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Sample records for plain depression wetlands

  1. Mitigation bank promotes research on restoring Coastal Plain depression wetlands (South Carolina).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Christopher D.; DeSteven, Diane; Kilgo, John C.

    2004-12-31

    Barton, Christopher, D., Diane DeSteven and John C. Kilgo. 2004. Mitigation bank promotes research on restoring Coastal Plain depression wetlands (South Carolina). Ecol. Rest. 22(4):291-292. Abstract: Carolina bays and smaller depression wetlands support diverse plant communities and provide critical habitat for semi-aquatic fauna throughout the Coastal Plain region of the southeastern United States. Historically, many depression wetlands were altered or destroyed by surface ditching, drainage, and agricultural or silviculture uses. These important habitats are now at further risk of alteration and loss following a U.S. Supreme Court decision in 2001 restricting federal regulation of isolated wetlands. Thus, there is increased attention towards protecting intact sites and developing methods to restore others. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) 312-mi2 (800-km2) Savannah River Site (SRS) in west-central South Carolina includes about 350 Carolina bays and bay-like wetland depressions, of which about two-thirds were degraded or destroyed prior to federal acquisition of the land. Although some of the altered wetlands have recovered naturally, others still have active active drainage ditches and contain successional forests typical of drained sites. In 1997, DOE established a wetland mitigation bank to compensate for unavoidable wetland impacts on the SRS. This effort provided an opportunity fir a systematic research program to investigate wetland restoration techniques and ecological responses. Consequently, research and management staffs from the USDA Forest Service, Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation, the Savannah River Technology Center, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) and several universities developed a collaborative project to restore degraded depression wetlands on the SRS. The mitigation project seeks cost-effective methods to restore the hydrology and vegetation typical of natural depression wetlands, and so enhance habitats for

  2. Macroinvertebrate and diatom metrics as indicators of water-quality conditions in connected depression wetlands in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, Billy; Burge, David; Cobb, Jennifer; Marsico, Travis; Bouldin, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Methods for assessing wetland conditions must be established so wetlands can be monitored and ecological services can be protected. We evaluated biological indices compiled from macroinvertebrate and diatom metrics developed primarily for streams to assess their ability to indicate water quality in connected depression wetlands. We collected water-quality and biological samples at 24 connected depressions dominated by water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) or bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) (water depths = 0.5–1.0 m). Water quality of the least-disturbed connected depressions was characteristic of swamps in the southeastern USA, which tend to have low specific conductance, nutrient concentrations, and pH. We compared 162 macroinvertebrate metrics and 123 diatom metrics with a water-quality disturbance gradient. For most metrics, we evaluated richness, % richness, abundance, and % relative abundance values. Three of the 4 macroinvertebrate metrics that were most beneficial for identifying disturbance in connected depressions decreased along the disturbance gradient even though they normally increase relative to stream disturbance. The negative relationship to disturbance of some taxa (e.g., dipterans, mollusks, and crustaceans) that are considered tolerant in streams suggests that the tolerance scale for some macroinvertebrates can differ markedly between streams and wetlands. Three of the 4 metrics chosen for the diatom index reflected published tolerances or fit the usual perception of metric response to disturbance. Both biological indices may be useful in connected depressions elsewhere in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain Ecoregion and could have application in other wetland types. Given the paradoxical relationship of some macroinvertebrate metrics to dissolved O2 (DO), we suggest that the diatom metrics may be easier to interpret and defend for wetlands with low DO concentrations in least-disturbed conditions.

  3. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44...

  4. Plain Talk about Depression. Plain Talk Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Marilyn

    Depression is defined as a "whole-body" illness, involving the body, mood, and thoughts. Three of the most prevalent types of depressive disorders are described: major depression, dysthymia, and bipolar disorders (formerly called manic-depressive illness). Eleven symptoms of depression and 10 symptoms of mania are listed. Causes of depression are…

  5. Transplanting native dominant plants to facilitate community development in restored coastal plain wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Rebecca R. Sharitz

    2007-01-01

    Drained depressional wetlands are typically restored by plugging ditches or breaking drainage tiles to allow recovery of natural ponding regimes, while relying on passive recolonization from seed banks and dispersal to establish emergent vegetation. However, in restored depressions of the southeastern United States Coastal Plain, certain characteristic rhizomatous...

  6. Transplanting native dominant plants to facilitate community development in restored coastal plain wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.

    2007-12-01

    Abstract: Drained depressional wetlands are typically restored by plugging ditches or breaking drainage tiles to allow recovery of natural ponding regimes, while relying on passive recolonization from seed banks and dispersal to establish emergent vegetation. However, in restored depressions of the southeastern United States Coastal Plain, certain characteristic rhizomatous graminoid species may not recolonize because they are dispersal-limited and uncommon or absent in the seed banks of disturbed sites. We tested whether selectively planting such wetland dominants could facilitate restoration by accelerating vegetative cover development and suppressing non-wetland species. In an operational-scale project in a South Carolina forested landscape, drained depressional wetlands were restored in early 2001 by completely removing woody vegetation and plugging surface ditches. After forest removal, tillers of two rhizomatous wetland grasses (Panicum hemitomon, Leersia hexandra) were transplanted into singlespecies blocks in 12 restored depressions that otherwise were revegetating passively. Presence and cover of all plant species appearing in planted plots and unplanted control plots were recorded annually. We analyzed vegetation composition after two and four years, during a severe drought (2002) and after hydrologic recovery (2004). Most grass plantings established successfully, attaining 15%–85% cover in two years. Planted plots had fewer total species and fewer wetland species compared to control plots, but differences were small. Planted plots achieved greater total vegetative cover during the drought and greater combined cover of wetland species in both years. By 2004, planted grasses appeared to reduce cover of non-wetland species in some cases, but wetter hydrologic conditions contributed more strongly to suppression of non-wetland species. Because these two grasses typically form a dominant cover matrix in herbaceous depressions, our results indicated that

  7. Measured and Calculated Volumes of Wetland Depressions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Measured and calculated volumes of wetland depressions This dataset is associated with the following publication: Wu, Q., and C. Lane. Delineation and quantification...

  8. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood-plain and wetlands... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3...

  9. Wetland Ecosystem Function Assessment and The Sustainable Development in Jianghan Plain-Lake District of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Wetlands in Jianghan plain-lake district fulfill many uses and functions related to hydrology, waste assimilation, ecosystem productivity and bio-diversity. But human incorrect activities generally result in significant negative impacts on number, biodiversity, and functioning of wetlands. In order to put wetland resources to rational use and protect wetland ecological environment, some effective measures should be taken.

  10. Processes affecting coastal wetland loss in the Louisiana deltaic plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Penland, Shea; Roberts, Harry H.

    1993-01-01

    Nowhere are the problems of coastal wetland loss more serious and dramatic than in the Mississippi River deltaic plain region of south-central Louisiana. In that area, rates of shoreline erosion of 20 m.yr and loss of land area of up to 75 km/yr result from a complex combination of natural (delta switching, subsidence, sea-level rise, storms) and human (flood control, navigation, oil and gas development, land reclamation) factors. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Coastal Geology Program, has undertaken joint filed investigations with Federal, State, and university partners. The objective of these long-term studies is to gather and interpret baseline information in order to improve our scientific understanding of the critical processes and responses responsible for creation, maintenance, and deterioration of coastal wetlands.

  11. Hydrochemical characteristics of salt marsh wetlands in western Songnen Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In western Songnen Plain of China, the saline-alkaline degree of water bodies is high in salt marsh wetlands. Generally, pH is above 8.0, and the hydrochemical types belong to HCO32--Na+. Through analysis on the basic saline variables such as CO32-, HCO32-, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-, Na+, and the derivative variables such as SAR, SDR, RSC, SSP, the relationships between different variables are found, and the discriminant equations are established to identify different saline-alkaline water bodies by using principal component analysis.

  12. The current status, threats and protection way of Sanjiang Plain wetland, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUZhi-qiang; LIUTong

    2005-01-01

    The Sanjiang Plain is a vast area of alluvial floodplains and low hills in northeast Heilongjiang Province. It is the largest tract of wetlands in China and East Asia outside of Siberia. 28 wetland nature reserves exist on the Sanjiang Plain, and three of them have been listed as wetlands of international importance to water bird conservation by the Ramsar Convention Bureau. The wetlands of Sanjiang Plain are noteworthy for its rich biodiversity, but they continue to decline in area and deteriorate in quality currently. The main threats or constrains, immediate cause, root cause and required response are analyzed in this paper, and the four aspects opinion such as improvement of watershed management, enhancement of protection and restoration of habitats and biodiversity, alternative livelihoods of rural residents living in and near natural wetland reserve, and reinforcement of capacity building of natural reserves are brought forward as the effective measures for the Sanjiang Plain wetland protection.

  13. Wetlands in changed landscapes: the influence of habitat transformation on the physico-chemistry of temporary depression wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Matthew S; Day, Jenny A

    2014-01-01

    Temporary wetlands dominate the wet season landscape of temperate, semi-arid and arid regions, yet, other than their direct loss to development and agriculture, little information exists on how remaining wetlands have been altered by anthropogenic conversion of surrounding landscapes. This study investigates relationships between the extent and type of habitat transformation around temporary wetlands and their water column physico-chemical characteristics. A set of 90 isolated depression wetlands (seasonally inundated) occurring on coastal plains of the south-western Cape mediterranean-climate region of South Africa was sampled during the winter/spring wet season of 2007. Wetlands were sampled across habitat transformation gradients according to the areal cover of agriculture, urban development and alien invasive vegetation within 100 and 500 m radii of each wetland edge. We hypothesized that the principal drivers of physico-chemical conditions in these wetlands (e.g. soil properties, basin morphology) are altered by habitat transformation. Multivariate multiple regression analyses (distance-based Redundancy Analysis) indicated significant associations between wetland physico-chemistry and habitat transformation (overall transformation within 100 and 500 m, alien vegetation cover within 100 and 500 m, urban cover within 100 m); although for significant regressions the amount of variation explained was very low (range: ∼2 to ∼5.5%), relative to that explained by purely spatio-temporal factors (range: ∼35.5 to ∼43%). The nature of the relationships between each type of transformation in the landscape and individual physico-chemical variables in wetlands were further explored with univariate multiple regressions. Results suggest that conservation of relatively narrow (∼100 m) buffer strips around temporary wetlands is likely to be effective in the maintenance of natural conditions in terms of physico-chemical water quality.

  14. Wetlands in changed landscapes: the influence of habitat transformation on the physico-chemistry of temporary depression wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Bird

    Full Text Available Temporary wetlands dominate the wet season landscape of temperate, semi-arid and arid regions, yet, other than their direct loss to development and agriculture, little information exists on how remaining wetlands have been altered by anthropogenic conversion of surrounding landscapes. This study investigates relationships between the extent and type of habitat transformation around temporary wetlands and their water column physico-chemical characteristics. A set of 90 isolated depression wetlands (seasonally inundated occurring on coastal plains of the south-western Cape mediterranean-climate region of South Africa was sampled during the winter/spring wet season of 2007. Wetlands were sampled across habitat transformation gradients according to the areal cover of agriculture, urban development and alien invasive vegetation within 100 and 500 m radii of each wetland edge. We hypothesized that the principal drivers of physico-chemical conditions in these wetlands (e.g. soil properties, basin morphology are altered by habitat transformation. Multivariate multiple regression analyses (distance-based Redundancy Analysis indicated significant associations between wetland physico-chemistry and habitat transformation (overall transformation within 100 and 500 m, alien vegetation cover within 100 and 500 m, urban cover within 100 m; although for significant regressions the amount of variation explained was very low (range: ∼2 to ∼5.5%, relative to that explained by purely spatio-temporal factors (range: ∼35.5 to ∼43%. The nature of the relationships between each type of transformation in the landscape and individual physico-chemical variables in wetlands were further explored with univariate multiple regressions. Results suggest that conservation of relatively narrow (∼100 m buffer strips around temporary wetlands is likely to be effective in the maintenance of natural conditions in terms of physico-chemical water quality.

  15. APPLICATION OF ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS TO ASSESSING THE ECOLOGICAL VULNERABILITY OF WETLANDS IN THE JIANGHAN PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-lei; NING Long-mei; HU Wang-bin

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands in the Jianghan Plain are important components of wetland types in lake area in the middle and lower reaches the Changjiang (Yangtze) River and they fulfill many uses and functions related to hydrology,waste assimilation, ecosystem productivity and biodiversity. Owing to natural factors and human activities, especially excessive reclamation from lakes, the shrinking process of the lakes has been accelerated. Wetland ecosystem has shown the characteristics of vulnerability. According to the analysis of wetland ecological function in the Jianghan Plain, this paper presented an index system related to productivity, stability and environmental capacity. By using the method of Analytic Hierarchy Process, we computed the values of the relative weights of the indexes, and evaluated the vulnerability level of the wetland ecosystem by the method of multi-indexes. The case study showed that the fragile extent of wetland ecosystem in the Jianghan Plain is 5.6. This means that the wetland ecosystem in the Jiang-han Plain is laid to the state of middle vulnerability. Therefore, the wetland conservation and eco-rehabilitation in the Jianghan Plain should be paid attention to.

  16. Wetland degradation: its driving forces and environmental impacts in the Sanjiang Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kaishan; Wang, Zongming; Du, Jia; Liu, Lei; Zeng, Lihong; Ren, Chunying

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated human-induced long-term wetland degradation that occurred in the Sanjiang Plain. Results from analyzing land-use/land-cover data sets derived from remotely sensed Landsat Multispectral Scanner/Thematic Mapper imagery for four time points showed that wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain have been severely transformed, and the area of wetlands decreased by 38 % from 1976 to 1986, by 16 % from 1986 to 1995, and by 31 % from 1995 to 2005. This study showed that transition to agricultural cultivation accounted for 91 % of wetland losses, whereas transition to grassland and forest accounted for 7 % of the wetlands losses. Institutional strategies and market policies probably exerted great impacts on agricultural practice that directly or indirectly influenced the decrease in wetlands. This study also indicated that an increased population likely led to wetland conversion to cropland by showing a high correlation between population and cropland (R (2) = 0.92, P Wetland loss occurred during later time intervals at a low rate. This study suggests that the existing wetland-protection measures in the Sanjiang Plain should be reinforced further because of possible environmental consequences of wetland loss, such as enhanced soil carbon emission, changed hydrological cycling, and regional temperature increase.

  17. Landscape planning and ecology construction of wetland comprehensive protected area system in the Sanjiang Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Wetland is one of the richest biodiversity areas in the earth. The main purpose of establishing wetland protected area is to protect biodiversity, and the protection of ecosystem diversity and landscape diversity is the key to protect biodiversity. In order to protect regional ecosystem and landscape, it is a good way to establish wetland comprehensive protected area which connected wetland nature reserves by habitat corridors. The Sanjiang Plain as a study area, its landscape evaluation index system on wetland protected area was studied, and some problems on landscape planning and ecology construction were further approached in this paper. It showed that establishing wetland comprehensive protected area is very important to protect regional wetlands, to maintain ecological balance,and to improve the sustainable development of agriculture and industry in this region.

  18. A STUDY ON WETLAND CLASSIFICATION MODEL OFREMOTE SENSING IN THE SANGJIANG PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The Sanjiang Plain, where nearly 20 kinds of wetlands exist now, is one of the largest wetlands distributed area of wetlands in China. To identify each of them and pick up them separately by means of automatic interpretation of remote sensing from TM Landsat images is extremely important. However, most of the types of wetlands can not be divided each other due to the similarity and the illegibility of the wetland spectrum shown in TM images. Special disposals to remote sensing images include the spectrurn enhancement of wetland information, the pseudo color composite of TM im ages of different bands and the algebra enhancement of TM images. By this way some kinds of wetlands such as Sparganium stoloniferum and Bolboschoenus maritimus can be identified. But in many cases, these methods are still insufficient because of the noise brought from the atmosphere transportation and so on. The physical features of wetlands reflecting the diversification of spectrum information of wetlands, which include the spatial-temporal characteristics of the wetlands distribution, the landscape differences of wetlands from season to season, the growing environment and the vertical structure of wetlands vegetation and so on, must be taken into consideration. Besides these, the artificial alteration to spatial structure of wetlands such as the exploitation of some types of them can be also used as important symbols of wetlands identification from remote sensing images. On the basis of the above geographics analysis, a set of wetlands classification models of remote sensing could be established, and many types of wetlands such as paddy-field, reed swamp, peat mire,meadow, CAREX marsh and paludification meadow and so on, will be distinguished consequently. All the ways of geographical analysis and model establishment will be given in detail in this article.

  19. Quantifying climate change mitigation potential in Great Plains wetlands for three greenhouse gas emission scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kristin B.; Ratliff, Jamie L.; Wein, Anne; Bliss, Norman B.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sohl, Terry L.; Li, Zhengpeng

    2015-01-01

    We examined opportunities for avoided loss of wetland carbon stocks in the Great Plains of the United States in the context of future agricultural expansion through analysis of land-use land-cover (LULC) change scenarios, baseline carbon datasets and biogeochemical model outputs. A wetland map that classifies wetlands according to carbon pools was created to describe future patterns of carbon loss and potential carbon savings. Wetland avoided loss scenarios, superimposed upon LULC change scenarios, quantified carbon stocks preserved under criteria of carbon densities or land value plus cropland suitability. Up to 3420 km2 of wetlands may be lost in the region by 2050, mainly due to conversion of herbaceous wetlands in the Temperate Prairies where soil organic carbon (SOC) is highest. SOC loss would be approximately 0.20 ± 0.15 megagrams of carbon per hectare per year (MgC ha−1 yr−1), depending upon tillage practices on converted wetlands, and total ecosystem carbon loss in woody wetlands would be approximately 0.81 ± 0.41 MgC ha−1 yr−1, based on biogeochemical model results. Among wetlands vulnerable to conversion, wetlands in the Northern Glaciated Plains and Lake Agassiz Plains ecoregions exhibit very high mean SOC and on average, relatively low land values, potentially creating economically competitive opportunities for avoided carbon loss. This mitigation scenarios approach may be adapted by managers using their own preferred criteria to select sites that best meet their objectives. Results can help prioritize field-based assessments, where site-level investigations of carbon stocks, land value, and consideration of local priorities for climate change mitigation programs are needed.

  20. DYNAMIC CHANGES OF THE WETLAND AND ITS DRIVING FORCES IN FUJIN REGION IN SANJIANG PLAIN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-Qiang; CHEN Ming; WANG Dan-Dan; ZHANG Bai; ZHANG Shu-Qing

    2005-01-01

    Wetland is a kind of key natural resources. However, the wetlands have been shrinking rapidly in Sangjiang Plain and its functions have been degrading. These all hold back the sustainable development of human communities, and lead to great change in the land use /cover (LUCC), consequently caused global changes in climate, water cycling, etc.. Taken Fujin region as a case study, spatial and temporal dynamic processes of wetland and its driving forces were analyzed from 1954 to 2000 in this paper. It showed that the wetlands had been reduced from 52×104 ha to 11×104 ha in areas during the nearly 50 years . The percentage of wetland areas reduced from 61.27% to 12.39%. On the other hand, cultivated land increased from 22×104 ha to 60×104 ha in areas. The percentage of the areas increased from 25.31% to 70.45%. Further quantitative analysis of the wetland landscape conversion characteristics and the correlation analysis between the change of wetland areas and population increase were made. The results showed that 40×104 ha wetlands had been converted to cultivated land within half of a century; the correlation between the rate of wetland loss and that of population increased is nearly -0.922. So it was concluded that the main driving force of wetland shrinkage in Fujin region was the colonization of human being.

  1. Fertilizer legacies meet saltwater incursion: challenges and constraints for coastal plain wetland restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ardón

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coastal wetland restoration is an important tool for climate change adaptation and excess nutrient runoff mitigation. However, the capacity of restored coastal wetlands to provide multiple ecosystem services is limited by stressors, such as excess nutrients from upstream agricultural fields, high nutrient legacies on-site, and rising salinities downstream. The effects of these stressors are exacerbated by an accelerating hydrologic cycle, expected to cause longer droughts punctuated by more severe storms. We used seven years of surface water and six years of soil solution water chemistry from a large (440 ha restored wetland to examine how fertilizer legacy, changes in hydrology, and drought-induced salinization affect dissolved nutrient and carbon concentrations. To better understand the recovery trajectory of the restored wetland, we also sampled an active agricultural field and two mature forested wetlands. Our results show that nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P concentrations in soil solution were 2–10 times higher in the restored wetland compared to two mature forested wetlands, presumably due to legacy fertilizer mobilized by reflooding. Despite elevated nutrient concentrations relative to reference wetlands, the restored wetland consistently attenuated N and P pulses delivered from an upstream farm. Even with continued loading, N and P concentrations in surface water throughout the restored wetland have decreased since the initial flooding. Our results suggest that high nutrient concentrations and export from wetlands restored on agricultural lands may be a severe but temporary problem. If field to wetland conversion is to become a more widespread method for ameliorating nutrient runoff and adapting coastal plain ecosystems to climate change, we should adopt new methods for minimizing the initial export phase of wetland restoration efforts.

  2. Simulation Study on Purification Efficiency for Nitrogen in Different Types of Wetlands in Sanjiang Plain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yue; JIANG Ming; LU Xianguo

    2010-01-01

    The purification law of nitrogen in Deyeuxia angustifolia,Carex lasiocarpa and Deyeuxia angustifo-lia-Carex lasiocarpa combined wetland systems in the Sanjiang Plain,China was studied by field simulation experi-ment.The results indicate that the removal rates of TN,NH4+-N and NO3--N in above three types of wetlands present an obvious logarithm growth trend along with the time.There are evident removal effects for NH4+-N and NO3--N in water bodies of wetlands after the 30th day of experiment,with the removal rates over 80.0%,but the removal rate of TN is slightly low,being 63.1%-74.3%.NO3--N is most quickly removed by the combined wetland,and NH4+-N by Deyeuxia angustifolia wetland.The removal speeds of TN by the three wetland systems are comparatively slow,of which the Deyeuxia angustifolia wetland is the fastest.In consideration of plant growth season,Deyeuxia angustifolia wetland has much more practical application value in purifying nitrogen.These results can provide references for the study on the purification function of wetlands and the control of non-point source pollution in Northeast China.

  3. Bacterial community structure in two permafrost wetlands on the Tibetan Plateau and Sanjiang Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Juanli; Ju, Yiwen; Deng, Yongcui; Zhang, Hongxun

    2014-08-01

    Permafrost wetlands are important methane emission sources and fragile ecosystems sensitive to climate change. Presently, there remains a lack of knowledge regarding bacterial communities, especially methanotrophs in vast areas of permafrost on the Tibetan Plateau in Northwest China and the Sanjiang Plain (SJ) in Northeast China. In this study, 16S rRNA-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) and 454 pyrosequencing were used to identify bacterial communities in soils sampled from a littoral wetland of Lake Namco on the Tibetan Plateau (NMC) and an alluvial wetland on the SJ. Additionally, methanotroph-specific primers targeting particulate methane monooxygenase subunit A gene (pmoA) were used for qPCR and pyrosequencing analysis of methanotrophic community structure in NMC soils. qPCR analysis revealed the presence of 10(10) 16S rRNA gene copies per gram of wet soil in both wetlands, with 10(8) pmoA copies per gram of wet soil in NMC. The two permafrost wetlands showed similar bacterial community compositions, which differed from those reported in other cold environments. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria , and Chloroflexi were the most abundant phyla in both wetlands, whereas Acidobacteria was prevalent in the acidic wetland SJ only. These four phyla constituted more than 80 % of total bacterial community diversity in permafrost wetland soils, and Methylobacter of type I methanotrophs was overwhelmingly dominant in NMC soils. This study is the first major bacterial sequencing effort of permafrost in the NMC and SJ wetlands, which provides fundamental data for further studies of microbial function in extreme ecosystems under climate change scenarios.

  4. A conceptual hydrologic model for a forested Carolina bay depressional wetland on the Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Timothy J. Callahan; Ge Sun; Carl C. Trettin; Masato Miwa

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how climate influences the hydrology of an ephemeral depressional wetland. Surface water and groundwater elevation data were collected for 7 years in a Coastal Plain watershed in South Carolina USA containing depressional wetlands, known as Carolina bays. Rainfall and temperature data were compared with water-table well and piezometer data in and...

  5. Recent Subsidence and Erosion at Diverse Wetland Sites in the Southeastern Mississippi Delta Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Bernier, Julie C.; Kelso, Kyle W.

    2009-01-01

    A prior study (U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1216) examined historical land- and water-area changes and estimated magnitudes of land subsidence and erosion at five wetland sites in the Terrebonne hydrologic basin of the Mississippi delta plain. The present study extends that work by analyzing interior wetland loss and relative magnitudes of subsidence and erosion at five additional wetland sites in the adjacent Barataria hydrologic basin. The Barataria basin sites were selected for their diverse physical settings and their recent (post-1978) conversion from marsh to open water. Historical aerial photography, datum-corrected marsh elevations and water depths, sediment cores, and radiocarbon dates were integrated to evaluate land-water changes in the Mississippi delta plain on both historical and geological time scales. The thickness of the organic-rich sediments (peat) and the elevation of the stratigraphic contact between peat and underlying mud were compared at marsh and open-water sites across areas of formerly continuous marsh to estimate magnitudes of recent delta-plain elevation loss caused by vertical erosion and subsidence of the wetlands. Results of these analyses indicate that erosion exceeded subsidence at most of the study areas, although both processes have contributed to historical wetland loss. Comparison of these results with prior studies indicates that subsidence largely caused rapid interior wetland loss in the Terrebonne basin before 1978, whereas erosional processes primarily caused more gradual interior wetland loss in the Barataria basin after 1978. Decadal variations in rates of relative sea-level rise at a National Ocean Service tide gage, elevation changes between repeat benchmark-leveling surveys, and GPS height monitoring at three National Geodetic Survey Continuously Operating Reference Stations indicate that subsidence rates since the early 1990s are substantially lower than those previously reported and are similar in

  6. CARBON DYNAMICS OF WETLAND IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Chang-chun; WANG Yi-yong; WANG Yue-si; YAN Bai-xing; WANG De-xuan; ZHAO Zhi-chun; LOU Yan-jing

    2003-01-01

    Methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission was measured from mires in the Sanjiang Plain,Northeast China, by using a static chamber technique during free snow-covered periods. The seasonal mean emission of CH4 was 12.4mg/(m2.h) and the emission range of CO2 was 8.7-16.6g/(m2.d) (gross CO2 flux) during plant growth period. CO2 emission rate in the day was stronger than that at night, and the daily peak appears at 19:00. The mire plants in the Sanjiang Plain begin to sprout at the end of April. The aboveground biomass of the mire plants in-creased from zero to the peak from July to September and showed single peak form. The aboveground biomass of Carex lasiocarpa (464.8g/m2) was lower than that of Deyeuxia playphylla (530.8g/m2), but the underground biomass was higher than that of Deyeuxia platyphylla. Gross CO2 flux showed the significance positive correlation relation-ship with plant biomass. Gross CO2 flux and CH4 emission were also correlated with soil temperature (0-5cm) and water temperature. However, the highest CH4 emission rate lagged behind the highest soil temperature in the root area during plant growth period. The data also indicated that wet and warm conditions during the early spring led to greater value of CH4 emission flux. Inundation is the necessary condition for the existence of methane bacteria, but there is no significant positive correlation between the inundation depth and CH4 emission rate in this region. Within the same growing season and under the same inundation condition, the variations of CH4 emission rate could be markedly different.

  7. Distribution characteristics of dissolved organic carbon in annular wetland soil-water solutions through soil profiles in the Sanjiang Plain,Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence reveals that concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have increased in streams which brings negative environmental impacts.DOC in stream flow is mainly originated from soil-water solutions of watershed.Wetlands prove to be the most sensitive areas as an important DOC reserve between terrestrial and fluvial biogeosystems.This reported study was focused on the distribution characteristics and the controlling factors of DOC in soil-water solutions of annular wetland,i.e.,a dishing wetland and a forest wetland together,in the Sanjiang Plain.Northeast China.The results indicate that DOC concentrations in soil-water solutions decreased and then increased with increasing soil depth in the annular wetland.In the upper soil layers of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm,DOC concentrations in soil-water solutions linearly increased from edge to center of the annular wetland (R2=0.3122 and R2=0.443).The distribution variations were intimately linked to DOC production and utilization and DOC transport processes in annular wetland soil-water solutions.The concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC),total carbon (TC) and Fe(Ⅱ),DOC mobility and continuous vertical and lateral flow affected the distribution variations of DOC in soil-water solutious.The correlation coefficients between DOC concentrations and TOC,TC and Fe(Ⅱ) were 0.974,0.813 and 0.753 respectively.These distribution characteristics suggested a systematic response of the distribution variations of DOC in annular wetland soil-water solutions to the geometry of closed depressions on a scale of small catchments.However,the DOC in soil pore water of the annular wetland may be the potential source of DOC to stream flow on watershed scale.These observations also implied the fragmentation of wetland landscape could bring the spatial-temporal variations of DOC distribution and exports,which would bring negative environmental impacts in watersheds of the Sanjiang Plain.

  8. Wetland Connectivity: Introduction and Relevance to Texas Coastal Plain Depressional Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrologists and ecologists have been interested in connectivity between systems for decades. More recently, the question of whether and how wetlands connect to downstream waters has taken on greater significance. This is due to the US Supreme Court’s 2006 Rapanos decisio...

  9. Assessment of the effects of farming and conservation programs on pesticide deposition in high plains wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Jason B; Hanson, Brittany Rae; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Haukos, David A

    2012-03-20

    We examined pesticide contamination in sediments from depressional playa wetlands embedded in the three dominant land-use types in the western High Plains and Rainwater Basin of the United States including cropland, perennial grassland enrolled in conservation programs (e.g., Conservation Reserve Program [CRP]), and native grassland or reference condition. Two hundred and sixty four playas, selected from the three land-use types, were sampled from Nebraska and Colorado in the north to Texas and New Mexico in the south. Sediments were examined for most of the commonly used agricultural pesticides. Atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, and trifluralin were the most commonly detected pesticides in the northern High Plains and Rainwater Basin. Atrazine, metolachlor, trifluralin, and pendimethalin were the most commonly detected pesticides in the southern High Plains. The top 5-10% of playas contained herbicide concentrations that are high enough to pose a hazard for plants. However, insecticides and fungicides were rarely detected. Pesticide occurrence and concentrations were higher in wetlands surrounded by cropland as compared to native grassland and CRP perennial grasses. The CRP, which is the largest conservation program in the U.S., was protective and had lower pesticide concentrations compared to cropland.

  10. Influence of environment and substrate quality on the decomposition of wetland plant root in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xuelian; LU Xianguo; TONG Shouzheng; DAI Guohua

    2008-01-01

    The litterbag method was used to study the decomposition of wetland plant root in three wetlands along a water level gradient in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. These wetlands are Calamagrostis angustifolia ( C.aa), Carex meyeriana (C.ma) and Carex lasiocarpa (C.la). The objective of our study is to evaluate the influence of environment and substrate quality on decomposition rates in the three wetlands. Calico material was used as a standard substrate to evaluate environmental influences. Roots native to each wetland were used to evaluate decomposition dynamics and substrate quality influences. Calico mass loss was statistically different among the three wetlands in the upper soil profile (0-10 cm) and in the lower depth range (10-20 cm). Hydrology, temperature and pH all influence calico decomposition rates in different ways at different depths of the soil profiles. The decomposition rates of native roots declined differentially with the increase of depth in the soil profiles. The mass loss of native roots showed a statistical decrease among the three wetlands in the upper soil profile (0-10 cm) and in the lower depth range (10-20 cm) as C.ma wetland C.aa wetland C.la wetland. Both the C:P ratio and N:P ratio were positively interrelated with decomposition rates. Decomposition rates were negatively related to initial P concentration in all three wetlands, indicating that P concentration seems to be an important factor controlling the fitter loss.

  11. Using stable isotopes to understand hydrochemical processes in and around a Prairie Pothole wetland in the Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher T.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Stricker, Craig A.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Morrison, Jean M.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Thurston, Roland S.

    2011-01-01

    Millions of internally drained wetland systems in the Prairie Potholes region of the northern Great Plains (USA and Canada) provide indispensable habitat for waterfowl and a host of other ecosystem services. The hydrochemistry of these systems is complex and a crucial control on wetland function, flora and fauna. Wetland waters can have high concentrations of SO2-4 due to the oxidation of large amounts of pyrite in glacial till that is in part derived from the Pierre shale. Water chemistry including δ18OH2O, δ2HH2O, and δ34SSO4 values, was determined for groundwater, soil pore water, and wetland surface water in and around a discharge wetland in North Dakota. The isotopic data for the first time trace the interaction of processes that affect wetland chemistry, including open water evaporation, plant transpiration, and microbial SO4 reduction.

  12. Microbially mediated cycling of iron in flood plains and other wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewzyk, Ulrich; Braun, Burga; Schmidt, Bertram; Schaudin, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Floodplains are subjected to alternating changes of flooding and partly drying of the soil systems and are therefore prominent examples of ecosystems undergoing dramatic changes in redox conditions. During the last 5 years the flood plains and associated water systems of the National Park "Untere Oder" were examined for the presence and relevance of bacteria associated with the redox cycling of iron and manganese. Biofilms grown at different locations in the national park were used as source material for examinations on the diversity of iron bacteria. Besides classical microbiological cultivation techniques, culture independent methods were used to explore the phylogenetic diversity of bacteria in ochreous depositions. The natural grown biofilms were intensely examined and documented by light and scanning electron microscopy. Many of the classical morphotypes of iron bacteria were observed and documented. Parallel the biofilms were used for cultivation of iron related bacteria under various conditions. The 16s rDNA of the isolated strains was sequenced and phylogenetically affiliated. In addition, these biofilms were used for establishing 16S rDNA clone libraries. In comparison of the results from direct microscopic examinations, cultivation and culture independent detection methods (FISH) certain of the morphotypes from the biofilms could be assigned to phylogenetic lineages. Besides the biofilms from the Oder flood plains, ochreous depositing biofilms from Berlin drinking water wells, flood plains in Norway and various wetlands in terra de fuego were examined. The cultures and 16S rDNA-clones from the different sampling sites are being compared for biogeographic differences.

  13. Sulfur cycle in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jingshuang; LI Xinhua

    2008-01-01

    The sulfur cycle and its compartmental distribution within an atmosphere-plant-soil system was studied using a compartment model in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland in the Sanjiang Plain Northeast China. The results showed that in the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem, soil was the main storage compartment and current hinge of sulfur in which 98.4% sulfur was accumulated, while only 1.6% sulfur was accumulated in the plant compartment. In the plant subsystem, roots and litters were the main storage compartment of sulfur and they remained 83.5% of the total plant sulfur. The calculations of sulfur turnover through the compartments of the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem demonstrated that the above-ground component took up 0.99 gS/m2 from the root, of which 0.16 gS/m2 was translocated to the roots and 0.83 gS/m2 to the litter. The roots took in 1.05 gS/m2 from the soil, subsequent translocation back to the soil accounted for 1.31 gS/m2, while there was 1.84 gS/m2 in the litter and the net transfer of sulfur to the soil was more than 0.44 gS/(m2·a). The emission of H2S from the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem to the atmosphere was 1.83 mgS/(m2·a), while carbonyl sulfide (COS) was absorbed by the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem from the atmosphere at the rate of 1.76 mgS/(m2·a). The input of sulfur by the rainfall to the ecosystem was 4.85 mgS/m2 during the growing season. The difference between input and output was 4.78 mgS/m2, which indicated that sulfur was accumulated in the ecosystem and may cause wetland acidify in the future.

  14. Sulfur cycle in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang plain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingshuang; Li, Xinhua

    2008-01-01

    The sulfur cycle and its compartmental distribution within an atmosphere-plant-soil system was studied using a compartment model in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland in the Sanjiang Plain Northeast China. The results showed that in the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem, soil was the main storage compartment and current hinge of sulfur in which 98.4% sulfur was accumulated, while only 1.6% sulfur was accumulated in the plant compartment. In the plant subsystem, roots and litters were the main storage compartment of sulfur and they remained 83.5% of the total plant sulfur. The calculations of sulfur turnover through the compartments of the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem demonstrated that the above-ground component took up 0.99 gS/m2 from the root, of which 0.16 gS/m2 was translocated to the roots and 0.83 gS/m2 to the litter. The roots took in 1.05 gS/m2 from the soil, subsequent translocation back to the soil accounted for 1.31 gS/m2, while there was 1.84 gS/m2 in the litter and the net transfer of sulfur to the soil was more than 0.44 gS/(m2 x a). The emission of H2S from the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem to the atmosphere was 1.83 mgS/(m2 x a), while carbonyl sulfide (COS) was absorbed by the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem from the atmosphere at the rate of 1.76 mgS/(m2 x a). The input of sulfur by the rainfall to the ecosystem was 4.85 mgS/m2 during the growing season. The difference between input and output was 4.78 mgS/m2, which indicated that sulfur was accumulated in the ecosystem and may cause wetland acidify in the future.

  15. Vegetation, substrate and hydrology in floating marshes in the Mississippi river delta plain wetlands, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasser, C.E.; Gosselink, J.G.; Swenson, E.M.; Swarzenski, C.M.; Leibowitz, N.C.

    1996-01-01

    In the 1940s extensive floating marshes (locally called 'flotant') were reported and mapped in coastal wetlands of the Mississippi River Delta Plain. These floating marshes included large areas of Panicum hemitomon-dominated freshwater marshes, and Spartina patens/Scirpus olneyi brackish marshes. Today these marshes appear to be quite different in extent and type. We describe five floating habitats and one non-floating, quaking habitat based on differences in buoyancy dynamics (timing and degree of floating), substrate characteristics, and dominant vegetation. All floating marshes have low bulk density, organic substrates. Nearly all are fresh marshes. Panicum hemitomon floating marshes presently occur within the general regions that were reported in the 1940's by O'Neil, but are reduced in extent. Some of the former Panicum hemitomon marshes have been replaced by seasonally or variably floating marshes dominated, or co-dominated by Sagittaria lancifolia or Eleocharis baldwinii. ?? 1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  16. Mercury Distribution Along the Food Chain of a Wetland Ecosystem at Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilong, Ma; Qiang, Wang; Zhongsheng, Zhang; Xuehong, Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a wetland food chain were determined at Majuan Island of the Sanjiang Plain in China. Four tissues (muscle, liver, kidney and brain) of three waterbird species (great cormorant, grey heron and great egret), muscle tissues of fish (grass carp, crucian carp and longnose gudgeon), insects (predacious diving beetle), aquatic plants (ditch reed) and soil were analyzed. The mean concentrations of T-Hg were 0.392 ± 0.237 mg/kg for tissues of all juveniles, 1.999 ± 2.053 mg/kg for great cormorant adults, and 0.029 ± 0.019 mg/kg for fish muscle, respectively. While the relative contents of T-Hg of insects, plants and sediments were 0.012 ± 0.002, 0.006 ± 0.001 and 0.020 ± 0.002 mg/kg, respectively. Bioaccumulation of Hg along the wetland food chain may be able to show the current situation of Hg contamination in remote regions of East Asia.

  17. Responses of Carbon Dynamics to Nitrogen Deposition in Typical Freshwater Wetland of Sanjiang Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nitrogen deposition (N-deposition on the carbon dynamics in typical Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland of Sanjiang Plain were studied by a pot-culture experiment during two continuous plant growing seasons. Elevated atmospheric N-deposition caused significant increases in the aboveground net primary production and root biomass; moreover, a preferential partition of carbon to root was also observed. Different soil carbon fractions gained due to elevated N-deposition and their response intensities followed the sequence of labile carbon > dissolved organic carbon > microbial biomass carbon, and the interaction between N-deposition and flooded condition facilitated the release of different carbon fractions. Positive correlations were found between CO2 and CH4 fluxes and liable carbon contents with N-deposition, and flooded condition also tended to facilitate CH4 fluxes and to inhibit the CO2 fluxes with N-deposition. The increases in soil carbon fractions occurring in the nitrogen treatments were significantly correlated with increases in root, aboveground parts, total biomass, and their carbon uptake. Our results suggested that N-deposition could enhance the contents of active carbon fractions in soil system and carbon accumulation in plant of the freshwater wetlands.

  18. Paleolimnological reconstruction of Holocene environments in wetland ponds of the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiser, E.E.; Taylor, B.E. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The paleohydrology and paleoecology of Carolina bays and upland wetland ponds on the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, South Carolina are being investigated to reconstruct environmental changes brought about by long-term variation in the climate of the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain. Cores were taken in transacts through Flamingo Bay, a temporary pond on the SRS, to determine the vertical and horizontal sediment particle size and diatom, plant phytolith and sponge spicule microfossils. Stratigraphic data were used to construct a 3-dimensional map of the basin. In conjunction with archaeological data from the rim of the pond, physical stratigraphic data indicate a decrease in pond size and depth during the past 10,000 years. In order to infer past ecological settings from the fossil record, a survey to determine microhabitat requirements of regional diatom flora was undertaken in 43 temporary ponds throughout the coastal plain of South Carolina. The relationships between diatom assemblages and environmental variables were assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Variables contributing significantly to the diatom-environment relationship included surface core location (near shore or pelagic), water depth, hydroperiod, microhabitat substrate, and sampling date, in order of decreasing influence. Strong relationships of diatom assemblages to drought frequency within and among basins provides a reliable basis for water level reconstruction in upland temporary ponds.

  19. Agricultural Climate Change and Wetland Agriculture Study under the Climate Change in the Sanjiang Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Minhua; LIU Xingtu; LI Xiujun

    2009-01-01

    With linear curvefitting, Mann-kendall method and Yamamoto method, ≥10 ℃accumulated temperature and precipitation from May to September of 6 meteorological stations (Baoqing, fujin, Jiamusi, Hegang, Jixi and Hulin) from 1978 to 2007 were used to explore 30-year agricultural climate change and trend in the Sanjiang Plain. The results showed that ≥10 ℃ accumulated temperature of the 6 stations have risen by 141.0 ℃ to 287.4 ℃ when estimated by their significant linear trends (n=30, α=0.05) over the last 30 years (1978 to 2007). The rates of warming for the last 30 years range from 4.70 ℃per year to 9.58 ℃ per year. There are not significant linear trends on precipitation from May to September of the 6 stations over the last 30 years. The period of 1978 to 1998 in which ≥10 ℃ accumulated temperature is lower is consistent with that in which there is more precipitation from May to September, and warming and drying period has occurred in the Sanjiang Plain since 1999. Under the background of warming and drying agricultural climate, high yield cultivation of Phragmites australis and establishment of Phragmites australis-fish (crab) symbiosis ecosystem in natural mire are the ways for reasonable use of natural wetland. The area of paddy fields has been increasing from 7.25×104 ha in 1978 to 121.2×104 ha in 2006. It is proposed that paddy field range should not be expanded blindly toward the north in the Sanjiang Plain, and chilling injury forecast and prevention should be pay attention to. In the area that the chilling injury happens frequently, the rotation between rice and other crops should be implemented. Measures, which combine drainage, store and irrigation, should be taken instead of single drainage on comprehensive control of regional low and wet croplands to ensure controlling drought and flood.

  20. Value Estimation of Greenhouse Gases Exchange in Wetland Ecosystem of Sanjiang Plain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaohui; LU Xianguo; JIANG Ming; WANG Xigang

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the values of greenhouse gases (GHGs) exchange in carbon equivalents of marshes and paddy fields in the Sanjiang Plain, Heilongjiang Province, China. We obtained the GHGs exchange values based on comparable price by calculating the carbon sequestration values and the GHGs emission values of marshes and paddy fields respectively in four periods of 1982, 1995, 2000 and 2005. It is noted that the GHGs emission values are always negative. In this study, the marshes areas decreased from 1438977.0 to 775,132.2ha and the paddy fields areas increased from 417195.8 to 934205.0ha. The values of GHGs exchange of marshes varied from 135877.156×106 to 136882.534×106 yuan (RMB) and those of paddy fields varied from 1006.256×106 to 2767.645×106 yuan. The GHGs exchange values of marshes decreased from 1982 to 2005 on the whole, reversely, those of paddy fields increased, but those in 2005 were lower than those in 2000. In different periods, the GHGs exchange values were always higher in marshes than in paddy fields. The contribution rate of GHGs exchange values per unit area of marshes was also very high in different periods, and the maximum was up to 98.35% in 2005. As far as the whole wetland ecosystem (including marshes and paddy fields), assuming a linear change in GHGs exchange values, it represented a cumulative increase of 20926.757×106 yuan from 1982 to 2005. By adding GHGs exchange values increased during those four periods, we obtained a cumulative net increase values of GHGs exchange of wetland ecosystem of 18200.860×106 yuan. The results will be useful for understanding the indirect services provided by marshes and paddy fields.

  1. Land use and conservation reserve program effects on the persistence of playa wetlands in the High Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Dale W; Smith, Loren M; Haukos, David A; Johnson, Lacrecia A; McMurry, Scott T

    2014-04-15

    Watershed cultivation and subsequent soil erosion remains the greatest threat to the service provisioning of playa wetlands in the High Plains. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) plants perennial vegetation cover on cultivated lands including playa watersheds, and therefore, the program influences sediment deposition and accumulation in playas. Our objective was to measure the effects of the CRP on sediment deposition by comparing sediment depth and present/historic size characteristics in 258 playas among three High-Plains subregions (northern, central, and southern) and the three dominant watershed types: cropland, CRP, and native grassland. Sediment depth and resultant volume loss for CRP playas were 40% and 57% lower than cropland playas, but 68% and 76% greater than playas in native grassland. Playas in CRP had remaining volumes exceeding those of cropland playas. Grassland playas had nearly three times more original playa volume and 122% greater wetland area than CRP playas. Overall, playas were larger in the south than other subregions. Sediment depth was also three times greater in the south than the north, which resulted in southern playas losing twice as much total volume as northern playas. However, the larger southern playas provide more remaining volume per playa than those in other subregions. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of proper watershed management in preserving playa wetland ecosystem service provisioning in the High Plains. Furthermore, we identify regional differences in playas that may influence management decisions and provide valuable insight to conservation practitioners trying to maximize wetland services with limited resources.

  2. Characterization of labile organic carbon in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain: relationships to carbon functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodla, Syam K; Wang, Jim J; Delaune, Ronald D

    2012-10-01

    Adequate characterization of labile organic carbon (LOC) is essential to the understanding of C cycling in soil. There has been very little evaluation about the nature of LOC characterizations in coastal wetlands, where soils are constantly influenced by different redox fluctuations and salt water intrusions. In this study, we characterized and compared LOC fractions in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain using four different methods including 1) aerobically mineralizable C (AMC), 2) cold water extractable C (CWEC), 3) hot water extractable C (HWEC), and 4) salt extractable C (SEC), as well as acid hydrolysable C (AHC) which includes both labile and slowly degradable organic C. Molecular organic C functional groups of these wetland soils were characterized by (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The LOC and AHC increased with soil organic C (SOC) regardless of wetland soil type. The LOC estimates by four different methods were positively and significantly linearly related to each other (R(2)=0.62-0.84) and with AHC (R(2)=0.47-0.71). The various LOC fractions accounted for ≤4.3% of SOC whereas AHC fraction represented 16-49% of SOC. AMC was influenced positively by O/N-alkyl and carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C, whereas CWEC and SEC fractions were influenced only positively by carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C in SOC. On the other hand, HWEC fraction was found to be only influenced positively by carbonyl C, and AHC positively by O/N-alkyl and alkyl C but negatively by aromatic C groups in SOC. Overall these relations suggested different contributions of various molecular organic C moieties to LOC in these wetlands from those often found for upland soils. The presence of more than 50% non-acid hydrolysable C suggested the dominance of relatively stable SOC pool that would be sequestered in these Mississippi River deltaic plain coastal wetland soils. The results have important implications to the understanding of the

  3. Restoration and Rational Use of Degraded Saline Reed Wetlands:A Case Study in Western Songnen Plain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Bolong; LIU Xingtu; LI Xiujun; YANG Fuyi; LI Xiaoyu

    2012-01-01

    The protection,restoration and sustainable use are key issues of all the wetlands worldwide.Ecological,agronomic,and engineering techniques have been integrated in the development of a structurally sound,ecologically beneficial engineering restoration method for restoring and utilizing a degraded saline wetland in the western Songnen Plain of China.Hydrological restoration was performed by developing a system of biannual irrigation and drainage using civil engineering measures to bring wetlands into contact with river water and improve the irrigation and drainage system in the wetlands.Agronomic measures such as plowing the reed fields,reed rhizome transplantation,and fertilization were used to restore the reed vegetation.Biological measures,including the release of crab and fish fry and natural proliferation,were used to restore the aquatic communities.The results of the restoration were clear and positive.By the year 2009,the reed yield had increased by 20.9 times.Remarkable ecological benefits occurred simultaneously.Vegetation primary-production capacity increased,local climate regulation and water purification enhanced,and biodiversity increased.This demonstration of engineering techniques illustrates the basic route for the restoration of degraded wetlands,that the biodiversity should be reconstructed by the comprehensive application of engineering,biological,and agronomic measures based on habitat restoration under the guidance of process-oriented strategies.The complex ecological system including reeds,fish and crabs is based on the biological principles of coexistence and material recycling and provides a reasonable ecological engineering model suitable for the sustainable utilization of degraded saline reed wetlands.

  4. Characterization of labile organic carbon in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain: Relationships to carbon functionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodla, Syam K. [School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Wang, Jim J., E-mail: jjwang@agcenter.lsu.edu [School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); DeLaune, Ronald D. [Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, School of the Coast and Environment, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Adequate characterization of labile organic carbon (LOC) is essential to the understanding of C cycling in soil. There has been very little evaluation about the nature of LOC characterizations in coastal wetlands, where soils are constantly influenced by different redox fluctuations and salt water intrusions. In this study, we characterized and compared LOC fractions in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain using four different methods including 1) aerobically mineralizable C (AMC), 2) cold water extractable C (CWEC), 3) hot water extractable C (HWEC), and 4) salt extractable C (SEC), as well as acid hydrolysable C (AHC) which includes both labile and slowly degradable organic C. Molecular organic C functional groups of these wetland soils were characterized by {sup 13}C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The LOC and AHC increased with soil organic C (SOC) regardless of wetland soil type. The LOC estimates by four different methods were positively and significantly linearly related to each other (R{sup 2} = 0.62-0.84) and with AHC (R{sup 2} = 0.47-0.71). The various LOC fractions accounted for {<=} 4.3% of SOC whereas AHC fraction represented 16-49% of SOC. AMC was influenced positively by O/N-alkyl and carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C, whereas CWEC and SEC fractions were influenced only positively by carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C in SOC. On the other hand, HWEC fraction was found to be only influenced positively by carbonyl C, and AHC positively by O/N-alkyl and alkyl C but negatively by aromatic C groups in SOC. Overall these relations suggested different contributions of various molecular organic C moieties to LOC in these wetlands from those often found for upland soils. The presence of more than 50% non-acid hydrolysable C suggested the dominance of relatively stable SOC pool that would be sequestered in these Mississippi River deltaic plain coastal wetland soils. The results have important implications to the

  5. Impacts of Soil Fauna on Litter Decomposition at Different Succession Stages of Wetland in Sanjiang Plain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Haitao; LU Xianguo; JIANG Ming; BAO Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Litter decomposition is the key process in nutrient recycling and energy flow. The present study examined the impacts of soil fauna on decomposition rates and nutrient fluxes at three succession stages of wetland in the Sanji-ang Plain, China using different mesh litterbags. The results show that in each succession stage of wetland, soil fauna can obviously increase litter decomposition rates. The average contribution of whole soil fauna to litter mass loss was 35.35%. The more complex the soil fauna group, the more significant the role of soil fauna. The average loss of three types of litter in the 4mm mesh litterbags was 0.3-4.1 times that in 0.058mm ones. The decomposition function of soil fauna to litter mass changed with the wetland succession. The average contribution of soil fauna to litter loss firstly de-creased from 34.96% (Carex lasiocapa) to 32.94% (Carex meyeriana), then increased to 38.16% (Calamagrosties an-gustifolia). The contributions of soil fauna to litter decomposition rates vary according to the litter substrata, soil fauna communities and seasons. Significant effects were respectively found in August and July on C angustifolia and C lasiocapa, while in June and August on C. Meyeriana. Total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) contents and the C/N and C/P ratios of decaying litter can be influenced by soil fauna. At different wetland succession stages, the effects of soil fauna on nutrient elements also differ greatly, which shows the significant difference of in-fluencing element types and degrees. Soil fauna communities strongly influenced the TC and TP concentrations of C meyeriana litter, and TP content of C lasiocapa. Our results indicate that soil fauna have important effects on litter decomposition and this influence will vary with the wetland succession and seasonal variation.

  6. DISTRIBUTION OF MERCURY IN TYPICAL WETLAND PLANTS IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ru-hai; WANG Qi-chao; WANG Yan; ZHANG Lei; SHAO Zhi-guo

    2003-01-01

    Total mercury concentration of typical wetland plants was analyzed in this paper. There were great differences of total mercury concentration among different plants: moss>hydrophyte>sedge>herbage>shrub. Total mercury concentrations show an increasing trend from vascular plants to bryophytes, and from dry to wet lands. The mercury concentration of wetland plants was higher than that of crops. The wetland soil was the source of mercury in the air close to the ground, so it affected the concentration of mercury in the plant. In different parts of a plant, mer-cury concentration was in the order of: dead stand>root>leaf>stem. Mercury concentration increased at the initial stage and decreased in the end of the growing season. According to the mercury content and biomass, mercury stock of plants was 39.4μg/m2 above ground in Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland and 35.8μg/m2 in Carex lasiocarpa wet-land.

  7. Application of Projection Pursuit Evaluation Model Based on Real-Coded Accelerating Genetic Algorithm in Evaluating Wetland Soil Quality Variations in the Sanjiang Plain,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU QIANG; XIE YONGGANG; WEI ZIMIN

    2003-01-01

    A new technique of dimension reduction named projection pursuit is applied to model and evaluatewetland soil quality variations in the Sanjiang Plain, Helongjiang Province, China. By adopting the im-proved real-coded accelerating genetic algorithm (RAGA), the projection direction is optimized and multi-dimensional indexes are converted into low-dimensional space. Classification of wetland soils and evaluationof wetland soil quality variations are realized by pursuing optimum projection direction and projection func-tion value. Therefore, by adopting this new method, any possible human interference can be avoided andsound results can be achieved in researching quality changes and classification of wetland soils.

  8. A regional classification of the effectiveness of depressional wetlands at mitigating nitrogen transport to surface waters in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.; LaMotte, Andrew E.; Sekellick, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen from nonpoint sources contributes to eutrophication, hypoxia, and related ecological degradation in Atlantic Coastal Plain streams and adjacent coastal estuaries such as Chesapeake Bay and Pamlico Sound. Although denitrification in depressional (non-riparian) wetlands common to the Coastal Plain can be a significant landscape sink for nitrogen, the effectiveness of individual wetlands at removing nitrogen varies substantially due to varying hydrogeologic, geochemical, and other landscape conditions, which are often poorly or inconsistently mapped over large areas. A geographic model describing the spatial variability in the likely effectiveness of depressional wetlands in watershed uplands at mitigating nitrogen transport from nonpoint sources to surface waters was constructed for the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP), from North Carolina through New Jersey. Geographic and statistical techniques were used to develop the model. Available medium-resolution (1:100,000-scale) stream hydrography was used to define 33,799 individual watershed catchments in the study area. Sixteen landscape metrics relevant to the occurrence of depressional wetlands and their effectiveness as nitrogen sinks were defined for each catchment, based primarily on available topographic and soils data. Cluster analysis was used to aggregate the 33,799 catchments into eight wetland landscape regions (WLRs) based on the value of three principal components computed for the 16 original landscape metrics. Significant differences in topography, soil, and land cover among the eight WLRs demonstrate the effectiveness of the clustering technique. Results were used to interpret the relative likelihood of depressional wetlands in each WLR and their likely effectiveness at mitigating nitrogen transport from upland source areas to surface waters. The potential effectiveness of depressional wetlands at mitigating nitrogen transport varies substantially over different parts of the NACP

  9. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; ; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  10. Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Tissue Nutrition and Biomass of Freshwater Wetland Plant in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhiguo; YAN Baixing; HE Yan; ZHAI Jinliang; SONG Changchun

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (4, 10, 20 and 40g/m2) and phosphorus (1.2, 4.8 and 9.6g/m2) were applied to tanks to evaluating the effects of N and P additions on plant tissue nutrition and the biomass of two freshwater wetland plants in the Sanjiang Plain of Northeast China, namely Carex lasiocarpa and Carex meyeriana. For C. lasiocarpa, the total N concentration (TN) of plant tissues under the treatment of 10g/m2 was lower compared with the other N treatments. Initially, C.lasiocarpa exhibited a significant increase of biomass as compared with the control value, reaching the maximum of 31.20±4.01 g/tank under the treatment of 10g/m2, and then dropped to 18.02±1.53g/tank under the treatment of 40g/m2.For C. meyeriana, TN generally increased with increasing amount of N applied. High N applied produced more aboveground biomass than low N applied. C. meyeriana, as the accompanying species, can adapt itself to the wetland enriched by N, and it may replace C. lasiocarpa as the dominant species of wetland. The total P concentration (TP) in tissues of C. lasiocarpa increased with P addition. The aboveground biomass of C. lasiocarpa increased with P addition,and it changed from 18.77±3.29g/tank to 46.03±3.95g/tank. However, TP of tissue may accelerate the C. meyeriana development under the treatment of 1.2g/m2. P accumulation contributes to the dominance of C. lasiocarpa but limits the production of C. meyeriana, and the latter may disappear gradually from the wetland enriched by P. Increased input of N and P might have an influence on wetland plant community composition and structure, so the effects of nutrient inputs and accumulation should be considered to protect the freshwater wetland.

  11. [Dynamics of H2S and COS emission fluxes from Calamagrostis different calamagrostis angustifolia wetlands in Sanjiang Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Hua; Liu, Jing-Shuang; Yang, Ji-Song

    2006-11-01

    Using the static chamber and chromatogram method, H2S and COS emission fluxes from the mash meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia in Sanjiang Plain were measured during growth season(5-9 month), the results showed that the seasonal and diurnal variations of H2S and COS emission fluxes were obvious, the mean H2S and COS emission fluxes from the mash meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia were 0.34 microg x (m2 x h)(-1) and - 0.29 microg x (m2 x h)(-1) respectively, the Calamagrostis angustifolia wetlands were the sources for H2S and the sinks for COS during the growth time. The emission fluxes of H2S and COS were affected by the Calamagrostis angustifolia growth, and there were H2S emission peak and COS absorbed peak during the bloom growth time, meanwhile the integrative correlation of H2S and COS emission fluxes were observed.

  12. Distribution of catfishes in wetlands of two flood plain districts in Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rajagopal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the distribution of catfishes in selected wetlands in Kancheepuram and Kanyakumari districts of Tamil Nadu, southern India. Different types of wetlands such as tanks, pools, lakes, open wells and estuaries were selected for the study based on their different environmental set up. Fishes were collected with the help of fishermen using cast and seine nets. Twelve species of catfishes from five families (Ariidae, Bagridae, Heteropneustidae, Schilbeidae and Siluridae were recorded, of which 10 species from four families were from Kanyakumari and six species belonging to three families were from Kancheepuram District. In Kancheepuram, the species recorded were Heteropneustes fossilis, Mystus seengtee, M. gulio, M. keletius, M. vittatus and Neotropius atherinoides, and in Kanyakumari the species recorded were Arius arius, Arius subrostratus, Heteropneustes fossilis, Mystus armatus, M. seengtee, M. gulio, M. montanus, M. vittatus, Ompok bimaculatus and O. malabaricus. Among the wetlands, the highest species richness was seen in Puthery and Erachakulam tanks in Kanyakumari and Chembarampakkam Lake in Kancheepuram. The lowest species richness was observed was in Vishnupuram, Thotiode tanks and Mavadi pool of the former district and Vandalur Tank, Kalpakkam Estuary of the latter. Environmental factors such as microhabitat diversity and substrate diversity in the wetlands significantly influenced species richness.

  13. CAN PALYNOLOGY CONTRIBUTE TO PLANT DIVERSITY CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES? THE WETLAND PLANTS IN SOUTHERN PO PLAIN AS A CASE STUDY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Buldrini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of the Po Plain has long been modified by natural and human factors. The present plant landscape is almost entirely anthropogenic. Many hydro-hygrophilous species, quite common until a few decades ago, are now very rare and in danger of extinction, so conservation programmes are necessary for their protection and maintenance. It is known that the former vegetation can be reconstructed thanks to palynological data, but assessing the real presence of a given species is not always possible. This work aims to understand whether palynology can give information about the presence and identification of hydro-hygrophilous species, supporting the classical flora analyses commonly conducted on herbarium data. In some cases, these species are well characterized from a morphopalynological and phytogeographical viewpoint: the plant occurrence may be suggested even by pollen findings in surface-samples. Discovering the presence of some of these species by pollen morphotypes offers a real opportunity to gear the reintroduction/reinforcing programmes, but ecological analysis will obviously be essential to ascertain the real suitability of the chosen sites, according to the ecological requirements of the species. Our analysis refers to wetlands of the southern Po plain within the Modena Province, where detailed palynological data about present and historical local flora were available.

  14. Sphagnum as an Indicator of Wetland Hydrology in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    et al. 1983). Some Sphagnum species occupy niches on or near the wetland boundary with greater frequency than other bryophytes (Lichvar et al. 2009...ERDC/CRREL TN-10-2 3 3 Desiccation Tolerance and Avoidance Strategies Bryophytes obtain moisture from a variety of sources, including...USACE 2008). Second, bryophytes are physiologically active only when hydrated. During dry periods, they become dormant, resuming normal

  15. Wetland hydrology and tree distribution of the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitman, Helen M.; Sohm, James E.; Franklin, Marvin A.

    1984-01-01

    The Apalachicola River in northwest Florida is part of a three-State drainage basin encompassing 50,800 km 2 in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. The river is formed by the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers at Jim Woodruff Dam from which it flows 171 km to Apalachicola Bay in the Gulf of Mexico. Its average annual discharge at Chattahoochee, Fla., is 690 m3/s (1958-80) with annual high flows averaging nearly 3,000 m3/s. Its flood plain supports 450 km 2 of bottom-land hardwood and tupelo-cypress forests. The Apalachicola River Quality Assessment focuses on the hydrology and productivity of the flood-plain forest. The purpose of this part of the assessment is to address river and flood-plain hydrology, flood-plain tree species and forest types, and water and tree relations. Seasonal stage fluctuations in the upper river are three times greater than in the lower river. Analysis of long-term streamflow record revealed that 1958-79 average annual and monthly flows and flow durations were significantly greater than those of 1929-57, probably because of climatic changes. However, stage durations for the later period were equal to or less than those of the earlier period. Height of natural riverbank levees and the size and distribution of breaks in the levees have a major controlling effect on flood-plain hydrology. Thirty-two kilometers upstream of the bay, a flood-plain stream called the Brothers River was commonly under tidal influence during times of low flow in the 1980 water year. At the same distance upstream of the bay, the Apalachicola River was not under tidal influence during the 1980 water year. Of the 47 species of trees sampled, the five most common were wet-site species constituting 62 percent of the total basal area. In order of abundance, they were water tupelo, Ogeechee tupelo, baldcypress, Carolina ash, and swamp tupelo. Other common species were sweetgum, overcup oak, planertree, green ash, water hickory, sugarberry, and diamond-leaf oak

  16. Soil physicochemical conditions, denitrification rates, and nosZ abundance in North Carolina Coastal Plain restored wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ever since the United States adopted a national policy of wetland “No Net Loss”, a variety of measures have been aimed at restoring wetland biogeochemical function to former wetland areas. Nitrogen is a key element controlled by properly functioning wetlands, particularly when they are located adjac...

  17. The sharp decline of East Asian summer monsoon at mid-Holocene indicated by the lake-wetland transition in the Sanjiang Plain, northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Q. Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The timing of the waxing and wining of the East Asian summer monsoon during the Holocene is still under debate. In present study, we present the high-resolution grain-size and LOI records from a well-dated mud/peat profile to reveal the lake-wetland transition in the Sanjiang Plain and discuss its significance to Holocene monsoon evolutions. The results show that the shallow-water lakes have developed in low-lying areas of the plain before 4600 yr BP, corresponding to the Holocene monsoon maximum. Thereafter, the wetlands began to initiate with the extinction of the paleolakes, marking a lake-shrinking stage with the relative dry climate. Considering the prevalent monsoon climate in the Sanjiang Plain, we suggest the lake-wetland transition at 4600 yr BP indicate a sharp decline of the summer monsoon rather than the basin infilling process. Such a remarkable monsoon weakening event has been widely documented in northern China, and we associated it with the ocean–atmosphere interacting processes in low-latitude regions.

  18. A new ranavirus isolated from Pseudacris clarkii tadpoles in playa wetlands in the southern High Plains, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrence, Shannon M; Green, D Earl; Benson, Catherine J; Ip, Hon S; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2010-06-01

    Mass die-offs of amphibian populations pose a challenging problem for conservation biologists. Ranaviruses often cause systemic infections in amphibians and, in North America, are especially virulent and lethal to larvae and metamorphs. In this paper we describe a novel ranavirus isolate as well as the first recorded occurrence of ranavirus in the southern High Plains of Texas and in associated populations of the spotted chorus frog Pseudacris clarkii. The breeding sites were playas, that is, wetlands that fill via isolated thunderstorms that can occur infrequently; thus, not every playa has water or breeding amphibians annually. We did not detect ranavirus in sympatric anurans, but other reports document ranaviruses in Pseudacris spp. elsewhere. The occurrence of multiple isolates of ranavirus in a number of Pseudacris species suggests that this genus of frogs is highly susceptible to ranaviruses and may experience exceptionally high mortality rates from infection. Thus, the virus may contribute to substantial seasonal population declines and low seasonal recruitment, with negative impacts on populations of breeding adults in successive years.

  19. Long-Term Evolution of Cones of Depression in Shallow Aquifers in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guomin Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP is one of the places where the groundwater is most over-exploited in the world. Currently, our understanding on the spatiotemporal variability of the cones of depression in this region is fragmentary. This study intends to simulate the cones of depression in the shallow aquifer across the entire NCP during the whole period from 1960 to 2011. During the simulation, the dominant role of anthropogenic activities is emphasized and carefully taken into account using a Neural Network Algorithm. The results show that cones of depression in the NCP were formed in 1970s and continuously expanded. Their centers were getting deeper with an increasing degree of groundwater exploitation. This simulation provides valuable insights for developing more sustainable groundwater management options after the implementation of the South-to-NorthWater Diversion Project (SNWDP, which is a very important surface water project in China in the near future. The numerical model in this paper is built by MODFLOW, with pumpage data completed by neural network algorithm and hydrogeological parameters calibrated by simulated annealing algorithm. Based on our long-term numerical model for regional groundwater flow in the NCP, one exploitation limitation strategy after the implementation of SNWDP is studied in this paper. The results indicate that the SNWDP is beneficial for groundwater recovery in the NCP. A number of immense groundwater cones will gradually shrink. However, the recovery of the groundwater environment in the NCP will require a long time.

  20. Estimating above-ground carbon biomass in a newly restored coastal plain wetland using remote sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B Riegel

    Full Text Available Developing accurate but inexpensive methods for estimating above-ground carbon biomass is an important technical challenge that must be overcome before a carbon offset market can be successfully implemented in the United States. Previous studies have shown that LiDAR (light detection and ranging is well-suited for modeling above-ground biomass in mature forests; however, there has been little previous research on the ability of LiDAR to model above-ground biomass in areas with young, aggrading vegetation. This study compared the abilities of discrete-return LiDAR and high resolution optical imagery to model above-ground carbon biomass at a young restored forested wetland site in eastern North Carolina. We found that the optical imagery model explained more of the observed variation in carbon biomass than the LiDAR model (adj-R(2 values of 0.34 and 0.18 respectively; root mean squared errors of 0.14 Mg C/ha and 0.17 Mg C/ha respectively. Optical imagery was also better able to predict high and low biomass extremes than the LiDAR model. Combining both the optical and LiDAR improved upon the optical model but only marginally (adj-R(2 of 0.37. These results suggest that the ability of discrete-return LiDAR to model above-ground biomass may be rather limited in areas with young, small trees and that high spatial resolution optical imagery may be the better tool in such areas.

  1. DYNAMICS OF LITTER DECOMPOSITION AND SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF PHOSPHORUS IN DECOMPOSED RESIDUA OF Calamagrotis augustifolia IN THE WETLAND OF THE SANJIANG PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    During the period of May to October in 1999, systematical studies were given to the rate of decomposition of Calamagrostis angustifolia litter, the phosphorus content and weight in decomposed residua of litter, and phosphorus content in the corresponding soil in the Sanjiang Plain. At the same time, the simulation models were listed in the paper.The results showed that the rate of weight lost of decomposition of Calamagrostis angustifolia litter is 29. 80% and the maximum of daily rate of weight lost is 0.25%, which appeared in July. The change trend of phosphorus content and weight in the decomposed residua of litter is to reduce with the decomposing process, when it comes to the day of 157,the decrement amount of the both were respectively 57.69mg/kg and 1. 6199mg, which were 72. 80% and 76.30% of its previous amount. In addition, there is a polynomial minus correlationship of phosphorus content between the variation in corresponding soil and the decomposed residua of litter at the corresponding period. The study will be helpful to further understand the process and mechanism of biochemical cycling of nutrient elements in wetland ecosystems, in addition, it will also be helpful to the restoration and rebuilding of retrogressive wetlands and reasonable development and utilization of wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain.

  2. Spatio-temporal dynamics of evapotranspiration from forested, ephemeral wetlands and its implication for hydrologic connectivity in the Western Boreal Plain in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Alexander; Kettridge, Nicholas; Devito, Kevin; Hokanson, Kelly; Leonard, Rhoswen; Krause, Stefan; Waddington, James Michael

    2017-04-01

    In catchments where hydrologic connectivity is predominantly controlled by storage-threshold dynamics, landscape units promoting water transmission can be crucial for overall ecohydrological functioning. In Canada's Western Boreal Plain, ephemeral wetlands surrounded by upland forests on deep and coarse, glacial deposits are examples of such units. In the sub-humid climate, their importance is exacerbated due to regional, multi-year water deficits, resulting from high evapotranspirative (ET) demand coinciding with most of the annual precipitation and its variability between years. Yet, these ephemeral wetlands frequently saturate during small rain events; hence, they likely play a key role in supplying water to adjacent and downstream systems in both dry and wet periods. We assess factors controlling water losses from these wetlands to the atmosphere (via the soil surface and vegetation), how they change over time (i.e. throughout the growing season), and the extent to which they vary in space. Our goal is to generate process-based understanding of ET dynamics and to determine potential feedbacks that reduce ET losses, maximizing the magnitude and period over which these landscape units may act as water sources. We hypothesize that the following mechanisms enhance the ascribed water transmitting function: (1) external and internal shading reduces incident radiation and therefore available energy to drive ET; this effect increases with leaf area, but is counter-acted by interception. (2) Vegetation structure reduces turbulent exchange with air masses above the canopy, thereby decreasing humidity gradients driving ET. (3) High, near-surface soil tensions during periods of drying limit rates of evaporation. We applied a combined measurement approach to assess spatial and temporal dynamics of ET in the 2016 growing season (May - August) and gathered additional data to assess abiotic and biotic controls on ET rates. We continuously measured ET from the wetland's surface

  3. Phosphorus Concentration and Forms in Surface and Subsurface Drainage Water from Wetland Rice Fields in the Shaoxing Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG MINGKUI; JIANG HONG; LIU XINGMEI

    2003-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is the limiting factor for eutrophication in most freshwater ecosystems. In China, Ptransported from intensively cultivated land has been reported as an important source of P in surface waters.In this study, we investigated P concentration and forms in surface and subsurface drainage from wetland ricefields in the Shaoxing plain, Zhejiang Province, China. From selected rice fields, surface drainage sampleswere collected at rice-growing, non-growing and fertilization periods, and subsurface drainage samples atdrought and rewetting (irrigation or precipitation after 5~10 d drought period in the surface soils) and wet(drainage under long-term wet soil condition) periods. Water samples were characterized for their totalreactive P (TRP), dissolved reactive P (DRP) and particulate reactive P (PRP). Concentrations of the TRPand DRP in the surface drainage ranged from 0.08 to 1.50 and 0.06 to 1.27 mg L-1, respectively. The TRPand DRP were dependent on field operation activities, and decreased in the order of fertilization period >rice-growing period > non-growing period. Phosphorus concentration of runoff receiving P fertilizer can bean environmental concern. The PRP concentration in the surface drainage, ranging from 0.01 to 0.57 mgL-1, accounted for 8%~78% of the TRP. Concentration of the TRP in the subsurface drainage was from0.026 to 0.090 mg L-1, consisting of 29%~90 % of the DRP and 10%~71% of the PRP. In the droughtand rewetting period, the PRP accounted for, on average, 63% of the TRP, much higher than in the wetperiod (23%), suggesting that there was transport of P in preferential flow during drainage events after ashort-term drought period in the surface soils. Therefore, P losses in particulate form may be importantin the subsurface drainage from rice fields when surface soils form cracks and favor rapid flow downwardthrough the soil profiles, suggesting the important role of water-dispersible colloid particles in mediating andco

  4. Two millennia of forest history deduced from closed depressions in the Lorrain plain (North-eastern, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, David; Ruffaldi, Pascale; Ritz, Frederic; Dupouey, Jean Luc; Dambrine, Etienne

    2010-05-01

    Recent archaeological surveys and ecological investigations in large "ancient" forests have shown that these areas had been often cultivated during the Roman or Medieval periods, and that this former land use is still deeply influencing present soil properties and plant biodiversity. This new perspective has boosted the research for sediment archives describing the state of forests across the archaeological and historical periods, especially in low altitude forest. Closed depressions (CD) or small hollows (over 30 000 CDs) are found in many silty plains of North-Western Europe (north-eastern France, Luxemburg and Belgium). They are defined as small (100 to 400 m²) closed wetlands, mostly supplied by rainwater. Their origin is debated. Recent coring campaigns in CDs of Lorraine (north-eastern France), 3 to 5 meters thick sediment cores were retrieved. It opened the way for palynological and pedological reconstruction of former landscapes. Here we present a sediment analysis of four peaty CDs (Assenoncourt, Römersberg, Sarrebourg and St Jean), located in different low altitude beech (Fagus) and oak (Quercus) forests, on silty clay soils, 50km from Nancy. As the oldest available map (Naudins, dated from 1728 to 1739) indicated forest boundaries similar to the present ones, these forests were considered as ancient forests. The sedimentation begins during the second Iron Age or Roman period. By this time, pollen analyses show an open landscape (70% of Non Arboreal Pollen), composed mostly by grassland (Plantago major/media, Poaceae and Asteraceae) and cropland (Cerealia-type, Centaurea cyanus). Around the 5th century AD, coinciding with the collapse of the Roman Empire, the pollen sequences describe rapid afforestation by Betula and Corylus, and later Carpinus forest. From the 8th century AD, Carpinus decreases in favour of Quercus which may reflect an anthropogenic clearing. From the 10th to the 14th century AD, croplands expand again with cultivation of hemp

  5. The Ecological Response of Carex lasiocarpa Community in the Riparian Wetlands to the Environmental Gradient of Water Depth in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqing Luan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of Carex lasiocarpa in riparian wetlands in Sanjiang Plain to the environmental gradient of water depth was analyzed by using the Gaussian Model based on the biomass and average height data, and the ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa was derived. The results indicated that the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa based on biomass was [13.45 cm, 29.78 cm], while the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa based on average height was [2.31 cm, 40.11 cm]. The intersection of the ecological water-depth amplitudes based on biomass and height confirmed that the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa was [13.45 cm, 29.78 cm] and the optimist growing water-depth of Carex lasiocarpa was 21.4 cm. The TWINSPAN, a polythetic and divisive classification tool, was used to classify the wetland ecological series into 6 associations. Result of TWINSPAN matrix classification reflected an obvious environmental gradient in these associations: water-depth gradient. The relation of biodiversity of Carex lasiocarpa community and water depth was determined by calculating the diversity index of each association.

  6. Influence of drought on salamander occupancy of isolated wetlands on the southeastern Coastal Plain of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Susan C.; Barichivich, William J.; Brown, Mary E.; Scott, David E.; Hossack, Blake R.

    2013-01-01

    In the southeastern U.S., changes in temperature and precipitation over the last three decades have been the most dramatic in winter and spring seasons. Continuation of these trends could negatively impact pond-breeding amphibians, especially those that rely on winter and spring rains to fill seasonal wetlands, trigger breeding, and ensure reproductive success. From 2009 to 2012, we monitored Spring and Fall presence of aquatic stages (larval and paedomorphic, gilled adult) of a winter-breeding amphibian (the mole salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum) and used multi-season models to estimate occupancy, local colonization and extinction. Seasonal estimates of occupancy, corrected for imperfect detection, declined from 22.3 % of ponds in Spring 2009 to 9.9 % in Fall 2012. Our best supported model suggested that changes in occupancy were driven by increased rates of extinction that corresponded with drought-related drying of ponds. Based on uncertainty in climate change projections for the Southeast, we present a conceptual model of predicted changes in wetland hydroperiods across a landscape with projected decreases and increases in future precipitation. Such precipitation changes could alter wetland hydroperiods, facilitate extinctions of species adapted to short, intermediate or long hydroperiod environments and, ultimately, modify the composition of amphibian communities within freshwater wetland ecosystems.

  7. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Great Plains Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Potamogeton, Brasenia, Nuphar) and sedges ( Carex , Cyperus, Rhynchospora), bulrushes (Scirpus, Schoenoplectus), spikerushes (Eleocharis), cattails (Typha...prairie pothole wetlands is dominated by sedges , bulrushes, grasses, and forbs, but the composition varies greatly depending upon the hydrologic regime...spikerushes, smartweeds, sedges , reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), and foxtail barley in seasonally wet areas, and western wheatgrass, buffalo grass

  8. Denitrification in restored and constructed wetlands adjacent to crop fields on the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertilizer applications on crop fields are a significant source of nitrate (NO3), and groundwater concentrations are frequently 500-1000 µM. We show that groundwater transport of agricultural NO3 results in significant denitrification in adjacent wetlands in the Choptank Basin on the Delmarva Penins...

  9. Effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition on ecosystem carbon fluxes on the Sanjiang plain wetland in Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen (N deposition across the globe may affect ecosystem CO2 exchanges and ecosystem carbon cycles. Additionally, it remains unknown how increased N deposition and N addition will alter the effects of elevated CO2 on wetland ecosystem carbon fluxes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Beginning in 2010, a paired, nested manipulative experimental design was used in a temperate wetland of northeastern China. The primary factor was elevated CO2, accomplished using Open Top Chambers, and N supplied as NH4NO3 was the secondary factor. Gross primary productivity (GPP was higher than ecosystem respiration (ER, leading to net carbon uptake (measured by net ecosystem CO2 exchange, or NEE in all four treatments over the growing season. However, their magnitude had interannual variations, which coincided with air temperature in the early growing season, with the soil temperature and with the vegetation cover. Elevated CO2 significantly enhanced GPP and ER but overall reduced NEE because the stimulation caused by the elevated CO2 had a greater impact on ER than on GPP. The addition of N stimulated ecosystem C fluxes in both years and ameliorated the negative impact of elevated CO2 on NEE. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In this ecosystem, future elevated CO2 may favor carbon sequestration when coupled with increasing nitrogen deposition.

  10. Food Security, Depression and Quality of Life in Northern Plains Indians

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Jacqueline S.; Gonzaga, Kevin; Penland, James G.; Lukaski, Henry C; Stensland, Patty

    2015-01-01

    Major health disparities, high levels of poverty and food insecurity exist in many Native American and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) communities. Relatively little research has been done on these issues and possible relationships between them. A research program was designed with the objective of exploring the relationships between these various issues, if any existed, in one sub-group of AI/AN. In the study, the incidence of food insecurity was determined in a convenience sample of Northern Plains ...

  11. Hydrological characteristics and flood plain vegetation of human impacted wetlands: A case study from Okhla Bird Sanctuary, National Capital Region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upma Manral

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yamuna River has been subjected to severe anthropogenic pressures such as water abstraction, discharge of wastewater, development activities on river floodplains, deforestation in the river basin resulting in reduced flow, loss of habitat, deterioration of water quality and loss of biological diversity. We studied hydrological characteristics such as river flow, water depth and quality and floodplain vegetation characteristics of Okhla Bird Sanctuary (OBS, a human modified floodplain wetland formed due to the construction of Okhla barrage across the Yamuna River in National Capital Region (NCR, on the Delhi-Uttar Pradesh border. The flow data for Yamuna was collected from Delhi Jal board and irrigation department of Uttar Pradesh. Study indicates reduced flow in the river downstream Wazirabad with no release of water in the summers of 2006 and 2010. For bathymetry, GARMIN 160 C Fish Finder was used after dividing study area into 50 m x 50 m grids. About 65% area had depth less than 2 m indicating more of shallower areas. Results for water quality analysis show a dissolved oxygen level at 1.6 ± 0.84 mgl-1, Biological and Chemical Oxygen demand at 16.72 ± 4.28 mgl-1 and 39.8 ± 7.71 mgl-1 respectively, indicating a high organic load in the river. The Sanctuary is facing serious threats from the rapid proliferation of Typha angustifolia and Eichhornia crassipes which were dominant species in shallow water and open water habitats, respectively. Thus, the remaining Yamuna river flood plain in the NCR, Delhi should be declared as ecologically sensitive area and appropriate measures should be taken to maintain its integrity.

  12. Utopia Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    5 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dark-toned, cratered plain in southwest Utopia Planitia. Large, light-toned, windblown ripples reside on the floors of many of the depressions in the scene, including a long, linear, trough. Location near: 30.3oN, 255.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  13. Salt Profile Distributions of Meadow Wetland in Yinchuan Plain%银川平原草甸湿地盐土及其盐分分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏贵菊; 何彤慧; 于骥; 吴春燕; 赵永全

    2016-01-01

    This paper studied the salt profile distribution of meadow wetland in Yinchuan plain based on field observation and analysis in laboratory. According to topsoil salt content soil in the study area was divided into five grades (Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ,Ⅴ) with different vegetation types, mainly salt herb meadows and salt small shrub meadow in theⅠ, salt meadow and grassy meadow inⅡ, rhizome grass meadow inⅢ,Ⅳ, forb meadow and low humidity meadow inⅤ. Total salt accumulated in meadow topsoils. Total salt decreased sharply with the increase of soil depth within 0 – 30 cm depth but slowly with 30 – 70 cm depth. Except HCO3–, other salt ions accumulated obviously in topsoils, Na+, K+, Cl– in different salinization grades shared the same trends with total salt, i.e.Ⅰ>Ⅱ>Ⅲ>Ⅳ >Ⅴ. Meadow wetland plants accumulated salt, mainly were NaCl and NaHCO3, while mainly were NaCl, NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 in soil.%通过野外观测和室内分析,研究银川平原草甸湿地盐土及其盐分的分布特征,根据土壤表层全盐含量将研究区土壤划分为5个等级,分别为Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ,不同土壤等级的植被类型不同,在土壤Ⅰ中主要分布盐生草本草甸和盐生小灌木草甸,在土壤Ⅱ中主要分布盐生草甸和丛生禾草草甸,在Ⅲ、Ⅳ中主要分布根茎禾草草甸,在Ⅴ中主要分布杂类草草甸和一些低湿草甸;研究区草甸土壤全盐含量在垂直方向上表现出明显的表聚现象,在0~30 cm土层,随着土壤深度的增加,土壤全盐含量急剧下降,在30~70 cm土壤全盐含量的下降则较为平缓;各盐分离子除了HCO3–以外,其余各离子均表现出明显的表聚现象,但在不同的土壤等级中,只有Na+、K+、Cl–和土壤全盐的表现一致,均为Ⅰ>Ⅱ>Ⅲ>Ⅳ>Ⅴ。草甸湿地植物体中也有一定的盐分累积,在植物体中,主要盐分为NaCl、NaHCO3;在土壤中主要盐分为NaCl、NaHCO3、Na2CO3。

  14. Finding palaeowaters in a multi-layered aquifer system in the Lom depression of Danubian Plain in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Túri, Marianna; Palcsu, László; Molnár, Mihály; Futó, István; Orehova, Tatiana; Toteva, Aglaida; Hristov, Vladimir; Benderev, Aleksey

    2017-04-01

    This work is an environmental isotope investigation of groundwater samples from a multi-layered aquifer system in the Lom depression of Danubian Plain in Bulgaria. Our previous studies in the Carpathian-Pannonian Region had been convinced through groundwater researches using noble gas temperatures that the recharge temperature difference between the Holocene and the late Pleistocene recharged waters is 9.13±0.89°C. The aim of this research in Bulgaria is to observe this phenomenon at the outside of the Carpathian-Pannonian Region. The purpose of the sampling campaign was to find out that one of the aquifers of the Lom depression could be a potential site for late Pleistocene, and Holocene paleoclimate reconstruction. There are water samples from the Dacian-Romanian complex, Upper-Pontian aquifer, Meotian-Lower Pontian aquitard and the Sarmatian aquifer as well. The collected water samples were examined for water chemistry, stable carbon, oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, and for noble gas concentrations, and besides them for radiocarbon and tritium. The radiocarbon content of the water samples are in the range from 15.9 pMC to 98.6 pMC. Based on the obtained radiocarbon values it can be stated that tree aquifers of four could be contain such waters which recharged during the early Holocene late Pleistocene (Pontian, Dacian, Sarmatian). There are two wells in the Pontian aquifer (Dolni Tsibar, 20.8 pMC; Agroinvest, 23.8 pMC) with lower radiocarbon content. Based on the stable oxygen composition of the Agroinvest well, which is with -14.2 ‰ more negative than the others so it can be late Pleistocene recharged water. In the Dacian aquifer might be one well, the Valchedram which can be late Pleistocene recharged with 23.7 pMC. In the Sarmatian aquifer can be find the oldest water sample from all with 15.9 pMC of Smirnenski. The obtained noble gas temperatures and tritium values might be stated this hypothesis as well. All measurements were carried out in Hertelendi

  15. 唐宋时期湖州平原菱的种植与湿地农业开发%The Planting of Water Chestnut and Wetland Agriculture Development in the Huzhou Plain in the Tang-Song Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晴

    2012-01-01

    The water chestnut was planted popularly in the Huzhou Plain in the Tang-Song Dynasties. There was a broad stretch of wetland in the late Tang and early Song Dynasties, at the same time Form. Trapa spp. was banded in some of the shallow lakes and meres. After history came to the period of Southern Song Dy- nasty, many meres were enclosed, the land were changed to farmland instead. Meanwhile water chestnut was planted in the specialized ponls. The planting area of water chestnuts were expanded in the Huzhou Plain, and many cultivated species were selected. People used water chestnut to fish and to protect the embankments. In brief, the wetland exploitation in the Huzhou Plain was always connected with the planting of water chestnuts.%唐宋时期江南地区湖州平原区中存在着大面积的湖沼湿地,菱是这个区域中典型水生植被之一。唐末至宋初人类活动对本地区湖沼湿地的干扰较少,湿地生境中存在着大面积菱的野生植物群落,宋以后随着太湖地区水体资源的开发与集约化利用程度的加强,湖州平原中人工栽培菱的面积扩大,出现了众多的栽培菱品种。南宋时期人们利用许多技术措施对菱进行了广泛的栽培,湖州平原湿地农业开发进程中始终伴随着水生植物菱的种植。

  16. The role of goal representations, cultural identity, and dispositional optimism in the depressive experiences of American Indian youth from a Northern Plains tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyser, Jason; Scott, Walter D; Readdy, Tucker; McCrea, Sean M

    2014-03-01

    American Indian researchers and scholars have emphasized the importance of identifying variables that promote resilience and protect against the development of psychopathology in American Indian youth. The present study examined the role of self-regulation, specifically goal characteristics (i.e., goal self-efficacy, goal specificity, intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation, and goal conflict) and dispositional optimism, as well as cultural identity and self-reported academic grades in the depressive experiences of American Indian youth from a North American plains tribe. One hundred and sixty-four participants (53% female) completed measures of goal representations, cultural identity, dispositional optimism, academic performance, and depressive symptoms. Results supported a model in which higher goal self-efficacy, American Indian cultural identity, grade point average, and dispositional optimism each significantly predicted fewer depressive symptoms. Moreover, grade point average and goal self-efficacy had both direct and indirect (through dispositional optimism) relationships with depressive symptoms. Our findings underscore the importance of cognitive self-regulatory processes and cultural identity in the depressive experiences for these American Indian youth and may have implications for youth interventions attempting to increase resiliency and decrease risk for depressive symptoms.

  17. Hydrology of a natural hardwood forested wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    George M. Chescheir; Devendra M. Amatya; R. Wayne Skaggs

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents the hydrology of a natural forested wetland near Plymouth, NC, USA. The research site was located on one of the few remaining, undrained non-riverine, palustrine forested hardwood wetlands on the lower coastal plain of North Carolina. A 137 ha watershed within the 350ha wetland was selected for intensive field study. Water balance components...

  18. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Depression Wetlands in the Upper Des Plaines River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    site inventory FQA of the assessment area. The FQI can be used as a measure of intrinsic plant biodiversity at the site. Native FQI = c n , where n...American Waterfowl Management Plan C, F Areas identified as significant under the RAMSAR treaty H Areas supporting rare or unique plant communities C,H

  19. Evidence for natural molecular hydrogen seepage associated with Carolina bays (surficial, ovoid depressions on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Province of the USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgonnik, Viacheslav; Beaumont, Valérie; Deville, Eric; Larin, Nikolay; Pillot, Daniel; Farrell, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-01

    A study of soil gases was made in North Carolina (USA) in and around morphological depressions called "Carolina bays." This type of depression is observed over the Atlantic coastal plains of the USA, but their origin remains debated. Significant concentrations of molecular hydrogen (H2) were detected, notably around the bays. These measurements suggest that Carolina bays are the surficial expression of fluid flow pathways for hydrogen gas moving from depth to the surface. The potential mechanisms of H2 production and transport and the geological controls on the fluid migration pathways are discussed, with reference to the hypothesis that Carolina bays are the result of local collapses caused by the alteration of rock along the deep pathways of H2 migrating towards the surface. The present H2 seepages are comparable to those in similar structures previously observed in the East European craton.

  20. Wetland Ecosystem Health and Disturbance Factors Analysis on the Sanjiang Plain Based on SEM Theory%基于 SEM三江平原湿地生态系统健康与扰动因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书可; 李顺龙

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of Sanjiang Plain Wetland ecological system characteristics, we established structural equation model with SPSS20.0 and Lisrel8.7 software.According to the structural equation model analysis, we determined the main factors that influence the wetland ecosystem health and its relationship to each other.Natural disturbance and human disturbance directly affected the wetlands immune and ability to resist disturbance.Wetlands’ immunity and its ability to resist disturb-ance of self-ability affected the demand of human society, and it possessed the property of the intermediary variable.Wet-land ability to meet the demand of human society was the direct expression of wetland ecosystem health, and wetlands’ im-munity and its ability to resist disturbance were the indirect reflection of wetland ecosystem health.%依据三江平原湿地生态系统特点,用SPSS20.0和Lisrel8.7软件建立了结构方程模型。根据结构方程模型分析,确定湿地生态系统健康的主要影响因子及其相互关系。结果表明:自然扰动和人类扰动,直接影响湿地自我免疫与抗扰动能力的发挥;湿地自我免疫与抗扰动能力,又影响湿地满足人类社会需求能力,具有中介变量的属性。湿地满足人类社会需求能力,是湿地生态系统健康的直接表现;湿地自我免疫与抗扰动能力,是湿地生态系统健康的间接反映。

  1. Evolution Characteristics and Influence Factors of Deep Groundwater Depression Cone in North China Plain, China--A Case Study in Cangzhou Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasong Li; Fawang Zhang; Zhantao Han; Ping Wang; Honghan Chen; Zhaoji Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the global hotspots of groundwater depletion, groundwater is almost the only source of water for agricultural, industrial and drinking water in this region. After long-term’s over-exploitation of deep groundwater, there appeared several deep ground-water depression cones, such as Cangzhou cone, Dezhou cone, Hengshui cone, Tianjin cone, etc., in which the Cangzhou cone is one of the typical cones for its special geography and hydrogeology condi-tions. In this study, the authors intended to analyze the evolution characteristics and influence factors of deep groundwater depression cone in Cangzhou region, especially the No. III aquifer depression cone, which is the main exploitation zone in this region. Analysis of the evolution of the groundwater depres-sion cone of the No. III aquifer group in Cangzhou region showed that this process can be divided into four stages, namely, development, stable development, rapid expansion, and gradual recovery. The shape and evolution characteristics of the depression cone at different stages are described by analyzing the evolution of the -30, -40, and -50 contours of the groundwater table, for example the closed area of water table contour of -50 m has been enlarged from 95 km2 in 1985 to 6 528.5 km2in 2005. The dominant factors that affect the evolution characteristics at different stages are proposed. The results showed that relatively long dry periods with less precipitation, special geological and hydrogeological conditions, and sharply increased water consumption for industrial and agricultural development are the main factors that cause the formation of deep groundwater depression cones. Meanwhile, an environmental response against groundwater exploitation is presented, and rational solutions are suggested to avert water crisis.

  2. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Depressants KidsHealth > For Teens > Depressants A A A What's ... How Can Someone Quit? Avoiding Depressants What Are Depressants? Depressants are drugs that calm nerves and relax ...

  3. Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing the Functions of Headwater Slope Wetlands on the South Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    loblolly pine plantations . Rates of forested wetland loss in the South were greatest from the 1950’s to the 1970’s, but losses still occur due to...are all suitable. Managed forests and pine plantations are considered suitable only if soils, litter, and ground-layer vegetation have not been...tree diameter, is a measure of the dominance and biomass of trees in a forest stand. VCTDEN applies to all functions. In South Carolina Headwater

  4. STUDY ON WETLAND LOSS AND ITS REASONS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wetlands are ecosystems with many functions. But the general public and government lack a comprehensive understanding of the importance of wetland benefits, thus making blindly exploitation, wetland resources decreasing and losing biodiversity. So wetlands in China, as in most countries, have suffered heavily from the pressure of development and have confronted with the threats of loss. The paper takes Sanjiang Plain marshes, lakes in the middle reaches of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River, coastal wetlands and mangroves as cases to study wetland loss in China, and puts forward main existing reasons of wetland loss, such as blindly reclamation and exploitation of wetland resources,over-exploitation of bio-resources in wetland, etc. More recently, there has been a growing recognition of the benefits of wetlands and a wide range of legal and regulatory initiatives have been undertaken which are designed to improve wetland management and conservation. On the basis of the above analysis, the paper brings forward some suggestions on wetland conservation.

  5. SCP (systematic conservation planning) optimization for a wetland conservation network system on Sanjiang Plain, China%基于系统保护规划的三江平原湿地保护网络体系优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲艺; 李佳珊; 王继丰; 崔福星; 孙工棋; 栾晓峰; 倪红伟

    2015-01-01

    This study optimized an existing conservation network system using SCP and gap analysis while evaluating the effectiveness of the new system. The process of establishing high-value conservation networks took into account biodiversity features of different levels and dimensions in the Sanjiang Plain. The process also accounted for the irreplaceability of catchments, since these planning units fall under the framework of SCP. In the horizontal dimension, we had two conservation level objectives, one for the ecosystem level and one for the species level. Eight types of marsh wetland systems, all lake ecosystems, and high conservation value river wetland systems were selected as ecosystem level conservation surrogates. Thirteen endangered birds and four endangered mammals were selected as species level conservation surrogates. In the vertical dimension, we chose 3 effective underground water distribution areas. Ecosystem conservation targets were set based on ecological function value, rarity and threat trends. Species conservation targets were set based on level of endangerment, scope for survival, and population growth/decline trends. Protection targets were set for water resources according to their runoff modulus and recharge modulus. SCP utilizes the key concept of irreplaceability, which is a measure, varying from zero to one, indicating the importance of an area ( planning unit) for the achievement of regional conservation targets. A map of irreplaceability values is therefore a base map of conservation planning. Finally, we combined irreplaceability values with vulnerability factors ( factors threatening the ecology of the region) to design different planning options. Results were as follows:( 1 ) High conservation value areas accounted for about 16% of the whole region and were generally distributed along river and lake ecosystems. Specifically, at headwater intersections, such as the intersection of the Heilongjiang and Wusulijiang, the junction of the

  6. Restoring Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    FERTILE LAND:The Qixing River Wetland in Heilongjiang Province was recently named a wetland of international importance at the Sixth Asian Wetland Symposium held in Wuxi City, east China’s Jiangsu Province, on October 13

  7. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  8. 基于ANN-CA的银川平原湿地景观演化驱动力情景模拟分析%The Scenarios Simulation Analysis of Driving Forces of Wetland Landscape Evolution Using ANN-CA in Yinchuan Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美美; 张荣群; 郝晋珉; 艾东

    2014-01-01

    Wetland landscape spatio-temporal dynamic development process is more important than the ultimate form of its spatial pattern. Only clearly understand wetland dynamic development process, the theory and deci-sion support of wetland resources protection and sustainable utilization can be provided. In this paper, Yinchuan Plain wetland landscape evolution driving force analysis model was established, full considering the causal rela-tionship between the geographical phenomena in space and time. The transform rules of cellular automata (CA) were built with the model of artificial neural network (ANN), which reduced the man-made subjective factors, and improved the accuracy. Comparing the prediction results with actual wetland types, it concludes that the pre-diction accuracy reaches about 84.24%. Three driving force factors as annual precipitation, population density and agriculture gross output value were selected for the scenarios simulation of wetland landscape pattern. The scenarios simulation results show that, average annual rainfall has more significant driving force to natural wet-land, in the process of reduced by 10%to increased by 10%, the area of river and lake wetlands continues to in-crease, with river wetland increased 26.3844 km² and lake wetland 22.4100km². Rice paddies and ponds main-tain a steady growth. Population density has more significant driving force to artificial wetland. With the growth rate of population density changing from 8‰to 18.7‰, rice paddies and ponds expanded greatly, i.e. 19.4364 km² and 18.2088 km², respectively. But the area of natural wetlands (river and lake wetlands) decreased gradual-ly, and the construction land increased markedly. Total agricultural output also has more significant driving force to artificial wetlands, but slow reverse inhibition force to natural wetlands. When the growth rate of total agricul-tural output changes from 4.5%to 6.5%, artificial wetlands such as rice paddies and ponds expand rapidly

  9. National Wetlands Inventory - Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent, approximate location and type of wetlands and deepwater habitats in the United States and its Territories. These data delineate...

  10. National Wetlands Inventory - Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent, approximate location and type of wetlands and deepwater habitats in the United States and its Territories. These data delineate...

  11. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overview URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003213.htm Depression - overview To use the sharing features on this ... older adults Major depression Persistent depressive disorder Postpartum depression Premenstrual ... Review Date 1/4/2016 Updated by: Timothy Rogge, ...

  12. Podzolização em solos de áreas de depressão de topo dos tabuleiros costeiros do Nordeste brasileiro Podzolization in soils of depressed summit areas on the coastal plains of the brazilian Northeastern region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Alvarenga Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Os solos associados às depressões de topo dos Tabuleiros Costeiros são diferenciados sob vários aspectos ainda pouco estudados no Brasil. Geralmente, à medida que se aproxima dessas depressões, nota-se que a textura dos solos é mais arenosa e o hidromorfismo, mais acentuado, sendo comum a ocorrência de Espodossolos. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar diferentes extrações de Fe, Al, Si e C orgânico com o intuito de compreender o processo de podzolização em solos associados às depressões de topo dos Tabuleiros Costeiros do Nordeste brasileiro. Foram descritos perfis e coletadas amostras de solo em quatro áreas: Coruripe, AL; Neópolis, SE; Acajutiba, BA; e Nova Viçosa, BA. Nas amostras, determinou-se o teor de Fe, Al e Si pelos extratores ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio, oxalato de amônio e pirofosfato de sódio e realizou-se o fracionamento químico da matéria orgânica do solo. Os aumentos nos teores de C orgânico e de Fe e Al pelos diferentes extratores nos horizontes iluviais (de acúmulo de cada solo, relativamente aos horizontes eluviais (de perda, refletiram a morfologia de campo e reforçaram a importância do processo de podzolização nos solos estudados. Complexos Al-húmus dominam inteiramente a matriz dos horizontes iluviais associados ao hidromorfismo, enquanto naqueles sem hidromorfismo a influência das diferentes formas de Fe é variável. O perfil de Espodossolo Ferrihumilúvico é o único, dos quatro estudados, que possui horizontes espódicos com subscrito "s" e, portanto, onde os teores de Fe extraídos refletiram-se diferencialmente na morfologia.The soils associated to depressed summits on the Coastal Plains are still little studied in Brazil and are differentiated in several aspects. Generally, the closer a soil is to these depressions, the sandier is the texture and the more accentuated the hydromorphism, where the occurrence of Spodosols is common. The objective of this

  13. A novel algorithm for delineating wetland depressions and mapping surface hydrologic flow pathways using LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    In traditional watershed delineation and topographic modeling, surface depressions are generally treated as spurious features and simply removed from a digital elevation model (DEM) to enforce flow continuity of water across the topographic surface to the watershed outlets. In re...

  14. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued......, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression...

  15. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    , that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression......The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued...

  16. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... judgment and mental functioning nausea and vomiting memory loss (depressants can cause users to have no memory of events that happened while they were under the influence) Long-Term Effects When people misuse depressants over a long ...

  17. 基于多源数据融合的宁夏平原不同湿地类型生态服务功能价值评估%Estimating of ecological service value for different wetland types based on multi-source data fusion in Ningxia Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜晓燕; 米文宝; 许浩; 董军

    2016-01-01

    通过市场价值法、碳税率法、影子工程法、发展阶段系数法、旅行费用法和成果参数法对宁夏平原河流、湖泊、沼泽、人工湿地4种不同类型湿地的生态服务价值进行估算,以最终服务价值作为宁夏平原湿地生态系统服务的总价值,并在景观分类的基础上结合遥感影像对宁夏平原不同类型湿地的生态服务价值进行空间表达.结果表明:2014年宁夏平原湿地生态服务功能总价值约为228.22×108元,占宁夏平原地区国内生产总值的15%,中间服务价值为125.69×108元;单位面积湿地生态服务最终价值约为15.27×104元/hm2,低于全球和全国湿地而高于西北内陆干旱区,显示出其特有的绿洲湿地特点;最终服务价值按从大到小排序依次为旅游休闲>提供水源>固碳释氧>气候调节>土壤保持>物质生产>净化水质>文化科研价值;从不同湿地类型最终服务价值来看,各湿地类型总价值为河流(136.82×108元)>沼泽(36.80×108元)>湖泊(32.56×108元)>人工湿地(22.04×108元),单位面积生态最终服务价值为河流(19.85×104元/hm2)>人工湿地(12.42×104元/hm2)>湖泊(11.07×104元/hm2)>沼泽(11.02×104元/hm2);宁夏平原湿地生态服务功能价值空间差异很大,河流、湖泊、沼泽湿地服务功能价值量均是平罗县最高,人工湿地服务价值量最高的是贺兰县,银川市西夏区和金凤区4类湿地的价值量均较低.%Summary Wetlands are important ecosystems with various functions in Northwest of China . Though Ningxia Plain locates in arid region , wetlands are widely distributed in the region because of the Yellow River , where the wetlands are typical as oasis wetlands . There are four different types of wetlands , including rivers , lakes , marshes and constructed wetlands . A variety of ecological services are widely provided for people living in the developing countries .

  18. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizza, G; Ravn, Pernille; Chrousos, G P

    2001-01-01

    Existing studies of the relationship between depression and osteoporosis have been heterogeneous in their design and use of diagnostic instruments for depression, which might have contributed to the different results on the comorbidity of these two conditions. Nevertheless, these studies reveal...... a strong association between depression and osteoporosis. Endocrine factors such as depression-induced hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and hypercortisolism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and increased concentration of circulating interleukin 6, might play a crucial role...... in the bone loss observed in subjects suffering from major depression....

  19. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    There is ample evidence that depression is000  a common comorbid health issue in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Reviews have also concluded that depression in diabetes is associated with higher HbA1c levels, less optimal self-care behaviours, lower quality of life, incident vascular...... complications and higher mortality rates. However, longitudinal studies into the course of depression in people with type 1 diabetes remain scarce. In this issue of Diabetologia, Kampling and colleagues (doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4123-0 ) report the 5 year trajectories of depression in adults with newly diagnosed...... type 1 diabetes (mean age, 28 years). Their baseline results showed that shortly after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes a major depressive episode was diagnosed in approximately 6% of participants, while 8% suffered from an anxiety disorder. The longitudinal depression data showed that, in a 5 year...

  20. Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  1. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jon O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Nyhederne er fulde af historier om depression. Overskrifter som: ’Danskerne propper sig med lykkepiller’ eller ‘depression er stadigvæk tabu’ går tit igen i dagspressen. Men hvor er nuancerne, og hvorfor gider vi læse de samme historier igen og igen? Måske er det fordi, vores egne forestillinger er...

  2. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Different people have different symptoms. Some symptoms of depression include: Persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” mood Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness ...

  3. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caring for children and aging parents, abuse, and poverty may trigger depression in some people. Medical illness – ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women’s Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary ...

  4. Morphology, mineralogy and micromorphology of soils associated to summit depressions of the Northeastern Brazilian Coastal Plains Morfologia, mineralogia e micromorfologia de solos de depressões de topo de Tabuleiros Costeiros do Nordeste Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Alvarenga Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of comprehensive characterizations of soils associated to gentle summit depressions of the Northeastern Brazilian Coastal Plains justifies this work, which had as objective to provide basic information for the more diverse agricultural and non-agricultural uses. For that, representative soils (Spodosols or similar soils from these environments were selected in Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia states. This approach included characterization of morphological, mineralogical and micromorphological properties of the soil profiles, employing standard procedures. The morphological characterization corroborated the effect of the podzolization process during the formation of these soils. The mineralogy of the clay fraction of these soils was basically composed of kaolinite and quartz, which, associated to the very sandy texture, helped in the understanding of the obtained data. The soil micromorphological study, besides confirming the field morphology, mainly in regard to the strong cementation, aggregated value to the work in terms of the secure identification of the clay illuviation process (non-identified in the field, in association with the dominant podzolization process.A carência de caracterizações abrangentes de solos associados às depressões suaves de topo dos Tabuleiros Costeiros do nordeste brasileiro justifica este trabalho, o qual objetivou fornecer informações básicas para as mais diversas finalidades agrícolas e não-agrícolas. Para tal, foram selecionados solos representativos (Espodossolos ou solos afins desses ambientes nos estados de Alagoas, Sergipe e Bahia. A abordagem utilizada englobou a caracterização de atributos morfológicos, mineralógicos e micromorfológicos de perfis dos solos, empregando-se metodologia padronizada. A caracterização morfológica corroborou o efeito do processo de podzolização na formação desses solos. A mineralogia da fração argila desses solos foi composta basicamente por

  5. Modeling the Hydrologic Processes of a Depressional Forested Wetland in South Carolina, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Timothy Callahan; Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Carl C. Trettin; Devendra M. Amatya

    2004-01-01

    Depressional forested wetlands or geographically isolated wetlands such as cypress swamps and Carolina bays are common land features in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern US. Those wetlands play important roles in providing wildlife habitats, water quality improvement, and carbon sequestration. Great stresses have been imposed on those important ecosystems...

  6. Wetland Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Marilyn

    1994-01-01

    Examines what wetland conservation means to different groups of Louisiana's coastal residents. Describes coastal resources, reasons for their deterioration, conservation efforts, and the impact of a public perception that conservation of wetlands is closely tied to conservation of the existing lifestyle. (LZ)

  7. Wetland Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefit...

  8. Freshwater Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides descriptions about freshwater wetlands, such as marshes, swamps, and bogs. Contains three learning activities which deal with unusual wetland plants, the animals and plants in a typical marsh, and the effects of a draught on a swamp. Included are reproducible handouts and worksheets for two of the activities. (TW)

  9. Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Robert M; Vanderlip, Erik R; Rado, Jeffrey

    2016-10-04

    This issue provides a clinical overview of depression, focusing on screening, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  10. Effects of sediment removal on vegetation communities in Rainwater Basin playa wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beas, Benjamin J; Smith, Loren M; LaGrange, Theodore G; Stutheit, Randy

    2013-10-15

    Sedimentation from cultivated agricultural land use has altered the natural hydrologic regimes of depressional wetlands in the Great Plains. These alterations can negatively affect native wetland plant communities. Our objective was to determine if restored wetlands are developing plant communities similar to reference wetland conditions following hydrologic restoration. For this study, hydrology was restored via sediment removal. Thirty-four playa wetlands in reference, restored, and agricultural condition within the Rainwater Basin Region of Nebraska were sampled in 2008 and 2009. In 2008, reference and restored wetlands had higher species richness and more native, annual, and perennial species than agricultural wetlands. Restored wetlands had similar exotic species richness compared to reference and agricultural wetlands; however, reference wetlands contained more than agricultural wetlands. Restored wetlands proportion of exotics was 3.5 and 2 times less than agricultural wetlands and reference wetlands respectively. In 2009, reference and restored wetlands had higher species richness, more perennial species, and more native species than agricultural wetlands. Restored wetlands contained a greater number and proportion of annuals than reference and agricultural wetlands. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that reference, restored, and agricultural wetlands are dominated by different plant species and guilds. Restored wetland plant communities do not appear to be acting as intermediates between reference and agricultural wetland conditions or on a trajectory to reach reference conditions. This may be attributed to differing seed bank communities between reference and restored wetlands, dispersal limitations of perennial plant guilds associated with reference wetland conditions, and/or management activities may be preventing restored wetlands from reaching reference status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. National Wetlands Inventory Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear wetland features (including selected streams, ditches, and narrow wetland bodies) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National...

  12. Plains Traveler

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    10 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust devil traveling across a plain west-southwest of Schiaparelli Crater, in far eastern Sinus Meridiani. The dust devil is casting a shadow toward the northeast, just south (below) of an egg-shaped crater. Location near: 6.4oS, 349.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  13. National Wildlife Refuge System within the Plains and Prairie Potholes Landscape Conservation Cooperative

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map demonstrates the spatial location and total number of both refuges and wetland management districts within the Plains and Prairie Potholes LCC, and USFWS...

  14. Modeling the climatic and subsurface stratigraphy controls on the hydrology of a Carolina Bay wetland in South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Timothy J. Callahan; Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Carl C. Trettin

    2006-01-01

    Restoring depressional wetlands or geographically isolated wetlands such as cypress swamps and Carolina bays on the Atlantic Coastal Plains requires a clear understanding of the hydrologic processes and water balances. The objectives of this paper are to (1) test a distributed forest hydrology model, FLATWOODS, for a Carolina bay wetland system using seven years of...

  15. Restoring Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2011-01-01

    Watching flocks of waterfowl taking off and landing in the large expanse of wetland near his home is a favorite pastime of Li Qiwen a middle-aged primary school teacher in Weichang Township,Luobei County in Heilongjiang Province.The wetland is home to hundreds of species of birds,including rare white storks and red-crowned cranes,as well as more common geese and ducks.

  16. What Makes a Wetland a Wetland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides descriptions of and activities about various kinds of wetlands. Contains seven learning activities ranging from creating wetland scenes with picture cutouts to actually exploring a wetland. Includes reproducible handouts and worksheets for several of the activities. (TW)

  17. Virginia ESI: Wetlands (Wetland Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the coastal wetlands for Virginia, classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI)...

  18. Flood hydrology and methylmercury availability in coastal plain rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M; Journey, Celeste A; Chapelle, Francis H; Lowery, Mark A; Conrads, Paul A

    2010-12-15

    Mercury (Hg) burdens in top-predator fish differ substantially between adjacent South Carolina Coastal Plain river basins with similar wetlands coverage. In the Congaree River, floodwaters frequently originate in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont regions, where wetlands coverage and surface water dissolved methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations are low. Piedmont-driven flood events can lead to downward hydraulic gradients in the Coastal Plain riparian wetland margins, inhibiting MeHg transport from wetland sediments, and decreasing MeHg availability in the Congaree River habitat. In the adjacent Edisto River basin, floodwaters originate only within Coastal Plain sediments, maintaining upward hydraulic gradients even during flood events, promoting MeHg transport to the water column, and enhancing MeHg availability in the Edisto River habitat. These results indicate that flood hydrodynamics contribute to the variability in Hg vulnerability between Coastal Plain rivers and that comprehensive regional assessment of the relationship between flood hydrodynamics and Hg risk in Coastal Plain streams is warranted.

  19. Flood hydrology and methylmercury availability in Coastal Plain rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) burdens in top-predator fish differ substantially between adjacent South Carolina Coastal Plain river basins with similar wetlands coverage. In the Congaree River, floodwaters frequently originate in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont regions, where wetlands coverage and surface water dissolved methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations are low. Piedmont-driven flood events can lead to downward hydraulic gradients in the Coastal Plain riparian wetland margins, inhibiting MeHg transport from wetland sediments, and decreasing MeHg availability in the Congaree River habitat. In the adjacent Edisto River basin, floodwaters originate only within Coastal Plain sediments, maintaining upward hydraulic gradients even during flood events, promoting MeHg transport to the water column, and enhancing MeHg availability in the Edisto River habitat. These results indicate that flood hydrodynamics contribute to the variability in Hg vulnerability between Coastal Plain rivers and that comprehensive regional assessment of the relationship between flood hydrodynamics and Hg risk in Coastal Plain streams is warranted.

  20. Revisiting Plain Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the plain language movement and its origins. Reviews past and current resources related to plain language writing. Examines criticism of the movement while examining past and current plain language literature, with particular attention to the information design field. (SR)

  1. Floristic composition of two wetland forests in Araguaian Plain, State of Tocantins, Brazil, and comparison with other areas Composição floristica de duas florestas inundáveis na Planície do Araguaia, Estado do Tocantins, Brasil, e comparação com outras áreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Venâncio Martins

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonally inundated native forest fragments ("ipucas" located in natural landform depression swales of the Araguaian Plain are currently under land use pressure. Their composition needs to be better understood to guarantee their protection. This comparative study of fragments under different land use conditions was carried out at Lago Verde Farm, Lagoa da Confusão,Tocantins, Brazil. The location coordinates are UTM 643586 and 644060 East and 8792795 and 8799167 North. This study aimed to first analyze and compare the floristic composition of two seasonally inundated forest fragments of approximately one hectare each. The first is located in an intact (without human intervention Gramineous-Woody Savanna region and the second in a rice cultivation region. The floristic composition of both fragments was then compared to that of other wetland forests located in the Northern, Central Western and Southeastern regions of Brazil.All the floristic compositions are affected by seasonal flooding and soil water saturation. The floristic inventory used a census method that sampled all trees and shrubs with perimeter at 1.30 m from soil (PAP = 15cm; 665 individuals, 33 families and 49 species were recorded for the intact region and 807 individuals, 35 families and 70 species for the altered region fragment. The values of H' = 0.806 (Shannon-Weaver and J = 3.44 nats /individual (equability for the fragment in the region affected by rice cultivation are considered high compared to the intact region fragment values (H' = 0.761 and J = 2.97. Families contributing to floristic richness in the altered region fragment were Fabaceae (9 species, Vochysiaceae (6 and Annonaceae (4. In the intact region fragment, Fabaceae also presented the largest number of species (8 followed by Arecaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Vochysiaceae (3 each. When comparing the forests from various regions in Brazil, floristic similarity was found to be small. Greater similarity was found when

  2. Trends and causes of historical wetland loss, Sabine National Wildlife Refuge, southwest Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Julie C.; Morton, Robert A.; Kelso, Kyle W.

    2011-01-01

    Prior U.S. Geological Survey studies (Open-File Reports 2005-1216 and 2009-1158) examined historical land- and water-area changes and estimated magnitudes of land subsidence and erosion at 10 wetland sites in the Mississippi River delta plain. The present study extends that work by analyzing interior wetland loss and relative magnitudes of subsidence and erosion at five additional wetland sites in Sabine National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) in the western chenier plain. The study sites were selected because their geologic setting differed from that of the delta plain; also, although the refuge marshes had been managed partly to minimize wetland loss, interior wetland losses there were extensive. Historical aerial photography, datum-corrected marsh elevations and water depths, and sediment cores were integrated to evaluate historical land- and water-area changes at SNWR.

  3. Coastal Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Area Cooperative Educational Services, New Haven, CT. Environmental Education Center.

    This material includes student guide sheets, reference materials, and tape script for the audio-tutorial unit on Inland Wetlands. A set of 35mm slides and an audio tape are used with the materials. The material is designed for use with Connecticut schools, but it can be adapted to other localities. The unit materials emphasize the structure,…

  4. Urban wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Salm, N.; Bellmann, C.; Hoeijmakers, S.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. This is a manual meant for designers who are interested in water purifications within the boundaries of a project, presenting constructed wetlands. It is a guide to quickly provide you with project relevant

  5. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  6. National Wetlands Inventory Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland area features mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National Wetlands Inventory is a national program sponsored by the US Fish and...

  7. Kansas Playa Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the distribution, areal extent, and morphometry of playa wetlands throughout western Kansas. Playa wetlands were...

  8. Man-wetland dependency and socio-economic evaluation of wetland functions of rural India through participatory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malabika Biswas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are almost the exclusive source of natural resources upon which rural economic depend. In fact wetlands are generally highly productive eco-systems, providing many important benefits. These benefits are mainly flood control and ground water recharging and pollution reduction and act as filtering aquatic system. Wetland, however, contains numerous goods and services that have an economic value not only to the local populations, but also to people living outside the periphery of the wetland. Stakeholders’ participation is very essential to protect and preserve wetland because it plays a very important role economically as well as ecologically in the wetland system. The objective of the present paper is to analyze whether there is any dependency of the gender, educational status, mouzas (Mouzas are constituents of a block according to land reform of West Bengal Government in India and wetland functions on annual income of the local community. Considering a flood-plain wetland in rural India, the focus is extended to recognize the pattern of wetland functions according to the nature of involvement of people through cluster analysis for the male and the female population. Using the statistical software, R-2.8.1, ANOVA table is constructed. Since the p-value is lower than 0.5 for each case, it can be remarked that there is a significance dependency of gender, educational status, mouzas, and wetland functions on annual income. However, S-plus-2000 is applied to get a complete scenario of pattern of the wetland functions, in terms of involvement of males and females, through the cluster analysis. The main conclusion is that, the significance effects of gender, educational status, mouzas, and wetland function on annual income have been found to be satisfactory while the pattern of occupation of the local community based on wetland functions is completely different for the male and the female population.

  9. Global warming and prairie wetlands: potential consequences for waterfowl habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiani, Karen A.; Johnson, W. Carter

    1991-01-01

    The accumulation of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere is expected to warm the earth's climate at an unprecedented rate (Ramanathan 1988, Schneider 1989). If the climate models are correct, within 100 years the earth will not only be warmer than it has been during the past million years, but the change will have occurred more rapidly than any on record. Many profound changes in the earth's environment are expected, including rising sea level, increasing aridity in continental interiors, and melting permafrost. Ecosystems are expected to respond variously to a rapidly changing climate. Tree ranges in eastern North American are expected to shift northward, and seed dispersal may not be adequate to maintain current diversity (Cohn 1989, Johnson and Webb 1989). In coastal wetlands, rising sea level from melting icecaps and thermal expansion could flood salt-grass marshes and generally reduce the size and productivity of the intertidal zone (Peters and Darling 1985). As yet, little attention has been given to the possible effects of climatic warming on inland prairie wetland ecosystems. These wetlands, located in the glaciated portion of the North American Great Plains (Figure 1), constitute the single most important breeding area for waterfowl on this continent (Hubbard 1988). This region annually produces 50-80% of the continent's total duck production (Batt et al. 1989). These marshes also support a variety of other wildlife, including many species of nongame birds, muskrat, and mink (Kantrud et al. 1989a). Prairie wetlands are relatively shallow, water-holding depressions that vary in size, water permanence, and water chemistry. Permanence types include temporary ponds (typically holding water for a few weeks in the springs), seasonal ponds (holding water from spring until early summer), semipermanent ponds (holding water throughout the growing season during most years), and large permanent lakes (Stewart and Kantrud 1971). Refilling usually occurs in spring from

  10. Acidification of experimental wetlands: Effects on wetland productivity and survival of juvenile black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Chu, D.S.; Bunck, C.M.; Mingo, T.M.; Schaffner, W.W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Six man-made wetlands (0.02 ha each) and pen-reared broods of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) were used to assess the effects of reduced pH on the quality of fish- free, palustrine habitat for brood rearing. Acid treatment was assigned randomly among newly constructed wetlands during April through June 1984-85, to simulate depressed pH from snowmelt and spring rain. Sampling of chlorophyll epiphytic growth, zooplankton and macroinvertebrates confirmed reduced productivity of acidified (pH 5.0) versus control (pH 6.8) wetlands. Primary productivity was particularly reduced in acidified wetlands in early spring as indicated by high water transparency and low chlorophyll a concentrations. Chlrophyll a concentrations showed treatment (p = 0.01) and date (p = 0.05) effects, but no interaction, and dry weight of epiphytic growth was lower (p = 0.03) in acidified versus control wetlands. Numbers of zooplankton were similar in experimental wetlands, although controls generally exceeded acidified wetlands in abundance; only a single treatment effect for cladocerans (p = 0.1) was detected. Sweep net samples yielded greater numbers (p = 0.03), taxa (p = 0.01) and biomass (p = 0.07) of macroinvertebrates in control wetlands with gastropods, pelecypods and leeches notably reduced by acidification. Placement of 18 broods (female with four 10-day-old ducklings) for 10-day trials on experimental wetlands revealed limited growth, altered behaviour and marked reduction in survival of ducklings on acidified wetlands. An inadequate number of invertebrates is indicated as the cause for poor duckling productivity on acidified wetlands

  11. Influence of hydrologic loading rate on phosphorus retention and ecosystem productivity in created wetlands. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsch, W.J.; Cronk, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Four 2- to 3-ha constructed freshwater riparian wetlands in Lake County, Illinois, were subjected to two hydrologic regimes of pumped river water to simulate nonpoint source pollution. The experimental wetlands at the Des Plaines River Wetland Demonstration Project were designed to develop and test wetland design principles, construction methods, and management programs needed to create and maintain wetlands for the purposes of water quality management, flood control, and fish and wildlife habitat. High-flow wetlands (HFW) with short retention times received 34 to 38 cm of river water per week, and low-flow wetlands (LFW) with high retention times received 10 to 15 cm per week. This report summarizes research results for phosphorus dynamics and retention, macrophyte development, periphyton productivity, and overall water column metabolism through 1992. All of these functions were hypothesized to be related to hydrologic conditions.

  12. Ohio Uses Wetlands Program Development Grants to Protect Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wetland water quality standards require the use of ORAM score to determine wetland quality. OEPA has also used these tools to evaluate wetland mitigation projects, develop performance standards for wetland mitigation banks and In Lieu Fee programs an.

  13. Hydrologic Controls On Methylmercury Availability In Coastal Plain Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P. M.; Brigham, M. E.; Burns, D. A.; Button, D. T.; Lutz, M. A.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.; Riva-Murray, K.; Journey, C.

    2011-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) in streams is often attributed to methylation in up-gradient wetland areas, with episodic flood events maximizing wetland-stream hydrologic connectivity and dominating MeHg supply to the stream habitat. A number of studies have demonstrated that Coastal Plain streams in the southeastern United States are particularly vulnerable to high MeHg bioaccumulation and have attributed this vulnerability to wetland abundance and strong hydrologic connectivity between wetland areas and adjacent stream aquatic habitat. Because characteristically coarse-grained Coastal Plain sediments favor vertical infiltration with little surface runoff, flood events attributable to Coastal Plain precipitation are driven by rising groundwater, promoting efficient transport of MeHg from wetland/floodplain source areas to the stream habitat and increasing in-stream availability. Several observations at McTier Creek, South Carolina, however, suggest that good hydrologic connectivity and efficient MeHg transport in Coastal Plain systems are not limited to flood conditions. Close correspondence between stream and shallow-groundwater water levels at McTier indicate good hydrologic connectivity exists prior to flood conditions. Dissolved MeHg concentrations do not increase under flood conditions. Thus, we assessed the flux of water and dissolved mercury (Hg) species (FMeHg and total Hg (FTHg)) from surface water and groundwater sources in a short reach at McTier Creek during separate events in April and July 2009, to determine the importance of shallow groundwater Hg transport from floodplain areas to the stream under non-flood conditions. Mass balance assessments indicated that, under non-flood conditions, the primary supply of water, FMeHg, and FTHg within the reach (excluding upstream surface-water influx) was groundwater discharge, rather than tributary transport from wetlands, in-stream MeHg production, or atmospheric deposition. The results indicate efficient transport of

  14. Wonderful Wetlands: An Environmental Education Curriculum Guide for Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King County Parks Div., Redmond, WA.

    This curriculum guide was designed to give teachers, students, and society a better understanding of wetlands in the hope that they learn why wetlands should be valued and preserved. It explores what is meant by wetlands, functions and values of wetlands, wetland activities, and wetland offerings which benefit animal and plant life, recreation,…

  15. [Wetlands of priority restoration in Northeast China based on spatial analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhang-Yu; Liu, Dian-Wei; Wang, Zong-Ming; Ren, Chun-Ying; Tang, Xu-Guang; Jia, Ming-Ming; Wang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    By using GIS/RS technology, and from the aspects of landscape structure, river- and road densities, wetness index, geomorphology, and cultivated land productivity, a spatial analysis was made on the potentiality of wetland restoration in Northeast China, with the regions of priority and secondary priority restoration wetlands determined. Then, by using the coordinated development index of crop production and wetland as well as the landscape indices, the wetland restoration effect was verified. In Northeast China, the wetland area of priority restoration was 1.78 x 10(6) hm2, among which, farmland and grassland were the main types for restoration, accounting for 96.7% of the total, and mainly located in the Sanjiang Plain in the northeastern part and the Songnen Plain in the central part of Northeast China. The wetland area of secondary priority restoration was 1.03 x 10(6) hm2. After the restoration of the wetlands, the wetland area in Northeast China would be increased by 37.4%, compared with the present wetland area, and the value of the coordinated development index of crop production and wetland would increase from 0.539 before restoration to 0.733 after restoration. The landscape pattern would be more benefit to the performance of the ecological functions of the wetlands. This study revealed that the restoration scheme of the wetlands in Northeast China based on spatial analysis was practicable, which could provide data support for the implement of wetland restoration and the improvement of ecological environment in Northeast China.

  16. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  17. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  18. VSWI Wetlands Advisory Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset represents the DEC Wetlands Program's Advisory layer. This layer makes the most up-to-date, non-jurisdictional, wetlands mapping avaiable to the public...

  19. Why are wetlands important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, comparable to rain forests and coral reefs. An immense variety of species of microbes, plants, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish, and mammals can be part of a wetland ecosystem.

  20. Artesian Wetlands Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Artesian Wetlands Survey includes data on the wetlands in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. Data recorded includes location, area of influence, area inundated,...

  1. Wetland Program Pilot Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Wetland Grant Database (WGD) houses grant data for Wetland Program Development Grants (created by EPA in 1990 under the Clean Water Act Section 104(b)(3)...

  2. Improving wetland mapping techniques

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mapping wetland extent, structure and invasives using radar imagery. Acquiring optical, thermal, LIDAR, and RADAR images and analysis for improved wetland mapping,...

  3. Modoc wetlands study plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Study plan for Modoc Wetlands Study: An assessment of the probable responses of selected wildlife to wetlands management on the Modoc National Forest.

  4. Wetlands and infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2001-01-01

    There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health intera...

  5. Redeeming the Weeping Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Renowned as the"Kidneys of the Earth,"wetlands are one of the three major ecosystems of the planet,along with forests and seas.With 10 percent of the world’s wetlands,China ranks number one in terms of the area of wetlands in Asia,and fourth in the world.China’s wetlands are abundant in type(containing all-natural and man-made types listed in the Convention

  6. Wetlands in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Wetlands are shallow marine waters and wet areas in cluding rivers, lakes and marshes. According to scientists, even reservoirs and paddy fields fall into the category. Wetlands are classified into over 40 types but accounts for only 6% of the earth's total land area. Human beings inhabit by water and grass because wetlands provide us with water and wet soil.

  7. Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Nick C.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Hughes, Zoe J.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kulp, Mark A.; Miner, Michael D.; Smith, Jane M.; Barras, John A.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km2 of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a weak zone (shear strength 500–1450 Pa) was observed ∼30 cm below the marsh surface, coinciding with the base of rooting. High salinity wetlands had no such zone (shear strengths > 4500 Pa) and contained deeper rooting. Storm waves during Hurricane Katrina produced shear stresses between 425–3600 Pa, sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands. Vegetation in low salinity marshes is subject to shallower rooting and is susceptible to erosion during large magnitude storms; these conditions may be exacerbated by low inorganic sediment content and high nutrient inputs. The dramatic difference in resiliency of fresh versus more saline marshes suggests that the introduction of freshwater to marshes as part of restoration efforts may therefore weaken existing wetlands rendering them vulnerable to hurricanes. PMID:20660777

  8. Trends and causes of historical wetland loss in coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Wetland losses in the northern Gulf Coast region of the United States are so extensive that they represent critical concerns to government environmental agencies and natural resource managers. In Louisiana, almost 3,000 square kilometers (km2) of low-lying wetlands converted to open water between 1956 and 2004, and billions of dollars in State and Federal funding have been allocated for coastal restoration projects intended to compensate for some of those wetland losses. Recent research at the St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) focused on understanding the physical processes and human activities that contributed to historical wetland loss in coastal Louisiana and the spatial and temporal trends of that loss. The physical processes (land-surface subsidence and sediment erosion) responsible for historical wetland loss were quantified by comparing marsh-surface elevations, water depths, and vertical displacements of stratigraphic contacts at 10 study areas in the Mississippi River delta plain and 6 sites at Sabine National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) in the western chenier plain. The timing and extent of land loss at the study areas was determined by comparing historical maps, aerial photographs, and satellite imagery; the temporal and spatial trends of those losses were compared with historical subsidence rates and hydrocarbon production trends.

  9. EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURE RECLAMATION ON THE HYDROLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yi-yong

    2001-01-01

    [1]CHEN Gang-qi, WANG Yi-yong et al., 1993. A study on marsh evapotranspiration in the Sanjiang Plain[J]. Scientia Geographica Sinica, 13(3): 220-226. (in Chinese)[2]CHEN Gang-qi, MA Xue-hui, 1997. Research on changes of ground feature and water balance of marsh before and after marsh reclamation in Sanjiang Plain[J]. Scientia Geographica Sinoca, 17( supp.): 427-433. (in Chinese)[3]Department of Swamp Research, Changchun Institute of Geography, 1983. The Swamp of Sanjiang Plain [M]. Beijing:Science Press. (in Chinese)[4]LIU Yin-liang, LU Xian-guo and Yang Qing, 1994. Influence of the wetland reclamation on the soil ecosystem in northeast China[A]. In: Wetland Environment and Peatland Utilization[C]. Changchun: Jilin People′s Publishing House,194-199.[5]SHEN Mao-cheng, 1998. An urgent attention to conservation of Sanjiang Plain wetlands[J]. Wetlands International, (5): 2-5.[6]WANG Yi-yong, LIU Zhao-li, 1994. Effects of regional climate after marsh land reclamation in the Sanjiang Plain[A] . In:Wetland Environment and Peatland Utilization[ C]. Changchun: Jilin People′s Publishing House, 211-217.[7]YANG Yong-xing, Liu Xing-tu et al, 1996. The problems of ecological environment and exploitation of marsh cological agriculture [A] . In: Study on Marsh in the Sanjiang Plain [C] .Beijing: Science Press, 146-151. (in Chinese)

  10. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of wetland…

  11. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of…

  12. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of…

  13. Colorado wetlands initiative : 1997-2000 : Protecting Colorado's wetlands resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Colorado Wetlands Initiative is an endeavor to protect wetlands and wetland-dependent wildlife through the use of voluntary, incentive-based mechanisms. It is a...

  14. Select state inland wetland protection laws. A review of the state laws and their natural resource data requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    Although many states afford some measure of protection for wetland areas through flood-plain regulations or through programs for coastal areas, shorelands, scenic and wild rivers or pollution control, few states have programs that adequately deal with conservation of wetlands. Only 16 states have legislation specifically regulating development or use of wetlands. Most of the wetland acts apply only to coastal wetlands, several to inland wetlands and three acts apply to both. Many other states are still regulating wetland use through the dredge and fill and/or critical area program. Several offer tax incentives to property owners to encourage protection of wetlands or broader open spaces. Many states have acquired wetlands for park and wildlife purposes and a large measure of wetland protection is achieved by the very restrictive controls applied to floodways areas. Direct floodplain or floodway regulations or state standards for local regulations were adopted in 24 states but protection of ecological values of wetlands is rarely an explicit objective of these programs. Scenic and wild river programs adopted in one half of the states provide some protection for wetland areas.

  15. Ecological outcomes and evaluation of success in passively restored Southeastern depressional wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Rebecca R. Sharitz; Christopher D. Barton

    2010-01-01

    Depressional wetlands may be restored passively by disrupting prior drainage to recover original hydrology and relying on natural revegetation. Restored hydrology selects for wetland vegetation; however, depression geomorphology constrains the achievable hydroperiod, and plant communities are influenced by hydroperiod and available species pools. Such constraints can...

  16. Ecological outcomes and evaluation of success in passively restored southeastern depressional wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.; Barton, Christopher, D.

    2010-11-01

    Abstract: Depressional wetlands may be restored passively by disrupting prior drainage to recover original hydrology and relying on natural revegetation. Restored hydrology selects for wetland vegetation; however, depression geomorphology constrains the achievable hydroperiod, and plant communities are influenced by hydroperiod and available species pools. Such constraints can complicate assessments of restoration success. Sixteen drained depressions in South Carolina, USA, were restored experimentally by forest clearing and ditch plugging for potential crediting to a mitigation bank. Depressions were assigned to alternate revegetation methods representing desired targets of herbaceous and wet-forest communities. After five years, restoration progress and revegetation methods were evaluated. Restored hydroperiods differed among wetlands, but all sites developed diverse vegetation of native wetland species. Vegetation traits were influenced by hydroperiod and the effects of early drought, rather than by revegetation method. For mitigation banking, individual wetlands were assessed for improvement from pre-restoration condition and similarity to assigned reference type. Most wetlands met goals to increase hydroperiod, herb-species dominance, and wetland-plant composition. Fewer wetlands achieved equivalence to reference types because some vegetation targets were incompatible with depression hydroperiods and improbable without intensive management. The results illustrated a paradox in judging success when vegetation goals may be unsuited to system constraints.

  17. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - Montana Wetland and Riparian Framework - Map Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Wetland and Riparian Framework represents the extent, type, and approximate location of wetlands, riparian areas, and deepwater habitats in Montana....

  18. The Plains of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic plains units of various types comprise at least 80% of the surface of Venus. Though devoid of topographic splendor and, therefore often overlooked, these plains units house a spectacular array of volcanic, tectonic, and impact features. Here I propose that the plains hold the keys to understanding the resurfacing history of Venus and resolving the global stratigraphy debate. The quasi-random distribution of impact craters and the small number that have been conspicuously modified from the outside by plains-forming volcanism have led some to propose that Venus was catastrophically resurfaced around 725×375 Ma with little volcanism since. Challenges, however, hinge on interpretations of certain morphological characteristics of impact craters: For instance, Venusian impact craters exhibit either radar dark (smooth) floor deposits or bright, blocky floors. Bright floor craters (BFC) are typically 100-400 m deeper than dark floor craters (DFC). Furthermore, all 58 impact craters with ephemeral bright ejecta rays and/or distal parabolic ejecta patterns have bright floor deposits. This suggests that BFCs are younger, on average, than DFCs. These observations suggest that DFCs could be partially filled with lava during plains emplacement and, therefore, are not strictly younger than the plains units as widely held. Because the DFC group comprises ~80% of the total crater population on Venus the recalculated emplacement age of the plains would be ~145 Ma if DFCs are indeed volcanically modified during plains formation. Improved image and topographic data are required to measure stratigraphic and morphometric relationships and resolve this issue. Plains units are also home to an abundant and diverse set of volcanic features including steep-sided domes, shield fields, isolated volcanoes, collapse features and lava channels, some of which extend for 1000s of kilometers. The inferred viscosity range of plains-forming lavas, therefore, is immense, ranging from the

  19. Scoping Agriculture, Wetland Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is identified as the main cause of wetland degradation and loss. Using a drivers, pressures, state changes, impacts and responses (DPSIR) framework to analyze 90 cases drawn from all parts of the world and all wetland types, this report assesses the character of agriculture - wetlands interactions (AWIs) and their impacts in socio-economic and ecosystem services terms. The report is a technical framework that is used to scope out the relevance and nature of AWIs, identify response...

  20. Ecology of testate amoebae and their potential use as palaeohydrologic indicators from peatland in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lihong; Li, Hongkai; Wang, Kehong; Wu, Donghui; Wu, Haitao

    2014-12-01

    Testate amoebae are sensitive indicators of substrate moisture in peatlands. Over the last decades, they have been studied to reconstruct hydrological changes since the Holocene. However, these studies have been geographically restricted to North America and Europe. We conducted the first investigation of testate amoebae on the largest continental fresh water wetland in the Sanjiang Plain, China. The objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on the ecology of testate amoebae in the peatlands of Northeast China and to assess the potential of using them as environmental indicators in this ecosystem. We examined modern testate amoeba assemblages and species-environmental relationships at 46 microsites within 5 waterlogged depressions. The environmental parameters measured included: depth to water table, pH, and loss on ignition. The results showed that the dominant species were Trinema complanatum type, Euglypha rotunda type, Euglypha strigosa type, and Centropyxis cassis type. Redundancy analysis demonstrates that water table depth has the most important effect on testate amoeba assemblages, explaining 16.7% ( p = 0.002) of the total variance. pH was not a statistically significant factor for testate amoeba assemblages. Weighted averaging and weighted averaging partial least squares models were used to build transfer functions for depth to water table. The best performing transfer function was generated by the weighted averaging partial least squares model with an r 2 LOSO of 0.62 and RMSEPLOSO of 6.96 cm. Results indicate that testate amoebae in waterlogged depression peatland have the potential to be used as indicators for hydrological changes and for palaeohydrologic reconstructions in the Sanjiang Plain.

  1. Impacts of Intensified Agriculture Developments on Marsh Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqing Luan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A spatiotemporal analysis on the changes in the marsh landscape in the Honghe National Nature Reserve, a Ramsar reserve, and the surrounding farms in the core area of the Sanjiang Plain during the past 30 years was conducted by integrating field survey work with remote sensing techniques. The results indicated that intensified agricultural development had transformed a unique natural marsh landscape into an agricultural landscape during the past 30 years. Ninety percent of the natural marsh wetlands have been lost, and the areas of the other natural landscapes have decreased very rapidly. Most dry farmland had been replaced by paddy fields during the progressive change of the natural landscape to a farm landscape. Attempts of current Chinese institutions in preserving natural wetlands have achieved limited success. Few marsh wetlands have remained healthy, even after the establishment of the nature reserve. Their ecological qualities have been declining in response to the increasing threats to the remaining wetland habitats. Irrigation projects play a key role in such threats. Therefore, the sustainability of the natural wetland ecosystems is being threatened by increased regional agricultural development which reduced the number of wetland ecotypes and damaged the ecological quality.

  2. Ecological and zoogeographical significance of terrestrial isopods from the Carei Plain natural reserve (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupsa Diana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Carei Plain natural reserve we identified 15 terrestrial isopod species: Haplophthalmus mengii, Haplophthalmus danicus, Hyloniscus riparius, Hyloniscus transsylvanicus, Plathyarthrus hoffmannseggii, Cylisticus convexus, Porcellionides pruinosus, Protracheoniscus politus, Trachelipus arcuatus, Trachelipus nodulosus, Trachelipus rathkii, Porcellium collicola, Porcellio scaber, Armadillidium vulgare and Armadillidium versicolor. The highest species diversity is found in wetlands, while the lowest is in plantations and forests. On the Carei Plain, there are some terrestrial isopods that are normally connected with higher altitudes. Moreover, some sylvan species are present in the open wetlands. Unlike marshes, sand dunes present anthropophilic and invasive species. The diversity of the terrestrial isopods from the Carei Plain protected area is high due to the habitats’ diversity and the history of this area. Thus, the composition of the terrestrial isopod communities from the area underlines its distinct particularities, emphasizing the necessity of preserving the natural habitats.

  3. Hydrological disturbance diminishes predator control in wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Nathan J; Cook, Mark I

    2015-11-01

    Effects of predators on prey populations can be especially strong in aquatic ecosystems, but disturbances may mediate the strength of predator limitation and even allow outbreaks of some prey populations. In a two-year study we investigated the numerical responses of crayfish (Procambarus fallax) and small fishes (Poeciliidae and Fundulidae) to a brief hydrological disturbance in replicated freshwater wetlands with an experimental drying and large predatory fish reduction. The experiment and an in situ predation assay tested the component of the consumer stress model positing that disturbances release prey from predator limitation. In the disturbed wetlands, abundances of large predatory fish were seasonally reduced, similar to dynamics in the Everglades (southern Florida). Densities of small fish were unaffected by the disturbance, but crayfish densities, which were similar across all wetlands before drying, increased almost threefold in the year after the disturbance. Upon re-flooding, juvenile crayfish survival was inversely related to the abundance of large fish across wetlands, but we found no evidence for enhanced algal food quality. At a larger landscape scale (500 km2 of the Everglades), crayfish densities over eight years were positively correlated with the severity of local dry disturbances (up to 99 days dry) during the preceding dry season. In contrast, densities of small-bodied fishes in the same wetlands were seasonally depressed by dry disturbances. The results from our experimental wetland drought and the observations of crayfish densities in the Everglades represent a large-scale example of prey population release following a hydrological disturbance in a freshwater ecosystem. The conditions producing crayfish pulses in the Everglades appear consistent with the mechanics of the consumer stress model, and we suggest crayfish pulses may influence the number of nesting wading birds in the Everglades.

  4. Wetlands: Earth's Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands are unique, diverse, and productive habitats that emerge at the fringe of aquatic and upland land systems. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines wetlands as "areas that are regularly inundated by surface water or groundwater and characterized by a preva...

  5. Microbiology of wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Wetlands are ecologically as well as economically important systems due to their high productivity, their nutrient (re)cycling capacities, and their prominent contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions. Being on the transition between terrestrial and—aquatic ecosystems, wetlands are buffers for

  6. Good Wetland Agricultural Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Zingstra, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Within the Guiding Agriculture Wetland Interaction (GAWI) project the Driver!Pressure!State! Impact!Response (DPSIR) approach has been adopted to describe and analyse agriculture!wetland interactions. The DPSIR approach provides a consistent framework to analyse the complex causal chain among

  7. Rural School District Reorganization on the Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Miles

    2002-01-01

    Rural school district reorganization and school consolidation are put into perspective by reviewing the large population increases that fueled small-school growth in the Great Plains, 1870-1930. Since the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, population losses, improvements in transportation, and arguments advocating economies of scale and increased…

  8. Martensite Formation in Partially and Fully Austenitic Plain Carbon Steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, S.M.C.; Sietsma, J.

    2009-01-01

    The progress of martensite formation in plain carbon steels Fe-0.46C, Fe-0.66C, and Fe-0.80C has been investigated by dilatometry. It is demonstrated that carbon enrichment of the remaining austenite due to intercritical annealing of Fe-0.46C and Fe-0.66C does not only depress the start temperature

  9. Martensite Formation in Partially and Fully Austenitic Plain Carbon Steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, S.M.C.; Sietsma, J.

    2009-01-01

    The progress of martensite formation in plain carbon steels Fe-0.46C, Fe-0.66C, and Fe-0.80C has been investigated by dilatometry. It is demonstrated that carbon enrichment of the remaining austenite due to intercritical annealing of Fe-0.46C and Fe-0.66C does not only depress the start temperature

  10. Closed depression topography and Harps soil, revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Harps soil (Fine-loamy, mixed superactive, mesic Typic Calciaquoll) developed around wetland depressions. The purpose of this study is 1) to delineate surface deposition of carbonates representing Harps soil which results from outward and upward flow around closed depressions, and 2) to relate t...

  11. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  12. Neotropical coastal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L.; Batzer, Darold P.; Baldwin, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropical region, which includes the tropical Americas, is one of the world's eight biogeographic zones. It contains some of the most diverse and unique wetlands in the world, some of which are still relatively undisturbed by humans. This chapter focuses on the northern segment of the Neotropics (south Florida, the Caribbean islands, Mexico, and Central America), an area that spans a latitudinal gradient from about 7 N to 29 N and 60 W to 112 W. Examples of coastal wetlands in this realm include the Everglades (Florida, USA), Ten Thousand Islands (Florida, USA), Laguna de Terminos (Mexico), Twin Cays (Belize), and Zapata Swamp (Cuba). Coastal wetlands are dominated by mangroves, which will be emphasized here, but also include freshwater swamps and marshes, saline marshes, and seagrass beds. The aim of this chapter is to provide a broad overview of Neotropical coastal wetlands of the North American continent, with an emphasis on mangroves, since this is the dominant vegetation type and because in-depth coverage of all wetland types is impossible here. Instead, the goal is to describe the environmental settings, plant and animal communities, key ecological controls, and some conservation concerns, with specific examples. Because this book deals with wetlands of North America, this chapter excludes coastal wetlands of South America. However, much of the information is applicable to mangrove, marsh, and seagrass communities of other tropicaI regions.

  13. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why. Depression symptoms in children and teens Common signs and ... in normal activities, and avoidance of social interaction. Depression symptoms in older adults Depression is not a ...

  14. Wetlands Inventory Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Nevada wetlands inventory is a unit of a nationwide survey undertaken by the Fish and Wildlife Service to locate and tabulate by habitat types the important...

  15. WaterWetlands_NWI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VCGI downloaded NWI quads from the US FWS web site and reprojected to VCS NAD83. NWI digital data files are records of wetlands location and classification as...

  16. Classics of Artifical Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    By the construcfion of frraced fields over the past cenfuries,the Hani people created wetland in the ailao Mountains,an area where there originally was no such land ,which greatly improved the local ecosystem.

  17. Hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones wetland area, Ponce, southern Puerto Rico, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Soler-López, Luis R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Municipio Autónomo de Ponce and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, conducted a study of the hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones area in Ponce, southern Puerto Rico. (Punta Cabullones is also referred to as Punta Cabullón.) The Punta Cabullones area is about 9 square miles and is an ecological system made up of a wetland, tidal flats, saltflats, mangrove forests, and a small fringing reef located a short distance offshore. The swales or depressions between successive beach ridges became development avenues for saline to hypersaline wetlands. The Punta Cabullones area was designated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as a coastal barrier in the 1980s because of its capacity to act as a buffer zone to ameliorate the impacts of natural phenomenon such as storm surges. Since 2003, Punta Cabullones has been set aside for preservation as part of the mitigation effort mandated by Federal and State laws to compensate for the potential environmental effects that might be caused by the construction of the Las Américas Transshipment Port. Total rainfall measured during 2008 within the Punta Cabullones area was 36 inches, which is slightly greater than the long-term annual average of 32 inches for the coastal plain near Ponce. Two evapotranspiration estimates, 29 and 37 inches, were obtained for the subarea of the Punta Cabullones area that is underlain by fan-delta and alluvial deposits by using two variants of the Penman semi-empirical equation. The long-term water stage and chemical character of the wetland in Punta Cabullones are highly dependent on the seasonal and annual variations of both rainfall and sea-wave activity. Also, unseasonal short-term above-normal rainfall and sea-wave events resulting from passing storms may induce substantial changes in the water stage and the chemical character of the wetland. In general, tidal fluctuations exert a minor role in

  18. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  19. [Research progress on wetland ecotourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Long; Lu, Lin

    2009-06-01

    Wetland is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity, possessing higher tourism value and environmental education and community participation functions. Wetland ecotourism reflects the sustainable development of tourism economy and wetland protection, having received great concern from governments and scholars at home and abroad. This paper summarized the related theories and practices, discussed the research advances in wetland ecotourism from the aspects of significance, progress, contents, methods and results, and pointed out the important research fields in the future, aimed to accelerate the development of wetland ecotourism research and to provide reference about the resources exploitation, environment protection, and scientific administration of wetland and related scenic areas.

  20. Metro Multnomah Wetlands - Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project characterizes wetlands use by juvenile salmonids and other fishes in the Multnomah Channel Marsh Natural...

  1. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - MO 2012 East West Gateway Wetlands (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Cowardin’s Classification of Wetlands and Deep Water Habitats of the United States (http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/wetlands/classwet/index.htm), together with...

  2. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - MO 2012 East West Gateway Wetlands (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Cowardin’s Classification of Wetlands and Deep Water Habitats of the United States (http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/wetlands/classwet/index.htm), together with...

  3. Wetland InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowinski, S.; Kim, S.; Amelung, F.; Dixon, T.

    2006-12-01

    Wetlands are transition zones where the flow of water, the nutrient cycling, and the sun energy meet to produce a unique and very productive ecosystem. They provide critical habitat for a wide variety of plant and animal species, including the larval stages of many ocean fish. Wetlands also have a valuable economical importance, as they filter nutrients and pollutants from fresh water used by human and provide aquatic habitats for outdoor recreation, tourism, and fishing. Globally, many such regions are under severe environmental stress, mainly from urban development, pollution, and rising sea level. However, there is increasing recognition of the importance of these habitats, and mitigation and restoration activities have begun in a few regions. A key element in wetlands conservation, management, and restoration involves monitoring its hydrologic system, as the entire ecosystem depends on its water supply. Heretofore, hydrologic monitoring of wetlands are conducted by stage (water level) stations, which provide good temporal resolution, but suffer from poor spatial resolution, as stage station are typically distributed several, or even tens of kilometers, from one another. Wetland application of InSAR provides the needed high spatial resolution hydrological observations, complementing the high temporal resolution terrestrial observations. Although conventional wisdom suggests that interferometry does not work in vegetated areas, several studies have shown that both L- and C-band interferograms with short acquisition intervals (1-105 days) can maintain excellent coherence over wetlands. In this study we explore the usage of InSAR for detecting water level changes in various wetland environments around the world, including the Everglades (south Florida), Louisiana Coast (southern US), Chesapeake Bay (eastern US), Pantanal (Brazil), Okavango Delta (Botswana), and Lena Delta (Siberia). Our main study area is the Everglades wetland (south Florida), which is covered by

  4. Wetland Restoration and Sediment Removal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2008, Minnesota’s Private Lands Program and Wetland Management Districts began to compare different methods of restoring prairie pothole wetlands to see if there...

  5. Wetlands Restoration Definitions and Distinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological restoration is a valuable endeavor that has proven very difficult to define. The term indicates that degraded and destroyed natural wetland systems will be reestablished to sites where they once existed. But, what wetland ecosystems are we talki

  6. Wetland plants: biology and ecology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronk, Julie K; Fennessy, M. Siobhan

    2001-01-01

    Providing a detailed account of the biology and ecology of wetland plants as well as applications of wetland plant science, this book presents a synthesis of studies and reviews from biology, plant...

  7. 1986 Wetland Plant List Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Wetland Plant List represents the combined efforts of many biologistsworking over the last 10 years to define the wetland flora of the UnitedStates.

  8. Analysis of developing non-timber forest products of Sanjiang Plain,Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tong; ZHOU Zhi-qiang

    2006-01-01

    The Sanjiang Plain is a vast area of alluvial floodplains and low hills in northeast Heilongjiang Province. Because of the excessive land reclamation in the past, the whole forest area and the quality have decreased. In the view of sustainable development, this paper analyzed the possibilities for Non-timber Forest Product in terms of developing potentialities, markets, social effects and the status of NTFPs in several counties of Sanjiang Plain. The result showed that, active development and management for NTFPs is an optimistic option to how to balance the wetlands conservation and sustainable economic development.

  9. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Vymazal

    2010-01-01

    The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating); hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow); and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified accordi...

  10. Findings of the wetland survey of the David Witherspoon, Inc., 1630 Site, South Knoxville, Knox County, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A. [JAYCOR Environmental, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    In accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Regulations surveys for wetland presence or absence were conducted in September 1996 on the DWI-1630 site (Witherspoon Landfill) located in South Knoxville, Knox County, Tennessee. The DWI-1630 site includes a closed, capped landfill area, areas of past disturbance adjacent to the capped area, and patches of hardwood forest. Wetlands were identified on the landfill cap and in a small bottomland that was formerly used for a retention pond in the southwest corner of the DWI-1630 site. The wetlands identified on the cap are man-induced, atypical situation wetlands. These areas have hydrophytic vegetation and wetland hydrology, but the soils do not have hydric characteristics. Wetland development appears to be due to a combination of the grading or subsidence of the clay landfill cap, the low permeability of the clay fill soil, and the absence of surface drainage outlets from the depressions. These atypical situation wetland areas may not be considered by the US Army Corps of Engineers or the State of Tennessee to be jurisdictional wetlands. The wetland in the former retention pond area has hydrophytic vegetation, wetland hydrology, and hydric soils and is a jurisdictional wetland.

  11. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  12. Conservation of wetlands of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Bakobi, B.L.M.

    1993-01-01

    The major wetland systems of Tanzania are described together with specific functions,products and attributes of lakes, rivers, swamps, estuaries, mangroves and coastal areas. Reasons and priorities for the conservation of wetlands are given together with the existingproblems of wetland conservation and their solutions.

  13. 76 FR 22785 - Wetland Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... 7 CFR Part 12 RIN 0578-AA58 Wetland Conservation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, United States.... Background Existing wetland conservation provisions in 7 CFR part 12 require that NRCS' certification of a... Subjects in 7 CFR Part 12 Administrative practices and procedures, Soil conservation, Wetlands. For...

  14. Investigating Hydrogeologic Controls on Sandhill Wetlands in Covered Karst with 2D Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, C. M.; Nowicki, R. S.; Rains, M. C.; Kruse, S.

    2015-12-01

    In west-central Florida, wetland and lake distribution is strongly controlled by karst landforms. Sandhill wetlands and lakes are sand-filled upland basins whose water levels are groundwater driven. Lake dimensions only reach wetland edges during extreme precipitation events. Current wetland classification schemes are inappropriate for identifying sandhill wetlands due to their unique hydrologic regime and ecologic expression. As a result, it is difficult to determine whether or not a wetland is impacted by groundwater pumping, development, and climate change. A better understanding of subsurface structures and how they control the hydrologic regime is necessary for development of an identification and monitoring protocol. Long-term studies record vegetation diversity and distribution, shallow ground water levels and surface water levels. The overall goals are to determine the hydrologic controls (groundwater, seepage, surface water inputs). Most recently a series of geophysical surveys was conducted at select sites in Hernando and Pasco County, Florida. Electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar were employed to image sand-filled basins and the top of the limestone bedrock and stratigraphy of wetland slopes, respectively. The deepest extent of these sand-filled basins is generally reflected in topography as shallow depressions. Resistivity along inundated wetlands suggests the pools are surface expressions of the surficial aquifer. However, possible breaches in confining clay layers beneath topographic highs between depressions are seen in resistivity profiles as conductive anomalies and in GPR as interruptions in otherwise continuous horizons. These data occur at sites where unconfined and confined water levels are in agreement, suggesting communication between shallow and deep groundwater. Wetland plants are observed outside the historic wetland boundary at many sites, GPR profiles show near-surface layers dipping towards the wetlands at a shallower

  15. Comprehensive Conservation Plan: Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, Sand Lake Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake...

  16. Using Halogens (Cl, Br, F, I) and Stable Isotopes of Water (δ18O, δ2H) to Trace Hydrological and Biogeochemical Processes in Prairie Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Z. F.; Lu, Z.; Mills, C. T.; Goldhaber, M. B.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Mushet, D.; Siegel, D. I.; Fiorentino, A. J., II; Gade, M.; Spradlin, J.

    2014-12-01

    Prairie pothole wetlands are ubiquitous features of the Great Plains of North America, and important habitat for amphibians and migratory birds. The salinity of proximal wetlands varies highly due to groundwater-glacial till interactions, which influence wetland biota and associated ecosystem functions. Here we use halogens and stable isotopes of water to fingerprint hydrological and biogeochemical controls on salt cycling in a prairie wetland complex. We surveyed surface, well, and pore waters from a groundwater recharge wetland (T8) and more saline closed (P1) and open (P8) basin discharge wetlands in the Cottonwood Lake Study Area (ND) in August/October 2013 and May 2014. Halogen concentrations varied over a broad range throughout the study area (Cl = 2.2 to 170 mg/L, Br = 13 to 2000 μg/L, F = biological mechanisms or weathering of shale from glacial till.

  17. Simulation of hydrological processes in the Zhalong wetland within a river basin, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X. Q.; Zhang, G. X.; Xu, Y. Jun

    2013-07-01

    Zhalong National Nature Preserve is a large wetland reserve on the Songnen Plain in Northeast China. Wetlands in the preserve play a key role in maintaining regional ecosystem function and integrity. Global climate change and intensified anthropogenic activities in the region have raised great concerns over the change of natural flow regime, wetland degradation and loss. In this study, two key hydrologic components in the preserve, water surface area and water volume, as well as their variations during the period 1985-2006, were investigated with a spatially-distributed hydrologic modeling system (SWAT). A wetland module was incorporated into the SWAT model to represent hydrological linkages between the wetland and adjacent upland areas. The modified modeling system was calibrated with streamflow measurements from 1987 to 1989 and was validated for the period 2005-2006. The calibration achieved a Nash efficiency coefficient (Ens) of 0.86, and the validation yielded an Ens of 0.66. In the past 20 yr, water surface area in the Zhalong wetland fluctuated from approximately 200 km2 to 1145 km2 with a rapid decreasing trend through the early 2000s. Consequently, water volume decreased largely in the preserve, especially in the dry seasons. The situation changed following the implementation of a river diversion in 2001. Overall, the modeling yielded plausible estimates of hydrologic changes in this large wetland reserve, building a foundation for assessing ecological water requirements and developing strategies and plans for future water resources management within the river basin.

  18. Simulation of hydrological processes in the Zhalong wetland within a river basin, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Q. Feng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhalong National Nature Preserve is a large wetland reserve on the Songnen Plain in Northeast China. Wetlands in the preserve play a key role in maintaining regional ecosystem function and integrity. Global climate change and intensified anthropogenic activities in the region have raised great concerns over the change of natural flow regime, wetland degradation and loss. In this study, two key hydrologic components in the preserve, water surface area and water volume, as well as their variations during the period 1985–2006, were investigated with a spatially-distributed hydrologic modeling system (SWAT. A wetland module was incorporated into the SWAT model to represent hydrological linkages between the wetland and adjacent upland areas. The modified modeling system was calibrated with streamflow measurements from 1987 to 1989 and was validated for the period 2005–2006. The calibration achieved a Nash efficiency coefficient (Ens of 0.86, and the validation yielded an Ens of 0.66. In the past 20 yr, water surface area in the Zhalong wetland fluctuated from approximately 200 km2 to 1145 km2 with a rapid decreasing trend through the early 2000s. Consequently, water volume decreased largely in the preserve, especially in the dry seasons. The situation changed following the implementation of a river diversion in 2001. Overall, the modeling yielded plausible estimates of hydrologic changes in this large wetland reserve, building a foundation for assessing ecological water requirements and developing strategies and plans for future water resources management within the river basin.

  19. A Comparative Study of Labour Participation in Three Wetland Regions of West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Malabika Biswas; Roy, Pankaj Kumar; Samal, Nihar Ranjan; Mazumdar, Asis

    2016-06-01

    Wetlands are invaluable components of the environment, ecology, resource potential and biodiversity in India. In the Gangetic flood plain of West Bengal, wetlands are used for multiple purposes, and have significant role in the livelihoods of the local people. Thus an awareness of the importance of wetland is raised from few decades, because Government authorities and private organizations are started to realize the fact that wetlands are complex ecological systems, whose structure provides numerous goods and various services, including food storage, water quality sustenance, agriculture production, fisheries and recreation. The objective of this work is to analyze the conditions of unemployed people through labour participation and to evolve an adaptation for the sustainable use of wetlands, emphasizing the economic upliftment for the selected floodplain region. It may be concluded that as some of the floodplain wetlands serves as bird sanctuaries, national parks and reserves of biodiversity, it results in several environmental issues to mitigate and are also used for irrigation, jute retting, collection of edible aquatic plants and animals as well as birds. Thus a plan for floodplain wetlands may be developed to integrate the various uses of the water body with a holistic approach.

  20. Land use effects on pesticides in sediments of prairie pothole wetlands in North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Scott T.; Belden, Jason B.; Smith, Loren M.; Morrison, Shane A.; Daniel, Dale W.; Euliss, Betty R.; Euliss, Ned H. Jr.; Kensinger, Bart J.; Tangen, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Prairie potholes are the dominant wetland type in the intensively cultivated northern Great Plains of North America, and thus have the potential to receive pesticide runoff and drift. We examined the presence of pesticides in sediments of 151 wetlands split among the three dominant land use types, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), cropland, and native prairie, in North and South Dakota in 2011. Herbicides (glyphosate and atrazine) and fungicides were detected regularly, with no insecticide detections. Glyphosate was the most detected pesticide, occurring in 61% of all wetlands, with atrazine in only 8% of wetlands. Pyraclostrobin was one of five fungicides detected, but the only one of significance, being detected in 31% of wetlands. Glyphosate was the only pesticide that differed by land use, with concentrations in cropland over four-times that in either native prairie or CRP, which were equal in concentration and frequency of detection. Despite examining several landscape variables, such as wetland proximity to specific crop types, watershed size, and others, land use was the best variable explaining pesticide concentrations in potholes. CRP ameliorated glyphosate in wetlands at concentrations comparable to native prairie and thereby provides another ecosystem service from this expansive program.

  1. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vymazal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating; hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow; and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified according to the flow direction (vertical or horizontal. In order to achieve better treatment performance, namely for nitrogen, various types of constructed wetlands could be combined into hybrid systems.

  2. Biotic wetland connectivity-supporting a new approach for wetland policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amezaga, J.M.; Santamaria, L.; Green, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Wetlands are key habitats connected physically and socially with processes occurring over a much wider territory. The biotic connection through dispersal mechanisms among wetlands is of primary importance to wetland management and policies. However, traditional wetland conservation approaches are ba

  3. Biotic wetland connectivity-supporting a new approach for wetland policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amezaga, J.M.; Santamaria, L.; Green, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Wetlands are key habitats connected physically and socially with processes occurring over a much wider territory. The biotic connection through dispersal mechanisms among wetlands is of primary importance to wetland management and policies. However, traditional wetland conservation approaches are

  4. Mid-Wisconsinan environments on the eastern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R. G.; Bettis, E. A., III; Mandel, R. D.; Dorale, J. A.; Fredlund, G. G.

    2009-05-01

    Few sites on the eastern Great Plains contain paleobotanical records for the mid-Wisconsin. We report on four sites, two stream cutbanks and two quarry exposures, ranging in age from >50 to ˜23.4 ka. The oldest site at >50 ka contains a suite of macrofossils from prairie and disturbed ground habitats, with no representation of trees, indicating an open prairie. By ˜38 ka the assemblages include aquatic, wetland, mudflat, and prairie elements with rare specimens of Populus, Betula cf. papyrifera, Salix and at the most northerly site, Picea. This assemblage suggests a prairie/parkland with interspersed marshes, cooler temperatures and increased moisture. Populus and Salix continued to be represented from ˜36 to ˜29 ka, but the only other taxon was Carex. A hiatus may be present at some time during this interval. After ˜29 ka, Picea became dominant on the uplands and it was joined by sedges in local wetlands. At sites near riverine loess sources, loess accumulation began to fill in the wetlands and organic deposition ceased some time after 29 ka.

  5. FGD liner experiments with wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsch, W.J.; Ahn, C.; Wolfe, W.E.

    1999-07-01

    The construction of artificial wetlands for wastewater treatment often requires impermeable liners not only to protect groundwater resources but also to ensure that there is adequate water in the wetland to support appropriate aquatic life, particularly wetland vegetation. Liners or relatively impervious site soils are very important to the success of constructed treatment wetlands in areas where ground water levels are typically close to the ground surface. This study, carried out at the Olentangy River Wetland Research Park, investigated the use of FGD material from sulfur scrubbers as a possible liner material for constructed wetlands. While several studies have investigated the use of FGD material to line ponds, no studies have investigated the use of this material as a liner for constructed wetlands. They used experimental mesocosms to see the effect of FGD liner materials in constructed wetlands on water quality and on wetland plant growth. This paper presents the results of nutrient analyses and physicochemical investigation of leachate and surface outflow water samples collected from the mesocosms. Plant growth and biomass of wetland vegetation are also included in this paper. First two year results are reported by Ahn et al. (1998, 1999). The overall goal of this study is the identification of advantages and disadvantages of using FGD by-product as an artificial liner in constructed wetlands.

  6. Carbon storage in US wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, A. M.; Fennessy, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in our remaining wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. Here we use field data from the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment to provide unbiased estimates of soil carbon stocks for wetlands at regional and national scales. We find that wetlands in the conterminous United States store a total of 11.52 PgC, much of which is within soils deeper than 30 cm. Freshwater inland wetlands, in part due to their substantial areal extent, hold nearly ten-fold more carbon than tidal saltwater sites--indicating their importance in regional carbon storage. Our data suggest a possible relationship between carbon stocks and anthropogenic disturbance. These data highlight the need to protect wetlands to mitigate the risk of avoidable contributions to climate change.

  7. Contrasting fluvial styles of the Paraguay River in the northwestern border of the Pantanal wetland, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assine, Mario Luis; Silva, Aguinaldo

    2009-12-01

    The Upper Paraguay drainage basin is situated mainly in west-central Brazil, near the Bolivian border. Flowing from north to south, the Paraguay is the trunk river of an alluvial depositional tract characterized by complex geomorphologic zonation that resulted from an intricate geologic evolution since the Late Pleistocene. This paper focuses on the geomorphology of the Paraguay River at the northwestern border of the Pantanal wetland, where two broad geomorphologic zones were distinguished. North from the Pantanal wetland, the Paraguay River flows in an aggradational fluvial plain, 5 km wide and incised into older alluvial deposits. The river exhibits a meandering style over most of its course, but sinuosity drops from 2.2 to 1.1 near the northwest border of the Pantanal wetland where the river has been forming the Paraguay fluvial megafan since the Late Pleistocene. The river deflects 90° eastward at the entrance into the Pantanal, changing its fluvial style because of a progressive loss of confinement downstream of the point where the river reaches lowland plains. The river becomes more sinuous, adopts a distributary pattern within the wetland and brings about the creation of the modern depositional lobe characterized by higher topographic gradient and active sedimentation likely linked to increased accommodation space allowing progradation. Fluvial discharge diminishes in the Pantanal wetland because of channel overbank flow during the rainy season and frequent levee crevassing. Avulsion belts and channel-levee complex are preserved on the floodplain as relict forms. South of the convergence of the two main channels that define the Taiamã Island, a loss of gradient marks the base of the depositional lobe. Further downstream, the Paraguay River returns to a meandering fluvial style, but crossing a large fluvial plain populated by hundreds of small lakes and seasonally flooded that characterizes the Pantanal wetland.

  8. Specific yield, High Plains aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents specific-yield ranges in the High Plains aquifer of the United States. The High Plains aquifer underlies 112.6 million acres (176,000...

  9. Importance of hydrogeochemical processes in the coastal wetlands: A case study from Edremit-Dalyan coastal wetland, Balıkesir-Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somay, Melis A.

    2016-11-01

    Investigating the hydrogeochemical properties of wetlands allow us to protect them in a sustainable fashion in global scale. Edremit-Dalyan coastal wetland (EDCW) is located in southern part of Biga Peninsula (Mount Ida) which is the most important eco-tourism center in Turkey. Water sampling was done from the hydrologic basin of coastal wetland that consists of a geothermal site, ore deposits area, treatment facility area and olive tree breeding area. EC values of wetland vary between 440 and 2190 μS/cm and water type shows a shift from CaHCO3 to NaClSO4. Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn concentrations exceed the tolerance limits in wetland area probably due to ore deposits around the Edremit Plain. Concentrations of As are high in wetland area exceeding both aquatic life and drinking water As standards of 10 μg/L by as much as 3 times are observed. The dominant As species is As (III). For the living organisms, this situation can be dangerous. Oxygen-18 and deuterium composition of the samples between -7.18 and -6.13‰, and between -42.6 and -34.4‰, respectively in the study area and all the waters are of meteoric origin. Oxygen-18 enrichment can be observed around Derman and coastal zone due to the geothermal activity and evaporation, respectively.

  10. Wetland biogeochemistry and ecological risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Gao, Haifeng; Zhang, Guangliang

    2017-02-01

    Wetlands are an important ecotone between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and can provide great ecological service functions. Soils/sediments are one of the important components of wetland ecosystems, which support wetland plants and microorganisms and influence wetland productivity. Moreover, wetland soils/sediments serve as sources, sinks and transfers of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and chemical contaminants such as heavy metals. In natural wetland ecosystems, wetland soils/sediments play a great role in improving water quality as these chemical elements can be retained in wetland soils/sediments for a long time. Moreover, the biogeochemical processes of the abovementioned elements in wetland soils/sediments can drive wetland evolution and development, and their changes will considerably affect wetland ecosystem health. Therefore, a better understanding of wetland soil biogeochemistry will contribute to improving wetland ecological service functions.

  11. Multi-temporal sub-pixel landsat ETM+ classification of isolated wetlands in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project was to determine the utility of subpixel processing of multi-temporal Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data for the detection of isolated wetlands greater than 0.50 acres in Cuyahoga County, located in the Erie Drift Plains ecoregion of northe...

  12. Postpartum depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - postpartum; Postnatal depression; Postpartum psychological reactions ... behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT) are types of talk therapy that often help postpartum depression. ...

  13. Microbiology of wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Watersaturated soil and sediment ecosystems (i.e. wetlands) are ecologically as well as economically important systems due to their high productivity, their nutrient (re)cycling capacities and their prominent contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions. Being on the transition between terrestria

  14. Electricity from wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetser, Koen; Dieleman, Kim; Buisman, Cees; Strik, David

    2017-01-01

    Application of the plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) in wetlands should be invisible without excavation of the soil. The preferred design is a tubular design with the anode directly between the plant roots and an oxygen reducing biocathode inside the tube. Oxygen should be passively supplied to the c

  15. Wetlands Mitigation Banking Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    the financial risk associated with are normally established in advance, mitigation permitted activities. banks eliminate the lag time between loss and...management natural state or to an enhanced condition and techniques. None of the traditional wetlands begin to amass bankable credits has also been management

  16. Microbiology of wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Watersaturated soil and sediment ecosystems (i.e. wetlands) are ecologically as well as economically important systems due to their high productivity, their nutrient (re)cycling capacities and their prominent contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions. Being on the transition between

  17. 7 CFR 12.33 - Use of wetland and converted wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of wetland and converted wetland. 12.33 Section 12.33 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.33 Use of wetland and converted wetland. (a) The provisions of § 12.32(b)(2)...

  18. Wetland paleoecological study of southwest coastal Louisiana: sediment cores and diatom calibration dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E. L.; Flocks, James G.; Steyer, Gregory D.; Piazza, Sarai C.

    2015-01-01

    Wetland sediment data were collected in 2009 and 2010 throughout the southwest Louisiana Chenier Plain as part of a pilot study to develop a diatom-based proxy for past wetland water chemistry and the identification of sediment deposits from tropical storms. The complete dataset includes forty-six surface sediment samples and nine sediment cores. The surface sediment samples were collected in fresh, intermediate, and brackish marsh and are located coincident with Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) sites. The nine sediment cores were collected at the Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge (RWR) located in Grand Chenier, La.

  19. Impact of wetlands mapping on parameterization of hydrologic simulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Wetlands and other surface depressions can impact hydrologic response within the landscape in a number of ways, such as intercepting runoff and near-surface flows or changing the potential for evaporation and seepage into the soil. The role of these features is increasingly being integrated into hydrological simulation models, such as the USGS Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), and applied to landscapes where wetlands are dominating features. Because the extent of these features varies widely through time, many modeling applications rely on delineations of the maximum possible extent to define total capacity of a model's spatial response unit. This poster presents an evaluation of several wetland map delineations for the Pipestem River basin in the North Dakota Prairie-pothole region. The featured data sets include the US Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory (NWI), surface water bodies extracted from the US Geological Survey National Hydrography Dataset (NHD), and elevation depressions extracted from 1 meter LiDAR data for the area. In addition to characterizing differences in the quality of these datasets, the poster will assess the impact of these differences when parameters are derived from them for the spatial response units of the PRMS model.

  20. Wetland influences on mercury transport and bioaccumulation in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guentzel, Jane L

    2009-02-01

    There are three distinct geological provinces in South Carolina (SC), with the blue ridge/piedmont regions in the west/central portion of the state and the coastal plain region in the central/eastern region of the state. Samples were collected along this gradient to identify potential factors contributing to the concentrations of total Hg and total organic carbon (TOC) throughout the state. Overall, there is a gradient across the state, with water column concentrations of total Hg (9-53 pM) and TOC (80-2721 microM) increasing as one moves from the blue ridge/piedmont region to the coastal floodplain region. Total Hg at all sites in SC is significantly (R2=0.78; Pmercury is associated with organic matter in water bodies throughout the state. A study of mercury speciation within the coastal plain Waccamaw River indicates that concentrations of total Hg range from 10-68 pM and methyl Hg concentrations range from 1-7 pM. Watershed transport efficiencies for coastal floodplain rivers sampled in this study range from 32-72% for total Hg and 78-477% for methyl Hg. The coastal plain sites are located in watersheds that contain a significantly (Privers. There is a significant correlation between mean fish Hg concentrations in largemouth bass from each watershed and percent wetland area in each watershed (R2=0.66; P=0.003). This correlation explains 66% of the variance in the data and suggests that increasing percentages of wetland area contribute to fish Hg concentrations in SC coastal plain rivers.

  1. Geoelectrical Analyses of Sulfurous Wetland Sediments and Weathered Glacial Till in the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Z. F.; Siegel, D. I.; Moucha, R.; Fiorentino, A. J., II; Mills, C. T.; Goldhaber, M. B.; Rosenberry, D. O.

    2015-12-01

    Millions of prairie wetlands occur in topographic depressions throughout the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America, an important ecoregion for amphibians and migratory birds. Climate is known to drive complex critical zone processes determining sulfur fate and transport in the PPR, but the specific mechanisms controlling the storage and release of salinity beneath the wetlands remain poorly understood. To help clarify this, we conducted a DC resistivity field survey of a closed-basin groundwater discharge wetland at the Cottonwood Lake Study Area, North Dakota; and collected wetland cores along one of the survey transects for laboratory analyses of resistivity, porewater/solid-phase geochemistry, and other physical properties. Inversions of our field survey delineate two primary geoelectrical layers beneath the wetland: the top ~8 m of wetland sediments and weathered glacial till (ρ25 = 4 - 5 Ω-m) overlying more resistive glacial till at depth (ρ25 = 7 - 12 Ω-m). Conductive lenses (ρ25 = 1 - 2 Ω-m) occur within the upper layer at 2 - 3 m depths in the center of the wetland and along a concentric band within the current ponded area, which corresponds to the location of the pond shoreline before extremely wet conditions in the 1990's expanded the wetland. The resistivities of wetland core segments (ρ25 = 2 - 7 Ω-m) match well with the upper layer inferred from the field survey, and show an inverse trend of bulk core to porewater resistivity for clay-rich intervals due to variations in moisture content. Our results demonstrate that geospatial patterns of subsurface salinity relate to wetland hydrodynamics during dry-wet climate cycles and should be considered when using geoelectrical methods to upscale geochemical measurements in PPR wetlands.

  2. Alaska LandCarbon Wetland Distribution Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This product provides regional estimates of specific wetland types (bog and fen) in Alaska. Available wetland types mapped by the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI)...

  3. Natural wetland emissions of methylated trace elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriens, B.; Lenz, M.; Charlet, L.; Berg, M.; Winkel, L.H.E.

    2014-01-01

    Natural wetlands are well known for their significant methane emissions. However, trace element emissions via biomethylation and subsequent volatilization from pristine wetlands are virtually unstudied, even though wetlands constitute large reservoirs for trace elements. Here we show that the averag

  4. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald J Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  5. Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system in Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina.

  6. Management of wetlands for wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Gray,; Heath M. Hagy,; J. Andrew Nyman,; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Wetlands are highly productive ecosystems that provide habitat for a diversity of wildlife species and afford various ecosystem services. Managing wetlands effectively requires an understanding of basic ecosystem processes, animal and plant life history strategies, and principles of wildlife management. Management techniques that are used differ depending on target species, coastal versus interior wetlands, and available infrastructure, resources, and management objectives. Ideally, wetlands are managed as a complex, with many successional stages and hydroperiods represented in close proximity. Managing wetland wildlife typically involves manipulating water levels and vegetation in the wetland, and providing an upland buffer. Commonly, levees and water control structures are used to manipulate wetland hydrology in combination with other management techniques (e.g., disking, burning, herbicide application) to create desired plant and wildlife responses. In the United States, several conservation programs are available to assist landowners in developing wetland management infrastructure on their property. Managing wetlands to increase habitat quality for wildlife is critical, considering this ecosystem is one of the most imperiled in the world.

  7. Impact of sedimentation on wetland carbon sequestration in an agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Gregory; Pachepsky, Yakov; Ritchie, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Landscape redistribution of soil C is common within agricultural ecosystems. Little is known about the effects of upland sediment deposition on C dynamics within riparian wetlands. To assess sedimentation impact, we obtained profile samples of wetland soil and used the combination of (137)Cs, (210)Pb, and (14)C chronological markers to determine rates of C sequestration and mineral deposition over the history of a wetland within a first-order catchment under agricultural management in the coastal plains of the United States. Substantial post settlement deposition in the wetland soil was evidenced in places by a 20- to 40-cm layer of mineral soil that buried the original histosol. Soil profiles contained a minimum in C content within the top 35 cm of the profile which originated from a rapid deposition from low C upland soils. Radiocarbon and radioisotope dating showed that increases in C above this minimum were the result of C sequestered in the past approximately 50 yr. Modeling the kinetics of modern C dynamics using the (137)Cs and (210)Pb markers within these surface profiles provides strong evidence for accelerated C sequestration associated with mineral sediment deposition in the ecosystem. These findings indicate that at the landscape scale, dilution of ecosystem C by import of low C upland sediment into wetlands stimulates C sequestration by pulling soil C content below some pedogenic equilibrium value for the ecosystem. They also indicate that over the history of the wetland, rates of C accretion may be linked to mineral soil deposition.

  8. Monitored landscape change of Lake Baiyangdian wetland with dynamic reed area based on remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; He, Lei; Zhang, Shengwei; Lei, Yuping

    2009-09-01

    Lake Baiyangdian, a largest wetland ecosystem in North China Plain, has dried up on seven occasions since the 1960s. In recent years, more than one billion of cubic meters of water from upstream reservoirs and Yellow river have been transported to the lake to rescue the shrinking wetlands. Since the Lake Baiyangdian was actually composed of 143 small lakes and more than 70 villages with large or small area of cropland, dynamic distribution of aquatic plants in wetland such as reed and associated growth condition of these allowed to monitor the changes of wetland landscape and water quality to support the policy applications of water conveyance and wetland environmental treatment and control. Assisted with ground survey analyses and Landsat TM image, the MODIS 250 m time series Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), given its combination of medium spatial and high temporal resolution, were applied to detect the unique rapid growth stage of reed in the spring from adjacent crops such as winter wheat, cotton, and spring maize, of which has a similar phenology in development of leaf area index, and dynamic reed areas were mapped in recent decade. Landscape changes of the wetland were analyzed using maps of reed area and hydrological data.

  9. Constructed wetlands in the treatment of agro-industrial wastewater: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Mar-Yam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their simplicity and low operation cost, constructed wetlands are becoming more prevalent in wastewater treatment all over the world. Their range of applications is no longer limited to municipal wastewater but has expanded to the treatment of heavily polluted wastewaters such as agro-industrial effluents. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of the application of constructed wetlands in treating a variety of agro-industrial wastewaters, and discusses pollutant surface loads and the role of constructed wetland type, prior-treatment stages and plant species in pollutant removal efficiency. Results indicate that constructed wetlands can tolerate high pollutant loads and toxic substances without losing their removal ability, thus these systems are very effective bio-reactors even in hostile environments. Additionally, the review outlines issues that could improve pollutant treatment efficiency and proposes design and operation suggestions such as suitable vegetation, porous media and constructed wetland plain view. Finally, a decision tree for designing constructed wetlands treating agro-industrial wastewaters provides an initial design tool for scientists and engineers.

  10. DEMOGRAPHIC VULNERABILITIES IN TECUCI PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Adrian ŞORCARU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on analyzing and mapping 8 indicators considered to best reflect the demographic vulnerability in Tecuci Plain in the year 2010 and proposes a model of aggregation which finally allows us to distinguish three major types of demographic vulnerability (low, medium and high. Mapping the final values also shows significant disparities in the territorial administrative units that broadly overlap the plain, the most vulnerable being Tecuci city and the peripheral communes, towards Vrancea and Vaslui Counties.

  11. Animal health and disease control in the Usangu Wetland of Southwestern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R T

    2003-02-01

    The Usangu Wetland in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania has always been a major livestock production area. This paper describes the physical and social enviroment of these Plains before presenting a short history of the veterinary services in the area. The main part of the paper examines, through historical records and interviews with livestock owners and administrative officials, the history of the major diseases affecting livestock.

  12. Snohomish Estuary Wetlands Study. Volume IV. Delineation of Wetland Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    River FIG. 4 -G. 5 CARNATION [] Scale in Miles 0 5 1 FALL CITY SNOHOMISH ESTUARY WETLANDS STUDY 8AOUAH FIG. 6-/ 44 Isan A EVRT 12 1 land NO4Carnation on the Snoqualmie River (Tolt River confluence). I B. OBJECTIVES 8. The objectives of the overall Snohomish Estuary Wetlands

  13. Delineating wetland catchments and modeling hydrologic connectivity using lidar data and aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiusheng; Lane, Charles R.

    2017-07-01

    In traditional watershed delineation and topographic modeling, surface depressions are generally treated as spurious features and simply removed from a digital elevation model (DEM) to enforce flow continuity of water across the topographic surface to the watershed outlets. In reality, however, many depressions in the DEM are actual wetland landscape features with seasonal to permanent inundation patterning characterized by nested hierarchical structures and dynamic filling-spilling-merging surface-water hydrological processes. Differentiating and appropriately processing such ecohydrologically meaningful features remains a major technical terrain-processing challenge, particularly as high-resolution spatial data are increasingly used to support modeling and geographic analysis needs. The objectives of this study were to delineate hierarchical wetland catchments and model their hydrologic connectivity using high-resolution lidar data and aerial imagery. The graph-theory-based contour tree method was used to delineate the hierarchical wetland catchments and characterize their geometric and topological properties. Potential hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and streams were simulated using the least-cost-path algorithm. The resulting flow network delineated potential flow paths connecting wetland depressions to each other or to the river network on scales finer than those available through the National Hydrography Dataset. The results demonstrated that our proposed framework is promising for improving overland flow simulation and hydrologic connectivity analysis.

  14. Carbon Storage in US Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in US wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. ...

  15. Conserving Prairie Pothole Region wetlands and surrounding grasslands: evaluating effects on amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Neau, Jordan L.

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of viable and genetically diverse populations of amphibians in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States depends on upland as well as wetland over-wintering and landscape level habitat features. Prairie pothole wetlands provide important amphibian breeding habitat while grasslands surrounding these wetlands provide foraging habitat for adults, overwintering habitat for some species, and important connectivity among breeding wetlands. Grasslands surrounding wetlands were found to be especially important for wood frogs and northern leopard frogs, while croplands dominated habitat utilized by Great Plains toads and Woodhouse’s toads. Habitat suitability mapping highlighted (1) the influence of deep-water overwintering wetlands on suitable habitat for four of five anuran species encountered; (2) the lack of overlap between areas of core habitat for both the northern leopard frog and wood frog compared to the core habitat for both toad species; and (3) the importance of conservation programs in providing grassland components of northern leopard frog and wood frog habitat. Currently, there are approximately 7.2 million acres (2.9 million hectares, ha) of habitat in the PPR identified as suitable for amphibians. WRP and CRP wetland and grassland habitats accounted for approximately 1.9 million acres (0.75 million ha) or 26 percent of this total area. Continued loss of amphibian habitat resulting from an ongoing trend of returning PPR conservation lands to crop production, will likely have significant negative effects on the region’s ability to maintain amphibian biodiversity. Conversely, increases in conservation wetlands and surrounding grasslands on the PPR landscape have great potential to positively influence the region’s amphibian populations.

  16. Spatial Organization of "Farmed" Wetlands in Iowa's Prairie Pothole Landscape: Geomorphic and Anthropogenic Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunkel, K. B.; Basu, N. B.

    2012-12-01

    The Des Moines Lobe landform within North Central Iowa is the southernmost portion of the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) that extends northwest into Canada. The PPR is a vast landscape dotted with thousands of glacially formed depressional wetlands known as prairie potholes. These potholes provide a wide range of ecological and hydrological services and are notable for their high waterfowl productivity. Within Iowa it is estimated that 95% of the wetlands in the Des Moines Lobe have been drained for agricultural purposes. Wetlands in this region are typically drained by subsurface tile drains in an attempt to lower the water table and increase agricultural productivity. Efforts are also underway in restoring some of these drained wetlands. In order to better understand the hydrological impacts of restoring drained wetlands at the watershed scale, it is important to understand how these depressions are distributed in space throughout the Des Moines Lobe. The overall objective of this study was to (1) understand the size-distribution and spatial organization of depressional features in the Des Moines Lobe as a function of watershed area and landform type; and (2) Explore the role of human impact on the size-distribution and spatial organization by comparing depressions based on 1m LIDAR DEM (surrogate for historic wetlands) with "farmed" wetlands based on National Wetlands Inventory (NWI ) data. It was found that the size-frequency relationship follows a power law regression that varies based on the landform type and the size of the study area. The power law function varies predictably with changes in area, suggesting fractal properties within the watersheds examined. Comparison between the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) database and the LIDAR images was used to evaluate the effect of human disturbance on the landscape. The LIDAR captures the depressional areas that correspond to wetlands before the landscape was extensively tile-drained, while NWI captures the

  17. Climate Change and Intertidal Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline M. Ross

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause—the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the “squeeze” experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change.

  18. Climate change and intertidal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pauline M; Adam, Paul

    2013-03-19

    Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause-the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the "squeeze" experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change.

  19. 40 CFR 230.41 - Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wetlands. 230.41 Section 230.41... Aquatic Sites § 230.41 Wetlands. (a)(1) Wetlands consist of areas that are inundated or saturated by...) Where wetlands are adjacent to open water, they generally constitute the transition to upland. The...

  20. Shorebird abundance and distribution on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S.; Bart, J.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Johnson, J.A.; Kendall, S.; Payer, D.; Johnson, J.

    2007-01-01

    The coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge hosts seven species of migratory shorebirds listed as highly imperiled or high priority by the U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plan and five species listed as Birds of Conservation Concern by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. During the first comprehensive shorebird survey of the 674 000 ha "1002 Area" on the coastal plain, we recorded 14 species of breeding shorebirds at 197 rapidly surveyed plots during June 2002 and 2004. We also estimated detection ratios with a double counting technique, using data collected at 37 intensively studied plots located on the North Slope of Alaska and northern Canada. We stratified the study area by major habitat types, including wetlands, moist areas, uplands, and riparian areas, using previously classified Landsat imagery. We developed population estimates with confidence limits by species, and estimated the total number of shorebirds in the study area to be 230 000 (95% CI: 104 000-363 000), which exceeds the biological criterion for classification as both a Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network Site of International Importance (100 000 birds) and a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance (20 000 birds), even when conservatively estimated. Species richness and the density of many species were highest in wetland or riparian habitats, which are clustered along the coast. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2007.

  1. Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... starts about 1–3 weeks after childbirth. What causes postpartum depression? Postpartum depression probably is caused by a combination ... better. Can antidepressants cause side effects? Antidepressants can ... If your depression worsens soon after starting medication or if you ...

  2. Caregiver Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard — and can lead to feelings ...

  3. EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURE RECLAMATION ON THE HYDROLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Sanjiang Plain is the largest and most concentrated wetland region in China, the total area is about 1. 088×107ha with rich marsh resources and biodiversity. Before 1949, the Sanjiang Plain was a large untravelled wild plant and waterfowl habitat, and there were some rare swans, red-crowned cranes and thousands of hydrophytes. From 1950, the local government began to reclaim the marsh in the Sanjiang Plain, built the commodity grain base of Northeast China, and developed the industry of grain processing, animal husbandry, etc. Up to now, there are 54 farms which control 3. 5087×106ha agriculture field. The marsh areas are reduced by 1/2; many rare animals and plants are near extinction. The human activities and agriculture reclamation made a great change on the environment, especially made water balance change and regional climate change. So to study and protect the wetland ecosystem and marsh resource are extremely urgent. This paper focus on the hydrology change and climate change before and after marsh reclamation, including evapotranspiration, run off, soil character, micro-climate on both marsh and agriculture field, and the reason that cause seasonal drought, waterlogging and degeneration of marsh.

  4. Methane Fluxes from Subtropical Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, N.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    It is well documented that green house gas concentrations have risen at unequivocal rates since the industrial revolution but the disparity between anthropogenic sources and natural sources is uncertain. Wetlands are one example of a natural ecosystem that can be a substantial source or sink for methane (CH4) depending on climate conditions. Due to strict anaerobic conditions required for CH4-generating microorganisms, natural wetlands are one of the main sources for biogenic CH4. Although wetlands occupy less than 5% of total land surface area, they contribute approximately 20% of total CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. The processes regulating CH4 emissions are sensitive to land use and management practices of areas surrounding wetlands. Variation in adjacent vegetation or grazing intensity by livestock can, for example, alter CH4 fluxes from wetland soils by altering nutrient balance, carbon inputs and hydrology. Therefore, understanding how these changes will affect wetland source strength is essential to understand the impact of wetland management practices on the global climate system. In this study we quantify wetland methane fluxes from subtropical wetlands on a working cattle ranch in central Florida near Okeechobee Lake (27o10'52.04'N, 81o21'8.56'W). To determine differences in CH4 fluxes associated with land use and management, a replicated (n = 4) full factorial experiment was designed for wetlands where the surrounding vegetation was (1) grazed or un-grazed and (2) composed of native vegetation or improved pasture. Net exchange of CH4 and CO2 between the land surface and the atmosphere were sampled with a LICOR Li-7700 open path CH4 analyzer and Li-7500A open path CO2/H20 analyzer mounted in a 1-m3 static gas-exchange chamber. Our results showed and verified that CH4 emissions from subtropical wetlands were larger when high soil moisture was coupled with high temperatures. The presence of cattle only amplified these results. These results help quantify

  5. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: WETLANDS (Wetland Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the coastal wetland habitats for Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands classified according to the Environmental...

  6. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - MO 2015 Meramec Wetland Complex (GDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — MoRAP produced and integrated data to map and rank wetlands for the Meramec River bottomland in Missouri. LiDAR elevation and vegetation height information and air...

  7. Saturated thickness, High Plains aquifer, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents the saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer of the United States, 2009, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  8. Wetlands Spatial-Temporal Distribution Multi-Scale Simulation Using Multi-Agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Yu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of wetland landscape spatial-temporal distribution not only can reveal the mechanisms and laws of landscape evolution, but achieve the sustainable land use as well as provide supports for wetland conservation and management. In this report, the inland freshwater wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain of China were selected for wetland landscape changing process simulation studies. Results showed that both visual effects of simulation and prediction were good and the total accuracy co-efficiency of points to points was also significantly high (above 82%, which demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of wetland landscape spatial-temporal distribution simulation using Multi-Agent System (MAS. Scales exerted influence on visual effects, simulation accuracies and statistics of landscape index. Scale effects were obvious during simulation process using MAS. It was demonstrated that 60m was the best scale for simulation. It was shown that contagion index lines were exponential distribution while accuracy lines were lognormal distribution with the scale rising, which provided a reference for scale effect assessment and simulation scale selection.

  9. Effects of light and water depth on seed germination of Phragmites australis in the wetlands of Songnen Plain%光照、水深交互作用对松嫩湿地芦苇种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 吕宪国; 姜明; 张文广; 武海涛

    2015-01-01

    莫莫格国家级自然保护区位于松嫩平原西部,以保护白鹤(Grus leucogeranus)等珍稀水禽及其栖息地为主要目的。扁秆藨草(Scirpus planiculmis)是莫莫格湿地的重要植物,也是白鹤在该区停栖的主要食源植物。莫莫格湿地水文恢复后,芦苇(Phragmites australis)等高大挺水植物大量出现,阻碍了扁秆藨草的恢复。种子萌发是植物生活史的重要阶段,对于认识野外植物群落动态和植被管理十分重要。该研究在人工气候箱模拟野外环境条件,分析了光照(全光、遮阴、黑暗)、水深(0、5、15和30 cm)及其交互作用对芦苇种子萌发的影响。结果表明:光照和水深变化明显影响芦苇种子的萌发;最终萌发比例在遮阴和黑暗条件下明显比在全光下高,在3种光照处理下较深水位(5–30 cm)均抑制了芦苇种子的萌发。芦苇种子萌发也明显受光照和水深交互作用的影响;在全光条件下,萌发比例在0 cm水深(86.67%±2.36%)显著高于其他较深水位;在遮阴和黑暗环境下,0 cm水深与其他水深处理间的差异明显缩小,这应是在遮阴和黑暗条件下(不考虑水深)萌发比例较高的重要原因。因此,在芦苇建群初期,及时进行清除处理并保持一定地表水位可以限制芦苇通过有性繁殖更新,同时改善地表光辐射等生境条件,促进扁秆藨草恢复。%Aims Excessive growth of undesired plants, including ruderal natives and tall wetland species, posts great threat to wetland restoration. In this study, we examined the seed germination of Phragmites australis, an undesired species, to evaluate its impact on the restoration of desired Scirpus planiculmis and to provide scientific basis for vegetation management in Momoge wetland. Methods The germination experiment was conducted in incubators to examine the effects of light intensity (full light, green shade and dark environment) and water depth (0, 5, 15 and 30 cm), based

  10. Integrating geographically isolated wetlands into land management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands across the globe provide extensive ecosystem services. However, many wetlands – especially those surrounded by uplands, often referred to as geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) – remain poorly protected. Protection and restoration of wetlands frequently r...

  11. Wetland Habitats for Wildlife of the Chesapeake Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report reviews wildlife that use these three general wetland habitats; shallow water wetlands, forested wetlands and emergent wetlands. Wildlife discussed are...

  12. Mercury and methylmercury dynamics in a coastal plain watershed, New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, J.L.; Riskin, M.L.; Szabo, Z.; Reilly, P.A.; Rosman, R.; Bonin, J.L.; Fischer, J.M.; Heckathorn, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    The upper Great Egg Harbor River watershed in New Jersey's Coastal Plain is urbanized but extensive freshwater wetlands are present downstream. In 2006-2007, studies to assess levels of total mercury (THg) found concentrations in unfiltered streamwater to range as high as 187 ng/L in urbanized areas. THg concentrations were water with THg that exceeds the drinking water standard (2,000 ng/L). THg concentrations were lower (Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in unfiltered streamwater ranged from 0.17 ng/L at a forest/wetlands site to 2.94 ng/L at an urban site. The percentage of THg present as MeHg increased as the percentage of forest + wetlands increased, but also was high in some urban areas. MeHg was detected only in groundwater water/sediment interface. Atmospheric deposition is presumed to be the main source of Hg to the wetlands and also may be a source to groundwater, where wastewater inputs in urban areas are hypothesized to mobilize Hg deposited to soils. ?? 2010 US Government.

  13. Wetland plants: biology and ecology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronk, Julie K; Fennessy, M. Siobhan

    2001-01-01

    .... You get a thorough discussion of the range of wetland plant adaptations to life in water or saturated soils, high salt or high sulfur, low light and low carbon dioxide levels, as well as a detailed...

  14. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands have been demonstrated effective in removing organic, metal, and nutrient elements including nitrogen and phosphorus from municipal wastewaters, mine drainage, industrial effluents, and agricultural runoff. The technology is waste stream-specific, requiring...

  15. Hurricane impacts on coastal wetlands: A half-century record of storm-generated features from Southern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, R.A.; Barras, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Temporally and spatially repeated patterns of wetland erosion, deformation, and deposition are observed on remotely sensed images and in the field after hurricanes cross the coast of Louisiana. The diagnostic morphological wetland features are products of the coupling of high-velocity wind and storm-surge water and their interaction with the underlying, variably resistant, wetland vegetation and soils. Erosional signatures include construction of orthogonal-elongate ponds and amorphous ponds, pond expansion, plucked marsh, marsh denudation, and shoreline erosion. Post-storm gravity reflux of floodwater draining from the wetlands forms dendritic incisions around the pond margins and locally integrates drainage pathways forming braided channels. Depositional signatures include emplacement of broad zones of organic wrack on topographic highs and inorganic deposits of variable thicknesses and lateral extents in the form of shore-parallel sandy washover terraces and interior-marsh mud blankets. Deformational signatures primarily involve laterally compressed marsh and displaced marsh mats and balls. Prolonged water impoundment and marsh salinization also are common impacts associated with wetland flooding by extreme storms. Many of the wetland features become legacies that record prior storm impacts and locally influence subsequent storm-induced morphological changes. Wetland losses caused by hurricane impacts depend directly on impact duration, which is controlled by the diameter of hurricane-force winds, forward speed of the storm, and wetland distance over which the storm passes. Distinguishing between wetland losses caused by storm impacts and losses associated with long-term delta-plain processes is critical for accurate modeling and prediction of future conversion of land to open water. ?? Coastal Education & Research Foundation 2011.

  16. Inferring tidal wetland stability from channel sediment fluxes: observations and a conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Neil K.; Nidzieko, Nicholas J.; Kirwan, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic and climatic forces have modified the geomorphology of tidal wetlands over a range of timescales. Changes in land use, sediment supply, river flow, storminess, and sea level alter the layout of tidal channels, intertidal flats, and marsh plains; these elements define wetland complexes. Diagnostically, measurements of net sediment fluxes through tidal channels are high-temporal resolution, spatially integrated quantities that indicate (1) whether a complex is stable over seasonal timescales and (2) what mechanisms are leading to that state. We estimated sediment fluxes through tidal channels draining wetland complexes on the Blackwater and Transquaking Rivers, Maryland, USA. While the Blackwater complex has experienced decades of degradation and been largely converted to open water, the Transquaking complex has persisted as an expansive, vegetated marsh. The measured net export at the Blackwater complex (1.0 kg/s or 0.56 kg/m2/yr over the landward marsh area) was caused by northwesterly winds, which exported water and sediment on the subtidal timescale; tidally forced net fluxes were weak and precluded landward transport of suspended sediment from potential seaward sources. Though wind forcing also exported sediment at the Transquaking complex, strong tidal forcing and proximity to a turbidity maximum led to an import of sediment (0.031 kg/s or 0.70 kg/m2/yr). This resulted in a spatially averaged accretion of 3.9 mm/yr, equaling the regional relative sea level rise. Our results suggest that in areas where seaward sediment supply is dominant, seaward wetlands may be more capable of withstanding sea level rise over the short term than landward wetlands. We propose a conceptual model to determine a complex's tendency toward stability or instability based on sediment source, wetland channel location, and transport mechanisms. Wetlands with a reliable portfolio of sources and transport mechanisms appear better suited to offset natural and

  17. Simulation of hydrological processes in the Zhalong Wetland within a river basin, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Q. Feng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Zhalong National Nature Preserve is a large wetland reserve on the Songnen Plain in Northeast China. Wetlands in the preserve play a key role in maintaining regional ecosystem function and integrity. Global climate change and intensified anthropogenic activities in the region have raised great concerns over the change of natural flow regime, wetland degradation and losses. In this study, two key hydrologic components in the preserve, open water area and storage, as well as their variations during the period 1985–2006 were investigated with a spatially-distributed hydrologic modeling system, SWAT. A wetland module was incorporated into the SWAT model to represent hydrological linkages between the wetland and adjacent upland areas. The modified modeling system was calibrated with streamflow measurements from 1987 to 1989, in a Nash efficiency coefficient (Ens of 0.86, and was validated for the period 2005–2006, in an Ens of 0.66. In the past 20 yr, open water area in the Zhalong Wetland fluctuated from approximately 200 km2 to 1145 km2 with a rapid decreasing trend through the early 2000s. Consequently, open water storage in the preserve decreased largely, especially in the dry seasons. The situation changed following the implementation of a river diversion in 2001. Overall, the modeling yielded plausible estimates of hydrologic changes in this large wetland reserve, building a foundation for assessing ecological water requirements and developing strategies and plans for water resources management within the river basin.

  18. Radioiodine concentrated in a wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel I; Zhang, Saijin; Roberts, Kimberly A; Schwehr, Kathy; Xu, Chen; Creeley, Danielle; Ho, Yi-Fang; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Yeager, Chris M; Santschi, Peter H

    2014-05-01

    Most subsurface environmental radioactivity contamination is expected to eventually resurface in riparian zones, or wetlands. There are a number of extremely sharp biogeochemical interfaces in wetlands that could alter radionuclide speciation and promote accumulation. The objective of this study was to determine if a wetland concentrated (129)I emanating from a former waste disposal basin located on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA. Additionally, studies were conducted to evaluate the role of sediment organic matter in immobilizing the radioiodine. Groundwater samples were collected along a 0.7-km transect away from the seepage basin and in the downstream wetlands. The samples were analyzed for (129)I speciation (iodide (I(-)), iodate (IO3(-)), and organo-I). Groundwater (129)I concentrations in many locations in the wetlands (as high as 59.9 Bq L(-1)(129)I) were greatly elevated with respect to the source term (5.9 Bq L(-1)(129)I). (129)I concentration profiles in sediment cores were closely correlated to organic matter concentrations (r(2) = 0.992; n = 5). While the sediment organic matter promoted the uptake of (129)I to the wetland sediment, it also promoted the formation of a soluble organic fraction: 74% of the wetland groundwater (129)I could pass through a 1 kDa (wetlands may be highly effective at immobilizing aqueous (129)I, they may also promote the formation of a low-molecular-weight organic species that does not partition to sediments. This study provides a rare example of radioactivity concentrations increasing rather than decreasing as it migrates from a point source and brings into question assumptions in risk models regarding continuous dilution of released contaminants.

  19. Ecohydraulics and Estuarine Wetland Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. F.; Howe, A.; Saintilan, N.; Spencer, J.

    2004-12-01

    The hydraulics or water flow in wetlands is known to be a key factor influencing ecosystem development in estuarine wetland environments. The relationship is indirect, with the hydraulics of wetlands influencing a host of factors including soil salinity, waterlogging, sediment transport, sediment chemistry, vegetation dispersal and growth and nutrient availability and cycling. The relationship is also not one way, with the hydraulics of wetlands being influenced by plant and animal activity. Understanding these complex interactions is fundamental for the adequate management of estuarine wetlands. Listed as a Wetland of International Importance under the 1971 Ramsar Convention, the Hunter River estuary is regarded as the most significant site for migratory shorebirds in New South Wales, Australia. Over the past 20 years, the number of migratory shorebirds in the estuary has sharply declined from 8,000 to 4,000 approx. Alteration of bird habitat is believed to be one of the reasons for this alarming trend. In 2004 we started a three-year program to investigate the links between hydraulics, sediment, benthic invertebrates, vegetation and migratory shorebird habitat in the estuary. During the first year we have focused on a highly disturbed part of the Hunter estuary wetlands located on Ash Island. The area is one of the major roosting sites in the estuary and is characterized by a complex hydraulic regime due to a restricted tidal interchange with the Hunter River and the presence of infrastructure for the maintenance of power lines (i.e., roads, bridges, culverts). Salt marshes, mudflat and mangroves are the dominant vegetation types. The monitoring program includes measurements of water levels, salinity, discharge, velocity, turbulence, sediment transport and deposition, plant species and density, soil composition and benthic invertebrates coordinated with observations of bird habitat utilization on a number of locations throughout the wetland and for different flow

  20. Wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region: Invertebrate species composition, ecology, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, N.H.; Wrubleski, D.A.; Mushet, D.M.; Batzer, D.P.; Rader, R.B.; Wissinger, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the United States and Canada is a unique area where shallow depressions created by the scouring action of Pleistocene glaciation interact with mid-continental climate variations to create and maintain a variety of wetland classes. These wetlands possess unique environmental and biotic characteristics that add to the overall regional diversity and production of aquatic invertebrates and the vertebrate wildlife that depend upon them as food. Climatic extremes in the PPR have a profound and dynamic influence on wetland hydrology, hydroperiod, chemistry, and ultimately the biota. Available knowledge of aquatic invertebrates in the PPR suggests that diversity of invertebrates within each wetland class is low. Harsh environmental conditions range from frigid winter temperatures that freeze wetlands and their sediments to hot summer temperatures and drought conditions that create steep salinity gradients and seasonally dry habitats. Consequently, the invertebrate community is composed mostly of ecological generalists that possess the necessary adaptations to tolerate environmental extremes. In this review, we describe the highly dynamic nature of prairie pothole wetlands and suggest that invertebrate studies be evaluated within a conceptual framework that considers important hydrologic, chemical, and climatic events.

  1. Options of sustainable groundwater development in Beijing Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yangxiao; Wang, Liya; Liu, Jiurong; Li, Wenpeng; Zheng, Yuejun

    Overexploitation of groundwater resources has supported rapid social and economical developments in Beijing City in last 30 years. The newly constructed emergency well fields have saved Beijing from a critical water crisis caused by a long drought spell of eight consecutive years from 1999 to 2006. But this unsustainable development has resulted in serious consequences: discharges to rivers ceased, large number of pumping wells went dry, and land subsidence caused destruction of underground infrastructure. The completion of the middle route of South to North water transfer project to transfer water from Yangtze river to Beijing City by 2010 provides opportunity to reverse the trend of groundwater depletion and to achieve a long-term sustainable development of groundwater resources in Beijing Plain. Four options of groundwater development in Beijing Plain were formulated and assessed with a regional transient groundwater flow model. The business as usual scenario was used as a reference for the comparative analysis and indicates fast depletion of groundwater resources. The reduction of abstraction scenario has immediate and fast recovery of groundwater levels, especially at the cone of depression. The scenario of artificially enhanced groundwater recharge would replenish groundwater resources and maintain the capacity of present water supply well fields. The combined scenario of the reduction of abstraction and the increase of recharge could bring the aquifer systems into a new equilibrium state in 50 years. A hydrological sustainability of groundwater resources development could then be achieved in Beijing Plain.

  2. Wetland Hydrology | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefits and types, and explains the role and importance of hydrology on wetland functioning. The chapter continues with the description of wetland hydrologic terms and related estimation and modeling techniques. The chapter provides a quick but valuable information regarding hydraulics of surface and subsurface flow, groundwater seepage/discharge, and modeling groundwater/surface water interactions in wetlands. Because of the aggregated effects of the wetlands at larger scales and their ecosystem services, wetland hydrology at the watershed scale is also discussed in which we elaborate on the proficiencies of some of the well-known watershed models in modeling wetland hydrology. This chapter can serve as a useful reference for eco-hydrologists, wetland researchers and decision makers as well as watershed hydrology modelers. In this chapter, the importance of hydrology for wetlands and their functional role are discussed. Wetland hydrologic terms and the major components of water budget in wetlands and how they can be estimated/modeled are also presented. Although this chapter does not provide a comprehensive coverage of wetland hydrology, it provides a quick understanding of the basic co

  3. Plain Polynomial Arithmetic on GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisul Haque, Sardar; Moreno Maza, Marc

    2012-10-01

    As for serial code on CPUs, parallel code on GPUs for dense polynomial arithmetic relies on a combination of asymptotically fast and plain algorithms. Those are employed for data of large and small size, respectively. Parallelizing both types of algorithms is required in order to achieve peak performances. In this paper, we show that the plain dense polynomial multiplication can be efficiently parallelized on GPUs. Remarkably, it outperforms (highly optimized) FFT-based multiplication up to degree 212 while on CPU the same threshold is usually at 26. We also report on a GPU implementation of the Euclidean Algorithm which is both work-efficient and runs in linear time for input polynomials up to degree 218 thus showing the performance of the GCD algorithm based on systolic arrays.

  4. Michigan Wetlands: Yours To Protect. A Citizen's Guide to Local Involvement in Wetland Protection. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikiel, Wilfred

    This guidebook is designed to assist concerned Michigan citizens, local governments, conservation organizations, landowners, and others in their efforts to initiate wetlands protection activities. Chapter 1 focuses on wetland functions, values, losses, and the urgent need to protect wetland resources. Chapter 2 discusses wetland identification and…

  5. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  6. Recharge Rates and Chemistry Beneath Playas of the High Plains Aquifer - A Literature Review and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Roe, Cassia D.

    2009-01-01

    Playas are ephemeral, closed-basin wetlands that are important zones of recharge to the High Plains (or Ogallala) aquifer and critical habitat for birds and other wildlife in the otherwise semiarid, shortgrass prairie and agricultural landscape. The ephemeral nature of playas, low regional recharge rates, and a strong reliance on ground water from the High Plains aquifer has prompted many questions regarding the contribution of recharge from playas to the regional aquifer. To address these questions and concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Playa Lakes Joint Venture, present a review and synthesis of the more than 175 publications about recharge rates and chemistry beneath playas and interplaya settings. Although a number of questions remain regarding the controls on recharge rates and chemistry beneath playas, the results from most published studies indicate that recharge rates beneath playas are substantially (1 to 2 orders of magnitude) higher than recharge rates beneath interplaya settings. The synthesis presented here supports the conceptual model that playas are important zones of recharge to the High Plains aquifer and are not strictly evaporative pans. The major findings of this synthesis yield science-based implications for the protection and management of playas and ground-water resources of the High Plains aquifer and directions for future research.

  7. Presence of trace elements in fishes from the Chaco-Pampeana plain (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra V. Volpedo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chaco-Pampean plain is one of the greatest plains worldwide; present a wetland macro system (lagoons, marshes, rivers, streams, channels. The water quality of these environments is diverse and has different trace elements natural (As, F, Mo and V and anthropogenic (Cr, Cu and Pb. The Chaco Pampean plain has an important diversity of fish species however the species of commercial importance are limited. This paper presents the reviews of the studies related to the presence of trace elements in tissues of commercial fishes (shad Prochilodus lineatus and silversides Odontesthes bonariensis in the Chaco-Pampean plain in recent decades and a discussion about associated information gaps is presented. The presence of trace elements in commercial fish muscle is a major problem for food security. The results showed that most of the elements present in shad are in lower levels than the maximum limits set by the Argentine Food Code (CAA, 2014. In the case of Pb present in the muscle of the shad, the determined values exceed those considered by the European Food Safety Authority. In the case of silversides the values of As, Pb, Hg are mostly lower than those maximum recommended by the Argentine Food Code. However, according to the European Food Safety Authority, the lower limit on the benchmark dose for a 10% response (BMDL values associated with health risk for As.

  8. Wetland Program Development Grants (WPDGs) Case Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Wetland Grant Database (WGD) houses grant data for Wetland Program Development Grants (created by EPA in 1990 under the Clean Water Act Section 104(b)(3)...

  9. Designated Wetlands and Setback Distances in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This GIS layer depicts wetlands designated for protection in the state of Iowa. Designated wetland is defined in Iowa Code subsection 459.102(21) as follows: 21....

  10. Modeling sediment accumulation in North American playa wetlands in response to climate change, 1940-2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Lucy; Skagen, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    Playa wetlands on the west-central Great Plains of North America are vulnerable to sediment infilling from upland agriculture, putting at risk several important ecosystem services as well as essential habitats and food resources of diverse wetland-dependent biota. Climate predictions for this semi-arid area indicate reduced precipitation which may alter rates of erosion, runoff, and sedimentation of playas. We forecasted erosion rates, sediment depths, and resultant playa wetland depths across the west-central Great Plains and examined the relative roles of land use context and projected changes in precipitation in the sedimentation process. We estimated erosion with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) using historic values and downscaled precipitation predictions from three general circulation models and three emissions scenarios. We calibrated RUSLE results using field sediment measurements. RUSLE is appealing for regional scale modeling because it uses climate forecasts with monthly resolution and other widely available values including soil texture, slope and land use. Sediment accumulation rates will continue near historic levels through 2070 and will be sufficient to cause most playas (if not already filled) to fill with sediment within the next 100 years in the absence of mitigation. Land use surrounding the playa, whether grassland or tilled cropland, is more influential in sediment accumulation than climate-driven precipitation change.

  11. [Recited depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucci, M; Cossio, M

    1984-01-01

    Several subjects who tell their depression and play a part of it in front of the doctor without being really depressed are reported. Some of them try to hide the symptoms (irritability or erethism, ceremonials of obsessive neurosis, shunning of phobia) which, in their opinion, might be detrimental to their reputation. Others neglect to describe some of the symptoms of their polymorphous clinical picture only underlining the depressive signs. Some others play a part of depression because they have believed to recognize themselves in persons presented by mass media, because it seems to them a duty to show an adequate depression in case of mournful event, or because they "convert" their problem into a depression. Some others use depression as a blackmail, or to obtain an advantage from doctor's conviction about their illness. The reason for the high frequency of similar cases in the present time are examined: the scientific divulgation and the acceptance of depression by the modern society are among the most important ones. The peculiar semantic vicissitudes of the word depression are also reviewed. A widening of the boundaries of depression has contributed to an increase in the number of the cases. Finally, in addition to patients who are depressed without being aware of it, the authors focus the inverse possibility: patients who believed or try to make their doctor believe (playing the part of depression in front of them) that they are depressed.

  12. Wetland Ecology Principles and Conservation, Second Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Smardon

    2014-01-01

    This is a book review of Wetland Ecology Principles and Conservation, second edition, by Paul Keddy. This review focuses on the book’s content as it relates to wetland sustainability for both science and management. Besides overall comments, comparisons are made with the first edition of the book and then very specific chapter-by-chapter relationships to wetland sustainability are made to illustrate specific applications toward wetland sustainability.

  13. Chinese tallow: Invading the southeastern Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Chinese tallow is an ornamental tree with colorful autumn foliage that can survive full sunlight and shade, flooding, drought, and in some cases fire. To horticulturists this kind of tree sounds like a dream, but to ecologists, land managers, and land owners this kind of tree can be a nightmare, especially when it invades an area and takes over native vegetation. Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), a nonnative tree from China, is currently transforming the southeastern Coastal Plain.Over the last 30 years, Chinese tallow has become a common tree in old fields and bottomland swamps of coastal Louisiana. Several studies at the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC), Lafayette, Louisiana, are aimed at understanding the factors that contribute to Chinese tallow growth, spread, and management.When tallow invades, it eventually monopolizes an area, creating a forest without native animal or plant species. This tree exhibits classic traits of most nonnative invaders: it is attractive so people want to distribute it, it has incredible resiliency, it grows quickly and in a variety of soils, and it is resistant to pests.In the coastal prairie of Louisiana and Texas, Chinese tallow can grow up to 30 feet and shade out native sun-loving prairie species. The disappearing of prairie species is troublesome because less than 1% of original coastal prairie remains, and in Louisiana, less than 500 of the original 2.2 million acres still exist.Tallow reproduces and grows quickly and can cause large-scale ecosystem modification (fig. 1). For example, when it completely replaces native vegetation, it has a negative effect on birds by degrading the habitat. Besides shading out grasses that cattle like to eat, it can also be potentially harmful to humans and animals because of its berries (fig. 2) and plant sap that contain toxins. There is some concern its leaves may shed toxins that change the soil chemistry and make it difficult for other plants to grow.

  14. Gonadal abnormalities in frogs (Lithobates spp.) collected from managed wetlands in an agricultural region of Nebraska, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, Diana M; Schwarz, Matt S; Mena, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Nebraska's Rainwater Basin (RWB) provides important wetland habitat for North American migratory birds. Concern exists that pesticide and nutrient runoff from surrounding row-crops enters wetlands degrading water quality and adversely affecting birds and wildlife. Frogs may be especially vulnerable. Plains leopard (Lithobates blairi) metamorphs from RWB wetlands with varying concentrations of pesticides were evaluated for a suite of biomarkers of exposure to endocrine active chemicals. Froglets had ovarian dysgenesis, high rates of testicular oocytes, and female-biased sex ratios however, there was no clear statistical association between pesticide concentrations and biomarkers. Data interpretation was hindered because timing and duration of exposures were unknown and due to an incomplete understanding of L. blairi sexual development. Emphasis is on describing the complex developmental biology of closely-related leopard frogs, how this understanding can explain RWB L. blairi anomalies, and the need for sampling at the appropriate life stage.

  15. Gonadal abnormalities in frogs (Lithobates spp.) collected from managed wetlands in an agricultural region of Nebraska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, Diana M.; Schwarz, Matt S.; Mena, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Nebraska's Rainwater Basin (RWB) provides important wetland habitat for North American migratory birds. Concern exists that pesticide and nutrient runoff from surrounding row-crops enters wetlands degrading water quality and adversely affecting birds and wildlife. Frogs may be especially vulnerable. Plains leopard (Lithobates blairi) metamorphs from RWB wetlands with varying concentrations of pesticides were evaluated for a suite of biomarkers of exposure to endocrine active chemicals. Froglets had ovarian dysgenesis, high rates of testicular oocytes, and female-biased sex ratios however, there was no clear statistical association between pesticide concentrations and biomarkers. Data interpretation was hindered because timing and duration of exposures were unknown and due to an incomplete understanding of L. blairi sexual development. Emphasis is on describing the complex developmental biology of closely-related leopard frogs, how this understanding can explain RWB L. blairi anomalies, and the need for sampling at the appropriate life stage.

  16. Atypical Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... satisfaction and control in your life Help ease depression symptoms such as hopelessness and anger As part of your treatment, it's important to also address other conditions that often accompany atypical depression, in particular anxiety and drug or alcohol use, ...

  17. Teen Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression is a real, treatable brain illness, or health problem. Depression can be caused by big transitions in life, stress, or changes in your body’s chemicals that affect your thoughts and moods. Even if you feel ...

  18. Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  19. Depression Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3286 After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Depression Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... How Do I Know if I Am Experiencing Depression? The following questions may help you determine if ...

  20. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Diseases + Condition Centers Mental Health Medical Library Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  1. Salt intrusion in tidal wetlands: European willow species tolerate oligohaline conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus-Michalczyk, Heike; Hanelt, Dieter; Ludewig, Kristin; Müller, David; Schröter, Brigitte; Jensen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experience salt intrusion due to the effects of climate change. This study clarifies that the European flood plain willows species Salix alba and Salix viminalis tolerate oligohaline conditions. Salix alba L. and Salix viminalis L. are distributed on flood plains up to transitional waters of the oligohaline to the mesohaline estuarine stretch in temperate climates. They experience spatial and temporal variations in flooding and salinity. In the past, willows dominated the vegetation above the mean high water line, attenuated waves and contributed to sedimentation. In recent centuries, human utilization reduced willow stands. Today, the Elbe estuary - a model system for an estuary in temperate zones - exhibits increasing flooding and salinity due to man-induced effects and climatic changes. Willows were described as having no salinity tolerance. In contrast, our soil water salinity measurements at willows in tidal wetlands prove that mature Salix individuals tolerate oligohaline conditions. To assess immature plant salinity tolerance, we conducted a hydroponic greenhouse experiment. Vegetative propagules originating from a freshwater and an oligohaline site were treated in four salinities. Related to growth rates and biomass production, we found interspecific similarities and a salinity tolerance up to salinity 2. Vitality and chlorophyll fluorescence indicated an acclimation of Salix viminalis to oligohaline conditions. We conclude, that the survival of S. alba and S. viminalis and the restoration of willow stands in estuarine flood plains - with regard to wave attenuation and sedimentation - might be possible, despite increasing salinity in times of climate change.

  2. North Dakota Wetlands Discovery Guide. Photocopy Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Nancy J., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet contains games and activities that can be photocopied for classroom use. Activities include Wetland Terminology, Putting on the Map, Erosional Forces, Water in...Water out, Who Lives Here?, Wetlands in Disguise, Dichotomous Plant Game, Algae Survey, Conducting an Algal Survey, Water Quality Indicators Guide, Farming Wetlands, Wetlands…

  3. 40 CFR 257.9 - Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wetlands. 257.9 Section 257.9... Location Restrictions § 257.9 Wetlands. (a) Owners or operators of new units and lateral expansions shall not locate such units in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the following demonstrations...

  4. 40 CFR 258.12 - Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wetlands. 258.12 Section 258.12... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.12 Wetlands. (a) New MSWLF units and lateral expansions shall not be located in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the following...

  5. North Dakota Wetlands Discovery Guide. Photocopy Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Nancy J., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet contains games and activities that can be photocopied for classroom use. Activities include Wetland Terminology, Putting on the Map, Erosional Forces, Water in...Water out, Who Lives Here?, Wetlands in Disguise, Dichotomous Plant Game, Algae Survey, Conducting an Algal Survey, Water Quality Indicators Guide, Farming Wetlands, Wetlands…

  6. Wetland birds: habitat resources and conservation implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weller, Milton Webster

    1999-01-01

    ... viewpoints [] Introduction []  . . Classification of wetlands [] Factors influencing wetland formation [] Wetlands: what, where, and why []  . . Major...

  7. Conservation of Louisiana's coastal wetland forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim L. Chambers; Richard F. Keim; William H. Conner; John W. Jr. Day; Stephen P. Faulkner; Emile S. Gardiner; Melinda s. Hughes; Sammy L. King; Kenneth W. McLeod; Craig A. Miller; J. Andrew Nyman; Gary P. Shaffer

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale efforts to protect and restore coastal wetlands and the concurrent renewal of forest harvesting in cypress-tupelo swamps have brought new attention to Louisiana's coastal wetland forests in recent years. Our understanding of these coastal wetland forests has been limited by inadequate data and the lack of a comprehensive review of existing information...

  8. Optimizing Commercial Wetlands in Rural Landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaeij, de A.T.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Polman, N.B.P.; Reinhard, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial wetlands can contribute to different policy objectives simultaneously. The aim of this study is to investigate the opinion of the Dutch population with respect to commercial wetlands. The commercial wetland functions valued the most by the Dutch population are water treatment and water st

  9. Description of the Wetlands Research Programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walmsley, RD

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a rationale to the development of a multidisciplinary South African Wetland Research Programme. A definition of what is meant by the term wetland is given along with a general description of what types of wetland occur in South...

  10. Can pH and electrical conductivity monitoring reveal spatial and temporal patterns in wetland geochemical processes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Gerla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate reactions and equilibria play a dominant role in the biogeochemical function of many wetlands. The US Geological Survey PHREEQC computer code was used to model geochemical reactions that may be typical for wetlands with water budgets characterized by: (a input dominated by direct precipitation, (b interaction with groundwater, (c variable degrees of reaction with organic carbon, and (d different rates of evapotranspiration. Rainfall with a typical composition was progressively reacted with calcite and organic carbon at various rates and proportions using PHREEQC. Contrasting patterns of the results suggest that basic water quality data collected in the field can reveal differences in the geochemical processes in wetlands. Given a temporal record, these can signal subtle changes in surrounding land cover and use. To demonstrate this, temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC were monitored for three years in five large wetlands comprising 48 sample sites in northwest Minnesota. EC and pH of samples ranged greatly – from 23 to 1300 μS cm−1 and 5.5 to 9. The largest range in pH was observed in small beach ridge wetlands, where two clusters are apparent: (1 low EC and a wide range of pH and (2 higher pH and EC. Large marshes within a glacial lake – till plain have a broad range of pH and EC, but depend on the specific wetland. Outlying data typically occurred in altered or disturbed areas. The inter-annual and intra-wetland consistency of the results suggests that each wetland system hosts characteristic geochemical conditions.

  11. Wetlands Research Program. Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual. Appendix C. Sections 1 and 2. Region 6 - Southern Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    puZcheZZa Lundell Physostegia FACW ?:’.yto~ acca cmnericczna L. Common pokeberry FAC * w’a (L.) Gray Clearweed FAC .- 1uar--a =ze-icana A. Braun Pilularia...Littleseed beakrush FACW+ R. mixta Britton Mingled beakrush GEL R. oiatha Cray Few-flowered beakrush GEL P. perp~exa Britton Beakrush GEL R. p7 ~umosa Elliott

  12. Wetlands Research Program. Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual. Appendix C. Sections 1 and 2. Region 4 - North Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Mountain bladderfern Danthonia intexrnedia Vasey Timber danthonia FAC I eschampsia cespitosa (L.) Beauv. Tufted hairgrass FACW 2’. eiongata (Hook...Munro Slender hairgrass FACW Eichanthelium acuminatum (Swartz) Gould Pacific panicum FAC DRA & C. A. Clarke istichZis spicata (L.) Greene Seashore...King & Joe-pyeweed FACW+ Boneset OBL ,c" :. ;reene Bushy golden-rod FACW \\utt. Grass -leaved goldenrod FACW -,ut. Goldenrod OBL Red fescue FAC ""(L

  13. Strategies of Protection and Utilization of Wetland Resources in Jiaxing City%嘉兴市湿了资源保护和利用对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾掌根; 王国峰

    2013-01-01

    嘉兴市位于太湖流域水网平原、长江三角洲南缘、杭州湾和钱塘江北岸,域内具有丰富的湿地资源,但由于不合理的开发利用导致自然湿地数量持续减少、湿地生态功能退化乃至丧失。通过对嘉兴市湿地类型和特点进行分析,将嘉兴市湿地划分为滨海(江)湿地(滩涂)、河流湿地、湖泊湿地和人工湿地4种类型。探讨了目前嘉兴市湿地环境存在的主要问题,并针对主要制约因素对湿地的保护和合理利用提出了对策与建议。%Jiaxing is located in the plain of Taihu Basin, the southern margin of the Yangtze River delta, and the north shore of Hangzhou bay and the Qiantang River. There were rich wetland resources in the region. However, irrational development and utilization had resulted in continual reduction in the number of natural wetlands, degradation of ecological functions and even loss of wetlands. An analysis was conducted to divide the wetlands in Jiaxin City into 4 types, coastal (riverside) wetland (mud flat), river wetland, lake wetland, and constructed wetland. Main problems currently existing in wetland environment in Jiaixng City were identified, and strategies were proposed for wetland protection and rational utilization considering the main constraints.

  14. Relation between methanogenic archaea and methane production potential in selected natural wetland ecosystems across China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. Y.; Ding, W. X.; Jia, Z. J.; Cai, Z. C.

    2011-02-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions from natural wetland ecosystems exhibit large spatial variability at regional, national, and global levels related to temperature, water table, plant type and methanogenic archaea etc. To understand the underlying factors that induce spatial differences in CH4 emissions, and the relationship between the population of methanogenic archaea and CH4 production potential in natural wetlands around China, we measured the CH4 production potential and the abundance of methanogenic archaea in vertical soil profiles sampled from the Poyang wetland in the subtropical zone, the Hongze wetland in the warm temperate zone, the Sanjiang marsh in the cold temperate zone, and the Ruoergai peatland in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in the alpine climate zone. The top soil layer had the highest population of methanogens (1.07-8.29 × 109 cells g-1 soil) in all wetlands except the Ruoergai peatland and exhibited the maximum CH4 production potential measured at the mean in situ summer temperature. There is a significant logarithmic correlation between the abundance of methanogenic archaea and the soil organic carbon (R2 = 0.72, P nitrogen concentrations (R2 = 0.76, P affect the population of methanogens in wetland ecosystems. While the CH4 production potential is not significantly related to methanogen population (R2 = 0.01, P > 0.05, n = 13), it is related to the dissolved organic carbon concentration (R2 = 0.31, P = 0.05, n = 13). This suggests that the methanogen population might be not an effective index for predicting the CH4 production in wetland ecosystems. The CH4 production rate of the top soil layer increases with increasing latitude, from 273.64 μg CH4 kg-1 soil d-1 in the Poyang wetland to 664.59 μg CH4 kg-1 soil d-1 in the Carex lasiocarpa marsh of the Sanjiang Plain. We conclude that CH4 production potential in the freshwater wetlands of Eastern China is mainly affected by the supply of methanogenic substrates rather than temperature; in contrast

  15. Linking channel hydrology with riparian wetland accretion in tidal rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Scott H.; Noe, Gregory B.; Hupp, Cliff R.

    2014-01-01

    hydrologic processes by which tide affects river channel and riparian morphology within the tidal freshwater zone are poorly understood yet are fundamental to predicting the fate of coastal rivers and wetlands as sea level rises. We investigated patterns of sediment accretion in riparian wetlands along the nontidal through oligohaline portion of two coastal plain rivers in Maryland, U.S., and how flow velocity, water level, and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the channel may have contributed to those patterns. Sediment accretion was measured over a 1 year period using artificial marker horizons, channel hydrology was measured over a 1 month period using acoustic Doppler current profilers, and SSC was predicted from acoustic backscatter. Riparian sediment accretion was lowest at the nontidal sites (mean and standard deviation = 8 ± 8 mm yr-1), highest at the upstream tidal freshwater forested wetlands (TFFW) (33 ± 28 mm yr-1), low at the midstream TFFW (12 ± 9 mm yr-1), and high at the oligohaline (fresh-to-brackish) marshes (19 ± 8 mm yr-1). Channel maximum flood and ebb velocity was twofold faster at the oligohaline than tidal freshwater zone on both tidal rivers, corresponding with the differences in in-channel SSC: The oligohaline zone's SSC was more than double the tidal freshwater zone's and was greater than historical SSC at the nontidal gages. The tidal wave characteristics differed between rivers, leading to significantly greater in-channel SSC during floodplain inundation in the weakly convergent than the strongly convergent tidal river. High sediment accretion at the upstream TFFW was likely due to high river discharge following a hurricane.

  16. Vegetation establishment success in restored carolina bay depressions on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina - phase one.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharitz, Rebecca, A.; Mulhouse, John, M.

    2004-05-01

    Successful wetlands restoration must re-establish or enhance three parameters: wetland hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation (Mitsch and Gosselink 2000). On the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, restoration of small Carolina bay depression-wetlands was initiated in FY 2001 to provide wetland acreage for mitigation banking (US DOE 1997). Sixteen small depressions that had historically been drained for agricultural purposes were selected for restoration, and an additional four were initially chosen to serve as non-restored controls. Restoration treatments included plugging the existing ditches to increase water volume retention and wetland hydroperiod and clear-cutting removal of woody vegetation in the interiors. Planned endpoints of the restoration were herbaceous meadow and forested savanna bay interiors, and pine savanna and pine/hardwood forested bay margins (Barton and Singer 2001). To promote forested savanna interiors, saplings of bald cypress and swamp tupelo were planted following removal of the woody species.

  17. Towards sustainable management of louisiana's coastal wetland forests: Problems, constraints, and a new beginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J.L.; Conner, W.H.; Keim, R.F.; Faulkner, S.P.; Day, J.W.; Gardiner, E.S.; Hughes, M.S.; King, S.L.; McLeod, K.W.; Miller, C.A.; Nyman, J.A.; Shaffer, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    Over 345,000 ha of forested swamps occur throughout the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain. Natural and anthropogenic changes in hydrology and geomorphology at local and landscape levels have reduced the productivity in many of these coastal wetland forests areas and have caused the complete loss of forest cover in some places. A summary and interpretation of the available science, suggestions for policy change, and a multidisciplinary (multi-responsibility) approach were needed to address these issues [in the context of private land]. In response, the Louisiana Governor's office formed a Coastal Wetland Forest Conservation and Use Science Working Group (SWG) and an associated Advisory Panel to provide the Governor with information and suggestions of strategies for environmental and economic utilization, conservation, and protection of Louisiana's coastal wetland forest ecosystem in the long-term. The process of engaging scientists, resource managers, and other stakeholders in this effort is described, and the recommendations of the SWG are presented relative to forestry practices and the potential for sustainable management of coastal wetland forests.

  18. Vulnerability of Louisiana's coastal wetlands to present-day rates of relative sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Krista L.; Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.; Fernandes, Anjali M.

    2017-03-01

    Coastal Louisiana has lost about 5,000 km2 of wetlands over the past century and concern exists whether remaining wetlands will persist while facing some of the world's highest rates of relative sea-level rise (RSLR). Here we analyse an unprecedented data set derived from 274 rod surface-elevation table-marker horizon stations, to determine present-day surface-elevation change, vertical accretion and shallow subsidence rates. Comparison of vertical accretion rates with RSLR rates at the land surface (present-day RSLR rates are 12+/-8 mm per year) shows that 65% of wetlands in the Mississippi Delta (SE Louisiana) may keep pace with RSLR, whereas 58% of the sites in the Chenier Plain (SW Louisiana) do not, rendering much of this area highly vulnerable to RLSR. At least 60% of the total subsidence rate occurs within the uppermost 5-10 m, which may account for the higher vulnerability of coastal Louisiana wetlands compared to their counterparts elsewhere.

  19. Linking the historic 2011 Mississippi River flood to coastal wetland sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcini, Federico; Khan, Nicole S.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Horton, Benjamin P.; Lutken, Carol B.; McKee, Karen L.; Santoleri, Rosalia; Colella, Simone; Li, Chunyan; Volpe, Gianluca; D'Emidio, Marco; Salusti, Alessandro; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2012-11-01

    Wetlands in the Mississippi River deltaic plain are deteriorating in part because levees and control structures starve them of sediment. In spring 2011 a record-breaking flood brought discharge on the lower Mississippi River to dangerous levels, forcing managers to divert up to 3,500m3s-1 of water to the Atchafalaya River Basin. Here we use field-calibrated satellite data to quantify differences in inundation and sediment-plume patterns between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River. We assess the impact of these extreme outflows on wetland sedimentation, and use in situ data collected during the historic flood to characterize the Mississippi plume's hydrodynamics and suspended sediment. We show that a focused, high-momentum jet emerged from the leveed Mississippi, and delivered sediment far offshore. In contrast, the plume from the Atchafalaya was more diffuse; diverted water inundated a large area, and sediment was trapped within the coastal current. The largest sedimentation, of up to several centimetres, occurred in the Atchafalaya Basin despite the larger sediment load carried by the Mississippi. Sediment accumulation was lowest along the shoreline between the two river sources. We conclude that river-mouth hydrodynamics and wetland sedimentation patterns are mechanistically linked, providing results that are relevant for plans to restore deltaic wetlands using artificial diversions.

  20. Linking the historic 2011 Mississippi River flood to coastal wetland sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcini, Federico; Khan, Nicole S.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Horton, Benjamin P.; Lutken, Carol B.; McKee, Karen L.; Santoleri, Rosalia; Colella, Simone; Li, Chunyan; Volpe, Gianluca; D’Emidio, Marco; Salusti, Alessandro; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands in the Mississippi River deltaic plain are deteriorating in part because levees and control structures starve them of sediment. In Spring of 2011 a record-breaking flood brought discharge on the lower Mississippi River to dangerous levels, forcing managers to divert up to 3500 m3/s-1 of water to the Atchafalaya River Basin. Here we quantify differences between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River inundation and sediment-plume patterns using field-calibrated satellite data, and assess the impact these outflows had on wetland sedimentation. We characterize hydrodynamics and suspended sediment patterns of the Mississippi River plume using in-situ data collected during the historic flood. We show that the focused, high-momentum jet from the leveed Mississippi delivered sediment far offshore. In contrast, the plume from the Atchafalaya was more diffuse; diverted water inundated a large area; and sediment was trapped within the coastal current. Maximum sedimentation (up to several centimetres) occurred in the Atchafalaya Basin despite the larger sediment load carried by the Mississippi. Minimum accumulation occurred along the shoreline between these river sources. Our findings provide a mechanistic link between river-mouth dynamics and wetland sedimentation patterns that is relevant for plans to restore deltaic wetlands using artificial diversions.

  1. Factors affecting coastal wetland loss and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, D.R.; Phillips, S.W.

    2007-01-01

    Opening paragraph: Tidal and nontidal wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay watershed provide vital hydrologic, water-quality, and ecological functions. Situated at the interface of land and water, these valuable habitats are vulnerable to alteration and loss by human activities including direct conversion to non-wetland habitat by dredge-and-fill activities from land development, and to the effects of excessive nutrients, altered hydrology and runoff, contaminants, prescribed fire management, and invasive species. Processes such as sea-level rise and climate change also impact wetlands. Although local, State, and Federal regulations provide for protection of wetland resources, the conversion and loss of wetland habitats continue in the Bay watershed. Given the critical values of wetlands, the Chesapeake 2000 Agreement has a goal to achieve a net gain in wetlands by restoring 25,000 acres of tidal and nontidal wetlands by 2010. The USGS has synthesized findings on three topics: (1) sea-level rise and wetland loss, (2) wetland restoration, and (3) factors affecting wetland diversity.

  2. A Review of Wetland Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Li, Jing; Sheng, Chunlei; Xu, Jiawei; Wu, Li

    2017-04-05

    Wetlands are some of the most important ecosystems on Earth. They play a key role in alleviating floods and filtering polluted water and also provide habitats for many plants and animals. Wetlands also interact with climate change. Over the past 50 years, wetlands have been polluted and declined dramatically as land cover has changed in some regions. Remote sensing has been the most useful tool to acquire spatial and temporal information about wetlands. In this paper, seven types of sensors were reviewed: aerial photos coarse-resolution, medium-resolution, high-resolution, hyperspectral imagery, radar, and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. This study also discusses the advantage of each sensor for wetland research. Wetland research themes reviewed in this paper include wetland classification, habitat or biodiversity, biomass estimation, plant leaf chemistry, water quality, mangrove forest, and sea level rise. This study also gives an overview of the methods used in wetland research such as supervised and unsupervised classification and decision tree and object-based classification. Finally, this paper provides some advice on future wetland remote sensing. To our knowledge, this paper is the most comprehensive and detailed review of wetland remote sensing and it will be a good reference for wetland researchers.

  3. A Review of Wetland Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Li, Jing; Sheng, Chunlei; Xu, Jiawei; Wu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands are some of the most important ecosystems on Earth. They play a key role in alleviating floods and filtering polluted water and also provide habitats for many plants and animals. Wetlands also interact with climate change. Over the past 50 years, wetlands have been polluted and declined dramatically as land cover has changed in some regions. Remote sensing has been the most useful tool to acquire spatial and temporal information about wetlands. In this paper, seven types of sensors were reviewed: aerial photos coarse-resolution, medium-resolution, high-resolution, hyperspectral imagery, radar, and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. This study also discusses the advantage of each sensor for wetland research. Wetland research themes reviewed in this paper include wetland classification, habitat or biodiversity, biomass estimation, plant leaf chemistry, water quality, mangrove forest, and sea level rise. This study also gives an overview of the methods used in wetland research such as supervised and unsupervised classification and decision tree and object-based classification. Finally, this paper provides some advice on future wetland remote sensing. To our knowledge, this paper is the most comprehensive and detailed review of wetland remote sensing and it will be a good reference for wetland researchers. PMID:28379174

  4. Lake Superior Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of the coastal margin and the watershed context in defining the ecology of even very large lakes is increasingly being recognized and examined. Coastal wetlands are both important contributors to the biodiversity and productivity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake-basin connection. We explored wetland-watershed connections and their relationship to wetland function and condition using data collected from 37 Lake Superior wetlands spanning a substantial geographic and geomorphic gradient. While none of these wetlands are particularly disturbed, there were nevertheless clear relationships between watershed landuse and wetland habitat and biota, and these varied consistently across wetland type categories that reflected the strength of connection to the watershed. For example, water clarity and vegetation structure complexity declined with decreasing percent natural land cover, and these effects were strongest in riverine wetlands (having generally large watersheds and tributary-dominated hydrology) and weakest in lagoon wetlands (having generally small watersheds and lake-dominate hydrology). Fish abundance and species richness both increased with decreasing percent natural land cover while species diversity decreased, and again the effect was strongest in riverine wetlands. Lagoonal wetlands, which lack any substantial tributary, consistently harbored the fewest species of fish and a composition different from the more watershed-lin

  5. Buried ancient river by holocene series in Saga Plain; Saga Heiya no kaseki tani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwao, Y. [Saga Univ., Saga (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Shimoyama, S. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1995-10-01

    Two big faults are supposed to be existed along East West direction of Saga plain and Northern Ariake sea area. Omachi fault originating from the North west part of Saga plain is lying along the east-northeast direction at the center of Saga plain. Further, from the northern direction of Taradake, Yanagawa fault passes along the North east direction. Both of these faults are parallel and between them is the depression ground land called North Ariake graben. Accordingly, weak sedimentary deposit is formed in this depression ground. Activity of Aso pyroclastic flow is observed after the sedimentation along with the sinking of North Ariake graben. It was a regression period and rivers flew into the valley of Ariake with erosion. After that, large amount of volcanic ashes or efflorescence, thickly deposited in the upstream areas of Chikugo river, are carried into the Ariake sea expanded by Jomon transgression. This changes to clay minerals like smectite and so forth, slight regression takes place after the thick sedimentation of Ariake holocene clay and so forth and Saga plain was appeared. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Nevada Test Site Wetlands Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen

    1997-05-01

    This report identifies 16 Nevada Test Site (NTS) natural water sources that may be classified by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as jurisdictional wetlands and identifies eight water sources that may be classified as waters of the United States. These water sources are rare, localized habitats on the NTS that are important to regional wildlife and to isolated populations of water tolerant plants and aquatic organisms. No field investigations on the NTS have been conducted in the past to identify those natural water sources which would be protected as rare habitats and which may fall under regulatory authority of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1997. This report identifies and summarizes previous studies of NTS natural water sources, and identifies the current DOE management practices related to the protection of NTS wetlands. This report also presents management goals specific for NTS wetlands that incorporate the intent of existing wetlands legislation, the principles of ecosystem management, and the interests of regional land managers and other stakeholders.

  7. The National Wetland Condition Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) was conducted in 2011 by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Vegetation, algae, soil, water chemistry,and hydrologic data were collected at each of 1138 sites across the contiguous US. Ecological condition was ass...

  8. Estimates of loss in ecosystem service values of Songnen plain from 1980 to 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZongmin; ZHANGBai; ZHANGShuqin; SONGKaishan; DUANHongtao

    2005-01-01

    Ecosystem services are premises for human beings to exist and develop in the world, and it is of importance to study effects of land use change on ecosystem functions. Songnen plain, located in Northeast China, is one of the national key bases for agricultural production. Because there were remarkable variations in land use in recent years, it can supply specific foundation for protection and restoration of regional eco-environment to explore changes in its values of ecosystem services. This study aims to qualify long-term changes in land use of Songnen plain from 1980 to 2000, and to explore the impact of land use change on ecosystem services. With 2-period land use data using RS and GIS, this paper analyzed changes in land use and in ecosystem service values using the ecosystem service value coefficients (VC) put forward by Costanza et al. Results showed that from 1980 to 2000, area of rangeland, water area and wetlands and area of cropland decreased, but urban area and unused land increased. Due to cropland's comparatively low VC and comparatively high VC of wetlands and water area, increment in cultivated land could not offset the total decrement in regional ecosystem service values because of the decrease in area of wetlands and water area. Meanwhile, city sprawl has also led to loss of ecological values. Total ecosystem service values of the study area reduced dramatically, from 34,926.10×106$ to 31,744.54×106$ in the period 1980-2000. This represents a 9.11% net decline in annual value of ecosystem services in the study area.

  9. Rangeland Privatization and Its Impacts on the Zoige Wetlands on the Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhaoli; WU Ning

    2005-01-01

    The high Zoige Basin (Ruoergai Plateau) on the eastern Tibetan Plateau is a fault depression formed during intensive uplifting of the Tibetan Plateau. The wetland is globally important in biodiversity and is composed of marshes, bogs, fens, wet meadows and shallow water interspersed with low hills and sub-alpine meadows. Most of the Zoige wetlands have long been one of the most important grazing lands in China. Recent rangeland policy has allowed grazing, and usable wetland areas have been being legally allocated to individuals or groups of households on a long-term lease basis. Privatization of the wetland has impacted the Zoige wetlands in aspects of hydrologic condition, landscape and biodiversity. The uneven spatial distribution of water resources on private lands has led to the practice of extracting ground water, which has decreased the perched water table in Zoige. Fencing off the rangelands and grazing on expanding sand dunes have affected landscapes. Variation in the water table has led to the changes in vegetation diversity, resulting in the changes in wildlife and aquatic diversities and ecosystem processes. Making use all year round of the pasture that was previously grazed only in summer has shrunk the daily activity space of wildlife, and the newly erected fences blocked the movement of wild animals looking for food in the snow to lower and open areas. To maintain the favorable conditions of the Zoige wetland ecosystem, the author suggests that, in addition to biophysical research and implementation of conservation practices, there is an immediate need to initiate an integrated management program, increase public awareness of wetland functions and provide better training for the local conservation staff.

  10. Exit and Paradise Creek Braid Plain Kilometers, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of points designating braid plain kilometers, or distance along the braid plain centerline, for the 2012 active braid plain of Exit Creek and...

  11. Sustainable groundwater development and management in the Quaternary Hang-Jia-Hu Plain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琰

    2002-01-01

    Based on the results of study on regional water supply system, water quality assessments, Quaternary aquifers investigation, and correlation analysis of groundwater depression resulting from land subsidence in the Hang-Jia-Hu Quaternary Plain, this paper presents the groundwater resources policy and sustainable management methods suitable for this area. Suggestions for controlling land subsidence by implementation of wise groundwater policy and management measures are also given.

  12. USGS research on Florida's isolated freshwater wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Arturo E.; Haag, Kim H.; Lee, Terrie M.; Metz, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has studied wetland hydrology and its effects on wetland health and ecology in Florida since the 1990s. USGS wetland studies in Florida and other parts of the Nation provide resource managers with tools to assess current conditions and regional trends in wetland resources. Wetland hydrologists in the USGS Florida Water Science Center (FLWSC) have completed a number of interdisciplinary studies assessing the hydrology, ecology, and water quality of wetlands. These studies have expanded the understanding of wetland hydrology, ecology, and related processes including: (1) the effects of cyclical changes in rainfall and the influence of evapotranspiration; (2) surface-water flow, infiltration, groundwater movement, and groundwater and surfacewater interactions; (3) the effects of water quality and soil type; (4) the unique biogeochemical components of wetlands required to maintain ecosystem functions; (5) the effects of land use and other human activities; (6) the influences of algae, plants, and invertebrates on environmental processes; and (7) the effects of seasonal variations in animal communities that inhabit or visit Florida wetlands and how wetland function responds to changes in the plant community.

  13. Wetland restoration, flood pulsing, and disturbance dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    1999-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics are critical to wetland viability, there is as yet no consensus among those responsible for wetland restoration about how best to plan for those phenomena or even whether it is really necessary to do so at all. In this groundbreaking book, Dr. Beth Middleton draws upon the latest research from around the world to build a strong case for making flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics integral to the wetland restoration planning process.While the initial chapters of the book are devoted to laying the conceptual foundations, most of the coverage is concerned with demonstrating the practical implications for wetland restoration and management of the latest ecological theory and research. It includes a fascinating case history section in which Dr. Middleton explores the restoration models used in five major North American, European, Australian, African, and Asian wetland projects, and analyzes their relative success from the perspective of flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics planning.Wetland Restoration also features a wealth of practical information useful to all those involved in wetland restoration and management, including: * A compendium of water level tolerances, seed germination, seedling recruitment, adult survival rates, and other key traits of wetland plant species * A bibliography of 1,200 articles and monographs covering all aspects of wetland restoration * A comprehensive directory of wetland restoration ftp sites worldwide * An extensive glossary of essential terms

  14. Engineered wetlands : an innovative environmental solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, S.; Davis, B.M. [Jacques Whitford NAWE, White Bear Lake, MN (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Engineered wetlands are now considered as an emerging technology for the in situ remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and waters. Engineered wetlands incorporate a horizontal subsurface flow gravel bed reactor lined with impermeable liners, and are equipped with forced bed aeration systems in order to enhance oxygen delivery to the wetland's aerobic micro-organisms. The wetlands typically emphasize specific characteristics of wetland ecosystems to improve treatment capacities. This article discussed an engineered wetlands installed at a set of pipeline terminals as well as at a former British Petroleum (BP) refinery. The pipeline terminal generated contact wastewater containing BTEX and ammonia, and a subsurface engineered wetland was built in 1998. To date, the 16,000{sup 2} foot wetland has treated a flow-equalized input of approximately 1.5 m{sup 3} per day of contaminants. At the refinery, a wetland treatment system was designed to treat 6000 m{sup 3} of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The treatment site consists of a golf course, river front trails, and a white water kayak course. A cascade aeration system was used for iron oxidation and air-stripping. A soil matrix biofilter was used for passive gas phase benzene removal, as well as for the removal of ferric hydroxide precipitates. It was concluded that engineered wetlands can offer long-term solutions to site remediation challenges. 1 fig.

  15. Hydrology and tree-distribution patterns of karst wetlands at Arnold Engineering Development Center, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    Flooding regimes, ground-water interactions, and tree distribution patterns were determined in seasonally flooded sinkhole wetlands at Arnold Engineering Development Center near Manchester, Tennessee. The wetlands are ecologically significant because they support coastal-plain plants and animals far from their typical ranges. Surface-water stage, ground-water levels, rainfall, and streamflow were monitored at or near five wetland sites. Sinking Pond, Willow Oak Swamp, and Westall Swamp are compound sinks with depths greater than 2.5 meters, visible internal drains, and complex bottom topography dominated by coalesced sinkholes and connecting channels. Tupelo Swamp and Goose Pond are karst pans with depths less than 1.5 meters, flat bottoms, and without visible internal drains. Stage rose and fell abruptly in the compound sinks. Maximum water depths ranged from 2.6 meters in Westall Swamp to 3.5 meters in Sinking Pond. Water levels in wells adjacent to Sinking Pond and Westall Swamp rose and fell abruptly, corresponding closely to surface-water stage throughout periods of high water. The two karst pans filled and drained more gradually, but remained flooded longer than the compound sinks. The maximum recorded water depths were 1.1 meters in Tupelo Swamp and 0.7 meter in Goose Pond. Water levels in nearby wells remained lower than the stage in the pans throughout the study period. Tree species were identified and the elevations and diameters of individual trees were measured along 10 transects. Two transects crossed Sinking Pond, two crossed Tupelo Swamp, and one crossed Willow Oak Swamp. The remaining five transects crossed intermittent drainageways that carry flow into or out of Sinking Pond. Transects through ponds had fewer trees but more basal area per unit area of land surface than did transects through channels. Water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica L.) dominated the interior of Tupelo Swamp and had minimal overlap in terms of elevation and flooding duration with other

  16. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2004-10-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  17. Planetary plains: subsidence and warping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G.

    fabric of oceanic floors. Short, medium wave undulations of Pacific's floor (A. Cazenave et al., 1992; D. McAdoo & K. Marks, 1992) present lineations underlining its whole shape. NE lineations predominate on its northern sub-basin, NW lineations on its southern one. They cross at the equatorial zone and together with some other directions give a pattern resembling that observed on the venusian surface. The venusian regional plains typically deformed by wrinkle ridges show interesting similarities to volcanic plains on the Moon and Mars [3]. A subsidence along with warpings can squeeze out some "superfluous" material to surface through planetary scale fissures. This material builds mid-oceanic ridges and huge Hawaii volcano. The Cassini Regio on Iapetus is crossed in the equatorial plain by the dark ridge in some places high 20 km. References: [1] Kochemasov G. G. (2004) Mars and Earth: two dichotomies - one cause. In Workshop on "Hemispheres 1 apart: the origin and modification of the martian crustal dichotomy", LPI Contribution # 1203, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, p. 37. [2] Kochemasov G.G.(1999) Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr. v.1, #3, p.700 . [3] Basilevsky A.T., Head J.W. (2006) Impact craters on regional plains in Venus: Age relations with wrinkle ridges and implications for the geological evolution of Venus // JGR, v.111, EO3006, doi: 10.1029/2005JE002473, 2006. 2

  18. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-01-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  19. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-01-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  20. Introduction to the Wetland Book 1: Wetland structure and function, management, and nethods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Nick C.; Middleton, Beth A.; McInnes, Robert J.; Everard, Mark; Irvine, Kenneth; Van Dam, Anne A.; Finlayson, C. Max; Finlayson, C. Max; Everard, Mark; Irvine, Kenneth; McInnes, Robert J.; Middleton, Beth A.; Van Dam, Anne A.; Davidson, Nick C.

    2016-01-01

    The Wetland Book 1 is designed as a ‘first port-of-call’ reference work for information on the structure and functions of wetlands, current approaches to wetland management, and methods for researching and understanding wetlands. Contributions by experts summarize key concepts, orient the reader to the major issues, and support further research on such issues by individuals and multidisciplinary teams. The Wetland Book 1 is organized in three parts - Wetland structure and function; Wetland management; and Wetland methods - each of which is divided into a number of thematic Sections. Each Section starts with one or more overview chapters, supported by chapters providing further information and case studies on different aspects of the theme.

  1. Inventory of wetland birds occupying WPAs in the Devils Lake Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary focus of this survey was the non-game bird species found in wetlands; game bird species found to be using the wetlands were also recorded. Both diversity...

  2. Biological Diversity of Created Forested Wetlands in Comparison to Reference Forested Wetlands in the Bay Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals were surveyed at six created forested wetlands in central Maryland and at six adjacent reference forested wetlands during...

  3. EnviroAtlas - Potential Wetland Areas - Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Potential Wetland Areas (PWA) dataset shows potential wetland areas at 30-meter resolution. Beginning two centuries ago, many wetlands were turned...

  4. 75 FR 34479 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)...

  5. 78 FR 11220 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)...

  6. 77 FR 71820 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)...

  7. 77 FR 39252 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)...

  8. 76 FR 31626 - Meeting Announcement; North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement; North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)...

  9. Wetlands Research Program. Wetland Evaluation Technique (WET). Volume 2. Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Cockaded Woodpecker Kirtiand’s Warbler REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS : American Alligator FISH: Sockeye Salmon (Alaskan) Coho Salmon: Non-Alaskan U.S. Stock Alaskan...for wetland-dependent furbearers anid * othe: mammals, repti.les, and amphibians (e.g., beaver, crayfish, alligator, e tc. i. Habitat suitability for...Carolina. Chat 43:10-16. Spaans, A. L. 1978. Status of terns along the Surinam coast. Bird Band. 49:66-76. Sparrowe, R. D. and H. M. Wight. 1975

  10. Biotic wetland connectivity—supporting a new approach for wetland policy

    OpenAIRE

    Amezaga, J.M.; Santamaría, Luis; Green, Andy J.

    2002-01-01

    Wetlands are key habitats connected physically and socially with processes occurring over a much wider territory. The biotic connection through dispersal mechanisms among wetlands is of primary importance to wetland management and policies. However, traditional wetland conservation approaches are based on the preservation of isolated sites considered to be of special importance (typically owing to their importance for concentrations of migratory waterbirds). Research linking local species ric...

  11. Distribution and Drivers of a Widespread, Invasive Wetland Grass, Phragmites australis, in Great Salt Lake Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Arin Lexine

    2014-01-01

    Non-native invasive plant species can often have negative effects on native ecosystems, such as altered nutrient cycling, decreased habitat for wildlife, and outcompeting native plants. Around the Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, the invasive wetland grass Phragmites australis has become abundant in wetlands around the lake. Phragmites is replacing many native wetland plants provide important waterfowl habitat around the GSL. For successful management of Phragmites in GSL wetlands, it is importan...

  12. Biotic wetland connectivity—supporting a new approach for wetland policy

    OpenAIRE

    Amezaga, J.M.; Santamaría, Luis; Green, Andy J.

    2002-01-01

    Wetlands are key habitats connected physically and socially with processes occurring over a much wider territory. The biotic connection through dispersal mechanisms among wetlands is of primary importance to wetland management and policies. However, traditional wetland conservation approaches are based on the preservation of isolated sites considered to be of special importance (typically owing to their importance for concentrations of migratory waterbirds). Research linking local species ric...

  13. Retention of riverine sediment and nutrient loads by coastal plain floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, G.B.; Hupp, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the frequent citation of wetlands as effective regulators of water quality, few quantitative estimates exist for their cumulative retention of the annual river loads of nutrients or sediments. Here we report measurements of sediment accretion and associated carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus accumulation as sedimentation over feldspar marker horizons placed on floodplains of the non-tidal, freshwater Coastal Plain reaches of seven rivers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, USA. We then scale these accumulation rates to the entire extent of non-tidal floodplain in the Coastal Plain of each river, defined as riparian area extending from the Fall Line to the upper limit of tidal influence, and compare them to annual river loads. Floodplains accumulated a very large amount of material compared to their annual river loads of sediment (median among rivers = 119%), nitrogen (24%), and phosphorus (59%). Systems with larger floodplain areas and longer floodplain inundation retained greater proportions of riverine loads of nitrogen and phosphorus, but systems with larger riverine loads retained a smaller proportion of that load on floodplains. Although the source and long-term fate of deposited sediment and associated nutrients are uncertain, these fluxes represent the interception of large amounts of material that otherwise could have been exported downstream. Coastal Plain floodplain ecosystems are important regulators of sediment, carbon, and nutrient transport in watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay.

  14. VECTOR ANALYSIS THEORY ON LANDSCAPE PATTERN (VATLP) IN SANJIANG PLAIN MARSH,CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shu-Qing; ZHANG Jun-Yan; LI Fang

    2004-01-01

    Landscape indices are popular for the quantification of landscape pattern. But all landscape indices being used so far are scalar quantity, which measure patterns without considering sufficiently the pattern size and the directionality together. Based on planar characteristics defined in mechanics such as centroid, moment of inertia, product of inertia, principal axes and so on, vector analysis theory on landscape pattern (VATLP) is explored here. Firstly we establish a coordinate system of centroidal principal axes (CSCPA) of a patch or patches. Some related new indices including those describing the direction of pattern distribution (patch orientation (PO), vectorial patch orientation (VPO)), and those indicating the shape of patch' s equivalent ellipse ( major axis (MJA), minor axis (MIA) and eccentric rate (ER)) are deduced. These landscape metrics are then applied to the pattern analysis of Sanjiang plain marsh, the study area. Two temporal vector-based data sets of the study area come from interpretation of remote sensing images MSS (1980) and TM (2000). The application of the theory captures some shape properties of riparian wetland in Sanjiang plain marsh. The dissymmetrieal featires of Sanjiang plain marsh around principal axes due to agricultural development could also be explained.

  15. Construction and Protection of Qionghai Lake Wetland Ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaiwei; CHEN

    2013-01-01

    Wetland is closely related to survival, reproduction and development of human beings. Due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and agricultural modernization, wetland ecosystems are suffered from huge pressure of human society and the wetland ecological environment becomes extremely vulnerable. On the basis of analyzing current situations of Qionghai Lake wetland in Xichang City of Sichuan Province, this paper discussed the significance of Qionghai wetland construction and protection, and offered countermeasures and recommendations for solving existing problems in Qionghai wetland.

  16. Effect of the Urbanization of Wetlands on Microclimate: A Case Study of Xixi Wetland, Hangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization affects the microclimate and forms a unique urban climate environment. To deepen the understanding on the microclimate regulation function of an urban wetland, this study analyzed the influence of a suburb wetland’s urbanization process on the local climate through contrast observations of the protected wetland area and the former wetland area in Xixi wetland. Results show that the urbanization of suburb wetlands has an impact on the local microclimate and decreases human comfort, and that wetlands can effectively regulate the microclimate. The fragmentation of urban wetlands caused by urban sprawl decreases their microclimate regulation function, a decrease that is particularly evident in summer. Additionally, wetlands stabilize the microclimate in all seasons. For every land cover type in wetlands, vegetation has a better stabilizing effect on temperature, whereas a water body has a better stabilizing effect on wind speed and humidity. Meteorological conditions also affect the microclimate regulation function of wetlands. Temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and wind speed influence the cooling function of urban wetlands, while solar radiation modifies the humidifying function of urban wetlands.

  17. Diverse characteristics of wetlands restored under the Wetlands Reserve Program in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Joel M. Gramling

    2012-01-01

    The Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) restores converted or degraded wetlands on private working lands; however, the nature and outcomes of such efforts are undocumented in the Southeastern U.S. Identification of wetland types is needed to assess the program's conservation benefits, because ecological functions differ with hydrogeomorphic (HGM) type. We reviewed...

  18. SLOSS or Not? Factoring Wetland Size Into Decisions for Wetland Conservation, Enhancement, Restoration, and Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitigation or replacement of several small impacted wetlands or sites with fewer large wetlands can occur deliberately through the application of functional assessment methods (e.g., Adamus 1997) or coincidentally as the result of market-based mechanisms for wetland mitigation ba...

  19. Nomenclature and the National Wetland Plant List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    The National Wetland Plant List (NWPL) is being revised by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S...Wetland Plant List The National Wetland Plant List (NWPL) is being revised by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service... phylogenies predicated on molecular sequence analyses in combination with morphological char- acteristics and other biological and habitat features. ERDC

  20. Occurence of organic pollutants in constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    TRSKOVÁ, Eliška

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are wetlands designed to improve the quality of water. In this work, four representatives of typical organic pollutants in Constructed wetlands are studied : DEET, cotinine, coprostanol and galaxolide as the representatives of insecticide, alkaloid,faecal sterol and musk compound respectively. Moreover three different types of extraction techniques : aqueous two phase extraction (ATPE), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) - are investiga...

  1. Nomination of the Lahontan Valley Wetlands Nevada, U.S.A. as Wetlands of International Importance under the RAMSAR Convention

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a proposal to list the Lahontan Valley Wetlands as a Wetlands of International Importance. The Lahontan Valley Wetlands are an important habitat for...

  2. Monitoring and modeling wetland chloride concentrations in relationship to oil and gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Tangen, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Extraction of oil and gas via unconventional methods is becoming an important aspect of energy production worldwide. Studying the effects of this development in countries where these technologies are being widely used may provide other countries, where development may be proposed, with some insight in terms of concerns associated with development. A fairly recent expansion of unconventional oil and gas development in North America provides such an opportunity. Rapid increases in energy development in North America have caught the attention of managers and scientists as a potential stressor for wildlife and their habitats. Of particular concern in the Northern Great Plains of the U.S. is the potential for chloride-rich produced water associated with unconventional oil and gas development to alter the water chemistry of wetlands. We describe a landscape scale modeling approach designed to examine the relationship between potential chloride contamination in wetlands and patterns of oil and gas development. We used a spatial Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach to assess multiple models explaining chloride concentrations in wetlands. These models included effects related to oil and gas wells (e.g. age of wells, number of wells) and surficial geology (e.g. glacial till, outwash). We found that the model containing the number of wells and the surficial geology surrounding a wetland best explained variation in chloride concentrations. Our spatial predictions showed regions of localized high chloride concentrations. Given the spatiotemporal variability of regional wetland water chemistry, we do not regard our results as predictions of contamination, but rather as a way to identify locations that may require more intensive sampling or further investigation. We suggest that an approach like the one outlined here could easily be extended to more of an adaptive monitoring approach to answer questions about chloride contamination risk that are of interest to managers.

  3. Hydrochemical framework of the aquifer in and around East Kolkata Wetlands, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Paulami; Sikdar, P. K.

    2008-08-01

    The area lies between Hugli river in the northwest and Bidyadhari river in the east and includes the East Kolkata Wetlands. The East Kolkata Wetlands is included in the List of Wetlands of International Importance (“Ramsar List”), as per the Convention on Wetlands signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971. This wetland has been declared as a Ramsar site on the 19th August 2002 (Ramsar site no. 1208) and therefore has acquired an international status. The area is a part of the lower deltaic plain of the Bhagirathi Ganga river system and is generally flat in nature. The sub-surface geology of the area is completely blanketed by the Quaternary fluviatile sediments comprising a succession of clay, silty clay, sand and sand mixed with occasional gravel. The Quaternary aquifer is sandwiched between two clay sequences. The confined aquifer is made up of moderately well sorted sand and reflects fluviatile environment of deposition. The regional groundwater flow direction is from east to west. Detailed geochemical investigations of 40 groundwater samples along with statistical analysis (for example, correlation and principal component analysis) on these chemical data reveal: (i) four types of groundwater quality, for example, good, poor, very poor and water unsuitable for drinking purpose, (ii) four hydrochemical facies which may be assigned to three broad types such as “fresh”, “blended”, and “brackish” waters, (iii) the evolution of the “blended” water is possibly due to hydraulic mixing of “fresh” and “brackish” waters within the aquifer matrix and/or in well mixing, and (iv) absence of Na Cl facies indicates continuous flushing of the aquifer.

  4. Floods, floodplains, delta plains — A satellite imaging approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvitski, James P. M.; Overeem, Irina; Brakenridge, G. Robert; Hannon, Mark

    2012-08-01

    Thirty-three lowland floodplains and their associated delta plains are characterized with data from three remote sensing systems (AMSR-E, SRTM and MODIS). These data provide new quantitative information to characterize Late Quaternary floodplain landscapes and their penchant for flooding over the last decade. Daily proxy records for discharge since 2002 and for each of the 33 river systems can be derived with novel Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) methods. A descriptive framework based on analysis of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data is used to capture the major landscape-scale floodplain elements or zones: 1) container valleys with their long and narrow pathways of largely sediment transit and bypass, 2) floodplain depressions that act as loci for frequent flooding and sediment storage, 3) zones of nodal avulsions common to many continental scale rivers, and often located seaward of container valleys, and 4) coastal floodplains and delta plains that offer both sediment bypass and storage but under the influence of marine processes. The SRTM data allow mapping of smaller-scale architectural elements in unprecedented systematic manner. Floodplain depressions were found to play a major role, which may largely be overlooked in conceptual floodplain models. Lastly, MODIS data (independently and combined with AMSR-E) allows the tracking of flood hydrographs and pathways and sedimentation patterns on a near-daily timescale worldwide. These remote-sensing data show that 85% of the studied major river systems experienced extensive flooding in the last decade. A new quantitative paradigm of floodplain processes, honoring the frequency and extent of floods, can be develop by careful analysis of these new remotely sensed data.

  5. Predicting coastal flooding and wetland loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    The southeastern coastal region encompasses vast areas of wetland habitat important to wildlife and other economically valuable natural resources. Located on the interface between sea and land, these wetland habitats are affected by both sea-level rise and hurricanes, and possibly by hydroperiod associated with regional climatic shifts. Increased sea level is expected to accompany global warming because of higher sea temperatures and ice melt. To help determine the effects of sea-level rise on these wetlands, USGS scientists created computer models of coastal flooding and wetland loss.

  6. Hydrologic considerations in defining isolated wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, T.C.; LaBaugh, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands that are not connected by streams to other surface-water bodies are considered to be isolated. Although the definition is based on surface-water connections to other water bodies, isolated wetlands commonly are integral parts of extensive ground-water flow systems, and isolated wetlands can spill over their surface divides into adjacent surface-water bodies during periods of abundant precipitation and high water levels. Thus, characteristics of ground-water flow and atmospheric-water flow affect the isolation of wetlands. In general, the degree that isolated wetlands are connected through the ground-water system to other surface-water bodies depends to a large extent on the rate that ground water moves and the rate that hydrologic stresses can be transmitted through the ground-water system. Water that seeps from an isolated wetland into a gravel aquifer can travel many kilometers through the ground-water system in one year. In contrast, water that seeps from an isolated wetland into a clayey or silty substrate may travel less than one meter in one year. For wetlands that can spill over their surface watersheds during periods of wet climate conditions, their isolation is related to the height to a spill elevation above normal wetland water level and the recurrence interval of various magnitudes of precipitation. The concepts presented in this paper indicate that the entire hydrologic system needs to be considered in establishing a definition of hydrologic isolation.

  7. Illinois wetlands: their value and management. [Monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, H.E. III

    1981-01-01

    Wetlands are now valued as an important habitat, for their moderation of flooding, and as free polutant filters. This report documents, with the aid of aerial photographs, the impact of drainage activities for development purposes over the past century, and illustrates the environmental significance of wetlands. There are various techniques available for protecting wetlands, including the use of permits, the Endangered Species Act, floodplain zoning, acquisition, management and restoration, and legislation at all levels of government. The preservation of wetlands is shown to contribute to the well-being of all Illinois citizens. 168 references, 17 tables.

  8. Alaska LandCarbon wetland distribution map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Pastick, Neal J.

    2017-01-01

    This product provides regional estimates of specific wetland types (bog and fen) in Alaska. Available wetland types mapped by the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) program were re-classed into bog, fen, and other. NWI mapping of wetlands was only done for a portion of the area so a decision tree mapping algorithm was then developed to estimate bog, fen, and other across the state of Alaska using remote sensing and GIS spatial data sets as inputs. This data was used and presented in two chapters on the USGS Alaska LandCarbon Report.

  9. Geology of the Gusev cratered plains from the Spirit rover transverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Crumpler, L. S.; Grant, J. A.; Greeley, R.; Cabrol, N. A.; Parker, T. J.; Rice, J. W.; Ward, J. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Moersch, J. E.; Fergason, R. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Castaño, A.; Castaño, R.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Li, R.; Bell, J. F.; Squyres, S. W.

    2006-01-01

    The cratered plains of Gusev traversed by Spirit are generally low-relief rocky plains dominated by impact and eolian processes. Ubiquitous shallow, soil-filled, circular depressions, called hollows, are modified impact craters. Rocks are dark, fine-grained basalts, and the upper 10 m of the cratered plains appears to be an impact-generated regolith developed over intact basalt flows. Systematic field observations across the cratered plains identified vesicular clasts and rare scoria similar to original lava flow tops, consistent with an upper inflated surface of lava flows with adjacent collapse depressions. Crater and hollow morphometry are consistent with most being secondaries. The size-frequency distribution of rocks >0.1 m diameter generally follows exponential functions similar to other landing sites for total rock abundances of 5-35%. Systematic clast counts show that areas with higher rock abundance and more large rocks have higher thermal inertia. Plains with lower thermal inertia have fewer rocks and substantially more pebbles that are well sorted and evenly spaced, similar to a desert pavement or lag. Eolian bed forms (ripples and wind tails) have coarse surface lags, and many are dust covered and thus likely inactive. Deflation of the surface ~5-25 cm likely exposed two-toned rocks and elevated ventifacts and transported fines into craters creating the hollows. This observed redistribution yields extremely slow average erosion rates of ~0.03 nm/yr and argues for very little long-term net change of the surface and a dry and desiccating environment similar to today's since the Hesperian (or ~3 Ga).

  10. Geology of the Gusec cratered plains from the Spirit rover transverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Crumpler, L. S.; Grant, J. A.; Greely, R.; Cabrol, N. A.; Parker, T. J.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Ward, J. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Moersch, J. E.; Fergason, J. F.; Christensen, P. R.; Castano, A.; Castano, R.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Li, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.

    2006-01-01

    The cratered plains of Gusev traversed by Spirit are generally low-relief rocky plains dominated by impact and eolian processes. Ubiquitous shallow, soil-filled, circular depressions, called hollows, are modified impact craters. Rocks are dark, fine-grained basalts, and the upper 10 m of the cratered plains appears to be an impact-generated regolith developed over intact basalt flows. Systematic field observations across the cratered plains identified vesicular clasts and rare scoria similar to original lava flow tops, consistent with an upper inflated surface of lava flows with adjacent collapse depressions. Crater and hollow morphometry are consistent with most being secondaries. The size frequency distribution of rocks >0.1 m diameter generally follows exponential functions similar to other landing sites for total rock abundances of 5-35%. Systematic clast counts show that areas with higher rock abundance and more large rocks have higher thermal inertia. Plains with lower thermal inertia have fewer rocks and substantially more pebbles that are well sorted and evenly spaced, similar to a desert pavement or lag. Eolian bed forms (ripples and wind tails) have coarse surface lags, and many are dust covered and thus likely inactive. Deflation of the surface _5-25 cm likely exposed two-toned rocks and elevated ventifacts and transported fines into craters creating the hollows. This observed redistribution yields extremely slow average erosion rates of _0.03 nm/yr and argues for very little long-term net change of the surface and a dry and desiccating environment similar to today's since the Hesperian (or _3 Ga).

  11. Whillans Ice Plain Stick Slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovsky, B.; Dunham, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Concern about future sea level rise motivates the study of fast flowing ice. The Whillans Ice Plain (WIP) region of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is notable for decelerating from previously fast motion during the instrumental record. Since most ice flux in Antarctica occurs through ice streams, understanding the conditions that cause ice stream stagnation is of basic importance in understanding the continent's contribution to future sea level rise. Although recent progress has been made in understanding the relationship between basal conditions and ice stream motion, direct observation of the temporal variation in subglacial conditions during ice stream stagnation has remained elusive. The Whillans Ice Plain flows to the sea mostly by way of stick-slip motion. We present numerical simulations of this stick-slip motion that capture the inertial dynamics, seismic waves, and the evolution of sliding with rate- and state-dependent basal friction. Large scale stick-slip behavior is tidally modulated and encompasses the entire WIP. Sliding initiates within one of several locked regions and then propagates outward with low average rupture velocity (~ 200 m/s). Sliding accelerates over a period of 200 s attain values as large as 65 m/d. From Newton's second law, this acceleration is ~ T / (rho H) for average shear stress drop T, ice thickness H, and ice density rho. This implies a 3 Pa stress drop that must be reconciled with the final stress drop of 300 Pa inferred from the total slip and fault dimensions. A possible explanation of this apparent discrepancy is that deceleration of the ice is associated with a substantial decrease in traction within rate-strengthening regions of the bed. During these large-scale sliding events, m-scale patches at the bed produce rapid (20 Hz) stick-slip motion. Each small event occurs over ~ 1/100 s, produces ~ 40 microns of slip, and gives rise to a spectacular form of seismic tremor. Variation between successive tremor episodes allows us

  12. Wise Use of Wetlands: Current State of Protection and Utilization of Chinese Wetlands and Recommendations for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanxia; Yao, Yong; Ju, Meiting

    2008-06-01

    Wetland protection and utilization sometimes appear to be in conflict, but promoting the wise use of wetlands can solve this problem. All countries face the challenge of sustainable development of wetlands to a greater or lesser extent, but the problem is especially urgent in developing countries, such as China, that want to accelerate their economic development without excessive environmental cost. Chinese wetlands contribute greatly to economic development, but improper use of these natural resources has endangered their existence. It is thus necessary to provide scientific guidance to managers and users of wetlands. In this paper, we analyze the present status of Chinese wetland protection and utilization, and discuss problems in six categories: a lack of public awareness of the need for wetland protection; insufficient funding for wetland protection and management; an imperfect legal system to protect wetlands; insufficient wetland research; lack of coordination among agencies and unclear responsibilities; and undeveloped technologies related to wetland use and protection. The wise use of Chinese wetlands will require improvements in four main areas: increased wetland utilization research, scientific management of wetland utilization, improved laws and regulations to protect wetlands, and wider dissemination of wetland knowledge. Based on these categories, we propose a framework for the optimization of wetland use by industry to provide guidance for China and other countries that cannot sacrifice economic benefits to protect their wetlands.

  13. Implementation of magnetic, gravity and resistivity data in identifying groundwater occurrences in El Qaa Plain area, Southern Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, El Sayed; Abdel-Raouf, Osama; Mesalam, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    El Qaa plain is one of the areas that have been proved to be promising as to its soil and groundwater resources in the southwestern part of Sinai. This study was carried out to study the lateral and vertical variations in the subsurface lithologic properties in El Qaa plain area and delineating the subsurface structure that affecting El Qaa plain depression. Gravity, magnetic data, fifty-one (51) vertical electrical sounding (Ves's) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) map were used. Two-dimensional density modeling, analytical signal, tilt derivatives, Euler deconvolution techniques and interpretation of the resistivity data were applied on potential data. This study concluded that, El Qaa plain is a NE-SW depression confined by two normal faults and subdivided into five sedimentary units. Rock fragments and boulders derived to the plain from the surrounding highlands are the main components of the first surface unit that characterized by high resistivity values. This layer is overly another unit composed of gravelly sand with thickness ranging between 10 and 140 m. The third unit is composed mainly of sand with intercalations of clay with thickness ranging from 2 to 152 m. A Reefal limestone unit is a fourth unit interpreted from this study. The fifth unit is composed of clay. The water bearing formations in El Qaa Plain area are located principally in the second and the third layers. Finally, the depth to the basement surface ranges from 400 m to more than 1.5 km below sea level. Also, there are many minor structural trends interpreted from this study and affecting the El Qaa plain are striking in N-S, E-W and NE-SW directions.

  14. Urban "accidental" wetlands mediate water quality and heat exposure for homeless populations in a desert city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, M.

    2015-12-01

    In urban settings where humans interact in complex ways with ecosystems, there may be hidden or unanticipated benefits (services) or harm (disservices) conferred by the built environment. We examined interactions of a highly vulnerable population, the homeless, with urban waterways and wetlands in the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. Climate change models project increases in heat, droughts, and extreme floods for the southwestern U.S. These projected changes pose a number of problems for sustainability and quality of future water supply, and the ability of human populations to mitigate heat stress and avoid fatalities. Urban wetlands that are created "accidentally" (by water pooling in abandoned areas of the landscape) have many structural (e.g., soils and hydrology) and functional (e.g., high denitrification) elements that mimic natural, unaltered aquatic systems. Accidental wetland systems in the dry bed of the Salt River, fed by storm and waste water from urban Phoenix, are located within economically depressed sections of the city, and show the potential for pollutant and heat mitigation. We used a mixed-method socio-ecological approach to examine wetland ecosystem functions and the ways in which homeless populations utilize Salt River wetlands for ecosystem services. Interviews and trash surveys indicated that homeless people are accessing and utilizing the wetlands as a source of running water, for sanitary and heat mitigation services, and for recreation and habitation. Environmental monitoring demonstrated that the wetlands can provide a reliable source of running water, nutrient and pathogen removal, heat mitigation, and privacy, but they may also pose a health risk to individuals coming in contact with the water through drinking or bathing. Whether wetlands provided a net benefit vs. harm varied according to site, season, and particular service, and several tradeoffs were identified. For example, heat is highest during the summer storm season

  15. THEORY AND METHOD FOR WETLAND BOUNDARY DELINEATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the subjectivity of wetland boundary criteria and their causes at present, this paper suggested that, under the condition that the mechanism of wetland formation process has not been understood,"black box" method of System Theory can be used to delineate wetland boundaries scientifically. After analyzing the difference of system construction among aquatic habitats, wetlands and uplands, the lower limit of rooted plants was chosen as the lower boundary criterion of wetlands. Because soil diagnostic horizon is the result of the long-term interaction among all environments, and it is less responsive than vegetation to short-term change, soil diagnostic horizon was chosen as the indicator to delineate wetland upper boundary, which lies at the thinning-out point of soil diagnostic horizon. Case study indicated that it was feasible using the lower limit of rooted plants and the thinning-out point of soil diagnostic horizon as criteria to delineate the lower and upper boundaries of wetland. In the study area, the thinning-out line of albic horizon was coincident with the 55.74m contour line, the maximum horizonerror was less than lm, and the maximum vertical error less than 0.04m. The problem on wetland definition always arises on the boundaries. Having delineated wetland boundaries, wetlands can be defined as follows: wetlands are the transitional zones between uplands and deepwater habitats, they are a kind of azonal complex that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water, with the lower boundary lying at the lower limit of rooted plants, and the upper boundary at the thinning-out line of upland soil diagnostic horizon.

  16. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, Roxanne; O’Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  17. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  18. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Lisa S. Botnen

    2005-07-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership characterization work is nearing completion, and most remaining efforts are related to finalizing work products. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) has developed a Topical Report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region''. Task 3 (Public Outreach) has developed an informational Public Television program entitled ''Nature in the Balance'', about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The program was completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in this quarter. Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) efforts are nearing completion, and data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation are being incorporated into a series of topical reports. The expansion of the Decision Support System Geographic Information System database has continued with the development of a ''save bookmark'' feature that allows users to save a map from the system easily. A feature that allows users to develop a report that summarizes CO{sub 2} sequestration parameters was also developed. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options and developing economic estimates for important regional CO{sub 2} sequestration strategies.

  19. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-04-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) and provided information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 2 efforts also included preparation of a draft topical report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region'', which is nearing completion. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The video will be completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in the next quarter. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. The addition of the Canadian province of Alberta to the PCOR Partnership region expanded the decision support system (DSS) geographic information system database. Task 5 screened and qualitatively assessed sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  20. Changes of Urban Wetland Landscape Pattern and Impacts of Urbanization on Wetland in Wuhan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuelei; NING Longmei; YU Jing; XIAO Rui; LI Tao

    2008-01-01

    In this study, remote sensing data of Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in 1996-2001 were selected to ex-tract wetland landscape information. Several landscape indices were used to evaluate the changes of landscape patternwithin the five years, including patch number, patch density, patch fractal dimension, landscape diversity, dominance,evenness, and fragmentation indexes. Then, transformation probabilities of wetland landscapes into non-wetland land-scapes were calculated based on Markov Model, and on these grounds the relationship between changes of wetlandlandscape pattern and urban construction was analyzed. The results showed that fragmentation degree of all wetlandtypes increased, lake area declined, and dominance of natural wetland decreased. The reasons for these results weremainly because of urban construction. According to the features of abundant wetland in Wuhan City, we suggested thatprotection of wetland landscape should cooperate with urban construction, which means wetland should become im-portant part of urban landscape.

  1. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Leemhuis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  2. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemhuis, Constanze; Amler, Esther; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Gabiri, Geofrey; Näschen, Kristian

    2016-10-01

    Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  3. Adolescence depressions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matot, J P

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the depressive problematics emerging during adolescence in the frame of the transformations that characterize this period of life, with a focus on the interference of socio-cultural dimensions...

  4. Postpartum Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne

    Background: In three academic articles, this PhD thesis investigates maternal postpartum depression (PPD) as a risk factor for the infant-mother attachment and infant development. Previous studies have been contradictory with respect to the question of whether PPD can have long term effects...... on offspring. This may be due to not differing between when PPD is only occurring in the postpartum period and when effects are also due to ongoing or recurrent depression. However, it may also be due to viewing maternal depression as a unitary construct, and not considering underlying maternal psychological...... difficulties which may moderate potential adverse effects. The present thesis investigates two potential maternal moderators of risk:. Comorbid personality disorder and adult attachment insecurity. Moreover, the question of early environmental effects of PPD versus effects of later or ongoing depression...

  5. Advancing the use of minirhizotrons in wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. M. Iversen; M. T. Murphy; M. F. Allen; J. Childs; D. M. Eissenstat; E.A. Lilleskov; T. M. Sarjala; V. L. Sloan; P. F. Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Background. Wetlands store a substantial amount of carbon (C) in deep soil organic matter deposits, and play an important role in global fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane. Fine roots (i.e., ephemeral roots that are active in water and nutrient uptake) are recognized as important components of biogeochemical cycles in nutrient-limited wetland ecosystems. However,...

  6. Pesticide mitigation capacities of constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew T. Moore; Charles M. Cooper; Sammie Smith; John H. Rodgers

    2000-01-01

    This research focused on using constructed wetlands along field perimeters to buffer receiving water against potential effects of pesticides associated with storm runoff. The current study incorporated wetland mesocosm sampling following simulated runoff events using chlorpyrifos, atrazine, and metolachlor. Through this data collection and simple model analysis,...

  7. Geographically Isolated Wetlands and Catchment Hydrology: A Modified Model Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, G.; Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.; D'Amico, E.

    2014-12-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), typically defined as depressional wetlands surrounded by uplands, support an array of hydrological and ecological processes. However, key research questions concerning the hydrological connectivity of GIWs and their impacts on downgradient surface waters remain unanswered. This is particularly important for regulation and management of these systems. For example, in the past decade United States Supreme Court decisions suggest that GIWs can be afforded protection if significant connectivity exists between these waters and traditional navigable waters. Here we developed a simulation procedure to quantify the effects of various spatial distributions of GIWs across the landscape on the downgradient hydrograph using a refined version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a catchment-scale hydrological simulation model. We modified the SWAT FORTRAN source code and employed an alternative hydrologic response unit (HRU) definition to facilitate an improved representation of GIW hydrologic processes and connectivity relationships to other surface waters, and to quantify their downgradient hydrological effects. We applied the modified SWAT model to an ~ 202 km2 catchment in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, USA, exhibiting a substantial population of mapped GIWs. Results from our series of GIW distribution scenarios suggest that: (1) Our representation of GIWs within SWAT conforms to field-based characterizations of regional GIWs in most respects; (2) GIWs exhibit substantial seasonally-dependent effects upon downgradient base flow; (3) GIWs mitigate peak flows, particularly following high rainfall events; and (4) The presence of GIWs on the landscape impacts the catchment water balance (e.g., by increasing groundwater outflows). Our outcomes support the hypothesis that GIWs have an important catchment-scale effect on downgradient streamflow.

  8. ERTS-1 investigation of wetlands ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. R. (Principal Investigator); Carter, V.; Mcginness, J.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Data from aircraft can be used for large scale mapping where detailed information is necessary, whereas Landsat-1 data are useful for rapid mapping of gross wetland boundaries and vegetative composition and assessment of seasonal change plant community composition such as high and low growth forms of Spartina alterniflora, Juncus roemarianus, and Spartina cynosuroides. Spoil disposal and wetland ditching activities may also be defined. Wetland interpretation is affected by tidal stage; drainage patterns are more easily detected at periods of low water. Species discrimination is easier at periods of high water during the growing season; upper wetland boundaries in fresh water tidal marshes are more easily delineated during the winter months when marsh vegetation is largely dead or dormant. Fresh water discharges from coastal streams may be inferred from the species composition of contiguous wetlands.

  9. Progress in Research of Chinese Wetland Parks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yichuan; LI Dongsheng; WANG Shanshan

    2008-01-01

    There has been a rapid development in the construction of wetland parks in China in recent years. This paper discussed the progress in the research of Chinese wetland parks that covered the aspects of wetland resources, landscape and enviroment. The function of wetland parks, the evaluation of landscape and the exploiting of resources; the landscape concept and landscape planning and design; the plant environment, the water environment and the recreation environment were all reviewed. The research of Chinese wetland parks started later but developed rapidly, having remarkable achievements in practice and functional studies, and there are still some shortcomings in the researches to be improved. At last, the key points which should be researched urgently in the future were discussed.

  10. Reconstruction of Anacostia wetlands: success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, R.S.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Historically, the tidal Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. had been an extensive system of freshwater tidal marshes replete with a full array of wetland vegetation dominated by wild rice. The local Nacochtank Indians had found the abundant fish and wildlife sufficient to sustain their daily lives. White man's intrusion upon the landscape gradually brought about deterioration of the natural (and associated cultural) system. Total demise followed mid-20th century dredge and fill channelization, which was conducted from the confluence of the Anacostia with the Potomac near the heart of Washington, D.C. to the terminus of the tidal regime at Bladensburg, Maryland. The National Park Service (NPS) became the manager for much of the land along the Anacostia, particularly the eastern bank. As part of its planning effort, the NPS envisioned returning portions of the Anacostia under its control to a natural system as a vignette. The concept was based on bringing back as comprehensive a collection of vegetation and wildlife as possible through the reestablishment of tidal marshes at Kenilworth and Kingman. The resultant wetlands were to be made accessible to the public both logistically and through a well designed interpretative program. In fact, this vision has been realized due to an impressive cooperative effort among a number of Federal and local agencies and organizations. In 1993, 32 acres of freshwater tidal marsh were reconstructed at Kenilworth. Based upon the 5-year monitoring program that has been in place since reconstruction, several generalizations may be made concerning the degree of success of the marsh reconstruction. Water quality in the marsh system and nearby tidal waters has not been noticeably improved. The poor quality may be clue to the overwhelmingly high loads (e.g., sediment, nutrients, etc.) brought in on the twice daily tidal cycle from the Anacostia and to the relatively small volume of water which actually interacts with the emergent marsh

  11. Experiences with Constructed Wetland Systems in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kim Youngchul; Hwang Gilson; Lee Jin-Woo; Park Je-Chul; Kim Dong-Sup; Kang Min-Gi; Chang In-Soung

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the low temperature during the winter season and the high land environment, the wetland treatment system is gaining popularity in Korea because of its lower construction cost and simplicity in operation and maintenance.Many different types of wetland treatment systems have been built during the last 10 years, among which the free water surface wetland has been predominant. Most of the large-scale systems are government projects for improving the water quality of the streams flowing into the estuary dikes and reservoirs. The covering plants used in this system are different in different areas but cattails and reeds or their combinations are common. Constructed wetlands in Korea can be characterized by their shallow depths and short hydraulic residence times. There is no established flow pattern and configuration rules for constructing wetlands, but many efforts have been made with a view to improving their ecological function. Flow control is the most difficult problem in designing a riverbed or riparian wetland. There have been scores of flow rate control devices developed for wetlands, but none of them guarantee wetlands' safety against flooding. In earlier wetland construction, the building materials were mainly soil. Recently, strong and durable building materials such as rocks, gravel beds, concrete and steel are used at vulnerable places to protect them from erosion. Our investigation indicated that the wetland system would be an appropriate technology because it is not only cheaper to construct, but also requires less maintenance work. However, we suffer from the reduced effectiveness in performance during the winter. We need to evaluate the partial treatment accomplished during 6 to 7 months per year.

  12. Wetland Microbial Community Response to Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theroux, S.; Hartman, W.; Tringe, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland restoration has been proposed as a potential long-term carbon storage solution, with a goal of engineering geochemical dynamics to accelerate peat accretion and encourage greenhouse gas (GHG) sequestration. However, wetland microbial community composition and metabolic rates are poorly understood and their predicted response to wetland restoration is a veritable unknown. In an effort to better understand the underlying factors that shape the balance of carbon flux in wetland soils, we targeted the microbial communities along a salinity gradient ranging from freshwater tidal marshes to hypersaline ponds in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and shotgun metagenomics, coupled with greenhouse gas measurements, we sampled sixteen sites capturing a range in salinity and restoration status. Seawater delivers sulfate to wetland ecosystems, encouraging sulfate reduction and discouraging methane production. As expected, we observed the highest rates of methane production in the freshwater wetlands. Recently restored wetlands had significantly higher rates of methane production compared to their historic counterparts that could be attributed to variations in trace metal and organic carbon content in younger wetlands. In contrast, our sequencing results revealed an almost immediate return of the indigenous microbial communities following seasonal flooding and full tidal restoration in saline and hypersaline wetlands and managed ponds. Notably, we found elevated methane production rates in hypersaline ponds, the result of methylotrophic methane production confirmed by sequence data and lab incubations. Our study links belowground microbial communities and their aboveground greenhouse gas production and highlights the inherent complexity in predicting wetland microbial response in the face of both natural and unnatural disturbances.

  13. Farmers' knowledge and perception of agricutural wetland management in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabahungu, N.L.; Visser, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Most of Rwanda's wetlands are being reclaimed under government schemes with the aim of growing rice as the main crop. In the present study, information on farmers' knowledge and perceptions of agricultural wetland management was collected in Cyabayaga and Rugeramigozi wetlands. The two wetlands were

  14. 7 CFR 1410.10 - Restoration of wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of wetlands. 1410.10 Section 1410.10... Restoration of wetlands. (a) An owner or operator who entered into a CRP contract on land that is suitable for restoration to wetlands or that was restored to wetlands while under such contract, may, if approved by CCC...

  15. 7 CFR 1467.9 - Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. 1467.9 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.9 Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. (a) Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP). (1) The...

  16. On leadership and success in professional wetland science

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Wetland Scientists and the wetland profession are fortunate to have an abundance of leaders. These leaders respond to the needs of the Society for guidance and direction. They also consistently advance wetland science and improve the quality of wetland management...

  17. 7 CFR 12.32 - Converted wetland identification criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Converted wetland identification criteria. 12.32 Section 12.32 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.32 Converted wetland identification criteria. (a) Converted...

  18. On leadership and success in professional wetland science

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Wetland Scientists and the wetland profession are fortunate to have an abundance of leaders. These leaders respond to the needs of the Society for guidance and direction. They also consistently advance wetland science and improve the quality of wetland management...

  19. Application of flood index in monitoring Flood-plain ecosystems (by the example of the Middle Ob flood-plain)

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotnov, V. P.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of regional hydroecological monitoring has been developed for the flood-plain of the Middle Ob. Its object is to control the state of flood-plain ecosystem productivity for organization of scientific, regional-adopted and ecologically regulated nature management. For this purpose hydroecological zoning of flood-plain territory performed, the most representative stations of water-gauge observations for each flood-plain zone organized, the scheme of flood-plain flooding was prepared...

  20. Directory of Wetland Plant Vendors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Pfeiffer, Jr., was the WRP Coordinator at the Directorate of Research and Development, HQUSACE, and Mr. William L. Klesch served as the WRP Technical...150 01 fu to51go5toS151g 0 )0 0 0 0)0 ’ q44l 0 00 0 = a I -q qP ’I-’-" 1 1 Chapter 2 Wetland Plants by Spadies 5 0 0 0 0 VI 0 0 00 P44 IA ON 41 0 11r

  1. Determination of the health of Lunyangwa wetland using Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Msilimba, Golden

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are major sources of various ecological goods and services including storage and distribution of water in space and time which help in ensuring the availability of surface and groundwater throughout the year. However, there still remains a poor understanding of the range of values of water quality parameters that occur in wetlands either in its impacted state or under natural conditions. It was thus imperative to determine the health of Lunyangwa wetland in Mzuzu City in Malawi in order to classify and determine its state. This study used the Escom's Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index Field Guide to determine the overall characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland and to calculate its combined Wetland Index Score. Data on site information, field measurements (i.e. EC, pH, temperature and DO) and physical characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland were collected from March, 2013 to February, 2014. Results indicate that Lunyangwa wetland is a largely open water zone which is dominated by free-floating plants on the water surface, beneath surface and emergent in substrate. Furthermore, the wetland can be classified as of a C ecological category (score = 60-80%), which has been moderately modified with moderate risks of the losses and changes occurring in the natural habitat and biota in the wetland. It was observed that the moderate modification and risk were largely because of industrial, agricultural, urban/social catchment stressors on the wetland. This study recommends an integrated and sustainable management approach coupled with continuous monitoring and evaluation of the health of the wetland for all stakeholders in Mzuzu City. This would help to maintain the health of Lunyangwa wetland which is currently at risk of being further modified due to the identified catchment stressors.

  2. Spatiotemporal analysis of encroachment on wetlands: a case of Nakivubo wetland in Kampala, Uganda.

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    Isunju, John Bosco; Kemp, Jaco

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands provide vital ecosystem services such as water purification, flood control, and climate moderation among others, which enhance environmental quality, promote public health, and contribute to risk reduction. The biggest threat to wetlands is posed by human activities which transform wetlands, often for short-term consumptive benefits. This paper aimed to classify and map recent land cover and provide a multi-temporal analysis of changes from 2002 to 2014 in the Nakivubo wetland through which wastewater from Kampala city drains to Lake Victoria in Uganda. The paper contributes through spatially congruent change maps showing site-specific land cover conversions. In addition, it gives insight into what happened to the wetlands, why it happened, how the changes in the wetlands affect the communities living in them, and how the situation could be better managed or regulated in future. The analysis is based on very high resolution (50-62 cm) aerial photos and satellite imagery, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews. Overall, the analysis of losses and gains showed a 62 % loss of wetland vegetation between 2002 and 2014, mostly attributable to crop cultivation. Cultivation in the wetland buffering the lake shore makes it unstable to anchor. The 2014 data shows large portions of the wetland calved away by receding lake waves. With barely no wetland vegetation buffer around the lake, the heavily polluted wastewater streams will lower the quality of lake water. Furthermore, with increased human activities in the wetland, exposure to flooding and pollution will be likely to have a greater impact on the health and livelihoods of vulnerable communities. This calls for a multi-faceted approach, coordination of the various stakeholders and engagement of wetland-dependent communities as part of the solution, and might require zoning out the wetland and restricting certain activities to specific zones.

  3. Modelling water flow and seasonal soil moisture dynamics in analluvial groundwater-fed wetland

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    I. Joris

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex interactions occur in riparian wetlands between groundwater, surface water and climatic conditions. Knowledge of the hydrology of these systems is necessary to understand their functioning and their value and models are a useful and probably essential tool to capture their hydrological complexity. In this study, a 2D-model describing saturated-unsaturated water flow is applied to a transect through a groundwater-fed riparian wetland located along the middle reach of the river Dijle. The transect has high levees close to the river and a depression further into the floodplain. Scaling factors are introduced to describe the variability of soil hydraulic properties along the transect. Preliminary model calculations for one year show a good agreement between model calculations and measurements and demonstrate the capability of the model to capture the internal groundwater dynamics. Seasonal variations in soil moisture are reproduced well by the model thus translating external hydrological boundary conditions to root zone conditions. The model proves to be a promising tool for assessing effects of changes in hydrological boundary conditions on vegetation type distribution and to gain more insight in the highly variable internal flow processes of riparian wetlands. Keywords: riparian wetland,eco-hydrology, upward seepage, floodplain hydrology

  4. A remote sensing approach for connecting the historic 2011 Mississippi River flood to wetland sedimentation on the Delta

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    Falcini, Federico; Colella, Simone; Volpe, Gianluca; Khan, Nicole; Macelloni, Leonardo; Santoleri, Rosalia; Horton, Benjamin; Jerolmack, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    Wetlands in the Mississippi River deltaic plain are deteriorating in part because levees and control structures starve them of sediment. In Spring of 2011 a record breaking flood brought discharge on the lower Mississippi River to dangerous levels, forcing managers to divert additional water to the adjacent Atchafalaya River Basin. Here we quantify differences between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River inundation and sediment-plume patterns using field-calibrated satellite data, and assess the impact these outflows had on wetland sedimentation. Since standard products available from MyOcean were not suitable for this purpose an ad hoc processing was developed to establish a relationship between field suspended sediment concentration (SSC) data and the corrected MODIS reflectance at 645 nm. We show that the focused, high-momentum jet from the leveed Mississippi delivered sediment far offshore. In contrast, the plume from the Atchafalaya was more diffuse; diverted water inundated a large area, and sediment was trapped within the coastal current. Maximum sedimentation (up to several centimetres) occurred in the Atchafalaya Basin despite the larger sediment load carried by the Mississippi. Little accumulation occurred along the shoreline between these river sources. The correspondence between zones of high shoreline deposition, and coastal SSC patterns indentified from satellite data, is strongly suggestive of plume-derived deposition on marshes. Our findings allow us to set an hydrodynamic theory that provides a mechanistic link between river-mouth dynamics and wetland sedimentation patterns, which is relevant for plans to restore deltaic wetlands.

  5. Optimization Analysis on Comprehensive Evaluation Index of Wetland Parks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanyan ZHANG; Fanlong KONG; Min XI; Yue LI

    2016-01-01

    Wetland park is an important mode of wetland protection, meanwhile, construction of comprehensive index system has become the hotspot and keystone of the researches on Wetland Parks. Basing on different development stages , this paper firstly divided the Wetland Parks into three categories, including the start-up stage, the development stage and the refinement stage. And then screened and identified the direction and keypoints of comprehensive evaluation for wetland parks in different development stages using expert scoring, questionnaire and analytic hierarchy process (AHP).

  6. Model of wetland development of the Amapá coast during the late Holocene

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    José T.F. Guimarães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern vegetation types, sedimentary sequences, pollen records and radiocarbon dating obtained from three sediment cores from Calçoene Coastal Plain were used to provide a palaeoecological history during the late Holocene of Amapá coastal wetland according to flood regime, sea-level and climatic changes. Based on these records, four phases of vegetation development are presented and they probably reflect the interaction between the flow energy to the sediment accumulation and the brackish/freshwater influence in the vegetation. This work suggests interchanges among time periods characterized by marine and fluvial influence. The longitudinal profile did not reveal the occurrence of mangrove in the sediment deposited around 2100 yr B.P. During the second phase, the mud progressively filled the depressions and tidal channels. The mangrove probably started its development on the channel edge, and the herbaceous field on the elevated sectors. The third phase is characterized by the interruption of mangrove development and the increase of "várzea" vegetation that may be due to the decrease in porewater salinity related to a decrease in marine water influence. The last phase is represented by the mangrove and "várzea" increase. The correlation between current patterns of geobotanical unit distribution and palaeovegetation indicates that mangrove and "várzea" forests are migrating over the herbaceous field on the topographically highest part of the studied coast, which can be related to a relative sea-level rise.Os tipos de vegetação atual, sequências sedimentares, dados de pólen e datações por radiocarbono obtidas em três testemunhos de sedimento da planície costeira de Calçoene foram utilizados para estabelecer uma história paleoecológica durante o Holoceno superior das zonas úmidas costeiras do Amapá conforme as mudanças no regime de inundação, nível do mar e clima. Baseado nestes três registros, quatro fases de

  7. Quantifying changes in multiple ecosystem services during 1992-2012 in the Sanjiang Plain of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongming; Mao, Dehua; Li, Lin; Jia, Mingming; Dong, Zhangyu; Miao, Zhenghong; Ren, Chunying; Song, Changchun

    2015-05-01

    Rapid and periodic assessment of the impact of land cover changes on ecosystem services at regional levels is essential to understanding services and sustainability of ecosystems. This study focused on quantifying and assessing changes of multiple ecosystem services in the Sanjiang Plain of China as a result of land cover changes over the period of 1992-2012. This region is important for its large area of natural wetlands and intensive agriculture. The ecosystem services that were assessed for this region included its regulating services (water yield and ecosystem carbon stocks), supporting services (suitable waterbird habitats), and provisioning services (food production), and the approach to the assessment was composed of the surface energy balance algorithms for land (SEBAL), soil survey re-sampling method and an empirical waterbird habitat suitability model. This large scale and integrated investigation represents the first systematic evaluation on the status of ecosystem carbon stocks in the Sanjiang Plain in addition to the development of an effective model for analysis of waterbird habitat suitability with the use of both remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS). More importantly, the result from this study has confirmed trade-offs between ecosystem services and negative consequences to environment in this region. The trade-offs were typically manifested by increased water yield and significantly grown food production, which is in contrast with significant losses in ecosystem carbon stocks (-14%) and suitable waterbird habitats (-23%) mainly due to the conversion of land cover from wetland to farmland. This finding implies that land use planning and policy making for this economically important region should take ecosystem service losses into account in order to preserve its natural ecosystems in the best interest of society.

  8. Geographically isolated wetlands: Rethinking a misnomer

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    Mushet, David M.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Cohen, Matthew J.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie G.; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Walls, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the category “geographically isolated wetlands” (GIWs; i.e., wetlands completely surrounded by uplands at the local scale) as used in the wetland sciences. As currently used, the GIW category (1) hampers scientific efforts by obscuring important hydrological and ecological differences among multiple wetland functional types, (2) aggregates wetlands in a manner not reflective of regulatory and management information needs, (3) implies wetlands so described are in some way “isolated,” an often incorrect implication, (4) is inconsistent with more broadly used and accepted concepts of “geographic isolation,” and (5) has injected unnecessary confusion into scientific investigations and discussions. Instead, we suggest other wetland classification systems offer more informative alternatives. For example, hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classes based on well-established scientific definitions account for wetland functional diversity thereby facilitating explorations into questions of connectivity without an a priori designation of “isolation.” Additionally, an HGM-type approach could be used in combination with terms reflective of current regulatory or policymaking needs. For those rare cases in which the condition of being surrounded by uplands is the relevant distinguishing characteristic, use of terminology that does not unnecessarily imply isolation (e.g., “upland embedded wetlands”) would help alleviate much confusion caused by the “geographically isolated wetlands” misnomer.

  9. Linking ecosystem processes to sustainable wetland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Smith, Loren M.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Browne, Bryant A.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of concern over problems associated with the future of managed wetlands in North America, nearly two dozen wetland scientists and managers met in February 2006 at Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge in New Mexico and discussed a sustainable approach to wetland management. This approach links science with management by focusing on underlying wetland processes. From that meeting, several papers were developed and published in Wetlands to address these concerns (Euliss et al. 2008, Smith et al. 2008, Wilcox 2008). This article summarizes our first paper, Euliss et al. (2008), and a future Newsletter article will summarize Smith et al. (2008). Realization of the role that complex interactions play in maintaining ecosystems, coupled with increasing demands of humans for ecosystem services, has prompted much interest in ecosystem management. Not surprisingly, sustainability of ecosystems has become an explicitly stated goal of many natural resource agencies and, in some cases, has been legislatively mandated to ensure provision of resources for future generations. However, examples of sustainable ecosystem management are uncommon because management goals often focus on specific deliverables rather than processes that sustain ecosystems. This paper has three sections: (1) perspectives in which we provide a bit of history, (2), ecological consequences of a static view, and (3) suggestions to aid wetland managers link management goals with critical ecosystem processes responsible for provision of wetland services.

  10. Study of Panjin Wetlands Along Bohai Coast (Ⅱ): Ecological Water Requirement of Shuangtaizi Estuarine Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tieliang; ZHOU Linfei; ZHAO Be; YANG Peiqi

    2009-01-01

    Shuangtaizi estuarine wetland along the Bohai Sea coast, the biggest bulrush wetland in the world, has been listed in The Record of Important International Wetland Conservation District'. Taking the year of 2 000 as an example, the minimum, the most suitable and the maximum ecological water requirement of Shuangtaizi estuarine wetland are calculated in this paper based on both ecological theory and Geological Information System technology. In addition, the remote sensing technique is adopted in the data acquisition process. Moreover, the total water requirement and the unit area water requirement for different wetland types are obtained. The result is very important for water resources planning, ecological conservation and regional agriculture structure ad-justment in Shuangtaizi. Meanwhile, this study can serve as a useful example for calculating the ecological water requirement in other similar estuarine wetlands.

  11. Uranium Immobilization in Wetland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul G.; Li, Dien; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Scheckel, Kirk

    2014-05-01

    In wetlands, which are a major feature at the groundwater-surface water interface, plants deliver oxygen to the subsurface to keep root tissue aerobic. Some of this oxygen leaches into the rhizosphere where it will oxidize iron that typically precipitates on or near roots. Furthermore, plans provide carbon via root exudates and turnover, which in the presence of the iron oxides drives the activity of heterotrophic iron reducers in wetland soils. Oxidized iron is an important electron acceptor for many microbially-driven transformations, which can affect the fate and transport of several pollutants. It has been shown that heterotrophic iron reducing organisms, such as Geobacter sp., can reduce water soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). The goal of this study was to determine if and how iron cycling in the wetland rhizosphere affects uranium dynamics. For this purpose, we operated a series of small-scale wetland mesocosms in a greenhouse to simulate the discharge of uranium-contaminated groundwater to surface waters. The mesocosms were operated with two different Fe(II) loading rates, two plant types, and unplanted controls. The mesocosms contained zones of root exclusion to differentiate between the direct presence and absence of roots in the planted mesocosms. The mesocosms were operated for several month to get fully established, after which a U(VI) solution was fed for 80 days. The mesocosms were then sacrificed and analyzed for solid-associated chemical species, microbiological characterization, micro-X-ray florescence (µ-XRF) mapping of Fe and U on the root surface, and U speciation via X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES). Results showed that bacterial numbers including Geobacter sp., Fe(III), as well as total uranium, were highest on roots, followed by sediments near roots, and lowest in zones without much root influence. Results from the µ-XRF mapping on root surfaces indicated a strong spatial correlation between Fe and U. This correlation was

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE PROCESSES AND TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE DENUNDATION VALLEYS IN THE BIELSK PLAIN

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    Krzysztof Micun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to recognise natural and anthropogenic transformations taking place in small denudation valleys in the old glacial landscape of the Bielsk Plain. The changes are registered in sediments of the valleys. The Bielsk Plain area situated in the north of Bielsk Podlaski is characterized by the presence of latitudinal running denudation valleys, that end with concave broadenings in their headwaters. The geological structure is dominated by silt deposits of various origins. Tills are present in the hilltops while organic and organo-mineral deposits in the depressions. The thickness of the deluvial deposits in the valleys reaches 2 m though usually it does not exceed 1 m. The deposits are mostly silts that developed lithologically as sandy dust and loam dust. Colluvium sedimentation in the valleys clearly correlates with the development of agriculture, deforestation and farming in the area. The abandonment of the cultivation causes significant slowdown in the pace of accumulation of colluvium sediments.

  13. A Perceptual Study of Wetlands: Implications for Wetland Restoration in the Urban Area in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Maulan, Suhardi

    2006-01-01

    The restoration of natural wetlands is a wonderful, noble and pragmatic idea, but such efforts often meet resistance from certain segments of society. One reason for this is that the public perceives the environment in different ways than do the experts, such as landscape architects and land managers. This dissertation analyzes peopleâ s preferences for wetlands in comparison to those of landscape architects. It specifically studies the conflict about the wetland restoration program in the ...

  14. Comparison of the prevalence index and average wetland values for identification of wetland vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Shem, L.M.; Gowdy, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Van Dyke, G.D. [Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States); Hackney, C.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Prevalence index values (FICWD, 1989) and average wetland values for all species present were compared for three wetland gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) and adjacent natural areas. The similarities in results using these two indicator values suggest that an average wetland value may offer a simpler, less time-consuming method of evaluating the vegetation of a study site as an indication of wetness. Both PIVs and AWVs, are presented for the ROWs and the adjacent natural area at each site.

  15. Relation between methanogenic archaea and methane production potential in selected natural wetland ecosystems across China

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    D. Y. Liu

    2011-02-01

    ecosystems. The CH4 production rate of the top soil layer increases with increasing latitude, from 273.64 μg CH4 kg−1 soil d−1 in the Poyang wetland to 664.59 μg CH4 kg−1 soil d−1 in the Carex lasiocarpa marsh of the Sanjiang Plain. We conclude that CH4 production potential in the freshwater wetlands of Eastern China is mainly affected by the supply of methanogenic substrates rather than temperature; in contrast, low summer temperatures at high elevations in the Ruoergai peatland of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau result in the presence of dominant species of methanogens with low CH4 production potential, which in turn suppresses CH4 production.

  16. Can Lupus Cause Depression?

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    ... lupus Living well with lupus Can lupus cause depression? Life with lupus can be challenging. With symptoms ... treatable illness called clinical depression. Symptoms of Clinical Depression People are considered clinically depressed when they have ...

  17. Older Adults and Depression

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    ... find more information? Reprints Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... depression need treatment to feel better. Types of Depression There are several types of depression. The most ...

  18. Depression and Multiple Sclerosis

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    ... Symptoms Depression Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Depression Depression Fatigue Walking (Gait) Difficulties Numbness or Tingling ... away from addictive substances such as alcohol. Clinical depression It’s important to distinguish between mild, everyday “blues” — ...

  19. Quantifying geographic variation in the climatic drivers of midcontinent wetlands with a spatially varying coefficient model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region and in the Great Plains are notorious for their sensitivity to weather variability. These wetlands have been the focus of considerable attention because of their ecological importance and because of the expected impact of climate change. Few models in the literature, however, take into account spatial variation in the importance of wetland drivers. This is surprising given the importance spatial heterogeneity in geomorphology and climatic conditions have in the region. In this paper, I use spatially-varying coefficients to assess the variation in ecological drivers in a number of ponds observed over a 50-year period (1961-2012). I included the number of ponds observed the year before on a log scale, the log of total precipitation, and mean maximum temperature during the four previous seasons as explanatory variables. I also included a temporal component to capture change in the number of ponds due to anthropogenic disturbance. Overall, fall and spring precipitation were most important in pond abundance in the west, whereas winter and summer precipitation were the most important drivers in the east. The ponds in the east of the survey area were also more dependent on pond abundance during the previous year than those in the west. Spring temperature during the previous season influenced pond abundance; while the temperature during the other seasons had a limited effect. The ponds in the southwestern part of the survey area have been increasing independently of climatic conditions, whereas the ponds in the northeast have been steadily declining. My results underline the importance of accounting the spatial heterogeneity in environmental drivers, when working at large spatial scales. In light of my results, I also argue that assessing the impacts of climate change on wetland abundance in the spring, without more accurate climatic forecasting, will be difficult.

  20. Vegetation-induced spatial variability of soil redox properties in wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalai, Zoltán; Jakab, Gergely; Kiss, Klaudia; Ringer, Marianna; Balázs, Réka; Zacháry, Dóra; Horváth Szabó, Kata; Perényi, Katalin

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation induced land patches may result spatial pattern of on soil Eh and pH. These spatial pattern are mainly emerged by differences of aeration and exudation of assimilates. Present paper focuses on vertical extent and temporal dynamics of these patterns in wetlands. Two study sites were selected: 1. a plain wetland on calcareous sandy parent material (Ceglédbercel, Danube-Tisza Interfluve, Hungary); 2. headwater wetland with calcareous loamy parent material (Bátaapáti, Hungary). Two vegetation patches were studied in site 1: sedgy (dominated by Carex riparia) and reedy (dominated by Phragmites australis). Three patches were studied in site2: sedgy1 (dominated by C vulpina), sedgy 2 (C. riparia); nettle-horsetail (Urtica dioica and Equisetum arvense). Boundaries between patches were studied separately. Soil redox, pH and temperature studied by automated remote controlled instruments. Three digital sensors (Ponsell) were installed in each locations: 20cm and 40cm sensors represent the solum and 100 cm sensor monitors the subsoil). Groundwater wells were installed near to triplets for soil water sampling. Soil Eh, pH and temperature values were recorded in each 10 minutes. Soil water sampling for iron and DOC were carried out during saturated periods. Spatial pattern of soil Eh is clearly caused by vegetation. We measured significant differences between Eh values of the studied patches in the solum. We did not find this kinds horizontal differences in the subsoil. Boundaries of the patches usually had more reductive soil environment than the core areas. We have found temporal dynamics of the spatial redox pattern. Differences were not so well expressed during wintertime. These spatial patterns had influence on the DOC and iron content of porewater, as well. Highest temporal dynamics of soil redox properties and porewater iron could be found in the boundaries. These observations refer to importance patchiness of vegetation on soil chemical properties in

  1. Groundwater potential zoning of a peri-urban wetland of south Bengal Basin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Paulami; Sikdar, Pradip K

    2011-03-01

    Demand for groundwater for drinking, agricultural, and industrial purposes has increased due to rapid increase in population. Therefore, it is imperative to assess the groundwater potential of different areas, especially in a fragile wetland ecosystem to select appropriate sites for developing well fields to minimize adverse environmental impacts of groundwater development. This study considers East Calcutta Wetlands (ECW)--a freshwater peri-urban inland wetland ecosystem located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal Basin and east of Kolkata city. This wetland is well known over the world for its resource recovery systems developed by local people through ages, using wastewater of the city. The subsurface geology is completely blanketed by the Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of silty clay, sand of various grades, and sand mixed with occasional gravels and thin intercalations of silty clay. Groundwater occurs mostly under confined condition except in those places where the top aquitard has been obliterated due to scouring action of past channels. The groundwater in the study area is being over-extracted at the rate of 65 × 10(3) m(3)/day. Overlay analysis in Geographic Information System platform using multiple criteria such as water quality index, hydraulic conductivity, groundwater velocity, and depth to piezometric surface reveals that in and around ECW, there are five groundwater potential zones. About 74% of the aquifer of this area shows very poor to medium groundwater potential. Management options such as minimization of groundwater abstraction by introducing the treated surface water supply system and the implementation of rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge in high-rise buildings and industries are suggested for different potential zones.

  2. Aboveground Net Primary Productivity in a Riparian Wetland Following Restoration of Hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Melissa; Lundberg, Christopher; Lane, Robert; Day, John; Pezeshki, Reza

    2016-02-04

    This research presents the initial results of the effects of hydrological restoration on forested wetlands in the Mississippi alluvial plain near Memphis, Tennessee. Measurements were carried out in a secondary channel, the Loosahatchie Chute, in which rock dikes were constructed in the 1960s to keep most flow in the main navigation channel. In 2008-2009, the dikes were notched to allow more flow into the secondary channel. Study sites were established based on relative distance downstream of the notched dikes. Additionally, a reference site was established north of the Loosahatchie Chute where the dikes remained unnotched. We compared various components of vegetation composition and productivity at sites in the riparian wetlands for two years. Salix nigra had the highest Importance Value at every site. Species with minor Importance Values were Celtis laevigata, Acer rubrum, and Plantanus occidentalis. Productivity increased more following the introduction of river water in affected sites compared to the reference. Aboveground net primary productivity was highest at the reference site (2926 ± 458.1 g·m(-2)·year(-1)), the intact site; however, there were greater increase at the sites in the Loosahatchie Chute, where measurements ranged from 1197.7 ± 160.0 g m(-2)·year(-1)·to 2874.2 ± 794.0 g·m(-2)·year(-1). The site furthest from the notching was the most affected. Pulsed inputs into these wetlands may enhance forested wetland productivity. Continued monitoring will quantify impacts of restored channel hydrology along the Mississippi River.

  3. Aboveground Net Primary Productivity in a Riparian Wetland Following Restoration of Hydrology

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    Melissa Koontz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the initial results of the effects of hydrological restoration on forested wetlands in the Mississippi alluvial plain near Memphis, Tennessee. Measurements were carried out in a secondary channel, the Loosahatchie Chute, in which rock dikes were constructed in the 1960s to keep most flow in the main navigation channel. In 2008–2009, the dikes were notched to allow more flow into the secondary channel. Study sites were established based on relative distance downstream of the notched dikes. Additionally, a reference site was established north of the Loosahatchie Chute where the dikes remained unnotched. We compared various components of vegetation composition and productivity at sites in the riparian wetlands for two years. Salix nigra had the highest Importance Value at every site. Species with minor Importance Values were Celtis laevigata, Acer rubrum, and Plantanus occidentalis. Productivity increased more following the introduction of river water in affected sites compared to the reference. Aboveground net primary productivity was highest at the reference site (2926 ± 458.1 g·m−2·year−1, the intact site; however, there were greater increase at the sites in the Loosahatchie Chute, where measurements ranged from 1197.7 ± 160.0 g m−2·year−1·to 2874.2 ± 794.0 g·m−2·year−1. The site furthest from the notching was the most affected. Pulsed inputs into these wetlands may enhance forested wetland productivity. Continued monitoring will quantify impacts of restored channel hydrology along the Mississippi River.

  4. Water uptake by trees of coastal forested wetlands in Guadeloupe, French West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompy, Felix; Lambs, Luc; Dulormne, Maguy; Imbert, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    In the Caribbean islands, coastal wetlands comprise two main ecosystems: the mangrove forest and the freshwater swamp forest dominated by the legume Pterocarpus officinalis. These forest ecosystems make an interface between sea and land, providing significant ecological and socioeconomic functions. During the last centuries, human activities have modified the hydrologic connections of these wetlands by digging canals to drain waterlogged soils and by cutting forests to promote cattle grazing and waterfowl hunting. Peat formation is associated to the highest water-table levels. The thickest peat deposits occur seaward as a result of the Holocene marine transgression into Pleistocene coastal plains and estuaries. Landward, soils overlay volcanic or calcareous bedrocks and are mainly clayey. Such differences in soil formation and physical characteristics (especially porosity) confer to the system its hydraulic properties. Furthermore, the dual origin of water (tides and watershed runoff) gives way to a complex pattern of groundwater salinity. In five forest stands of Guadeloupe wetlands, we have traced water uptake using the stable isotopes of water (d18O and dD). Preliminary results reveal that evapo-transpiration process in the swamp forest is compensated by fresh groundwater coming out from springs scattered around and inside the forest. In the mangrove forest, the highest evaporation rates are located in the Avicennia pure stand and the mixed scrub stand; the mixed tall stand is located where fresh and salt water melt. Measurement of xylem sap also suggests that mangrove trees uptake groundwater where salinity is the lowest. The low tidal range and the absence of large watershed, like in most wetlands of Caribbean islands, certainly explain the poor hydro-dynamics and resilience of the system.

  5. Limnology of Jagatpur wetland, Bhagalpur (Bihar), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Brajnandan

    2011-10-01

    The water quality in Jagatpur wetland was assessed in terms of physico - chemical characteristics for two years, between August 2003-July 2005. The variations in different physico-chemical parameters have been discussed in this paper in relation to fluctuating climatic condition. The wetland is experiencing racing eutrophication as evidenced by pH was acidic to alkaline, total hardness was considerably high, bicarbonate was in moderate amount, phosphate-phosphorus content was in a range of medium to high and higher values of COD. The present status of the quality of water of Jagatpur wetland is delineated in this paper.

  6. NEW ZEALAND'S WETLANDS: CONSERVATION AND WISE USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Maranhão

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand is unique when it comes to landscapes and biodiversity, being one of the countries which has the highest numbers of endemism. With such vast diversity, wetlands play a key role maintaining many of these species and also providing essential ecosystem services for the local communities. However, New Zealand has been largely degraded on wetland areas in the last two hundred years, remaining only 10% of the original composition which brings a special attention to the country. In this case, this review provides an overview of New Zealand’s wetlands highlighting aspects such as definitions, uses, values, threats and management.

  7. Plain carbon steel bipolar plates for PEMFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianli; SUN Juncai; TIAN Rujin; XU Jing

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates are a multifunctional component of PEMFC. Comparing with the machined graphite and stainless steels, the plain carbon steel is a very cheap commercial metal material. In this paper, the possibility of applying the plain carbon steels in the bipolar plate for PEMFC was exploited. In order to improve the corrosion resistance of the low carbon steel in the PEMFCs' environments,two surface modification processes was developed and then the electrochemical performances and interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of the surface modified plate of plain carbon steel were investigated. The results show that the surface modified steel plates have good corrosion resistance and relatively low contact resistance, and it may be a candidate material as bipolar plate of PEMFC.

  8. Implication upon Herpetofauna of a Road and its Reconstruction in Carei Plain Natural Protected Area (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred-S. Cicort-Lucaciu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In autumn 2011 we monitored a 5 km long road, paved with cobblestone, situated in Carei Plain Natural Protected Area, a road that is due to be modernized and continued across the border into Hungary. Dead bodies from eight different animal groups were observed on the road, amphibians presenting the greatest amount. The most frequent were the Triturus dobrogicus corps, a species with conservation importance. The amphibians were affected in the areas where the road is neighboring the wetlands, while on the opposite pole sits the area with acacia plantations. The high number of mortalities recorded on the road, despite the low traffic speed, is alarming. It is likely that the modernization of the road that will surely increase its traffic and the speed of the vehicles, will make the situation even worse. However, the rebuilding could contribute to the reduction in the impact on amphibians, if certain measures are considered while planning the action. Thus, in the areas near the wetlands, there should be undercrossings, fences and speed limits. In this way, the modernization would at least represent an experiment regarding the diminution of the road’s impact on amphibians.

  9. Presence and absence of bats across habitat scales in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, W.Mark; Menzel, Jennifer M.; Menzel, Michael A.: Edwards, John W.; Kilgo, John C.

    2006-10-01

    Abstract During 2001, we used active acoustical sampling (Anabat II) to survey foraging habitat relationships of bats on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Using an a priori information-theoretic approach, we conducted logistic regression analysis to examine presence of individual bat species relative to a suite of microhabitat, stand, and landscape-level features such as forest structural metrics, forest type, proximity to riparian zones and Carolina bay wetlands, insect abundance, and weather. There was considerable empirical support to suggest that the majority of the activity of bats across most of the 6 species occurred at smaller, stand-level habitat scales that combine measures of habitat clutter (e.g., declining forest canopy cover and basal area), proximity to riparian zones, and insect abundance. Accordingly, we hypothesized that most foraging habitat relationships were more local than landscape across this relatively large area for generalist species of bats. The southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius) was the partial exception, as its presence was linked to proximity of Carolina bays (best approximating model) and bottomland hardwood communities (other models with empirical support). Efforts at SRS to promote open longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and loblolly pine (P. taeda) savanna conditions and to actively restore degraded Carolina bay wetlands will be beneficial to bats. Accordingly, our results should provide managers better insight for crafting guidelines for bat habitat conservation that could be linked to widely accepted land management and environmental restoration practices for the region.

  10. Estimating Carbon Stocks Along Depressional Wetlands Using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in the Disney Wilderness Preserve (Orlando, Florida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, M. D.; Comas, X.; Wright, W. J.; Mount, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    Peat soils store a large fraction of the global carbon (C) in soil. It is estimated that 95% of carbon in peatlands is stored in the peat soil, while less than 5% occurs in the vegetation. The majority of studies related to C stocks in peatlands have taken place in northern latitudes leaving the tropical and subtropical latitudes clearly understudied. In this study we use a combination of indirect non-invasive geophysical methods (mainly ground penetrating radar, GPR) as well as direct measurements (direct coring) to calculate total C stocks within subtropical depressional wetlands in the Disney Wilderness Preserve (DWP, Orlando, FL). A set of three-dimensional (3D) GPR surveys were used to detect variability of the peat layer thickness and the underlying peat-sand mix layer across several depressional wetlands. Direct samples collected at selected locations were used to confirm depth of each interface and to estimate C content in the laboratory. Layer thickness estimated from GPR and direct C content were used to estimate total peat volume and C content for the entire depressional wetland. Through the use of aerial photos a relationship between surface area along the depressional wetlands and total peat thickness (and thus C content) was established for the depressions surveyed and applied throughout the entire preserve. This work shows the importance of depressional wetlands as critical contributors of the C budget at the DWP.

  11. Hydrogeochemical analysis for Tasuj plain aquifer, Iran

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ata Allah Nadiri; Asghar Asghari Moghaddam; Frank T-C Tsai; Elham Fijani

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the hydrogeochemical processes of groundwater in the Tasuj plain, Iran. The Tasuj plain is one of the 12 marginal plains around Urmia Lake which is currently under a critical ecological condition. In the last decades, the Tasuj plain aquifer suffered from severe groundwater level declination and caused degradation of groundwater quality. To better understand hydrogeochemical processes in the Tasuj plain, this study adopted graphical methods and multivariate statistical techniques to analyze groundwater samples. A total of 504 groundwater samples was obtained from 34 different locations (qanats, wells, and springs) over 12 years (1997–2009) and analyzed for 15 water quality parameters. From the results, the Piper diagram indicated four groundwater types and the Stiff diagram showed eight different sources of groundwater samples. The Durov diagram identified five major hydrogeochemical processes in the aquifer. However, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) identified five water types in the groundwater samples because HCA was able to analyze more chemical and physical data than graphical methods. The HCA result was checked by discriminant analysis and found consistency in all samples that were classified into correct groups. Using factor analysis, we identified three factors that accounted for 81.6% of the total variance of the dataset. Based on the high factor loadings of the variables, factors 1 and 2 reflected the natural hydrogeochemical processes and factor 3 explained the effect of agricultural fertilizers and human activities in the Tasuj plain. Dendrograms from 2000 to 2009 were studied to understand the temporal variation of groundwater quality. Comparing the distributions of groundwater types in 2000 and 2009, we found that the mixing zone was expanded. This may be due to artificial groundwater recharge in the recharge area and the effect of inverse ion exchange in the discharge area.

  12. Drought Assessment in the Moldavian Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Liviu Ioan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Moldavian Plain, located in the North-Eastern part of Romania, has a temperate-continental climate with a nuance of excessivity in the precipitation regime. This paper aims to analyse droughts in the Moldavian Plain for the period 1961-2010, by using a classical method - the de Martonne Aridity Index, and two other less known indices developed in Romania and the Republic of Moldova. Among these indices, the Dry Spells Index demonstrates a increasing frequency of dry years in recent decades.

  13. Understanding wetland sub-surface hydrology using geologic and isotopic signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Sikdar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to utilize hydrogeoloy and isotope composition of groundwater to understand the present hydrological processes prevalent in a freshwater wetland, source of wetland groundwater, surface water/groundwater interaction and mixing of groundwater of various depth zones in the aquifer. This study considers East Calcutta Wetlands (ECW – a freshwater peri-urban inland wetland ecosystem located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal Basin and east of Kolkata city. This wetland is well known over the world for its resource recovery systems, developed by local people through ages, using wastewater from the city. Geological investigations reveal that the sub-surface geology is completely blanketed by the Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of silty clay, sand of various grades and sand mixed with occasional gravels and thin intercalations of silty clay. Aquifer within the depths of 80 m to 120 m has the maximum potential to supply water. Groundwater mainly flows from east to west and is being over-extracted to the tune of 65×103 m3/day. δ18O and δD values of shallow and deep groundwater are similar indicating resemblance in hydrostratigraphy and climate of the recharge areas. Groundwater originates mainly from monsoonal rain with some evaporation prior to or during infiltration and partly from bottom of ponds, canals and infiltration of groundwater withdrawn for irrigation. Relatively high tritium content of the shallow groundwater indicates local recharge, while the deeper groundwater with very low tritium is recharged mainly from distant areas. At places the deeper aquifer has relatively high tritium, indicating mixing of groundwater of shallow and deep aquifers. Metals such as copper, lead, arsenic, cadmium, aluminum, nickel and chromium are also present in groundwater of various depths. Therefore, aquifers of wetland and surrounding urban areas which are heavily

  14. Understanding wetland sub-surface hydrology using geologic and isotopic signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sahu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to utilize hydrogeology and isotope composition of groundwater to understand the present hydrological processes prevalent in a freshwater wetland, source of wetland groundwater, surface water/groundwater interaction and mixing of groundwater of various depth zones in the aquifer. This study considers East Calcutta Wetlands (ECW – a freshwater peri-urban inland wetland ecosystem located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal Basin and east of Kolkata city. This wetland is well known over the world for its resource recovery systems, developed by local people through ages, using wastewater of the city. Geological investigations reveal that the sub-surface geology is completely blanketed by the Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of silty clay, sand of various grades and sand mixed with occasional gravels and thin intercalations of silty clay. At few places the top silty clay layer is absent due to scouring action of past channels. In these areas sand is present throughout the geological column and the areas are vulnerable to groundwater pollution. Groundwater mainly flows from east to west and is being over-extracted to the tune of 65×103 m3/day. δ18O and δD values of shallow and deep groundwater are similar indicating resemblance in hydrostratigraphy and climate of the recharge areas. Groundwater originates mainly from monsoonal rain with some evaporation prior to or during infiltration and partly from bottom of ponds, canals and infiltration of groundwater withdrawn for irrigation. Relatively high tritium content of the shallow groundwater indicates local recharge, while the deep groundwater with very low tritium is recharged mainly from distant areas. At places the deep aquifer has relatively high tritium, indicating mixing of groundwater of shallow and deep aquifers. Metals such as copper, lead, arsenic, cadmium, aluminium, nickel and chromium are also

  15. Rehabilitation of coastal wetlands of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    stream_size 16 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Ecosyst_Rehabilitation_1992_2_333.pdf.txt stream_source_info Ecosyst_Rehabilitation_1992_2_333.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  16. Golf courses and wetland fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colding, Johan; Lundberg, Jakob; Lundberg, Stefan; Andersson, Erik

    2009-09-01

    Golf courses are often considered to be chemical-intensive ecosystems with negative impacts on fauna. Here we provide evidence that golf courses can contribute to the support and conservation of wetland fauna, i.e., amphibians and macroinvertebrates. Comparisons of amphibian occurrence, diversity of macroinvetebrates, and occurrence of species of conservation concern were made between permanent freshwater ponds surveyed on golf courses around Sweden's capital city, Stockholm, and off-course ponds in nature-protected areas and residential parklands. A total of 71 macroinvertebrate species were recorded in the field study, with no significant difference between golf course ponds and off-course ponds at the species, genus, or family levels. A within-group similarities test showed that golf course ponds have a more homogenous species composition than ponds in nature-protected areas and ponds in residential parkland. Within the macroinvertebrate group, a total of 11 species of odonates were identified, with no difference detected between the categories of ponds, nor any spatial autocorrelation. Significant differences were found between pond categories in the occurrence of five species of amphibians, although anuran occurrence did not differ between ponds. The great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) was significantly associated with golf course ponds, but the smooth newt (Triturus vulgaris) was not. We found no evidence of any correlation between pond size and occurrence of amphibians. Among the taxa of conservation concern included in the sample, all amphibians are nationally protected in Sweden, with the internationally threatened T. cristatus more frequently found in golf course ponds. Among macroinveterbrates of conservation status, the large white-faced darter dragonfly (Leucorrhinia pectoralis) was only detected in golf course ponds, and Tricholeiochiton fagesi (Trichoptera) was only found in one off-course pond. GIS results revealed that golf courses provide over

  17. Feasibility of using geothermal effluents for waterfowl wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and institutional constraints which could affect geothermal wetland development; potential problems associated with depletion of geothermal resources and subsidence of wetland areas; potential interference (adverse and beneficial) of wetlands with ground water; special considerations for wetlands requirements including size, flows, and potential water usage; and final conclusions and recommendations for suitable sites for developing demonstration wetlands.

  18. Wetland Mitigation Monitoring at the Fernald Preserve - 13200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Jane [Fernald Preserve Site Manager, DOE Office of Legacy Management, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Bien, Stephanie; Decker, Ashlee; Homer, John [Environmental Scientist, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Wulker, Brian [Intern, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for 7.2 hectares (17.8 acres) of mitigation wetland at the Fernald Preserve, Ohio. Remedial activities affected the wetlands, and mitigation plans were incorporated into site-wide ecological restoration planning. In 2008, the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees developed a comprehensive wetland mitigation monitoring approach to evaluate whether compensatory mitigation requirements have been met. The Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Plan provided a guideline for wetland evaluations. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) wetland mitigation monitoring protocols were adopted as the means for compensatory wetland evaluation. Design, hydrologic regime, vegetation, wildlife, and biogeochemistry were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Evaluations showed mixed results when compared to the Ohio EPA performance standards. Results of vegetation monitoring varied, with the best results occurring in wetlands adjacent to forested areas. Amphibians, particularly ambystomatid salamanders, were observed in two areas adjacent to forested areas. Not all wetlands met vegetation performance standards and amphibian biodiversity metrics. However, Fernald mitigation wetlands showed substantially higher ratings compared to other mitigated wetlands in Ohio. Also, soil sampling results remain consistent with other Ohio mitigated wetlands. The performance standards are not intended to be 'pass/fail' criteria; rather, they are reference points for use in making decisions regarding future monitoring and maintenance. The Trustees approved the Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report with the provision that long-term monitoring of the wetlands continues at the Fernald Preserve. (authors)

  19. Management Plan Montezuma Wetlands Complex 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Montezuma Wetlands Complex Project (MWC) is a land conservation and management project jointly sponsored by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, New York State...

  20. Litchfield Wetland Management District: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Litchfield Wetland Management District for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  1. 76 FR 777 - National Wetland Plant List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... be consulted to verify whether that species occurs in wetlands in adjacent areas before it is assumed... recommended changes and additions to the NWPL. The process will be supported by an interactive Web site...

  2. Narrative Report Fergus Falls Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Wetlands Complex outlines District accomplishments for FY 1974. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  3. The size of the Lake~ Chilwa wetland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the actual size of the wetland and its component areas (open water, marsh, ... these data have been compared with the information provided in Kalk et al. and other ... 9 Blantyre; produced for the Forestry Department, Malawi Government, by.

  4. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2005 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  5. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2004 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  6. Wetland State-and-Transition Model _Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A geodatabase containing the boundaries of semipermanently flooded wetlands sampled on 8 National Wildlife Refuges in 2014 and 2015. These stations are located in...

  7. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2007 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  8. Morris Wetland Management District Habitat Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Morris Wetland Management District Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern at...

  9. Defining Hydrophytes for Wetland Identification and Delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Engineers); Norman Melvin and Michelle Schuman (U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service); Mary Butterwick and Bill...Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual (Environmental Laboratory 1987) “Large plants (macrophytes), such as aquatic mosses , liverworts

  10. Crosby Wetland Management District Narrative report: 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crosby Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  11. Great Smoky Mountains National Wetland Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent, approximate location and type of wetlands and deepwater habitats in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. These data...

  12. VT National Wetlands Inventory Map Data - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) VCGI downloaded NWI quads from the US FWS web site and reprojected to VCS NAD83. NWI digital data files are records of wetlands location and...

  13. VT National Wetlands Inventory Map Data - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) VCGI downloaded NWI quads from the US FWS web site and reprojected to VCS NAD83. NWI digital data files are records of wetlands location and...

  14. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2006 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  15. Windom Wetland Management District : Fiscal Year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2003 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  16. Windom Wetland Management District : Fiscal Year 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2002 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  17. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2008 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  18. Windom Wetland Management District : Fiscal Year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2001 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  19. NOAA C-CAP National Wetland Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The probability rating which covers landcover mapping provides a continuum of wetness from dry to water. The layer is not a wetland classification but provides the...

  20. A Constructed Wetland: From Monitoring To Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Dan

    1998-01-01

    Presents a water-quality monitoring project in a Denver school that has evolved into an experiment using a constructed wetland system to treat the acid-mine drainage from an abandoned gold mine. (PVD)

  1. Value of Alaskan wetlands for waterfowl: Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Few studies have focused specifically on use of Alaskan wetlands by waterfowl and only two of these have been published. However, substantial information on the...

  2. Protection of the remaining Rainwater Basins Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report begins with a review of the significant waterfowl values of the Basins wetlands, and it points out how those values have been degraded significantly by...

  3. Windom Wetland Management District : Fiscal Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2000 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  4. Leopold Wetland Management District: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This CCP articulates the management direction for the Leopold Wetland Management District for the next 15 years. Through goals, objectives, and strategies, this CCP...

  5. Potential effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on avian habitats and populations in the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.

    1994-01-01

    Biotic response to the buildup of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere is considerably more complex than an adjustment to changing temperature and precipitation. The fertilization effect carbon dioxide has on some plants, the impact UVB radiation has on health and productivity of organisms, and the resulting changes in competitive balance and trophic structure must also be considered. The intent of this paper is to review direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on wildlife, and to explore possible effects on populations of birds and their habitats in the northern Great Plains.Many of the potential effects of increasing greenhouse gases, such as declining plant nutritional value, changes in timing of insect emergence, and fewer and saltier wetlands, foreshadow a decline in avian populations on the Great Plains. However, other possible effects such as increased drought resistance and water use efficiency of vegetation, longer growing seasons, and greater overall plant biomass promise at least some mitigation. Effects of multiple simultaneous perturbations such as can be expected under doubled carbon dioxide scenarios will require substantial basic research to clarify.

  6. Historical and contemporary imagery to assess ecosystem change on the Arctic coastal plain of northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tape, Ken D.; Pearce, John M.; Walworth, Dennis; Meixell, Brandt W.; Fondell, Tom F.; Gustine, David D.; Flint, Paul L.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Ward, David H.

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is a complex landscape of lakes, streams, and wetlands scattered across low-relief tundra that is underlain by permafrost. This region of the Arctic has experienced a warming trend over the past three decades leading to thawing of on-shore permafrost and the disappearance of sea ice at unprecedented rates. The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) research initiative was developed to investigate and forecast these rapid changes in the physical environment of the Arctic, and the associated changes to wildlife populations, in order to inform key management decisions by the U.S. Department of the Interior and other agencies. Forecasting future wildlife responses to changes in the Arctic can benefit greatly from historical records that inform what changes have already occurred. Several Arctic wildlife and plant species have already responded to climatic and physical changes to the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska. Thus, we located historical aerial imagery to improve our understanding of recent habitat changes and the associated response to such changes by wildlife populations.

  7. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1980 to 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1980 to 1995, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  8. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1995 to 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1995 to 2000, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  9. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2005 to 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2005 to 2009, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  10. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2000 to 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2000 to 2005, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  11. Wetland features and landscape context predict the risk of wetland habitat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Kevin J; Flather, Curtis H

    2011-04-01

    Wetlands generally provide significant ecosystem services and function as important harbors of biodiversity. To ensure that these habitats are conserved, an efficient means of identifying wetlands at risk of conversion is needed, especially in the southern United States where the rate of wetland loss has been highest in recent decades. We used multivariate adaptive regression splines to develop a model to predict the risk of wetland habitat loss as a function of wetland features and landscape context. Fates of wetland habitats from 1992 to 1997 were obtained from the National Resources Inventory for the U.S. Forest Service's Southern Region, and land-cover data were obtained from the National Land Cover Data. We randomly selected 70% of our 40 617 observations to build the model (n = 28 432), and randomly divided the remaining 30% of the data into five Test data sets (n = 2437 each). The wetland and landscape variables that were important in the model, and their relative contributions to the model's predictive ability (100 = largest, 0 = smallest), were land-cover/ land-use of the surrounding landscape (100.0), size and proximity of development patches within 570 m (39.5), land ownership (39.1), road density within 570 m (37.5), percent woody and herbaceous wetland cover within 570 m (27.8), size and proximity of development patches within 5130 m (25.7), percent grasslands/herbaceous plants and pasture/hay cover within 5130 m (21.7), wetland type (21.2), and percent woody and herbaceous wetland cover within 1710 m (16.6). For the five Test data sets, Kappa statistics (0.40, 0.50, 0.52, 0.55, 0.56; P < 0.0001), area-under-the-receiver-operating-curve (AUC) statistics (0.78, 0.82, 0.83, 0.83, 0.84; P < 0.0001), and percent correct prediction of wetland habitat loss (69.1, 80.4, 81.7, 82.3, 83.1) indicated the model generally had substantial predictive ability across the South. Policy analysts and land-use planners can use the model and associated maps to prioritize

  12. Flora characteristics of Chenier Wetland in Bohai Bay and biogeographic relations with adjacent wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyun; Lu, Zhaohua; Liu, Jingtao; Hu, Shugang

    2017-01-01

    A key step towards the restoration of heavily disturbed fragile coastal wetland ecosystems is determining the composition and characteristics of the plant communities involved. This study determined and characterized the community of higher plants in the Chenier wetland of Bohai Bay using a combination of field surveys, quadrat approaches, and multivariate statistical analyses. This community was then compared to other adjacent wetlands (Tianjin, Qinhuangdao, Laizhouwan, Jiaozhouwan, and Yellow River Delta wetland) located near the Huanghai and Bohai Seas using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). Results showed a total of 56 higher plant species belonging to 52 genera from 20 families in Chenier wetland, the majority of which were dicotyledons. Single-species families were predominant, while larger families, including Gramineae, Compositae, Leguminosae, and Chenopodiaceae contained a higher number of species (each⩾6 species). Cosmopolitan species were also dominant with apparent intrazonality. Abundance (number of species) of temperate species was twice that of tropical taxa. Species number of perennial herbs, such as Gramineae and Compositae, was generally higher. Plant diversity in the Chenier wetland, based on the Shannon-Wiener index, was observed to be between the Qinhuangdao and Laizhouwan indices, while no significant difference was found in other wetlands using the Simpson index. Despite these slight differences in diversity, PCoA based on species abundance and composition of the wetland flora suggest that the Bohai Chenier community was highly similar to the coastal wetlands in Tianjin and Laizhouwan, further suggesting that these two wetlands could be important breeding grounds and resources for the restoration of the plant ecosystem in the Chenier wetland.

  13. Biotic wetland connectivity—supporting a new approach for wetland policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezaga, J. M.; Santamaría, L.; Green, A. J.

    2002-06-01

    Wetlands are key habitats connected physically and socially with processes occurring over a much wider territory. The biotic connection through dispersal mechanisms among wetlands is of primary importance to wetland management and policies. However, traditional wetland conservation approaches are based on the preservation of isolated sites considered to be of special importance (typically owing to their importance for concentrations of migratory waterbirds). Research linking local species richness and bird migration suggests that the effect of wetland loss on regional diversity might be much larger than what would be expected from direct habitat loss. Since the biotic connection among wetlands serviced by waterbirds appears to be more efficient within a limited range, the distribution of wetlands in space is a key aspect determining wetland connectedness even in the absence of direct hydrologic links. Protected areas should thus be defined with regard to waterfowl movements and waterbird migration as functional processes contributing to aquatic species migration and local species richness. This calls for a regional approach to wetland management within a continental context. This paper aims at defining an operational view of the dispersion function of wetlands and its implication for conservation policies. For this purpose, we examined the conservation policies of the Ramsar Convention (the international treaty that protects wetlands) and the European Union (as an example of relevant continental level policy-making) from the viewpoint of bird-mediated dispersal of aquatic organisms. We propose nine specific avenues for the inclusion of bird-mediated dispersal in the policy documents examined. Non-governmental organisations and other organisations working in waterbird conservation should also recognise the importance of their policies for aquatic biodiversity at broader levels and avoid compartmentalising their conservation activities.

  14. Isoprene emission from wetland sedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, A.; Arneth, A.; Hakola, H.; Hayward, S.; Holst, T.

    2009-04-01

    High latitude wetlands play an important role for the surface-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), but fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) in these ecosystems have to date not been extensively studied. This is despite BVOC representing a measurable proportion of the total gaseous C fluxes at northern locations and in the face of the high temperature sensitivity of these systems that requires a much improved process understanding to interpret and project possible changes in response to climate warming. We measured emission of isoprene and photosynthetic gas exchange over two growing seasons (2005-2006) in a subarctic wetland in northern Sweden with the objective to identify the physiological and environmental controls of these fluxes on the leaf scale. The sedge species Eriophorum angustifolium and Carex rostrata were both emitters of isoprene. Springtime emissions were first detected after an accumulated diurnal mean temperature above 0°C of about 100 degree days. Maximum measured growing season standardized (basal) emission rates (20°C, 1000 μmol m-2 s-1) were 1075 (2005) and 1118 (2006) μg C m-2 (leaf area) h-1 in E. angustifolium, and 489 (2005) and 396 (2006) μg C m-2 h-1 in C. rostrata. Over the growing season, basal isoprene emission varied in response to the temperature history of the last 48 h. Seasonal basal isoprene emission rates decreased with leaf nitrogen (N), which may be explained by the typical growth and resource allocation pattern of clonal sedges as the leaves age. The observations were used to model emissions over the growing season, accounting for effects of temperature history, links to leaf assimilation rate and the light and temperature dependencies of the cold-adapted sedges.

  15. Methane emission from wetland rice fields.

    OpenAIRE

    H.A.C. Denier van der Gon

    1996-01-01

    Methane (CH 4 ) is an important greenhouse gas and plays a key role in tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Wetland rice fields are an important source of methane, accounting for approximately 20% of the global anthropogenic methane emission. Methane fluxes from wetland rice fields in the Philippines were monitored with a closed chamber technique in close cooperation with the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). The field studies were complemented by laboratory and greenhouse ex...

  16. Wetland hydrology of the Elmley marshes

    OpenAIRE

    Gavin, H.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the importance of the hydrological regime for the functioning of wetland environments, the understanding of hydrological processes, particularly evaporative dynamics and clay soil moisture fluxes, is limited and the original research outlined in this thesis constitutes a real contribution to further the scientific understanding of wetland systems. Two lines of investigation are followed based upon field experiments and monitoring of groundwater and ditch water levels to...

  17. Ecological-Economic Analysis of Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    R.K. Turner; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Barendregt, A.; Maltby, E.

    1998-01-01

    Wetlands all over the world have been lost or are threatened in spite of various international agreements and national policies. This is caused by: (1) the public nature of many wetlands products and services; (2) user externalities imposed on other stakeholders; and (3) policy intervention failures that are due to a lack of consistency among government policies in different areas (economics, environment, nature protection, physical planning, etc.). All three causes are related to information...

  18. Projecting the Hydrologic Impacts of Climate Change on Montane Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Yeun; Ryan, Maureen E; Hamlet, Alan F; Palen, Wendy J; Lawler, Joshua J; Halabisky, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are globally important ecosystems that provide critical services for natural communities and human society. Montane wetland ecosystems are expected to be among the most sensitive to changing climate, as their persistence depends on factors directly influenced by climate (e.g. precipitation, snowpack, evaporation). Despite their importance and climate sensitivity, wetlands tend to be understudied due to a lack of tools and data relative to what is available for other ecosystem types. Here, we develop and demonstrate a new method for projecting climate-induced hydrologic changes in montane wetlands. Using observed wetland water levels and soil moisture simulated by the physically based Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, we developed site-specific regression models relating soil moisture to observed wetland water levels to simulate the hydrologic behavior of four types of montane wetlands (ephemeral, intermediate, perennial, permanent wetlands) in the U. S. Pacific Northwest. The hybrid models captured observed wetland dynamics in many cases, though were less robust in others. We then used these models to a) hindcast historical wetland behavior in response to observed climate variability (1916-2010 or later) and classify wetland types, and b) project the impacts of climate change on montane wetlands using global climate model scenarios for the 2040s and 2080s (A1B emissions scenario). These future projections show that climate-induced changes to key driving variables (reduced snowpack, higher evapotranspiration, extended summer drought) will result in earlier and faster drawdown in Pacific Northwest montane wetlands, leading to systematic reductions in water levels, shortened wetland hydroperiods, and increased probability of drying. Intermediate hydroperiod wetlands are projected to experience the greatest changes. For the 2080s scenario, widespread conversion of intermediate wetlands to fast-drying ephemeral wetlands will likely reduce

  19. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Matthew J; Creed, Irena F; Alexander, Laurie; Basu, Nandita B; Calhoun, Aram J K; Craft, Christopher; D'Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E; Jawitz, James W; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L Katherine; Lane, Charles R; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G; Lewis, David Bruce; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L; Mushet, David M; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C; Smith, Lora; Walls, Susan C

    2016-02-23

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bodies to create spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the timing, flow paths, and magnitude of network connectivity. These attributes signal a critical role for GIWs in sustaining a portfolio of landscape functions, but legal protections remain weak despite preferential loss from many landscapes. GIWs lack persistent surface water connections, but this condition does not imply the absence of hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological exchanges with nearby and downstream waters. Although hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity is often episodic or slow (e.g., via groundwater), hydrologic continuity and limited evaporative solute enrichment suggest both flow generation and solute and sediment retention. Similarly, whereas biological connectivity usually requires overland dispersal, numerous organisms, including many rare or threatened species, use both GIWs and downstream waters at different times or life stages, suggesting that GIWs are critical elements of landscape habitat mosaics. Indeed, weaker hydrologic connectivity with downstream waters and constrained biological connectivity with other landscape elements are precisely what enhances some GIW functions and enables others. Based on analysis of wetland geography and synthesis of wetland functions, we argue that sustaining landscape functions requires conserving the entire continuum of wetland connectivity, including GIWs.

  20. Necrotizing fasciitis : plain radiographic and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Dae; Park, Jeong Hee; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Lim, Jong Nam; Heo, Tae Haeng; Park, Dong Rib [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate the plain radiographic and CT findings of the necrotizing fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic findings of 4 cases with necrotizing fasciitis. Three cases were proven pathologically. We evaluated pattern and extent of the gas shadows in plain films. CT findings were analysed, with emphasis on : (a) gas pattern, (b) extent, (c) location and involved site, (d) associated focal abscess, and (e) swelling of the adjacent muscles. On plain radiographs, four cases showed streaky or mottled gas densities in the pelvis, three cases in the perineum, one case in the abdomen, and two cases in the thigh. On CT images, gas pattern was mottled and streaky appearance with swelling of the adjacent muscles. Gas shadows located in the extraperitoneal space in four cases, fascial layer in four cases, and subcutaneous layer in four cases. There were gas shadows in pelvic wall, perineum, abdominal wall, buttock, thigh, and scrotum. Focal low density lesion suggestive of focal abscess was not visualized. Plain radiography is useful for early diagnosis of the necrotizing fasciitis and CT is very useful for detection of precise location and extent of the disease. CT is also useful for differentiation of necrotizing fasciitis from focal abscess and cellulitis.

  1. Porosity Prediction of Plain Weft Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Owais Raza Siddiqui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wearing comfort of clothing is dependent on air permeability, moisture absorbency and wicking properties of fabric, which are related to the porosity of fabric. In this work, a plug-in is developed using Python script and incorporated in Abaqus/CAE for the prediction of porosity of plain weft knitted fabrics. The Plug-in is able to automatically generate 3D solid and multifilament weft knitted fabric models and accurately determine the porosity of fabrics in two steps. In this work, plain weft knitted fabrics made of monofilament, multifilament and spun yarn made of staple fibers were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the developed plug-in. In the case of staple fiber yarn, intra yarn porosity was considered in the calculation of porosity. The first step is to develop a 3D geometrical model of plain weft knitted fabric and the second step is to calculate the porosity of the fabric by using the geometrical parameter of 3D weft knitted fabric model generated in step one. The predicted porosity of plain weft knitted fabric is extracted in the second step and is displayed in the message area. The predicted results obtained from the plug-in have been compared with the experimental results obtained from previously developed models; they agreed well.

  2. The geologic story of the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    The Great Plains! The words alone create a sense of space and a feeling of destiny a challenge. But what exactly is this special part of Western America that contains so much of our history? How did it come to be? Why is it different?

  3. Pedogeographic regionalization of the Pomurje plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Lovrenčak

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the pedogeographic regionalization of the Pomurje plain (Northeast Slovenia. With regard to differences in parent material, landforms, and hydrographic characteristics, the soil cover is ranked into two pedogeographic regions. Each of them is furthermore divided into several subregions grouped together according to related soil groups.

  4. Great plains regional climate assessment technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Plains region (GP) plays important role in providing food and energy to the economy of the United States. Multiple climatic and non-climatic stressors put multiple sectors, livelihoods and communities at risk, including agriculture, water, ecosystems and rural and tribal communities. The G...

  5. Net ecosystem services value of wetland: Environmental economic account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. M.; Chen, G. Q.; Chen, B.; Zhou, J. B.; Yang, Z. F.; Zhou, Y.

    2009-06-01

    For decision making in terms of environmental economics for wetland construction, restoration and preservation, net ecosystem services values of constructed, human-interfered and natural wetlands are explored in the present work as a comparative study. The ecosystem services values of a pilot constructed wetland in Beijing, China in different discount rates and time horizons are accounted and compared with those of the natural wetlands all over the world as a mean and of a typical human-interfered wetland in Wenzhou, China. Results show that in both finite and infinite time horizons considered, the constructed wetland has the largest net services value in a reasonable discount rate.

  6. Research Status and Development Trend of Coastal Wetland Ecological Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-lei; WANG Shu-bo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, with the influenced by both man-made and natural factors. coastal wetlands sharp decline in the area, lack of resources, biological diversity declined, and the ecosystem function damaged. Through on current issues such as pollution and destruction of coastal wetlands analysis of coastal wetlands in research conducted a review and prospect of ecological restoration. So the protection and restoration of coastal wetlands should be brook no delay. The article based on the current pollution and destruction of the coastal wetlands analyses, and reviewed the current effective measures to restore coastal wetlands mainly in china and abroad.

  7. Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A. [JAYCOR, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trettin, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation.

  8. Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A. [JAYCOR, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trettin, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation.

  9. Groundwater recharge and sustainability in the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M.

    2005-01-01

    Sustainable use of groundwater must ensure not only that the future resource is not threatened by overuse, but also that natural environments that depend on the resource, such as stream baseflows, riparian vegetation, aquatic ecosystems, and wetlands are protected. To properly manage groundwater resources, accurate information about the inputs (recharge) and outputs (pumpage and natural discharge) within each groundwater basin is needed so that the long-term behavior of the aquifer and its sustainable yield can be estimated or reassessed. As a first step towards this effort, this work highlights some key groundwater recharge studies in the Kansas High Plains at different scales, such as regional soil-water budget and groundwater modeling studies, county-scale groundwater recharge studies, as well as field-experimental local studies, including some original new findings, with an emphasis on assumptions and limitations as well as on environmental factors affecting recharge processes. The general impact of irrigation and cultivation on recharge is to appreciably increase the amount of recharge, and in many cases to exceed precipitation as the predominant source of recharge. The imbalance between the water input (recharge) to the High Plains aquifer and the output (pumpage and stream baseflows primarily) is shown to be severe, and responses to stabilize the system by reducing water use, increasing irrigation efficiency, adopting water-saving land-use practices, and other measures are outlined. Finally, the basic steps necessary to move towards sustainable use of groundwater in the High Plains are delineated, such as improving the knowledge base, reporting and providing access to information, furthering public education, as well as promoting better understanding of the public's attitudinal motivations; adopting the ecosystem and adaptive management approaches to managing groundwater; further improving water efficiency; exploiting the full potential of dryland and

  10. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  11. National Wetland Condition Assessment 2011: A Collaborative Survey of the Nation's Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Wetland Condition Assessment 2011: A Collaborative Survey presents the results of an unprecedented assessment of the nation’s wetlands. This report is part of the National Aquatic Resource Surveys, a series of statistically based surveys designed to provide the publi...

  12. Inclusion of Riparian Wetland Module (RWM) into the SWAT model for assessment of wetland hydrological benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands are an integral part of many agricultural watersheds. They provide multiple ecosystem functions, such as improving water quality, mitigating flooding, and serving as natural habitats. Those functions are highly depended on wetland hydrological characteristics and their connectivity to the d...

  13. Agricultural use of wetlands: opportunities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Jos T A; Setter, Tim L

    2010-01-01

    Wetlands are species-rich habitats performing valuable ecosystem services such as flood protection, water quality enhancement, food chain support and carbon sequestration. Worldwide, wetlands have been drained to convert them into agricultural land or industrial and urban areas. A realistic estimate is that 50 % of the world's wetlands have been lost. This paper reviews the relationship between wetlands and agriculture with the aim to identify the successes and failures of agricultural use in different types of wetlands, with reference to short-term and long-term benefits and issues of sustainability. It also addresses a number of recent developments which will lead to pressure to reclaim and destroy natural wetlands, i.e. the continuous need for higher production to feed an increasing world population and the increasing cultivation of energy crops. Finally, attention is paid to the development of more flood-tolerant crop cultivars. Agriculture has been carried out in several types of (former) wetlands for millennia, with crop fields on river floodplain soils and rice fields as major examples. However, intensive agricultural use of drained/reclaimed peatlands has been shown to lead to major problems because of the oxidation and subsidence of the peat soil. This does not only lead to severe carbon dioxide emissions, but also results in low-lying land which needs to be protected against flooding. Developments in South-East Asia, where vast areas of tropical peatlands are being converted into oil palm plantations, are of great concern in this respect. Although more flood-tolerant cultivars of commercial crop species are being developed, these are certainly not suitable for cultivation in wetlands with prolonged flooding periods, but rather will survive relatively short periods of waterlogging in normally improved agricultural soils. From a sustainability perspective, reclamation of peatlands for agriculture should be strongly discouraged. The opportunities for

  14. Development of an indicator to monitor mediterranean wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Antonio; Abdul Malak, Dania; Guelmami, Anis; Perennou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are sensitive ecosystems that are increasingly subjected to threats from anthropogenic factors. In the last decades, coastal Mediterranean wetlands have been suffering considerable pressures from land use change, intensification of urban growth, increasing tourism infrastructure and intensification of agricultural practices. Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques are efficient tools that can support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands on large scales and over long periods of time. The study aims at developing a wetland indicator to support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands using these techniques. The indicator makes use of multi-temporal Landsat images, land use reference layers, a 50m numerical model of the territory (NMT) and Corine Land Cover (CLC) for the identification and mapping of wetlands. The approach combines supervised image classification techniques making use of vegetation indices and decision tree analysis to identify the surface covered by wetlands at a given date. A validation process is put in place to compare outcomes with existing local wetland inventories to check the results reliability. The indicator´s results demonstrate an improvement in the level of precision of change detection methods achieved by traditional tools providing reliability up to 95% in main wetland areas. The results confirm that the use of RS techniques improves the precision of wetland detection compared to the use of CLC for wetland monitoring and stress the strong relation between the level of wetland detection and the nature of the wetland areas and the monitoring scale considered.

  15. THE WETLAND TYPES, FUNCTIONS AND CONSERVATION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    According to preliminary statistics, there are 9. 4 × 106ha of mire, 8.0 × 106ha of lake, 2. 1 × 106ha of salt marsh, 2. 7 × 107ha of shallow sea (0 - Sm), and 3.8 × 107ha of paddyfield, their total area amounts to 8.45 ×107ha. Wetland consists of natural wetland system and man-made wetland system. According to hydrology, landform,soil and vegetation etc., natural wetland can be divided into the following types: marine, esturine, riverine, lacustrine,palustrine subsystems. On the basis of the wetland bottom compound, waterlogged state and vegetation forms, it can be subdivided into 26 wetland classes. Man-made wetland can be subdivided into 4 wetland classes. Wetland is a unique landscape in the earth and one of the most important living environment with rich resources and many functions. At present, 262 different types of Wetland Natural Reserves have been established in China, in which 7 Wetland Nature Reserves have been listed in international important wetlands of "The Wetland Convention".

  16. Biological diversity of created forested wetlands in comparison to reference forested wetlands in the Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Osenton, P.C.; Stoll, C.S.; Therres, Glenn D.

    2001-01-01

    Amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals were surveyed at six created forested wetlands in central Maryland and at six adjacent reference forested wetlands during 1993-1996 to determine comparative biological diversity of these habitats. Amphibians and reptiles were caught in pitfall and funnel traps associated with 15.4m (50 ft) drift fences. Birds were surveyed with a complete count while walking through each area. Mammals were surveyed by capture in live traps. More species and total individuals of amphibians were caught on the reference wetlands than on the created wetlands. The red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus), the four-toed salamander (Hemidactylium scutatum), the eastern spadefoot (Scaphiopus holbrooki), and the wood frog (Rana sylvatica) were captured on the reference wetlands, but not on the created sites. The wood frog was captured at all reference sites and may represent the best amphibian species to characterize a forested wetland. Reptiles were not caught in sufficient numbers to warrant comparisons. Ninety-two bird species were recorded on created sites and 55 bird species on the reference sites. Bird species on the created sites represented those typically found in nonforested habitats. Mammal species were similar on both sites, but overall the reference sites had three times the number caught on created sites. The meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) was the dominant species captured on created sites, and the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) was the dominant species on reference sites, with little habitat overlap for these two species. Although species richness and total number of animals were high for created forested wetlands, these survey results show major differences from species expected for a forested wetland. The created forested wetlands appear to provide good habitat for wildlife, but are probably not providing the full functions and values of the forested wetlands that they were constructed to replace.

  17. Geomorphological development of Eastern Mongolian plain, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    khukhuudei, Ulambadrakh; otgonbayar, Orolzodmaa

    2016-04-01

    Several summaries and investigations of the geomorphological description and feature for Eastern Mongolian plain (EMP), the one of the largest geomorphological district, fully covering east side of Mongolia (Murzayev, 1949; Vlodavets, 1950, 1955; Marinov, Khasin, 1954; Marinov, 1966; Nikolayeva, 1971; Selivanov, 1972; Chichagov, 1974, 1976; Grigorov, 1975; Korjuyev, 1982; Syirnev, 1982, 1984) had been publishing continuously. But literature for geomorphology of EMP have been not appeared during over the past 20 years. However, we re-combine the geomorphological development of EMP, according to the results of many publications for surrounding regions of Russia and China and unpublished maps. Main morphology of EMP has the plain, containing with aeolian, fluvial and lacustrine landforms. Plain morphology defined that denudation plains to North Kherlen, South Kherlen, Baruun Urt, Uulbayan, Delgerekh and other which developed on the Paleozoic rocks, layered plain to Choibalsan, Tamsag, Ongon, Gert, Sumiin nuur and Torey- on the Late Cretaceous and Neogene sediments and accumulation plain with alluvial and lacustrine origin such as Menen, Buir nuur, Tamsagbulag, Khalzan and other. These plains of EMP related with tectonics and structure of region and inherited the development of the Mesozoic, particularly Late Mesozoic structure. Large basins of EMP are Tamsag, Choibalsan and Torey and other small basins - from 7-10 km to 25-30 km width and rather a several 10 km extend, cutting a basement. The origin of plain morphology for EMP is interpreted as two main stages of the geomorphological development model, based on geology. In first stage or Late Jurassic (?) - Lower Cretaceous period, there was developed rift basin, then, in second stage or since Late Cretaceous period, plain morphology originated from the intermountain basin that dominated by exogenic process and kept in current EMP area. Data relevant to the development history of EMP are following. 1. Rift volcanism

  18. Floodwaters Renew Zambia's Kafue Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Not all floods are unwanted. Heavy rainfall in southern Africa between December 2003 and April 2004 provided central Zambia with floodwaters needed to support the diverse uses of water within the Kafue Flats area. The Kafue Flats are home to about one million people and provide a rich inland fishery, habitat for an array of unique wildlife, and the means for hydroelectricity production. The Flats falls between two dams: Upstream to the west (not visible here) is the Izhi-tezhi, and downstream (middle right of the images) is the Kafue Gorge dam. Since the construction of these dams, the flooded area has been reduced and the timing and intensity of the inundation has changed. During June 2004 an agreement was made with the hydroelectricity company to restore water releases from the dams according to a more natural flooding regime. These images from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) illustrate surface changes to the wetlands and other surfaces in central Zambia resulting from an unusually lengthy wet season. The Kafue Flats appear relatively dry on July 19, 2003 (upper images), with the Kafue River visible as a slender dark line that snakes from east to west on its way to join the Zambezi (visible in the lower right-hand corner). On July 21, 2004 (lower images), well into the dry season, much of the 6,500-square kilometer area of the Kafue Flats remains inundated. To the east of the Kafue Flats is Lusaka, the Zambian capital, visible as a pale area in the middle right of the picture, north of the river. In the upper portions of these images is the prominent roundish shape of the Lukanga Swamp, another important wetland. The images along the left are natural-color views from MISR's nadir camera, and the images along the right are angular composites in which red band data from MISR's 46o forward, nadir, and 46o backward viewing cameras is displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. In order to preserve brightness variations among the various

  19. Helping your teen with depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teen depression - helping; Teen depression - talk therapy; Teen depression - medicine ... teen the most. The most effective treatments for depression are: Talk therapy Antidepressant medicines If your teen ...

  20. Change of ancient hydrology net in Northeast China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui QU; Yu CHU; Fenglong ZHANG; Fuli QI; Xiangkui YANG

    2006-01-01

    Comparing with lithofacies palaeogeography of several great plains, the authors analyzed four great plains in Quaternary diastrophism, the sedimentary facies, sedimentary environment and their evolution from the independent embryonic and river system of ancient Heilongjiang finally to the Halar highland, Songnen Plain, Sanjiang Plain, the Xingkai Lake Plain and various river systems, collected the unification outside the system of Heilongjiang River to release into the sea, south ancient Xialiao River finally piracy Dongliao River, Xialiao River had released into the sea the ancient water law vicissitude and the evolved rule.

  1. Isoprene emission from wetland sedges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ekberg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available High latitude wetlands play an important role for the surface-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4, but fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC in these ecosystems have to date not been extensively studied. This is despite BVOC representing a measurable proportion of the total gaseous C fluxes at northern locations and in the face of the high temperature sensitivity of these systems that requires a much improved process understanding to interpret and project possible changes in response to climate warming. We measured emission of isoprene and photosynthetic gas exchange over two growing seasons (2005–2006 in a subarctic wetland in northern Sweden with the objective to identify the physiological and environmental controls of these fluxes on the leaf scale. The sedge species Eriophorum angustifolium and Carex rostrata were both emitters of isoprene. Springtime emissions were first detected after an accumulated diurnal mean temperature above 0°C of about 100 degree days. Maximum measured growing season standardized (basal emission rates (20°C, 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 were 1075 (2005 and 1118 (2006 μg C m−2 (leaf area h−1 in E. angustifolium, and 489 (2005 and 396 (2006 μg C m−2 h−1 in C. rostrata. Over the growing season, basal isoprene emission varied in response to the temperature history of the last 48 h. Seasonal basal isoprene emission rates decreased with leaf nitrogen (N, which may be explained by the typical growth and resource allocation pattern of clonal sedges as the leaves age. The observations were used to model emissions over the growing season, accounting for effects of temperature history, links to leaf assimilation rate and the light and temperature dependencies of the cold-adapted sedges.

  2. Wetlands Management Review of St. Vincent Island NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this wetland review was to evaluate past management and provide recommendations for future management of the impounded wetlands on St. Vincent Island....

  3. Mapping Flood Reduction Benefits of Potential Wetlands Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public officials and environmental managers face difficult decisions when allocating funds to prioritize the most beneficial wetlands conservation or restoration projects, and often face difficulty even characterizing benefits. One benefit of natural and constructed wetlands is t...

  4. Inventory of waterbirds in the Devils Lake Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In efforts to detect the species of waterbirds utilizing wetlands on Waterfowl Production Areas (WPAs), staff of the Devils Lake Wetland Management District...

  5. Kansas Protects and Restores Wetlands, Streams and Riparian Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetland Program Development Grant (WPDG) in 2007 when the Kansas State Conservation Commission began identifying team members interested in developing a framework for a comprehensive Kansas Wetland and Aquatic Resources Conservation Plan.

  6. Coastal Wetlands Monitoring in the Southeast U.S.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Governors' South Atlantic Alliance Coastal Wetlands Monitoring Workgroup has completed its final report and recommendations on the status of wetlands monitoring...

  7. Geothermal wetlands: an annotated bibliography of pertinent literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, N.E.; Thurow, T.L.; Russell, B.F.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1980-05-01

    This annotated bibliography covers the following topics: algae, wetland ecosystems; institutional aspects; macrophytes - general, production rates, and mineral absorption; trace metal absorption; wetland soils; water quality; and other aspects of marsh ecosystems. (MHR)

  8. Mapping Flood Reduction Benefits of Potential Wetlands Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public officials and environmental managers face difficult decisions when allocating funds to prioritize the most beneficial wetlands conservation or restoration projects, and often face difficulty even characterizing benefits. One benefit of natural and constructed wetlands is t...

  9. Using remote sensing to research Beijing wetlands dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Wenji; GONG; Zhaoning; GONG; Huili; LI; Xiaojuan; ZHANG; Songmei; LI; Jing

    2006-01-01

    In Beijing, where wetlands are important to municipal freshwater conservation and biodiversity retention, three different types of wetlands were identified: riverside wetlands, wetlands surrounding lakes and reservoirs, and wetlands in municipal parks.Remote sensing technology was applied in combination with field investigations to monitor and analyze the changes in these wetlands, and a combination of fusion technologies,Landsat TM/ETM+ and IKONOS imaging, was used to investigate and map them. This study indicates that not only have wetland areas been reduced by half, but also their ecological environments have been degraded because of rapid economic development and population increase. Suggestions based on this research are made to reconstruct the ecological environment of the wetlands and return them to their previous state.

  10. Wetland Paleoecological Study of Coastal Louisiana: X-radiographs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Wetland sediment data was collected from coastal Louisiana as part of a pilot study to develop a diatom-based proxy for past wetland water chemistry and the...

  11. Wind power wetland survey and duck pair count instructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial Survey Instructions for wind power wetland survey and duck pair count instructions for Kulm Wetland Management District. This survey has two surveying...

  12. Wetland Polygons, California, 2016, California Aquatic Resources Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This feature class contains polgon features depicting wetlands that are standardized to a common wetland classification system (CARI) and provide additional source...

  13. Ecosystem services provided by groundwater dependent wetlands in karst areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimo Delle Grazie, Fabio; Gill, Laurence

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystem services provided by groundwater dependent wetlands in karst areas Turloughs are topographic depressions in karst, which are intermittently flooded on an annual cycle via groundwater sources and have substrate and/or ecological communities characteristic of wetlands. Turloughs are designated a Priority Habitat in Annex 1 of the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) as well as GWDTEs under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Hydrology is the primary driver of these unique ecosystems and so a rigorous understanding of the flooding regime is required in order to assess their conservation and future sustainability. This research aims to identify and quantify the ecosystem services associated with turloughs, particularly in relation to the need for habitat conservation in the face of external pressures associated with agriculture, road drainage schemes, water supply and wastewater disposal. The research focuses primarily on quantifying the ecosystem functions responsible for producing terrestrial hydrologic and climatic services, as well as intrinsic biodiversity services, and uses this context to lay out a blueprint for a more detailed ecosystem service assessment. These services have been quantified in appropriate units (biophysical or otherwise), based on actual or potential sustainable use levels. Available data and field studies have been used to assess the hydrological conditions necessary to sustain the biodiversity of vegetation as well as to better understand the connections between hydrology and biogeochemical cycles. The benefits of the turlough services have then been analyzed and quantified in appropriate units (ecological, socio-cultural and economic indicators) as well as monetary values. This has been done using the inVEST tool. InVEST includes models for quantifying, mapping, and valuing the benefits provided by terrestrial, freshwater, and marine systems. In particular the Habitat Risk Assessment and the Nutrient Delivery Ratio modules have been

  14. Aquatic herbivores facilitate the emission of methane from wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Dingemans, B.J.J.; Bakker, E.S.; Bodelier, P. L. E.

    2011-01-01

    Wetlands are significant sources of atmospheric methane. Methane produced by microbes enters roots and escapes to the atmosphere through the shoots of emergent wetland plants. Herbivorous birds graze on helophytes, but their effect on methane emission remains unknown. We hypothesized that grazing on shoots of wetland plants can modulate methane emission from wetlands. Diffusive methane emission was monitored inside and outside bird exclosures, using static flux chambers placed over whole vege...

  15. Evaluation of Wetland Hydrology in Formerly Irrigated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    ER D C/ EL T R- 17 -1 3 Wetlands Regulatory Assistance Program Evaluation of Wetland Hydrology in Formerly Irrigated Areas En vi ro nm...EL TR-17-13 July 2017 Evaluation of Wetland Hydrology in Formerly Irrigated Areas Jacob F. Berkowitz, Jason P. Pietroski, and Steven J. Currie...of hydrology , and the distribution of plant communities. As a result, the identification of wetlands in irrigated areas remains challenging. The

  16. Development and validation of a global dynamical wetlands extent scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stacke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present the development of the dynamical wetland extent scheme (DWES and its validation against present day wetland observations. The DWES is a simple, global scale hydrological scheme that solves the water balance of wetlands and estimates their extent dynamically. The extent depends on the balance of water flows in the wetlands and the slope distribution within the grid cells. In contrast to most models, the DWES is not directly calibrated against wetland extent observations. Instead, wetland affected river discharge data are used to optimize global parameters of the model. The DWES is not a complete hydrological model by itself but implemented into the Max Planck Institute – Hydrology Model (MPI-HM. However, it can be transferred into other models as well.

    For present climate, the model validation reveals a good agreement between the occurrence of simulated and observed wetlands on the global scale. The best result is achieved for the northern hemisphere where not only the wetland distribution pattern but also their extent is simulated reasonably well by the DWES. However, the wetland fraction in the tropical parts of South America and Central Africa is strongly overestimated. The simulated extent dynamics correlate well with monthly inundation variations obtained from satellite for most locations. Also, the simulated river discharge is affected by wetlands resulting in a delay and mitigation of peak flows. Compared to simulations without wetlands, we find locally increased evaporation and decreased river flow into the oceans due to the implemented wetland processes.

    In summary, the validation analysis demonstrates the DWES' ability to simulate the global distribution of wetlands and their seasonal variations. Thus, the dynamical wetland extent scheme can provide hydrological boundary conditions for wetland related studies. In future applications, the DWES should be implemented into an earth system model

  17. Icelandic Inland Wetlands: Characteristics and Extent of Draining

    OpenAIRE

    Gudmundsson, Jon; Brink, Sigmundur H.; Arnalds, Olafur; Gisladottir, Fanney O.; Oskarsson, Hlynur

    2016-01-01

    Iceland has inland wetland areas with soils exhibiting both Andosol and Histosol properties which are uncommon elsewhere on Earth. They are generally fertile, with higher bird-nest densities than in similar wetlands in the neighboring countries, with nutrients released by rapid weathering of aeolian materials of basaltic nature. Icelandic inland wetlands cover about 9000 km2 constituting 19.4 % of the vegetated surfaces of the island. The wetland soils are often 1–3 m thick and store 33 to >1...

  18. Greenhouse gas flux dynamics in wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvola, J.; Alm, J.; Saarnio, S. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Martikainen, P.J. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Microbiology

    1996-12-31

    Two important greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, are closely connected to the carbon cycling of wetlands. Although virgin wetlands are mostly carbon accumulating ecosystems, major proportion of the CO{sub 2} bound annually in photosynthesis is released back to the atmosphere. Main portion of the carbon cycling in wetlands is quite fast while a small proportion of carbon diffusing from soil is released from organic matter, which may be ten thousand years old. Methane is formed in the anaerobic layers of wetlands, from where it is released gradually to the atmosphere. The decomposition in anaerobic conditions is very slow, which means that usually only a few percent of the annual carbon cycling takes place as methane. Research on CO{sub 2} fluxes of different virgin and managed peatlands was the main topic of this project during the first phase of SILMU. The measurements were made during two seasons in varying conditions in c. 30 study sites. In the second phase of SILMU the research topics were the spatial and temporal variation of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes, the relationships between vegetation and gas fluxes as well as carbon balance studies in wetlands at some intensive sites

  19. ROLE OF CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS IN NUTRIENT STRIPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khan A; Zubair M; Ali R

    2005-01-01

    A number of research programs have been established to evaluate potential applications of constructed wetlands in Western Australia. These constructed wetlands are known not only for their nutrient removal capability, but also their role in habitat creation, urban landscaping and water quality and environmental health. They play an important role in the reduction of nutrients, particularly phosphorous, from entering the waterways.This paper reports on the improvement of water quality in the Peel Main Drain before its disposal into the Peel Estuary, Perth, Western Australia. The nitrogen to phosphorous (N:P) ratio was below the critical limit during summer (dry spell) and the system was limited by nitrogen. The concentration of phosphorus was high in summer and low in winter due to increased availability of dissolved oxygen in winter.A wetland was proposed to improve the water quality in the Peel Main Drain using vegetation and substrate. The hydrologic effectiveness was found to be 78% for a detention time of 30 hours. It is expected that the maximum nitrogen removal efficiency of the constructed wetland will be 80% with an estimated efficiency of 40% in the first year and 60-80% in the subsequent years. For phosphorous it is expected that the constructed wetland will be effective in removing filterable reactive phosphorous. Traditional sediment remediation techniques have been found unsuitable for the long term binding of the phosphorous therefore the use of Phoslock TM is recommended.

  20. Removal processes for arsenic in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizama A, Katherine; Fletcher, Tim D; Sun, Guangzhi

    2011-08-01

    Arsenic pollution in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its toxicity and chronic effects on human health. This concern has generated increasing interest in the use of different treatment technologies to remove arsenic from contaminated water. Constructed wetlands are a cost-effective natural system successfully used for removing various pollutants, and they have shown capability for removing arsenic. This paper reviews current understanding of the removal processes for arsenic, discusses implications for treatment wetlands, and identifies critical knowledge gaps and areas worthy of future research. The reactivity of arsenic means that different arsenic species may be found in wetlands, influenced by vegetation, supporting medium and microorganisms. Despite the fact that sorption, precipitation and coprecipitation are the principal processes responsible for the removal of arsenic, bacteria can mediate these processes and can play a significant role under favourable environmental conditions. The most important factors affecting the speciation of arsenic are pH, alkalinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, the presence of other chemical species--iron, sulphur, phosphate--,a source of carbon, and the wetland substrate. Studies of the microbial communities and the speciation of arsenic in the solid phase using advanced techniques could provide further insights on the removal of arsenic. Limited data and understanding of the interaction of the different processes involved in the removal of arsenic explain the rudimentary guidelines available for the design of wetlands systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.