream_source_info Geophys_Monogr_Ser_185_347.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 347... Indian Ocean Biogeochemical Processes and Ecological Variability Geophysical Monograph Series 185 Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union. 10.1029/2008GM000831 Unusual Blooms of Green Noctiluca miliaris (Dinophyceae) in the Arabian Sea During...

  1. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  2. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description...

  3. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  4. Space Constrained Dynamic Covering

    CERN Document Server

    Antonellis, Ioannis; Dughmi, Shaddin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we identify a fundamental algorithmic problem that we term space-constrained dynamic covering (SCDC), arising in many modern-day web applications, including ad-serving and online recommendation systems in eBay and Netflix. Roughly speaking, SCDC applies two restrictions to the well-studied Max-Coverage problem: Given an integer k, X={1,2,...,n} and I={S_1, ..., S_m}, S_i a subset of X, find a subset J of I, such that |J| <= k and the union of S in J is as large as possible. The two restrictions applied by SCDC are: (1) Dynamic: At query-time, we are given a query Q, a subset of X, and our goal is to find J such that the intersection of Q with the union of S in J is as large as possible; (2) Space-constrained: We don't have enough space to store (and process) the entire input; specifically, we have o(mn), sometimes even as little as O((m+n)polylog(mn)) space. The goal of SCDC is to maintain a small data structure so as to answer most dynamic queries with high accuracy. We present algorithms a...

  5. Thermal Behavior of Green Roofs Applied to Tropical Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Tibério Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to present results on an experimental field about the green roofs thermal behavior, compared to other traditional roof covering systems. On the one hand, it intends to describe shortly the constructive system of a green roof with a lightweight building system, which has a sustainable building materials character and, on the other, it worries with the water reuse and with the run-off delay. The main methodological procedure adopted to study the thermal behavior of green roof was installing thermocouples to collect surface temperatures and indoor air, later comparing them with existing prototypes in an experimental plot. The thermal behavior analysis of cover systems was assessed by a representative episode of the climate fact, based on the dynamic climate approach. The experimental results from internal air temperature measurements show that the green roofs applied to warm and dry climates also provide an interesting time lag with surface and internal air temperature reduction.

  6. Green processes for nanotechnology from inorganic to bioinspired nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Basiuk, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This book provides the state-of-the-art survey of green techniques in preparation of different classes of nanomaterials, with an emphasis on the use of renewable sources. Key topics covered include fabrication of nanomaterials using green techniques as well as their properties and applications, the use of renewable sources to obtain nanomaterials of different classes, from simple metal and metal oxide nanoparticles to complex bioinspired nanomaterials, economic contributions of nanotechnology to green and sustainable growth, and more. This is an ideal book for students, lecturers, researchers and engineers dealing with versatile (mainly chemical, biological, and medical) aspects of nanotechnology, including fabrication of nanomaterials using green techniques and their properties and applications. This book also: Maximizes reader insights into the design and fabrication of bioinspired nanomaterials and the design of complex bio-nanohybrids Covers many different applications for nanomaterials, bioinspired nanom...

  7. The vulnerability of groundwater of the Crau plain in a context of change in land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrando, Gérard

    2016-04-01

    In the Crau plain (520 km², Western part of the region of Marseille), With the arrangement of canals which began at the end of the 17th century, the irrigation by flood in a part of the plain has allowed the production of an quality hay and the preservation of a performing traditional socio-ecological system named "Pastoralism - Foin de Crau" between the arid part (steppe) and the Green Car with a voluminous groundwater in the Green Crau. During the second part of the XXth century the traditional economical functions have quickly changed in a context of uncertainty about the future of climate and a strong pressure on this territory, characterized by an irrigated part (the Green Crau) and a dry part (the steppe named Coussoul) : (1) the surface used for the regular flood (irrigation) in hot season of meadows for hay has decreased, while this water allows the alimentation of an important groundwater in which 80 million of m³ of water are taken every year; (2) the arid steppe, used seasonally by the ovine pastoralism, allows the preservation of a unique biodiversity. These fast changes in the land use raise the question of the durability of this groundwater today which offers numerous ecosystem advantages to the populations but also, the preservation, even the reconstruction, a rare biophysics environment and the major ecological interest. The management of the groundwater of Crau just like the conservation of the agro-system of the dry steppe thus constitutes an inseparable territorial stake. The impact of Man on this old ecosystem modelled slowly by the man is very vulnerable in front of exogenous disturbances. What are today the threats generated by the evolution of the land uses for the groundwater but also on the preservation of the unique and ancestral agro-ecosystem of the steppe?

  8. Cover crops and N credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops often provide many short- and long-term benefits to cropping systems. Legume cover crops can significantly reduce the N fertilizer requirement of non-legume cash crops that follow. The objectives of this presentation were to: I) educate stakeholders about the potential benefits of cover ...

  9. The potential of cover crops for improving soil function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoate, Chris; Crotty, Felicity

    2017-04-01

    Cover crops can be grown over the autumn and winter ensuring green cover throughout the year. They have been described as improving soil structure, reducing soil erosion and potentially even a form of grass weed control. These crops retain nutrients within the plant, potentially making them available for future crops, as well as increasing soil organic matter. Over the last three years, we have investigated how different cover crop regimes affect soil quality. Three separate experiments over each autumn/winter period have investigated how different cover crops affect soil biology, physics and chemistry, with each experiment building on the previous one. There have been significant effects of cover crops on soil structure, as well as significantly lower weed biomass and increased yields in the following crop - in comparison to bare stubble. For example, the effect of drilling the cover crops on soil structure in comparison to a bare stubble control that had not been driven on by machinery was quantified, and over the winter period the soil structure of the cover crop treatments changed, with compaction reduced in the cover crop treatments, whilst the bare stubble control remained unchanged. Weeds were found in significantly lower biomass in the cover crop mixes in comparison to the bare stubble control, and significantly lower weed biomass continued to be found in the following spring oat crop where the cover crops had been, indicating a weed suppressive effect that has a continued legacy in the following crop. The following spring oats have shown similar results in the last two years, with higher yields in the previous cover crop areas compared to the bare stubble controls. Overall, these results are indicating that cover crops have the potential to provide improvements to soil quality, reduce weeds and improve yields. We discuss the economic implications.

  10. Land Transitions in the American Plains: Multilevel Modeling of Drivers of Grassland Conversion (1950 to 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Kenneth M; Brown, Daniel G; Deane, Glenn D; Kornak, Rachel N

    2013-03-15

    This paper examines drivers of land-cover change in the U.S. Great Plains in the last half of the twentieth century. Its central aim is to evaluate the dynamics of grassland preservation and conversion, across the region, and to identify areas of grassland that were never plowed during the period. The research compares land-cover data from 400 sample areas, selected from and nested within 50 counties, to aggregate data from the agricultural and population censuses. The spatially explicit land-cover data were interpreted from aerial photographs taken at three time points (1950s, 1970s and 2000s). Sample areas were chosen using a stratified random design based on the Public Land Survey grid with in the target counties, in several clusters across the region. We modeled the sequences and magnitudes of changes in the interpreted air photo data in a multi-level panel model that included soil quality and slope of sample areas and agricultural activities and employment reported in the U.S. Censuses of Agriculture and Population. We conclude that land retirement programs and production subsidies have worked at cross purposes, destabilizing micro-level patterns of land use in recent decades, increasing levels of switching between cropland and grassland and reducing the size of remaining areas of native grassland in the U.S. Great Plains.

  11. Customers’ Intention to Use Green Products: the Impact of Green Brand Dimensions and Green Perceived Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doszhanov Aibek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationships between green brand dimension (green brand awareness, green brand image, and green brand trust, green perceived value and customer’s intention to use green products. Data was collected through structured survey questionnaire from 384 customers of three hypermarkets in Kuala-Lumpur. Data was analyzed based on multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that there are significant relationships between green brand awareness, green brand trust, green perceived value, and customer’s intention to use green products. However, green brand image was not found to have significant relationship with customer’s intention to use green products. The discussion presented suggestions for marketers and researchers interested in green branding.

  12. Hydrologic Restoration in the Urban Environment Using Green Roofs

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Palla; Ilaria Gnecco; Luca G. Lanza

    2010-01-01

    Loss of natural soil and vegetation within the urban environment can significantly affect the hydrologic cycle by increasing storm water runoff rates and volumes. In order to mitigate these modifications in urban areas engineered systems are developed, such as green roofs, to mimic and replace functions (evapo-transpiration, infiltration, percolation) which have been altered due to the impact of human development. Green roofs, also known as vegetated roof covers, eco-roofs or nature roofs, ar...

  13. An Innovative Approach to Effective Climate Science Application through Stakeholder Participation in Great Plains Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athearn, N.; Broska, J.

    2015-12-01

    For natural resource managers and other Great Plains stakeholders, climate uncertainties further confound decision-making on a highly altered landscape. Partner organizations comprising the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative (GPLCC) acknowledge climate change as a high-priority threat to grasslands and associated habitats, affecting water availability, species composition, and other factors. Despite its importance, incorporation of climate change impacts into planning is hindered by high uncertainty and lack of translation to a tangible outcome: effects on species and their habitats. In 2014, the GPLCC initiated a Landscape Conservation Design (LCD) process to ultimately improve the size and connectivity of grasslands - informing land managers of the landscape-scale impacts of local decisions about where to restore, enhance, protect, and develop lands. Defining this goal helped stakeholders envision a tangible product. High resolution land cover data recently completed for Texas and Oklahoma represent current grassland locations. By focusing climate change models to project changes in these land cover datasets, resulting land cover projections can be directly incorporated into LCD-based models to focus restoration where future climates will support grasslands. Broad organizational cooperation has been critical for this USGS-led project, which uses downscaled climate data and other support from the South Central Climate Science Center Consortium and builds on existing work including LCD efforts of the Playa Lakes Joint Venture and the Bureau of Land Management's Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecological Assessment. Ongoing stakeholder guidance through an advisory team ensures effective application of a product that will be both relevant to and understood by decision makers, for whom the primary role of research is to reduce uncertainties and clear the path for more efficient decision-making in the face of climatic uncertainty.

  14. [Assessment of soil nutrient status in urban green space of main cities in Hubei Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-guo; Zhang, Guo-Shi; Liu, Yi; Wan, Kai-Yuan; Zhang, Run-Hua; Chen, Fang

    2013-08-01

    According to the topography of the cities in Hubei Province, soil samples were collected from the urban green space in two mountainous cities (Enshi and Shiyan), three hilly cities (Jing-men, Xiangfan and Yichang), and five plain cities (Wuhan, Xiaogan, Xianning, Jingzhou, Suizhou and Huangshi). Within each city, subsoil samples were taken in accordance with four different types of land use, including park, residential, institutional (school, hospital and government, etc.), and roadside. In the main cities in Hubei, the soil pH of urban green space was averagely 7.9, being obviously higher than that of natural soils, while the soil organic matter content was rather low (6.8 g x kg(-1)). The soil available N and P contents were at a low level, while the soil available trace element (Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and B) contents were moderate. Land use type had significant effects on the soil nutrient contents in plain cities. The soil pH in the residential green space was significantly higher than that in the park, roadside and institutional green space, while the contents of soil available trace elements (S, Cu, Mn and Zn) in roadside green space were significantly higher than those of green space in the other land use types. Park green space had the lowest soil nutrient contents. There existed significant differences in the soil nutrient contents among the cities with different topography. The soil organic matter, NH4-N, available K and P, and Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu and Mn contents were significantly higher in plain cities than in mountainous cities.

  15. Greening of the Earth and its drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zaichun; Piao, Shilong; Myneni, Ranga B.; Huang, Mengtian; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe; Sitch, Stephen; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Arneth, Almut; Cao, Chunxiang; Cheng, Lei; Kato, Etsushi; Koven, Charles; Li, Yue; Lian, Xu; Liu, Yongwen; Liu, Ronggao; Mao, Jiafu; Pan, Yaozhong; Peng, Shushi; Peñuelas, Josep; Poulter, Benjamin; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Viovy, Nicolas; Wang, Xuhui; Wang, Yingping; Xiao, Zhiqiang; Yang, Hui; Zaehle, Sönke; Zeng, Ning

    2016-08-01

    Global environmental change is rapidly altering the dynamics of terrestrial vegetation, with consequences for the functioning of the Earth system and provision of ecosystem services. Yet how global vegetation is responding to the changing environment is not well established. Here we use three long-term satellite leaf area index (LAI) records and ten global ecosystem models to investigate four key drivers of LAI trends during 1982-2009. We show a persistent and widespread increase of growing season integrated LAI (greening) over 25% to 50% of the global vegetated area, whereas less than 4% of the globe shows decreasing LAI (browning). Factorial simulations with multiple global ecosystem models suggest that CO2 fertilization effects explain 70% of the observed greening trend, followed by nitrogen deposition (9%), climate change (8%) and land cover change (LCC) (4%). CO2 fertilization effects explain most of the greening trends in the tropics, whereas climate change resulted in greening of the high latitudes and the Tibetan Plateau. LCC contributed most to the regional greening observed in southeast China and the eastern United States. The regional effects of unexplained factors suggest that the next generation of ecosystem models will need to explore the impacts of forest demography, differences in regional management intensities for cropland and pastures, and other emerging productivity constraints such as phosphorus availability.

  16. Lighting: Green Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniccia, Dorine

    2003-01-01

    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…

  17. Green product innovation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in product innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green product innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary

  18. Manufacturing Green Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulsrud, Natalie Marie; Ooi, Can Seng

    2014-01-01

    In an increasingly global economy, being green, or having an environmentally sustainbale place brand, provides a competitive advantage. Singapore, long known as the ``garden city´´ has been a leader in green city imaging since the founding of the equatorial city-state, contributing, in large part...

  19. Green Chemistry and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  20. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  1. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  2. Greening the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada…

  3. Green product innovation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in product innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green product innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary r

  4. Measuring Our Greenness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUYONG

    2005-01-01

    Green GDP has become a buzzword of late. For two decades or more, China's rapid economic growth-and its equally rapid environmental destruction and resource depletion-has astonished the world. But now, China is on the fast track to developing a Green GDP.

  5. Green Chemistry and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  6. Green Marketing amp Consumerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jalalkamali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Green marketing is a progressive issue that most of its dimensions are unknown or intangible for consumers. In this review some of its aspects are surveyed considering its impact on consumers as a fundamental segment in economics. Also consumer behavior is defined and analyzed through its awareness of green marketing issue which causes purchasing decision.

  7. Introduction: Experimental Green Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research.......Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research....

  8. Custodial Operations: Green & Sustainable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Custodial Operations can have a significant impact on institutional green and sustainable goals if given the proper support and challenge. This article describes the green and sustainable custodial operations in place at Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. The article reviews the college's sustainable efforts on biodegradables, packaging,…

  9. Coordinate green growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, F.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Green economic growth needs a shared sense of direction if it is to lead to a more sustainable future under climate change. Studies on green innovation and societal transformation show that uncoordinated initiatives are unlikely to be an effective way “to get the ball rolling and to ‘learn

  10. On L-injective Covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德旭

    2004-01-01

    We use the class of L-injective modules to define L-injective covers, and provide the characterizations of L-injective covers by the properties of kernels of homomorphisms. We prove that the right L-noetherian right L-hereditary ring is just such that every right R-module has an L-injective cover which is monic. We also use kernels of homomorphisms to investigate L-simple L-injective covers and give some constructions ofL-simple L-iniective covers.

  11. 退耕还林还草工程对中国北方农牧交错区土地利用/覆被变化的影响——以科尔沁左翼后旗为例%The Impact of the Grain for Green Project on the Land Use/Cover Change in the Northern Farming-pastoral Ecotone, China —A Case Study of Kezuohouqi County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德成; 赵淑清; 朱超

    2012-01-01

    以北方农牧交错区-科尔沁左翼后旗为例,利用卫星遥感技术获取1980~2010年土地利用/覆被信息,通过统计模型重建土地利用/覆被及景观格局变化过程,综合评价二者动态及退耕还林还草等生态恢复工程的影响。研究区土地整体处于准平衡态势,各地类双向转换较频繁;耕地与草地的变化对区域土地利用/覆被及景观格局变化起支配作用;退耕还林还草等生态恢复工程逆转了天然植被(包括草地与林地)整体减少及耕地与未利用地增加的局面,使各景观破碎化程度有所缓解,这可能有利于生态环境的改善。%Based on remote sensing techniques,the land use/cover information between 1980 and 2010 was obtained and the change processes of land use/cover and landscape pattern of Kezuohouqi County in the loess plateau,China were characterized,using the statistical models to analyze the impacts of the Grain for Green Project(GGP) on both of them.The land was generally in quasi-balanced status with a slight difference between the loss and the gain of the area for most land use types,indicating that the land conversion direction was dominated by two-way transition.Transition between cropland and grassland dominated the processes of the land use/cover change and landscape pattern dynamics.The GGP together with other eco-restoration projects reversed the decline trend of natural vegetation(i.e.,the woodland and grassland) and the increase trend of cropland and unused land,and reduced the fragmentation of landscape.These changes may be beneficial to the local eco-restoration.

  12. Suitable scale of Weigan River plain oasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU ShunJun; SONG YuDong; TIAN ChangYan; LI YueTan; LI XiuCang; CHEN XiaoBing

    2007-01-01

    Desert coexists with oasis in long time, and the existence and development of oasis system demand better oasis vegetation ecological system. Oasis scale of arid zone plain encircling water should be determined in case of desertification caused by land over-reclamation under the circumstance of water resources shortage. Steady oasis with virtuous circle must have appropriate land use structure for agriculture, forestry and graziery. The study on the suitable scale and developmental space of oasis will provide theoretical and applicable foundation for effective construction of oases. By analyzing the hydrothermal, water and soil balance, an optimal mathematical model has been established. Based on hydrometeorology data collected for years in Weigan River plain, and by the principle of water balance,a calculation has been made of the water resources for evapotranspiration and the optimal acreage of oasis and cultivated land, which shows that the water resources for evapotranspiration in the Weigan River plain oasis is 22.32×108 m3 and the optimal oasis acreage under the condition of conventional irrigation mode is 3716.06 km2, in which the suitable cultivated land acreage is 1564.79 km2. Under the condition of water-saving irrigation, the suitable oasis acreage is 5515.49 km2, in which the suitable cultivated land acreage is 2322.31 km2. The oasis area had reached 4123 km2, and the cultivated land acreage had reached 1507 km2 after the Agriculture Irrigation Drainage Water Project of World Bank Loan in Weigan River basin was finished in 1997. The oasis and cultivated land acreage will be more suitable, and the oasis scale can be enlarged moderately by means of water saving irrigation.

  13. Ages of plains volcanism on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Ernst; Jagert, Felix; Broz, Petr

    2010-05-01

    Plain-style volcanism [1] is widespread in the Tharsis and Elysium volcanic provinces on Mars, [2,3]. Detailed images and topographic data reveal the morphology and topography of clusters of low shields and associated lava flows. The landforms of plains volcanism on Mars have all well-known terrestrial analogues in basaltic volcanic regions, such as Hawaii, Iceland, and in particular the Snake River Plains [4]. The very gentle flank slopes (Ga - 2.9 Ga). Our results indicate that Late Amazonian volcanism is more widespread in Tharsis than previously recognized. Based on our results it appears possible that Mars is volcanologically not dead yet. Ongoing work investigates the volumes of erupted products and implications for the outgassing history and atmospheric evolution of Mars. [1] Greeley R. (1982) JGR 87, 2705-2712. [2] Plescia J. (1981) Icarus, 45, 586-601. [3] Hodges C.A. and Moore H.J. (1994) Atlas of volcanic features on Mars: USGS Prof. Paper 1534, 194 p. [4] Hauber E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 69-95. [5] Wilson L. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 28-46. [6] Vaucher, J. et al. (2009) Icarus 204, 418-442. [7] Baratoux D. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 47-68. [8] Bleacher J.E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 96-102. [9] Ivanov B.A. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 87-104. [10] Hartmann W.H. and Neukum G. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 165-194 [11] Kneissl T. et al. (2010) LPS XVI, submitted. [12] Michael, G.G. and Neukum G. (2010) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., in press. . [13] Malin M.C. et al. (2007) JGR 112, E05S04, doi: 10.1029/2006JE002808.

  14. Effect of conservation practices on soil carbon and nitrogen accretion and crop yield in a corn production system in the southeastern coastal plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    We implemented conservation farming practices (winter cover cropping plus strip tillage) for a non-irrigated corn production system in the southern coastal plain of Georgia, USA that had been previously been managed under a plow and harrow tillage regime. Total soil carbon and nitrogen were measure...

  15. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  16. On Maximal Green Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Brüstle, Thomas; Pérotin, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    Maximal green sequences are particular sequences of quiver mutations which were introduced by Keller in the context of quantum dilogarithm identities and independently by Cecotti-Cordova-Vafa in the context of supersymmetric gauge theory. Our aim is to initiate a systematic study of these sequences from a combinatorial point of view. Interpreting maximal green sequences as paths in various natural posets arising in representation theory, we prove the finiteness of the number of maximal green sequences for cluster finite quivers, affine quivers and acyclic quivers with at most three vertices. We also give results concerning the possible numbers and lengths of these maximal green sequences. Finally we describe an algorithm for computing maximal green sequences for arbitrary valued quivers which we used to obtain numerous explicit examples that we present.

  17. Medicine Wheels of the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, David

    Medicine Wheels are unexplained aboriginal boulder configurations found primarily on hilltops and river valley vistas across the northwest Great Plains of North America. Their varied, complex designs have inspired diverse hypotheses concerning their meaning and purpose, including astronomical ones. While initial "observatory" speculations were unfounded, and quests to "decode" these structures remain unfulfilled and possibly misguided, the Medicine Wheels nevertheless represent a uniquely worthwhile case study in archaeoastronomical theory and method. In addition, emerging technologies for data acquisition and analysis pertinent to Medicine Wheels offer prospectively important new sight lines for the future of archaeoastronomy.

  18. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  19. Colored polyethylene soil covers and grafting effects on cucumber flowering and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Inês Cristina de Batista

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. is one of the most cultivated vegetable crops in plastic greenhouses in Brazil because of the short cycle and its high economic value in off-season harvests. To better understand this management technique the effect of different colored polyethylene soil covers was evaluated in relation to flowering and yield of the hybrid cucumber 'Yoshinari' grafted or not on the hybrid squash 'Ikky'. The polyethylene cover colors were black, white on black and green plus a control without cover. Covered but not grafted crops had a more uniform flowering distribution. The number of flowers was greater for the white/black grafted treatment. All the polyethylene covers favored flowering for the non grafted plants. Grafting reduced flowering for the black or green polyethylene covers treatments. The fruit set increased with the use of polyethylene cover but was not influenced by grafting. The uniform distribution of flowering remained during fruiting only for grafted plants and soil covered with black or green polyethylene. Both polyethylene cover and grafting favored early harvesting. The 'Yoshinari'/'Ikky' graft caused taller plants but fruit were thicker and smaller and did not meet the commercial standard. The best quality fruit and highest yields were obtained in the black and white/black treatments, without grafting.

  20. Going Green: Greening Your Marketing Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that the "Going Green" movement is in full swing. With global warming and other ecological concerns, people are paying closer attention to environmental issues and striving to live in a more sustainable world. For libraries, this is a perfect opportunity to be active in a campus-wide program and simultaneously promote library…

  1. Going Green: Greening Your Marketing Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that the "Going Green" movement is in full swing. With global warming and other ecological concerns, people are paying closer attention to environmental issues and striving to live in a more sustainable world. For libraries, this is a perfect opportunity to be active in a campus-wide program and simultaneously promote library…

  2. Collection Development "Green Business": The Green Capitalist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The "greening" of corporate behemoths like Wal-Mart, DuPont, and Toyota has received much media attention in recent years. But consider small businesses: according to the U.S. Small Business Administration, of the estimated 27 million firms in the United States, 99.7 percent have fewer than 500 employees, 97.5 percent have fewer than 20, and more…

  3. Estimating occurrence and detection probabilities for stream-breeding salamanders in the Gulf Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Jennifer Y.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Qualls, Carl P.

    2017-01-01

    Large gaps exist in our knowledge of the ecology of stream-breeding plethodontid salamanders in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Data describing where these salamanders are likely to occur along environmental gradients, as well as their likelihood of detection, are important for the prevention and management of amphibian declines. We used presence/absence data from leaf litter bag surveys and a hierarchical Bayesian multispecies single-season occupancy model to estimate the occurrence of five species of plethodontids across reaches in headwater streams in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Average detection probabilities were high (range = 0.432–0.942) and unaffected by sampling covariates specific to the use of litter bags (i.e., bag submergence, sampling season, in-stream cover). Estimates of occurrence probabilities differed substantially between species (range = 0.092–0.703) and were influenced by the size of the upstream drainage area and by the maximum proportion of the reach that dried. The effects of these two factors were not equivalent across species. Our results demonstrate that hierarchical multispecies models successfully estimate occurrence parameters for both rare and common stream-breeding plethodontids. The resulting models clarify how species are distributed within stream networks, and they provide baseline values that will be useful in evaluating the conservation statuses of plethodontid species within lotic systems in the Gulf Coastal Plain.

  4. Wetland degradation: its driving forces and environmental impacts in the Sanjiang Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kaishan; Wang, Zongming; Du, Jia; Liu, Lei; Zeng, Lihong; Ren, Chunying

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated human-induced long-term wetland degradation that occurred in the Sanjiang Plain. Results from analyzing land-use/land-cover data sets derived from remotely sensed Landsat Multispectral Scanner/Thematic Mapper imagery for four time points showed that wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain have been severely transformed, and the area of wetlands decreased by 38 % from 1976 to 1986, by 16 % from 1986 to 1995, and by 31 % from 1995 to 2005. This study showed that transition to agricultural cultivation accounted for 91 % of wetland losses, whereas transition to grassland and forest accounted for 7 % of the wetlands losses. Institutional strategies and market policies probably exerted great impacts on agricultural practice that directly or indirectly influenced the decrease in wetlands. This study also indicated that an increased population likely led to wetland conversion to cropland by showing a high correlation between population and cropland (R (2) = 0.92, P Wetland loss occurred during later time intervals at a low rate. This study suggests that the existing wetland-protection measures in the Sanjiang Plain should be reinforced further because of possible environmental consequences of wetland loss, such as enhanced soil carbon emission, changed hydrological cycling, and regional temperature increase.

  5. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Detecting and monitoring agricultural vegetative water stress over large areas using LANDSAT digital data. [Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. R.; Wehmanen, O. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Green Number Index technique which uses LANDSAT digital data from 5X6 nautical mile sampling frames was expanded to evaluate its usefulness in detecting and monitoring vegetative water stress over the Great Plains. At known growth stages for wheat, segments were classified as drought or non drought. Good agreement was found between the 18 day remotely sensed data and a weekly ground-based crop moisture index. Operational monitoring of the 1977 U.S.S.R. and Australian wheat crops indicated drought conditions. Drought isoline maps produced by the Green Number Index technique were in good agreement with conventional sources.

  6. Social Work and the Challenges of the Green Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bret Alan Weber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This is an ethnographic account of a social worker’s efforts to create a local “Energy Alliance” to help moderate-income residents reduce energy costs in a small, urban, northern plains community in the United States. Additionally, the initiative would help create jobs, increase energy efficiency, and reduce carbon outputs. While the project met with mixed results, lessons learned are relevant to the emergent intersections of community practice, sustainable community development (economic and social, and social work. The benefits of social work education and experience to this work are highlighted, as are the challenges inherent in planning and implementing green community development.

  7. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN EnviroAtlas Meter-scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) data were generated from four-band (red, green, blue, and near infrared) aerial...

  8. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - One Meter Resolution Urban Area Land Cover Map (MULC) (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN EnviroAtlas Meter-scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) data were generated from four-band (red, green, blue, and near infrared) aerial...

  9. Improving Web Page Readability by Plain Language

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Walayat; Ali, Arif

    2011-01-01

    In today's world anybody who wants to access any information the first choice is to use the web because it is the only source to provide easy and instant access to information. However web readers face many hurdles from web which includes load of web pages, text size, finding related information, spelling and grammar etc. However understanding of web pages written in English language creates great problems for non native readers who have basic knowledge of English. In this paper, we propose a plain language for a local language (Urdu) using English alphabets for web pages in Pakistan. For this purpose we developed two websites, one with a normal English fonts and other in a local language text scheme using English alphabets. We also conducted a questionnaire from 40 different users with a different level of English language fluency in Pakistan to gain the evidence of the practicality of our approach. The result shows that the proposed plain language text scheme using English alphabets improved the reading com...

  10. Plain Language Summary: Adult Sinusitis (Sinus Infection).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Leslie A; Walter, Lindsey M; Walsh, Sandra A; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Piccirillo, Jay F

    2015-08-01

    This plain language summary serves as an overview in explaining sinusitis (pronounced sign-you-side-tis). The purpose of this plain language summary is to provide patients with standard language explaining their condition in an easy-to-read format. This summary applies to those 18 years of age or older with sinusitis. The summary is featured as an FAQ (frequently asked question) format. The summary addresses how to manage and treat sinusitis symptoms. Adult sinusitis is often called a sinus infection. A healthcare provider may refer to a sinus infection as rhinosinusitis (pronounced rhi-no-sign-you-side-tis). This includes the nose as well as the sinuses in the name. A sinus infection is the swelling of the sinuses and nasal cavity.The summary is based on the published 2015 "Clinical Practice Guideline: Adult Sinusitis." The evidence-based guideline includes research to support more effective diagnosis and treatment of adult sinus infections. The guideline was developed as a quality improvement opportunity for managing sinus infections by creating clear recommendations to use in medical practice. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  11. Improving Web Page Readability by Plain Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walayat Hussain

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In todays world anybody who wants to access any information the first choice is to use the web because it is the only source to provide easy and instant access to information. However web readers face many hurdles from web which includes load of web pages, text size, finding related information, spelling and grammar etc. However understanding of web pages written in English language creates great problems for non native readers who have basic knowledge of English. In this paper, we propose a plain language for a local language (Urdu using English alphabets for web pages in Pakistan. For this purpose we developed two websites, one with a normal English fonts and other in a local language text scheme using English alphabets. We also conducted a questionnaire from 40 different users with a different level of English language fluency in Pakistan to gain the evidence of the practicality of our approach. The result shows that the proposed plain language text scheme using English alphabets improved the reading comprehension for non native English speakers in Pakistan.

  12. Potential impacts on Colorado Rocky Mountain weather due to land use changes on the adjacent Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, T.N.; Pielke, R.A.; Kittel, T.G.F.; Baron, J.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    Evidence from both meteorological stations and vegetational successional studies suggests that summer temperatures are decreasing in the mountain-plain system in northeast Colorado, particularly since the early 1980s. These trends are coincident with large changes in regional land cover. Trends in global, Northern Hemisphere and continental surface temperatures over the same period are insignificant. These observations suggest that changes in the climate of this mountain-plain system may be, in some part, a result of localized forcing mechanisms. In this study the effects of land use change on the northern Colorado plains, where large regions of grasslands have been transformed into both dry and irrigated agricultural lands, on regional weather is examined in an effort to understand this local deviation from larger-scale trends. We find with high-resolution numerical simulations of a 3-day summer period using a regional atmospheric-land surface model that replacing grasslands with irrigated and dry farmland can have impacts on regional weather and therefore climate which are not limited to regions of direct forcing. Higher elevations remote from regions of land use change are affected as well. Specifically, cases with altered landcover had cooler, moister boundary layers, and diminished low-level upslope winds over portions of the plains. At higher elevations, temperatures also were lower as was low-level convergence. Precipitation and cloud cover were substantially affected in mountain regions. We advance the hypothesis that observed land use changes may have already had a role in explaining part of the observed climate record in the northern Colorado mountain-plain system. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Creep of plain weave polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhishek

    Polymer matrix composites are increasingly used in various industrial sectors to reduce structural weight and improve performance. Woven (also known as textile) composites are one class of polymer matrix composites with increasing market share mostly due to their lightweight, their flexibility to form into desired shape, their mechanical properties and toughness. Due to the viscoelasticity of the polymer matrix, time-dependent degradation in modulus (creep) and strength (creep rupture) are two of the major mechanical properties required by engineers to design a structure reliably when using these materials. Unfortunately, creep and creep rupture of woven composites have received little attention by the research community and thus, there is a dire need to generate additional knowledge and prediction models, given the increasing market share of woven composites in load bearing structural applications. Currently, available creep models are limited in scope and have not been validated for any loading orientation and time period beyond the experimental time window. In this thesis, an analytical creep model, namely the Modified Equivalent Laminate Model (MELM), was developed to predict tensile creep of plain weave composites for any orientation of the load with respect to the orientation of the fill and warp fibers, using creep of unidirectional composites. The ability of the model to predict creep for any orientation of the load is a "first" in this area. The model was validated using an extensive experimental involving the tensile creep of plain weave composites under varying loading orientation and service conditions. Plain weave epoxy (F263)/ carbon fiber (T300) composite, currently used in aerospace applications, was procured as fabrics from Hexcel Corporation. Creep tests were conducted under two loading conditions: on-axis loading (0°) and off-axis loading (45°). Constant load creep, in the temperature range of 80-240°C and stress range of 1-70% UTS of the

  14. Green syntheses, v.1

    CERN Document Server

    Tundo, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to the Green Syntheses SeriesPietro Tundo and John AndraosApplication of Material Efficiency Metrics to Assess Reaction Greenness-Illustrative Case Studies from Organic SynthesesJohn AndraosReaction 1: Synthesis of 3-Benzyl-5-Methyleneoxazolidin-2-one from N-Benzylprop-2-yn-1-Amine and CO2Qing-Wen Song and Liang-Nian HeReaction 2: Synthesis of the 5-Membered Cyclic Carbonates from Epoxides and CO2Qing-Wen Song, Liang-Nian HePart I: Green Methods for the Epoxidation of

  15. Green Light Pulse Oximeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, John Edward (Oldsmar, FL)

    1998-11-03

    A reflectance pulse oximeter that determines oxygen saturation of hemoglobin using two sources of electromagnetic radiation in the green optical region, which provides the maximum reflectance pulsation spectrum. The use of green light allows placement of an oximetry probe at central body sites (e.g., wrist, thigh, abdomen, forehead, scalp, and back). Preferably, the two green light sources alternately emit light at 560 nm and 577 nm, respectively, which gives the biggest difference in hemoglobin extinction coefficients between deoxyhemoglobin, RHb, and oxyhemoglobin, HbO.sub.2.

  16. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  17. Sustainable green urban planning: the Green Credit Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, E.J.; Diemont, E.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Timmermans, W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The Green Credit Tool is evaluated as a method to quantify the value of green-spaces and to determine how these green-space-values can be replaced or compensated for within urban spatial planning projects. Design/methodology/approach – Amersfoort Local Municipality created the Green Credit

  18. Spatially dependent biotic and abiotic factors drive survivorship and physical structure of green roof vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisio, Jason M; Palmer, Matthew I; Giampieri, Mario A; Tuininga, Amy R; Lewis, James D

    2017-01-01

    Plant survivorship depends on biotic and abiotic factors that vary at local and regional scales. This survivorship, in turn, has cascading effects on community composition and the physical structure of vegetation. Survivorship of native plant species is variable among populations planted in environmentally stressful habitats like urban roofs, but the degree to which factors at different spatial scales affect survivorship in urban systems is not well understood. We evaluated the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on survivorship, composition, and physical structure of two native perennial species assemblages, one characterized by a mixture of C4 grasses and forbs (Hempstead Plains, HP) and one characterized by a mixture of C3 grasses and forbs (Rocky Summit, RS), that were initially sown at equal ratios of growth forms (5:1:4; grass, N-fixing forb and non-N-fixing forb) in replicate 2-m(2) plots planted on 10 roofs in New York City (New York, USA). Of 24 000 installed plants, 40% survived 23 months after planting. Within-roof factors explained 71% of variation in survivorship, with biotic (species identity and assemblage) factors accounting for 54% of the overall variation, and abiotic (growing medium depth and plot location) factors explaining 17% of the variation. Among-roof factors explained 29% of variation in survivorship and increased solar radiation correlated with decreased survivorship. While growing medium properties (pH, nutrients, metals) differed among roofs there was no correlation with survivorship. Percent cover and sward height increased with increasing survivorship. At low survivorship, cover of the HP assemblage was greater compared to the RS assemblage. Sward height of the HP assemblage was about two times greater compared to the RS assemblage. These results highlight the effects of local biotic and regional abiotic drivers on community composition and physical structure of green roof vegetation. As a result, initial green roof plant

  19. Circles of the World: Traditional Art of the Plains Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Richard

    1985-01-01

    The art of the Plains Indians is discussed, and an art exhibition of their work to be held at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco from January 12 to April 29, 1985, is described. The exhibit shows and explains how Plains art served aspects of the Indians' traditional life. (RM)

  20. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  1. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... valuable for maintaining agricultural and forest products for food and fiber, fish and wildlife habitat... flood plain. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) flood insurance maps, other available... if the intended action is in the base flood plain by using HUD flood insurance maps, and other...

  2. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...

  3. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.107 Defective plain bearing box: General. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  4. comparison between sonographic and plain radiography in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-10-10

    Oct 10, 2003 ... Senior Lecturer, Department of Radiology, Makerere University, ... Plain radiography made a diagnosis in 85.5% of patients and did ... abdominal pain, abdominal distension, vomiting and ... major draw back with the use of ultrasound is that it is .... Plain abdominal film demonstrates non-specific gaseous.

  5. PLAINS GERBILS (GERBILLISCUS ROBUSTA) AS FOOD OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Its major food in the 1970's was found to be Gerbilliscus robusta ... Senzota – Plains Gerbils as Food of the Barn Owl in the Serengeti Plains … 102 reflected as ..... Magazine. March 04. And http://www.growingproduce.com/article/. 181150 ...

  6. 27 CFR 9.207 - Outer Coastal Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outer Coastal Plain. 9.207... Outer Coastal Plain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Outer Coastal Plain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Outer Coastal Plain” is a term of...

  7. Study on Land Use/Cover Changes in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region from 1980s to 2005%1980s-2005年内蒙古地区土地利用/覆被变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海燕; 邵全琴; 安如

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, climate change and human activities accelerated land use/land cover change and then promoted regional environmental changes in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. In this article, we de-scribe spatial and temporal characteristics and analyze driving factors of land use/land cover changes on regional and prefectural scales according to three periods of land use/land cover data, conversion rates, dynamic degree and the converted matrix. The result shows that, there are obvious regional differences and similarities in chang-es of land use/land cover in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, which affected by topographic factors. (i) From 1980s to 2000, the main changes of land use/land cover are grassland reclamation at plain cultivation areas (94 000 hm2/a) and grassland degradation and desertification at highland steppe areas (72 000 hm2/a) , which is owing to climate change, population growth and a series of political and economic macro-policy; (ii)The recla-mation of cultivated land had been strongly controlled in plain cultivation areas by the "Grain for Green" policy since 2000, while the tends of grassland degradation and desertification in the banded regions at the northern edge of the plain cultivation areas (11 000 hm2/a) and highland steppe areas (133 000 hm2/a) had been increased, which is affected by the precipitation fluctuations and population growth factors. The result indicates that, plain cultivation areas become more susceptible to national macroeconomic policies, and highland steppe areas be-come more susceptible to changes of precipitation, which is under big pressure of economic development and population growth. These findings provide a basis for the sustainable use and the scientific management of land resources in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.%近几十年来,由气候变化和人类活动共同驱动的内蒙古地区土地利用/覆被变化(LUCC)较为剧烈,其引发了一系列的生

  8. Compliance for Green IT

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The growing range of Green IT regulations are challenging more and more organisations to take specific steps to ensure they are in compliance with sometimes complex regulations, ranging from cap & trade requirements through to regulations concerning IT equipment disposal.

  9. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  10. Manufacturing Green Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulsrud, Natalie Marie; Ooi, Can Seng

    2014-01-01

    In an increasingly global economy, being green, or having an environmentally sustainbale place brand, provides a competitive advantage. Singapore, long known as the ``garden city´´ has been a leader in green city imaging since the founding of the equatorial city-state, contributing, in large part...... to the city’s profile as the economic giant of Southeast Asia. Using a political ecology lens, the paper aims to uncover the contested socio-economic narratives of green city imaging by examining the evolution of the garden city branding scheme since Singapore’s independence in 1959. Results show...... that entrepreneurial governance such as green city branding has important and uneven political consequences for the social and economic fabric of our cities....

  11. Green Sturgeon Acoustic Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database is used to hold tracking data for green sturgeon tagged in Central California. The data collection began in late 2002 and is ongoing.

  12. No More Green Thumbs!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Judith A.

    1977-01-01

    An alternative method of bacterial spore staining using malachite green is described. This technique is designed to save time and expense by a less messy procedure. Advantages and adaptations of the technique are also given. (MR)

  13. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  14. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  15. Green product quality, green corporate image, green customer satisfaction, and green customer loyalty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nai-Jen Chang; Cher-Min Fong

    2010-01-01

      Previous studies have paid much attention on product quality, corporate image, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty, but none have explored them about green innovation or environmental management aspects...

  16. Hot Green Wheels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China hands out subsidies for purchases of new energy vehicles to spur green car interest After months of waiting, the Ministry of Finance announced on June 1a trial program to subsidize purchases of new energy vehicles in the

  17. Green by Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The article offers information on the two sources of energy including green energy and gray energy. It discusses several facts which includes lower levels of greenhouse gases and conventional pollutants, relationship between economic incentives and underlying preferences and potential effects...

  18. Phonon Green's function.

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    The concepts of source and quantum action principle are used to produce the phonon Green's function appropriate for an initial phonon vacuum state. An application to the Mossbauer effect is presented.

  19. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  20. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Mobli, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  1. Potential nitrogen critical loads for northern Great Plains grassland vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Smith, Anine T.; Newton, Wesley E.; Knapp, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    The National Park Service is concerned that increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion and agricultural activities could adversely affect the northern Great Plains (NGP) ecosystems in its trust. The critical load concept facilitates communication between scientists and policy makers or land managers by translating the complex effects of air pollution on ecosystems into concrete numbers that can be used to inform air quality targets. A critical load is the exposure level below which significant harmful effects on sensitive elements of the environment do not occur. A recent review of the literature suggested that the nitrogen critical load for Great Plains vegetation is 10-25 kg N/ha/yr. For comparison, current atmospheric nitrogen deposition in NGP National Park Service (NPS) units ranges from ~4 kg N/ha/yr in the west to ~13 kg N/ha/yr in the east. The suggested critical load, however, was derived from studies far outside of the NGP, and from experiments investigating nitrogen loads substantially higher than current atmospheric deposition in the region.Therefore, to better determine the nitrogen critical load for sensitive elements in NGP parks, we conducted a four-year field experiment in three northern Great Plains vegetation types at Badlands and Wind Cave National Parks. The vegetation types were chosen because of their importance in NGP parks, their expected sensitivity to nitrogen addition, and to span a range of natural fertility. In the experiment, we added nitrogen at rates ranging from below current atmospheric deposition (2.5 kg N/ha/yr) to far above those levels but commensurate with earlier experiments (100 kg N/ha/yr). We measured the response of a variety of vegetation and soil characteristics shown to be sensitive to nitrogen addition in other studies, including plant biomass production, plant tissue nitrogen concentration, plant species richness and composition, non-native species abundance, and soil inorganic

  2. Association between urban green space and self-reported lifestyle-related disorders in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilla, Ihlebæk; Geir, Aamodt; Renata, Aradi; Bjørgulf, Claussen; Halvorsen, Thorén Kine

    2017-10-01

    The need for studies from more countries on the relationship between urban green space and health has been emphasized. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between two types of measurement of urban green space and self-reported lifestyle-related disorders in Oslo, Norway. Self-reported measures on mental disorders, asthma, type 2 diabetes and musculoskeletal pain of 8638 participants in the Oslo Health Study (HUBRO) were linked to two types of green space variables: the vegetation cover greenness derived from satellite data, which shows the city's vegetation cover regardless of property boundaries, and the land use greenness derived from municipal plans showing information about publicly accessible vegetation-covered areas. Associations between greenness and health measures were analysed by logistic regression models controlling for possible individual and contextual confounders. Increasing vegetation cover greenness was associated with fewer self-reported mental disorders for both men and women after controlling for possible confounders. The proportion of women who reported high levels of musculoskeletal pain increased with increasing degrees of both of the greenness measurements, but no significant association was observed for men. No association was found for asthma and diabetes type 2 for either men or women. Although there was a positive association between vegetation cover greenness and self-reported mental disorders, the main findings showed mixed results. The lack of clear associations between urban green space and lifestyle-related health disorders in Oslo might have been influenced by a large proportion of the inhabitants having easy access to green areas.

  3. Green's functions with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Duffy, Dean G

    2015-01-01

    This second edition systematically leads readers through the process of developing Green's functions for ordinary and partial differential equations. In addition to exploring the classical problems involving the wave, heat, and Helmholtz equations, the book includes special sections on leaky modes, water waves, and absolute/convective instability. The book helps readers develop an intuition about the behavior of Green's functions, and considers the questions of the computational efficiency and possible methods for accelerating the process.

  4. Managing green infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Manton, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The term green infrastructure addresses the spatial structure of anthropogenic, semi-natural and natural areas, as well as other environmental features which enable society to benefit from ecosystems’ multiple services. Focusing on two green infrastructures, anthropogenic wet meadows and natural forest successions, this thesis applies a macro-ecological approach based on comparisons of multiple landscapes as complex social-ecological systems. Firstly, the trophic interactions of avian predati...

  5. The sustainability of green funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the performance of the Dutch "Green Funds Scheme". This scheme is a policy instrument to advance green projects. The scheme relies on tax compensation for private investors who save or invest in green institutions below market returns. The green institutions select and monitor ce

  6. Analysis of Plain Afforestation in Henan Province Using HJ-1A/B CCD%基于HJ-1A/B CCD数据的河南省平原绿化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁慧娟; 王正兴; 于信芳

    2014-01-01

    The term“afforestation”in this paper generally represents all kinds of non-crop vegetation in crop-dominated plain area, including but not limited to the vegetation in crop land (e.g., orchard, herb, nursery garden, fast-growing and high-yielding timber, farmland shelterbelt, and artificial turf), residential green, urban vegeta-tion landscapes, trees planted alongside the roads and rivers, and the wind break and sand fixation forest. Accu-rate and timely information about afforestation in the plain region is useful because it can reflect the degree of ag-ricultural diversity and the environmental health. However, getting the information about afforestation using re-mote sensing is hindered by some factors: afforestation are spatially scattered, temporally and spectrally over-lapped with some crop lands. In addition, as a land use type, afforestation in plains often shares common spaces with other types of land use, such as croplands and roads. As a result, there is little, if any, data about afforesta-tion in plains, let alone the afforestation change monitoring. As a follow-up to UN Millennium Ecosystem As-sessment, the Chinese government is currently conducting a similar assessment at the provincial level, covering years of 2000-2005-2010, and using the traditional (FAO) land cover/land use system. It is beyond the expecta-tion that the“forest”-as the major indicator of a good environment, in the province such as Henan, has only ex-perienced a negligible increase. This is simply because the recent afforestation in plains was classified as other land cover types. With the advent of Chinese satellite HJ-1 A/B in September 2008, there may be a chance to ex-tract information about afforestation in plains since its CCD sensor has Red and NIR channels, with a 30m spa-tial resolution and a 4-day temporal resolution. To test this potentiality, three steps were taken to extract afforesta-tion in this study:(1) extract the plain information using 2010 Land Cover

  7. Trends in Playa Inundation and Water Storage in the Ogallala Aquifer on the Texas High Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Gitz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ogallala Aquifer is an important source of irrigation water on the Texas High plains; however, significant decreases in saturated thickness threaten its future use for irrigation. A better understanding of the roles of playas, ephemeral surface ponds, in aquifer recharge is needed to establish levels of withdrawals that will meet either established desired future conditions or sustainability. In this study, data regarding playa inundation, depth to groundwater, precipitation and land cover from 2001 to 2011 were collected and analyzed to ascertain associations between these characteristics for four study areas on the Texas High plains. Each area covered 40,000–70,000 ha. Three of the study areas in Hockley, Floyd and Swisher counties were chosen because their center contained a playa instrumented to measure weather and depth of inundation. There were 20 distinct inundation events at the three instrumented playas between 2006 and 2010. For each of these inundations, water loss exceeded rates of potential evapotranspiration (ET by a factor of 1.6–15.7 times, implying that infiltration was occurring. Playa inundation in all four study areas was also assessed by analyzing images from the National Agricultural Imaginary program. Data on depth to groundwater were analyzed from 2000 to 2010 to determine annual changes of stored water. Annual changes in groundwater were weakly associated with surface area of inundated playas in late summer, but was strongly associated with annual rainfall. Rates of infiltration based on playa water loss versus potential ET, and volume of water in playas was more than sufficient to account for annual changes in groundwater. Land use adjoining the playas had less of influence on playa inundation than annual rainfall. These results strengthen the argument that water storage in playas on the Texas High Plains is an important source of water for aquifer recharge.

  8. The spatial distribution of green spaces in the urban fringe of Bangkok.

    OpenAIRE

    Hara, Yuji; Yokota, Shigehiro; Murakami, Akinobu; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2004-01-01

    Urban green spaces with a wide variety of functions to ameliorate the urban environment have been decreased and fragmented in the urban fringe areas of Southeast Asian cities. In order to elaborate practical and efficient plans to conserve urban green spaces, and to monitor them continuously. From this view point, we inspected green cover, land-use and landholding, and their correlations in the urban fringe of Bangkok using GIS. As a result, the following four facts are revealed. First, urban...

  9. From Tragedy to Triumph - Rebuilding Green Homes after Disaster (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-04-01

    Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy Fact Sheets, No. 1. Series to include practical, useful info to help people change their behavior around energy usage and "greenness". Greensburg is hanging its future on sustainable development; these fact sheet sheets should help citizens understand what they can do to be a part of that focus. Fact Sheets cover: saving energy and water, using renewable energy (particular interest in small wind), driving "green", general sustainability, living green.

  10. Dualities in Covering Rough Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Zhu

    2006-01-01

    Rough set theory is a technique of granular computing. In this paper, we study a type of generalized rough sets based on covering. There are several literatures[ 1,40-43 ] exploring covering-based rough sets. Our focus of this paper is on the dualities in rough operations.

  11. Midwest Cover Crops Field Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers who want to prevent soil erosion, improve nutrient cycling, sustain their soils, and protect/maintain the environment have been returning to a very old practice: planting cover crops. Cover crops are effective tools for reducing soil erosion and increasing nutrient recycling on farmlands, ...

  12. Myxomatosis on the Western Plains of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, F G; Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Shepherd, R C; Gocs, A

    1977-10-01

    Myxomatosis on the Western Plains is an enzootic disease in contrast with the epizootic pattern which is general in eastern Australia. The most unusual aspects are the presence of significant numbers of diseased rabbits throughout the winter and the continuously low percentage of rabbits with antibodies to myxoma virus. Climatic and topographic conditions are unsuited to the production of the high densities of mosquitoes necessary for widespread epizootics. Under these conditions the effects of less efficient methods of myxomatosis transmission are apparent. The unusual epidemiology of myxomatosis has resulted in selection for virulence of the virus similar to that which has occurred under summer epizootic conditions. All field strains are now in the mid range of virulence.

  13. Viking 2 Image of Mars Utopian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The boulder-strewn field of red rocks reaches to the horizon nearly two miles from Viking 2 on Mars' Utopian Plain. Scientists believe the colors of the Martian surface and sky in this photo represent their true colors. Fine particles of red dust have settled on spacecraft surfaces. The salmon color of the sky is caused by dust particles suspended in the atmosphere. Color calibration charts for the cameras are mounted at three locations on the spacecraft. Note the blue starfield and red stripes of the flag. The circular structure at top is the high-gain antenna, pointed toward Earth. Viking 2 landed September 3, 1976, some 4600 miles from its twin, Viking 1, which touched down on July 20.

  14. Myxomatosis on the Western Plains of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, F. G.; Edmonds, J. W.; Nolan, I. F.; Shepherd, R. C.; Gocs, A.

    1977-01-01

    Myxomatosis on the Western Plains is an enzootic disease in contrast with the epizootic pattern which is general in eastern Australia. The most unusual aspects are the presence of significant numbers of diseased rabbits throughout the winter and the continuously low percentage of rabbits with antibodies to myxoma virus. Climatic and topographic conditions are unsuited to the production of the high densities of mosquitoes necessary for widespread epizootics. Under these conditions the effects of less efficient methods of myxomatosis transmission are apparent. The unusual epidemiology of myxomatosis has resulted in selection for virulence of the virus similar to that which has occurred under summer epizootic conditions. All field strains are now in the mid range of virulence. PMID:20473

  15. Automatic design of magazine covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  16. Bed site selection by neonate deer in grassland habitats on the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Bed site selection is an important behavioral trait influencing neonate survival. Vegetation characteristics of bed sites influence thermal protection of neonates and concealment from predators. Although previous studies describe bed site selection of neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in regions of forested cover, none determined microhabitat effects on neonate bed site selection in the Northern Great Plains, an area of limited forest cover. During summers 2007–2009, we investigated bed site selection (n  =  152) by 81 radiocollared neonate white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota, USA. We documented 80 (52.6%) bed sites in tallgrass–Conservation Reserve Program lands, 35 (23.0%) bed sites in forested cover, and 37 (24.3%) in other habitats (e.g., pasture, alfalfa, wheat). Bed site selection varied with age and sex of neonate. Tree canopy cover (P ratio  =  1.035, 95% CI  =  1.008–1.062) for every 1-cm increase in vertical height of understory vegetation. Management for habitat throughout the grasslands of South Dakota that maximizes vertical height of understory vegetation would enhance cover characteristics selected by neonates.

  17. Monuments culturels historiques dans la Plaine Roumaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORINA GRECU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail met en évidence le rôle de la position gé ographique dans le développement des objectifs culturels d’importance touristique et sci entifique locale, régionale ou nationale (les géosites culturels. Dans le développement des géos ites culturels de la Plaine Roumaine plusieurs étapes s’individualisent, avec des caractéristiques spécifiques: a l’étape prédaco-romaine avec les géosites néolithiques ; b l’étape daco-romaine , période dans laquelle des villes sont apparues le long des rivières allochtones (Argedava et du D anube (Turnu Magurele et Zimnicea ; c l’étape médiévale , à laquelle sont particulières les villes avec une spécificité architecturelle (Calafat, Braila et Galati et la capitale, Bucarest, fondée en 1459 ; d l’étape moderne des monuments d’une architecture nouvelle ; e l’étape contemporaine / socialiste (1948-1989 ; f l’étape actuelle (après 1989, caractérisée par un mélange d’architectures avec un impact sur l’évolution du phénomène touristique. La Plaine Roum aine, du à ses caractéristiques physico- géographiques et historiques, réunit une palette la rge de géosites culturels qui pourraient se transformer en vrais objectifs touristiques.

  18. The Influence of Proactive Green Innovation and Reactive Green Innovation on Green Product Development Performance: The Mediation Role of Green Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study fills the research gap in the exploration of the relationships between both proactive and reactive green innovations and green product development performance, and examines the mediating effect of green creativity. Structural equation modeling (SEM is utilized to test the hypotheses. From the sample of 146 valid respondents, the results show that proactive green innovation positively affects green creativity and green product development performance, and green creativity positively affects green product development performance. In addition, our findings also indicate that the relationship between proactive green innovation and green product development performance is partially mediated by green creativity. Accordingly, green creativity plays a critical role for companies to achieve a great green product development performance. However, reactive green innovation does not significantly influence green creativity and green product development performance. Companies should develop proactive green innovation rather than reactive green innovation in order to enhance their green creativity and increase their product development performance.

  19. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

    2013-04-01

    , which landscape is characterized by till and limestone plains with thin Quaternary cover, the soil cover is more heterogeneous than in previous area. Kuusiku soil cover is more variegated by the soil texture and as well as by the genesis of soils. In addition to Cambisols, Leptosols, Gleysols and Luvisols may be found here as well. The dominating soils in Olustvere research area, which is situated on wavy upland plateau, are Albeluvisols.

  20. The Influence of Environmental Friendliness on Green Trust: The Mediation Effects of Green Satisfaction and Green Perceived Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As global green trends became more prevalent, green marketing also developed into an important issue. Although prior literature explored the main factors affecting green trust, it was inconclusive as to how environmental friendliness could affect the green trust in green marketing. This study aims to focus on the positive influence of environmental friendliness on green trust, and explore the mediation effects of green satisfaction and green perceived quality. This study undertakes an empirical study by means of questionnaire survey. The respondents are consumers who have experience purchasing green products. This study applies structural equation modeling (SEM to test the hypotheses. The findings of this study indicate that (1 environmental friendliness has a significant positive impact on green satisfaction, green perceived quality, and green trust; (2 both green satisfaction and green perceived quality positively affect green trust; and (3 green satisfaction and green perceived quality partially mediate the positive relationship between environmental friendliness and green trust.

  1. Wetland hydrology and tree distribution of the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitman, Helen M.; Sohm, James E.; Franklin, Marvin A.

    1984-01-01

    The Apalachicola River in northwest Florida is part of a three-State drainage basin encompassing 50,800 km 2 in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. The river is formed by the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers at Jim Woodruff Dam from which it flows 171 km to Apalachicola Bay in the Gulf of Mexico. Its average annual discharge at Chattahoochee, Fla., is 690 m3/s (1958-80) with annual high flows averaging nearly 3,000 m3/s. Its flood plain supports 450 km 2 of bottom-land hardwood and tupelo-cypress forests. The Apalachicola River Quality Assessment focuses on the hydrology and productivity of the flood-plain forest. The purpose of this part of the assessment is to address river and flood-plain hydrology, flood-plain tree species and forest types, and water and tree relations. Seasonal stage fluctuations in the upper river are three times greater than in the lower river. Analysis of long-term streamflow record revealed that 1958-79 average annual and monthly flows and flow durations were significantly greater than those of 1929-57, probably because of climatic changes. However, stage durations for the later period were equal to or less than those of the earlier period. Height of natural riverbank levees and the size and distribution of breaks in the levees have a major controlling effect on flood-plain hydrology. Thirty-two kilometers upstream of the bay, a flood-plain stream called the Brothers River was commonly under tidal influence during times of low flow in the 1980 water year. At the same distance upstream of the bay, the Apalachicola River was not under tidal influence during the 1980 water year. Of the 47 species of trees sampled, the five most common were wet-site species constituting 62 percent of the total basal area. In order of abundance, they were water tupelo, Ogeechee tupelo, baldcypress, Carolina ash, and swamp tupelo. Other common species were sweetgum, overcup oak, planertree, green ash, water hickory, sugarberry, and diamond-leaf oak

  2. An autocorrelation analysis approach to detecting land cover change using hyper-temporal time-series data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, W

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Kleynhans2_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 16869 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Kleynhans2_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 AN AUTOCORRELATION... ANALYSIS APPROACH TO DETECTING LAND COVER CHANGE USING HYPER-TEMPORAL TIME-SERIES DATA ??W. Kleynhans,, ??B.P. Salmon, ?J.C. Olivier, ?K.J. Wessels, ?F. van den Bergh ? Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engi- neering University of Pretoria, South...

  3. Understanding Green Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrew T.

    1998-05-01

    Most astronomers learn about green flashes from either Minnaert's old book (Dover, 1954) or O'Connell's ``The Green Flash....'' Both have defects. Minnaert's account mostly represents what was known in the 1920s; it repeats Mulder's 3-fold classification, which omits Joule's second type of flash --- the one most commonly seen from mountain observatories. O'Connell searched only the astronomical literature, missing Dietze's crucially important paper (Z.f.Met. 9, 169 (1955)) showing that the ``textbook'' mechanism cannot produce flashes visible to the naked eye. He also erred in thinking that distortions of the setting Sun arise in the upper atmosphere (they are due to the marine boundary layer), and copied an error from Feenstra Kuiper's thesis that misidentified a common mirage-like phenomenon as Wegener's ``blank strip'' (Young et al., Appl. Opt. 36, 2689 (1997).) Most phenomena shown in O'Connell's book are caused by inversion layers below eye level, not above as in Wegener's phenomenon. The two commonest forms of green flash are associated with the inferior mirage and the mock mirage, corresponding to Fisher's Type A and Type B sunsets, respectively. Superrefraction, advocated by Wood and by Rayleigh as the cause of large flashes, actually suppress them: the airmass is proportional to the refraction (by Laplace's extinction theorem), so no green is transmitted when refraction is much larger than average. Although there is a physical green flash that can be photographed, the colors seen at sunset are strongly modified by bleaching of the L cones. Most ``green'' sunset flashes are actually yellow. Writers should stop representing Jules Verne's ``ancient legend'' as fact, as it was invented by Verne as a plot device for his novel ``Le Rayon Vert.'' Green-flash photos and simulations will be shown. This material is based upon work supported by the NSF under Award No. ATM-9714357.

  4. Evolution of Martian polar landscapes - Interplay of long-term variations in perennial ice cover and dust storm intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, J. A.; Blasius, K. R.; Roberts, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    The discovery of a new type of Martian polar terrain, called undulating plain, is reported and the evolution of the plains and other areas of the Martian polar region is discussed in terms of the trapping of dust by the perennial ice cover. High-resolution Viking Orbiter 2 observations of the north polar terrain reveal perennially ice-covered surfaces with low relief, wavelike, regularly spaced, parallel ridges and troughs (undulating plains) occupying areas of the polar terrain previously thought to be flat, and associated with troughs of considerable local relief which exhibit at least partial annual melting. It is proposed that the wavelike topography of the undulating plains originates from long-term periodic variations in cyclical dust precipitation at the margin of a growing or receding perennial polar cap in response to changes in insolation. The troughs are proposed to originate from areas of steep slope in the undulating terrain which have lost their perennial ice cover and have become incapable of trapping dust. The polar landscape thus appears to record the migrations, expansions and contractions of the Martian polar cap.

  5. Tree Cover Mapping Tool—Documentation and user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.; Mathis, Melissa L.

    2016-06-02

    The Tree Cover Mapping (TCM) tool was developed by scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center to allow a user to quickly map tree cover density over large areas using visual interpretation of high resolution imagery within a geographic information system interface. The TCM tool uses a systematic sample grid to produce maps of tree cover. The TCM tool allows the user to define sampling parameters to estimate tree cover within each sample unit. This mapping method generated the first on-farm tree cover maps of vast regions of Niger and Burkina Faso. The approach contributes to implementing integrated landscape management to scale up re-greening and restore degraded land in the drylands of Africa. The TCM tool is easy to operate, practical, and can be adapted to many other applications such as crop mapping, settlements mapping, or other features. This user manual provides step-by-step instructions for installing and using the tool, and creating tree cover maps. Familiarity with ArcMap tools and concepts is helpful for using the tool.

  6. EDGE COVERING COLORING AND FRACTIONAL EDGE COVERING COLORING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAOLianying; LIUGuizhen

    2002-01-01

    Let G be a graph with edge set E(G).S E(G)is called an edge cover of G if every vertex of G is an end vertex of some edges in S.The edge covering chromatic number of a graph G,denoted by Xc(G),is the maximum size of a partition of E(G) into edge covers of G.It is known that for any graph G with minimum degree δ,δ-1≤Xc(G)≤δ.The fractional edge covering chromatic number of a graph G,denoted by Xcf(G),is the fractional matiching number of the edge covering hypergraph H of G whose vertices are the edges of G and whose hypereges the edge covers of G.In this paper,we study the relation between Xc(G) and δfor any graph G,and give a new simple proof of the inequalities δ-1≤Xc(G)≤δ by the technique of graph coloring.For any graph G,we give an exact formula o Xcf(G),that is,Xcf(G)=min{δ,λ(G)},where λ(G)=minCS/S/2 and the minimum is taken over all noempty subsets S of V(G) and C[S] is the set of edges that have at least one end in S.δ

  7. EDGE COVERING COLORING AND FRACTIONAL EDGE COVERING COLORING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Lianying; LIU Guizhen

    2002-01-01

    Let G be a graph with edge set E(G). S _C E(G) is called an edge cover of G if every vertex of G is an end vertex of some edges in S. The edge covering chromatic number of a graph G, denoted by X'c(G) , is the maximum size of a partition of E(G) into edge covers of G. It is known that for any graph G with minimum degree δ, δ - 1 ≤ X'c(G) ≤ δ.The fractional edge covering chromatic number of a graph G, denoted by X'cf(G), is the fractional matching number of the edge covering hypergraph H of G whose vertices are the edges of G and whose hyperedges the edge covers of G. In this paper, we study the relation between X'c(G) and δ for any graph G, and give a new simple proof of the inequalities δ - 1 ≤ X'c(G) ≤ δ by the technique of graph coloring. For any graph G, we give an exact formula of X'cf(G), that is, X'cf(G)=min{δ,λ(G)}, where λ(G)=min |C[S]|/[|S|/2]and the minimum is taken over all noempty subsets S of V(G) and C[S] is the set of edges that have at least one end in S.

  8. Tobacco plain packaging: Evidence based policy or public health advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeganey, Neil; Russell, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    In December 2012, Australia became the first country to require all tobacco products be sold solely in standardised or 'plain' packaging, bereft of the manufacturers' trademarked branding and colours, although retaining large graphic and text health warnings. Following the publication of Sir Cyril Chantler's review of the evidence on the effects of plain tobacco packaging, the Ministers of the United Kingdom Parliament voted in March 2015 to implement similar legislation. Support for plain packaging derives from the belief that tobacco products sold in plain packs have reduced appeal and so are more likely to deter young people and non-smokers from starting tobacco use, and more likely to motivate smokers to quit and stay quit. This article considers why support for the plain packaging policy has grown among tobacco control researchers, public health advocates and government ministers, and reviews Australian survey data that speak to the possible introductory effect of plain packaging on smoking prevalence within Australia. The article concludes by emphasising the need for more detailed research to be undertaken before judging the capacity of the plain packaging policy to deliver the multitude of positive effects that have been claimed by its most ardent supporters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Determining Covers in Combinational Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomir Cvetkovic

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a procedure for determining 0- or 1-cover of an arbitrary line in a combinational circuit. When determining a cover we do not need Boolean expression for the line; only the circuit structure is used. Within the proposed procedure we use the tools of the cube theory, in particular, some operations defined on cubes. The procedure can be applied for determining 0- and 1- covers of output lines in programmable logic devices. Basically, this procedure is a method for the analysis of a combinational circuit.

  10. Small Island States Green Energy Initiative. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattak, Nasir [Climate Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1999-10-15

    This report covers the activities carried out during a one year period from 7/15/99 to 7/15/00 as part of the Small Islands Green Energy Initiative. The three activities were: 1) Energy Ministerial conference in the Caribbean; 2) Training session on renewable energy for utility engineers; and 3) Case studies compilation on renewable energy in the Caribbean.

  11. The Development of Performance Evaluation for Green Schools in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shun-Mei

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a performance evaluation instrument for green schools in Taiwan. The instrument is designed according to three sets of criteria: participation and partnership, reflection and learning, and ecological consideration. It also covers three operational dimensions: learning context, administration, and…

  12. Relative Spectral Mixture Analysis: a new multitemporal index of total vegetation cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okin, G. S.; Liu, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    High temporal resolution remote sensing provides an opportunity to monitor phenological variability and interannual changes in vegetation cover across diverse. A principal tool in multitemporal vegetation monitoring has been the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. NDVI provides an index of the depth of the red edge and is usually interpreted as a measure of vegetation greenness and/or green vegetation cover. NDVI as a measure of phenology has several failings, particularly when applied over large areas: 1) NDVI is sensitive to the spectra of the soil background, particularly in partially or seasonally vegetated areas, 2) NDVI does not provide information about the non-photosynthetic portion of standing biomass, and 3) NDVI is very sensitive to the presence of small amounts of snow in a pixel. A new method for measuring vegetation phenology has been developed called Relative Spectral Mixture Analysis. RSMA uses a linear spectral mixture analysis to provide an index of the relative cover of four landscape components: green vegetation (GV), nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV), soil, and snow. RSMA uses generalized spectral for GV, NPV and snow, but does not require knowledge of the background soil spectra. This allows RSMA to be applied over very large areas (continental-scale) in which the soil background is highly diverse. RSMA has been implemented in the IDL language and used to analyze MODIS nadir-adjusted reflectance products from 2000 to the present. Our results show that RSMA GV index values are highly correlated with NDVI, except in regions with snow where RSMA outperforms NDVI. As a result RSMA GV indices and total vegetation indices (GV+NPV) can be used to extract information from spectral timeseries such as the onset of greenness, the termination of greenness, maximum vegetation cover, integrated vegetation cover (an index of NPP), length of the growing season, and duration of fodder availability. RSMA snow indices correlate well with other satellite

  13. Handbook of green chemistry, green solvents, ionic liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Anastas, Paul T; Stark, Annegret

    2014-01-01

    Green chemistry is a vitally important subject area in the world where being as green and environmentally sound as possible is no longer a luxury but a necessity. Its applications include the design of chemical products and processes that help to reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. The Handbook of Green Chemistry comprises 12 volumes, split into subject-specific sets as follow: Set I: Green Catalysis Set II: Green Solvents Volume 4: Supercritical Solvents Volume 5: Reactions in Water Volume 6: Ionic Liquids Set III: Green

  14. Perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among Mexican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Seema; Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L; White, Christine M; Thrasher, James F

    2016-01-29

    Plain cigarette packaging, which seeks to remove all brand imagery and standardize the shape and size of cigarette packs, represents a novel policy measure to reduce the appeal of cigarettes. Plain packaging has been studied primarily in high-income countries like Australia and the UK. It is unknown whether the effects of plain packaging may differ in low-and-middle income countries with a shorter history of tobacco regulation, such as Mexico. An experimental study was conducted in Mexico City to examine perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among smoking and non-smoking Mexican adolescents (n = 359). Respondents were randomly assigned to a branded or plain pack condition and rated 12 cigarette packages for appeal, taste, harm to health and smoker-image traits. As a behavioral measure of appeal, respondents were offered (although not given) four cigarette packs (either branded or plain) and asked to select one to keep. The findings indicated that branded packs were perceived to be more appealing (β = 3.40, p < 0.001) and to contain better tasting cigarettes (β = 3.53, p < 0.001), but were not perceived as less harmful than plain packs. Participants rated people who smoke the branded packs as having relatively more positive smoker-image traits overall (β = 2.10, p < 0.001), with particularly strong differences found among non-smokers for the traits 'glamorous', 'stylish', 'popular' and 'sophisticated' (p < 0.001). No statistically significant difference was found for the proportion of youth that accepted when offered branded compared with plain packs. These results suggest that plain packaging may reduce brand appeal among Mexican youth, consistent with findings in high-income countries.

  15. Archaeomagnetic studies in the Gorgan Plain in Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt, Catherine M.; Greenwood, David; Omrani Rekavandi, Hamid; Sauer, Eberhard

    2010-05-01

    This paper will report on new directional magnetic data obtained from recent studies of fired archaeological materials and sediments from northern Iran. It will discuss the palaeosecular variation record available in this poorly covered region and will address the archaeological questions that can be answered by such studies. Samples for magnetic directional studies have been obtained from archaeological features in the Gorgan Plain of northern Iran, including ovens, hearths, brick kilns and water-lain sediments. These are shown to retain a stable record of the past magnetic field, with well-defined and precise magnetic directions, and to provide an indication of palaeosecular variation. All the features are associated with the Gorgan Wall which, at over 195km in length and with over 30 associated forts, is arguably the grandest ancient defensive barrier between central Europe and China. Radiocarbon dating has established that the Gorgan and nearby Tammishe Walls and associated forts (all explored in an Iranian/British fieldwork project since 2005) were all built sometime between the early fifth and the first third of the sixth century AD. Dating these installations to such a long time span leaves many unanswered archaeological questions which are addressed by this archaeomagnetic study. Were the forts built simultaneously or over a long period of time? Was the Gorgan Wall built from west to east (as suggested by different brick and kiln sizes)? How long did it take to complete this immense building programme? What is the time interval between the early kilns used to produce bricks to build the walls and the ovens used during later phases of occupation within the forts? In addition, new radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dates for the features investigated allow comparison with the existing, sparse palaeosecular variation data for the region. This research not only adds data to global models of geomagnetic change, it provides a snapshot of the past

  16. Emoticon use Increases Plain Milk and Vegetable Purchase in a School Cafeteria without Adversely Affecting Total Milk Purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Robert M; Anneken, Amy; Duffy, Christopher; Simmons, Kenya; Hudgens, Michelle; Kate Lockhart, Mary; Shelly, Jessica

    2015-09-01

    Choosing poor-quality foods in school cafeterias is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Given the option, children often select chocolate milk over plain white milk. Efforts to increase plain white milk selection, such as banning chocolate milk in school cafeterias, increases plain white fat-free milk (PWFFM) purchase but decreases the overall milk purchase. The purpose of this study was to determine whether emoticon placement next to healthful foods would increase healthful purchases, particularly PWFFM. In an inner city elementary school with 297 children, "Green Smiley Face" emoticons were placed to encourage the purchase of healthful foods including an entrée with whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and PWFFM. Purchase data were obtained from cash register receipts. Differences were analyzed by χ(2) Care and Statistical Process Control (SPC) and Graphical Methods. Only 7.4% of students selected white milk at baseline compared with 17.9% after the emoticons were placed (P 8 points above the mean). The addition of emoticons increases the purchase of PWFFM and vegetables in a school cafeteria setting without adversely affecting total milk sales. Emoticons offer a practical, low-cost means to improve food selection by children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Composition and Diversity of Avian Communities Using a New Urban Habitat: Green Roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Brian E.; Swearingin, Ryan M.; Pullins, Craig K.; Rice, Matthew E.

    2016-06-01

    Green roofs on buildings are becoming popular and represent a new component of the urban landscape. Public benefits of green roof projects include reduced stormwater runoff, improved air quality, reduced urban heat island effects, and aesthetic values. As part of a city-wide plan, several green roofs have been constructed at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD). Like some other landscaping features, green roofs on or near an airport might attract wildlife and thus increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions. During 2007-2011, we conducted a series of studies to evaluate wildlife use of newly constructed green roofs and traditional (gravel) roofs on buildings at ORD. These green roofs were 0.04-1.62 ha in area and consisted of primarily stonecrop species for vegetation. A total of 188 birds were observed using roofs during this research. Of the birds using green roofs, 66, 23, and 4 % were Killdeer, European Starlings, and Mourning Doves, respectively. Killdeer nested on green roofs, whereas the other species perched, foraged, or loafed. Birds used green roofs almost exclusively between May and October. Overall, avian use of the green roofs was minimal and similar to that of buildings with traditional roofs. Although green roofs with other vegetation types might offer forage or cover to birds and thus attract potentially hazardous wildlife, the stonecrop-vegetated green roofs in this study did not increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions.

  18. COVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of hepatic B virus(HBV)infection is the result of complex interactions between replicating HBV and the innate/adaptive immune system.As an important lectin complement pathway activator,human ficolin-2 is secreted from liver cells and contributes to the clearance of viral infections and lysis of enveloped virions,which has been implicated as an anti-infection innate immune molecule.In this issue,a research group lead by Drs.XiaoLian Zhang and Fengling Luo,investigated the serum and liver tissue ficolin-2

  19. COVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>This issue of Virologica Sinica is to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the discovery of "filterable lytic factor" or "bacteriophage"(1915-2015).During the past 100 years,both basic knowledge and applications of bacteriophages have been substantially explored and developed.In recent years,bacteriophage research is booming and holding the hope

  20. Cover

    OpenAIRE

    Frontiers of Biogeography, Editorial Office

    2017-01-01

    Frontiers of Biogeography new logo. This logo feeds on the theme created for the new IBS corporate image, and represents four overlapping hypervolumes in the form of a butterfly’s wings, flying over four niche response curves in the form of hills, mountains and the sea (see Dawson et al. in this issue for details).

  1. Cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Soybean growth habit is an important agronomic trait,and related genes have been cloned recently,while the variation of the major gene and how this gene was selected during the soybean breeding in China remain unknown.In the diverse soybean germplasm,it is hard to distinguish the determinate from the semi‐determinate phenotype.The development of functional Indel and CAPS markers from the Gm Tfl1 gene of the Dt1 locus makes it possible to evaluate genotype of the germplasm.The different allele

  2. COVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus(HBV)infection remains a major global health problem because current therapies rarely eliminate the replicative template of HBV,which is the covalently closed circular DNA(ccc DNA).As an accurate and efficient genome editing tool,clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat(CRISPR)-associated(Cas)9 system represents a very promising potential

  3. Sustainable Authorship in Plain Text using Pandoc and Markdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Tenen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this tutorial, you will first learn the basics of Markdown—an easy to read and write markup syntax for plain text—as well as Pandoc, a command line tool that converts plain text into a number of beautifully formatted file types: PDF, .docx, HTML, LaTeX, slide decks, and more.1 With Pandoc as your digital typesetting tool, you can use Markdown syntax to add figures, a bibliography, formatting, and easily change citation styles from Chicago to MLA (for instance, all using plain text.

  4. Temperature Variation of Jiamusi Region in Sanjiang Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed at analysing the change characteristics of temperature in Jiamusi region of Sanjiang Plain.[Method] Based on temperature data of Jiamusi region in Sanjiang Plain from 1961 to 2010,including Jiamusi,Huanan,Fujin and Fuyuan station,we studied the change trends,abrupt climate change and abnormal years of temperature in Jiamusi region.[Result] Annual average temperature of Jiamusi region in Sanjiang Plain showed increasing trend,with the increase of 0.249-0.412 ℃/10 a.The order of an...

  5. GAP Land Cover - Tiled Raster

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  6. Forest Cover Types - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays general forest cover types for the United States. Data were derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) composite images...

  7. Habitat connectivity shapes urban arthropod communities: the key role of green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaker, S; Ghazoul, J; Obrist, M K; Moretti, M

    2014-04-01

    The installation of green roofs, defined here as rooftops with a shallow soil cover and extensive vegetation, has been proposed as a possible measure to mitigate the loss of green space caused by the steady growth of cities. However, the effectiveness of green roofs in supporting arthropod communities, and the extent to which they facilitate connectivity of these communities within the urban environment is currently largely unknown. We investigated the variation of species community composition (beta diversity) of four arthropod groups with contrasting mobility (Carabidae, Araneae, Curculionidae, and Apidae) on 40 green roofs and 40 extensively managed green sites on the ground in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. With redundancy analysis and variation partitioning, we (1) disentangled the relative importance of local environmental conditions, the surrounding land cover composition, and habitat connectivity on species community composition, (2) searched for specific spatial scales of habitat connectivity for the different arthropod groups, and (3) discussed the ecological and functional value of green roofs in cities. Our study revealed that on green roofs community composition of high-mobility arthropod groups (bees and weevils) were mainly shaped by habitat connectivity, while low-mobility arthropod groups (carabids and spiders) were more influenced by local environmental conditions. A similar but less pronounced pattern was found for ground communities. The high importance of habitat connectivity in shaping high-mobility species community composition indicates that these green roof communities are substantially connected by the frequent exchange of individuals among surrounding green roofs. On the other hand, low-mobility species communities on green roofs are more likely connected to ground sites than to other green roofs. The integration of green roofs in urban spatial planning strategies has great potential to enable higher connectivity among green spaces, so

  8. 气候变化和人类活动对渭河流域蓝水绿水影响研究%Impact of Human Activities and Climate Variability on Green and Blue Water Resources in the Weihe River Basin of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵安周; 赵玉玲; 刘宪锋; 朱秀芳; 潘耀忠; 陈抒晨

    2016-01-01

    以渭河流域为研究对象,探讨了1980~2009年气候变化和人类活动对蓝绿水资源的影响.结果表明:①研究时段内,在气候变化和人类活动的共同影响下,蓝水流、绿水流和绿水储量分别下降了23.56 mm/a、39.41 mm/a和17.98 mm/a,中北部的蓝水流和绿水储量呈现增加的趋势,流域上游地区的绿水流呈现下降趋势.②归因分析表明,蓝水流、绿水流和绿水储量在气候变化驱动下分别下降了13.17 mm/a、44.99 mm/a和22.79 mm/a;土地利用/覆盖变化则导致蓝水流和绿水流分别减少0.42 mm/a和0.37 mm/a,绿水储量增加了0.79 mm/a;而农业灌溉使蓝水流减少了9.97 mm/a,绿水流和绿水储量分别增加了5.95 mm/a和4.02 mm/a.③气候变化导致研究区东南部绿水系数呈现增加趋势,而泾河流域绿水系数呈现减小趋势.同时,土地利用/覆盖变化使得东南部的一些子流域绿水系数呈减小的趋势,而在加入农业灌溉情景后,平原地区灌区绿水系数呈明显的上升趋势.%It is widely recognized that human activities and climate variability are two important factors that af-fect water resources and freshwater ecosystems. Previous evaluation work on water resources has predominant-ly focused on the qualification of blue water flow. Meanwhile the green water flow, another important part of water resources for the healthy development of rivers and basins, is seldom discussed. In arid and semi-arid re-gions, the analysis of spatiotemporal distribution of blue and green water resources under human activities and climate variability is critical for water resources planning and management, and for harmonizing agricultural water use and eco-environmental water requirements. The Weihe River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China and an important water source for the Central Shaanxi Plain, which acts as the main driving force in the western economic development of China. However, this region also

  9. Land-cover change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  10. Good covers are algorithmically unrecognizable

    CERN Document Server

    Tancer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A good cover in R^d is a collection of open contractible sets in R^d such that the intersection of any subcollection is either contractible or empty. Motivated by an analogy with convex sets, intersection patterns of good covers were studied intensively. Our main result is that intersection patterns of good covers are algorithmically unrecognizable. More precisely, the intersection pattern of a good cover can be stored in a simplicial complex called nerve which records which subfamilies of the good cover intersect. A simplicial complex is topologically d-representable if it is isomorphic to the nerve of a good cover in R^d. We prove that it is algorithmically undecidable whether a given simplicial complex is topologically d-representable for any fixed d \\geq 5. As an auxiliary result we prove that if a simplicial complex is PL embeddable into R^d, then it is topologically d-representable. We also supply this result with showing that if a "sufficiently fine" subdivision of a k-dimensional complex is d-represen...

  11. Green Logistics Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoon S.; Oh, Chang H.

    Nowadays, environmental management becomes a critical business consideration for companies to survive from many regulations and tough business requirements. Most of world-leading companies are now aware that environment friendly technology and management are critical to the sustainable growth of the company. The environment market has seen continuous growth marking 532B in 2000, and 590B in 2004. This growth rate is expected to grow to 700B in 2010. It is not hard to see the environment-friendly efforts in almost all aspects of business operations. Such trends can be easily found in logistics area. Green logistics aims to make environmental friendly decisions throughout a product lifecycle. Therefore for the success of green logistics, it is critical to have real time tracking capability on the product throughout the product lifecycle and smart solution service architecture. In this chapter, we introduce an RFID based green logistics solution and service.

  12. Why Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    According to economists solving environmental problems is simple. Politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions. However, the actual design of such green taxation shows that politicians do not follow their advice. CO2 taxation in OECD, for example, is highly differentiated...... and much in favour of industry. In fact, CO2 tax rates for industry are, on average, six times lower than those for households. We argue that the reason for this tax differentiation is that industry, in contrast to households, has a strong capability to lobby. Therefore, green taxation is effectively...... blocked and the desired environmental results are not being achieved. Why then is green taxation persistently applied in relation to industry? We argue that strong fiscal incentives drive this policy choice at the expense of environmental concerns because it allows environmental bureaucracies to budget-maximize....

  13. Transplanting native dominant plants to facilitate community development in restored coastal plain wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.

    2007-12-01

    Abstract: Drained depressional wetlands are typically restored by plugging ditches or breaking drainage tiles to allow recovery of natural ponding regimes, while relying on passive recolonization from seed banks and dispersal to establish emergent vegetation. However, in restored depressions of the southeastern United States Coastal Plain, certain characteristic rhizomatous graminoid species may not recolonize because they are dispersal-limited and uncommon or absent in the seed banks of disturbed sites. We tested whether selectively planting such wetland dominants could facilitate restoration by accelerating vegetative cover development and suppressing non-wetland species. In an operational-scale project in a South Carolina forested landscape, drained depressional wetlands were restored in early 2001 by completely removing woody vegetation and plugging surface ditches. After forest removal, tillers of two rhizomatous wetland grasses (Panicum hemitomon, Leersia hexandra) were transplanted into singlespecies blocks in 12 restored depressions that otherwise were revegetating passively. Presence and cover of all plant species appearing in planted plots and unplanted control plots were recorded annually. We analyzed vegetation composition after two and four years, during a severe drought (2002) and after hydrologic recovery (2004). Most grass plantings established successfully, attaining 15%–85% cover in two years. Planted plots had fewer total species and fewer wetland species compared to control plots, but differences were small. Planted plots achieved greater total vegetative cover during the drought and greater combined cover of wetland species in both years. By 2004, planted grasses appeared to reduce cover of non-wetland species in some cases, but wetter hydrologic conditions contributed more strongly to suppression of non-wetland species. Because these two grasses typically form a dominant cover matrix in herbaceous depressions, our results indicated that

  14. The impacts of land cover types on urban outdoor thermal environment: the case of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hai; Dong, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the microclimatic behavior of different land cover types in urban parks and, the correlation between air temperature and land cover composition to understand how land cover affects outdoor thermal environment during hot summer. To address this issue, air temperatures were measured on four different land cover types at four observation sites inside an urban park in Beijing, China, meanwhile, the land cover composition of each site was quantified with CAD, by drawing corresponding areas on the aerial photographs. The results showed that the average air temperature difference among four land cover types was large during the day and small during the night. At noon, the average air temperature differed significantly among four land cover types, whereas on night, there was no significant difference among different land cover types. Results of the linear regression indicated that during daytime, there was a strong negative correlation between air temperature and percent tree cover; while at nighttime, a significant negative correlation was observed between air temperature and percent lawn cover. It was shown that as the percent tree cover increased by 10 %, the air temperature decreased by 0.26 °C during daytime, while as the percent lawn cover increased by 10 %, the air temperature decreased by 0.56 °C during nighttime. Results of this study help to clarify the effects of land cover on urban outdoor thermal environment, and can provide assistance to urban planner and designer for improving green space planning and design in the future.

  15. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task

  16. Green valley galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The “green valley” is a wide region separating the blue and the red peaks in the ultraviolet-optical color magnitude diagram, first revealed using GALEX UV photometry. The term was coined by Christopher Martin (Caltech, in 2005. Green valley highlights the discriminating power of UV to very low relative levels of ongoing star formation, to which the optical colors, including u−r, are insensitive. It corresponds to massive galaxies below the star-forming, “main” sequence, and therefore represents a critical tool for the study of the quenching of star formation and its possible resurgence in otherwise quiescent galaxies. This article reviews the results pertaining to (predominantly disk morphology, structure, environment, dust content and gas properties of green valley galaxies in the local universe. Their relationship to AGN is also discussed. Attention is given to biases emerging from defining the “green valley” using optical colors. We review various evolutionary scenarios and we present evidence for a new one, the quasi-static view of the green valley, in which the majority (but not all of galaxies currently in the green valley were only partially quenched in the distant past and now participate in a slow cosmic decline of star formation, which also drives down the activity on the main sequence, presumably as a result of the dwindling accretion/cooling onto galaxy disks. This emerging synthetic picture is based on the findings from Fang et al. (2012, Salim et al. (2012 and Martin et al. (2007, as well as other results.

  17. Fossil mollusc-faunas: Their bearing on the Holocene evolution of the Lower Central Plain of Bangkok (Thailand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Mauro Pietro

    2009-08-01

    In this work, fossil molluscan assemblages are analyzed in order to reconstruct the evolution of the Northern Gulf of Thailand during the Holocene. The marine sediments (Bangkok Clay Formation) of the Lower Central Plain of Bangkok and the coastal plain of Phetchaburi were sampled at 16 localities, obtaining fossil shells and mangrove peat whose 14C ages range from 9000 to 2000 CYBP. A statistical treatment of abundance data returned four major groups, namely the Dendostrea rosacea association (intertidal mud), the Corbula fortisulcata- Mactra luzonica association (shallow infralittoral sandy mud), the Nuculana mauritiana- Timoclea scabra association (infralittoral sand spit) and the Timoclea scabra- Arcopagia pudica association (infralittoral mud). The data allowed both a stratigraphic correlation along two transects covering all of the Holocene basin and the creation of digitalized maps showing the presumable extension of the Thai paleogulf around the apex of Flandrian transgression event (about 5500 CYBP).

  18. The Greening Dutchman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Marlen Gabriele; Hockerts, Kai

    2011-01-01

    of ‘green flagging’ as a groundbreaking corporate sustainability innovation strategy. This paper describes how Philips uses this approach in its Green Flagship Program (GFP). Philips' GFP is particularly interesting since it sets specific targets across all its business units, thus driving the integration...... and limitations of these findings for theory and research on sustainability innovation strategies.......Sustainability innovation research often focuses on the interrelation and the interaction of influencing factors and actors while neglecting the importance of firm internal initiatives. Based on a longitudinal case study of the Dutch company Royal Philips Electronics, we develop the concept...

  19. GREEN CORE HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NECULAI Oana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Green Core House is a construction concept with low environmental impact, having as main central element a greenhouse. The greenhouse has the innovative role to use the biomass energy provided by plants to save energy. Although it is the central piece, the greenhouse is not the most innovative part of the Green Core House, but the whole building ensemble because it integrates many other sustainable systems as "waste purification systems", "transparent photovoltaic panels" or "double skin façades".

  20. Green Chemistry Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-02-01

    This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry (GC) into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future. Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed.

  1. Green Maritime Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    By green maritime logistics we mean achieving an acceptable environmental performance of the maritime transport logistical supply chain while at the same time respecting traditional economic criteria. In this paper the environmental focus is on maritime emissions. Achieving such goal may involve...... several trade-offs, and win-win solutions are typically sought. However, finding these solutions may be more difficult than may appear at first glance. The purpose of this paper is to provide a concise overview of the challenges of green maritime logistics and present some examples, both for greenhouse...

  2. The Coulomb Green's function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Michael

    1989-06-01

    It is something of a miracle that the nonrelativistic Schrodinger equation with a Coulomb potential can be solved for the wavefunction in exact analytic form. Even more miraculous is the result of Schwinger which enables the Green's function to be solved in closed form, for this is in effect, an infinite sum of wavefunction products. In the relativistic case too the wavefunction can be found in closed form, but as yet no such result for the Green's function has been found. This lecture provides a brief overview of the situation with an emphasis on the ``hidden symmetry'' which underlies the nonrelativisitic problem and its degenerate form which carries over to the relativistic case.

  3. Green space as classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Peter; Schipperijn, Jasper; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2013-01-01

    More and more Danish teachers have started introducing curriculum-based outdoor learning as a weekly or biweekly ‘outdoor school’ day for school children. This move towards schooling in non-classroom spaces presents a challenge for green space managers. Basic managerial knowledge related to what...... the same place and preferring natural environments with easy access. We recommend that green space managers try to accommodate the ecostrategy preferred by outdoor teachers, i.e. visits to local and well-known places....

  4. Nature and origin of the hematite-bearing plains of Terra Meridiani based on analyses of orbital and Mars Exploration rover data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Poulet, F.; Morris, R.V.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bell, J.F.; Squyres, S. W.; Christensen, P.R.; Bellucci, G.; Gondet, B.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Farrand, W. H.; Fergason, R.L.; Golombeck, M.; Griffes, J.L.; Grotzinger, J.; Guinness, E.A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhofer, G.; Langevin, Y.; Ming, D.; Seelos, K.; Sullivan, R.J.; Ward, J.G.; Wiseman, S.M.; Wolff, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The ???5 km of traverses and observations completed by the Opportunity rover from Endurance crater to the Fruitbasket outcrop show that the Meridiani plains consist of sulfate-rich sedimentary rocks that are largely covered by poorly-sorted basaltic aeolian sands and a lag of granule-sized hematitic concretions. Orbital reflectance spectra obtained by Mars Express OMEGA over this region are dominated by pyroxene, plagioclase feldspar, crystalline hematite (i.e., concretions), and nano-phase iron oxide dust signatures, consistent with Pancam and Mini-TES observations. Mo??ssbauer Spectrometer observations indicate more olivine than observed with the other instruments, consistent with preferential optical obscuration of olivine features in mixtures with pyroxene and dust. Orbital data covering bright plains located several kilometers to the south of the landing site expose a smaller areal abundance of hematite, more dust, and a larger areal extent of outcrop compared to plains proximal to the landing site. Low-albedo, low-thermal-inertia, windswept plains located several hundred kilometers to the south of the landing site are predicted from OMEGA data to have more hematite and fine-grained olivine grains exposed as compared to the landing site. Low calcium pyroxene dominates spectral signatures from the cratered highlands to the south of Opportunity. A regional-scale model is presented for the formation of the plains explored by Opportunity, based on a rising ground water table late in the Noachian Era that trapped and altered local materials and aeolian basaltic sands. Cessation of this aqueous process led to dominance of aeolian processes and formation of the current configuration of the plains. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Fractional Vegetation Cover of East African Wetlands Observed on Ground and from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Amler, E.; Guerschmann, J. P.; Scarth, P.; Behn, K.; Thonfeld, F.

    2016-08-01

    Wetlands are important ecosystems providing numerous ecosystem services. They are of particular importance to communities in East Africa where agriculture is the most important economic sector and where food availability to households critical. During an intensive field campaign in the dry season of 2013 were Fractional Vegetation Cover (FVC) measurements, botanical vegetation cover and vegetation structure estimates acquired in three wetland test sites within the East African region. FVC cover data were collated in three strata: ground layer, midstorey and overstorey (woody vegetation greater than 2 m). Fractional cover estimates for the green and no-green vegetative fraction were calculated for Landsat MODIS imagery. These FVC data products were evaluated a) with FVC field data and b) relative to each other for their usability in the East African region. First results show some promise for further studies.

  6. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Tobiszewski; Mariusz Marć; Agnieszka Gałuszka; Jacek Namieśnik

    2015-01-01

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-establis...

  7. The Great Plains IDEA Gerontology Program: An Online, Interinstitutional Graduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gregory F.

    2011-01-01

    The Great-Plains IDEA Gerontology Program is a graduate program developed and implemented by the Great Plains Interactive Distance Education Alliance (Great Plains IDEA). The Great Plains IDEA (Alliance) originated as a consortium of Colleges of Human Sciences ranging across the central United States. This Alliance's accomplishments have included…

  8. The Great Plains IDEA Gerontology Program: An Online, Interinstitutional Graduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gregory F.

    2011-01-01

    The Great-Plains IDEA Gerontology Program is a graduate program developed and implemented by the Great Plains Interactive Distance Education Alliance (Great Plains IDEA). The Great Plains IDEA (Alliance) originated as a consortium of Colleges of Human Sciences ranging across the central United States. This Alliance's accomplishments have included…

  9. Level III Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions for the Mississippi Alluvial Plain were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in...

  10. Level IV Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions for the Mississippi Alluvial Plain were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in...

  11. Snake River Plain Basin-fill aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Snake River Plain aquifer system, which includes both the basaltic and basin-fill aquifers. This dataset does not...

  12. Particulate Loads Caused by Wind Erosion in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Lawrence J.; Woodruff, Neil P.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the annual flux of suspended particulates caused by wind erosion in the Great Plains is estimated. This study demonstrated that climate causes wide variations in air pollution from wind erosion. (BT)

  13. Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was constructed by standardizing and extrapolating previous physiographic interpretations for areas within and...

  14. Subcropping Geology for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Subcropping geology for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was compiled and interpreted from available published sources. Formation contacts were interpolated across...

  15. Whooping crane stopover site use intensity within the Great Plains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Whooping cranes (Grus americana) of the Aransas- Wood Buffalo population migrate twice each year through the Great Plains in North America. Recovery activities for...

  16. Southern Great Plains rapid ecoregional assessment : Pre-assessment report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Pre-Assessment Report for the Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to document the selection process for and final list of...

  17. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car...

  18. Aerial Images of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain; 1974-1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is comprised of 10 aerial images of three different study areas on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain flown by NASA in 1974, 1977, 1979 and obtained from the...

  19. Vegetation - Carrizo Plain ER, 2005 - 2008 [ds561

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Vegetation Map of the Carrizo Plain Ecological Reserve, San Luis Obispo County, California was created by the California Department of Fish and Game (DFG)...

  20. Base of aquifer contours for the Northern High Plains aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Several pre-existing datasets that characterize portions of the Northern High Plains aquifer base were merged together in order to define the entire base of the...