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Sample records for plain depression wetlands

  1. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR...

  2. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Depression Wetlands in the Upper Des Plaines River Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Jeff P

    2006-01-01

    .... The HGM approach is a collection of concepts and methods used to develop functional indices to assess the capacity of a particular wetland to perform functions relative to similar wetlands in a region...

  3. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Depression Wetlands in the Upper Des Plaines River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Wetlands and Coastal Ecology Branch; Dr. David J. Tazik, Chief, Eco- system Evaluation and Engineering Division; and Dr. Edwin A. Theriot, Direc- tor, EL...wetlands (Euliss and Mushet 1996, Azous and Horner 2001, Bhaduri et al. 1997) and nutrient loading into those wetlands. The overall LU score is...Euliss, N. H., and Mushet , D. M. (1996). “Water-level fluctuation in wetlands as a function of landscape condition in the prairie pothole region

  4. Plain Talk about Depression. Plain Talk Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Marilyn

    Depression is defined as a "whole-body" illness, involving the body, mood, and thoughts. Three of the most prevalent types of depressive disorders are described: major depression, dysthymia, and bipolar disorders (formerly called manic-depressive illness). Eleven symptoms of depression and 10 symptoms of mania are listed. Causes of depression are…

  5. Transplanting native dominant plants to facilitate community development in restored coastal plain wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.

    2007-12-01

    Abstract: Drained depressional wetlands are typically restored by plugging ditches or breaking drainage tiles to allow recovery of natural ponding regimes, while relying on passive recolonization from seed banks and dispersal to establish emergent vegetation. However, in restored depressions of the southeastern United States Coastal Plain, certain characteristic rhizomatous graminoid species may not recolonize because they are dispersal-limited and uncommon or absent in the seed banks of disturbed sites. We tested whether selectively planting such wetland dominants could facilitate restoration by accelerating vegetative cover development and suppressing non-wetland species. In an operational-scale project in a South Carolina forested landscape, drained depressional wetlands were restored in early 2001 by completely removing woody vegetation and plugging surface ditches. After forest removal, tillers of two rhizomatous wetland grasses (Panicum hemitomon, Leersia hexandra) were transplanted into singlespecies blocks in 12 restored depressions that otherwise were revegetating passively. Presence and cover of all plant species appearing in planted plots and unplanted control plots were recorded annually. We analyzed vegetation composition after two and four years, during a severe drought (2002) and after hydrologic recovery (2004). Most grass plantings established successfully, attaining 15%–85% cover in two years. Planted plots had fewer total species and fewer wetland species compared to control plots, but differences were small. Planted plots achieved greater total vegetative cover during the drought and greater combined cover of wetland species in both years. By 2004, planted grasses appeared to reduce cover of non-wetland species in some cases, but wetter hydrologic conditions contributed more strongly to suppression of non-wetland species. Because these two grasses typically form a dominant cover matrix in herbaceous depressions, our results indicated that

  6. Macroinvertebrate variation in endorheic depression wetlands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquatic macroinvertebrates are rarely used in wetland assessments due to their variation. However, in terms of biodiversity, these invertebrates form an important component of wetland fauna. Spatial and temporal variation of macroinvertebrate assemblages in endorheic depressions (locally referred to as 'pans') in ...

  7. Wetlands in changed landscapes: the influence of habitat transformation on the physico-chemistry of temporary depression wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Matthew S; Day, Jenny A

    2014-01-01

    Temporary wetlands dominate the wet season landscape of temperate, semi-arid and arid regions, yet, other than their direct loss to development and agriculture, little information exists on how remaining wetlands have been altered by anthropogenic conversion of surrounding landscapes. This study investigates relationships between the extent and type of habitat transformation around temporary wetlands and their water column physico-chemical characteristics. A set of 90 isolated depression wetlands (seasonally inundated) occurring on coastal plains of the south-western Cape mediterranean-climate region of South Africa was sampled during the winter/spring wet season of 2007. Wetlands were sampled across habitat transformation gradients according to the areal cover of agriculture, urban development and alien invasive vegetation within 100 and 500 m radii of each wetland edge. We hypothesized that the principal drivers of physico-chemical conditions in these wetlands (e.g. soil properties, basin morphology) are altered by habitat transformation. Multivariate multiple regression analyses (distance-based Redundancy Analysis) indicated significant associations between wetland physico-chemistry and habitat transformation (overall transformation within 100 and 500 m, alien vegetation cover within 100 and 500 m, urban cover within 100 m); although for significant regressions the amount of variation explained was very low (range: ∼2 to ∼5.5%), relative to that explained by purely spatio-temporal factors (range: ∼35.5 to ∼43%). The nature of the relationships between each type of transformation in the landscape and individual physico-chemical variables in wetlands were further explored with univariate multiple regressions. Results suggest that conservation of relatively narrow (∼100 m) buffer strips around temporary wetlands is likely to be effective in the maintenance of natural conditions in terms of physico-chemical water quality.

  8. Wetlands in changed landscapes: the influence of habitat transformation on the physico-chemistry of temporary depression wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Bird

    Full Text Available Temporary wetlands dominate the wet season landscape of temperate, semi-arid and arid regions, yet, other than their direct loss to development and agriculture, little information exists on how remaining wetlands have been altered by anthropogenic conversion of surrounding landscapes. This study investigates relationships between the extent and type of habitat transformation around temporary wetlands and their water column physico-chemical characteristics. A set of 90 isolated depression wetlands (seasonally inundated occurring on coastal plains of the south-western Cape mediterranean-climate region of South Africa was sampled during the winter/spring wet season of 2007. Wetlands were sampled across habitat transformation gradients according to the areal cover of agriculture, urban development and alien invasive vegetation within 100 and 500 m radii of each wetland edge. We hypothesized that the principal drivers of physico-chemical conditions in these wetlands (e.g. soil properties, basin morphology are altered by habitat transformation. Multivariate multiple regression analyses (distance-based Redundancy Analysis indicated significant associations between wetland physico-chemistry and habitat transformation (overall transformation within 100 and 500 m, alien vegetation cover within 100 and 500 m, urban cover within 100 m; although for significant regressions the amount of variation explained was very low (range: ∼2 to ∼5.5%, relative to that explained by purely spatio-temporal factors (range: ∼35.5 to ∼43%. The nature of the relationships between each type of transformation in the landscape and individual physico-chemical variables in wetlands were further explored with univariate multiple regressions. Results suggest that conservation of relatively narrow (∼100 m buffer strips around temporary wetlands is likely to be effective in the maintenance of natural conditions in terms of physico-chemical water quality.

  9. A network model framework for prioritizing wetland conservation in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Gene; Haukos, David A.

    2017-01-01

    ContextPlaya wetlands are the primary habitat for numerous wetland-dependent species in the Southern Great Plains of North America. Plant and wildlife populations that inhabit these wetlands are reciprocally linked through the dispersal of individuals, propagules and ultimately genes among local populations.ObjectiveTo develop and implement a framework using network models for conceptualizing, representing and analyzing potential biological flows among 48,981 spatially discrete playa wetlands in the Southern Great Plains.MethodsWe examined changes in connectivity patterns and assessed the relative importance of wetlands to maintaining these patterns by targeting wetlands for removal based on network centrality metrics weighted by estimates of habitat quality and probability of inundation.ResultsWe identified several distinct, broad-scale sub networks and phase transitions among playa wetlands in the Southern Plains. In particular, for organisms that can disperse >2 km a dense and expansive wetland sub network emerges in the Southern High Plains. This network was characterized by localized, densely connected wetland clusters at link distances (h) >2 km but <5 km and was most sensitive to changes in wetland availability (p) and configuration when h = 4 km, and p = 0.2–0.4. It transitioned to a single, large connected wetland system at broader spatial scales even when the proportion of inundated wetland was relatively low (p = 0.2).ConclusionsOur findings suggest that redundancy in the potential for broad and fine-scale movements insulates this system from damage and facilitates system-wide connectivity among populations with different dispersal capacities.

  10. Hydrology, vegetation, and soils of four north Florida River flood plains with an evaluation of state and federal wetland determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, H.M.; Darst, M.R.; MacLaughlin, M.T.; Sprecher, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    A study of hydrologic conditions, vegetation, and soils was made in wetland forests of four north Florida streams from 1987 to 1990. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation to support State and Federal efforts to improve wetland delineation methodology in flood plains. Plant communities and soils were described and related to topographic position and long-term hydrologic conditions at 10 study plots located on 4 streams. Detailed appendixes give average duration, frequency, and depth of flooding; canopy, subcanopy, and ground-cover vegetation; and taxonomic classification, series, and profile descriptions of soils for each plot. Topographic relief, range in stage, and depth of flooding were greatest on the alluvial flood plain of the Ochlockonee River, the largest of the four streams. Soils were silty in the lower elevations of the flood plain, and tree communities were distinctly different in each topographic zone. The Aucilla River flood plain was dominated by levees and terraces with very few depressions or low backwater areas. Oaks dominated the canopy of both lower and upper terraces of the Aucilla flood plain. Telogia Creek is a blackwater stream that is a major tributary of the Ochlockonee River. Its low, wet flood plain was dominated by Wyssa ogeche (Ogeechee tupelo) trees, had soils with mucky horizons, and was inundated by frequent floods of very short duration. The St. Marks River, a spring-fed stream with high base flow, had the least topographic relief and lowest range in stage of the four streams. St. Marks soils had a higher clay content than the other streams, and limestone bedrock was relatively close to the surface. Wetland determinations of the study plots based on State and Federal regulatory criteria were evaluated. Most State and Federal wetland determinations are based primarily on vegetation and soil characteristics because hydrologic records are usually not

  11. Wetland degradation: its driving forces and environmental impacts in the Sanjiang Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kaishan; Wang, Zongming; Du, Jia; Liu, Lei; Zeng, Lihong; Ren, Chunying

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated human-induced long-term wetland degradation that occurred in the Sanjiang Plain. Results from analyzing land-use/land-cover data sets derived from remotely sensed Landsat Multispectral Scanner/Thematic Mapper imagery for four time points showed that wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain have been severely transformed, and the area of wetlands decreased by 38 % from 1976 to 1986, by 16 % from 1986 to 1995, and by 31 % from 1995 to 2005. This study showed that transition to agricultural cultivation accounted for 91 % of wetland losses, whereas transition to grassland and forest accounted for 7 % of the wetlands losses. Institutional strategies and market policies probably exerted great impacts on agricultural practice that directly or indirectly influenced the decrease in wetlands. This study also indicated that an increased population likely led to wetland conversion to cropland by showing a high correlation between population and cropland (R (2) = 0.92, P reinforced further because of possible environmental consequences of wetland loss, such as enhanced soil carbon emission, changed hydrological cycling, and regional temperature increase.

  12. Cadmium and associated metals in soils and sediments of wetlands across the Northern Plains, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Donna L.; Yellick, Alex H.; Kissoon, La Toya T.; Asgary, Aida; Wijeyaratne, Dimuthu N.; Saini-Eidukat, Bernhardt; Otte, Marinus L.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium, present locally in naturally high concentrations in the Northern Plains of the United States, is of concern because of its toxicity, carcinogenic properties, and potential for trophic transfer. Reports of natural concentrations in soils are dominated by dryland soils with agricultural land uses, but much less is known about cadmium in wetlands. Four wetland categories – prairie potholes, shallow lakes, riparian wetlands, and river sediments – were sampled comprising more than 300 wetlands across four states, the majority in North Dakota. Cd, Zn, P, and other elements were analyzed by ICP-MS, in addition to pH and organic matter (as loss-on-ignition). The overall cadmium content was similar to the general concentrations in the area's soils, but distinct patterns occurred within categories. Cd in wetland soils is associated with underlying geology and hydrology, but also strongly with concentrations of P and Zn, suggesting a link with agricultural land use surrounding the wetlands. -- Highlights: •Cd concentrations in wetland soils average 0.0034 ± 0.0015 μmol g −1 . •Minnesota shallow lakes show wider range in Cd concentrations than prairie potholes. •Cd in prairie potholes varies between Level III Ecoregions. •Cd in wetlands is associated with Zn and P. •Cd in wetlands seems associated with geology, hydrology, and land use. -- A comprehensive study on the distribution of cadmium in diverse wetlands across a large region varying in landscape and land uses

  13. Importance of Small Isolated Wetlands for Herpetofaunal Diversity in Managed, Young Growth Forests in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, K.R.; Guynn, D.C. Jr.; Hanlin, H.G.

    2002-01-01

    Assessment and comparison of richness, abundance and difference of herpetofauna at five small isolated wetlands located within a commercial forest landscape in the South Carolina Coastal Plain. Data indicates small isolated wetlands are focal points of herpetofaunal richness and abundance in managed coastal plain forest and contribute more to regional biodiversity than is implied by their small size or ephemeral hydrology

  14. Fertilizer legacies meet saltwater incursion: challenges and constraints for coastal plain wetland restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ardón

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coastal wetland restoration is an important tool for climate change adaptation and excess nutrient runoff mitigation. However, the capacity of restored coastal wetlands to provide multiple ecosystem services is limited by stressors, such as excess nutrients from upstream agricultural fields, high nutrient legacies on-site, and rising salinities downstream. The effects of these stressors are exacerbated by an accelerating hydrologic cycle, expected to cause longer droughts punctuated by more severe storms. We used seven years of surface water and six years of soil solution water chemistry from a large (440 ha restored wetland to examine how fertilizer legacy, changes in hydrology, and drought-induced salinization affect dissolved nutrient and carbon concentrations. To better understand the recovery trajectory of the restored wetland, we also sampled an active agricultural field and two mature forested wetlands. Our results show that nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P concentrations in soil solution were 2–10 times higher in the restored wetland compared to two mature forested wetlands, presumably due to legacy fertilizer mobilized by reflooding. Despite elevated nutrient concentrations relative to reference wetlands, the restored wetland consistently attenuated N and P pulses delivered from an upstream farm. Even with continued loading, N and P concentrations in surface water throughout the restored wetland have decreased since the initial flooding. Our results suggest that high nutrient concentrations and export from wetlands restored on agricultural lands may be a severe but temporary problem. If field to wetland conversion is to become a more widespread method for ameliorating nutrient runoff and adapting coastal plain ecosystems to climate change, we should adopt new methods for minimizing the initial export phase of wetland restoration efforts.

  15. A novel algorithm for delineating wetland depressions and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In traditional watershed delineation and topographic modeling, surface depressions are generally treated as spurious features and simply removed from a digital elevation model (DEM) to enforce flow continuity of water across the topographic surface to the watershed outlets. In reality, however, many depressions in the DEM are actual wetland landscape features that are seldom fully filled with water. For instance, wetland depressions in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) are seasonally to permanently flooded wetlands characterized by nested hierarchical structures with dynamic filling- spilling-merging surface-water hydrological processes. The objectives of this study were to delineate hierarchical wetland catchments and model their hydrologic connectivity using high-resolution LiDAR data and aerial imagery. We proposed a novel algorithm delineate the hierarchical wetland catchments and characterize their geometric and topological properties. Potential hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and streams were simulated using the least-cost path algorithm. The resulting flow network delineated putative temporary or seasonal flow paths connecting wetland depressions to each other or to the river network at scales finer than available through the National Hydrography Dataset. The results demonstrated that our proposed framework is promising for improving overland flow modeling and hydrologic connectivity analysis. Presentation at AWRA Spring Specialty Conference in Sn

  16. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood-plain and wetlands management. 120.172 Section 120.172 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Policies Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.172...

  17. Bacterial community structure in two permafrost wetlands on the Tibetan Plateau and Sanjiang Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Juanli; Ju, Yiwen; Deng, Yongcui; Zhang, Hongxun

    2014-08-01

    Permafrost wetlands are important methane emission sources and fragile ecosystems sensitive to climate change. Presently, there remains a lack of knowledge regarding bacterial communities, especially methanotrophs in vast areas of permafrost on the Tibetan Plateau in Northwest China and the Sanjiang Plain (SJ) in Northeast China. In this study, 16S rRNA-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) and 454 pyrosequencing were used to identify bacterial communities in soils sampled from a littoral wetland of Lake Namco on the Tibetan Plateau (NMC) and an alluvial wetland on the SJ. Additionally, methanotroph-specific primers targeting particulate methane monooxygenase subunit A gene (pmoA) were used for qPCR and pyrosequencing analysis of methanotrophic community structure in NMC soils. qPCR analysis revealed the presence of 10(10) 16S rRNA gene copies per gram of wet soil in both wetlands, with 10(8) pmoA copies per gram of wet soil in NMC. The two permafrost wetlands showed similar bacterial community compositions, which differed from those reported in other cold environments. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria , and Chloroflexi were the most abundant phyla in both wetlands, whereas Acidobacteria was prevalent in the acidic wetland SJ only. These four phyla constituted more than 80 % of total bacterial community diversity in permafrost wetland soils, and Methylobacter of type I methanotrophs was overwhelmingly dominant in NMC soils. This study is the first major bacterial sequencing effort of permafrost in the NMC and SJ wetlands, which provides fundamental data for further studies of microbial function in extreme ecosystems under climate change scenarios.

  18. A conceptual hydrologic model for a forested Carolina bay depressional wetland on the Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Timothy J. Callahan; Ge Sun; Carl C. Trettin; Masato Miwa

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how climate influences the hydrology of an ephemeral depressional wetland. Surface water and groundwater elevation data were collected for 7 years in a Coastal Plain watershed in South Carolina USA containing depressional wetlands, known as Carolina bays. Rainfall and temperature data were compared with water-table well and piezometer data in and...

  19. Vegetative zonation patterns in depression and riparian wetlands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and seventy-two (172) sampling plots in depression and riparian wetland was used. Samples were classified in 9 groups at the fourth level using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN): Four marsh communities, one meadow marsh community, one wet meadow community, two swamp communities ...

  20. Effects of wetland recovery on soil labile carbon and nitrogen in the Sanjiang Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Song, Changchun; Nkrumah, Philip Nti

    2013-07-01

    Soil management significantly affects the soil labile organic factors. Understanding carbon and nitrogen dynamics is extremely helpful in conducting research on active carbon and nitrogen components for different kinds of soil management. In this paper, we examined the changes in microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) to assess the effect and mechanisms of land types, organic input, soil respiration, microbial species, and vegetation recovery under Deyeuxia angustifolia freshwater marshes (DAMs) and recovered freshwater marsh (RFM) in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. Identifying the relationship among the dynamics of labile carbon, nitrogen, and soil qualification mechanism using different land management practices is therefore important. Cultivation and land use affect intensely the DOC, DON, MBC, and MBN in the soil. After DAM soil tillage, the DOC, DON, MBC, and MBN at the surface of the agricultural soil layer declined significantly. In contrast, their recovery was significant in the RFM surface soil. A long time was needed for the concentration of cultivated soil total organic carbon and total nitrogen to be restored to the wetland level. The labile carbon and nitrogen fractions can reach a level similar to that of the wetland within a short time. Typical wetland ecosystem signs, such as vegetation, microbes, and animals, can be recovered by soil labile carbon and nitrogen fraction restoration. In this paper, the D. angustifolia biomass attained natural wetland level after 8 years, indicating that wetland soil labile fractions can support wetland eco-function in a short period of time (4 to 8 years) for reconstructed wetland under suitable environmental conditions.

  1. Metal pollution across the upper delta plain wetlands and its adjacent shallow sea wetland, northeast of China: implications for the filtration functions of wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Ye, Siyuan; Yuan, Hongming; Ding, Xigui; Zhao, Guangming; Yang, Shixiong; He, Lei; Wang, Jin; Pei, Shaofeng; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2018-02-01

    Grain size and concentrations of organic carbon (Corg) and particulate metals (PMs) As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Al, Fe, and Mn of 373 surface sediment samples, salinities in 67 surface water samples, were analyzed in various environments, including the upper delta plain wetlands (UDPW), its adjacent shallow sea wetland (SSW) in the Liaodong Bay, and river channels that are running through the Liaohe Delta, to evaluate the spatial distribution, transportation environmental dynamics of metals, and the provenance of metal pollution and assess the filtration functions of wetlands. The concentrations of PMs for UDPW were generally higher by a factor of ~ 10-22% compared with its analogues in SSW, suggesting the accumulation of PMs within the UDPW indicates that the UDPW systems are efficiently physical and chemical traps for PMs of anthropogenic sources by retaining and storing pollutants flowing into the sea. However, there was sever sewage irrigation-induced Cd pollution with a geo-accumulation index of 0.62-3.11 in an area of ~ 86 km 2 of the adjacent shallow sea wetland, where large amount wetlands were historically moved for agriculture in the UDPW. Remarkably, the distributions of PMs were controlled by salinity-induced desorption and re-adsorption mechanisms and significantly dispersed the contamination coverage by the three-dimensional hydrodynamic and sedimentation processes that dominated by inputs of freshwater and ocean dynamics including NE-SW tidal currents and NE-E longshore drifts in the SSW of the Liaodong Bay. A high agreement between the UDPW and the SSW datasets in principal component analysis essentially reflects that the characteristics of PM sources in the SSW were actually inherited from that in the UDPW, with a much closer relationship among metals, organic matter, and fine particulates in SSW than that of UDPW, which was judged by their correlation coefficient range of 0.406-0.919 in SSW against those of 0.042-0.654 in UDPW.

  2. Prediction CH4 Emissions from the Wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain of Northeastern China in the 21st Century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    Full Text Available The Sanjiang Plain has been experienced significant wetland loss due to expanded agricultural activities, and will be potentially restored by the China National Wetland Conservation Action Plan (NWCP in future. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of future climate warming and wetland restoration on wetland CH4 emissions in northeast China. We used an atmosphere-vegetation interaction model (AVIM2 to drive a modified biogeophysical model (CH4MODwetland, and projected CH4 flux variations from the Sanjiang Plain wetlands under different Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios throughout the 21st century. Model validation showed that the regressions between the observed and simulated CH4 fluxes by the modified model produced an R2 of 0.49 with a slope of 0.87 (p<0.001, n = 237. According to the AVIM2 simulation, the net primary productivity of the Sanjiang Plain wetlands will increase by 38.2 g m-2 yr-1, 116.6 g m-2 yr-1 and 250.4 g m-2 yr-1 under RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively, by the end of this century. For RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios, the CH4 fluxes will increase by 5.7 g m-2 yr-1, 57.5 g m-2 yr-1 and 112.2 g m-2 yr-1. Combined with the wetland restoration, the regional emissions will increase by 0.18‒1.52 Tg. The CH4 emissions will be stimulated by climate change and wetland restoration. Regional wetland restoration planning should be directed against different climate scenarios in order to suppress methane emissions.

  3. Using stable isotopes to understand hydrochemical processes in and around a Prairie Pothole wetland in the Northern Great Plains, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Christopher T.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Stricker, Craig A.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Morrison, Jean M.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Thurston, Roland S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A stable isotope study of the hydrochemistry of a Prairie Pothole wetland system. → δ 18 O H2O and δ 2 H H2O values show salt concentration by transpiration at wetland edge. → A range of δ 34 S SO4 values indicate SO 4 source and reduction processes. → Isotopic mixing lines show interaction of surface and groundwater at wetland edge. - Abstract: Millions of internally drained wetland systems in the Prairie Potholes region of the northern Great Plains (USA and Canada) provide indispensable habitat for waterfowl and a host of other ecosystem services. The hydrochemistry of these systems is complex and a crucial control on wetland function, flora and fauna. Wetland waters can have high concentrations of SO 4 2- due to the oxidation of large amounts of pyrite in glacial till that is in part derived from the Pierre shale. Water chemistry including δ 18 O H2O , δ 2 H H2O , and δ 34 S SO4 values, was determined for groundwater, soil pore water, and wetland surface water in and around a discharge wetland in North Dakota. The isotopic data for the first time trace the interaction of processes that affect wetland chemistry, including open water evaporation, plant transpiration, and microbial SO 4 reduction.

  4. Responses of Carbon Dynamics to Nitrogen Deposition in Typical Freshwater Wetland of Sanjiang Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nitrogen deposition (N-deposition on the carbon dynamics in typical Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland of Sanjiang Plain were studied by a pot-culture experiment during two continuous plant growing seasons. Elevated atmospheric N-deposition caused significant increases in the aboveground net primary production and root biomass; moreover, a preferential partition of carbon to root was also observed. Different soil carbon fractions gained due to elevated N-deposition and their response intensities followed the sequence of labile carbon > dissolved organic carbon > microbial biomass carbon, and the interaction between N-deposition and flooded condition facilitated the release of different carbon fractions. Positive correlations were found between CO2 and CH4 fluxes and liable carbon contents with N-deposition, and flooded condition also tended to facilitate CH4 fluxes and to inhibit the CO2 fluxes with N-deposition. The increases in soil carbon fractions occurring in the nitrogen treatments were significantly correlated with increases in root, aboveground parts, total biomass, and their carbon uptake. Our results suggested that N-deposition could enhance the contents of active carbon fractions in soil system and carbon accumulation in plant of the freshwater wetlands.

  5. Mercury Distribution Along the Food Chain of a Wetland Ecosystem at Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilong, Ma; Qiang, Wang; Zhongsheng, Zhang; Xuehong, Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a wetland food chain were determined at Majuan Island of the Sanjiang Plain in China. Four tissues (muscle, liver, kidney and brain) of three waterbird species (great cormorant, grey heron and great egret), muscle tissues of fish (grass carp, crucian carp and longnose gudgeon), insects (predacious diving beetle), aquatic plants (ditch reed) and soil were analyzed. The mean concentrations of T-Hg were 0.392 ± 0.237 mg/kg for tissues of all juveniles, 1.999 ± 2.053 mg/kg for great cormorant adults, and 0.029 ± 0.019 mg/kg for fish muscle, respectively. While the relative contents of T-Hg of insects, plants and sediments were 0.012 ± 0.002, 0.006 ± 0.001 and 0.020 ± 0.002 mg/kg, respectively. Bioaccumulation of Hg along the wetland food chain may be able to show the current situation of Hg contamination in remote regions of East Asia.

  6. Soil color indicates carbon and wetlands: developing a color-proxy for soil organic carbon and wetland boundaries on sandy coastal plains in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, M L; Van Huyssteen, C W; Brown, L R

    2017-10-13

    A relationship between soil organic carbon and soil color is acknowledged-albeit not a direct one. Since heightened carbon contents can be an indicator of wetlands, a quantifiable relationship between color and carbon might assist in determining wetland boundaries by rapid, field-based appraisal. The overarching aim of this initial study was to determine the potential of top soil color to indicate soil organic carbon, and by extension wetland boundaries, on a sandy coastal plain in South Africa. Data were collected from four wetland types in northern KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Soil samples were taken to a depth of 300 mm in three transects in each wetland type and analyzed for soil organic carbon. The matrix color was described using a Munsell soil color chart. Various color indices were correlated with soil organic carbon. The relationship between color and carbon were further elucidated using segmented quantile regression. This showed that potentially maximal carbon contents will occur at values of low color indices, and predictably minimal carbon contents will occur at values of low or high color indices. Threshold values can thus be used to make deductions such as "when the sum of dry and wet Value and Chroma values is 9 or more, carbon content will be 4.79% and less." These threshold values can then be used to differentiate between wetland and non-wetland sites with a 70 to 100% certainty. This study successfully developed a quantifiable correlation between color and carbon and showed that wetland boundaries can be determined based thereon.

  7. Climate Change and Anthropogenic Impacts on Wetland and Agriculture in the Songnen and Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Influences of the increasing pressure of climate change and anthropogenic activities on wetlands ecosystems and agriculture are significant around the world. This paper assessed the spatiotemporal land use and land cover changes (LULCC, especially for conversion from marshland to other LULC types (e.g., croplands over the Songnen and Sanjiang Plain (SNP and SJP, northeast China, during the past 35 years (1980–2015. The relative role of human activities and climatic changes in terms of their impacts on wetlands and agriculture dynamics were quantitatively distinguished and evaluated in different periods based on a seven-stage LULC dataset. Our results indicated that human activities, such as population expansion and socioeconomic development, and institutional policies related to wetlands and agriculture were the main driving forces for LULCC of the SJP and SNP during the past decades, while increasing contributions of climatic changes were also found. Furthermore, as few studies have identified which geographic regions are most at risk, how the future climate changes will spatially and temporally impact wetlands and agriculture, i.e., the suitability of wetlands and agriculture distributions under different future climate change scenarios, were predicted and analyzed using a habitat distribution model (Maxent at the pixel-scale. The present findings can provide valuable references for policy makers on regional sustainability for food security, water resource rational management, agricultural planning and wetland protection as well as restoration of the region.

  8. Bat Response To Carolina Bays and Wetland Restoration in the Southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer M. Menzel; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards

    2005-01-01

    Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist...

  9. Mercury adsorption in the Mississippi River deltaic plain freshwater marsh soil of Louisiana Gulf coastal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Wang, Jim J; Xiao, Ran; Pensky, Scott M; Kongchum, Manoch; DeLaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2018-03-01

    Mercury adsorption characteristics of Mississippi River deltaic plain (MRDP) freshwater marsh soil in the Louisiana Gulf coast were evaluated under various conditions. Mercury adsorption was well described by pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models with maximum adsorption capacity of 39.8 mg g -1 . Additional fitting of intraparticle model showed that mercury in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was controlled by both external surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. The partition of adsorbed mercury (mg g -1 ) revealed that mercury was primarily adsorbed into organic-bond fraction (12.09) and soluble/exchangeable fraction (10.85), which accounted for 63.5% of the total adsorption, followed by manganese oxide-bound (7.50), easily mobilizable carbonate-bound (4.53), amorphous iron oxide-bound (0.55), crystalline Fe oxide-bound (0.41), and residual fraction (0.16). Mercury adsorption capacity was generally elevated along with increasing solution pH even though dominant species of mercury were non-ionic HgCl 2 , HgClOH and Hg(OH) 2  at between pH 3 and 9. In addition, increasing background NaCl concentration and the presence of humic acid decreased mercury adsorption, whereas the presence of phosphate, sulfate and nitrate enhanced mercury adsorption. Mercury adsorption in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was reduced by the presence of Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn with Pb showing the greatest competitive adsorption. Overall the adsorption capacity of mercury in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was found to be significantly influenced by potential environmental changes, and such factors should be considered in order to manage the risks associated with mercury in this MRDP wetland for responding to future climate change scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of labile organic carbon in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain: Relationships to carbon functionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodla, Syam K. [School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Wang, Jim J., E-mail: jjwang@agcenter.lsu.edu [School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); DeLaune, Ronald D. [Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, School of the Coast and Environment, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Adequate characterization of labile organic carbon (LOC) is essential to the understanding of C cycling in soil. There has been very little evaluation about the nature of LOC characterizations in coastal wetlands, where soils are constantly influenced by different redox fluctuations and salt water intrusions. In this study, we characterized and compared LOC fractions in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain using four different methods including 1) aerobically mineralizable C (AMC), 2) cold water extractable C (CWEC), 3) hot water extractable C (HWEC), and 4) salt extractable C (SEC), as well as acid hydrolysable C (AHC) which includes both labile and slowly degradable organic C. Molecular organic C functional groups of these wetland soils were characterized by {sup 13}C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The LOC and AHC increased with soil organic C (SOC) regardless of wetland soil type. The LOC estimates by four different methods were positively and significantly linearly related to each other (R{sup 2} = 0.62-0.84) and with AHC (R{sup 2} = 0.47-0.71). The various LOC fractions accounted for {<=} 4.3% of SOC whereas AHC fraction represented 16-49% of SOC. AMC was influenced positively by O/N-alkyl and carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C, whereas CWEC and SEC fractions were influenced only positively by carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C in SOC. On the other hand, HWEC fraction was found to be only influenced positively by carbonyl C, and AHC positively by O/N-alkyl and alkyl C but negatively by aromatic C groups in SOC. Overall these relations suggested different contributions of various molecular organic C moieties to LOC in these wetlands from those often found for upland soils. The presence of more than 50% non-acid hydrolysable C suggested the dominance of relatively stable SOC pool that would be sequestered in these Mississippi River deltaic plain coastal wetland soils. The results have important implications to the

  11. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; ; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  12. Vegetative zonation patterns in depression and riparian wetlands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELO

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... The vegetation of depressional and riparian wetlands in the Sanjiang ... Three transplanted species showed different effects of biomass ... nutrient concentrations in soil, as well as disturbance, ... (2) to discern underlying environmental variables that .... variance (ANOVA) and the construction of scatter plots.

  13. Landsat classification of surface-water presence during multiple years to assess response of playa wetlands to climatic variability across the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manier, Daniel J.; Rover, Jennifer R.

    2018-02-15

    To improve understanding of the distribution of ecologically important, ephemeral wetland habitats across the Great Plains, the occurrence and distribution of surface water in playa wetland complexes were documented for four different years across the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative (GPLCC) region. This information is important because it informs land and wildlife managers about the timing and location of habitat availability. Data with an accurate timestamp that indicate the presence of water, the percent of the area inundated with water, and the spatial distribution of playa wetlands with water are needed for a host of resource inventory, monitoring, and research applications. For example, the distribution of inundated wetlands forms the spatial pattern of available habitat for resident shorebirds and water birds, stop-over habitats for migratory birds, connectivity and clustering of wetland habitats, and surface waters that recharge the Ogallala aquifer; there is considerable variability in the distribution of playa wetlands holding water through time. Documentation of these spatially and temporally intricate processes, here, provides data required to assess connections between inundation and multiple environmental drivers, such as climate, land use, soil, and topography. Climate drivers are understood to interact with land cover, land use and soil attributes in determining the amount of water that flows overland into playa wetlands. Results indicated significant spatial variability represented by differences in the percent of playas inundated among States within the GPLCC. Further, analysis-of-variance comparison of differences in inundation between years showed significant differences in all cases. Although some connections with seasonal moisture patterns may be observed, the complex spatial-temporal gradients of precipitation, temperature, soils, and land use need to be combined as covariates in multivariate models to effectively account for

  14. CAN PALYNOLOGY CONTRIBUTE TO PLANT DIVERSITY CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES? THE WETLAND PLANTS IN SOUTHERN PO PLAIN AS A CASE STUDY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Buldrini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of the Po Plain has long been modified by natural and human factors. The present plant landscape is almost entirely anthropogenic. Many hydro-hygrophilous species, quite common until a few decades ago, are now very rare and in danger of extinction, so conservation programmes are necessary for their protection and maintenance. It is known that the former vegetation can be reconstructed thanks to palynological data, but assessing the real presence of a given species is not always possible. This work aims to understand whether palynology can give information about the presence and identification of hydro-hygrophilous species, supporting the classical flora analyses commonly conducted on herbarium data. In some cases, these species are well characterized from a morphopalynological and phytogeographical viewpoint: the plant occurrence may be suggested even by pollen findings in surface-samples. Discovering the presence of some of these species by pollen morphotypes offers a real opportunity to gear the reintroduction/reinforcing programmes, but ecological analysis will obviously be essential to ascertain the real suitability of the chosen sites, according to the ecological requirements of the species. Our analysis refers to wetlands of the southern Po plain within the Modena Province, where detailed palynological data about present and historical local flora were available.

  15. Temporal and Spatial Changes in Black Carbon Sedimentary Processes in Wetlands of Songnen Plain, Northeast of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiabao; Gao, Chuanyu; Lin, Qianxin; Zhang, Shaoqing; Zhao, Winston; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

    2015-01-01

    Black carbon (BC), an important component of organic carbon (OC) produced from incomplete combustion of carbon compounds, is widespread and affects the global carbon storage. The objectives of this study were to analyze the BC contents and fluxes in the last 150 years to determine the causes of differences in the three profiles of the Songnen Plain of Northeast China and to estimate the BC storage in the wetlands of the Songnen Plain. In the three sampling sites, BC fluxes in the period between 1950 and the present time increased by the ratios of 1.3, 31.1 and 1.4, respectively, compared to their own baseline between 1850 and 1900. Furthermore, the BC fluxes varying from 0.76 to 5.63 g m-2 y-1 in the three profiles had an opposite trend with the sand percentages with mean values changing from 78.9% to 19.6%, suggesting that sand desertification might additionally affect the BC processes in the region. PMID:26469981

  16. Interaction between continental and estuarine waters in the wetlands of the northern coastal plain of Samborombón Bay, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carol, Eleonora; Mas-Pla, Josep; Kruse, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Inland and estuarine water flows define wetland hydrology on the Samborombón Bay. • Hydrochemistry in shell-ridges and tidal plains is due to water–rock interaction. • Mixing, evaporation and halite dissolution determine salinity in marshes. • Water flow from the shell-ridges control the overall wetland water quality. • These wetlands are complex hydrological systems with vulnerable water resources. - Abstract: On the Samborombón Bay coastline, located in the Río de la Plata estuary in Buenos Aires province (Argentina), a complex hydrological system has developed at the interface between continental and estuarine water, where significant wetlands develop. The main hydrogeological units, namely the shell ridges, the tidal plain and the marsh areas, have been identified using geomorphological criteria. Water table, hydrochemical and isotopic data have been used to determine their hydrological features, as well as those of the streams and canals. Evaporation processes, in particular, have been considered when depicting chemical and isotopic changes in surface waters in streams and marsh areas. The shell ridges represent a hydrogeological unit in which rainwater is stored, constituting a lens-shaped freshwater aquifer. In this unit, just as in the tidal plain, carbonate dissolution and ion exchange are the main processes regulating water chemistry. On the other hand, in the marsh and surface waters, processes such as mixing with estuarine water and evaporation predominate. These processes control water fluxes and the salinity of the wetland areas and, consequently, their ability to preserve the existing biodiversity. This study shows the importance of knowledge of hydrochemical processes in any proposal concerning the management and preservation of this type of wetland

  17. Plant species of Okhla Bird Sanctuary: a wetland of Upper Gangetic Plains, India [with erratum

    OpenAIRE

    Manral, Upma; Raha, Angshuman; Solanki, Ridhima; Hussain, Syed; Babu, Mattozbiyil; Mohan, Dhananjai; Veeraswami, Gopi; Sivakumar, K.; Talukdar, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    The Okhla Bird Sanctuary (OBS), a man-modified floodplain wetland having high human impact, is located in an urbanized landscape. Its location in the Central Asian Flyway of migratory birds makes it an ideal transit and wintering ground for birds. This paper describes the vegetation composition and significance of the Sanctuary as a bird habitat. A floristic survey was carried out from winter 2009 to spring 2010 while preparing a management plan for OBS. 192 species of plants belonging to 46 ...

  18. Soil physicochemical conditions, denitrification rates, and nosZ abundance in North Carolina Coastal Plain restored wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ever since the United States adopted a national policy of wetland “No Net Loss”, a variety of measures have been aimed at restoring wetland biogeochemical function to former wetland areas. Nitrogen is a key element controlled by properly functioning wetlands, particularly when they are located adjac...

  19. Basin-scale impacts of hydropower development on the Mompós Depression wetlands, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarita, Héctor; Wickel, Albertus J.; Sieber, Jack; Chavarro, John; Maldonado-Ocampo, Javier A.; Herrera-R., Guido A.; Delgado, Juliana; Purkey, David

    2018-05-01

    A number of large hydropower dams are currently under development or in an advanced stage of planning in the Magdalena River basin, Colombia, spelling uncertainty for the Mompós Depression wetlands, one of the largest wetland systems in South America at 3400 km2. Annual large-scale inundation of floodplains and their associated wetlands regulates water, nutrient, and sediment cycles, which in turn sustain a wealth of ecological processes and ecosystem services, including critical food supplies. In this study, we implemented an integrated approach focused on key attributes of ecologically functional floodplains: (1) hydrologic connectivity between the river and the floodplain, and between upstream and downstream sections; (2) hydrologic variability patterns and their links to local and regional processes; and (3) the spatial scale required to sustain floodplain-associated processes and benefits, like migratory fish biodiversity. The implemented framework provides an explicit quantification of the nonlinear or direct response relationship of those considerations with hydropower development. The proposed framework was used to develop a comparative analysis of the potential effects of the hydropower expansion necessary to meet projected 2050 electricity requirements. As part of this study, we developed an enhancement of the Water Evaluation and Planning system (WEAP) that allows resolution of the floodplains water balance at a medium scale (˜ 1000 to 10 000 km2) and evaluation of the potential impacts of upstream water management practices. In the case of the Mompós Depression wetlands, our results indicate that the potential additional impacts of new hydropower infrastructure with respect to baseline conditions can range up to one order of magnitude between scenarios that are comparable in terms of energy capacity. Fragmentation of connectivity corridors between lowland floodplains and upstream spawning habitats and reduction of sediment loads show the greatest

  20. A Regional Guidebook for Applying The Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Depressed Wetlands in Peninsular, Florida

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noble, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Hydrogeomophic (HGM) Approach is a method for developing functional indices and the protocols used to apply these indices to the assessment of wetland functions at a site-specific scale The HGM Approach was initially...

  1. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Great Plains Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    These wetlands range from temporarily to permanently inundated and may be dominated by floating-leaved plants in deeper areas (e.g., Lemna ...more than one soil type or component. They often contain several minor components or inclusions of soils with properties that may be similar to or

  2. Multi-interdisciplinary evidence of the Holocene history of a cultivated flood plain area in the wetlands of northern Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrio, Juan Carlos; Boom, Arnoud; Botero, Pedro; Herrera, Luisa Fernanda; Hooghiemstra, Henry; Romero, Freddy; Sarmiento Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    An environmental reconstruction of the last 10,000 14 C years of a frequently flooded wetland ecosystem in the lower Magdalena Valley in northern Colombia is presented on the basis of a multi-disciplinary study of the sediments of the upper 15 m the core from Boquillas (74 degrade 33' E, 9 degrade 7' N; 20 m a.s.l.). We used the following studies: pollen, lithology, organic structures, clay mineralogy, soil and sediment geochemistry, and 013C values. The chronology is based on 13 AMS 14 C dates; of 7 samples the humid acid fractions were used in the case of seven samples. Pollen from local origin (swamps, open grass-rich vegetation, and gallery forest) shows the development of the wetland area. River-transported pollen from greater distance (dry forest, montane forest, Alnus) shows changes in river activity and reflects large-scale changes of climatic conditions in the Momposina basin

  3. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    35 Figure 4. At the toe of a hill slope, the gradient is only slightly inclined or nearly level. ..................... 35...marshes, beach/ dune systems, and wet flats are typical of the outer coastal plain on recent or Holocene sediments, while mixed evergreen/hardwood...mangrove shrublands are also found along the Texas and Louisiana coasts (NatureServe 2006). Beach/ dune systems are typically associated with barrier

  4. Effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition on ecosystem carbon fluxes on the Sanjiang plain wetland in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianbo; Zhu, Tingcheng; Ni, Hongwei; Zhong, Haixiu; Fu, Xiaoling; Wang, Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen (N) deposition across the globe may affect ecosystem CO2 exchanges and ecosystem carbon cycles. Additionally, it remains unknown how increased N deposition and N addition will alter the effects of elevated CO2 on wetland ecosystem carbon fluxes. Beginning in 2010, a paired, nested manipulative experimental design was used in a temperate wetland of northeastern China. The primary factor was elevated CO2, accomplished using Open Top Chambers, and N supplied as NH4NO3 was the secondary factor. Gross primary productivity (GPP) was higher than ecosystem respiration (ER), leading to net carbon uptake (measured by net ecosystem CO2 exchange, or NEE) in all four treatments over the growing season. However, their magnitude had interannual variations, which coincided with air temperature in the early growing season, with the soil temperature and with the vegetation cover. Elevated CO2 significantly enhanced GPP and ER but overall reduced NEE because the stimulation caused by the elevated CO2 had a greater impact on ER than on GPP. The addition of N stimulated ecosystem C fluxes in both years and ameliorated the negative impact of elevated CO2 on NEE. In this ecosystem, future elevated CO2 may favor carbon sequestration when coupled with increasing nitrogen deposition.

  5. Effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition on ecosystem carbon fluxes on the Sanjiang plain wetland in Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen (N deposition across the globe may affect ecosystem CO2 exchanges and ecosystem carbon cycles. Additionally, it remains unknown how increased N deposition and N addition will alter the effects of elevated CO2 on wetland ecosystem carbon fluxes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Beginning in 2010, a paired, nested manipulative experimental design was used in a temperate wetland of northeastern China. The primary factor was elevated CO2, accomplished using Open Top Chambers, and N supplied as NH4NO3 was the secondary factor. Gross primary productivity (GPP was higher than ecosystem respiration (ER, leading to net carbon uptake (measured by net ecosystem CO2 exchange, or NEE in all four treatments over the growing season. However, their magnitude had interannual variations, which coincided with air temperature in the early growing season, with the soil temperature and with the vegetation cover. Elevated CO2 significantly enhanced GPP and ER but overall reduced NEE because the stimulation caused by the elevated CO2 had a greater impact on ER than on GPP. The addition of N stimulated ecosystem C fluxes in both years and ameliorated the negative impact of elevated CO2 on NEE. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In this ecosystem, future elevated CO2 may favor carbon sequestration when coupled with increasing nitrogen deposition.

  6. Treatment Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Dotro, Gabriela; Langergraber, Günter; Molle, Pascal; Nivala, Jaime; Puigagut, Jaume; Stein, Otto; Von Sperling, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Overview of Treatment Wetlands; Fundamentals of Treatment Wetlands; Horizontal Flow Wetlands; Vertical Flow Wetlands; French Vertical Flow Wetlands; Intensified and Modified Wetlands; Free Water Surface Wetlands; Other Applications; Additional Aspects.

  7. Tree plantings in depression wetland restorations show mixed success (South Carolina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca R. Sharitz; Christopher D. Barton; Diane De Steven

    2006-01-01

    Studies of bottomland forest restoration in the southeastern United States indicate that success can be improved by protecting planted tree seedlings from herbivores and controlling competing vegetation. Reforesting “isolated” depressional wetlands may present different challenges: growing-season ponding may expose seedlings to flooding stress, and competition control...

  8. Utopia Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    5 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dark-toned, cratered plain in southwest Utopia Planitia. Large, light-toned, windblown ripples reside on the floors of many of the depressions in the scene, including a long, linear, trough. Location near: 30.3oN, 255.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  9. Hydrogeochemical characterization of the phreatic system of the coastal wetland located between Fiumi Uniti and Bevano rivers in the southern Po plain (Northern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, V.; Dinelli, E.; Antonellini, M.; Capaccioni, B.; Balugani, E.; Gabbianelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    A hydrogeochemical study has been undertaken on the phreatic system of the coastal area included between Fiumi Uniti and Bevano rivers (in the southern part of the Po plain, near the city of Ravenna) within the framework of the CIRCLE-ERANET project WATERKNOW on the effects of climate change on the mediterranean catchments. It is one of the first attempt in the area to characterize the shallow groundwater water system and to investigate if the arsenic anomaly, known in deeper groundwater (about 100 µg/l according to recent Annual Groundwater Quality Reports of Emilia-Romagna Region), occurs also in the phreatic system. The coastal part of the Po plain consists of a low-lying and mechanically-drained farmland further from the sea and of a narrow belt of dunes and pine forests in the backshore area. The study area is recognized as a protected area at european (ZPS and SIC, site code number: IT 14070009), national and regional level (Po delta Park area). As a result of an intensive exploitation of coastal aquifers for agricultural, industrial, and civil uses, both the phreatic aquifer and the surface waters (drainage ditches and ponds) have been contaminated by seawater and by deeper groundwater. Samples representative of the top of the water table were collected in Summer 2008 in 22 auger-holes and in 3 shallow piezometers (6 m deep) documenting the deeper layers of the phreatic groundwater system. Temperature, electrical conductivity, pH and Eh of the groundwater and of the surface water were measured on site using portable instruments. Samples were filtered directly in the field, an aliquot was acidified with diluted HCl for metal analysis. Cations were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption (thermo S-series spectrometer), anions by ion chromatography (Dionex ICS-90), Fe, As, Si, B by ICP-OES (Thermo iCAP6000). The data collected in the field show that a fresh groundwater lens is still present at the top of the phreatic aquifer in the backshore area and that the

  10. Responses of Isolated Wetland Herpetofauna to Upland Forest Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, K.R.; Hanlin, H.G.; Wigley, T.B.; Guynn, D.C. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of responses of herpetofauna at isolated wetlands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina to disturbance of adjacent loblolly pine forest. Many species of isolated wetland herpetofauna in the Southeastern Coastal Plain may tolerate some disturbance in adjacent upland stands. Responses of isolated wetland herpetofauna to upland silviculture and the need for adjacent forested buffers likely depend on the specific landscape context in which the wetlands occur and composition of the resident herpetofaunal community

  11. The role of goal representations, cultural identity, and dispositional optimism in the depressive experiences of American Indian youth from a Northern Plains tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyser, Jason; Scott, Walter D; Readdy, Tucker; McCrea, Sean M

    2014-03-01

    American Indian researchers and scholars have emphasized the importance of identifying variables that promote resilience and protect against the development of psychopathology in American Indian youth. The present study examined the role of self-regulation, specifically goal characteristics (i.e., goal self-efficacy, goal specificity, intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation, and goal conflict) and dispositional optimism, as well as cultural identity and self-reported academic grades in the depressive experiences of American Indian youth from a North American plains tribe. One hundred and sixty-four participants (53% female) completed measures of goal representations, cultural identity, dispositional optimism, academic performance, and depressive symptoms. Results supported a model in which higher goal self-efficacy, American Indian cultural identity, grade point average, and dispositional optimism each significantly predicted fewer depressive symptoms. Moreover, grade point average and goal self-efficacy had both direct and indirect (through dispositional optimism) relationships with depressive symptoms. Our findings underscore the importance of cognitive self-regulatory processes and cultural identity in the depressive experiences for these American Indian youth and may have implications for youth interventions attempting to increase resiliency and decrease risk for depressive symptoms.

  12. Evidence for natural molecular hydrogen seepage associated with Carolina bays (surficial, ovoid depressions on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Province of the USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgonnik, Viacheslav; Beaumont, Valérie; Deville, Eric; Larin, Nikolay; Pillot, Daniel; Farrell, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-01

    A study of soil gases was made in North Carolina (USA) in and around morphological depressions called "Carolina bays." This type of depression is observed over the Atlantic coastal plains of the USA, but their origin remains debated. Significant concentrations of molecular hydrogen (H2) were detected, notably around the bays. These measurements suggest that Carolina bays are the surficial expression of fluid flow pathways for hydrogen gas moving from depth to the surface. The potential mechanisms of H2 production and transport and the geological controls on the fluid migration pathways are discussed, with reference to the hypothesis that Carolina bays are the result of local collapses caused by the alteration of rock along the deep pathways of H2 migrating towards the surface. The present H2 seepages are comparable to those in similar structures previously observed in the East European craton.

  13. Increasing salinity drastically reduces hatching success of crustaceans from depression wetlands of the semi-arid Eastern Cape Karoo region, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabidi, Annah; Bird, Matthew S; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2018-04-13

    Salinity is an important factor affecting freshwater aquatic species distribution and diversity. The semi-arid Eastern Cape Karoo region of South Africa has been earmarked for shale gas development through hydraulic fracturing. The process uses large amounts of water and produces briny wastewater. When not managed properly, these wastewaters may lead to salinisation of surface freshwater bodies in the region. Therefore, the effect of salinity on the hatching success of crustacean resting eggs was examined using sediments from four depression wetlands found in the region. The sediments were exposed for 28 days to salinity levels of 0.5 g L -1 , 2.5 g L -1 , 5 g L -1 and 10 g L -1 . Control aquaria in which no salt was added were also set up. There was a significant decrease in the emerged taxa richness and abundances at salinities of 2.5 g L -1 and above. Anostraca, Notostraca and Spinicaudata hatchlings were abundant at salinities of 0.5 g L -1 and below, while Copepoda, Daphniidae (Cladocera) and Ostracoda were observed in the highest salinity, but their densities were still lower with increased salinities. Given the importance of large branchiopods in the trophic balance of depression wetlands, their loss may alter the ecological balance and function of these ecosystems.

  14. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  15. Biodiversity studies in three Coastal Wetlands in Ghana, West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant biodiversity studies of three coastal wetlands in Ghana were made. The wetlands are the Sakumo, Muni-Pomadze and Densu Delta Ramsar sites. Each wetland is made up of a flood plain which consists of salt marsh (about 20%), mangrove swamps (between 15 and 30%), fresh water swamp (about 40 - 45%), and in ...

  16. A novel algorithm for delineating wetland depressions and mapping surface hydrologic flow pathways using LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    In traditional watershed delineation and topographic modeling, surface depressions are generally treated as spurious features and simply removed from a digital elevation model (DEM) to enforce flow continuity of water across the topographic surface to the watershed outlets. In re...

  17. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the winter. Depression is one part of bipolar disorder. There are effective treatments for depression, including antidepressants, talk therapy, or both. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  18. Modeling the Hydrologic Processes of a Depressional Forested Wetland in South Carolina, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Timothy Callahan; Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Carl C. Trettin; Devendra M. Amatya

    2004-01-01

    Depressional forested wetlands or geographically isolated wetlands such as cypress swamps and Carolina bays are common land features in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern US. Those wetlands play important roles in providing wildlife habitats, water quality improvement, and carbon sequestration. Great stresses have been imposed on those important ecosystems...

  19. Wetland Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefit...

  20. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reasons why a woman may have depression: Family history . Women with a family history of depression may be more at risk. But depression can also happen in women who don’t have a family history of depression. Brain changes. The brains of people ...

  1. Value Assessment of Artificial Wetland Derived from Mining Subsided Lake: A Case Study of Jiuli Lake Wetland in Xuzhou

    OpenAIRE

    Laijian Wang; Lachun Wang; Pengcheng Yin; Haiyang Cui; Longwu Liang; Zhenbo Wang

    2017-01-01

    Mining subsided lakes are major obstacles for ecological restoration and resource reuse in mining regions. Transforming mining subsided lakes into artificial wetlands is an ecological restoration approach that has been attempted in China in recent years, but a value assessment of the approach still needs systematic research. This paper considers Jiuli Lake wetland, an artificial wetland derived from restoration of a mining subsided lake in plain area, as a case study. A value assessment model...

  2. National Wetlands Inventory Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear wetland features (including selected streams, ditches, and narrow wetland bodies) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National...

  3. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued......, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression...

  4. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Teens / Depressants Print en español Depresores del sistema nervioso What They Are: Tranquilizers and other depressants ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  5. Effects of sediment removal on vegetation communities in Rainwater Basin playa wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beas, Benjamin J; Smith, Loren M; LaGrange, Theodore G; Stutheit, Randy

    2013-10-15

    Sedimentation from cultivated agricultural land use has altered the natural hydrologic regimes of depressional wetlands in the Great Plains. These alterations can negatively affect native wetland plant communities. Our objective was to determine if restored wetlands are developing plant communities similar to reference wetland conditions following hydrologic restoration. For this study, hydrology was restored via sediment removal. Thirty-four playa wetlands in reference, restored, and agricultural condition within the Rainwater Basin Region of Nebraska were sampled in 2008 and 2009. In 2008, reference and restored wetlands had higher species richness and more native, annual, and perennial species than agricultural wetlands. Restored wetlands had similar exotic species richness compared to reference and agricultural wetlands; however, reference wetlands contained more than agricultural wetlands. Restored wetlands proportion of exotics was 3.5 and 2 times less than agricultural wetlands and reference wetlands respectively. In 2009, reference and restored wetlands had higher species richness, more perennial species, and more native species than agricultural wetlands. Restored wetlands contained a greater number and proportion of annuals than reference and agricultural wetlands. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that reference, restored, and agricultural wetlands are dominated by different plant species and guilds. Restored wetland plant communities do not appear to be acting as intermediates between reference and agricultural wetland conditions or on a trajectory to reach reference conditions. This may be attributed to differing seed bank communities between reference and restored wetlands, dispersal limitations of perennial plant guilds associated with reference wetland conditions, and/or management activities may be preventing restored wetlands from reaching reference status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizza, G; Ravn, Pernille; Chrousos, G P

    2001-01-01

    Existing studies of the relationship between depression and osteoporosis have been heterogeneous in their design and use of diagnostic instruments for depression, which might have contributed to the different results on the comorbidity of these two conditions. Nevertheless, these studies reveal...... a strong association between depression and osteoporosis. Endocrine factors such as depression-induced hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and hypercortisolism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and increased concentration of circulating interleukin 6, might play a crucial role...... in the bone loss observed in subjects suffering from major depression....

  7. Wetlands and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Smardon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This editorial provides an overview of the special issue “Wetlands and Sustainability”. In particular, the special issue contains a review of Paul Keddy’s book “Wetland Ecology” with specific reference to wetland sustainability. It also includes papers addressing wetland data acquisition via radar and remote sensing to better understand wetland system dynamics, hydrologic processes linked to wetland stress and restoration, coastal wetlands land use conflict/management, and wetland utilization for water quality treatment.

  8. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    There is ample evidence that depression is000  a common comorbid health issue in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Reviews have also concluded that depression in diabetes is associated with higher HbA1c levels, less optimal self-care behaviours, lower quality of life, incident vascular...... complications and higher mortality rates. However, longitudinal studies into the course of depression in people with type 1 diabetes remain scarce. In this issue of Diabetologia, Kampling and colleagues (doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4123-0 ) report the 5 year trajectories of depression in adults with newly diagnosed...... type 1 diabetes (mean age, 28 years). Their baseline results showed that shortly after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes a major depressive episode was diagnosed in approximately 6% of participants, while 8% suffered from an anxiety disorder. The longitudinal depression data showed that, in a 5 year...

  9. Fringe wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Fringe wetlands are characterized by the dominance of few species, a clear species zonation, synchrony of ecological processes with episodic events, and simplicity in the structure of vegetation. The structure and ecosystem dynamics of fringe forested wetlands are presented with emphasis on saltwater wetlands because they have been studied more than freshwater ones. The study areas were Caribbean and Florida mangroves. Fringe wetlands are found on the water edge of oceans, inland estuaries, and lakes. Water motion in the fringe is bi-directional and perpendicular to the forest and due mostly to tidal energy in oceanic and estuarine fringes. in lakes, water moves in and out of the fringe under the influence of wind, waves, or seiches. some fringe forests are occasionally flushed by terrestrial runoff or aquifer discharge. In contrast, fringe forests located on small offshore islands or steep coastal shroes are isolated from terrestrial runoff or aquifer discharge, and their hydroperiod is controlled by tides and waves only. Literature reviews suggest that ecosystem parameters such as vegetation structure, tree growth, primary productivity, and organic matter in sediments respond proportionally to hydrologic energy. Human activity that impacts on fringe forested wetlands include harvesting of trees, oil pollution and eutrophication. 72 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Modeling the climatic and subsurface stratigraphy controls on the hydrology of a Carolina Bay wetland in South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Timothy J. Callahan; Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Carl C. Trettin

    2006-01-01

    Restoring depressional wetlands or geographically isolated wetlands such as cypress swamps and Carolina bays on the Atlantic Coastal Plains requires a clear understanding of the hydrologic processes and water balances. The objectives of this paper are to (1) test a distributed forest hydrology model, FLATWOODS, for a Carolina bay wetland system using seven years of...

  11. Modeling the climatic and subsurface stratigraphy controls on the hydrology of a Carolina bay wetland in South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Timothy J. Callahan; Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Carl C. Trettin

    2006-01-01

    Restoring depressional wetlands or geographically isolated wetlands such as cypress swamps and Carolina bays on the Atlantic Coastal Plains requires a clear understanding of the hydrologic processes and water balances. The objectives of this paper are to (1) test a distributed forest hydrology model, FLATWOODS, for a Carolina bay wetland system using seven years of...

  12. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jon O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Nyhederne er fulde af historier om depression. Overskrifter som: ’Danskerne propper sig med lykkepiller’ eller ‘depression er stadigvæk tabu’ går tit igen i dagspressen. Men hvor er nuancerne, og hvorfor gider vi læse de samme historier igen og igen? Måske er det fordi, vores egne forestillinger er...

  13. Are isolated wetlands groundwater recharge hotspots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, A.; Wicks, C. M.; Brantley, S. T.; Golladay, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) are a common landscape feature in the mantled karst terrain of the Dougherty Plain physiographic district in Southwestern Georgia. These wetlands support a high diversity of obligate/facultative wetland flora and fauna, including several endangered species. While the ecological value of these wetlands is well documented, the hydrologic effects of GIWs on larger watershed processes, such as water storage and aquifer recharge, are less clear. Our project seeks to understand the spatial and temporal variation in recharge across GIWs on this mantled karst landscape. In particular, our first step is to understand the role of isolated wetlands (presumed sinkholes) in delivering water into the underlying aquifer. Our hypothesis is that many GIWs are actually water-filled sinkholes and are locations of focused recharge feeding either the underlying upper Floridan aquifer or the nearby creeks. If we are correct, then these sinkholes should exhibit "drains", i.e., conduits into the limestone bedrock. Thus, the purposes of our initial study are to image the soil-limestone contact (the buried epikarstic surface) and determine if possible subsurface drains exist. Our field work was conducted at the Joseph W Jones Ecological Research Center. During the dry season, we conducted ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys as grids and lines across a large wetland and across a field with no surface expression of a wetland or sinkhole. We used GPR (200 MHz antenna) with 1-m spacing between antenna and a ping rate of 1 ping per 40 centimeters. Our results show that the epikarstic surface exhibits a drain underneath the wetland (sinkhole) and that no similar feature was seen under the field, even though the survey grid and spacing were similar. As our project progresses, we will survey additional wetlands occurring across varying soil types to determine the spatial distribution between surface wetlands and subsurface drains.

  14. Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing the Functions of Flat and Seasonally Inundated Depression Wetlands on the Highland Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    soil (dirt roads, construction areas, etc.) 82 Cropland (poor condition) 80 High- density residential (1/8-acre lots) 75 Cropland (fair condition) 75...Cropland (good condition) 70 Low- density residential (1-acre lots) 68 Forest (grazed) 66 Green space (lawns, parks, golf courses, etc.) 61...VCATCH.  Increased surface runoff from residential development. Stormwater from commercial development directed to the wetland, thus increasing

  15. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  16. National Wetlands Inventory Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland area features mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National Wetlands Inventory is a national program sponsored by the US Fish and...

  17. Impacts of water development on aquatic macroinvertebrates, amphibians, and plants in wetlands of a semi-arid landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.

    2004-01-01

    We compared the macroinvertebrate and amphibian communities of 12 excavated and 12 natural wetlands in western North Dakota, USA, to assess the effects of artificially lengthened hydroperiods on the biotic communities of wetlands in this semi-arid region. Excavated wetlands were much deeper and captured greater volumes of water than natural wetlands. Most excavated wetlands maintained water throughout the study period (May to October 1999), whereas most of the natural wetlands were dry by June. Excavated wetlands were largely unvegetated or contained submergent and deep-marsh plant species. The natural wetlands had two well-defined vegetative zones populated by plant species typical of wet meadows and shallow marshes. Excavated wetlands had a richer aquatic macroinvertebrate community that included several predatory taxa not found in natural wetlands. Taxa adapted to the short hydroperiods of seasonal wetlands were largely absent from excavated wetlands. The amphibian community of natural and excavated wetlands included the boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata), northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens), plains spadefoot (Scaphiopus bombifrons), Woodhouse's toad (Bufo woodhousii woodhousii), and tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum). The plains spadefoot occurred only in natural wetlands while tiger salamanders occurred in all 12 excavated wetlands and only one natural wetland. Boreal chorus frogs and northern leopard frogs were present in both wetland types; however, they successfully reproduced only in wetlands lacking tiger salamanders. Artificially extending the hydroperiod of wetlands by excavation has greatly influenced the composition of native biotic communities adapted to the naturally short hydroperiods of wetlands in this semi-arid region. The compositional change of the biotic communities can be related to hydrological changes and biotic interactions, especially predation related to excavation.

  18. Exploring drivers of wetland hydrologic fluxes across parameters and space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. N.; Cheng, F. Y.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Basu, N. B.; Lang, M.; Alexander, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    Depressional wetlands provide diverse ecosystem services, ranging from critical habitat to the regulation of landscape hydrology. The latter is of particular interest, because while hydrologic connectivity between depressional wetlands and downstream waters has been a focus of both scientific research and policy, it remains difficult to quantify the mode, magnitude, and timing of this connectivity at varying spatial and temporary scales. To do so requires robust empirical and modeling tools that accurately represent surface and subsurface flowpaths between depressional wetlands and other landscape elements. Here, we utilize a parsimonious wetland hydrology model to explore drivers of wetland water fluxes in different archetypal wetland-rich landscapes. We validated the model using instrumented sites from regions that span North America: Prairie Pothole Region (south-central Canada), Delmarva Peninsula (Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain), and Big Cypress Swamp (southern Florida). Then, using several national scale datasets (e.g., National Wetlands Inventory, USFWS; National Hydrography Dataset, USGS; Soil Survey Geographic Database, NRCS), we conducted a global sensitivity analysis to elucidate dominant drivers of simulated fluxes. Finally, we simulated and compared wetland hydrology in five contrasting landscapes dominated by depressional wetlands: prairie potholes, Carolina and Delmarva bays, pocosins, western vernal pools, and Texas coastal prairie wetlands. Results highlight specific drivers that vary across these regions. Largely, hydroclimatic variables (e.g., PET/P ratios) controlled the timing and magnitude of wetland connectivity, whereas both wetland morphology (e.g., storage capacity and watershed size) and soil characteristics (e.g., ksat and confining layer depth) controlled the duration and mode (surface vs. subsurface) of wetland connectivity. Improved understanding of the drivers of wetland hydrologic connectivity supports enhanced, region

  19. Kansas Playa Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the distribution, areal extent, and morphometry of playa wetlands throughout western Kansas. Playa wetlands were...

  20. Spatial Association of Wetlands over Physical Variants in Barind Tract of West Bengal, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeb Tarani Das

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Barind tract of west Bengal is an uplifted old alluvial plain area where only <1 percent area is covered by wetland. Present paper concentrates on general understanding of wetland association with different geographical settings like geological, geomorphological lithological structure and altitudinal gradations. Detail investigation reveals that geological and morphological structure do not have deep influence on wetland formation and their distribution in particular favourable sub-region. But altitudinal control on wetland is noticeable. An irregular distribution of wetland is found throughout the region because of multi parametric influence on it. In recent decades wetlands in barind tract has been undergoing into rapid loss. Continuous encroachment of agricultural field and newly built-up area to wetland are considered as main causes of wetland loss in barind tract.

  1. Feedbacks stablizing wetland geometry on a pattened landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X.; Heffernan, J. B.; Murray, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    Karst morphology is highly varied across different climatic and geologic regions of the world. Big Cypress National Preserve in SW Florida, features regularly distributed wetland depressions, located on exposed limestone bedrock. In this study, we explored the development of wetland depressions over the past 10kyrs of landscape formation. Specifically, we are interested in (1) whether the wetland depressions on the landscape have reached equilibrium size, and (2) if so, what are feedback mechanisms that contributed to stabilizing these depressions. We hypothesized three stabilizing feedback mechanisms. HYP1: increased size of depressions reduces landscape hydrological connectivity, which resulted in reduced landscape capacity to export dissolution products, hence lower weathering rate. HYP2: expansion of depression area increases tree biomass within the depression, which increased average evapotranspiration (ET) within the dome. The greater difference of ET rate between depression and upland leads to a lower water table in the depression. As a result, more subsurface water, carrying dissolved calcium, flows from catchment to depression. With lower export capacity and more calcium moving into the depression zones, rate of calcite precipitation increases, which lowers net weathering rate. HYP3: increasingly thicker sediment cover in the wetland depression over time decreases chemical transport capacity. This lowers both transport of CO2 from shallower soil to bedrock and transport of dissolution products from bedrock to surface. Both of these processes reduce bedrock-weathering rate. We built a 3-D numerical simulation model that partitioned the relative importance of different mechanisms. Preliminary results show that (1) there is an equilibrium size for wetland depressions for both radius and depth dimension; (2) current depressions are formed by coalescence of several nearby small depressions during development; (3) the soil cover feedback (HYP3) is the major

  2. Solute transport by groundwater flow to wetland ecosystems : the environmental impact of human activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, P.P.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis deals with solute transport by groundwater flow and the way in which solute transport is affected by human activities. This in relation to wetland ecosystems. Wetlands in the eastern part of the Vecht river plain in The Netherlands are historically renown for their great variety of

  3. Chapter 16 - conservation and use of coastal wetland forests in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen P. Faulkner; Jim L. Chambers; William H. Conner; Richard F. Keim; John W. Day; Emile S. Gardiner; Melinda S. Hughes; Sammy L. King; Kenneth W. McLeod; Craig A. Miller; J. Andrew Nyman; Gary P. Shaffer

    2007-01-01

    The natural ecosystems of coastal Louisiana reflect the underlying geomorphic processes responsible for their formation. The majority of Louisiana's wetland forests are found in the lower reaches of the Mississipp Alluvial Valley and the Deltaic Plain. The sediments, water, and energy of the Mississippi River have shaped the Deltaic Plain as natural deltas have...

  4. "Wetlands: Water Living Filters?",

    OpenAIRE

    Dordio, Ana; Palace, A. J.; Pinto, Ana Paula

    2008-01-01

    Human societies have indirectly used natural wetlands as wastewater discharge sites for many centuries. Observations of the wastewater depuration capacity of natural wetlands have led to a greater understanding of the potential of these ecosystems for pollutant assimilation and have stimulated the development of artificial wetlands systems for treatment of wastewaters from a variety of sources. Constructed wetlands, in contrast to natural wetlands, are human-made systems that are designed, bu...

  5. Global warming and prairie wetlands: potential consequences for waterfowl habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiani, Karen A.; Johnson, W. Carter

    1991-01-01

    The accumulation of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere is expected to warm the earth's climate at an unprecedented rate (Ramanathan 1988, Schneider 1989). If the climate models are correct, within 100 years the earth will not only be warmer than it has been during the past million years, but the change will have occurred more rapidly than any on record. Many profound changes in the earth's environment are expected, including rising sea level, increasing aridity in continental interiors, and melting permafrost. Ecosystems are expected to respond variously to a rapidly changing climate. Tree ranges in eastern North American are expected to shift northward, and seed dispersal may not be adequate to maintain current diversity (Cohn 1989, Johnson and Webb 1989). In coastal wetlands, rising sea level from melting icecaps and thermal expansion could flood salt-grass marshes and generally reduce the size and productivity of the intertidal zone (Peters and Darling 1985). As yet, little attention has been given to the possible effects of climatic warming on inland prairie wetland ecosystems. These wetlands, located in the glaciated portion of the North American Great Plains (Figure 1), constitute the single most important breeding area for waterfowl on this continent (Hubbard 1988). This region annually produces 50-80% of the continent's total duck production (Batt et al. 1989). These marshes also support a variety of other wildlife, including many species of nongame birds, muskrat, and mink (Kantrud et al. 1989a). Prairie wetlands are relatively shallow, water-holding depressions that vary in size, water permanence, and water chemistry. Permanence types include temporary ponds (typically holding water for a few weeks in the springs), seasonal ponds (holding water from spring until early summer), semipermanent ponds (holding water throughout the growing season during most years), and large permanent lakes (Stewart and Kantrud 1971). Refilling usually occurs in spring from

  6. Ohio Uses Wetlands Program Development Grants to Protect Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wetland water quality standards require the use of ORAM score to determine wetland quality. OEPA has also used these tools to evaluate wetland mitigation projects, develop performance standards for wetland mitigation banks and In Lieu Fee programs an.

  7. Structure and dynamics of basin forested wetlands in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.

    1990-01-01

    Freshwater basin wetlands are found in depressions of various depths, generally in areas where precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration or where the depression intersects the water table creating groundwater seeps or springs. Forested basins are those that contain woody vegetation with the potential for reaching tree stature; they do not include woody shrub wetlands. In North America these areas are mainly in the central and eastern region. Pertinent information and reviews on the distribution, floristic composition, structure and dynamics of basin forested wetlands are summarized. The major emphasis is on freshwater wetlands, but data for saltwater wetlands mainly from Florida and tropical America are included. The external factors affecting basin wetlands or the important components of a wetlands energy signature are described as well as the distribution and floristic composition of representative basin wetlands. Sections on structural characteristics, organic matter dynamics, and nutrient cycling comprise the bulk of quantitative information. The effects of disturbances, both natural and human induced, with varying degrees of impact depending upon the intensity and on the part of the ecosystem to which the stressor is applied are evaluated. Examples of stressors in basin wetlands include water impoundment, water diversion, thermal stress from hot water, sedimentation, addition of toxic substances, addition of wastewater, oil spills, and harvesting. 86 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs

  8. A Model for Wetland Hydrology: Description and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. Mansell; S.A. Bloom; Ge Sun

    2000-01-01

    WETLANDS, a multidimensional model describing water flow in variably saturated soil and evapotranspiration, was used to simulate successfully 3-years of local hydrology for a cypress pond located within a relatively flat Coastal Plain pine forest landscape. Assumptions included negligible net regional groundwater flow and radially symmetric local flow impinging on a...

  9. Evaluation Of Management Properties Of Wetland Soils Of Akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation Of Management Properties Of Wetland Soils Of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria For Sustainable Crop Production. ... Organic matter content values were high with mean of 12.59, 60.01, and 3.20 percent for Inland valley, Flood plain and mangrove soils respectively. Effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) was below ...

  10. Wonderful Wetlands: An Environmental Education Curriculum Guide for Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King County Parks Div., Redmond, WA.

    This curriculum guide was designed to give teachers, students, and society a better understanding of wetlands in the hope that they learn why wetlands should be valued and preserved. It explores what is meant by wetlands, functions and values of wetlands, wetland activities, and wetland offerings which benefit animal and plant life, recreation,…

  11. Gas Research Institute wetland research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkey, P.L.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1992-01-01

    As part of three ongoing research projects, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) is studying the natural gas industry's impacts on wetlands and how to manage operations so that impacts can be minimized or eliminated. The objective of the first project is to gain a better understanding of the causes and processes of wetland loss in the Louisiana deltaic plain and what role gas pipeline canals play in wetland loss. On the basis of information gathered from the first projects, management and mitigation implications for pipeline construction and maintenance will be evaluated. The objective of the second project is to assess the floral and faunal communities on existing rights-of-way (ROWs) that pass through numerous types of wetlands across the United States. The emphasis of the project is on pipelines that were installed within the past five years. The objective of the third project is to evaluate the administrative, jurisdictional, technical, and economic issues of wetland mitigation banking. This paper discusses these projects, their backgrounds, some of the results to date, and the deliverables

  12. Value Assessment of Artificial Wetland Derived from Mining Subsided Lake: A Case Study of Jiuli Lake Wetland in Xuzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laijian Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining subsided lakes are major obstacles for ecological restoration and resource reuse in mining regions. Transforming mining subsided lakes into artificial wetlands is an ecological restoration approach that has been attempted in China in recent years, but a value assessment of the approach still needs systematic research. This paper considers Jiuli Lake wetland, an artificial wetland derived from restoration of a mining subsided lake in plain area, as a case study. A value assessment model for the artificial wetland was established based on cost–benefit analysis by means of field monitoring, social surveys, GIS geostatistics, raster calculation methods, etc. Empirical analysis and calculations were performed on the case study region. The following conclusions were drawn: (1 after ecological restoration, ecosystem services of Jiuli Lake wetland which has become a national level wetland park yield positive values; (2 the improved environment of the Jiuli Lake wetland has a spillover effect on the price of surrounding land, resulting in land price appreciation; (3 using GIS geostatistics and raster calculation methods, the impact range, strength, and value of the spillover effect can be explicitly measured; (4 through the establishment of a value assessment model of the artificial wetland, incomes of the ecological restoration was found to be sufficient to cover the implementation costs, which provides a research foundation for economic feasibility of ecological restoration of mining subsided lakes.

  13. Why are wetlands important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, comparable to rain forests and coral reefs. An immense variety of species of microbes, plants, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish, and mammals can be part of a wetland ecosystem.

  14. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  15. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  16. VSWI Wetlands Advisory Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset represents the DEC Wetlands Program's Advisory layer. This layer makes the most up-to-date, non-jurisdictional, wetlands mapping avaiable to the public...

  17. Surrounding land cover types as predictors of palustrine wetland vegetation quality in conterminous USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Gara, Brian; Schumacher, William

    2018-01-01

    The loss of wetland habitats and their often-unique biological communities is a major environmental concern. We examined vegetation data obtained from 380 wetlands sampled in a statistical survey of wetlands in the USA. Our goal was to identify which surrounding land cover types best predict two indices of vegetation quality in wetlands at the regional scale. We considered palustrine wetlands in four regions (Coastal Plains, North Central East, Interior Plains, and West) in which the dominant vegetation was emergent, forested, or scrub-shrub. For each wetland, we calculated weighted proportions of eight land cover types surrounding the area in which vegetation was assessed, in four zones radiating from the edge of the assessment area to 2 km. Using Akaike's Information Criterion, we determined the best 1-, 2- and 3-predictor models of the two indices, using the weighted proportions of the land cover types as potential predictors. Mean values of the two indices were generally higher in the North Central East and Coastal Plains than the other regions for forested and emergent wetlands. In nearly all cases, the best predictors of the indices were not the dominant surrounding land cover types. Overall, proportions of forest (positive effect) and agriculture (negative effect) surrounding the assessment area were the best predictors of the two indices. One or both of these variables were included as predictors in 65 of the 72 models supported by the data. Wetlands surrounding the assessment area had a positive effect on the indices, and ranked third (33%) among the predictors included in supported models. Development had a negative effect on the indices and was included in only 28% of supported models. These results can be used to develop regional management plans for wetlands, such as creating forest buffers around wetlands, or to conserve zones between wetlands to increase habitat connectivity.

  18. Conductivity gradients as inferred by electromagnetic-induction meter (EM38) readings within a salt-affected wetland in Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirck, Jaconette; Schroeder, William

    2018-01-01

    The change from deep-rooted grass and shrub vegetation to annual-cropping dryland farming has contributed to serious soil salinization challenges on the semi-arid North American Great Plains. In some cases, cultivation of the Great Plains has increased the availability of water, causing dominant sulfate salts to travel from the uphill areas to depressions where it will surface when water evaporates at the soil surface. A potential solution could include the replanting of the native deep-rooted vegetation, which requires knowledge of the spatial distribution of soil salinity. This study tested the soil factors influencing electromagnetic-induction meter (EM38) readings of soil salinity distribution around wetlands. The objectives were to: (1) predict growth and survival of Salix dasyclados Wimm. (cv. `India') along a salinity gradient in a small wetland, and (2) investigate whether newly established willows affected water-table fluctuations, which would indicate their phreatophytic nature or their ability to obtain their water supply from the zone of saturation. Results indicated significantly lower salinity values for sampling points with EM38 readings above 175 and 250 mS m-1 for height and survival, respectively. In addition, diurnal fluxes of the water table in areas of good willow growth and lower salinity indicated that cultivar `India' was phreatophytic in these areas and therefore has great potential for being used to combat saline seeps.

  19. Delineating wetland catchments and modeling hydrologic connectivity using LiDAR data and aerial imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Qiusheng; Lane, Charles R.

    2017-01-01

    In traditional watershed delineation and topographic modeling, surface depressions are generally treated as spurious features and simply removed from a digital elevation model (DEM) to enforce flow continuity of water across the topographic surface to the watershed outlets. In reality, however, many depressions in the DEM are actual wetland landscape features that are seldom fully filled with water. For instance, wetland depressions in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) are seasonally to perman...

  20. Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Nick C.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Hughes, Zoe J.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kulp, Mark A.; Miner, Michael D.; Smith, Jane M.; Barras, John A.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km2 of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a weak zone (shear strength 500–1450 Pa) was observed ∼30 cm below the marsh surface, coinciding with the base of rooting. High salinity wetlands had no such zone (shear strengths > 4500 Pa) and contained deeper rooting. Storm waves during Hurricane Katrina produced shear stresses between 425–3600 Pa, sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands. Vegetation in low salinity marshes is subject to shallower rooting and is susceptible to erosion during large magnitude storms; these conditions may be exacerbated by low inorganic sediment content and high nutrient inputs. The dramatic difference in resiliency of fresh versus more saline marshes suggests that the introduction of freshwater to marshes as part of restoration efforts may therefore weaken existing wetlands rendering them vulnerable to hurricanes. PMID:20660777

  1. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of…

  2. Trends and causes of historical wetland loss in coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Wetland losses in the northern Gulf Coast region of the United States are so extensive that they represent critical concerns to government environmental agencies and natural resource managers. In Louisiana, almost 3,000 square kilometers (km2) of low-lying wetlands converted to open water between 1956 and 2004, and billions of dollars in State and Federal funding have been allocated for coastal restoration projects intended to compensate for some of those wetland losses. Recent research at the St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) focused on understanding the physical processes and human activities that contributed to historical wetland loss in coastal Louisiana and the spatial and temporal trends of that loss. The physical processes (land-surface subsidence and sediment erosion) responsible for historical wetland loss were quantified by comparing marsh-surface elevations, water depths, and vertical displacements of stratigraphic contacts at 10 study areas in the Mississippi River delta plain and 6 sites at Sabine National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) in the western chenier plain. The timing and extent of land loss at the study areas was determined by comparing historical maps, aerial photographs, and satellite imagery; the temporal and spatial trends of those losses were compared with historical subsidence rates and hydrocarbon production trends.

  3. Stratigraphy of the Martian northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars are roughly defined as the large continuous region of lowlands that lies below Martian datum, plus higher areas within the region that were built up by volcanism, sedimentation, tectonism, and impacts. These northern lowlands span about 50 x 10(exp 6) km(sup 2) or 35 percent of the planet's surface. The age and origin of the lowlands continue to be debated by proponents of impact and tectonic explanations. Geologic mapping and topical studies indicate that volcanic, fluvial, and eolian deposition have played major roles in the infilling of this vast depression. Periglacial, glacial, fluvial, eolian, tectonic, and impact processes have locally modified the surface. Because of the northern plains' complex history of sedimentation and modification, much of their stratigraphy was obscured. Thus the stratigraphy developed is necessarily vague and provisional: it is based on various clues from within the lowlands as well as from highland areas within and bordering the plains. The results are summarized.

  4. Distribution characteristic of soil organic carbon fraction in different types of wetland in Hongze Lake of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Xu, Hongwen

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic carbon fractions included microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and labile organic carbon (LOC), which was investigated over a 0-20 cm depth profile in three types of wetland in Hongze Lake of China. Their ecoenvironmental effect and the relationships with soil organic carbon (SOC) were analyzed in present experiment. The results showed that both active and SOC contents were in order reduced by estuarine wetland, flood plain, and out-of-lake wetland. Pearson correlative analysis indicated that MBC and DOC were positively related to SOC. The lowest ratios of MBC and DOC to SOC in the estuarine wetland suggested that the turnover rate of microbial active carbon pool was fairly low in this kind of wetland. Our results showed that estuarine wetland had a strong carbon sink function, which played important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions; besides, changes of water condition might affect the accumulation and decomposition of organic carbon in the wetland soils.

  5. Application of remote sensing data to land use and land cover assessment in the Tubarao River coastal plain, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    By means of aerial photography and MSS-LANDSAT data a land use/land cover classification was applied to the Tubarao River coastal plain. The following classes were identified: coal related areas, permanently flooded wetlands, periodically flooded wetlands, agricultural lands, bare soils, water bodies, urban areas, forestlands.

  6. Saline lakes of the glaciated Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Unless you have flown over the region or seen aerial photographs, it is hard to grasp the scale of the millions of lakes and wetlands that dot the prairie landscape of the glaciated Northern Great Plains (Figure 1). This region of abundant aquatic habitats within a grassland matrix provides for the needs of a wide diversity of wildlife species and has appropriately been deemed the "duck factory of North America." While the sheer number of lakes and wetlands within this area of the Northern Great Plains can be truly awe-inspiring, their diversity in terms of the chemical composition of their water adds an equally important component supporting biotic diversity and productivity. Water within these lakes and wetlands can range from extremely fresh with salinities approaching that of rainwater to hypersaline with salinity ten times greater than that of seawater. Additionally, while variation in salinity among these water bodies can be great, the ionic composition of lakes and wetlands with similar salinities can vary markedly, influencing the overall spatial and temporal diversity of the region's biota.

  7. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity

  8. Wetland Surface Water Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    .... Temporary storage includes channel, overbank, basin, and groundwater storage. Water is removed from the wetland through evaporation, plant transpiration, channel, overland and tidal flow, and groundwater recharge...

  9. Phytoplankton diversity and abundance in Ndop wetland plain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight divisions of phytoplankton were recorded: Chlorophyta (26.42%), Bacillariophyta (20.76%), Pyrrhophyta (20.76%), Cyanophyta (15.09%), Chrysophyta (1.87%), Xanthophyta (3.77%), Rhodophyta (1.87%), and Euglenophyta (7.55%). The most abundant species included Microcystis aeruginosa, Anacystis sp., ...

  10. Phytoplankton diversity and abundance in Ndop wetland plain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR FONGE B

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 6(6), pp. ... In the Philippines, around 67% of the mangrove has been lost over the last 60 years or so, ... Phytoplankton is an important primary producer, since ... area of 1,152 km2 and a population of about 160,000 inhabitants. It ... Phytoplankton assessment.

  11. Distribution of mountain wetlands and their response to Holocene climate change in the Hachimantai Volcanic Groups, northeastern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, N.; Sugai, T.

    2017-12-01

    Mountain wetlands, natural peatlands or lakes, with narrow catchment areas need abundant water supply and topography retaining water because of unstable water condition. This study examines wetland distribution with a focus on topography and snow accumulation, and discuss wetland evolution responding to Holocene climate change in the Hachimantai Volcanic Group, northeastern Japan, where the East Asian winter monsoon brings heavier snow and where has many wetlands of varied origin: crater lakes and wetlands in nivation hollows on original volcanic surfaces, and wetlands in depressions formed by landslides. We identified and classified wetlands using aerial photographs and 5-m and 10-m digital elevation models. Wetlands on the original volcanic surfaces tend to be concentrated under the small scarps with much snow or on saddles of the mountain ridge where snowmelt from surrounding slopes maintains a moist environment. More lake type wetlands are formed in the saddle than in the snowdrifts. That may represent that the saddles can correct more recharge water and may be a more suitable topographic condition for wetland formation and endurance. On the contrary, wetlands on landslides lie at the foot of the scarps where spring water can be abundantly supplied, regardless of snow accumulation. We used lithological analysis, 14C dating, tephra age data, and carbon contents of wetland cores to compare the evolution of wetlands, one (the Oyachi wetland) within a huge landslide and three (the Appi Highland wetlands) outside of a landslide area. We suggest that the evolution of the wetland in the landslide is primarily influenced by landslide movements and stream dissection rather than climate change. In the Appi Highland wetlands, peatlands appeared much later and at the almost same time in the Medieval Warm Period. We suggest that the development of mountain wetlands outside of landslide areas is primarily related to climate changes. Responsiveness of mountain wetlands to

  12. Impacts of Intensified Agriculture Developments on Marsh Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqing Luan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A spatiotemporal analysis on the changes in the marsh landscape in the Honghe National Nature Reserve, a Ramsar reserve, and the surrounding farms in the core area of the Sanjiang Plain during the past 30 years was conducted by integrating field survey work with remote sensing techniques. The results indicated that intensified agricultural development had transformed a unique natural marsh landscape into an agricultural landscape during the past 30 years. Ninety percent of the natural marsh wetlands have been lost, and the areas of the other natural landscapes have decreased very rapidly. Most dry farmland had been replaced by paddy fields during the progressive change of the natural landscape to a farm landscape. Attempts of current Chinese institutions in preserving natural wetlands have achieved limited success. Few marsh wetlands have remained healthy, even after the establishment of the nature reserve. Their ecological qualities have been declining in response to the increasing threats to the remaining wetland habitats. Irrigation projects play a key role in such threats. Therefore, the sustainability of the natural wetland ecosystems is being threatened by increased regional agricultural development which reduced the number of wetland ecotypes and damaged the ecological quality.

  13. Ocean-Bottom Topography: The Divide between the Sohm and Hatteras Abyssal Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, R M

    1965-06-18

    A compilation of precision echo soundings has delineated the complex topography between the Sohm and Hatteras abyssal plains off the Atlantic coast of the United States. At present the divide between the two plains is a broad, flat area about 4950 meters deep; however, the configuration of channels and depressions suggests spillage of turbidity currents from the Sohm Plain into the Hatteras Plain and a shifting of the divide toward the northeast. Hudson Canyon terminates in the divide area and has probably fed sediment into both plains.

  14. Ecological outcomes and evaluation of success in passively restored Southeastern depressional wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Rebecca R. Sharitz; Christopher D. Barton

    2010-01-01

    Depressional wetlands may be restored passively by disrupting prior drainage to recover original hydrology and relying on natural revegetation. Restored hydrology selects for wetland vegetation; however, depression geomorphology constrains the achievable hydroperiod, and plant communities are influenced by hydroperiod and available species pools. Such constraints can...

  15. Ecological outcomes and evaluation of success in passively restored southeastern depressional wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.; Barton, Christopher, D.

    2010-11-01

    Abstract: Depressional wetlands may be restored passively by disrupting prior drainage to recover original hydrology and relying on natural revegetation. Restored hydrology selects for wetland vegetation; however, depression geomorphology constrains the achievable hydroperiod, and plant communities are influenced by hydroperiod and available species pools. Such constraints can complicate assessments of restoration success. Sixteen drained depressions in South Carolina, USA, were restored experimentally by forest clearing and ditch plugging for potential crediting to a mitigation bank. Depressions were assigned to alternate revegetation methods representing desired targets of herbaceous and wet-forest communities. After five years, restoration progress and revegetation methods were evaluated. Restored hydroperiods differed among wetlands, but all sites developed diverse vegetation of native wetland species. Vegetation traits were influenced by hydroperiod and the effects of early drought, rather than by revegetation method. For mitigation banking, individual wetlands were assessed for improvement from pre-restoration condition and similarity to assigned reference type. Most wetlands met goals to increase hydroperiod, herb-species dominance, and wetland-plant composition. Fewer wetlands achieved equivalence to reference types because some vegetation targets were incompatible with depression hydroperiods and improbable without intensive management. The results illustrated a paradox in judging success when vegetation goals may be unsuited to system constraints.

  16. Forested wetland habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberstein, Jamie A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kennish, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    A forested wetland (swamp) is a forest where soils are saturated or flooded for at least a portion of the growing season, and vegetation, dominated by trees, is adapted to tolerate flooded conditions. A tidal freshwater forested wetland is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity of soil porewater less than 0.5 g/l. It is known locally as tidal várzea in the Amazon delta, Brazil. A tidal saltwater forested wetland (mangrove forest) is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity often exceeding 3 g/l and reaching levels that can exceed seawater. Mangrove ecosystems are composed of facultative halophytes that generally experience better growth at moderate salinity concentrations.

  17. Hydrology, geomorphology, and vegetation of Coastal Plain rivers in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff R. Hupp

    2000-01-01

    Rivers of the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States are characteristically low-gradient meandering systems that develop broad floodplains subjected to frequent and prolonged flooding. These floodplains support a relatively unique forested wetland (Bottomland Hardwoods), which have received considerable ecological study, but distinctly less hydrogeomorphic...

  18. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities.

  19. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities. PMID:26907560

  20. Assessing the cumulative impacts of geographically isolated wetlands on watershed hydrology using the SWAT model coupled with improved wetland modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Yeo, I-Y; Lang, M W; Sadeghi, A M; McCarty, G W; Moglen, G E; Evenson, G R

    2018-06-07

    Despite recognizing the importance of wetlands in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW) in terms of ecosystem services, our understanding of wetland functions has mostly been limited to individual wetlands and overall catchment-scale wetland functions have rarely been investigated. This study is aimed at assessing the cumulative impacts of wetlands on watershed hydrology for an agricultural watershed within the Coastal Plain of the CBW using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We employed two improved wetland modules for enhanced representation of physical processes and spatial distribution of riparian wetlands (RWs) and geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs). This study focused on GIWs as their hydrological impacts on watershed hydrology are poorly understood and GIWs are poorly protected. Multiple wetland scenarios were prepared by removing all or portions of the baseline GIW condition indicated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory geospatial dataset. We further compared the impacts of GIWs and RWs on downstream flow (i.e., streamflow at the watershed outlet). Our simulation results showed that GIWs strongly influenced downstream flow by altering water transport mechanisms in upstream areas. Loss of all GIWs reduced both water routed to GIWs and water infiltrated into the soil through the bottom of GIWs, leading to an increase in surface runoff of 9% and a decrease in groundwater flow of 7% in upstream areas. These changes resulted in increased variability of downstream flow in response to extreme flow conditions. GIW loss also induced an increase in month to month variability of downstream flow and a decrease in the baseflow contribution to streamflow. Loss of all GIWs was shown to cause a greater fluctuation of downstream flow than loss of all RWs for this study site, due to a greater total water storage capacity of GIWs. Our findings indicate that GIWs play a significant role in controlling hydrological

  1. The Plains of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic plains units of various types comprise at least 80% of the surface of Venus. Though devoid of topographic splendor and, therefore often overlooked, these plains units house a spectacular array of volcanic, tectonic, and impact features. Here I propose that the plains hold the keys to understanding the resurfacing history of Venus and resolving the global stratigraphy debate. The quasi-random distribution of impact craters and the small number that have been conspicuously modified from the outside by plains-forming volcanism have led some to propose that Venus was catastrophically resurfaced around 725×375 Ma with little volcanism since. Challenges, however, hinge on interpretations of certain morphological characteristics of impact craters: For instance, Venusian impact craters exhibit either radar dark (smooth) floor deposits or bright, blocky floors. Bright floor craters (BFC) are typically 100-400 m deeper than dark floor craters (DFC). Furthermore, all 58 impact craters with ephemeral bright ejecta rays and/or distal parabolic ejecta patterns have bright floor deposits. This suggests that BFCs are younger, on average, than DFCs. These observations suggest that DFCs could be partially filled with lava during plains emplacement and, therefore, are not strictly younger than the plains units as widely held. Because the DFC group comprises ~80% of the total crater population on Venus the recalculated emplacement age of the plains would be ~145 Ma if DFCs are indeed volcanically modified during plains formation. Improved image and topographic data are required to measure stratigraphic and morphometric relationships and resolve this issue. Plains units are also home to an abundant and diverse set of volcanic features including steep-sided domes, shield fields, isolated volcanoes, collapse features and lava channels, some of which extend for 1000s of kilometers. The inferred viscosity range of plains-forming lavas, therefore, is immense, ranging from the

  2. Hydrological disturbance diminishes predator control in wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Nathan J; Cook, Mark I

    2015-11-01

    Effects of predators on prey populations can be especially strong in aquatic ecosystems, but disturbances may mediate the strength of predator limitation and even allow outbreaks of some prey populations. In a two-year study we investigated the numerical responses of crayfish (Procambarus fallax) and small fishes (Poeciliidae and Fundulidae) to a brief hydrological disturbance in replicated freshwater wetlands with an experimental drying and large predatory fish reduction. The experiment and an in situ predation assay tested the component of the consumer stress model positing that disturbances release prey from predator limitation. In the disturbed wetlands, abundances of large predatory fish were seasonally reduced, similar to dynamics in the Everglades (southern Florida). Densities of small fish were unaffected by the disturbance, but crayfish densities, which were similar across all wetlands before drying, increased almost threefold in the year after the disturbance. Upon re-flooding, juvenile crayfish survival was inversely related to the abundance of large fish across wetlands, but we found no evidence for enhanced algal food quality. At a larger landscape scale (500 km2 of the Everglades), crayfish densities over eight years were positively correlated with the severity of local dry disturbances (up to 99 days dry) during the preceding dry season. In contrast, densities of small-bodied fishes in the same wetlands were seasonally depressed by dry disturbances. The results from our experimental wetland drought and the observations of crayfish densities in the Everglades represent a large-scale example of prey population release following a hydrological disturbance in a freshwater ecosystem. The conditions producing crayfish pulses in the Everglades appear consistent with the mechanics of the consumer stress model, and we suggest crayfish pulses may influence the number of nesting wading birds in the Everglades.

  3. A conceptual model to facilitate amphibian conservation in the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushnet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    As pressures on agricultural landscapes to meet worldwide resource needs increase, amphibian populations face numerous threats including habitat destruction, chemical contaminants, disease outbreaks, wetland sedimentation, and synergistic effects of these perturbations. To facilitate conservation planning, we developed a conceptual model depicting elements critical for amphibian conservation in the northern Great Plains. First, we linked upland, wetland, and landscape features to specific ecological attributes. Ecological attributes included adult survival; reproduction and survival to metamorphosis; and successful dispersal and recolonization. Second, we linked ecosystem drivers, ecosystem stressors, and ecological effects of the region to each ecological attribute. Lastly, we summarized information on these ecological attributes and the drivers, stressors, and effects that work in concert to influence the maintenance of viable and genetically diverse amphibian populations in the northern Great Plains. While our focus was on the northern Great Plains, our conceptual model can be tailored to other geographic regions and taxa.

  4. Wetlands and infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health interactions are many. There is a need to take into account the landscape, spatial boundaries, and cross-boundary interactions in water development projects as well as alternative methods to provide water for human needs. The research challenges that need to be addressed are discussed.

  5. Coastal Wetland Restoration Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yozzo, David

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled to provide biologists, engineers, and planners at Corps Districts and other agencies/ institutions with a guide to the diverse body of literature on coastal wetland restoration...

  6. Principles of Wetland Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    the return of a degraded ecosystem to a close approximation of its remaining natural potential - is experiencing a groundswell of support across the United States. The number of stream, river, lake, wetland and estuary restoration projects grows yearly

  7. Wetland Groundwater Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Greg

    1993-01-01

    This technical note summarizes hydrologic and hydraulic (H AND H) processes and the related terminology that will likely be encountered during an evaluation of the effect of ground-water processes on wetland function...

  8. Wetland education through cooperative programs between coastal Carolina University and Horry County public schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon L. Gilman

    2000-01-01

    Horry County, in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina, isapproximately 50 percent wetlands. The Waccamaw Region (Horry, Georgetown, and Williamsburg Counties) has experienced a 58-percent population increase during theperiod from 1960 to 1990. Population growth trends suggest that from 1990 to 2020, the total daily population will increase by 125 percent, representing...

  9. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  10. [Research progress on wetland ecotourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Long; Lu, Lin

    2009-06-01

    Wetland is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity, possessing higher tourism value and environmental education and community participation functions. Wetland ecotourism reflects the sustainable development of tourism economy and wetland protection, having received great concern from governments and scholars at home and abroad. This paper summarized the related theories and practices, discussed the research advances in wetland ecotourism from the aspects of significance, progress, contents, methods and results, and pointed out the important research fields in the future, aimed to accelerate the development of wetland ecotourism research and to provide reference about the resources exploitation, environment protection, and scientific administration of wetland and related scenic areas.

  11. Vascular flora of saline lakes in the southern high plains of Texas and eastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, David J.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Caskey, Amber D.

    2013-01-01

    Saline lakes and freshwater playas form the principal surface hydrological feature of the High Plains of the Southern Great Plains. Saline lakes number less than 50 and historically functioned as discharge wetlands with relatively consistent water availability due to the presence of one or more springs. Currently, less than ten saline lakes contain functional springs. A survey of vascular plants at six saline lakes in the Southern High Plains of northwest Texas and one in eastern New Mexico during May and September 2009 resulted in a checklist of 49 species representing 16 families and 40 genera. The four families with the most species were Asteraceae (12), Amaranthaceae (8), Cyperaceae (5), and Poaceae (12). Non-native species (Bromus catharticus, Poa compressa, Polypogon monspeliensis, Sonchus oleraceus, Kochia scoparia, and Tamarix ramosissima) accounted for 10% of the total species recorded. Whereas nearly 350 species of vascular plants have been identified in playas in the Southern High Plains, saline lakes contain a fraction of this species richness. The Southern High Plains saline lake flora is regionally unique, containing taxa not found in playas, with species composition that is more similar to temperate desert wetlands of the Intermountain Region and Gulf Coastal Plain of North America.

  12. A data-model integration approach toward improved understanding on wetland functions and hydrological benefits at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, I. Y.; Lang, M.; Lee, S.; Huang, C.; Jin, H.; McCarty, G.; Sadeghi, A.

    2017-12-01

    The wetland ecosystem plays crucial roles in improving hydrological function and ecological integrity for the downstream water and the surrounding landscape. However, changing behaviours and functioning of wetland ecosystems are poorly understood and extremely difficult to characterize. Improved understanding on hydrological behaviours of wetlands, considering their interaction with surrounding landscapes and impacts on downstream waters, is an essential first step toward closing the knowledge gap. We present an integrated wetland-catchment modelling study that capitalizes on recently developed inundation maps and other geospatial data. The aim of the data-model integration is to improve spatial prediction of wetland inundation and evaluate cumulative hydrological benefits at the catchment scale. In this paper, we highlight problems arising from data preparation, parameterization, and process representation in simulating wetlands within a distributed catchment model, and report the recent progress on mapping of wetland dynamics (i.e., inundation) using multiple remotely sensed data. We demonstrate the value of spatially explicit inundation information to develop site-specific wetland parameters and to evaluate model prediction at multi-spatial and temporal scales. This spatial data-model integrated framework is tested using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) with improved wetland extension, and applied for an agricultural watershed in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA. This study illustrates necessity of spatially distributed information and a data integrated modelling approach to predict inundation of wetlands and hydrologic function at the local landscape scale, where monitoring and conservation decision making take place.

  13. Water quality during storm events from two constructed wetlands receiving mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, L.R.; Brooks, R.P.; Williams, F.M.; Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Davis, L.K.

    1994-01-01

    Flow rates, pH, iron concentration, and manganese concentration were measured during several storm event at two constructed wetlands receiving mine water. During a substantial rain event, flow rates at both the wetland outlets surpassed flow rates at the wetland inlets, reflecting incident rainfall and differences in wetland area at the two sites. A significant positive correlation existed between local rainfall and outflow rates at the larger wetland, but not between rainfall and inflow rates. During storm events, outlet pH, relative to inlet pH, was slightly elevated at the larger wetland, and depressed at the smaller wetland. However, over the course of one year, rainfall was uncorrelated to outlet pH in the larger wetland. A substantial rain event at the smaller wetland resulted in a temporary elevation in outlet iron concentrations, with treatment efficiency reduced to near zero. However, in the larger wetland, outlet iron concentrations were not significantly affected by storm events. 14 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  15. Tietkens Plain karst - Maralinga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, J.M.

    1988-09-01

    The Tietkens Plain karst is located to the north of Maralinga village which is on the crest of the Ooldea Range on the north and east margin of the Nullarbor Plain in western South Australia. The geology of the carbonate rocks in the Maralinga area is summarised. On Tietkens Plain from 1955 to 1963 nuclear weapons tests dispersed radioactive materials over the Maralinga area. Six nuclear devices were detonated in the air and one was exploded a few metres below the surface. The effect such explosions have on the karst and the possible rate of recovery of its surface are discussed. This report is the record of a visit to the Maralinga area from the 15th -21st November 1986 which involved an inspection of the karst surface together with collection of water, soil and rock samples. Results of the measurements made in order to assess water quality and water contamination by radioactive nuclides are presented. The implications arising from the presence of radioactive materials on the surface and the possibility of their entering and contaminating the groundwater in the area are discussed in the context of the chemistry of uranium and plutonium. The potential for transmission of contaminants through groundwater conduits and aquifers in the dolomite is discussed. Evidence is produced to show that the caves of the Nullabor Plain are not contaminated at present and are unlikely to be so in the future. 21 refs., 2 figs. 3 tabs., ills

  16. Groundwater in the Boreal Plains: How Climate and Geology Interact to Control Water Table Configurations in a Sub-Humid, Low-Relief Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokanson, K. J.; Devito, K.; Mendoza, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Boreal Plain (BP) region of Canada, a landscape characterized by low-relief, a sub-humid climate and heterogeneous glacial landforms, is experiencing unprecedented anthropogenic and natural disturbance, including climate change and oil & gas operations. Understanding the controls on and the natural variability of water table position, and subsequently predicting changes in water table position under varying physical and climatic scenarios will become important as water security becomes increasingly threatened. The BP is composed of a mosaic of forestland, wetland, and aquatic land covers that contrast in dominant vegetation cover, evapotranspiration, and soil storage that, in turn, influence water table configurations. Additionally, these land-covers overlie heterogeneous glacial landforms with large contrasts in storage and hydraulic properties which, when coupled with wet-dry climate cycles, result in complex water table distributions in time and space. Several forestland-wetland-pond complexes were selected at the Utikuma Research Study Area (URSA) over three distinct surficial geologic materials (glacial fluvial outwash, stagnant ice moraine, lacustrine clay plain) to explore the roles of climate (cumulative departure from the long term yearly mean precipitation), geology, topographic position, and land cover on water table configurations over 15 years (2002 - 2016). In the absence of large groundwater flow systems, local relief and shallow low conductivity substrates promote the formation of near-surface water tables that are less susceptible to climate variation, regardless of topography. Furthermore, in areas of increased storage, wet and dry climate conditions can result in appreciably different water table configurations over time, ranging from mounds to hydraulic depressions, depending on the arrangement of land-covers, dominant surficial geology, and substrate layering.

  17. Metro Multnomah Wetlands - Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project characterizes wetlands use by juvenile salmonids and other fishes in the Multnomah Channel Marsh Natural...

  18. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - MO 2012 East West Gateway Wetlands (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Cowardin’s Classification of Wetlands and Deep Water Habitats of the United States (http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/wetlands/classwet/index.htm), together with...

  19. Hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones wetland area, Ponce, southern Puerto Rico, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Soler-López, Luis R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Municipio Autónomo de Ponce and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, conducted a study of the hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones area in Ponce, southern Puerto Rico. (Punta Cabullones is also referred to as Punta Cabullón.) The Punta Cabullones area is about 9 square miles and is an ecological system made up of a wetland, tidal flats, saltflats, mangrove forests, and a small fringing reef located a short distance offshore. The swales or depressions between successive beach ridges became development avenues for saline to hypersaline wetlands. The Punta Cabullones area was designated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as a coastal barrier in the 1980s because of its capacity to act as a buffer zone to ameliorate the impacts of natural phenomenon such as storm surges. Since 2003, Punta Cabullones has been set aside for preservation as part of the mitigation effort mandated by Federal and State laws to compensate for the potential environmental effects that might be caused by the construction of the Las Américas Transshipment Port. Total rainfall measured during 2008 within the Punta Cabullones area was 36 inches, which is slightly greater than the long-term annual average of 32 inches for the coastal plain near Ponce. Two evapotranspiration estimates, 29 and 37 inches, were obtained for the subarea of the Punta Cabullones area that is underlain by fan-delta and alluvial deposits by using two variants of the Penman semi-empirical equation. The long-term water stage and chemical character of the wetland in Punta Cabullones are highly dependent on the seasonal and annual variations of both rainfall and sea-wave activity. Also, unseasonal short-term above-normal rainfall and sea-wave events resulting from passing storms may induce substantial changes in the water stage and the chemical character of the wetland. In general, tidal fluctuations exert a minor role in

  20. Wetlands Restoration Definitions and Distinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological restoration is a valuable endeavor that has proven very difficult to define. The term indicates that degraded and destroyed natural wetland systems will be reestablished to sites where they once existed. But, what wetland ecosystems are we talki

  1. Wetland Program Development Grants (WPDGs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Wetland Grant Database (WGD) houses grant data for Wetland Program Development Grants (created by EPA in 1990 under the Clean Water Act Section 104(b)(3)...

  2. Wetland Restoration and Sediment Removal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — In 2008, Minnesota’s Private Lands Program and Wetland Management Districts began to compare different methods of restoring prairie pothole wetlands to see if there...

  3. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  4. Wetlands: The changing regulatory landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Protection of wetlands became a national issue in 1988 when President George Bush pledged no net loss of wetlands in the US under his open-quotes environmental presidency.close quotes As wetlands became a national issue, the job of protecting them became an obligation for many groups, including hydro-power developers. Now, when a site selected for development includes an area that may be classified as a wetland, the developer quickly discovers the importance of recognizing and protecting these natural habitats. Federal legislation severely limits development of wetland, and most states increase the restrictions with their own wetlands regulations. The difficulty of defining wetlands complicates federal and state enforcement. Land that appears to be dry may in fact be classified as a wetland. So, even if a site appears dry, potential hydro developers must confirm whether or not any jurisdictional wetlands are present. Regulated lands include much more than marshes and swamps. Further complicating the definition of wetlands, a recent court decision found that even artificially created wetlands, such as man-made ponds, may be subject to regulation. Hydro developers must be aware of current regulatory requirements before they consider development of any site that may contain wetlands. To be certain that a site is open-quotes buildableclose quotes from the standpoint of wetlands regulation, a developer must verify (with the help of state agencies) that the property does not contain any jurisdictional wetlands. If it does, the regulatory process before development becomes much more complicated. For the short term, uncertainty abounds and extreme caution is in order. Because the regulatory process has become so complex and an agreeable definition of wetlands so elusive, the trend among the Corps and collaborating agencies is to constrict nationwide permits in favor of narrowing the jurisdictional definition of wetlands

  5. Global warming and prairie wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poiani, K.A.; Johnson, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss current understanding and projections of global warming; review wetland vegetation dynamics to establish the strong relationship among climate, wetland hydrology, vegetation patterns and waterfowl habitat; discuss the potential effects of a greenhouse warming on these relationships; and illustrate the potential effects of climate change on wetland habitat by using a simulation model

  6. Wetland soils, hydrology and geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Rhett Jackson; James A. Thompson; Randall K. Kolka

    2014-01-01

    The hydrology, soils, and watershed processes of a wetland all interact with vegetation and animals over time to create the dynamic physical template upon which a wetland's ecosystem is based (Fig. 2.1). With respect to many ecosystem processes, the physical factors defining a wetland environment at any particular time are often treated as independent variables,...

  7. Nitrate fate and transport through current and former depressional wetlands in an agricultural landscape, Choptank Watershed, Maryland, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, J.M.; Ator, S.W.; Lang, M.W.; Fisher, T.R.; Gustafson, A.B.; Fox, R.; Clune, J.W.; McCarty, G.W.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding local groundwater hydrology and geochemistry is critical for evaluating the effectiveness of wetlands at mitigating agricultural impacts on surface waters. The effectiveness of depressional wetlands at mitigating nitrate (NO3) transport from fertilized row crops, through groundwater, to local streams was examined in the watershed of the upper Choptank River, a tributary of Chesapeake Bay on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Hydrologic, geochemical, and water quality data were collected from January of 2008 through December of 2009 from surface waters and networks of piezometers installed in and around current or former depressional wetlands of three major types along a gradient of anthropogenic alteration: (1) natural wetlands with native vegetation (i.e., forested); (2) prior-converted croplands, which are former wetlands located in cultivated fields; and (3) hydrologically restored wetlands, including one wetland restoration and one shallow water management area. These data were collected to estimate the orientation of groundwater flow paths and likely interactions of groundwater containing NO3 from agricultural sources with reducing conditions associated with wetlands of different types. Natural wetlands were found to have longer periods of soil saturation and reducing conditions conducive to denitrification compared to the other wetland types studied. Because natural wetlands are typically located in groundwater recharge areas along watershed divides, nitrogen (N) from nearby agriculture was not intercepted. However, these wetlands likely improve water quality in adjacent streams via dilution. Soil and geochemical conditions conducive to denitrification were also present in restored wetlands and prior-converted croplands, and substantial losses of agricultural NO3 were observed in groundwater flowing through these wetland sediments. However, delivery of NO3 from agricultural areas through groundwater to these wetlands resulting in opportunities for

  8. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ..., consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our... FXRS1265066CCP0] Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland Management District, SD; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

  9. Integrated landscape-based approach of remote sensing, GIS, and physical modelling to study the hydrological connectivity of wetlands to the downstream water: progress and challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, I. Y.

    2015-12-01

    We report the recent progress on our effort to improve the mapping of wetland dynamics and the modelling of its functioning and hydrological connection to the downstream waters. Our study focused on the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW), the Delmarva Peninsula, where the most of wetlands in CBW are densely distributed. The wetland ecosystem plays crucial roles in improving water quality and ecological integrity for the downstream waters and the Chesapeake Bay, and headwater wetlands in the region, such as Delmarva Bay, are now subject to the legal protection under the Clean Water Rules. We developed new wetland maps using time series Landsat images and a highly accurate LiDAR map over last 30 years. These maps show the changes in surface water fraction at a 30-m grid cell at annual time scale. Using GIS, we analyse these maps to characterize changing dynamics of wetland inundation due to the physical environmental factors (e.g., weather variability, tide) and assessed the hydrological connection of wetlands to the downstream water at the watershed scale. Focusing on the two adjacent watersheds in the upper region of the Choptank River Basin, we study how wetland inundation dynamics and the hydrologic linkage of wetlands to downstream water would vary by the local hydrogeological setting and attempt to identify the key landscape factors affecting the wetland ecosystems and functioning. We then discuss the potential of using remote sensing products to improve the physical modelling of wetlands from our experience with SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool).

  10. Constructed wetlands : the Canadian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, S.; Champagne, P. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Large volumes of wastewater from livestock and production facilities must be treated to minimize the contamination of waterways in agricultural areas. This paper investigated the use of constructed wetlands as a lower-cost and efficient method of treating agricultural wastewaters. The study found that while constructed wetlands required limited maintenance, temperature dependency of the constructed wetlands systems is a limiting factor in their widespread implementation. Lower operating temperatures are only overcome by constructing larger wetlands systems, which require a substantial amount of land. The Canadian climate poses significant challenges to the implementation of constructed wetlands, which become inoperative during winter months. Plants and bacteria normally become dormant or die during winter months, which can create a lag in wetland treatment during the initial months of operation in the Spring. Snowmelt and added rainfall in the Spring can also create a high flow within the wetland cells, as many constructed wetlands rely on runoff as a feed source. Washout of bacteria can occur. Wastewater storage systems or further engineering of the wetlands may be required. It was concluded that insulating wetland cells will maintain a warmer operating temperature, while the addition of an aeration system will increase the treatment efficiency of the wetland during winter months. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  11. Findings of the wetland survey of the David Witherspoon, Inc., 1630 Site, South Knoxville, Knox County, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A. [JAYCOR Environmental, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    In accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Regulations surveys for wetland presence or absence were conducted in September 1996 on the DWI-1630 site (Witherspoon Landfill) located in South Knoxville, Knox County, Tennessee. The DWI-1630 site includes a closed, capped landfill area, areas of past disturbance adjacent to the capped area, and patches of hardwood forest. Wetlands were identified on the landfill cap and in a small bottomland that was formerly used for a retention pond in the southwest corner of the DWI-1630 site. The wetlands identified on the cap are man-induced, atypical situation wetlands. These areas have hydrophytic vegetation and wetland hydrology, but the soils do not have hydric characteristics. Wetland development appears to be due to a combination of the grading or subsidence of the clay landfill cap, the low permeability of the clay fill soil, and the absence of surface drainage outlets from the depressions. These atypical situation wetland areas may not be considered by the US Army Corps of Engineers or the State of Tennessee to be jurisdictional wetlands. The wetland in the former retention pond area has hydrophytic vegetation, wetland hydrology, and hydric soils and is a jurisdictional wetland.

  12. Microbiology of wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Watersaturated soil and sediment ecosystems (i.e. wetlands) are ecologically as well as economically important systems due to their high productivity, their nutrient (re)cycling capacities and their prominent contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions. Being on the transition between

  13. Simulation of hydrological processes in the Zhalong wetland within a river basin, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Q. Feng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhalong National Nature Preserve is a large wetland reserve on the Songnen Plain in Northeast China. Wetlands in the preserve play a key role in maintaining regional ecosystem function and integrity. Global climate change and intensified anthropogenic activities in the region have raised great concerns over the change of natural flow regime, wetland degradation and loss. In this study, two key hydrologic components in the preserve, water surface area and water volume, as well as their variations during the period 1985–2006, were investigated with a spatially-distributed hydrologic modeling system (SWAT. A wetland module was incorporated into the SWAT model to represent hydrological linkages between the wetland and adjacent upland areas. The modified modeling system was calibrated with streamflow measurements from 1987 to 1989 and was validated for the period 2005–2006. The calibration achieved a Nash efficiency coefficient (Ens of 0.86, and the validation yielded an Ens of 0.66. In the past 20 yr, water surface area in the Zhalong wetland fluctuated from approximately 200 km2 to 1145 km2 with a rapid decreasing trend through the early 2000s. Consequently, water volume decreased largely in the preserve, especially in the dry seasons. The situation changed following the implementation of a river diversion in 2001. Overall, the modeling yielded plausible estimates of hydrologic changes in this large wetland reserve, building a foundation for assessing ecological water requirements and developing strategies and plans for future water resources management within the river basin.

  14. Land use effects on pesticides in sediments of prairie pothole wetlands in North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Scott T.; Belden, Jason B.; Smith, Loren M.; Morrison, Shane A.; Daniel, Dale W.; Euliss, Betty R.; Euliss, Ned H. Jr.; Kensinger, Bart J.; Tangen, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Prairie potholes are the dominant wetland type in the intensively cultivated northern Great Plains of North America, and thus have the potential to receive pesticide runoff and drift. We examined the presence of pesticides in sediments of 151 wetlands split among the three dominant land use types, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), cropland, and native prairie, in North and South Dakota in 2011. Herbicides (glyphosate and atrazine) and fungicides were detected regularly, with no insecticide detections. Glyphosate was the most detected pesticide, occurring in 61% of all wetlands, with atrazine in only 8% of wetlands. Pyraclostrobin was one of five fungicides detected, but the only one of significance, being detected in 31% of wetlands. Glyphosate was the only pesticide that differed by land use, with concentrations in cropland over four-times that in either native prairie or CRP, which were equal in concentration and frequency of detection. Despite examining several landscape variables, such as wetland proximity to specific crop types, watershed size, and others, land use was the best variable explaining pesticide concentrations in potholes. CRP ameliorated glyphosate in wetlands at concentrations comparable to native prairie and thereby provides another ecosystem service from this expansive program.

  15. Closed depression topography and Harps soil, revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Harps soil (Fine-loamy, mixed superactive, mesic Typic Calciaquoll) developed around wetland depressions. The purpose of this study is 1) to delineate surface deposition of carbonates representing Harps soil which results from outward and upward flow around closed depressions, and 2) to relate t...

  16. Investigating Hydrogeologic Controls on Sandhill Wetlands in Covered Karst with 2D Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, C. M.; Nowicki, R. S.; Rains, M. C.; Kruse, S.

    2015-12-01

    In west-central Florida, wetland and lake distribution is strongly controlled by karst landforms. Sandhill wetlands and lakes are sand-filled upland basins whose water levels are groundwater driven. Lake dimensions only reach wetland edges during extreme precipitation events. Current wetland classification schemes are inappropriate for identifying sandhill wetlands due to their unique hydrologic regime and ecologic expression. As a result, it is difficult to determine whether or not a wetland is impacted by groundwater pumping, development, and climate change. A better understanding of subsurface structures and how they control the hydrologic regime is necessary for development of an identification and monitoring protocol. Long-term studies record vegetation diversity and distribution, shallow ground water levels and surface water levels. The overall goals are to determine the hydrologic controls (groundwater, seepage, surface water inputs). Most recently a series of geophysical surveys was conducted at select sites in Hernando and Pasco County, Florida. Electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar were employed to image sand-filled basins and the top of the limestone bedrock and stratigraphy of wetland slopes, respectively. The deepest extent of these sand-filled basins is generally reflected in topography as shallow depressions. Resistivity along inundated wetlands suggests the pools are surface expressions of the surficial aquifer. However, possible breaches in confining clay layers beneath topographic highs between depressions are seen in resistivity profiles as conductive anomalies and in GPR as interruptions in otherwise continuous horizons. These data occur at sites where unconfined and confined water levels are in agreement, suggesting communication between shallow and deep groundwater. Wetland plants are observed outside the historic wetland boundary at many sites, GPR profiles show near-surface layers dipping towards the wetlands at a shallower

  17. Hydrology and water quality of isolated wetlands: Stormflow changes along two episodic flowpaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Deemy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dougherty Plain in southwest Georgia is a flat, karstic, depressional-landscape dominated by irrigated and dry-land agriculture devoted to row-crops and pasture with interspersed wetlands and forests. Stormwater runoff rarely discharges into perennial rivers and streams, except during large storms that induce hydrologic connectivity between fields, wetlands, and streams (event return period is less than one per year.We report the hydrologic and water-quality effects of a 173-mm rainfall event that generated three weeks (Feb 15 to Mar 9, 2014 of continuous flows through and between three normally isolated wetlands. A suite of water-quality parameters (physical, nutrients, and pathogen indicators was monitored daily from offsite (agricultural and onsite (forested sources at two sites along one flowpath and five sites along a second at the Joseph W Jones Ecologic Research Center at Ichauway.Decreasing sediment, nutrient, and pathogen concentrations were observed as water moved across the forested landscapes with embedded wetlands. Two physical parameters (specific conductance and turbidity were strongly-to-moderately correlated (r > 0.8, 0.5, respectively with laboratory-measured parameters (e.g., nutrients, suspended solids, pathogens, which suggest their utility for routine stormwater monitoring and prioritizing sample collection for laboratory analyses at this site. Keywords: Longleaf-pine, Isolated wetlands, Stormflow, Agricultural runoff, Water quality, Dougherty plain, Nutrients, Pathogens

  18. Gulf Atlantic Coastal Plain Long Term Agroecosystem Research site, Tifton, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Strickland; David D. Bosch; Dinku M. Endale; Thomas L. Potter

    2016-01-01

    The Gulf-Atlantic Coastal Plain (GACP) physiographic region is an important agricultural production area within the southeastern U.S. that extends from Delaware in the Northeast to the Gulf Coast of Texas. The region consists mainly of low-elevation flat to rolling terrain with numerous streams, abundant rainfall, a complex coastline, and many wetlands. The GACP Long ...

  19. Characterizing the Surface Connectivity of Depressional Wetlands: Linking Remote Sensing and Hydrologic Modeling Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J.; Evenson, G. R.; Vanderhoof, M.; Wu, Q.; Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.

    2017-12-01

    Surface connectivity of wetlands in the 700,000 km2 Prairie Pothole Region of North America (PPR) can occur through fill-spill and fill-merge mechanisms, with some wetlands eventually spilling into stream/river systems. These wetland-to-wetland and wetland-to-stream connections vary both spatially and temporally in PPR watersheds and are important to understanding hydrologic and biogeochemical processes in the landscape. To explore how to best characterize spatial and temporal variability in aquatic connectivity, we compared three approaches, 1) hydrological modeling alone, 2) remotely-sensed data alone, and 3) integrating remotely-sensed data into a hydrological model. These approaches were tested in the Pipestem Creek Watershed, North Dakota across a drought to deluge cycle (1990-2011). A Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was modified to include the water storage capacity of individual non-floodplain wetlands identified in the National Wetland Inventory (NWI) dataset. The SWAT-NWI model simulated the water balance and storage of each wetland and the temporal variability of their hydrologic connections between wetlands during the 21-year study period. However, SWAT-NWI only accounted for fill-spill, and did not allow for the expansion and merging of wetlands situated within larger depressions. Alternatively, we assessed the occurrence of fill-merge mechanisms using inundation maps derived from Landsat images on 19 cloud-free days during the 21 years. We found fill-merge mechanisms to be prevalent across the Pipestem watershed during times of deluge. The SWAT-NWI model was then modified to use LiDAR-derived depressions that account for the potential maximum depression extent, including the merging of smaller wetlands. The inundation maps were used to evaluate the ability of the SWAT-depression model to simulate fill-merge dynamics in addition to fill-spill dynamics throughout the study watershed. Ultimately, using remote sensing to inform and validate

  20. 40 CFR 258.12 - Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degraded wetlands or creation of man-made wetlands); and (5) Sufficient information is available to make a... expansions shall not be located in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the following...

  1. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald J Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  2. Wetlands - an underestimated economic resource?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gren, I.M.; Soederqvist, T.

    1996-01-01

    Wetlands are producing several valuable resources like fish, potential for recreation, water cleaning etc. These resources, and methods for assigning an economic value to them, are discussed in this article. Swedish and foreign empirical studies of the economic value of wetlands are reviewed. This review shows that socioeconomic estimates of the value of wetlands risk to be misleading if the direct and indirect values are not properly accounted for. 37 refs

  3. Morphology of a Wetland Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurmu; Andrle

    1997-11-01

    / Little attention has been paid to wetland stream morphology in the geomorphological and environmental literature, and in the recently expanding wetland reconstruction field, stream design has been based primarily on stream morphologies typical of nonwetland alluvial environments. Field investigation of a wetland reach of Roaring Brook, Stafford, Connecticut, USA, revealed several significant differences between the morphology of this stream and the typical morphology of nonwetland alluvial streams. Six morphological features of the study reach were examined: bankfull flow, meanders, pools and riffles, thalweg location, straight reaches, and cross-sectional shape. It was found that bankfull flow definitions originating from streams in nonwetland environments did not apply. Unusual features observed in the wetland reach include tight bends and a large axial wavelength to width ratio. A lengthy straight reach exists that exceeds what is typically found in nonwetland alluvial streams. The lack of convex bank point bars in the bends, a greater channel width at riffle locations, an unusual thalweg location, and small form ratios (a deep and narrow channel) were also differences identified. Further study is needed on wetland streams of various regions to determine if differences in morphology between alluvial and wetland environments can be applied in order to improve future designs of wetland channels.KEY WORDS: Stream morphology; Wetland restoration; Wetland creation; Bankfull; Pools and riffles; Meanders; Thalweg

  4. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why. Depression symptoms in children and teens Common signs and ... in normal activities, and avoidance of social interaction. Depression symptoms in older adults Depression is not a ...

  5. Spatial variations in drainage efficiency in a boreal wetland environment as a function of lidar and radar-derived deviations from the regional hydraulic gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, C.; Brisco, B.; Chasmer, L.; Devito, K.; Montgomery, J. S.; Patterson, S.; Petrone, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The dense forest cover of the Western Boreal Plains of northern Alberta is underlain by a mix of glacial moraines, sandy outwash sediments and clay plains possessing spatially variable hydraulic conductivities. The region is also characterised by a large number of post-glacial surface depression wetlands that have seasonally and topographically limited surface connectivity. Consequently, drainage along shallow regional hydraulic gradients may be dominated either by variations in surface geology or local variations in Et. Long-term government lake level monitoring is sparse in this region, but over a decade of hydrometeorological monitoring has taken place around the Utikuma Regional Study Area (URSA), a research site led by the University of Alberta. In situ lake and ground water level data are here combined with time series of airborne lidar and RadarSat II synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to assess the spatial variability of water levels during late summer period characterised by flow recession. Long term Lidar data were collected or obtained by the authors in August of 2002, 2008, 2011 and 2016, while seasonal SAR data were captured approximately every 24 days during the summers of 2015, 2016 and 2017. Water levels for wetlands exceeding 100m2 in area across a north-trending 20km x 5km topographic gradient north of Utikuma Lake were extracted directly from the lidar and indirectly from the SAR. The recent seasonal variability in spatial water levels was extracted from SAR, while the lidar data illustrated more long term trends associated with land use and riparian vegetation succession. All water level data collected in August were combined and averaged at multiple scales using a raster focal statistics function to generate a long term spatial map of the regional hydraulic gradient and scale-dependent variations. Areas of indicated high and low drainage efficiency were overlain onto layers of landcover and surface geology to ascertain causal relationships

  6. Review: Recharge rates and chemistry beneath playas of the High Plains aquifer, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Roe, Cassia D.

    2010-12-01

    Playas are ephemeral, closed-basin wetlands that are hypothesized as an important source of recharge to the High Plains aquifer in central USA. The ephemeral nature of playas, low regional recharge rates, and a strong reliance on groundwater from the High Plains aquifer has prompted many questions regarding the contribution and quality of recharge from playas to the High Plains aquifer. As a result, there has been considerable scientific debate about the potential for water to infiltrate the relatively impermeable playa floors, travel through the unsaturated zone sediments that are tens of meters thick, and subsequently recharge the High Plains aquifer. This critical review examines previously published studies on the processes that control recharge rates and chemistry beneath playas. Reported recharge rates beneath playas range from less than 1.0 to more than 500 mm/yr and are generally 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than recharge rates beneath interplaya settings. Most studies support the conceptual model that playas are important zones of recharge to the High Plains aquifer and are not strictly evaporative pans. The major findings of this review provide science-based implications for management of playas and groundwater resources of the High Plains aquifer and directions for future research.

  7. Roofvogels in de Nederlandse wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Cornelis; Beemster, Nicolaas; Zijlstra, Menno; van Eerden, M; Daan, Serge

    1995-01-01

    Roofvogels in de Nederlandse wetlands (1995). C. Dijkstra, N. Beemster, M. Zijlstra, M. van Eerden, S. Daan RWS, RDIJ, Flevobericht nr. 381. ISBN 90-369-1147-8. Dit Flevobericht vormt de eindrapportage van het onderzoeksproject " De betekenis van grootschalige wetlands voor roofvogels". De verwerkte

  8. Carbon Storage in US Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in US wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. ...

  9. Carbon dynamics in wetland restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, K.; Ciborowski, J.; Gardner-Costa, J.; Slama, C. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada); Daly, C.; Hornung, J. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Dixon, G.; Farwell, A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada); Foote, L.; Frederick, K.; Roy, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Smits, J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Wytrykush, C. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study focused on the reclamation of wetland ecosystems impacted by oil sands development in the boreal wetlands. Although these wetlands play an important role in global carbon balance, their ecosystem function is compromised by direct and regional anthropogenic disturbance and climate change. Large oil sand mining areas that require reclamation generate substantial quantities of extraction process-affected materials. In order to determine if the reclaimed wetlands were restored to equivalent ecosystem function, this study evaluated carbon flows and food web structure in oil sands-affected wetlands. The purpose was to determine whether a prescribed reclamation strategy or topsoil amendment accelerates reclaimed wetland development to produce self-sustaining peatlands. In addition to determining carbon fluxes, this study measured compartment standing stocks for residual hydrocarbons, organic substrate, bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, biofilm, macrophytes, detritus, zoobenthos and aquatic-terrestrial exports. Most biotic 28 compartments differed between oil-sands-affected and reference wetlands, but the difference lessened with age. Macroinvertebrate trophic diversity was lower in oil sands-affected wetlands. Peat amendment seemed to speed convergence for some compartments but not others. These results were discussed in the context of restoration of ecosystem function and optimization of reclamation strategies.

  10. Climate Change and Intertidal Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline M. Ross

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause—the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the “squeeze” experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change.

  11. Climate change and intertidal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pauline M; Adam, Paul

    2013-03-19

    Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause-the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the "squeeze" experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change.

  12. Determining Hydroperiod for Boreal and Prairie Pothole Wetlands using SAR, Optical and LiDAR Remote Sensing Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, J. S.; Hopkinson, C.; Brisco, B.; Patterson, S.; Chasmer, L.; Mahoney, C.

    2017-12-01

    Cultivation, irrigation networks, and infrastructure have all greatly impacted the ecology and hydrology of the Prairie Pothole and Boreal regions of western Canada. Due to sub-humid climate and high potential evaporation, many wetlands in these natural regions are seldom continuously occupied by water, and are often confined to local depressions. In the Boreal region, wetlands may be difficult to monitor due to their remote location, whereas prairie wetlands have highly varying degrees of surface water and soil saturation throughout the year. This study examines how high-resolution Lidar, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), and optical data can be utilized in spatial-temporal studies to classify wetlands based on water extent, riparian vegetation, and topographic characteristics. An intensity (dB) threshold routine was used to extract open surface water extent to determine hydroperiod. Digital Elevation Models (DEM) are used with a topographic position index to infer local depressions, while Digital Surface Models (DSMs) are used to characterise vegetation structural characteristics within and proximal to wetlands. The proposed framework provides an index of wetland permanence and wetland class, where permanence varies seasonally and annually. Boreal wetland hydroperiod is less variable than that found in prairie pothole wetlands, most notably the semi-permanent class, varying by only 2%, compared to >50% in prairie pothole wetlands. For years studied, prairie pothole wetlands reached maximum water extent following major rainfall events. Seasonal and semi-permanent wetlands were found to have greater change in surface water between years than temporary wetlands (75.3% and 59.1% from average respectively). The lowest frequency of water pixel inundation for seasonal and semi-permanent wetlands was found to be in the year with the most precipitation during the growing season (2013, 384mm), compared to 2014 (289mm), and 2015 (310mm). A combination of statistical analyses

  13. Woodville Karst Plain, North Florida

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Map showing the largest mapped underwater cave systems and conduit flow paths confirmed by tracer testing relative to surface streams, sinkholes and potentiometric surface of the Florida aquifer in the Woodville Karst Plain, Florida

  14. Plain formation on Mercury: tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1980-01-01

    Four major plain units, plus intermediates, are distinguished on Mercury. The chronologic relationships between these plains indicate that plains formation was a permanent process on Mercury. Their location and morphology seem to indicate a possible volcanic origin for these plains. The relationships between tectonism and volcanism seems to indicate the global contraction is not the only tectonic process on Mercury. (Auth.)

  15. Conserving Prairie Pothole Region wetlands and surrounding grasslands: evaluating effects on amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Neau, Jordan L.

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of viable and genetically diverse populations of amphibians in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States depends on upland as well as wetland over-wintering and landscape level habitat features.Prairie pothole wetlands provide important amphibian breeding habitat while grasslands surrounding these wetlands provide foraging habitat for adults, overwintering habitat for some species, and important connectivity among breeding wetlands.Grasslands surrounding wetlands were found to be especially important for wood frogs and northern leopard frogs, while croplands dominated habitat utilized by Great Plains toads and Woodhouse’s toads.Habitat suitability mapping highlighted (1) the influence of deep-water overwintering wetlands on suitable habitat for four of five anuran species encountered; (2) the lack of overlap between areas of core habitat for both the northern leopard frog and wood frog compared to the core habitat for both toad species; and (3) the importance of conservation programs in providing grassland components of northern leopard frog and wood frog habitat.Currently, there are approximately 7.2 million acres (2.9 million hectares, ha) of habitat in the PPR identified as suitable for amphibians. WRP and CRP wetland and grassland habitats accounted for approximately 1.9 million acres (0.75 million ha) or 26 percent of this total area.Continued loss of amphibian habitat resulting from an ongoing trend of returning PPR conservation lands to crop production, will likely have significant negative effects on the region’s ability to maintain amphibian biodiversity. Conversely, increases in conservation wetlands and surrounding grasslands on the PPR landscape have great potential to positively influence the region’s amphibian populations.

  16. Wetlands Research Program. Wetland Evaluation Technique (WET). Volume 2. Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    to waves taller than I ft? • " Guidelines: 1 "Sufficient" is defined as the height of vegetation or relief multiplied * by length of vegetation or...Sci., Interim Rep. No. 3, Gloucester Point, VA. 52 pp. 203 VI. 4 WET 2.0 Simmons, E. G. 1957. An ecological survey of the Upper Laguna Madre of Texas...A wetland class characterized by vegetation that is 6 m or taller . Fringe Wetland - Fringe wetlands along a channel (i.e.. river, stream, etc.)are

  17. Remote sensing of wetlands applications and advances

    CERN Document Server

    Tiner, Ralph W; Klemas, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    Effectively Manage Wetland Resources Using the Best Available Remote Sensing Techniques Utilizing top scientists in the wetland classification and mapping field, Remote Sensing of Wetlands: Applications and Advances covers the rapidly changing landscape of wetlands and describes the latest advances in remote sensing that have taken place over the past 30 years for use in mapping wetlands. Factoring in the impact of climate change, as well as a growing demand on wetlands for agriculture, aquaculture, forestry, and development, this text considers the challenges that wetlands pose for remote sensing and provides a thorough introduction on the use of remotely sensed data for wetland detection. Taking advantage of the experiences of more than 50 contributing authors, the book describes a variety of techniques for mapping and classifying wetlands in a multitude of environments ranging from tropical to arctic wetlands including coral reefs and submerged aquatic vegetation. The authors discuss the advantages and di...

  18. Atrazine remediation in wetland microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runes, H B; Bottomley, P J; Lerch, R N; Jenkins, J J

    2001-05-01

    Laboratory wetland microcosms were used to study treatment of atrazine in irrigation runoff by a field-scale-constructed wetland under controlled conditions. Three experiments, in which 1 ppm atrazine was added to the water column of three wetland, one soil control, and one water control microcosm, were conducted. Atrazine dissipation from the water column and degradate formation (deethylatrazine [DEA]; deisopropylatrazine [DIA]; and hydroxyatrazine [HA]) were monitored. Atrazine dissipation from the water column of wetland microcosms was biphasic. Less than 12% of the atrazine applied to wetland microcosms remained in the water column on day 56. Atrazine degradates were observed in water and sediment, with HA the predominant degradate. Analysis of day 56 sediment samples indicated that a significant portion of the initial application was detected as the parent compound and HA. Most probable number (MPN) assays demonstrated that atrazine degrader populations were small in wetland sediment. Wetland microcosms were able to reduce atrazine concentration in the water column via sorption and degradation. Based on results from this study, it is hypothesized that plant uptake contributed to atrazine dissipation from the water column.

  19. The emergence of treatment wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, S.

    1998-01-01

    Judging by the growing number of wetlands built for wastewater treatment around the world, this natural technology seems to have firmly established roots. After almost 30 years of use in wastewater treatment, constructed treatment wetlands now number over 500 in Europe and 600 in North America. Marsh-type surface flow systems are most common in North America, but subsurface flow wetlands, where wastewater flows beneath the surface of a gravel-rock bed, predominate in Europe. The inexpensive, low maintenance technology is in high demand in Central America, Eastern Europe, and Asia. New applications, from nitrate-contaminated ground water to effluent from high-intensity livestock operations, are also increasing. But in the United States, treatment-wetland technology has not yet gained national regulatory acceptance. Some states and EPA regions are eager to endorse them, but others are wary of this nontraditional method of treating wastewater. In part, this reluctance exists because the technology is not yet completely understood. Treatment wetlands also pose a potential threat to wildlife attracted to this new habitat -an ecosystem exposed to toxic compounds. New efforts are under way, however, to place the technology onto firmer scientific and regulatory ground. Long-term demonstration and monitoring field studies are currently probing the inner workings of wetlands and their water quality capabilities to provide better data on how to design more effective systems. A recent study of US policy and regulatory issues surrounding treatment wetlands has recommended that the federal government actively promote the technology and clear the regulatory roadblocks to enable wider use. Proponents argue that the net environmental benefits of constructed wetlands, such as restoring habitat and increasing wetlands inventory, should be considered. 8 refs., 6 photos

  20. Using Tradtional Ecological Knowledge to Protect Wetlands: the Swinomish Tribe's Wetland Cultural Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, T.

    2017-12-01

    "Traditional" wetland physical assessment modules do not adequately identify Tribal cultural values of wetlands and thus wetlands may not be adequately protected for cultural uses. This Swinomish Wetlands Cultural Assessment Project has developed a cultural resource scoring module that can be incorporated into wetland assessments to better inform wetland protections. Local native knowledge was gathered about the traditional uses of 99 native wetland plant species. A cultural scoring matrix was developed based on the presence of traditionally used plants in several use categories including: construction, ceremonial, subsistence, medicinal, common use, plant rarity, and place of value for each wetland. The combined score of the cultural and physcial modules provides an overall wetland score that relates to proscribed buffer protection widths. With this local native knowledge incorporated into wetland assessments, we are protecting and preserving Swinomish Reservation wetlands for both cultural uses and ecological functionality through the Tribe's wetland protection law.

  1. Delineating wetland catchments and modeling hydrologic connectivity using lidar data and aerial imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In traditional watershed delineation and topographic modeling, surface depressions are generally treated as spurious features and simply removed from a digital elevation model (DEM to enforce flow continuity of water across the topographic surface to the watershed outlets. In reality, however, many depressions in the DEM are actual wetland landscape features with seasonal to permanent inundation patterning characterized by nested hierarchical structures and dynamic filling–spilling–merging surface-water hydrological processes. Differentiating and appropriately processing such ecohydrologically meaningful features remains a major technical terrain-processing challenge, particularly as high-resolution spatial data are increasingly used to support modeling and geographic analysis needs. The objectives of this study were to delineate hierarchical wetland catchments and model their hydrologic connectivity using high-resolution lidar data and aerial imagery. The graph-theory-based contour tree method was used to delineate the hierarchical wetland catchments and characterize their geometric and topological properties. Potential hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and streams were simulated using the least-cost-path algorithm. The resulting flow network delineated potential flow paths connecting wetland depressions to each other or to the river network on scales finer than those available through the National Hydrography Dataset. The results demonstrated that our proposed framework is promising for improving overland flow simulation and hydrologic connectivity analysis.

  2. Changes of land use and of ecosystem service values in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongming; Zhang, Bai; Zhang, Shuqing; Li, Xiaoyan; Liu, Dianwei; Song, Kaishan; Li, Jianping; Li, Fang; Duan, Hongtao

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural activities, especially reclamation, are considered major threats to the wetland ecosystems in Sanjiang Plain, the largest concentrated area of the freshwater wetlands in China. In the past decades, the area of the cultivated land and its grain production have been increased at the cost of wetlands shrinkage. The large-scale land reclamation severely affected the ecosystems in this region. However, such effects at the regional scale are seldom evaluated quantitatively. We used three datasets of LANDSAT MSS and/or TM imagery to estimate the area changes and the transition of land use types from 1980 to 2000. We also valued changes in ecosystem services delivered by each land category using value coefficients published by Costanza et al. Sensitivity analysis suggested that these estimates were relatively robust. Finally, the contribution of various ecosystem functions was ranked to the overall value of the ecosystem services in this study. According to our estimates, the total annual ecosystem service values in Sanjiang Plain have declined by about 40% between 1980 and 2000 (156284-182572.18 million US dollars in total over 20 years). This substantial decline is largely attributed to the 53.4% loss of wetlands. For individual ecosystem functions, waste treatment, water supply and disturbance regulation account for more than 60% to the total ecological values. During those two decades, the contribution of disturbance regulation, cultural and recreation decreased, while the contribution of water regulation, nutrient cycling, food production, raw materials and climate regulation increased during the same period. We also put forward a few proposals concerning the future land use policy formulation and sustainable ecosystems. They are adjusting the 'food first' agricultural policy, establishing more nature reserves for wetlands, creating systems for the rational use of water, harnessing the degraded cultivated land and encouraging eco-tourism.

  3. Floristic quality assessment of one natural and three restored wetland complexes in North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Shaffer, Terry L.

    2002-01-01

    Floristic quality assessment is potentially an important tool for conservation efforts in the northern Great Plains of North America, but it has received little rigorous evaluation. Floristic quality assessments rely on coefficients assigned to each plant species of a region’s flora based on the conservatism of each species relative to others in the region. These “coefficients of conservatism” (C values) are assigned by a panel of experts familiar with a region’s flora. The floristic quality assessment method has faced some criticism due to the subjective nature of these assignments. To evaluate the effect of this subjectivity on floristic quality assessments, we performed separate evaluations of the native plant communities in a natural wetland complex and three restored wetland complexes. In our first assessment, we used C values assigned “subjectively” by the Northern Great Plains Floristic Quality Assessment Panel. We then performed an independent assessment using the observed distributions of species among a group of wetlands that ranged from highly disturbed to largely undisturbed (data-generated C values). Using the panel-assigned C values, mean C values (C¯">C¯C¯) of the restored wetlands rarely exceeded 3.4 and never exceeded 3.9, with the highest values occurring in the oldest restored complex; all but two wetlands in the natural wetland complex had a C¯">C¯C¯ greater than 3.9. Floristic quality indices (FQI) for the restored wetlands rarely exceeded 22 and usually reached maximums closer to 19, with higher values occurring again in the oldest restored complex; only two wetlands in the natural complex had an FQI less than 22. We observed that 95% confidence limits for species richness and percent natives overlapped greatly among wetland complexes, whereas confidence limits for both C¯">C¯C¯ and FQI overlapped little. C¯">C¯C¯ and FQI values were consistently greater when we used the datagenerated C values than when we used the

  4. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  5. CT diagnosis of occipital bone pacchionian depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jianguo; Xu Xiaolin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To improve the recognition of the CT findings of occipital bone pacchionian depression, in order to avoid misdiagnosis. Methods: occipital bone pacchionian depression underwent CT with plain scan and intravenous contrast enhancement in 11 cases, and then the CT findings were analyzed. Results: Occipital bone pacchionian depression situated beside the torcular herophilia in 11 cases. The depression or bone defect were found at occipital bone inner plate, they can reach diploe or outer plate and had no enhancement after contrast injection. Conclusions: CT scans play an important role in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of occipital bone pacchionian depression

  6. Tropical Wetlands as Carbon Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. B.; Saunders, M.

    2007-12-01

    This presentation focuses on the tropical wetlands of sub-Saharan Africa. These are an understudied ecosystem in which large emergent grasses and sedges normally dominate and which have the potential to sequester significant amounts of carbon. Measurements of Net Primary Production of these wetlands show that they are some of the highest values recorded for any ecosystem. We have used eddy covariance to measure Net Ecosystem Exchange of pristine and disturbed wetlands and show that pristine systems can have sink strengths as strong as tropical forests while disturbed systems that have been reclaimed for agricultural purposes have a very much reduced carbon sink activity and may be net carbon sources. The management issues surrounding the use of these wetlands illustrate a direct conflict between the production of food crops for the local population and the maintenance of carbon sequestration as an ecosystem service.

  7. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your mood. Chronic pain causes a number of problems that can lead to depression, such as trouble sleeping and stress. Disabling pain can cause low self-esteem due to work, legal or financial issues. Depression ...

  8. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Eke, Paul Emeka

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  9. Integration of treatment wetlands as sustainable wastewater management systems for small communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahab, M.F.; Surampalli, R.Y. [Univ. of Nebraski-Lincoln, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2002-06-15

    This paper discuses the applicability as well as the integration of the constructed wetlands technology within the environmental infrastructure in small communities. To that end, a case study involving the use of Constructed wetlands (CW) for waste management in the Nebraska plains is presented. CW systems have been shown to be effective treatment alternatives in resource-limited small communities; and hence, can contribute to improving the economic well-being and the sustainability of many small communities. The paper specifically discusses the performance of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands systems used as the wastewater treatment process for a small community in eastern Nebraska and outlines operational experience gained through five years of plant operation. The results show that effective and sufficient CW seasonal removals of TSS, VSS, CBOD{sub 5}, COD, and fecal coliform were achieved. Wastewater temperatures seemed to affect CBOD{sub 5} and COD removal rates. Nitrogen and phosphorus reductions were not as effective and varied seasonally, as well as with wastewater temperature. The addition of a sand filter, to aid in further nitrification and disinfection following CW treatment, markedly improved the performance of the wetlands system. After a few years of operation, the performance of the system was dampened by apparent clogging and subsequent eruption of wastewater at the head-end of the treatment cells. While clogging was partially caused by biomass build-up in the wetlands substrate, visual observations suggest that excessive vegetation and relaxed maintenance may also be responsible. (author)

  10. Direct impacts of outer continental shelf activities on wetland loss in the central Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, R.H.; Turner, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The direct impacts of outer continental shelf (OCS) development on recent wetland loss in the northern Gulf of Mexico were quantified using aerial imagery, field surveys, and literature review. The total direct impacts accounted for an estimated 25.6 percent of total net wetland loss within the Louisiana portion of the study area from 1955/56 to 1978. Of the total direct impacts of 73,905 ha, OCS-related activities accounted for 11,589-13,631 ha of the wetland loss during the same time interval. Although this is a substantial areal loss, it represents only 4.0-4.7 percent of the total Louisiana wetland loss from 1955/56 to 1978, and 15.7-18.4 percent of direct impacts. Direct impacts from OCS pipelines averages 2.49 ha/km, lower than published guidelines, and totaled 12,012 ha. Lowest impacts are for backfilled pipelines in the Chenier Plain of western Louisiana and for small young pipeline canals does not appear to be an important factor for total new wetland loss in the coastal zone because few pipelines are open to navigation and, for the examples found, the impact width was not significantly different than for open pipelines closed to navigation. Navigation channels account for a minimum of 16,902 ha of habitat change. Direct impacts per unit length of navigation channel average 20 times greater than pipelines

  11. Integration of treatment wetlands as sustainable wastewater management systems for small communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahab, M.F.; Surampalli, R.Y.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discuses the applicability as well as the integration of the constructed wetlands technology within the environmental infrastructure in small communities. To that end, a case study involving the use of Constructed wetlands (CW) for waste management in the Nebraska plains is presented. CW systems have been shown to be effective treatment alternatives in resource-limited small communities; and hence, can contribute to improving the economic well-being and the sustainability of many small communities. The paper specifically discusses the performance of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands systems used as the wastewater treatment process for a small community in eastern Nebraska and outlines operational experience gained through five years of plant operation. The results show that effective and sufficient CW seasonal removals of TSS, VSS, CBOD 5 , COD, and fecal coliform were achieved. Wastewater temperatures seemed to affect CBOD 5 and COD removal rates. Nitrogen and phosphorus reductions were not as effective and varied seasonally, as well as with wastewater temperature. The addition of a sand filter, to aid in further nitrification and disinfection following CW treatment, markedly improved the performance of the wetlands system. After a few years of operation, the performance of the system was dampened by apparent clogging and subsequent eruption of wastewater at the head-end of the treatment cells. While clogging was partially caused by biomass build-up in the wetlands substrate, visual observations suggest that excessive vegetation and relaxed maintenance may also be responsible. (author)

  12. Hydrogeomorphic (HGM) Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions: Guidelines for Developing Guidebooks (Version 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    time, travel time, field data collection, and analysis (Whigham et al. 2007, Kleindl et al. 2010, Berkowitz et al. 2011). Several different...they occur. Prairie potholes, playa lakes, vernal pools, Carolina Bays, and cypress domes are common examples of depression wetlands. Tidal Fringe...Large playas Flat (organic soil) Precipitation Vertical Peat bogs; portions of Everglades Peatlands over permafrost Riverine Overbank flow from

  13. Mine-associated wetlands as avian habitat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstman, A.J.; Nawrot, J.R.; Woolf, A.

    1998-01-01

    Surveys for interior wetland birds at mine-associated emergent wetlands on coal surface mines in southern Illinois detected one state threatened and two state endangered species. Breeding by least bittern (Ixobrychus exilis) and common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) was confirmed. Regional assessment of potential wetland bird habitat south of Illinois Interstate 64 identified a total of 8,109 ha of emergent stable water wetlands; 10% were associated with mining. Mine-associated wetlands with persistent hydrology and large expanses of emergent vegetation provide habitat that could potentially compensate for loss of natural wetlands in Illinois

  14. Inferring tidal wetland stability from channel sediment fluxes: observations and a conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Neil K.; Nidzieko, Nicholas J.; Kirwan, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic and climatic forces have modified the geomorphology of tidal wetlands over a range of timescales. Changes in land use, sediment supply, river flow, storminess, and sea level alter the layout of tidal channels, intertidal flats, and marsh plains; these elements define wetland complexes. Diagnostically, measurements of net sediment fluxes through tidal channels are high-temporal resolution, spatially integrated quantities that indicate (1) whether a complex is stable over seasonal timescales and (2) what mechanisms are leading to that state. We estimated sediment fluxes through tidal channels draining wetland complexes on the Blackwater and Transquaking Rivers, Maryland, USA. While the Blackwater complex has experienced decades of degradation and been largely converted to open water, the Transquaking complex has persisted as an expansive, vegetated marsh. The measured net export at the Blackwater complex (1.0 kg/s or 0.56 kg/m2/yr over the landward marsh area) was caused by northwesterly winds, which exported water and sediment on the subtidal timescale; tidally forced net fluxes were weak and precluded landward transport of suspended sediment from potential seaward sources. Though wind forcing also exported sediment at the Transquaking complex, strong tidal forcing and proximity to a turbidity maximum led to an import of sediment (0.031 kg/s or 0.70 kg/m2/yr). This resulted in a spatially averaged accretion of 3.9 mm/yr, equaling the regional relative sea level rise. Our results suggest that in areas where seaward sediment supply is dominant, seaward wetlands may be more capable of withstanding sea level rise over the short term than landward wetlands. We propose a conceptual model to determine a complex's tendency toward stability or instability based on sediment source, wetland channel location, and transport mechanisms. Wetlands with a reliable portfolio of sources and transport mechanisms appear better suited to offset natural and

  15. Inferring tidal wetland stability from channel sediment fluxes: Observations and a conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Neil K.; Nidzieko, Nicholas J.; Kirwan, Matthew L.

    2013-12-01

    and climatic forces have modified the geomorphology of tidal wetlands over a range of timescales. Changes in land use, sediment supply, river flow, storminess, and sea level alter the layout of tidal channels, intertidal flats, and marsh plains; these elements define wetland complexes. Diagnostically, measurements of net sediment fluxes through tidal channels are high-temporal resolution, spatially integrated quantities that indicate (1) whether a complex is stable over seasonal timescales and (2) what mechanisms are leading to that state. We estimated sediment fluxes through tidal channels draining wetland complexes on the Blackwater and Transquaking Rivers, Maryland, USA. While the Blackwater complex has experienced decades of degradation and been largely converted to open water, the Transquaking complex has persisted as an expansive, vegetated marsh. The measured net export at the Blackwater complex (1.0 kg/s or 0.56 kg/m2/yr over the landward marsh area) was caused by northwesterly winds, which exported water and sediment on the subtidal timescale; tidally forced net fluxes were weak and precluded landward transport of suspended sediment from potential seaward sources. Though wind forcing also exported sediment at the Transquaking complex, strong tidal forcing and proximity to a turbidity maximum led to an import of sediment (0.031 kg/s or 0.70 kg/m2/yr). This resulted in a spatially averaged accretion of 3.9 mm/yr, equaling the regional relative sea level rise. Our results suggest that in areas where seaward sediment supply is dominant, seaward wetlands may be more capable of withstanding sea level rise over the short term than landward wetlands. We propose a conceptual model to determine a complex's tendency toward stability or instability based on sediment source, wetland channel location, and transport mechanisms. Wetlands with a reliable portfolio of sources and transport mechanisms appear better suited to offset natural and anthropogenic loss.

  16. Hurricane impacts on coastal wetlands: a half-century record of storm-generated features from southern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Barras, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Temporally and spatially repeated patterns of wetland erosion, deformation, and deposition are observed on remotely sensed images and in the field after hurricanes cross the coast of Louisiana. The diagnostic morphological wetland features are products of the coupling of high-velocity wind and storm-surge water and their interaction with the underlying, variably resistant, wetland vegetation and soils. Erosional signatures include construction of orthogonal-elongate ponds and amorphous ponds, pond expansion, plucked marsh, marsh denudation, and shoreline erosion. Post-storm gravity reflux of floodwater draining from the wetlands forms dendritic incisions around the pond margins and locally integrates drainage pathways forming braided channels. Depositional signatures include emplacement of broad zones of organic wrack on topographic highs and inorganic deposits of variable thicknesses and lateral extents in the form of shore-parallel sandy washover terraces and interior-marsh mud blankets. Deformational signatures primarily involve laterally compressed marsh and displaced marsh mats and balls. Prolonged water impoundment and marsh salinization also are common impacts associated with wetland flooding by extreme storms. Many of the wetland features become legacies that record prior storm impacts and locally influence subsequent storm-induced morphological changes. Wetland losses caused by hurricane impacts depend directly on impact duration, which is controlled by the diameter of hurricane-force winds, forward speed of the storm, and wetland distance over which the storm passes. Distinguishing between wetland losses caused by storm impacts and losses associated with long-term delta-plain processes is critical for accurate modeling and prediction of future conversion of land to open water.

  17. 78 FR 68719 - Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... of wetlands in Sec. 55.2(b)(11) to cover manmade wetlands in order to ensure that wetlands built for...] RIN 2501-AD51 Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HUD... wetlands and floodplains. With respect to wetlands, the rule codifies existing procedures for Executive...

  18. Human and natural impacts on fluvial and karst depressions of the Maya Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Timothy; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl; Dunning, Nicholas; Cook, Duncan

    2008-10-01

    This paper begins to differentiate the major drivers and chronology of erosion and aggradation in the fluvial and fluviokarst landscapes of the southern and central Maya Lowlands. We synthesize past research on erosion and aggradation and add new data from water, soils, radiocarbon dating, and archaeology to study the quantity, timing, and causes of aggradation in regional landscape depressions. Geomorphic findings come from many excavations across a landscape gradient from upland valleys, karst sinks, and fans into the coastal plain floodplains and depressions. Findings from water chemistry show that sources in the uplands have low quantities of dissolved ions but water in the coastal plains has high amounts of dissolved ions, often nearly saturated in calcium and sulfate. We found significant geomorphic complexity in the general trends in upland karst sinks. In a few instances, sediments preserve Late Pleistocene paleosols, buried 2-3 m, though many more have distinct middle to late Holocene paleosols, buried 1-2 m, after c. 2300 BP (Maya Early to Late Preclassic). From 2300-1100 BP (Late Preclassic to Classic Periods), the landscape aggraded from five main mechanisms: river flooding, climatic instability, accelerated erosion, ancient Maya landscape manipulation, and gypsum precipitation from a rise in a water table nearly saturated in calcium and sulfate ions. Evidence exists for two or three high magnitude floods, possibly driven by hurricanes. Moreover, lake-core and geophysical studies from the Petén Lakes region have shown high rates of deposition of silicate clays ('Maya Clays') starting and peaking during the Maya Preclassic and continuing to be high through the Late Classic. The main driver on upland karst depressions, the Petén lakes, upland valleys, and fans was accelerated soil erosion, but water table rise, probably driven by sea-level rise, was the main driver on the wetlands of the coastal plain because the aggraded sediments here are dominantly

  19. Wetland Hydrology | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefits and types, and explains the role and importance of hydrology on wetland functioning. The chapter continues with the description of wetland hydrologic terms and related estimation and modeling techniques. The chapter provides a quick but valuable information regarding hydraulics of surface and subsurface flow, groundwater seepage/discharge, and modeling groundwater/surface water interactions in wetlands. Because of the aggregated effects of the wetlands at larger scales and their ecosystem services, wetland hydrology at the watershed scale is also discussed in which we elaborate on the proficiencies of some of the well-known watershed models in modeling wetland hydrology. This chapter can serve as a useful reference for eco-hydrologists, wetland researchers and decision makers as well as watershed hydrology modelers. In this chapter, the importance of hydrology for wetlands and their functional role are discussed. Wetland hydrologic terms and the major components of water budget in wetlands and how they can be estimated/modeled are also presented. Although this chapter does not provide a comprehensive coverage of wetland hydrology, it provides a quick understanding of the basic co

  20. Mercury and methylmercury dynamics in a coastal plain watershed, New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, J.L.; Riskin, M.L.; Szabo, Z.; Reilly, P.A.; Rosman, R.; Bonin, J.L.; Fischer, J.M.; Heckathorn, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    The upper Great Egg Harbor River watershed in New Jersey's Coastal Plain is urbanized but extensive freshwater wetlands are present downstream. In 2006-2007, studies to assess levels of total mercury (THg) found concentrations in unfiltered streamwater to range as high as 187 ng/L in urbanized areas. THg concentrations were pH and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and nitrate decreased with flushing of soils after rain. Most of the river's flow comes from groundwater seepage; unfiltered groundwater samples contained up to 177 ng/L of THg in urban areas where there is a history of well water with THg that exceeds the drinking water standard (2,000 ng/L). THg concentrations were lower (<25 ng/L) in unfiltered groundwater from downstream wetland areas. In addition to higher THg concentrations (mostly particulate), concentrations of chloride were higher in streamwater and groundwater from urban areas than in those from downstream wetland areas. Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in unfiltered streamwater ranged from 0.17 ng/L at a forest/wetlands site to 2.94 ng/L at an urban site. The percentage of THg present as MeHg increased as the percentage of forest + wetlands increased, but also was high in some urban areas. MeHg was detected only in groundwater <1 m below the water/sediment interface. Atmospheric deposition is presumed to be the main source of Hg to the wetlands and also may be a source to groundwater, where wastewater inputs in urban areas are hypothesized to mobilize Hg deposited to soils. ?? 2010 US Government.

  1. Michigan Wetlands: Yours To Protect. A Citizen's Guide to Local Involvement in Wetland Protection. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikiel, Wilfred

    This guidebook is designed to assist concerned Michigan citizens, local governments, conservation organizations, landowners, and others in their efforts to initiate wetlands protection activities. Chapter 1 focuses on wetland functions, values, losses, and the urgent need to protect wetland resources. Chapter 2 discusses wetland identification and…

  2. Designated Wetlands and Setback Distances in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This GIS layer depicts wetlands designated for protection in the state of Iowa. Designated wetland is defined in Iowa Code subsection 459.102(21) as follows: 21....

  3. Industry and forest wetlands: Cooperative research initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, J.P.; Lucier, A.A.; Haines, L.W.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989 the forest products industry responded to a challenge of the National Wetlands Policy Forum to initiate a cooperative research program on forest wetlands management organized through the National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI). The objective is to determine how forest landowners can manage wetlands for timber production while protecting other wetland functions such as flood storage, water purification, and food chain/wildlife habitat support. Studies supported by the NCASI in 9 states are summarized. Technical support on wetland regulatory issues to member companies is part of the research program. Since guidelines for recognizing wetlands for regulatory proposed have changed frequently, the NCASI has recommend an explicit link between wetland delineation and a classification system that considers difference among wetland types in vegetation, soils, hydrology, appearance, landscape position, and other factors. 16 refs

  4. 40 CFR 230.41 - Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... through secondary impacts. Discharging fill material in wetlands as part of municipal, industrial or recreational development may modify the capacity of wetlands to retain and store floodwaters and to serve as a...

  5. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to the...

  6. 40 CFR 257.9 - Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not locate such units in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the following demonstrations... actions (e.g., restoration of existing degraded wetlands or creation of man-made wetlands); and (5) Sufficient information is available to make a reasonable determination with respect to these demonstrations...

  7. North Dakota Wetlands Discovery Guide. Photocopy Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Nancy J., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet contains games and activities that can be photocopied for classroom use. Activities include Wetland Terminology, Putting on the Map, Erosional Forces, Water in...Water out, Who Lives Here?, Wetlands in Disguise, Dichotomous Plant Game, Algae Survey, Conducting an Algal Survey, Water Quality Indicators Guide, Farming Wetlands, Wetlands…

  8. Description of the Wetlands Research Programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walmsley, RD

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a rationale to the development of a multidisciplinary South African Wetland Research Programme. A definition of what is meant by the term wetland is given along with a general description of what types of wetland occur in South...

  9. Modeling sediment accumulation in North American playa wetlands in response to climate change, 1940-2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Lucy; Skagen, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    Playa wetlands on the west-central Great Plains of North America are vulnerable to sediment infilling from upland agriculture, putting at risk several important ecosystem services as well as essential habitats and food resources of diverse wetland-dependent biota. Climate predictions for this semi-arid area indicate reduced precipitation which may alter rates of erosion, runoff, and sedimentation of playas. We forecasted erosion rates, sediment depths, and resultant playa wetland depths across the west-central Great Plains and examined the relative roles of land use context and projected changes in precipitation in the sedimentation process. We estimated erosion with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) using historic values and downscaled precipitation predictions from three general circulation models and three emissions scenarios. We calibrated RUSLE results using field sediment measurements. RUSLE is appealing for regional scale modeling because it uses climate forecasts with monthly resolution and other widely available values including soil texture, slope and land use. Sediment accumulation rates will continue near historic levels through 2070 and will be sufficient to cause most playas (if not already filled) to fill with sediment within the next 100 years in the absence of mitigation. Land use surrounding the playa, whether grassland or tilled cropland, is more influential in sediment accumulation than climate-driven precipitation change.

  10. Wetlands Research Program. Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual. Appendix C. Sections 1 and 2. Region 6 - Southern Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Zandica L. Maryland senna FAG fassutha f11i~iformis L. Cassytha :azyaponia cuinque~ aba (Raf.) Shinners Cayaponia FAC CeLtis !aeviaata Wilid. Sugarberry... Basil FAC P. ternsifoiwn Schrad. Pychanthemum FAC Qu.ercus X beadiei Trelease Beadle oak FACW- Q. bicolor Willd. Swamp white oak FACW+ Q. imbricaria

  11. Changes in plain bearing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Koring, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    A unique fusion of theoretical and practical knowledge, Changes in Plain Bearing Technology, by Rolf Koring, covers a meaningful range of expertise in this field.Drawing from years of experience in design development, materials selection, and their correlation to real-life part failure, this title, co-published by SAE International and expert Verlag (Germany), concentrates on hydrodynamic bearings lined with white metals, also known as Babbits.Written under the assumption that even the most mature body of knowledge can be revisited and improved, Changes in Plain Bearing Technology is a courageous and focused approach to questioning accepted test results and looking at alternative material compounds, and their application suitability.The process, which leads to innovative answers on how the technology is transforming itself to respond to new market requirements, shows how interdisciplinary thinking can recognize new potential in long-established industrial modus operandi.Tackling the highly complex issue of co...

  12. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  13. Lake Superior Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of the coastal margin and the watershed context in defining the ecology of even very large lakes is increasingly being recognized and examined. Coastal wetlands are both important contributors to the biodiversity and productivity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake-basin connection. We explored wetland-watershed connections and their relationship to wetland function and condition using data collected from 37 Lake Superior wetlands spanning a substantial geographic and geomorphic gradient. While none of these wetlands are particularly disturbed, there were nevertheless clear relationships between watershed landuse and wetland habitat and biota, and these varied consistently across wetland type categories that reflected the strength of connection to the watershed. For example, water clarity and vegetation structure complexity declined with decreasing percent natural land cover, and these effects were strongest in riverine wetlands (having generally large watersheds and tributary-dominated hydrology) and weakest in lagoon wetlands (having generally small watersheds and lake-dominate hydrology). Fish abundance and species richness both increased with decreasing percent natural land cover while species diversity decreased, and again the effect was strongest in riverine wetlands. Lagoonal wetlands, which lack any substantial tributary, consistently harbored the fewest species of fish and a composition different from the more watershed-lin

  14. The influence of data characteristics on detecting wetland/stream surface-water connections in the Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Distler, Hayley; Lang, Megan W.; Alexander, Laurie C.

    2018-01-01

    The dependence of downstream waters on upstream ecosystems necessitates an improved understanding of watershed-scale hydrological interactions including connections between wetlands and streams. An evaluation of such connections is challenging when, (1) accurate and complete datasets of wetland and stream locations are often not available and (2) natural variability in surface-water extent influences the frequency and duration of wetland/stream connectivity. The Upper Choptank River watershed on the Delmarva Peninsula in eastern Maryland and Delaware is dominated by a high density of small, forested wetlands. In this analysis, wetland/stream surface water connections were quantified using multiple wetland and stream datasets, including headwater streams and depressions mapped from a lidar-derived digital elevation model. Surface-water extent was mapped across the watershed for spring 2015 using Landsat-8, Radarsat-2 and Worldview-3 imagery. The frequency of wetland/stream connections increased as a more complete and accurate stream dataset was used and surface-water extent was included, in particular when the spatial resolution of the imagery was finer (i.e., watershed contributing direct surface water runoff to streamflow. This finding suggests that our interpretation of the frequency and duration of wetland/stream connections will be influenced not only by the spatial and temporal characteristics of wetlands, streams and potential flowpaths, but also by the completeness, accuracy and resolution of input datasets.

  15. Presence of trace elements in fishes from the Chaco-Pampeana plain (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra V. Volpedo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chaco-Pampean plain is one of the greatest plains worldwide; present a wetland macro system (lagoons, marshes, rivers, streams, channels. The water quality of these environments is diverse and has different trace elements natural (As, F, Mo and V and anthropogenic (Cr, Cu and Pb. The Chaco Pampean plain has an important diversity of fish species however the species of commercial importance are limited. This paper presents the reviews of the studies related to the presence of trace elements in tissues of commercial fishes (shad Prochilodus lineatus and silversides Odontesthes bonariensis in the Chaco-Pampean plain in recent decades and a discussion about associated information gaps is presented. The presence of trace elements in commercial fish muscle is a major problem for food security. The results showed that most of the elements present in shad are in lower levels than the maximum limits set by the Argentine Food Code (CAA, 2014. In the case of Pb present in the muscle of the shad, the determined values exceed those considered by the European Food Safety Authority. In the case of silversides the values of As, Pb, Hg are mostly lower than those maximum recommended by the Argentine Food Code. However, according to the European Food Safety Authority, the lower limit on the benchmark dose for a 10% response (BMDL values associated with health risk for As.

  16. The nitrogen abatement cost in wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystroem, Olof

    1998-01-01

    The costs of abating agricultural nitrogen pollution in wetlands are estimated. By linking costs for construction of wetlands to the denitrification capacity of wetlands, an abatement cost function can be formed. A construction-cost function and a denitrification function for wetlands is estimated empirically. This paper establishes a link between abatement costs and the nitrogen load on wetlands. Since abatement costs fluctuate with nitrogen load, ignoring this link results in incorrect estimates of abatement costs. The results demonstrate that wetlands have the capacity to provide low cost abatement of nitrogen compounds in runoff. For the Kattegatt region in Sweden, marginal abatement costs for wetlands are shown to be lower than costs of land use changing measures, such as extended land under fallow or cultivation of fuel woods, but higher than the marginal costs of reducing nitrogen fertilizer

  17. In Situ Wetland Restoration Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    wetland habitats where: habitat disruption should be minimized; desirable flora or fauna might be harmed by traditional remedial excavation methods...However, it is possible that short-term impacts to hydrophytic flora and fauna may occur. Other potential challenges include the long-term physical

  18. Magellanic Wetlands : More than Moor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filipová, L.; Hédl, Radim; Dančák, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2013), s. 163-188 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0389 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : wetland * vegetation * environment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.612, year: 2013

  19. Nevada Test Site Wetlands Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen

    1997-05-01

    This report identifies 16 Nevada Test Site (NTS) natural water sources that may be classified by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as jurisdictional wetlands and identifies eight water sources that may be classified as waters of the United States. These water sources are rare, localized habitats on the NTS that are important to regional wildlife and to isolated populations of water tolerant plants and aquatic organisms. No field investigations on the NTS have been conducted in the past to identify those natural water sources which would be protected as rare habitats and which may fall under regulatory authority of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1997. This report identifies and summarizes previous studies of NTS natural water sources, and identifies the current DOE management practices related to the protection of NTS wetlands. This report also presents management goals specific for NTS wetlands that incorporate the intent of existing wetlands legislation, the principles of ecosystem management, and the interests of regional land managers and other stakeholders.

  20. Using Halogens (Cl, Br, F, I) and Stable Isotopes of Water (δ18O, δ2H) to Trace Hydrological and Biogeochemical Processes in Prairie Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Z. F.; Lu, Z.; Mills, C. T.; Goldhaber, M. B.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Mushet, D.; Siegel, D. I.; Fiorentino, A. J., II; Gade, M.; Spradlin, J.

    2014-12-01

    Prairie pothole wetlands are ubiquitous features of the Great Plains of North America, and important habitat for amphibians and migratory birds. The salinity of proximal wetlands varies highly due to groundwater-glacial till interactions, which influence wetland biota and associated ecosystem functions. Here we use halogens and stable isotopes of water to fingerprint hydrological and biogeochemical controls on salt cycling in a prairie wetland complex. We surveyed surface, well, and pore waters from a groundwater recharge wetland (T8) and more saline closed (P1) and open (P8) basin discharge wetlands in the Cottonwood Lake Study Area (ND) in August/October 2013 and May 2014. Halogen concentrations varied over a broad range throughout the study area (Cl = 2.2 to 170 mg/L, Br = 13 to 2000 μg/L, F = evaporation-enriched pond water (δ18O = -9.5 to -2.71 ‰) mixes with shallow groundwater in the top 0.6 m of fringing wetland soils and 1.2 m of the substrate in the center of P1. Our results suggest endogenous sources for Br and I within the prairie landscape that may be controlled by biological mechanisms or weathering of shale from glacial till.

  1. Groundwater in the hydrological functioning of wetlands in the Southeast of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, A.; Quiroz, O.M.; Massone, H.E.; Martinez, D.E.; Bocanegra, E.

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of the hydrological functioning and the interaction among the different water bodies in an area is essential when a sustainable use of the hydric resources is considered. The hydrogeochemical interpretation of representative water-sample analyses is a useful tool developed for the analysis of hydrological systems. Isotopic techniques are also important tools for the validation and adjustment of conceptual hydrogeological models. The aim of the present paper is to develop depth of knowledge of the conceptual hydrogeological models for wetlands of the Pampa Plain by using hydrochemical and stable isotopic techniques. Three wetlands of different origin were sampled for hydrochemical and stable isotopic analysis (18O and 2H) at different depths. Groundwater and streams were also sampled. Hydrochemical analysis classified La Brava and Los Padres basins as sodium bicarbonate waters, and La Salada Basin as sodium chloride bicarbonate waters. Differences in the isotopic fingerprints and the electrical conductivity values were evident among wetlands: 6.766,8, 762,2 y 647,8 iS/cm in La Salada, Los Padres and La Brava respectively. Hydrochemical and isotopic data allowed us to define the effluent-influent behavior of these wetlands, their main recharge sources and their importance as aquifer recharge areas. (Author).

  2. Linking the historic 2011 Mississippi River flood to coastal wetland sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcini, Federico; Khan, Nicole S.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Horton, Benjamin P.; Lutken, Carol B.; McKee, Karen L.; Santoleri, Rosalia; Colella, Simone; Li, Chunyan; Volpe, Gianluca; D’Emidio, Marco; Salusti, Alessandro; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands in the Mississippi River deltaic plain are deteriorating in part because levees and control structures starve them of sediment. In Spring of 2011 a record-breaking flood brought discharge on the lower Mississippi River to dangerous levels, forcing managers to divert up to 3500 m3/s-1 of water to the Atchafalaya River Basin. Here we quantify differences between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River inundation and sediment-plume patterns using field-calibrated satellite data, and assess the impact these outflows had on wetland sedimentation. We characterize hydrodynamics and suspended sediment patterns of the Mississippi River plume using in-situ data collected during the historic flood. We show that the focused, high-momentum jet from the leveed Mississippi delivered sediment far offshore. In contrast, the plume from the Atchafalaya was more diffuse; diverted water inundated a large area; and sediment was trapped within the coastal current. Maximum sedimentation (up to several centimetres) occurred in the Atchafalaya Basin despite the larger sediment load carried by the Mississippi. Minimum accumulation occurred along the shoreline between these river sources. Our findings provide a mechanistic link between river-mouth dynamics and wetland sedimentation patterns that is relevant for plans to restore deltaic wetlands using artificial diversions.

  3. Tree rings record 100 years of hydrologic change within a wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanosky, Thomas M.; Kappel, William M.

    1997-01-01

    One of the primary responsibilities of the Water Resources Division of the United States Geological Survey is to monitor the amount and quality of waters in our rivers, lakes, and wetlands. Hydrologists can evaluate these important resources in the present day, but how can they determine what conditions were like in past decades or even centuries? Moreover, are conditions part of a natural cycle or caused primarily by human activities? It is sometimes possible to answer these questions by examining the annual growth rings of trees. Each ring can be assigned an exact year of formation, and yearly differences in ring widths can be used to compare past and present conditions on a flood plain, along a river, or within a wetland. Thus, tree rings provide information that otherwise might be difficult or even impossible to obtain.

  4. China's natural wetlands: past problems, current status, and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuqing An; Harbin Li; Baohua Guan; Changfang Zhou; Zhongsheng Wang; Zifa Deng; Yingbiao Zhi; Yuhong Liu; Chi Xu; Shubo Fang; Jinhui Jiang; Hongli Li

    2007-01-01

    Natural wetlands, occupying 3.8% of China's land and providing 54.9% of ecosystem services, are unevenly distributed among eight wetland regions. Natural wetlands in China suffered great loss and degradation (e.g., 23.0% freshwater swamps, 51.2% coastal wetlands) because of the wetland reclamation during China's long history of civilization, and the...

  5. Macroinvertebrate abundance, water chemistry, and wetland characteristics affect use of wetlands by avian species in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Pendelton, G.W.; Bennatti, C.R.; Mingo, T.M.; Stromborg, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to determine use by avian species (e.g., piscivores, marsh birds, waterfowl, selected passerines) of 29 wetlands in areas with low (chemistry, basin characteristics, and avian use of different wetland types. Shallow, beaver (Castor canadensis)-created wetlands with the highest phosphorus levels and abundant and varied macrophyte assemblages supported greater densities of macroinvertebrates and numbers of duck broods (88.3% of all broods) in contrast to deep, glacial type wetlands with sparse vegetation and lower invertebrate densities that supported fewer broods (11.7%). Low pH may have affected some acid-intolerant invertebrate taxa (i.e., Ephemeroptera), but high mean numbers of Insecta per wetland were recorded from wetlands with a pH of 5.51. Other Classes and Orders of invertebrates were more abundant on wetlands with pH > 5.51. All years combined use of wetlands by broods was greater on wetlands with pH ≤ 5.51 (77.4%) in contract to wetlands with pH > 5.51 that supported 21.8% of the broods. High mean brood density was associated with mean number of Insecta per wetland. For lentic wetlands created by beaver, those habitats contained vegetative structure and nutrients necessary to provide cover to support invertebrate populations that are prey of omnivore and insectivore species. The fishless status of a few wetlands may have affected use by some waterfowl species and obligate piscivores.

  6. Engineered wetlands : an innovative environmental solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, S.; Davis, B.M. [Jacques Whitford NAWE, White Bear Lake, MN (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Engineered wetlands are now considered as an emerging technology for the in situ remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and waters. Engineered wetlands incorporate a horizontal subsurface flow gravel bed reactor lined with impermeable liners, and are equipped with forced bed aeration systems in order to enhance oxygen delivery to the wetland's aerobic micro-organisms. The wetlands typically emphasize specific characteristics of wetland ecosystems to improve treatment capacities. This article discussed an engineered wetlands installed at a set of pipeline terminals as well as at a former British Petroleum (BP) refinery. The pipeline terminal generated contact wastewater containing BTEX and ammonia, and a subsurface engineered wetland was built in 1998. To date, the 16,000{sup 2} foot wetland has treated a flow-equalized input of approximately 1.5 m{sup 3} per day of contaminants. At the refinery, a wetland treatment system was designed to treat 6000 m{sup 3} of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The treatment site consists of a golf course, river front trails, and a white water kayak course. A cascade aeration system was used for iron oxidation and air-stripping. A soil matrix biofilter was used for passive gas phase benzene removal, as well as for the removal of ferric hydroxide precipitates. It was concluded that engineered wetlands can offer long-term solutions to site remediation challenges. 1 fig.

  7. Working group report on wetlands and wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teels, B.

    1991-01-01

    The results and conclusions of a working group held to discuss the state of knowledge and knowledge gaps concerning climatic change impacts on wetlands and wildlife are presented. Prairie pothole wetlands are extremely productive and produce ca 50% of all ducks in North America. The most productive, and most vulnerable to climate change, are small potholes, often less than one acre in area. Changes in water regimes and land use will have more impact on wildlife than changes in temperature. There are gaps in knowledge relating to: boreal wetlands and their wildlife, and response to climate; wetland inventories that include the smallest wetlands; coordinated schemes for monitoring status and trends of wetlands and wildlife; and understanding of ecological relationships within wetlands and their wildlife communities. Recommendations include: coordinate and enhance existing databases to provide an integrated monitoring system; establish research programs to increase understanding of ecological relationships within wetland ecosystems; evaluate programs and policies that affect wetlands; and promote heightened public awareness of general values of wetlands

  8. Engineered wetlands : an innovative environmental solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.; Davis, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Engineered wetlands are now considered as an emerging technology for the in situ remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and waters. Engineered wetlands incorporate a horizontal subsurface flow gravel bed reactor lined with impermeable liners, and are equipped with forced bed aeration systems in order to enhance oxygen delivery to the wetland's aerobic micro-organisms. The wetlands typically emphasize specific characteristics of wetland ecosystems to improve treatment capacities. This article discussed an engineered wetlands installed at a set of pipeline terminals as well as at a former British Petroleum (BP) refinery. The pipeline terminal generated contact wastewater containing BTEX and ammonia, and a subsurface engineered wetland was built in 1998. To date, the 16,000 2 foot wetland has treated a flow-equalized input of approximately 1.5 m 3 per day of contaminants. At the refinery, a wetland treatment system was designed to treat 6000 m 3 of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The treatment site consists of a golf course, river front trails, and a white water kayak course. A cascade aeration system was used for iron oxidation and air-stripping. A soil matrix biofilter was used for passive gas phase benzene removal, as well as for the removal of ferric hydroxide precipitates. It was concluded that engineered wetlands can offer long-term solutions to site remediation challenges. 1 fig

  9. Wetland restoration, flood pulsing, and disturbance dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    1999-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics are critical to wetland viability, there is as yet no consensus among those responsible for wetland restoration about how best to plan for those phenomena or even whether it is really necessary to do so at all. In this groundbreaking book, Dr. Beth Middleton draws upon the latest research from around the world to build a strong case for making flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics integral to the wetland restoration planning process.While the initial chapters of the book are devoted to laying the conceptual foundations, most of the coverage is concerned with demonstrating the practical implications for wetland restoration and management of the latest ecological theory and research. It includes a fascinating case history section in which Dr. Middleton explores the restoration models used in five major North American, European, Australian, African, and Asian wetland projects, and analyzes their relative success from the perspective of flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics planning.Wetland Restoration also features a wealth of practical information useful to all those involved in wetland restoration and management, including: * A compendium of water level tolerances, seed germination, seedling recruitment, adult survival rates, and other key traits of wetland plant species * A bibliography of 1,200 articles and monographs covering all aspects of wetland restoration * A comprehensive directory of wetland restoration ftp sites worldwide * An extensive glossary of essential terms

  10. National Wetland Mitigation Banking Study Wetland Migitation Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    habitat (i.e. number of snags, extent of exposed steep shoreline, etc.) rather than selecting species themselves as function indicators [ WWF 1992...etc.) that are converted to portray hydrologic, water quality, and habitat functions as well as wetland loss on watershed scales [ WWF 1992]. The...Natural Areas - include the Stewardship Program, a partnership program between the private and public sectors for conservation land acquisitions

  11. Caregiver Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard — and can lead to feelings ...

  12. Depression FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression affects about 15 million American adults every year. Women are more likely to get depression than men. In general, about one out of every four women will get depression at some point in her life.

  13. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  14. Introduction to the Wetland Book 1: Wetland structure and function, management, and nethods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Nick C.; Middleton, Beth A.; McInnes, Robert J.; Everard, Mark; Irvine, Kenneth; Van Dam, Anne A.; Finlayson, C. Max; Finlayson, C. Max; Everard, Mark; Irvine, Kenneth; McInnes, Robert J.; Middleton, Beth A.; Van Dam, Anne A.; Davidson, Nick C.

    2016-01-01

    The Wetland Book 1 is designed as a ‘first port-of-call’ reference work for information on the structure and functions of wetlands, current approaches to wetland management, and methods for researching and understanding wetlands. Contributions by experts summarize key concepts, orient the reader to the major issues, and support further research on such issues by individuals and multidisciplinary teams. The Wetland Book 1 is organized in three parts - Wetland structure and function; Wetland management; and Wetland methods - each of which is divided into a number of thematic Sections. Each Section starts with one or more overview chapters, supported by chapters providing further information and case studies on different aspects of the theme.

  15. Modelling of seasonal dynamics of Wetland-Groundwater flow interaction in the Canadian Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Melkamu; Nussbaumer, Raphaël; Ireson, Andrew; Keim, Dawn

    2015-04-01

    Wetland-shallow groundwater interaction is studied at the St. Denis National Wildlife Area in Saskatchewan, Canada, located within the northern glaciated prairies of North America. Ponds in the Canadian Prairies are intermittently connected by fill-spill processes in the spring and growing season of some wetter years. The contribution of the ponds and wetlands to groundwater is still a significant research challenge. The objective of this study is to evaluate model's ability to reproduce observed effects of groundwater-wetland interactions including seasonal pattern of shallow groundwater table, intended flow direction and to quantify the depression induced infiltration from the wetland to the surrounding uplands. The integrated surface-wetland-shallow groundwater processes and the changes in land-energy and water balances caused by the flow interaction are simulated using ParFlow-CLM at a small watershed of 1km2 containing both permanent and seasonal wetland complexes. We compare simulated water table depth with piezometers reading monitored by level loggers at the watershed. We also present the strengths and limitations of the model in reproducing observed behaviour of the groundwater table response to the spring snowmelt and summer rainfall. Simulations indicate that the shallow water table at the uphill recovers quickly after major rainfall events in early summer that generates lateral flow to the pond. In late summer, the wetland supplies water to the surrounding upland when the evapotranspiration is higher than the precipitation in which more water from the root zone is up taken by plants. Results also show that Parflow-CLM is able to reasonably simulate the water table patterns response to summer rainfall, while it is insufficient to reproduce the spring snowmelt infiltration which is the most dominant hydrological process in the Prairies.

  16. EnviroAtlas - Potential Wetland Areas - Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Potential Wetland Areas (PWA) dataset shows potential wetland areas at 30-meter resolution. Beginning two centuries ago, many wetlands were turned...

  17. Patterned Ground in Wetlands of the Maya Lowlands: Anthropogenic and Natural Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, T.; Beach, S. L.

    2004-12-01

    We use geological and archaeological evidence to understand the formation of patterned ground in perennial and seasonal wetlands in the karst depressions of Belize and Guatemala. Some scholars have argued that these features are the remnants of ancient Maya wetland fields, chinampas, on which intensive cultivation produced food that could begin to nourish the extremely high population of the Late Classic (A.D. 550-850). Others have argued that these were natural features or that they represent landscape manipulation for rising sea level in the Preclassic (1000 B.C. -A.D. 250). We present the evidence for ancient intensive agriculture and natural landscape formation with multiple proxies: excavated field and canal features, artifacts, pollen, soil stratigraphy, and water chemistry. Evidence thus far suggests that many regional depressions have Preclassic (1200 BC to AD 200) or earlier paleosols, buried from 1-2 m by eroded soils induced by Maya land use practices. These paleosols were buried by eroded sediments from uplands and by precipitation of gypsum from rising groundwater. The sedimentation occurred largely between the Preclassic and Late Classic, when ancient Maya farmers built canals in pre-existing low spots to reclaim these wetlands. Thus, stable natural processes, environmental change, and human manipulation have acted together to form patterned wetland ground over the later Holocene.

  18. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Matthew J.; Creed, Irena F.; Alexander, Laurie; Basu, Nandita B.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Craft, Christopher; D’Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bo...

  19. Treatment of wastewater with the constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, R.; Olivares, S.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed wetland is an environmental sound, actual and economic solution for the treatment of wastewater. The use of these constructed wetlands increased in the last few years, principally in developed countries. However there is not much information about the performance of these biological systems in tropical and subtropical climates. In these review the state of art of these technology is given, and also the advantage of the use of the constructed wetland for the wastewater treatment in our country

  20. Diverse characteristics of wetlands restored under the Wetlands Reserve Program in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Joel M. Gramling

    2012-01-01

    The Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) restores converted or degraded wetlands on private working lands; however, the nature and outcomes of such efforts are undocumented in the Southeastern U.S. Identification of wetland types is needed to assess the program's conservation benefits, because ecological functions differ with hydrogeomorphic (HGM) type. We reviewed...

  1. Characteristic community structure of Florida's subtropical wetlands: the Florida wetland condition index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depending upon the classification scheme applied, there are between 10 and 45 different wetland types in Florida. Land use and land cover change has a marked effect on wetland condition, and different wetland types are affected differentially depending on many abiotic and biotic ...

  2. SLOSS or Not? Factoring Wetland Size Into Decisions for Wetland Conservation, Enhancement, Restoration, and Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitigation or replacement of several small impacted wetlands or sites with fewer large wetlands can occur deliberately through the application of functional assessment methods (e.g., Adamus 1997) or coincidentally as the result of market-based mechanisms for wetland mitigation ba...

  3. Artificial wetlands - yes or no?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Václav; Lusk, Stanislav; Halačka, Karel; Lusková, Věra

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2004), s. 119-127 ISSN 1642-3593. [International Symposium on the Ecology of Fluvial Fishes /9./. Lodz, 23.06.2003-26.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6093007; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : floodplain * artificial wetlands * fish communities Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  4. Artificial wetland for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias I, Carlos A; Brix, Hans

    2003-01-01

    The development of constructed wetland technology for wastewater treatment has gone a long way and from an experimental and unknown empirical method, which was capable of handling wastewater a sound technology was developed. Thanks to research, and the work of many public and private companies that have gather valuable operation information, constructed wetland technology has evolved to be a relievable, versatile and effective way to treat wastewater, run off, handle sludge and even improve environmental quality and provide recreation sites, while maintaining low operation and maintenance costs, and at the same time, producing water of quality that can meet stringent regulations, while being and environmental friendly solution to treat waste-waters. Constructed wetlands can be established in many different ways and its characteristics can differ greatly, according to the user needs, the geographic site and even the climatic conditions of the area. The following article deals with the general characteristics of the technology and the physical and chemical phenomena that govern the pollution reduction with in the different available systems

  5. Interactions Between Wetlands and Tidal Inlets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanchez, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) presents numerical simulations investigating how the loss of wetlands in estuaries modifies tidal processes in inlet navigation channels...

  6. Restoration of freshwater Cypress-Tupelo Wetlands in the southeastern U.S. following severe hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, William H.; Krauss, Ken W.; Shaffer, Gary P.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater forested wetlands commonly occur in the lower Coastal Plain of the southeastern US with baldcypress (Taxodium distichum [L.] L.C. Rich.) and water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica L.) often being the dominant trees. Extensive anthropogenic activities combined with eustatic sea-level rise and land subsidence have caused widespread hydrological changes in many of these forests. In addition, hurricanes (a common, although aperiodic occurrence) cause wide-spread damage from wind and storm surge events, with impacts exacerbated by human-mediated coastal modifications (e.g., dredging, navigation channels, etc.). Restoration of forested wetlands in coastal areas is important because emergent canopies can greatly diminish wind penetration, thereby reducing the wind stress available to generate surface waves and storm surge that are the major cause of damage to coastal ecosystems and their surrounding communities. While there is an overall paucity of large-scale restoration efforts within coastal forested wetlands of the southeastern US, we have determined important characteristics that should drive future efforts. Restoration efforts may be enhanced considerably if coupled with hydrological enhancement, such as freshwater, sediment, or sewage wastewater diversions. Large-scale restoration of coastal forests should be attempted to create a landscape capable of minimizing storm impacts and maximizing wetland sustainability in the face of climate change. Planting is the preferred regeneration method in many forested wetland sites because hydrological alterations have increased flooding, and planted seedlings must be protected from herbivory to enhance establishment. Programs identifying salt tolerance in coastal forest tree species need to be continued to help increase resilience to repetitive storm surge events.

  7. Monitoring and modeling wetland chloride concentrations in relationship to oil and gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Tangen, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Extraction of oil and gas via unconventional methods is becoming an important aspect of energy production worldwide. Studying the effects of this development in countries where these technologies are being widely used may provide other countries, where development may be proposed, with some insight in terms of concerns associated with development. A fairly recent expansion of unconventional oil and gas development in North America provides such an opportunity. Rapid increases in energy development in North America have caught the attention of managers and scientists as a potential stressor for wildlife and their habitats. Of particular concern in the Northern Great Plains of the U.S. is the potential for chloride-rich produced water associated with unconventional oil and gas development to alter the water chemistry of wetlands. We describe a landscape scale modeling approach designed to examine the relationship between potential chloride contamination in wetlands and patterns of oil and gas development. We used a spatial Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach to assess multiple models explaining chloride concentrations in wetlands. These models included effects related to oil and gas wells (e.g. age of wells, number of wells) and surficial geology (e.g. glacial till, outwash). We found that the model containing the number of wells and the surficial geology surrounding a wetland best explained variation in chloride concentrations. Our spatial predictions showed regions of localized high chloride concentrations. Given the spatiotemporal variability of regional wetland water chemistry, we do not regard our results as predictions of contamination, but rather as a way to identify locations that may require more intensive sampling or further investigation. We suggest that an approach like the one outlined here could easily be extended to more of an adaptive monitoring approach to answer questions about chloride contamination risk that are of interest to managers.

  8. Wise use of wetlands: current state of protection and utilization of Chinese wetlands and recommendations for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanxia; Yao, Yong; Ju, Meiting

    2008-06-01

    Wetland protection and utilization sometimes appear to be in conflict, but promoting the wise use of wetlands can solve this problem. All countries face the challenge of sustainable development of wetlands to a greater or lesser extent, but the problem is especially urgent in developing countries, such as China, that want to accelerate their economic development without excessive environmental cost. Chinese wetlands contribute greatly to economic development, but improper use of these natural resources has endangered their existence. It is thus necessary to provide scientific guidance to managers and users of wetlands. In this paper, we analyze the present status of Chinese wetland protection and utilization, and discuss problems in six categories: a lack of public awareness of the need for wetland protection; insufficient funding for wetland protection and management; an imperfect legal system to protect wetlands; insufficient wetland research; lack of coordination among agencies and unclear responsibilities; and undeveloped technologies related to wetland use and protection. The wise use of Chinese wetlands will require improvements in four main areas: increased wetland utilization research, scientific management of wetland utilization, improved laws and regulations to protect wetlands, and wider dissemination of wetland knowledge. Based on these categories, we propose a framework for the optimization of wetland use by industry to provide guidance for China and other countries that cannot sacrifice economic benefits to protect their wetlands.

  9. The positive net radiative greenhouse gas forcing of increasing methane emissions from a thawing boreal forest-wetland landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Manuel; Chasmer, Laura E; Kljun, NatasCha; Quinton, William L; Treat, Claire C; Sonnentag, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    At the southern margin of permafrost in North America, climate change causes widespread permafrost thaw. In boreal lowlands, thawing forested permafrost peat plateaus ('forest') lead to expansion of permafrost-free wetlands ('wetland'). Expanding wetland area with saturated and warmer organic soils is expected to increase landscape methane (CH 4 ) emissions. Here, we quantify the thaw-induced increase in CH 4 emissions for a boreal forest-wetland landscape in the southern Taiga Plains, Canada, and evaluate its impact on net radiative forcing relative to potential long-term net carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) exchange. Using nested wetland and landscape eddy covariance net CH 4 flux measurements in combination with flux footprint modeling, we find that landscape CH 4 emissions increase with increasing wetland-to-forest ratio. Landscape CH 4 emissions are most sensitive to this ratio during peak emission periods, when wetland soils are up to 10 °C warmer than forest soils. The cumulative growing season (May-October) wetland CH 4 emission of ~13 g CH 4  m -2 is the dominating contribution to the landscape CH 4 emission of ~7 g CH 4  m -2 . In contrast, forest contributions to landscape CH 4 emissions appear to be negligible. The rapid wetland expansion of 0.26 ± 0.05% yr -1 in this region causes an estimated growing season increase of 0.034 ± 0.007 g CH 4  m -2  yr -1 in landscape CH 4 emissions. A long-term net CO 2 uptake of >200 g CO 2  m -2  yr -1 is required to offset the positive radiative forcing of increasing CH 4 emissions until the end of the 21st century as indicated by an atmospheric CH 4 and CO 2 concentration model. However, long-term apparent carbon accumulation rates in similar boreal forest-wetland landscapes and eddy covariance landscape net CO 2 flux measurements suggest a long-term net CO 2 uptake between 49 and 157 g CO 2  m -2  yr -1 . Thus, thaw-induced CH 4 emission increases likely exert a positive net radiative greenhouse gas

  10. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, Roxanne; O’Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  11. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemhuis, Constanze; Amler, Esther; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Gabiri, Geofrey; Näschen, Kristian

    2016-10-01

    Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  12. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Leemhuis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  13. Impacts of climate change on freshwater fisheries of the Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regier, H.A.; Holmes, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The diversity and habitats of fish in Great Plains hydrologic systems are described. Fisheries on the Great Plains consist of commercial, subsistence, and recreational. Direct effects of climate change on Great Plains fisheries will involve temperature and hydrology. Increased temperature could expand suitable habitat for fish with preferred temperatures between 10 and 27.5 degree C by 2.5 times base conditions. Reductions in precipitation will reduce river flows and lake levels, and an overall reduction in habitat for the most preferred species is expected. Indirect effects stem from human responses to climate change, and streams, wetlands and coastal zones will likely bear the brunt of such activity. More river systems may be damned or channelized, which could lead to increases in eutrophication or pollution, most severely affecting the preferred white fishes. Geographical shifts of species in response to climate change will likely favour black fish over grey fish over white fish, and when longitudinal or lateral movement is blocked, local extinctions may occur. 22 refs., 1 tab

  14. 398 ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND VALUATION PROCESSES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    This study therefore examined the processes involved in the valuation of wetland resources for ... of the subsistence uses of wetland resources are also not ... hydrological cycle, playing a key role in the provision ..... Management Strategies at the River Basin Scale. A ... Using. GIS: A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty.

  15. Carbon Cycling in Wetland Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl C. Trettin; Martin F. Jurgensen

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands comprise a small proportion (i.e., 2 to 3%) of earth's terrestrial surface, yet they contain a significant proportion of the terrestrial carbon (C) pool. Soils comprise the largest terrestrial C pool (ca. 1550 Pg C in upper 100 cm; Eswaran et al., 1993; Batjes, 1996), and wetlands contain the single largest component, with estimates ranging between 18...

  16. Stochastic modeling of wetland-groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertassello, Leonardo Enrico; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Park, Jeryang; Jawitz, James W.; Botter, Gianluca

    2018-02-01

    Modeling and data analyses were used in this study to examine the temporal hydrological variability in geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), as influenced by hydrologic connectivity to shallow groundwater, wetland bathymetry, and subject to stochastic hydro-climatic forcing. We examined the general case of GIWs coupled to shallow groundwater through exfiltration or infiltration across wetland bottom. We also examined limiting case with the wetland stage as the local expression of the shallow groundwater. We derive analytical expressions for the steady-state probability density functions (pdfs) for wetland water storage and stage using few, scaled, physically-based parameters. In addition, we analyze the hydrologic crossing time properties of wetland stage, and the dependence of the mean hydroperiod on climatic and wetland morphologic attributes. Our analyses show that it is crucial to account for shallow groundwater connectivity to fully understand the hydrologic dynamics in wetlands. The application of the model to two different case studies in Florida, jointly with a detailed sensitivity analysis, allowed us to identify the main drivers of hydrologic dynamics in GIWs under different climate and morphologic conditions.

  17. Diversity patterns of temporary wetland macroinvertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although macroinvertebrates are potentially useful for assessing the condition of temporary wetlands, little is yet known about them. Macroinvertebrate assemblages were assessed in 138 temporary wetlands in the south-western Cape, recording 126 taxa. However, predicted richness estimates were all higher than the ...

  18. Advancing the use of minirhizotrons in wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. M. Iversen; M. T. Murphy; M. F. Allen; J. Childs; D. M. Eissenstat; E.A. Lilleskov; T. M. Sarjala; V. L. Sloan; P. F. Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Background. Wetlands store a substantial amount of carbon (C) in deep soil organic matter deposits, and play an important role in global fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane. Fine roots (i.e., ephemeral roots that are active in water and nutrient uptake) are recognized as important components of biogeochemical cycles in nutrient-limited wetland ecosystems. However,...

  19. The carbon balance of North American wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott D. Bridgham; J. Patrick Megonigal; Jason K. Keller; Norman b. Bliss; Carl Trettin

    2006-01-01

    We examine the carbon balance of North American wetlands by reviewing and synthesizing the published literature and soil databases. North American wetlands contain about 220 Pg C, most of which is in peat. They are a small to moderate carbon sink of about 49 Tg C yr-l, although the uncertainty around this estimate is greater than 100%, with the...

  20. Pesticide mitigation capacities of constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew T. Moore; Charles M. Cooper; Sammie Smith; John H. Rodgers

    2000-01-01

    This research focused on using constructed wetlands along field perimeters to buffer receiving water against potential effects of pesticides associated with storm runoff. The current study incorporated wetland mesocosm sampling following simulated runoff events using chlorpyrifos, atrazine, and metolachlor. Through this data collection and simple model analysis,...

  1. Urban "accidental" wetlands mediate water quality and heat exposure for homeless populations in a desert city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, M.

    2015-12-01

    In urban settings where humans interact in complex ways with ecosystems, there may be hidden or unanticipated benefits (services) or harm (disservices) conferred by the built environment. We examined interactions of a highly vulnerable population, the homeless, with urban waterways and wetlands in the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. Climate change models project increases in heat, droughts, and extreme floods for the southwestern U.S. These projected changes pose a number of problems for sustainability and quality of future water supply, and the ability of human populations to mitigate heat stress and avoid fatalities. Urban wetlands that are created "accidentally" (by water pooling in abandoned areas of the landscape) have many structural (e.g., soils and hydrology) and functional (e.g., high denitrification) elements that mimic natural, unaltered aquatic systems. Accidental wetland systems in the dry bed of the Salt River, fed by storm and waste water from urban Phoenix, are located within economically depressed sections of the city, and show the potential for pollutant and heat mitigation. We used a mixed-method socio-ecological approach to examine wetland ecosystem functions and the ways in which homeless populations utilize Salt River wetlands for ecosystem services. Interviews and trash surveys indicated that homeless people are accessing and utilizing the wetlands as a source of running water, for sanitary and heat mitigation services, and for recreation and habitation. Environmental monitoring demonstrated that the wetlands can provide a reliable source of running water, nutrient and pathogen removal, heat mitigation, and privacy, but they may also pose a health risk to individuals coming in contact with the water through drinking or bathing. Whether wetlands provided a net benefit vs. harm varied according to site, season, and particular service, and several tradeoffs were identified. For example, heat is highest during the summer storm season

  2. Climate variability and Great Plains agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Katz, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The ways in which inhabitants of the Great Plains, including Indians, early settlers, and 20th century farmers, have adapted to climate changes on the Great Plains are explored. The climate of the Great Plains, because of its variability and extremes, can be very stressful to plants, animals and people. It is suggested that agriculture and society on the Great Plains have, during the last century, become less vulnerable to the stresses imposed by climate. Opinions as to the sustainability of agriculture on the Great Plains vary substantially. Lockeretz (1981) suggests that large scale, high cost technologies have stressed farmers by creating surpluses and by requiring large investments. Opie (1989) sees irrigation as a climate substitute, however he stresses that the Ogallala aquifer must inevitably become depleted. Deborah and Frank Popper (1987) believe that farming on the Plains is unsustainable, and destruction of shelterbelts, out-migration of the rural population and environmental problems will lead to total collapse. With global warming, water in the Great Plains is expected to become scarcer, and although improvements in irrigation efficiency may slow depletion of the Ogallala aquifer, ultimately the acreage under irrigation must decrease to levels that can be sustained by natural recharge and reliable surface flows. 23 refs., 2 figs

  3. Is wetland mitigation successful in Southern California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, D. L.; Rademacher, L. K.

    2004-12-01

    Wetlands perform many vital functions within their landscape position; they provide unique habitats for a variety of flora and fauna and they act as treatment systems for upstream natural and anthropogenic waste. California has lost an estimated 91% of its wetlands. Despite the 1989 "No Net Loss" policy and mitigation requirements by the regulatory agencies, the implemented mitigation may not be offsetting wetlands losses. The "No Net Loss" policy is likely failing for numerous reasons related to processes in the wetlands themselves and the policies governing their recovery. Of particular interest is whether these mitigation sites are performing essential wetlands functions. Specific questions include: 1) Are hydric soil conditions forming in mitigation sites; and, 2) are the water quality-related chemical transformations that occur in natural wetlands observed in mitigation sites. This study focuses on success (or lack of success) in wetlands mitigation sites in Southern California. Soil and water quality investigations were conducted in wetland mitigation sites deemed to be successful by vegetation standards. Observations of the Standard National Resource Conservation Service field indicators of reducing conditions were made to determine whether hydric soil conditions have developed in the five or more years since the implementation of mitigation plans. In addition, water quality measurements were performed at the inlet and outlet of these mitigation sites to determine whether these sites perform similar water quality transformations to natural wetlands within the same ecosystem. Water quality measurements included nutrient, trace metal, and carbon species measurements. A wetland location with minimal anthropogenic changes and similar hydrologic and vegetative features was used as a control site. All sites selected for study are within a similar ecosystem, in the interior San Diego and western Riverside Counties, in Southern California.

  4. Modeling natural wetlands: A new global framework built on wetland observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, E.; Romanski, J.; Olefeldt, D.

    2015-12-01

    Natural wetlands are the world's largest methane (CH4) source, and their distribution and CH4 fluxes are sensitive to interannual and longer-term climate variations. Wetland distributions used in wetland-CH4 models diverge widely, and these geographic differences contribute substantially to large variations in magnitude, seasonality and distribution of modeled methane fluxes. Modeling wetland type and distribution—closely tied to simulating CH4 emissions—is a high priority, particularly for studies of wetlands and CH4 dynamics under past and future climates. Methane-wetland models either prescribe or simulate methane-producing areas (aka wetlands) and both approaches result in predictable over- and under-estimates. 1) Monthly satellite-derived inundation data include flooded areas that are not wetlands (e.g., lakes, reservoirs, and rivers), and do not identify non-flooded wetlands. 2) Models simulating methane-producing areas overwhelmingly rely on modeled soil moisture, systematically over-estimating total global area, with regional over- and under-estimates, while schemes to model soil-moisture typically cannot account for positive water tables (i.e., flooding). Interestingly, while these distinct hydrological approaches to identify wetlands are complementary, merging them does not provide critical data needed to model wetlands for methane studies. We present a new integrated framework for modeling wetlands, and ultimately their methane emissions, that exploits the extensive body of data and information on wetlands. The foundation of the approach is an existing global gridded data set comprising all and only wetlands, including vegetation information. This data set is augmented with data inter alia on climate, inundation dynamics, soil type and soil carbon, permafrost, active-layer depth, growth form, and species composition. We investigate this enhanced wetland data set to identify which variables best explain occurrence and characteristics of observed

  5. 76 FR 79145 - Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ...] RIN 2501-AD51 Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands Correction In proposed rule document... Type of proposed action Type of proposed action (new Wetlands or 100- Non-wetlands area reviewable... construction in wetlands locations. \\2\\ Or those paragraphs of Sec. 55.20 that are applicable to an action...

  6. 7 CFR 1410.10 - Restoration of wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of wetlands. 1410.10 Section 1410.10... Restoration of wetlands. (a) An owner or operator who entered into a CRP contract on land that is suitable for restoration to wetlands or that was restored to wetlands while under such contract, may, if approved by CCC...

  7. 7 CFR 12.30 - NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. 12.30 Section 12.30 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.30 NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. (a) Technical and...

  8. On leadership and success in professional wetland science

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Wetland Scientists and the wetland profession are fortunate to have an abundance of leaders. These leaders respond to the needs of the Society for guidance and direction. They also consistently advance wetland science and improve the quality of wetland management...

  9. Natural wetland in China | Pan | African Journal of Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As it is known to all, wetland is one of the most crucial ecosystems in the world, with large varieties in China. How to protect wetland in China has become a more serious problem and five typical wetlands were selected in the article to illustrate the condition. Through the comparison between the past and present of wetland, ...

  10. Determination of the health of Lunyangwa wetland using Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Msilimba, Golden

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are major sources of various ecological goods and services including storage and distribution of water in space and time which help in ensuring the availability of surface and groundwater throughout the year. However, there still remains a poor understanding of the range of values of water quality parameters that occur in wetlands either in its impacted state or under natural conditions. It was thus imperative to determine the health of Lunyangwa wetland in Mzuzu City in Malawi in order to classify and determine its state. This study used the Escom's Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index Field Guide to determine the overall characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland and to calculate its combined Wetland Index Score. Data on site information, field measurements (i.e. EC, pH, temperature and DO) and physical characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland were collected from March, 2013 to February, 2014. Results indicate that Lunyangwa wetland is a largely open water zone which is dominated by free-floating plants on the water surface, beneath surface and emergent in substrate. Furthermore, the wetland can be classified as of a C ecological category (score = 60-80%), which has been moderately modified with moderate risks of the losses and changes occurring in the natural habitat and biota in the wetland. It was observed that the moderate modification and risk were largely because of industrial, agricultural, urban/social catchment stressors on the wetland. This study recommends an integrated and sustainable management approach coupled with continuous monitoring and evaluation of the health of the wetland for all stakeholders in Mzuzu City. This would help to maintain the health of Lunyangwa wetland which is currently at risk of being further modified due to the identified catchment stressors.

  11. BUFFER ZONE METHOD, LAND USE PLANNING AND CONSERVATION STRATEGIES ABOUT WETLANDS UNDER URBANIZATION PRESSURE IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ergen, Baris

    2010-01-01

    Wetlands are special areas that they offer habitat for terrestrial and water life. Wetlands are nest sides also for amphibian, for this reason wetlands offer wide range diversity for species. Wetlands are also reproduction regions for birds. Wetlands have special importance for ecosystem because they obstruct erosion. Wetlands absorb contaminants from water therefore wetlands contribute to clean water and they offer more potable water. Wetlands obstruct waterflood. In that case wetlands must ...

  12. Mapping paddy rice planting area in rice-wetland coexistent areas through analysis of Landsat 8 OLI and MODIS images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuting; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiangping

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of paddy rice fields is necessary for the studies of trace gas emissions, water source management, and food security. The phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, which identifies the unique flooding stage of paddy rice, has been widely used. However, identification and mapping of paddy rice in rice-wetland coexistent areas is still a challenging task. In this study, we found that the flooding/transplanting periods of paddy rice and natural wetlands were different. The natural wetlands flood earlier and have a shorter duration than paddy rice in the Panjin Plain, a temperate region in China. We used this asynchronous flooding stage to extract the paddy rice planting area from the rice-wetland coexistent area. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data was used to derive the temperature-defined plant growing season. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was used to detect the flooding signal and then paddy rice was extracted using the difference in flooding stages between paddy rice and natural wetlands. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated with in-situ ground-truth data and Google Earth images. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 95% and 0.90, respectively. The spatial pattern of OLI-derived paddy rice map agrees well with the paddy rice layer from the National Land Cover Dataset from 2010 (NLCD-2010). The differences between Rice Landsat and Rice NLCD are in the range of ±20% for most 1-km grid cell. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, via integrating MODIS and Landsat 8 OLI images, to map paddy rice fields in complex landscapes of paddy rice and natural wetland in the temperate region.

  13. Uranium Immobilization in Wetland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul G.; Li, Dien; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Scheckel, Kirk

    2014-05-01

    In wetlands, which are a major feature at the groundwater-surface water interface, plants deliver oxygen to the subsurface to keep root tissue aerobic. Some of this oxygen leaches into the rhizosphere where it will oxidize iron that typically precipitates on or near roots. Furthermore, plans provide carbon via root exudates and turnover, which in the presence of the iron oxides drives the activity of heterotrophic iron reducers in wetland soils. Oxidized iron is an important electron acceptor for many microbially-driven transformations, which can affect the fate and transport of several pollutants. It has been shown that heterotrophic iron reducing organisms, such as Geobacter sp., can reduce water soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). The goal of this study was to determine if and how iron cycling in the wetland rhizosphere affects uranium dynamics. For this purpose, we operated a series of small-scale wetland mesocosms in a greenhouse to simulate the discharge of uranium-contaminated groundwater to surface waters. The mesocosms were operated with two different Fe(II) loading rates, two plant types, and unplanted controls. The mesocosms contained zones of root exclusion to differentiate between the direct presence and absence of roots in the planted mesocosms. The mesocosms were operated for several month to get fully established, after which a U(VI) solution was fed for 80 days. The mesocosms were then sacrificed and analyzed for solid-associated chemical species, microbiological characterization, micro-X-ray florescence (µ-XRF) mapping of Fe and U on the root surface, and U speciation via X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES). Results showed that bacterial numbers including Geobacter sp., Fe(III), as well as total uranium, were highest on roots, followed by sediments near roots, and lowest in zones without much root influence. Results from the µ-XRF mapping on root surfaces indicated a strong spatial correlation between Fe and U. This correlation was

  14. Seismic echo character northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreery, C.J.; Laine, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Latest efforts in echo-character mapping of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain have discerned variations in thickness in a near-surface sedimentary sequence which has been designated seismic unit A. This unit probably represents the last episode of progradation of the Hatteras Deep Sea Fan in the southern part of the study area, and has infilled probable paleochannels from the Wilmington Canyon and Sohm Gap in the north. Unit A thins to a minimum in the central part of the plain, where older sediments come within 1 meter of the surface. Variations in the character of the surface reflector probably represent differing degrees of microtopography developed on a Late Pleistocene surface overlain by Holocene sediments. With the exception of one area identified as a relict surface outcropping in the western plain, this microtopography seems related to present-day thalweg locations on the abyssal plain. 11 references, 13 figures

  15. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  16. flexural improvement of plain concrete beams strengthened

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muhammad Nura Isa

    Results show significant improvement in both stiffness and load bearing capacity of plain concrete ... Various methods have been developed to increase their strength capacity by using .... obtained by carrying out uniaxial direct tensile strength.

  17. Depression (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... that may also cause depression. There are many medical conditions that can cause depression. Medical conditions that ...

  18. Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  19. Depression Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3286 After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Depression Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... How Do I Know if I Am Experiencing Depression? The following questions may help you determine if ...

  20. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa | Cornelius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defining the concept 'plain language' has been hugely problematic since the origins of the socalled Plain Language Movement in the 1970s in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Definitions of 'plain language' abound, yet James (2008: 6) warns, in relation to plain language practitioners, that “we can't yet call ...

  1. Geographically isolated wetlands: Rethinking a misnomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Cohen, Matthew J.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie G.; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Walls, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the category “geographically isolated wetlands” (GIWs; i.e., wetlands completely surrounded by uplands at the local scale) as used in the wetland sciences. As currently used, the GIW category (1) hampers scientific efforts by obscuring important hydrological and ecological differences among multiple wetland functional types, (2) aggregates wetlands in a manner not reflective of regulatory and management information needs, (3) implies wetlands so described are in some way “isolated,” an often incorrect implication, (4) is inconsistent with more broadly used and accepted concepts of “geographic isolation,” and (5) has injected unnecessary confusion into scientific investigations and discussions. Instead, we suggest other wetland classification systems offer more informative alternatives. For example, hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classes based on well-established scientific definitions account for wetland functional diversity thereby facilitating explorations into questions of connectivity without an a priori designation of “isolation.” Additionally, an HGM-type approach could be used in combination with terms reflective of current regulatory or policymaking needs. For those rare cases in which the condition of being surrounded by uplands is the relevant distinguishing characteristic, use of terminology that does not unnecessarily imply isolation (e.g., “upland embedded wetlands”) would help alleviate much confusion caused by the “geographically isolated wetlands” misnomer.

  2. Urban wetlands: restoration or designed rehabilitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Ravit

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuing loss of urban wetlands due to an expanding human population and urban development pressures makes restoration or creation of urban wetlands a high priority. However, urban wetland restorations are particularly challenging due to altered hydrologic patterns, a high proportion of impervious surface and stormwater runoff, degraded urban soils, historic contamination, and competitive pressure from non-native species. Urban wetland projects must also consider human-desired socio-economic benefits. We argue that using current wetland restoration approaches and existing regulatory “success” criteria, such as meeting restoration targets for vegetation structure based on reference sites in non-urban locations, will result in “failed” urban restorations. Using three wetland Case Studies in highly urbanized locations, we describe geophysical tools, stormwater management methods, and design approaches useful in addressing urban challenges and in supporting “successful” urban rehabilitation outcomes. We suggest that in human-dominated landscapes, the current paradigm of “restoration” to a previous state must shift to a paradigm of “rehabilitation”, which prioritizes wetland functions and values rather than vegetation structure in order to provide increased ecological benefits and much needed urban open space amenities.

  3. Mapping anuran habitat suitability to estimate effects of grassland and wetland conservation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of the Northern Great Plains of North America to a landscape favoring agricultural commodity production has negatively impacted wildlife habitats. To offset impacts, conservation programs have been implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and other agencies to restore grassland and wetland habitat components. To evaluate effects of these efforts on anuran habitats, we used call survey data and environmental data in ecological niche factor analyses implemented through the program Biomapper to quantify habitat suitability for five anuran species within a 196 km2 study area. Our amphibian call surveys identified Northern Leopard Frogs (Lithobates pipiens), Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), Boreal Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris maculata), Great Plains Toads (Anaxyrus cognatus), and Woodhouse’s Toads (Anaxyrus woodhousii) occurring within the study area. Habitat suitability maps developed for each species revealed differing patterns of suitable habitat among species. The most significant findings of our mapping effort were 1) the influence of deep-water overwintering wetlands on suitable habitat for all species encountered except the Boreal Chorus Frog; 2) the lack of overlap between areas of core habitat for both the Northern Leopard Frog and Wood Frog compared to the core habitat for both toad species; and 3) the importance of conservation programs in providing grassland components of Northern Leopard Frog and Wood Frog habitat. The differences in habitats suitable for the five species we studied in the Northern Great Plains, i.e., their ecological niches, highlight the importance of utilizing an ecosystem based approach that considers the varying needs of multiple species in the development of amphibian conservation and management plans.

  4. Teen Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is depression in teens? Teen depression is a serious medical illness. It's more than just a feeling of being sad or "blue" for a few days. It is ... trouble focusing and have no motivation or energy. Depression can make you feel like it is hard ...

  5. Tracking sedimentation from the historic A.D. 2011 Mississippi River flood in the deltaic wetlands of Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nicole S.; Horton, Benjamin P.; McKee, Karen L.; Jerolmack, Douglas; Falcini, Federico; Enache, Mihaela D.; Vane, Christopher H.

    2013-01-01

    Management and restoration of the Mississippi River deltaic plain (southern United States) and associated wetlands require a quantitative understanding of sediment delivery during large flood events, past and present. Here, we investigate the sedimentary fingerprint of the 2011 Mississippi River flood across the Louisiana coast (Atchafalaya Delta, Terrebonne, Barataria, and Mississippi River Delta basins) to assess spatial patterns of sedimentation and to identify key indicators of sediment provenance. The sediment deposited in wetlands during the 2011 flood was distinguished from earlier deposits based on biological characteristics, primarily absence of plant roots and increased presence of centric (planktonic) diatoms indicative of riverine origin. By comparison, the lithological (bulk density, organic matter content, and grain size) and chemical (stable carbon isotopes of bulk organic matter) properties of flood sediments were nearly identical to the underlying deposit. Flood sediment deposition was greatest in wetlands near the Atchafalaya and Mississippi Rivers and accounted for a substantial portion (37% to 85%) of the annual accretion measured at nearby monitoring stations. The amount of sediment delivered to those basins (1.1–1.6 g cm−2) was comparable to that reported previously for hurricane sedimentation along the Louisiana coast (0.8–2.1 g cm−2). Our findings not only provide insight into how large-scale river floods influence wetland sedimentation, they lay the groundwork for identifying previous flood events in the stratigraphic record.

  6. Limnology of Jagatpur wetland, Bhagalpur (Bihar), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Brajnandan

    2011-10-01

    The water quality in Jagatpur wetland was assessed in terms of physico - chemical characteristics for two years, between August 2003-July 2005. The variations in different physico-chemical parameters have been discussed in this paper in relation to fluctuating climatic condition. The wetland is experiencing racing eutrophication as evidenced by pH was acidic to alkaline, total hardness was considerably high, bicarbonate was in moderate amount, phosphate-phosphorus content was in a range of medium to high and higher values of COD. The present status of the quality of water of Jagatpur wetland is delineated in this paper.

  7. Reduction of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in Prairie wetlands by common wetland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Anson R; Fehr, Jessica; Liber, Karsten; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Morrissey, Christy A

    2017-02-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are frequently detected in wetlands during the early to mid-growing period of the Canadian Prairie cropping season. These detections also overlap with the growth of macrophytes that commonly surround agricultural wetlands which we hypothesized may reduce neonicotinoid transport and retention in wetlands. We sampled 20 agricultural wetlands and 11 macrophyte species in central Saskatchewan, Canada, over eight weeks to investigate whether macrophytes were capable of reducing movement of neonicotinoids from cultivated fields and/or reducing concentrations in surface water by accumulating insecticide residues into their tissues. Study wetlands were surrounded by clothianidin-treated canola and selected based on the presence (n=10) or absence (n=10) of a zonal plant community. Neonicotinoids were positively detected in 43% of wetland plants, and quantified in 8% of all plant tissues sampled. Three plant species showed high rates of detection: 78% Equisetum arvense (clothianidin, range: wetlands had higher detection frequency and water concentrations of clothianidin (β±S.E.: -0.77±0.26, P=0.003) and thiamethoxam (β±S.E.: -0.69±0.35, P=0.049) than vegetated wetlands. We assessed the importance of wetland characteristics (e.g. vegetative zone width, emergent plant height, water depth) on neonicotinoid concentrations in Prairie wetlands over time using linear mixed-effects models. Clothianidin concentrations were significantly lower in wetlands surrounded by taller plants (β±S.E.: -0.57±0.12, P≤0.001). The results of this study suggest that macrophytes can play an important role in mitigating water contamination by accumulating neonicotinoids and possibly slowing transport to wetlands during the growing season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Results of preliminary reconnaissance trip to determine the presence of wetlands in wet forest habitats on the Island of Hawaii as part of the Hawaii Geothermal Project, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeley, J.S.; Sprecher, S.W.; Lichvar, R.

    1994-02-25

    In October 1993, the authors sampled soils, vegetation, and hydrology at eight sites representing a range of substrates, elevations, soil types, and plant community types within rainforest habitats on the Island of Hawaii. Their purpose was to determine whether any of these habitats were wetlands according to the 1987 Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual. None of the rainforest habitats they sampled was wetland in its entirety. However, communities established on pahoehoe lava flows contained scattered wetlands in depressions and folds in the lava, where water could accumulate. Therefore, large construction projects, such as that associated with proposed geothermal energy development in the area, have the potential to impact a significant number and/or area of wetlands. To estimate those impacts more accurately, they present a supplementary scope of work and cost estimate for additional sampling in the proposed geothermal project area.

  9. Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional assessment—Volume I. Ecological communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Gordon C.; Burris, Lucy; Carr, Natasha B.; Leinwand, Ian I.F.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2017-10-19

    The Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative. The overall goal of the Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) is to compile and synthesize regional datasets to facilitate evaluation of the cumulative effects of change agents on priority ecological communities and species. In particular, the REAs identify and map the distribution of communities and wildlife habitats at broad spatial extents and provide assessments of ecological conditions. The REAs also identify where and to what degree ecological resources are currently at risk from change agents, such as development, fire, invasive species, and climate change. The REAs can help managers identify and prioritize potential areas for conservation or restoration, assess cumulative effects as required by the National Environmental Policy Act, and inform landscape-level planning and management decisions for multiple uses of public lands.Management questions form the basis for the REA framework and were developed in conjunction with the BLM and other stakeholders. Conservation elements are communities and species that are of regional management concern. Core management questions relate to the key ecological attributes and change agents associated with each conservation element. Integrated management questions synthesize the results of the primary core management questions into overall landscape-level ranks for each conservation element.The ecological communities evaluated as conservation elements are shortgrass, mixed-grass, and sand prairies; all grasslands; riparian and nonplaya wetlands; playa wetlands and saline lakes; and prairie streams and rivers. Species and species assemblages evaluated are the freshwater mussel assemblage, Arkansas River shiner (Notropis girardi), ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis), lesser prairie chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), snowy plover (Charadrius

  10. Rehabilitation of coastal wetlands of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    stream_size 16 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Ecosyst_Rehabilitation_1992_2_333.pdf.txt stream_source_info Ecosyst_Rehabilitation_1992_2_333.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  11. Aboveground Net Primary Productivity in a Riparian Wetland Following Restoration of Hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Koontz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the initial results of the effects of hydrological restoration on forested wetlands in the Mississippi alluvial plain near Memphis, Tennessee. Measurements were carried out in a secondary channel, the Loosahatchie Chute, in which rock dikes were constructed in the 1960s to keep most flow in the main navigation channel. In 2008–2009, the dikes were notched to allow more flow into the secondary channel. Study sites were established based on relative distance downstream of the notched dikes. Additionally, a reference site was established north of the Loosahatchie Chute where the dikes remained unnotched. We compared various components of vegetation composition and productivity at sites in the riparian wetlands for two years. Salix nigra had the highest Importance Value at every site. Species with minor Importance Values were Celtis laevigata, Acer rubrum, and Plantanus occidentalis. Productivity increased more following the introduction of river water in affected sites compared to the reference. Aboveground net primary productivity was highest at the reference site (2926 ± 458.1 g·m−2·year−1, the intact site; however, there were greater increase at the sites in the Loosahatchie Chute, where measurements ranged from 1197.7 ± 160.0 g m−2·year−1·to 2874.2 ± 794.0 g·m−2·year−1. The site furthest from the notching was the most affected. Pulsed inputs into these wetlands may enhance forested wetland productivity. Continued monitoring will quantify impacts of restored channel hydrology along the Mississippi River.

  12. Aboveground Net Primary Productivity in a Riparian Wetland Following Restoration of Hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Melissa; Lundberg, Christopher; Lane, Robert; Day, John; Pezeshki, Reza

    2016-02-04

    This research presents the initial results of the effects of hydrological restoration on forested wetlands in the Mississippi alluvial plain near Memphis, Tennessee. Measurements were carried out in a secondary channel, the Loosahatchie Chute, in which rock dikes were constructed in the 1960s to keep most flow in the main navigation channel. In 2008-2009, the dikes were notched to allow more flow into the secondary channel. Study sites were established based on relative distance downstream of the notched dikes. Additionally, a reference site was established north of the Loosahatchie Chute where the dikes remained unnotched. We compared various components of vegetation composition and productivity at sites in the riparian wetlands for two years. Salix nigra had the highest Importance Value at every site. Species with minor Importance Values were Celtis laevigata, Acer rubrum, and Plantanus occidentalis. Productivity increased more following the introduction of river water in affected sites compared to the reference. Aboveground net primary productivity was highest at the reference site (2926 ± 458.1 g·m(-2)·year(-1)), the intact site; however, there were greater increase at the sites in the Loosahatchie Chute, where measurements ranged from 1197.7 ± 160.0 g m(-2)·year(-1)·to 2874.2 ± 794.0 g·m(-2)·year(-1). The site furthest from the notching was the most affected. Pulsed inputs into these wetlands may enhance forested wetland productivity. Continued monitoring will quantify impacts of restored channel hydrology along the Mississippi River.

  13. Quantifying geographic variation in the climatic drivers of midcontinent wetlands with a spatially varying coefficient model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region and in the Great Plains are notorious for their sensitivity to weather variability. These wetlands have been the focus of considerable attention because of their ecological importance and because of the expected impact of climate change. Few models in the literature, however, take into account spatial variation in the importance of wetland drivers. This is surprising given the importance spatial heterogeneity in geomorphology and climatic conditions have in the region. In this paper, I use spatially-varying coefficients to assess the variation in ecological drivers in a number of ponds observed over a 50-year period (1961-2012). I included the number of ponds observed the year before on a log scale, the log of total precipitation, and mean maximum temperature during the four previous seasons as explanatory variables. I also included a temporal component to capture change in the number of ponds due to anthropogenic disturbance. Overall, fall and spring precipitation were most important in pond abundance in the west, whereas winter and summer precipitation were the most important drivers in the east. The ponds in the east of the survey area were also more dependent on pond abundance during the previous year than those in the west. Spring temperature during the previous season influenced pond abundance; while the temperature during the other seasons had a limited effect. The ponds in the southwestern part of the survey area have been increasing independently of climatic conditions, whereas the ponds in the northeast have been steadily declining. My results underline the importance of accounting the spatial heterogeneity in environmental drivers, when working at large spatial scales. In light of my results, I also argue that assessing the impacts of climate change on wetland abundance in the spring, without more accurate climatic forecasting, will be difficult.

  14. Quantifying geographic variation in the climatic drivers of midcontinent wetlands with a spatially varying coefficient model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Roy

    Full Text Available The wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region and in the Great Plains are notorious for their sensitivity to weather variability. These wetlands have been the focus of considerable attention because of their ecological importance and because of the expected impact of climate change. Few models in the literature, however, take into account spatial variation in the importance of wetland drivers. This is surprising given the importance spatial heterogeneity in geomorphology and climatic conditions have in the region. In this paper, I use spatially-varying coefficients to assess the variation in ecological drivers in a number of ponds observed over a 50-year period (1961-2012. I included the number of ponds observed the year before on a log scale, the log of total precipitation, and mean maximum temperature during the four previous seasons as explanatory variables. I also included a temporal component to capture change in the number of ponds due to anthropogenic disturbance. Overall, fall and spring precipitation were most important in pond abundance in the west, whereas winter and summer precipitation were the most important drivers in the east. The ponds in the east of the survey area were also more dependent on pond abundance during the previous year than those in the west. Spring temperature during the previous season influenced pond abundance; while the temperature during the other seasons had a limited effect. The ponds in the southwestern part of the survey area have been increasing independently of climatic conditions, whereas the ponds in the northeast have been steadily declining. My results underline the importance of accounting the spatial heterogeneity in environmental drivers, when working at large spatial scales. In light of my results, I also argue that assessing the impacts of climate change on wetland abundance in the spring, without more accurate climatic forecasting, will be difficult.

  15. Applications of remote sensing and GIS technologies to wetland assessment and monitoring at a DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), a 777-km 2 site, located in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, was established in the early 1950s for the production of nuclear materials to support the defense needs of the United States. The SRS was closed to the public and shortly after its formation, much of the uplands and previous farmlands were planted to managed pine plantations for the US Department of Energy by the US Forest Service. More than 7500 hectares of wetlands, ranging from a large, 3000-hectare swamp, to extensive bottomland hardwood forests, to isolated upland Carolina bays, were present on the SRS at the time of its formation. During the subsequent 40-yr operation of the site, five stream systems and portions of the Savannah River swamp on the SRS were influenced by discharges of once-through cooling water from site operations. In addition, two large cooling lakes were constructed, Par Pond in 1958 and L Lake in 1985, to support reactor operations. Thus, the wetlands of the SRS have had a variety of influences, ranging from the protection afforded by the exclusion of the public from the site, past construction of major facilities, and discharges from site operations. Evaluation, assessment, and monitoring long-term changes to the extensive and varied wetlands of the SRS are formidable tasks. Archived remote sensing data of a variety of types, along with the advances in computer technologies that allow the integration of land-use/land-cover geographic information system (GIS) data layer and related GIS data bases, are providing the necessary tools and information to integrate wetlands protection and management into an effective operational environment

  16. Vegetation-induced spatial variability of soil redox properties in wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalai, Zoltán; Jakab, Gergely; Kiss, Klaudia; Ringer, Marianna; Balázs, Réka; Zacháry, Dóra; Horváth Szabó, Kata; Perényi, Katalin

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation induced land patches may result spatial pattern of on soil Eh and pH. These spatial pattern are mainly emerged by differences of aeration and exudation of assimilates. Present paper focuses on vertical extent and temporal dynamics of these patterns in wetlands. Two study sites were selected: 1. a plain wetland on calcareous sandy parent material (Ceglédbercel, Danube-Tisza Interfluve, Hungary); 2. headwater wetland with calcareous loamy parent material (Bátaapáti, Hungary). Two vegetation patches were studied in site 1: sedgy (dominated by Carex riparia) and reedy (dominated by Phragmites australis). Three patches were studied in site2: sedgy1 (dominated by C vulpina), sedgy 2 (C. riparia); nettle-horsetail (Urtica dioica and Equisetum arvense). Boundaries between patches were studied separately. Soil redox, pH and temperature studied by automated remote controlled instruments. Three digital sensors (Ponsell) were installed in each locations: 20cm and 40cm sensors represent the solum and 100 cm sensor monitors the subsoil). Groundwater wells were installed near to triplets for soil water sampling. Soil Eh, pH and temperature values were recorded in each 10 minutes. Soil water sampling for iron and DOC were carried out during saturated periods. Spatial pattern of soil Eh is clearly caused by vegetation. We measured significant differences between Eh values of the studied patches in the solum. We did not find this kinds horizontal differences in the subsoil. Boundaries of the patches usually had more reductive soil environment than the core areas. We have found temporal dynamics of the spatial redox pattern. Differences were not so well expressed during wintertime. These spatial patterns had influence on the DOC and iron content of porewater, as well. Highest temporal dynamics of soil redox properties and porewater iron could be found in the boundaries. These observations refer to importance patchiness of vegetation on soil chemical properties in

  17. Coastal wetlands: an integrated ecosystem approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perillo, G. M. E.; Wolanski, E.; Cahoon, D.R.; Brinson, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetlands are under a great deal of pressure from the dual forces of rising sea level and the intervention of human populations both along the estuary and in the river catchment. Direct impacts include the destruction or degradation of wetlands from land reclamation and infrastructures. Indirect impacts derive from the discharge of pollutants, changes in river flows and sediment supplies, land clearing, and dam operations. As sea level rises, coastal wetlands in most areas of the world migrate landward to occupy former uplands. The competition of these lands from human development is intensifying, making the landward migration impossible in many cases. This book provides an understanding of the functioning of coastal ecosystems and the ecological services that they provide, and suggestions for their management. In this book a CD is included containing color figures of wetlands and estuaries in different parts of the world.

  18. VT National Wetlands Inventory Map Data - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) VCGI downloaded NWI quads from the US FWS web site and reprojected to VCS NAD83. NWI digital data files are records of wetlands location and...

  19. Design and maintenance of subsurface gravel wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report summarizes the University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center (UNHSC) evaluation of : a review of Subsurface Gravel Wetlands design and specifications used by the New Hampshire : Department of Transportation (NHDOT or Department). : Subsur...

  20. NOAA C-CAP National Wetland Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The probability rating which covers landcover mapping provides a continuum of wetness from dry to water. The layer is not a wetland classification but provides the...

  1. VT National Wetlands Inventory Map Data - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) VCGI downloaded NWI quads from the US FWS web site and reprojected to VCS NAD83. NWI digital data files are records of wetlands location and...

  2. 76 FR 777 - National Wetland Plant List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... the Wetland Conservation Provisions of the Food Security Act. Other applications of the list include... recommended changes and additions to the NWPL. The process will be supported by an interactive Web site where...

  3. Model of wetland development of the Amapá coast during the late Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José T.F. Guimarães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern vegetation types, sedimentary sequences, pollen records and radiocarbon dating obtained from three sediment cores from Calçoene Coastal Plain were used to provide a palaeoecological history during the late Holocene of Amapá coastal wetland according to flood regime, sea-level and climatic changes. Based on these records, four phases of vegetation development are presented and they probably reflect the interaction between the flow energy to the sediment accumulation and the brackish/freshwater influence in the vegetation. This work suggests interchanges among time periods characterized by marine and fluvial influence. The longitudinal profile did not reveal the occurrence of mangrove in the sediment deposited around 2100 yr B.P. During the second phase, the mud progressively filled the depressions and tidal channels. The mangrove probably started its development on the channel edge, and the herbaceous field on the elevated sectors. The third phase is characterized by the interruption of mangrove development and the increase of "várzea" vegetation that may be due to the decrease in porewater salinity related to a decrease in marine water influence. The last phase is represented by the mangrove and "várzea" increase. The correlation between current patterns of geobotanical unit distribution and palaeovegetation indicates that mangrove and "várzea" forests are migrating over the herbaceous field on the topographically highest part of the studied coast, which can be related to a relative sea-level rise.Os tipos de vegetação atual, sequências sedimentares, dados de pólen e datações por radiocarbono obtidas em três testemunhos de sedimento da planície costeira de Calçoene foram utilizados para estabelecer uma história paleoecológica durante o Holoceno superior das zonas úmidas costeiras do Amapá conforme as mudanças no regime de inundação, nível do mar e clima. Baseado nestes três registros, quatro fases de

  4. Feasibility of using geothermal effluents for waterfowl wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and institutional constraints which could affect geothermal wetland development; potential problems associated with depletion of geothermal resources and subsidence of wetland areas; potential interference (adverse and beneficial) of wetlands with ground water; special considerations for wetlands requirements including size, flows, and potential water usage; and final conclusions and recommendations for suitable sites for developing demonstration wetlands.

  5. Who knew? First Myotis sodalis (Indiana Bat) maternity colony in the coastal plain of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Germain, Michael J.; Kniowski, Andrew B.; Silvis, Alexander; Ford, W. Mark

    2017-01-01

    We report the first confirmed Myotis sodalis (Indiana Bat) maternity colony in Virginia, discovered at Fort A.P. Hill Military Reservation in Caroline County along the Piedmont-Coastal Plain Fall Line. Acoustic surveys conducted in 2014 indicated likely presence of Indiana Bats on the installation. Subsequent focal mist-netting during May–June 2015 resulted in capture of 4 lactating females that we subsequently radio tracked to a maternity colony site containing at least 20 individuals. The core roosting-area was comprised of Pinus taeda (Loblolly Pine) snags with abundant exfoliating bark and high solar exposure. This forest patch was adjacent to a large emergentshrub wetland and within a larger matrix of mature, mid-Atlantic hardwood forests. The site where we found the colony location is 140 km east of the nearest known hibernaculum and is outside of the previously documented extent of this species' occurrence.

  6. Wetland Mitigation Monitoring at the Fernald Preserve - 13200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Jane [Fernald Preserve Site Manager, DOE Office of Legacy Management, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Bien, Stephanie; Decker, Ashlee; Homer, John [Environmental Scientist, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Wulker, Brian [Intern, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for 7.2 hectares (17.8 acres) of mitigation wetland at the Fernald Preserve, Ohio. Remedial activities affected the wetlands, and mitigation plans were incorporated into site-wide ecological restoration planning. In 2008, the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees developed a comprehensive wetland mitigation monitoring approach to evaluate whether compensatory mitigation requirements have been met. The Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Plan provided a guideline for wetland evaluations. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) wetland mitigation monitoring protocols were adopted as the means for compensatory wetland evaluation. Design, hydrologic regime, vegetation, wildlife, and biogeochemistry were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Evaluations showed mixed results when compared to the Ohio EPA performance standards. Results of vegetation monitoring varied, with the best results occurring in wetlands adjacent to forested areas. Amphibians, particularly ambystomatid salamanders, were observed in two areas adjacent to forested areas. Not all wetlands met vegetation performance standards and amphibian biodiversity metrics. However, Fernald mitigation wetlands showed substantially higher ratings compared to other mitigated wetlands in Ohio. Also, soil sampling results remain consistent with other Ohio mitigated wetlands. The performance standards are not intended to be 'pass/fail' criteria; rather, they are reference points for use in making decisions regarding future monitoring and maintenance. The Trustees approved the Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report with the provision that long-term monitoring of the wetlands continues at the Fernald Preserve. (authors)

  7. Wetland Mitigation Monitoring at the Fernald Preserve - 13200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Jane; Bien, Stephanie; Decker, Ashlee; Homer, John; Wulker, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for 7.2 hectares (17.8 acres) of mitigation wetland at the Fernald Preserve, Ohio. Remedial activities affected the wetlands, and mitigation plans were incorporated into site-wide ecological restoration planning. In 2008, the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees developed a comprehensive wetland mitigation monitoring approach to evaluate whether compensatory mitigation requirements have been met. The Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Plan provided a guideline for wetland evaluations. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) wetland mitigation monitoring protocols were adopted as the means for compensatory wetland evaluation. Design, hydrologic regime, vegetation, wildlife, and biogeochemistry were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Evaluations showed mixed results when compared to the Ohio EPA performance standards. Results of vegetation monitoring varied, with the best results occurring in wetlands adjacent to forested areas. Amphibians, particularly ambystomatid salamanders, were observed in two areas adjacent to forested areas. Not all wetlands met vegetation performance standards and amphibian biodiversity metrics. However, Fernald mitigation wetlands showed substantially higher ratings compared to other mitigated wetlands in Ohio. Also, soil sampling results remain consistent with other Ohio mitigated wetlands. The performance standards are not intended to be 'pass/fail' criteria; rather, they are reference points for use in making decisions regarding future monitoring and maintenance. The Trustees approved the Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report with the provision that long-term monitoring of the wetlands continues at the Fernald Preserve. (authors)

  8. Understanding wetland sub-surface hydrology using geologic and isotopic signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sahu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to utilize hydrogeology and isotope composition of groundwater to understand the present hydrological processes prevalent in a freshwater wetland, source of wetland groundwater, surface water/groundwater interaction and mixing of groundwater of various depth zones in the aquifer. This study considers East Calcutta Wetlands (ECW – a freshwater peri-urban inland wetland ecosystem located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal Basin and east of Kolkata city. This wetland is well known over the world for its resource recovery systems, developed by local people through ages, using wastewater of the city. Geological investigations reveal that the sub-surface geology is completely blanketed by the Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of silty clay, sand of various grades and sand mixed with occasional gravels and thin intercalations of silty clay. At few places the top silty clay layer is absent due to scouring action of past channels. In these areas sand is present throughout the geological column and the areas are vulnerable to groundwater pollution. Groundwater mainly flows from east to west and is being over-extracted to the tune of 65×103 m3/day. δ18O and δD values of shallow and deep groundwater are similar indicating resemblance in hydrostratigraphy and climate of the recharge areas. Groundwater originates mainly from monsoonal rain with some evaporation prior to or during infiltration and partly from bottom of ponds, canals and infiltration of groundwater withdrawn for irrigation. Relatively high tritium content of the shallow groundwater indicates local recharge, while the deep groundwater with very low tritium is recharged mainly from distant areas. At places the deep aquifer has relatively high tritium, indicating mixing of groundwater of shallow and deep aquifers. Metals such as copper, lead, arsenic, cadmium, aluminium, nickel and chromium are also

  9. Understanding wetland sub-surface hydrology using geologic and isotopic signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, P. K.; Sahu, P.

    2009-07-01

    This paper attempts to utilize hydrogeology and isotope composition of groundwater to understand the present hydrological processes prevalent in a freshwater wetland, source of wetland groundwater, surface water/groundwater interaction and mixing of groundwater of various depth zones in the aquifer. This study considers East Calcutta Wetlands (ECW) - a freshwater peri-urban inland wetland ecosystem located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal Basin and east of Kolkata city. This wetland is well known over the world for its resource recovery systems, developed by local people through ages, using wastewater of the city. Geological investigations reveal that the sub-surface geology is completely blanketed by the Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of silty clay, sand of various grades and sand mixed with occasional gravels and thin intercalations of silty clay. At few places the top silty clay layer is absent due to scouring action of past channels. In these areas sand is present throughout the geological column and the areas are vulnerable to groundwater pollution. Groundwater mainly flows from east to west and is being over-extracted to the tune of 65×103 m3/day. δ18O and δD values of shallow and deep groundwater are similar indicating resemblance in hydrostratigraphy and climate of the recharge areas. Groundwater originates mainly from monsoonal rain with some evaporation prior to or during infiltration and partly from bottom of ponds, canals and infiltration of groundwater withdrawn for irrigation. Relatively high tritium content of the shallow groundwater indicates local recharge, while the deep groundwater with very low tritium is recharged mainly from distant areas. At places the deep aquifer has relatively high tritium, indicating mixing of groundwater of shallow and deep aquifers. Metals such as copper, lead, arsenic, cadmium, aluminium, nickel and chromium are also present in groundwater of various depths. Therefore

  10. Flora characteristics of Chenier Wetland in Bohai Bay and biogeographic relations with adjacent wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyun; Lu, Zhaohua; Liu, Jingtao; Hu, Shugang

    2017-12-01

    A key step towards the restoration of heavily disturbed fragile coastal wetland ecosystems is determining the composition and characteristics of the plant communities involved. This study determined and characterized the community of higher plants in the Chenier wetland of Bohai Bay using a combination of field surveys, quadrat approaches, and multivariate statistical analyses. This community was then compared to other adjacent wetlands (Tianjin, Qinhuangdao, Laizhouwan, Jiaozhouwan, and Yellow River Delta wetland) located near the Huanghai and Bohai Seas using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). Results showed a total of 56 higher plant species belonging to 52 genera from 20 families in Chenier wetland, the majority of which were dicotyledons. Single-species families were predominant, while larger families, including Gramineae, Compositae, Leguminosae, and Chenopodiaceae contained a higher number of species (each⩾6 species). Cosmopolitan species were also dominant with apparent intrazonality. Abundance (number of species) of temperate species was twice that of tropical taxa. Species number of perennial herbs, such as Gramineae and Compositae, was generally higher. Plant diversity in the Chenier wetland, based on the Shannon-Wiener index, was observed to be between the Qinhuangdao and Laizhouwan indices, while no significant difference was found in other wetlands using the Simpson index. Despite these slight differences in diversity, PCoA based on species abundance and composition of the wetland flora suggest that the Bohai Chenier community was highly similar to the coastal wetlands in Tianjin and Laizhouwan, further suggesting that these two wetlands could be important breeding grounds and resources for the restoration of the plant ecosystem in the Chenier wetland.

  11. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Matthew J.; Creed, Irena F.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Basu, Nandita; Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Craft, Christopher; D’Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Lewis, David Bruce; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Mushet, David M.; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C.; Smith, Lora; Walls, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bodies to create spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the timing, flow paths, and magnitude of network connectivity. These attributes signal a critical role for GIWs in sustaining a portfolio of landscape functions, but legal protections remain weak despite preferential loss from many landscapes. GIWs lack persistent surface water connections, but this condition does not imply the absence of hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological exchanges with nearby and downstream waters. Although hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity is often episodic or slow (e.g., via groundwater), hydrologic continuity and limited evaporative solute enrichment suggest both flow generation and solute and sediment retention. Similarly, whereas biological connectivity usually requires overland dispersal, numerous organisms, including many rare or threatened species, use both GIWs and downstream waters at different times or life stages, suggesting that GIWs are critical elements of landscape habitat mosaics. Indeed, weaker hydrologic connectivity with downstream waters and constrained biological connectivity with other landscape elements are precisely what enhances some GIW functions and enables others. Based on analysis of wetland geography and synthesis of wetland functions, we argue that sustaining landscape functions requires conserving the entire continuum of wetland connectivity, including GIWs.

  12. Projecting the Hydrologic Impacts of Climate Change on Montane Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Yeun; Ryan, Maureen E; Hamlet, Alan F; Palen, Wendy J; Lawler, Joshua J; Halabisky, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are globally important ecosystems that provide critical services for natural communities and human society. Montane wetland ecosystems are expected to be among the most sensitive to changing climate, as their persistence depends on factors directly influenced by climate (e.g. precipitation, snowpack, evaporation). Despite their importance and climate sensitivity, wetlands tend to be understudied due to a lack of tools and data relative to what is available for other ecosystem types. Here, we develop and demonstrate a new method for projecting climate-induced hydrologic changes in montane wetlands. Using observed wetland water levels and soil moisture simulated by the physically based Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, we developed site-specific regression models relating soil moisture to observed wetland water levels to simulate the hydrologic behavior of four types of montane wetlands (ephemeral, intermediate, perennial, permanent wetlands) in the U. S. Pacific Northwest. The hybrid models captured observed wetland dynamics in many cases, though were less robust in others. We then used these models to a) hindcast historical wetland behavior in response to observed climate variability (1916-2010 or later) and classify wetland types, and b) project the impacts of climate change on montane wetlands using global climate model scenarios for the 2040s and 2080s (A1B emissions scenario). These future projections show that climate-induced changes to key driving variables (reduced snowpack, higher evapotranspiration, extended summer drought) will result in earlier and faster drawdown in Pacific Northwest montane wetlands, leading to systematic reductions in water levels, shortened wetland hydroperiods, and increased probability of drying. Intermediate hydroperiod wetlands are projected to experience the greatest changes. For the 2080s scenario, widespread conversion of intermediate wetlands to fast-drying ephemeral wetlands will likely reduce

  13. Projecting the Hydrologic Impacts of Climate Change on Montane Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Alan F.; Palen, Wendy J.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Halabisky, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are globally important ecosystems that provide critical services for natural communities and human society. Montane wetland ecosystems are expected to be among the most sensitive to changing climate, as their persistence depends on factors directly influenced by climate (e.g. precipitation, snowpack, evaporation). Despite their importance and climate sensitivity, wetlands tend to be understudied due to a lack of tools and data relative to what is available for other ecosystem types. Here, we develop and demonstrate a new method for projecting climate-induced hydrologic changes in montane wetlands. Using observed wetland water levels and soil moisture simulated by the physically based Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, we developed site-specific regression models relating soil moisture to observed wetland water levels to simulate the hydrologic behavior of four types of montane wetlands (ephemeral, intermediate, perennial, permanent wetlands) in the U. S. Pacific Northwest. The hybrid models captured observed wetland dynamics in many cases, though were less robust in others. We then used these models to a) hindcast historical wetland behavior in response to observed climate variability (1916–2010 or later) and classify wetland types, and b) project the impacts of climate change on montane wetlands using global climate model scenarios for the 2040s and 2080s (A1B emissions scenario). These future projections show that climate-induced changes to key driving variables (reduced snowpack, higher evapotranspiration, extended summer drought) will result in earlier and faster drawdown in Pacific Northwest montane wetlands, leading to systematic reductions in water levels, shortened wetland hydroperiods, and increased probability of drying. Intermediate hydroperiod wetlands are projected to experience the greatest changes. For the 2080s scenario, widespread conversion of intermediate wetlands to fast-drying ephemeral wetlands will likely reduce

  14. Quantifying changes in multiple ecosystem services during 1992-2012 in the Sanjiang Plain of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongming; Mao, Dehua; Li, Lin; Jia, Mingming; Dong, Zhangyu; Miao, Zhenghong; Ren, Chunying; Song, Changchun

    2015-05-01

    Rapid and periodic assessment of the impact of land cover changes on ecosystem services at regional levels is essential to understanding services and sustainability of ecosystems. This study focused on quantifying and assessing changes of multiple ecosystem services in the Sanjiang Plain of China as a result of land cover changes over the period of 1992-2012. This region is important for its large area of natural wetlands and intensive agriculture. The ecosystem services that were assessed for this region included its regulating services (water yield and ecosystem carbon stocks), supporting services (suitable waterbird habitats), and provisioning services (food production), and the approach to the assessment was composed of the surface energy balance algorithms for land (SEBAL), soil survey re-sampling method and an empirical waterbird habitat suitability model. This large scale and integrated investigation represents the first systematic evaluation on the status of ecosystem carbon stocks in the Sanjiang Plain in addition to the development of an effective model for analysis of waterbird habitat suitability with the use of both remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS). More importantly, the result from this study has confirmed trade-offs between ecosystem services and negative consequences to environment in this region. The trade-offs were typically manifested by increased water yield and significantly grown food production, which is in contrast with significant losses in ecosystem carbon stocks (-14%) and suitable waterbird habitats (-23%) mainly due to the conversion of land cover from wetland to farmland. This finding implies that land use planning and policy making for this economically important region should take ecosystem service losses into account in order to preserve its natural ecosystems in the best interest of society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrological Regime Monitoring and Mapping of the Zhalong Wetland through Integrating Time Series Radarsat-2 and Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Na

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhalong wetland is a globally important breeding habitat for many rare migratory bird species. Prompted by the high demand for temporal and spatial information about the wetland’s hydrological regimes and landscape patterns, eight time series Radarsat-2 images were utilized to detect the flooding characteristics of the Zhalong wetland. Subsequently, a random forest model was built to discriminate wetlands from other land cover types, combining with optical, radar, and hydrological regime data derived from multitemporal synthetic aperture radar (SAR images. The results showed that hydrological regimes variables, including flooding extent and flooding frequency, derived from multitemporal SAR images, improve the land cover classification accuracy in the natural wetlands distribution area. The permutation importance scores derived from the random forest classifier indicate that normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI calculated from optical imagery and the flooding frequency derived from multitemporal SAR imagery were found to be the most important variables for land cover mapping. Accuracy testing indicate that the addition of hydrological regime features effectively depressed the omission error rates (from 52.14% to 2.88% of marsh and the commission error (from 77.34% to 51.27% of meadow, thereby improving the overall classification accuracy (from 76.49% to 91.73%. The hydrological regimes and land cover monitoring in the typical wetlands are important for eco-hydrological modeling, biodiversity conservation, and regional ecology and water security.

  16. Estimating Carbon Stocks Along Depressional Wetlands Using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in the Disney Wilderness Preserve (Orlando, Florida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, M. D.; Comas, X.; Wright, W. J.; Mount, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    Peat soils store a large fraction of the global carbon (C) in soil. It is estimated that 95% of carbon in peatlands is stored in the peat soil, while less than 5% occurs in the vegetation. The majority of studies related to C stocks in peatlands have taken place in northern latitudes leaving the tropical and subtropical latitudes clearly understudied. In this study we use a combination of indirect non-invasive geophysical methods (mainly ground penetrating radar, GPR) as well as direct measurements (direct coring) to calculate total C stocks within subtropical depressional wetlands in the Disney Wilderness Preserve (DWP, Orlando, FL). A set of three-dimensional (3D) GPR surveys were used to detect variability of the peat layer thickness and the underlying peat-sand mix layer across several depressional wetlands. Direct samples collected at selected locations were used to confirm depth of each interface and to estimate C content in the laboratory. Layer thickness estimated from GPR and direct C content were used to estimate total peat volume and C content for the entire depressional wetland. Through the use of aerial photos a relationship between surface area along the depressional wetlands and total peat thickness (and thus C content) was established for the depressions surveyed and applied throughout the entire preserve. This work shows the importance of depressional wetlands as critical contributors of the C budget at the DWP.

  17. Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Trettin, C.C.

    1993-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation

  18. Design-a-wetland: a tool for generating and assessing constructed wetland designs for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casaril, Carolina J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The hydrological cycle is a key cycle affected by current and predicted climate change. Wetlands are one of the key ecosystems within the hydrological cycle and could contribute significantly in facing the challenges of climate change, such as water shortage. The impact of wetlands on greenhouse gas emissions is much debated and, conversely, the impact of climate change on wetlands also raises many questions. There have been many attempts to harness and integrate the natural capacities of wetlands into constructed systems. These systems are especially designed for multiple purposes. They can be used for wastewater treatment and reuse, and have the potential to increase sustainability by changing land and water use practices. This project generates a 'Design-A-Wetland' prototype model, designed to facilitate decision-making in the creation of constructed wetlands. Constructed wetlands are specifically tailored to their end use; water treatment fish and fowl habitat, flood buffer zones, or sequestration of greenhouse gases. This project attempts to answer the following questions: Can a single integrated decision model be created for the design and assessment of artificial wetlands, provided either entry or exit standards are known and specified?; Can the elements of a system of interfacing the model with public consultation be specified?; The project identifies model schematics and lays the groundwork for modelling suited to the wide variety of inputs required for decision making

  19. Functional roles of wetlands: a case study of the coastal wetlands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Coastal Wetland of the study area is used extensively for a large number of activities. It is also threatened because of their vulnerability and attractiveness for development. These therefore prompted a study of the Wetlands for a period of 18 months (July 1997 – December 1998) to identify the functional roles that ...

  20. National Wetland Condition Assessment 2011: A Collaborative Survey of the Nation's Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Wetland Condition Assessment 2011: A Collaborative Survey presents the results of an unprecedented assessment of the nation’s wetlands. This report is part of the National Aquatic Resource Surveys, a series of statistically based surveys designed to provide the publi...

  1. Inclusion of Riparian Wetland Module (RWM) into the SWAT model for assessment of wetland hydrological benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands are an integral part of many agricultural watersheds. They provide multiple ecosystem functions, such as improving water quality, mitigating flooding, and serving as natural habitats. Those functions are highly depended on wetland hydrological characteristics and their connectivity to the d...

  2. GlobWetland Africa: Implementing Sustainable Earth Observation Based Wetland Monitoring Capacity in Africa and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tottrup, Christian; Riffler, Michael; Wang, Tiejun

    and decision support, [iii] receive a freely available, open, flexible and modifiable framework for easy establishment of new wetland observatories, for easy integration in existing observatory infrastructures and for easy adaptation to new requirements, e.g. changes in management processes.......Lack of data, appropriate information and challenges in human and institutional capacity put a serious constraint on effective monitoring and management of wetlands in Africa. Conventional data are often lacking in time or space, of poor quality or available at locations that are not necessarily...... for the conservation, wiseuse and effective management of wetlands in Africa and to provide African stakeholders with the necessary EO methods and tools to better fulfil their commitments and obligations towards the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. The main objective of GlobWetland Africa (GW-A) is to provide the major...

  3. Presence and absence of bats across habitat scales in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, W.Mark; Menzel, Jennifer M.; Menzel, Michael A.: Edwards, John W.; Kilgo, John C.

    2006-10-01

    Abstract During 2001, we used active acoustical sampling (Anabat II) to survey foraging habitat relationships of bats on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Using an a priori information-theoretic approach, we conducted logistic regression analysis to examine presence of individual bat species relative to a suite of microhabitat, stand, and landscape-level features such as forest structural metrics, forest type, proximity to riparian zones and Carolina bay wetlands, insect abundance, and weather. There was considerable empirical support to suggest that the majority of the activity of bats across most of the 6 species occurred at smaller, stand-level habitat scales that combine measures of habitat clutter (e.g., declining forest canopy cover and basal area), proximity to riparian zones, and insect abundance. Accordingly, we hypothesized that most foraging habitat relationships were more local than landscape across this relatively large area for generalist species of bats. The southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius) was the partial exception, as its presence was linked to proximity of Carolina bays (best approximating model) and bottomland hardwood communities (other models with empirical support). Efforts at SRS to promote open longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and loblolly pine (P. taeda) savanna conditions and to actively restore degraded Carolina bay wetlands will be beneficial to bats. Accordingly, our results should provide managers better insight for crafting guidelines for bat habitat conservation that could be linked to widely accepted land management and environmental restoration practices for the region.

  4. Wetlands of the Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This set of images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer highlights coastal areas of four states along the Gulf of Mexico: Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and part of the Florida panhandle. The images were acquired on October 15, 2001 (Terra orbit 9718)and represent an area of 345 kilometers x 315 kilometers.The two smaller images on the right are (top) a natural color view comprised of red, green, and blue band data from MISR's nadir(vertical-viewing) camera, and (bottom) a false-color view comprised of near-infrared, red, and blue band data from the same camera. The predominantly red color of the false-color image is due to the presence of vegetation, which is bright at near-infrared wavelengths. Cities appear as grey patches, with New Orleans visible at the southern edge of Lake Pontchartrain, along the left-hand side of the images. The Lake Pontchartrain Bridge runs approximately north-south across the middle of the lake. The distinctive shape of the Mississippi River Delta can be seen to the southeast of New Orleans. Other coastal cities are visible east of the Mississippi, including Biloxi, Mobile and Pensacola.The large image is similar to the true-color nadir view, except that red band data from the 60-degree backward-looking camera has been substituted into the red channel; the blue and green data from the nadir camera have been preserved. In this visualization, green hues appear somewhat subdued, and a number of areas with a reddish color are present, particularly near the mouths of the Mississippi, Pascagoula, Mobile-Tensaw, and Escambia Rivers. Here, the red color is highlighting differences in surface texture. This combination of angular and spectral information differentiates areas with aquatic vegetation associated with poorly drained bottom lands, marshes, and/or estuaries from the surrounding surface vegetation. These wetland regions are not as well differentiated in the conventional nadir views.Variations in ocean color are apparent in

  5. Development of an indicator to monitor mediterranean wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Antonio; Abdul Malak, Dania; Guelmami, Anis; Perennou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are sensitive ecosystems that are increasingly subjected to threats from anthropogenic factors. In the last decades, coastal Mediterranean wetlands have been suffering considerable pressures from land use change, intensification of urban growth, increasing tourism infrastructure and intensification of agricultural practices. Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques are efficient tools that can support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands on large scales and over long periods of time. The study aims at developing a wetland indicator to support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands using these techniques. The indicator makes use of multi-temporal Landsat images, land use reference layers, a 50m numerical model of the territory (NMT) and Corine Land Cover (CLC) for the identification and mapping of wetlands. The approach combines supervised image classification techniques making use of vegetation indices and decision tree analysis to identify the surface covered by wetlands at a given date. A validation process is put in place to compare outcomes with existing local wetland inventories to check the results reliability. The indicator´s results demonstrate an improvement in the level of precision of change detection methods achieved by traditional tools providing reliability up to 95% in main wetland areas. The results confirm that the use of RS techniques improves the precision of wetland detection compared to the use of CLC for wetland monitoring and stress the strong relation between the level of wetland detection and the nature of the wetland areas and the monitoring scale considered.

  6. Isoprene emission from wetland sedges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ekberg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available High latitude wetlands play an important role for the surface-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4, but fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC in these ecosystems have to date not been extensively studied. This is despite BVOC representing a measurable proportion of the total gaseous C fluxes at northern locations and in the face of the high temperature sensitivity of these systems that requires a much improved process understanding to interpret and project possible changes in response to climate warming. We measured emission of isoprene and photosynthetic gas exchange over two growing seasons (2005–2006 in a subarctic wetland in northern Sweden with the objective to identify the physiological and environmental controls of these fluxes on the leaf scale. The sedge species Eriophorum angustifolium and Carex rostrata were both emitters of isoprene. Springtime emissions were first detected after an accumulated diurnal mean temperature above 0°C of about 100 degree days. Maximum measured growing season standardized (basal emission rates (20°C, 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 were 1075 (2005 and 1118 (2006 μg C m−2 (leaf area h−1 in E. angustifolium, and 489 (2005 and 396 (2006 μg C m−2 h−1 in C. rostrata. Over the growing season, basal isoprene emission varied in response to the temperature history of the last 48 h. Seasonal basal isoprene emission rates decreased with leaf nitrogen (N, which may be explained by the typical growth and resource allocation pattern of clonal sedges as the leaves age. The observations were used to model emissions over the growing season, accounting for effects of temperature history, links to leaf assimilation rate and the light and temperature dependencies of the cold-adapted sedges.

  7. Coastal geomorphology of the Martian northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Saunders, Stephen R.; Pieri, David C.; Schneeberger, Dale M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers the question of the formation of the outflow channels and valley networks discovered on the Martian northern plains during the Mariner 9 mission. Parker and Saunders (1987) and Parker et al. (1987, 1989) data are used to describe key features common both in the lower reaches of the outflow channels and within and along the margins of the entire northern plains. It is suggested, that of the geological processes capable of producing similar morphologies on earth, lacustrine or marine deposition and subsequent periglacial modification offer the simplest and most consistent explanation for the suit of features found on Mars.

  8. Sediment dynamics in the restored reach of the Kissimmee River Basin, Florida: A vast subtropical riparian wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, E.R.; Hupp, C.R.; Gellis, A.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, the Kissimmee River Basin consisted of a broad nearly annually inundated riparian wetland similar in character to tropical Southern Hemisphere large rivers. The river was channelized in the 1960s and 1970s, draining the wetland. The river is currently being restored with over 10 000 hectares of wetlands being reconnected to 70 river km of naturalized channel. We monitored riparian wetland sediment dynamics between 2007 and 2010 at 87 sites in the restored reach and 14 sites in an unrestored reference reach. Discharge and sediment transport were measured at the downstream end of the restored reach. There were three flooding events during the study, two as annual flood events and a third as a greater than a 5-year flood event. Restoration has returned periodic flood flow to the riparian wetland and provides a mean sedimentation rate of 11.3 mm per year over the study period in the restored reach compared with 1.7 mm per year in an unrestored channelized reach. Sedimentation from the two annual floods was within the normal range for alluvial Coastal Plain rivers. Sediment deposits consisted of over 20% organics, similar to eastern blackwater rivers. The Kissimmee River is unique in North America for its hybrid alluvial/blackwater nature. Fluvial suspended-sediment measurements for the three flood events indicate that a majority of the sediment (70%) was sand, which is important for natural levee construction. Of the total suspended sediment load for the three flood events, 3%–16% was organic and important in floodplain deposition. Sediment yield is similar to low-gradient rivers draining to the Chesapeake Bay and alluvial rivers of the southeastern USA. Continued monitoring should determine whether observed sediment transport and floodplain deposition rates are normal for this river and determine the relationship between historic vegetation community restoration, hydroperiod restoration, and sedimentation.

  9. Settlement patterns and communication routes of the western Maya wetlands: An archaeological and remote-sensing survey, Chunchucmil, Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, David R.

    This dissertation investigates the role of the seasonal wetlands in the political economy and subsistence strategies of the ancient Maya of Chunchucmil, Yucatan, Mexico. A combination of pedestrian surveys and remote-sensing tasks were performed in order to better understand the settlement patterns and potential communication routes in and through the wetlands between Chunchucmil and the Gulf of Mexico. These western wetlands had been proposed as the principal avenue for interregional trade between coastal merchants and inland consumers, yet were thought to be uninhabited and uncultivable. Following the survey tasks outlined in this dissertation, these wetlands were found to contain an abundance of archaeological settlements and features indicating habitation, utilization, and trade throughout this diverse ecological zone. The remote-sensing platforms utilized in this study include both multispectral (Landsat) and synthetic aperture radar (AirSAR), combined with additional remotely sensed resources. One of the goals of this survey was to test the capabilities of these two sensors for the direct detection of archaeological features from air and space. The results indicate that Landsat can be highly successful at detecting site location and measuring site size under certain environmental conditions. The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar proved to be adept at detecting large mounded architecture within the Yucatecan karstic plain, but its further utility is hampered by limitations of resolution, scale, and land cover. One of the salient features of the landscape west of Chunchucmil is a network of stone pathways called andadores. These avenues through the wetlands outline a dendritic network of communication, trade, and extraction routes. The following dissertation places this network and its associated settlements (from suburban centers to diminutive camps) within their regional context, examining the roles they may have played in supporting a large mercantile

  10. Quantifying spatial variability of depth of peat burn in wetlands in relation to antecedent characteristics using field data, multi-temporal and multi-spectral LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasmer, L.; Flade, L.; Virk, R.; Montgomery, J. S.; Hopkinson, C.; Thompson, D. K.; Petrone, R. M.; Devito, K.

    2017-12-01

    Landscape changes in the hydrological characteristics of wetlands in some parts of the Boreal region of Canada are occurring as a result of climate-induced feedbacks and anthropogenic disturbance. Wetlands are largely resilient to wildfire, however, natural, climatic and anthropogenic disturbances can change surface water regimes and predispose wetlands to greater depth of peat burn. Over broad areas, peat loss contributes to significant pollution emissions, which can affect community health. In this study, we a) quantify depth of peat burn and relationships to antecedent conditions (species type, topography, surficial geology) within three classified wetlands found in the Boreal Plains ecoregion of western Canada; and b) examine the impacts of wildfire on post-fire ground surface energy balance to determine how peat loss might affect local hydro-climatology and surface water feedbacks. High-resolution optical imagery, pre- and post-burn multi-spectral Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR), airborne thermal infrared imagery, and field validation data products are integrated to identify multiple complex interactions within the study wetlands. LiDAR-derived depth of peat burn is within 1 cm (average) compared with measured (RMSE = 9 cm over the control surface), demonstrating the utility of LiDAR with high point return density. Depth of burn also correlates strongly with variations in Normalised Burn Ratio (NBR) determined for ground surfaces only. Antecedent conditions including topographic position, soil moisture, soil type and wetland species also have complex interactions with depth of peat loss within wetlands observed in other studies. However, while field measurements are important for validation and understanding eco-hydrological processes, results from remote sensing are spatially continuous. Temporal LiDAR data illustrate the full range of variability in depth of burn and wetland characteristics following fire. Finally, measurements of instantaneous surface

  11. Potential effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on avian habitats and populations in the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.

    1994-01-01

    Biotic response to the buildup of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere is considerably more complex than an adjustment to changing temperature and precipitation. The fertilization effect carbon dioxide has on some plants, the impact UVB radiation has on health and productivity of organisms, and the resulting changes in competitive balance and trophic structure must also be considered. The intent of this paper is to review direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on wildlife, and to explore possible effects on populations of birds and their habitats in the northern Great Plains.Many of the potential effects of increasing greenhouse gases, such as declining plant nutritional value, changes in timing of insect emergence, and fewer and saltier wetlands, foreshadow a decline in avian populations on the Great Plains. However, other possible effects such as increased drought resistance and water use efficiency of vegetation, longer growing seasons, and greater overall plant biomass promise at least some mitigation. Effects of multiple simultaneous perturbations such as can be expected under doubled carbon dioxide scenarios will require substantial basic research to clarify.

  12. Historical and contemporary imagery to assess ecosystem change on the Arctic coastal plain of northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tape, Ken D.; Pearce, John M.; Walworth, Dennis; Meixell, Brandt W.; Fondell, Tom F.; Gustine, David D.; Flint, Paul L.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Ward, David H.

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is a complex landscape of lakes, streams, and wetlands scattered across low-relief tundra that is underlain by permafrost. This region of the Arctic has experienced a warming trend over the past three decades leading to thawing of on-shore permafrost and the disappearance of sea ice at unprecedented rates. The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) research initiative was developed to investigate and forecast these rapid changes in the physical environment of the Arctic, and the associated changes to wildlife populations, in order to inform key management decisions by the U.S. Department of the Interior and other agencies. Forecasting future wildlife responses to changes in the Arctic can benefit greatly from historical records that inform what changes have already occurred. Several Arctic wildlife and plant species have already responded to climatic and physical changes to the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska. Thus, we located historical aerial imagery to improve our understanding of recent habitat changes and the associated response to such changes by wildlife populations.

  13. Improved Mapping of Riparian Wetlands Using Reach Topography (ECOSERV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian wetlands provide a suite of ecosystems services including floodwater retention, biogeochemical processing, and habitat provisioning. However in one mid-Atlantic watershed the National Wetlands Inventory was shown to underrepresent these systems by greater than 50%. These...

  14. Improved Mapping of Riparian Wetlands Using Reach Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian wetlands provide a suite of ecosystems services including floodwater retention, biogeochemical processing, and habitat provisioning. However in one mid-Atlantic watershed the National Wetlands Inventory was shown to underrepresent these systems by greater than 50%. These...

  15. a comparison of wetland valuation purposes in lagos metropolis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    streams to maintain flow throughout the dry season, and ... consequently the wetland filtration process and the quality of the water in ... restoration versus degradation of wetlands. ... value to individual species based on economic functions and ...

  16. The study of Phosphorus distribution at Putrajaya Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubin Zahari, Nazirul; Malek, Nur Farzana Fasiha Abdul; Fai, Chow Ming; Humaira Haron, Siti; Hafiz Zawawi, Mohd; Nazmi Ismail, Iszmir; Mohamad, Daud; Syamsir, Agusril; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Zakwan Ramli, Mohd; Ismail, Norfariza; Zubir Sapian, Ahmad; Noordin, Normaliza; Rahaman, Nurliyana Abdul; Muhamad, Yahzam; Mat Saman, Jarina

    2018-04-01

    This study is concerning phosphorus distribution in Putrajaya Wetland. Phosphorus is one of the important component in nutrients for living things be it aquatic or non – aquatic organisms. Total phosphorus (TP) results will give some information on the trophic status of surface water in water bodies. The focus of this study is to determine the total phosphorus concentration in Putrajaya Wetland which is in the inlet of the wetland then outlet of the wetland (Central Wetland Lake). The water sample is taken from Putrajaya Wetland and the test was conducted in the laboratory. The result from this study shows the results for total phosphorus according to month, sampling station and cells. Lowest total phosphate at the Central Wetland compare with all the wetland arms cells.

  17. New species of Eunotia from small isolated wetlands in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diatom species composition of small wetlands is diverse and unique due to a plethora of spatial and temporal variables. Diatoms from small wetlands can contribute greatly to better understanding microbial biodiversity, distribution, dispersal and populations.

  18. Wetland Polygons, California, 2016, California Aquatic Resources Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This feature class contains polgon features depicting wetlands that are standardized to a common wetland classification system (CARI) and provide additional source...

  19. Geothermal wetlands: an annotated bibliography of pertinent literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, N.E.; Thurow, T.L.; Russell, B.F.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1980-05-01

    This annotated bibliography covers the following topics: algae, wetland ecosystems; institutional aspects; macrophytes - general, production rates, and mineral absorption; trace metal absorption; wetland soils; water quality; and other aspects of marsh ecosystems. (MHR)

  20. Kansas Protects and Restores Wetlands, Streams and Riparian Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetland Program Development Grant (WPDG) in 2007 when the Kansas State Conservation Commission began identifying team members interested in developing a framework for a comprehensive Kansas Wetland and Aquatic Resources Conservation Plan.

  1. Local institutions for sustaining wetland resources and community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Data collection methods. Qualitative ..... Sondu-Miriu wetland some traditional fishing methods, for example, the ... ted processing, cooking and trading activities in the three wetlands. .... water access was making the water dirty after collection.

  2. Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacqueline A.; Russell, Samantha; Rasor, Kaitlin

    2017-01-01

    Depression is among the most common mental disorders in the United States. Its diagnosis is often related to impairment of functioning across several domains, including how an individual thinks, feels, and participates in daily activities. Although depression has a relatively high prevalence among adults, the rate is alarmingly higher among…

  3. Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professionals for help. With support and treatment, new mothers with depression can go on to be healthy, happy parents. ... or two, talk to your doctor. A new mother who feels like giving up, who feels that life is not ... depression can last for several months or even longer ...

  4. Forms of organic phosphorus in wetland soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheesman, A. W.; Turner, B. L.; Reddy, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) cycling in freshwater wetlands is dominated by biological mechanisms, yet there has been no comprehensive examination of the forms of biogenic P (i.e., forms derived from biological activity) in wetland soils. We used solution 31P NMR spectroscopy to identify and quantify P forms in surface soils of 28 palustrine wetlands spanning a range of climatic, hydrogeomorphic, and vegetation types. Total P concentrations ranged between 51 and 3516 μg P g-1, of which an average of 58% was extracted in a single-step NaOH-EDTA procedure. The extracts contained a broad range of P forms, including phosphomonoesters (averaging 24% of the total soil P), phosphodiesters (averaging 10% of total P), phosphonates (up to 4% of total P), and both pyrophosphate and long-chain polyphosphates (together averaging 6% of total P). Soil P composition was found to be dependant upon two key biogeochemical properties: organic matter content and pH. For example, stereoisomers of inositol hexakisphosphate were detected exclusively in acidic soils with high mineral content, while phosphonates were detected in soils from a broad range of vegetation and hydrogeomorphic types but only under acidic conditions. Conversely inorganic polyphosphates occurred in a broad range of wetland soils, and their abundance appears to reflect more broadly that of a "substantial" and presumably active microbial community with a significant relationship between total inorganic polyphosphates and microbial biomass P. We conclude that soil P composition varies markedly among freshwater wetlands but can be predicted by fundamental soil properties.

  5. Greenhouse gas flux dynamics in wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvola, J.; Alm, J.; Saarnio, S. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Martikainen, P.J. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Microbiology

    1996-12-31

    Two important greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, are closely connected to the carbon cycling of wetlands. Although virgin wetlands are mostly carbon accumulating ecosystems, major proportion of the CO{sub 2} bound annually in photosynthesis is released back to the atmosphere. Main portion of the carbon cycling in wetlands is quite fast while a small proportion of carbon diffusing from soil is released from organic matter, which may be ten thousand years old. Methane is formed in the anaerobic layers of wetlands, from where it is released gradually to the atmosphere. The decomposition in anaerobic conditions is very slow, which means that usually only a few percent of the annual carbon cycling takes place as methane. Research on CO{sub 2} fluxes of different virgin and managed peatlands was the main topic of this project during the first phase of SILMU. The measurements were made during two seasons in varying conditions in c. 30 study sites. In the second phase of SILMU the research topics were the spatial and temporal variation of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes, the relationships between vegetation and gas fluxes as well as carbon balance studies in wetlands at some intensive sites

  6. Broken connections of wetland cultural knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    As global agriculture intensifies, cultural knowledge of wetland utilization has eroded as natural resources become more stressed, and marginal farmers move away from the land. The excellent paper by Fawzi et al. (2016) documents a particularly poignant case of traditional knowledge loss among the Marsh Arab women of Iraq. Through interviews, the authors document the breakdown of skill transfer from the older to younger generation of women. The authors link the loss of their cultural knowledge with the loss of wetlands in the region. Women no longer can help provide for their families using wetland products, and along with that, their ancient knowledge of plant usage is lost. These ancient skills included medicinal uses, and reed harvesting for weaving and water buffalo fodder. As, the majority of the Mesopotamian Marshes have dried, this way of life is being forgotten (Fawzi et al. 2015). The global tragedy is that while the careful alliance of wetlands and people have sustained human cultures for millennia, degraded wetlands lose their ability to provide these services (Maltby 1980).

  7. Greenhouse gas flux dynamics in wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvola, J; Alm, J; Saarnio, S [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Martikainen, P J [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Microbiology

    1997-12-31

    Two important greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, are closely connected to the carbon cycling of wetlands. Although virgin wetlands are mostly carbon accumulating ecosystems, major proportion of the CO{sub 2} bound annually in photosynthesis is released back to the atmosphere. Main portion of the carbon cycling in wetlands is quite fast while a small proportion of carbon diffusing from soil is released from organic matter, which may be ten thousand years old. Methane is formed in the anaerobic layers of wetlands, from where it is released gradually to the atmosphere. The decomposition in anaerobic conditions is very slow, which means that usually only a few percent of the annual carbon cycling takes place as methane. Research on CO{sub 2} fluxes of different virgin and managed peatlands was the main topic of this project during the first phase of SILMU. The measurements were made during two seasons in varying conditions in c. 30 study sites. In the second phase of SILMU the research topics were the spatial and temporal variation of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes, the relationships between vegetation and gas fluxes as well as carbon balance studies in wetlands at some intensive sites

  8. Icelandic Inland Wetlands: Characteristics and Extent of Draining

    OpenAIRE

    Gudmundsson, Jon; Brink, Sigmundur H.; Arnalds, Olafur; Gisladottir, Fanney O.; Oskarsson, Hlynur

    2016-01-01

    Iceland has inland wetland areas with soils exhibiting both Andosol and Histosol properties which are uncommon elsewhere on Earth. They are generally fertile, with higher bird-nest densities than in similar wetlands in the neighboring countries, with nutrients released by rapid weathering of aeolian materials of basaltic nature. Icelandic inland wetlands cover about 9000 km2 constituting 19.4 % of the vegetated surfaces of the island. The wetland soils are often 1–3 m thick and store 33 to >1...

  9. Development of a "Hydrologic Equivalent Wetland" Concept for Modeling Cumulative Effects of Wetlands on Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Liu, T.; Li, R.; Yang, X.; Duan, L.; Luo, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands are one of the most important watershed microtopographic features that affect, in combination rather than individually, hydrologic processes (e.g., routing) and the fate and transport of constituents (e.g., sediment and nutrients). Efforts to conserve existing wetlands and/or to restore lost wetlands require that watershed-level effects of wetlands on water quantity and water quality be quantified. Because monitoring approaches are usually cost or logistics prohibitive at watershed scale, distributed watershed models, such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), can be a best resort if wetlands can be appropriately represented in the models. However, the exact method that should be used to incorporate wetlands into hydrologic models is the subject of much disagreement in the literature. In addition, there is a serious lack of information about how to model wetland conservation-restoration effects using such kind of integrated modeling approach. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a "hydrologic equivalent wetland" (HEW) concept; and 2) demonstrate how to use the HEW concept in SWAT to assess effects of wetland restoration within the Broughton's Creek watershed located in southwestern Manitoba of Canada, and of wetland conservation within the upper portion of the Otter Tail River watershed located in northwestern Minnesota of the United States. The HEWs were defined in terms of six calibrated parameters: the fraction of the subbasin area that drains into wetlands (WET_FR), the volume of water stored in the wetlands when filled to their normal water level (WET_NVOL), the volume of water stored in the wetlands when filled to their maximum water level (WET_MXVOL), the longest tributary channel length in the subbasin (CH_L1), Manning's n value for the tributary channels (CH_N1), and Manning's n value for the main channel (CH_N2). The results indicated that the HEW concept allows the nonlinear functional relations between watershed processes

  10. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    dimensions that are “characteristically human [and take the form of] the logical, the historical, ... the philosopher Cicero (James 2008: 3), are still important in plain language work: invention ... databases, help files, content management systems, etc., that essentially serve the same ...... From a talent to a scientific discipline.

  11. Porosity Prediction of Plain Weft Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Owais Raza Siddiqui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wearing comfort of clothing is dependent on air permeability, moisture absorbency and wicking properties of fabric, which are related to the porosity of fabric. In this work, a plug-in is developed using Python script and incorporated in Abaqus/CAE for the prediction of porosity of plain weft knitted fabrics. The Plug-in is able to automatically generate 3D solid and multifilament weft knitted fabric models and accurately determine the porosity of fabrics in two steps. In this work, plain weft knitted fabrics made of monofilament, multifilament and spun yarn made of staple fibers were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the developed plug-in. In the case of staple fiber yarn, intra yarn porosity was considered in the calculation of porosity. The first step is to develop a 3D geometrical model of plain weft knitted fabric and the second step is to calculate the porosity of the fabric by using the geometrical parameter of 3D weft knitted fabric model generated in step one. The predicted porosity of plain weft knitted fabric is extracted in the second step and is displayed in the message area. The predicted results obtained from the plug-in have been compared with the experimental results obtained from previously developed models; they agreed well.

  12. Necrotizing fasciitis : plain radiographic and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Dae; Park, Jeong Hee; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Lim, Jong Nam; Heo, Tae Haeng; Park, Dong Rib [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate the plain radiographic and CT findings of the necrotizing fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic findings of 4 cases with necrotizing fasciitis. Three cases were proven pathologically. We evaluated pattern and extent of the gas shadows in plain films. CT findings were analysed, with emphasis on : (a) gas pattern, (b) extent, (c) location and involved site, (d) associated focal abscess, and (e) swelling of the adjacent muscles. On plain radiographs, four cases showed streaky or mottled gas densities in the pelvis, three cases in the perineum, one case in the abdomen, and two cases in the thigh. On CT images, gas pattern was mottled and streaky appearance with swelling of the adjacent muscles. Gas shadows located in the extraperitoneal space in four cases, fascial layer in four cases, and subcutaneous layer in four cases. There were gas shadows in pelvic wall, perineum, abdominal wall, buttock, thigh, and scrotum. Focal low density lesion suggestive of focal abscess was not visualized. Plain radiography is useful for early diagnosis of the necrotizing fasciitis and CT is very useful for detection of precise location and extent of the disease. CT is also useful for differentiation of necrotizing fasciitis from focal abscess and cellulitis.

  13. Cardiac Arrest Following Spinal Anaesthesia With Plain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year old woman who was admitted for an elective caesarean section. After preoperative evaluation and premedication she received a spinal anaesthesia in the L3-4 interspace with plain bupivacaine 0.5%. After being replaced in the supine ...

  14. Radiocesium in wheat of the Po plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.; Malvicini, A.

    1988-01-01

    The Cs-137 measurements of many wheat samples, which was cultivated in Po plain during 1986 and 1987, are reported. A relationship is also shown between the quantity of Cs-137, which is contained in total fall-out, and that in the wheat by direct deposition

  15. Second chance for the plains bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Curtis H.; Aune, K.; Boyd, D.; Derr, James N.; Forrest, Steven C.; Gates, C. Cormack; Gogan, Peter J.; Grassel, Shaun M.; Halbert, Natalie D.; Kunkel, Kyran; Redford, Kent

    2007-01-01

    Before European settlement the plains bison (Bison bison bison) numbered in the tens of millions across most of the temperate region of North America. Within the span of a few decades during the mid- to late-1800s its numbers were reduced by hunting and other factors to a few hundred. The plight of the plains bison led to one of the first major movements in North America to save an endangered species. A few individuals and the American Bison Society rescued the remaining animals. Attempts to hybridize cattle and bison when bison numbers were low resulted in extensive cattle gene introgression in bison. Today, though approximately 500,000 plains bison exist in North America, few are free of cattle gene introgression, 96% are subject to anthropogenic selection for commodity production, and only 4% are in herds managed primarily for conservation purposes. Small herd size, artificial selection, cattle-gene introgression, and other factors threaten the diversity and integrity of the bison genome. In addition, the bison is for all practical purposes ecologically extinct across its former range, with multiple consequences for grassland biodiversity. Urgent measures are needed to conserve the wild bison genome and to restore the ecological role of bison in grassland ecosystems. Socioeconomic trends in the Great Plains, combined with new information about bison conservation needs and new conservation initiatives by both the public and public sectors, have set the stage for significant progress in bison conservation over the next few years.

  16. Great plains regional climate assessment technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Plains region (GP) plays important role in providing food and energy to the economy of the United States. Multiple climatic and non-climatic stressors put multiple sectors, livelihoods and communities at risk, including agriculture, water, ecosystems and rural and tribal communities. The G...

  17. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Flats Wetlands in the Everglades

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noble, Chris

    2002-01-01

    .... However, a variety of other potential uses have been identified, including the determination of minimal effects under the Food Security Act, design of wetland restoration projects, and management of wetlands...

  18. Groundwater recharge and sustainability in the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M.

    2005-01-01

    Sustainable use of groundwater must ensure not only that the future resource is not threatened by overuse, but also that natural environments that depend on the resource, such as stream baseflows, riparian vegetation, aquatic ecosystems, and wetlands are protected. To properly manage groundwater resources, accurate information about the inputs (recharge) and outputs (pumpage and natural discharge) within each groundwater basin is needed so that the long-term behavior of the aquifer and its sustainable yield can be estimated or reassessed. As a first step towards this effort, this work highlights some key groundwater recharge studies in the Kansas High Plains at different scales, such as regional soil-water budget and groundwater modeling studies, county-scale groundwater recharge studies, as well as field-experimental local studies, including some original new findings, with an emphasis on assumptions and limitations as well as on environmental factors affecting recharge processes. The general impact of irrigation and cultivation on recharge is to appreciably increase the amount of recharge, and in many cases to exceed precipitation as the predominant source of recharge. The imbalance between the water input (recharge) to the High Plains aquifer and the output (pumpage and stream baseflows primarily) is shown to be severe, and responses to stabilize the system by reducing water use, increasing irrigation efficiency, adopting water-saving land-use practices, and other measures are outlined. Finally, the basic steps necessary to move towards sustainable use of groundwater in the High Plains are delineated, such as improving the knowledge base, reporting and providing access to information, furthering public education, as well as promoting better understanding of the public's attitudinal motivations; adopting the ecosystem and adaptive management approaches to managing groundwater; further improving water efficiency; exploiting the full potential of dryland and

  19. The road to higher permanence and biodiversity in exurban wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Mark C; Roehm, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Exurban areas are expanding throughout the world, yet their effects on local biodiversity remain poorly understood. Wetlands, in particular, face ongoing and substantial threats from exurban development. We predicted that exurbanization would reduce the diversity of wetland amphibian and invertebrate communities and that more spatially aggregated residential development would leave more undisturbed natural land, thereby promoting greater local diversity. Using structural equation models, we tested a series of predictions about the direct and indirect pathways by which exurbanization extent, spatial pattern, and wetland characteristics might affect diversity patterns in 38 wetlands recorded during a growing season. We used redundancy, indicator species, and nested community analyses to evaluate how exurbanization affected species composition. In contrast to expectations, we found higher diversity in exurban wetlands. We also found that housing aggregation did not significantly affect diversity. Exurbanization affected biodiversity indirectly by increasing roads and development, which promoted permanent wetlands with less canopy cover and more aquatic vegetation. These pond characteristics supported greater diversity. However, exurbanization was associated with fewer temporary wetlands and fewer of the species that depend on these habitats. Moreover, the best indicator species for an exurban wetland was the ram's head snail, a common disease vector in disturbed ponds. Overall, results suggest that exurbanization is homogenizing wetlands into more permanent water bodies. These more permanent, exurban ponds support higher overall animal diversity, but exclude temporary wetland specialists. Conserving the full assemblage of wetland species in expanding exurban regions throughout the world will require protecting and creating temporary wetlands.

  20. Mitigating Losses of Wetland Ecosystems: A Context for Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Rosanna L.

    1994-01-01

    Preservation of our wetlands has been an issue for many years. Today, despite current laws and those adopted 200 years ago, the wetlands remain insufficiently protected and developed. A holistic guide and suggestions for the classroom are provided to aid in efforts directed at wetland education, research and management. (ZWH)

  1. Changes in Landscape Pattern of Wetland around Hangzhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenpeng; Li, Yuan; Xu, Dan; Zeng, Ying

    2018-04-01

    Hangzhou Bay is an important estuarial coastal wetland, which offers a large number of land and ecological resources. It plays a significant role in the sustainable development of resources, environment and economy. In this paper, based on the remote sensing images in 1996, 2005 and 2013, we extracted the coastal wetland data and analyzed the wetland landscape pattern of the Hangzhou Bay in the past 20 years. The results show that: (1) the area of coastal wetland is heading downwards in the recent decades. Paddy field and the coastal wetland diminish greatly. (2) the single dynamic degree of wetland of the Hangzhou Bay displays that paddy fields and coastal wetlands are shrinking, but lakes, reservoirs and ponds are constantly expanding. (3) the wetland landscape pattern index shows that total patch area of the coastal wetland and paddy fields have gradually diminished. The Shannon diversity index, the Shannon evenness index as well as the landscape separation index of the coastal wetlands in the Hangzhou Bay increase steadily. The landscape pattern in the study area has shown a trend of high fragmentation, dominance decreases, but some dominant landscape still exist in this region. (4) Urbanization and natural factors lead to the reduction of wetland area. Besides the pressure of population is a major threat to the wetland. The study will provide scientific basis for long-term planning for this region.

  2. Balancing carbon sequestration and GHG emissions in a constructed wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, de J.J.M.; Werf, van der A.K.

    2014-01-01

    In many countries wetlands are constructed or restored for removing nutrients from surface water. At the same time vegetated wetlands can act as carbon sinks when CO2 is sequestered in biomass. However, it is well known that wetlands also produce substantial amounts of greenhouse gasses CH4 and N2O.

  3. HANDBOOK FOR CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS RECEIVING ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the summer of 1987, a pilot constructed wetland was built at the Big Five Tunnel in Idaho Springs, Colorado. This report details the theory, design and construction of wetlands receiving acid mine drainages, based on the second and third year of operation of this wetland, whic...

  4. Geographically Isolated Wetlands: Why We Should Keep the Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of the term "isolated wetlands" in the U.S. Supreme Court’s SWANCC decision created confusion, since it could imply functional isolation. In response, the term "geographically isolated wetlands" (GIWs) - wetlands surrounded by uplands - was introduced in 2003. A recent arti...

  5. 7 CFR 623.13 - Wetlands reserve plan of operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wetlands reserve plan of operations. 623.13 Section... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.13 Wetlands reserve plan of operations. (a) After NRCS has accepted the applicant for enrollment in the...

  6. Socio-Economic Determinants of Wetland Cultivation in Kemise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of wetland use in Kemise, central Illubabor, southwestern Ethiopia, shows food shortage as the main factor behind wetland cultivation in the locality. However, discriminant analysis results indicate that it is the wealthier farmers who tend to cultivate wetlands rather than the economically less fortunate ones.

  7. Managing Wetlands for Improved Food Security in Uganda | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will determine the food security status of households adjacent to wetlands and the part that wetlands resources contribute to it. They will analyze the tradeoffs in using wetlands for crop production. And, they will test, adapt and promote agricultural technologies that enhance productivity while minimizing ...

  8. 32 CFR 644.319 - Protection of wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Protection of wetlands. 644.319 Section 644.319... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.319 Protection of wetlands. The requirements of Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands, 42 FR 26961, (24 May 1977) are applicable to the disposal of Federal lands and...

  9. 7 CFR 1410.11 - Farmable Wetlands Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farmable Wetlands Program. 1410.11 Section 1410.11... Wetlands Program. (a) In addition to other allowable enrollments, land may be enrolled in this program through the Farmable Wetlands Program (FWP) within the overall Conservation Reserve Program provided for...

  10. Structural and functional loss in restored wetland ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moreno-Mateos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are among the most productive and economically valuable ecosystems in the world. However, because of human activities, over half of the wetland ecosystems existing in North America, Europe, Australia, and China in the early 20th century have been lost. Ecological restoration to recover critical ecosystem services has been widely attempted, but the degree of actual recovery of ecosystem functioning and structure from these efforts remains uncertain. Our results from a meta-analysis of 621 wetland sites from throughout the world show that even a century after restoration efforts, biological structure (driven mostly by plant assemblages, and biogeochemical functioning (driven primarily by the storage of carbon in wetland soils, remained on average 26% and 23% lower, respectively, than in reference sites. Either recovery has been very slow, or postdisturbance systems have moved towards alternative states that differ from reference conditions. We also found significant effects of environmental settings on the rate and degree of recovery. Large wetland areas (>100 ha and wetlands restored in warm (temperate and tropical climates recovered more rapidly than smaller wetlands and wetlands restored in cold climates. Also, wetlands experiencing more (riverine and tidal hydrologic exchange recovered more rapidly than depressional wetlands. Restoration performance is limited: current restoration practice fails to recover original levels of wetland ecosystem functions, even after many decades. If restoration as currently practiced is used to justify further degradation, global loss of wetland ecosystem function and structure will spread.

  11. Development of soil properties and nitrogen cycling in created wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, K.L.; Ahn, C.; Noe, G.B.

    2011-01-01

    Mitigation wetlands are expected to compensate for the loss of structure and function of natural wetlands within 5–10 years of creation; however, the age-based trajectory of development in wetlands is unclear. This study investigates the development of coupled structural (soil properties) and functional (nitrogen cycling) attributes of created non-tidal freshwater wetlands of varying ages and natural reference wetlands to determine if created wetlands attain the water quality ecosystem service of nitrogen (N) cycling over time. Soil condition component and its constituents, gravimetric soil moisture, total organic carbon, and total N, generally increased and bulk density decreased with age of the created wetland. Nitrogen flux rates demonstrated age-related patterns, with younger created wetlands having lower rates of ammonification, nitrification, nitrogen mineralization, and denitrification potential than older created wetlands and natural reference wetlands. Results show a clear age-related trajectory in coupled soil condition and N cycle development, which is essential for water quality improvement. These findings can be used to enhance N processing in created wetlands and inform the regulatory evaluation of mitigation wetlands by identifying structural indicators of N processing performance.

  12. Book review: Southern Forested Wetlands: Ecology and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl C. Trettin

    2000-01-01

    The southern region has the largest proportion of wetlands in the conterminous US. The majority of that wetland resource is forested by diverse vegetation communities reflecting differences in soil, hydrology, geomorphology, climatic conditions and past management. Wetland resources in the southern US are very important to the economy providing both commodity and non-...

  13. Accumulation and bioaccessibility of trace elements in wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accumulation of trace metals in sediment can cause severe ecological impacts. In this study, determination of elemental concentrations in water and sediment was done. Shadegan wetland is one of the most important wetlands in southwest of Iran and is among the Ramsar-listed wetlands. Wastewaters from industries ...

  14. Quantifying greenhouse gas sources and sinks in managed wetland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen M Ogle; Patrick Hunt; Carl Trettin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides methodologies and guidance for reporting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and sinks at the entity scale for managed wetland systems. More specifically, it focuses on methods for managed palustrine wetlands.1 Section 4.1 provides an overview of wetland systems and resulting GHG emissions, system boundaries and temporal scale, a summary of the...

  15. Management strategies in anticipation of climatic change and the resulting impact on wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay, R.; Neraasen, T.; Coley, R.

    1991-01-01

    Two significant impacts of climate change could affect waterfowl. Climate changes that induce dryness and reduce surface water would have a detrimental effect on waterfowl production capabilities. Global warming could also increase sea levels and flood critical waterfowl overwintering habitat. Strategies undertaken by Ducks Unlimited, a waterfowl conservation organization, to respond to the threat posed by global warming to waterfowl are reviewed. Ducks Unlimited will continue to assist with wetland restoration and preservation throughout the Great Plains. Strategies to enhance retention include converting marginally arable land to permanent forage, forage backflooding, and encouragement of zero and minimum tillage operations. Improved efficiency of irrigation projects is important to foster water conservation. Widespread surface water drainage should be discouraged, by combinations of legislation and economic incentives. Ducks Unlimited is refocusing its activites on parts of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba that are likely to have relatively wetter conditions under climatic warming

  16. Depressive realism and clinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Richard C; Hollon, Steven D; Shelton, Richard C

    2010-04-01

    Depressive realism suggests that depressed individuals make more accurate judgments of control than their nondepressed counterparts. However, most studies demonstrating this phenomenon were conducted in nonclinical samples. In this study, psychiatric patients who met criteria for major depressive disorder underestimated control in a contingent situation and were consistently more negative in their judgments than were nondepressed controls. Depressed patients were less likely than their nondepressed counterparts to overestimate control in a noncontingent situation, but largely because they perceived receiving less reinforcement. Depressed patients were no more likely to use the appropriate logical heuristic to generate their judgments of control than their nondepressed counterparts and each appeared to rely on different primitive heuristics. Depressed patients were consistently more negative than their nondepressed counterparts and when they did appear to be more "accurate" in their judgments of control (as in the noncontingent situation) it was largely because they applied the wrong heuristic to less accurate information. These findings do not support the notion of depressive realism and suggest that depressed patients distort their judgments in a characteristically negative fashion. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and bearing...

  18. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... user how alternative land use decisions may affect the aquatic and terrestial ecosystems, human safety... Flood-plain management. Through proper planning, flood plains can be managed to reduce the threat to... encourages sound flood-plain management decisions by land users. (a) Policy—(1) General. NRCS provides...

  19. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing. 215.111 Section 215.111... § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has a plain bearing— (a) That is missing, cracked, or broken; (b) On which the bearing liner— (1) Is...

  20. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not located...

  1. Plains Energy Services Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Plains Energy Services Ltd. (Plains) is a two year old public company in the oil and gas service industry. It provides an integrated pool of services, concentrating on the life cycle of oil and gas wells as the driver for its expansion. Although the industry saw a marked decrease in well drilling activity for 1998, Plains was able to sustain a consistent income and cash flow because of its focus on ensuring access to the well during drilling, completion, production and abandonment. For 1998, revenue reached a record $93.3 million, an 85 per cent increase over 1997. This report presented Plain's major achievements for 1998. These included the completed construction of a technical, machining and manufacturing facility to enhance the development and implementation of technology and equipment among all business units. The company also introduced coiled tubing drilling services in the North American marketplace, as well as the first commercial version of a casing inspection tool. Plain's also introduced production logging through their wireline services business and applied for four new patents in relation to downhole tool development. In 1998, the company consolidated their operations into four divisions including consolidation of administration, benefits, banking and related overhead services. This report also described the company's efforts in addressing the year 2000 challenge. The company's consolidated financial statements were presented for the benefit of shareholders. These included statements of earnings and deficit, balance sheets, as well as statements of changes in financial position. Notes to the consolidated financial statements included highlights of significant accounting policies, changes in accounting policies, acquisitions, discontinued operations, and capital assets. tabs., figs

  2. Multiple factors influence the vegetation composition of Southeast U.S. wetlands restored in the Wetlands Reserve Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Joel M. Gramling

    2013-01-01

    Degradation of wetlands on agricultural lands contributes to the loss of local or regional vegetation diversity. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) funds the restoration of degraded wetlands on private ‘working lands’, but these WRP projects have not been studied in the Southeast United States. Wetland hydrogeomorphic type influences...

  3. Wetland biogeochemical processes and simulation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Gao, Haifeng; Jia, Jia; Wang, Xin

    2018-02-01

    As the important landscape with rich biodiversity and high productivity, wetlands can provide numerous ecological services including playing an important role in regulating global biogeochemical cycles, filteringpollutants from terrestrial runoff and atmospheric deposition, protecting and improving water quality, providing living habitats for plants and animals, controlling floodwaters, and retaining surface water flow during dry periods (Reddy and DeLaune, 2008; Qin and Mitsch, 2009; Zhao et al., 2016). However, more than 50% of the world's wetlands had been altered, degraded or lost through a wide range of human activities in the past 150 years, and only a small percentage of the original wetlands remained around the world after over two centuries of intensive development and urbanization (O'connell, 2003; Zhao et al., 2016).

  4. Depression in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression In The Workplace Depression In The Workplace Clinical depression has become one ... will die by suicide vi . Employees' Attitudes Towards Depression Often times a depressed employee will not seek ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Depression Depression Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Depression (also known as major depression or major depressive ...

  6. Biotic development comparisons of a wetland constructed to treat mine water drainage with a natural wetland system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, H.J.; Hummer, J.W.; Lacki, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Using 5-yr of baseline data from a constructed wetland, the authors compared the biotic changes in this wetland to conditions in a natural wetland to determine if biotic development patterns were similar. The constructed wetland was built in 1985 to treat a coal mine discharge and was planted with broadleaf cattail (Typha latifolia) within the three-cell, 0.26 ha wetland. Species richness in permanent quadrants of the constructed wetland declined over the study period, while cattail coverage increased. Plant species composition diversified at the edges, with several species becoming established. The constructed wetland deepened and expanded slightly in area coverage during the study period. The constructed wetland supported herptofaunal communities that appeared more stable through time than those of the natural wetland and sustained a rudimentary food chain dependent upon autotrophic algal populations. Despite fundamental differences in substrate base, morphology, and water flow patterns, biotic trends for the constructed wetland coincided with succession-like patterns at the natural wetland. They suggest that further shifts in the biotic composition of the constructed wetland are likely, but the system should continue to persist if primary production meets or exceeds the microbial metabolic requirements necessary to treat mine drainage

  7. Investigating public decisions about protecting wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzner, Michael

    2002-03-01

    Quantitative analyses of species protection decisions taken by public authorities regularly show that ecological factors, such as the probability of extinction, often play a minor role in the decision-making process. The taxonomy of the species or its potential conflict with economic development is a more powerful factor. This paper presents quantitative empirical research on the protection of wetlands in Austria. Econometrically estimated models show that geographical and ecological factors (such as the size of the area, elevation and importance for biodiversity) play a significant role in the protection of wetlands. Additional influences include conflict variables encoding the negative effects of the primary economic sector (agriculture) or tourism.

  8. Methane emissions in Danish riparian wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audet, Joachim; Johansen, Jan Ravn; Andersen, Peter Mejlhede

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to (i) investigate parameters influencing the fluxes of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in Danish riparian wetlands with contrasting vegetation characteristics and (ii) develop models relating CH4 emissions to soil and/or vegetation parameters integrating the spat......The present study was conducted to (i) investigate parameters influencing the fluxes of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in Danish riparian wetlands with contrasting vegetation characteristics and (ii) develop models relating CH4 emissions to soil and/or vegetation parameters integrating...

  9. Mapping long-term wetland response to climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q.; Gallant, A.; Rover, J.

    2016-12-01

    Wetlands provide unique feeding and breeding habitat for numerous waterfowl species. The distribution of wetlands has been considerably changed due to agricultural land conversion and hydrologic modification. Climate change may further impact wetlands through altered moisture regimes. This study characterized long-term variation in wetland conditions by using dense time series from all available Landsat data from 1985 to 2014. We extracted harmonic frequencies from 30 years to two years to delineate the long-term variation in all seven Landsat bands. A cluster analysis and unsupervised classification then enabled us to map different classes of wetland response. We demonstrated the method in the Prairie Pothole Region in North Dakota.

  10. Observations On Some Upper Amazonian Wetlands of Southeastern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Householder, J. E.; Muttiah, R.; Khanal, S.

    2007-05-01

    Upper Amazonian wetlands represent little studied, poorly understood, and grossly under protected systems. Scientific investigation of Amazonian wetlands is in its infancy; nor is there much known about their ecological services. Regionally, wetlands form a ubiquitous and significant component of floodplain habitat fed by perennial springs as well as overland runoff. Locally, wetland vegetation forms bewilderingly complex vegetation mosaics that seem to be governed by local topography and hydrology. Drawing upon intensive field campaigns and remotely sensed imagery, we summarize the results and experiences gathered in wetlands of southeastern Peru.

  11. Postpartum Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne

    Background: In three academic articles, this PhD thesis investigates maternal postpartum depression (PPD) as a risk factor for the infant-mother attachment and infant development. Previous studies have been contradictory with respect to the question of whether PPD can have long term effects...... on offspring. This may be due to not differing between when PPD is only occurring in the postpartum period and when effects are also due to ongoing or recurrent depression. However, it may also be due to viewing maternal depression as a unitary construct, and not considering underlying maternal psychological...... difficulties which may moderate potential adverse effects. The present thesis investigates two potential maternal moderators of risk:. Comorbid personality disorder and adult attachment insecurity. Moreover, the question of early environmental effects of PPD versus effects of later or ongoing depression...

  12. Methodological application so as to obtain digital elevation models DEM in wetland areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero, Deiby A; Montoya V, Diana M; Betancur, Teresita

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand hydrological systems and the description of flow processes that occur among its components it is essential to have a physiographic description that morphometric and relief characteristics. When local studies are performed, the basic cartography available, in the best case 1:25,000 scale, tends not to obey the needs required to represent the water dynamics that characterize the interactions between streams, aquifers and lenticular water bodies in flat zones particularly in those where there are wetlands localized in ancient F100D plains of rivers. A lack of financial resources is the principal obstacle to acquiring; information that is current and sufficient for the scale of the project. Geomorphologic conditions of flat relief zones are a good alternative for the construction of the new data. Using the basic cartography available and the new data, it is possible to obtain DEMs that are improved and consistent with the dynamics of surface and groundwater flows in the hydrological system. To accomplish this one must use spatial modeling tools coupled with Geographic Information System - GIS. This article present a methodological application for the region surrounding the catchment of wetland Cienaga Colombia in the Bajo Cauca region of Antioquia.

  13. Conservation of Mexican wetlands: role of the North American Wetlands Conservation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.H.; Ryan, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    Mexico's wetlands support a tremendous biological diversity and provide significant natural resource benefits to local communities. Because they are also critical stopover and wintering grounds for much of North America's waterfowl and other migratory birds, Mexico has become an important participant in continental efforts to conserve these resources through the North American Wetlands Conservation Act. Funding from the Act has supported partnerships in a number of Mexico's priority wetlands to conduct data analyses and dissemination, mapping, environmental education, wetland restoration, development of sustainable economic alternatives for local people, and reserve planning and management. These partnerships, with the close involvement of Mexico's Federal Government authority, the Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, have advanced conservation in a uniquely Mexican model that differs from that employed in the United States and Canada.

  14. Connecting the Dots: Hydrologic Connectivity Between Wetlands and Other Wetlands and Waterbodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands perform numerous ecosystem functions that in turn provide abundant ecosystem services beneficial to humankind. These may include, but are not limited to, flood water storage and release, nutrient transformations, carbon sequestration, and the provision of habitat or ref...

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: WETLANDS (Wetland Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing coastal wetlands classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) classification system for...

  16. Concentrations of methylmercury in invertebrates from wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, Lara M.; Hall, Britt D.

    2012-01-01

    Prairie wetlands may be important sites of mercury (Hg) methylation resulting in elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in water, sediments and biota. Invertebrates are an important food resource and may act as an indicator of MeHg exposure to higher organisms. In 2007–2008, invertebrates were collected from wetland ponds in central Saskatchewan, categorized into functional feeding groups (FFGs) and analyzed for total Hg (THg) and MeHg. Methylmercury and THg concentrations in four FFGs ranged from 0.2–393.5 ng·g −1 and 9.7–507.1 ng·g −1 , respectively. Methylmercury concentrations generally increased from gastropods with significantly lower average MeHg concentrations compared to other invertebrate taxa. Surrounding land use (agricultural, grassland and organic agricultural) may influence MeHg concentrations in invertebrates, with invertebrate MeHg concentrations being higher from organic ponds (457.5 ± 156.7 ng·g −1 ) compared to those from grassland ponds (74.8 ± 14.6 ng·g −1 ) and ponds on agricultural lands (32.8 ± 6.2 ng·g −1 ). - Highlights: ► MeHg concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 393.5 ng·g −1 and generally increased with trophic level. ► Gastropods had significantly lower average MeHg concentrations compared to other invertebrates. ► Surrounding land use may influence MeHg concentrations in invertebrates. ► MeHg concentrations were higher in organic ponds compared to grassland and agricultural ponds. - Methylmercury concentrations in aquatic invertebrates in wetlands of the Great Plains of North America may differ depending on the land use of adjacent farmland.

  17. Object-Based Image Analysis in Wetland Research: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Dronova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The applications of object-based image analysis (OBIA in remote sensing studies of wetlands have been growing over recent decades, addressing tasks from detection and delineation of wetland bodies to comprehensive analyses of within-wetland cover types and their change. Compared to pixel-based approaches, OBIA offers several important benefits to wetland analyses related to smoothing of the local noise, incorporating meaningful non-spectral features for class separation and accounting for landscape hierarchy of wetland ecosystem organization and structure. However, there has been little discussion on whether unique challenges of wetland environments can be uniformly addressed by OBIA across different types of data, spatial scales and research objectives, and to what extent technical and conceptual aspects of this framework may themselves present challenges in a complex wetland setting. This review presents a synthesis of 73 studies that applied OBIA to different types of remote sensing data, spatial scale and research objectives. It summarizes the progress and scope of OBIA uses in wetlands, key benefits of this approach, factors related to accuracy and uncertainty in its applications and the main research needs and directions to expand the OBIA capacity in the future wetland studies. Growing demands for higher-accuracy wetland characterization at both regional and local scales together with advances in very high resolution remote sensing and novel tasks in wetland restoration monitoring will likely continue active exploration of the OBIA potential in these diverse and complex environments.

  18. Evaluation of a market in wetland credits: entrepreneurial wetland banking in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Morgan; Hayden, Nicholas

    2008-06-01

    With the rise of market-led approaches to environmental policy, compensation for permitted discharge of dredge or fill material into wetlands under Section 404 of the U.S. Clean Water Act has been purchased increasingly from entrepreneurial third-party providers. The growth of this practice (i.e., entrepreneurial wetland banking) has resolved many challenges associated with wetland compensation. But it has also produced (1) quantifiable temporal loss of wetland ecological functions, (2) spatial redistribution of wetland area, and (3) a degree of regulatory instability that may pose a threat to entrepreneurial compensation as a sustainable component of wetland-compensation policy. We used achieved compensation ratios, lapse between bank credit sale and the attainment of performance standards, distance between impact and bank site, and changes in bank market area to examine these 3 factors. We analyzed data from a census of all such transactions in the Chicago District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, compiled from site visits, Corps databases, and contacts with consultants and Section 404 permittees. Entrepreneurial banking provided compensation at a lower overall ratio than nonbank forms of compensation. Approximately 60% of bank credits were sold after site-protection standards were met but before ecological performance standards were met at the bank site. The average distance between bank and impact site was approximately 26 km. The area of markets within which established banks can sell wetland credits has fluctuated considerably over the study period. Comparing these data with similar data for other compensation mechanisms will assist in evaluating banking as an element of conservation policy. Data characterizing the performance of entrepreneurial wetland banks in actual regulatory environments are scarce, even though it is the most established of similar markets that have become instrumental to federal policy in administering several major environmental

  19. Hydrological science and wetland restoration: some case studies from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world, wetlands are increasingly being recognised as important elements of the landscape because of their high biodiversity and goods and services they provide to mankind. After many decades of wetland destruction and conversion, large areas of wetlands are now protected under the International Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar and regional or national legislation such as the European Union Habitats Directive. In many cases, there is a need to restore the ecological character of the wetland through appropriate water management. This paper provides examples of scientific knowledge of wetland hydrology that can guide such restoration. It focuses on the need for sound hydrological science on a range of issues including water level control, topography, flood storage, wetland connections with rivers and sustainability of water supply under climate change.

  20. Chenier plain development: feedbacks between waves, mud and sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardin, W.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Cheniers are sandy ridges parallel to the coast established by high energy waves. Here we discuss Chenier plains ontogeny through dimensional analysis and numerical results from the morphodynamic model Delft3D-SWAN. Our results show that wave energy and shelf slope play an important role in the formation of Chenier plains. In our numerical experiments waves affect Chenier plain development in three ways: by winnowing sediment from the mudflat, by eroding mud and accumulating sand over the beach during extreme wave events. We further show that different sediment characteristics and wave climates can lead to three alternative coastal landscapes: strand plains, mudflats, or the more complex Chenier plains. Low inner-shelf slopes are the most favorable for strand plain and Chenier plain formation, while high slopes decrease the likelihood of mudflat development and preservation.

  1. Genetics, medicine, and the Plain people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kevin A; Puffenberger, Erik G

    2009-01-01

    The Old Order Amish and Old Order Mennonite populations of Pennsylvania are descended from Swiss Anabaptist immigrants who came to the New World in the early eighteenth century. Today they live in many small endogamous demes across North America. Genetically, these demes have dissimilar allele frequencies and disease spectra owing to unique founders. Biological and social aspects of Old Order communities make them ideal for studies in population genetics and genomic medicine, and over the last 40 years, advances in genomic science coincided with investigational studies in Plain populations. Newer molecular genetic technologies are sufficiently informative, rapid, and flexible to use in a clinical setting, and we have successfully integrated these tools into a rural pediatric practice. Our studies with the Pennsylvania Plain communities show that population-specific genetic knowledge provides a powerful framework in which to prevent disease, reduce medical costs, and create new insights into human biology.

  2. Education and training of future wetland scientists and managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Wetland science emerged as a distinct discipline in the 1980s. In response, courses addressing various aspects of wetland science and management were developed by universities, government agencies, and private firms. Professional certification of wetland scientists began in the mid-1990s to provide confirmation of the quality of education and experience of persons involved in regulatory, management, restoration/construction, and research involving wetland resources. The education requirements for certification and the need for persons with specific wetland training to fill an increasing number of wetland-related positions identified a critical need to develop curriculum guidelines for an undergraduate wetland science and management major for potential accreditation by the Society of Wetland Scientists. That proposed major contains options directed toward either wetland science or management. Both options include required basic courses to meet the general education requirements of many universities, required upper-level specialized courses that address critical aspects of physical and biological sciences applicable to wetlands, and a minimum of four additional upper-level specialized courses that can be used to tailor a degree to students' interests. The program would be administered by an independent review board that would develop guidelines and evaluate university applications for accreditation. Students that complete the required coursework will fulfill the education requirements for professional wetland scientist certification and possess qualifications that make them attractive candidates for graduate school or entry-level positions in wetland science or management. Universities that offer this degree program could gain an advantage in recruiting highly qualified students with an interest in natural resources. Alternative means of educating established wetland scientists are likewise important, especially to provide specialized knowledge and experience or

  3. The Legal Structure of Taiwan’s Wetland Conservation Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Yuan Su

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In July of 2013, Taiwan passed its Wetland Conservation Act and will begin the implementation of the Act on 2 February 2015. With this Act, Taiwan has become the second Asian country to have specific legislation on wetland conservation and protection. This new law enables the society to achieve sustainable utilization on wetland ecological services. The core concepts of the Wetland Conversation Act include biological diversity conservation and wise use of wetland resources. Special political circumstances prevent Taiwan from registering its wetlands as a conservation priority under the Ramsar Convention. This new law allows the government to evaluate and assign a specific area as a “Wetland of Importance.” Under this status, any development activities within the designated area shall be prohibited unless the developer prepares a usage plan for review. The usage plan and the original usage of the natural resources within the wetland area shall also follow the “wise use” principle to protect the wetland and biological service system. However, this new law does not provide clear separation between the two different “wise use” standards. If the development is deemed necessary, new law provides compensation mitigation measures to extend the surface of the wetland and provides additional habitats for various species. Wetland conservation and management rely heavily on systematic research and fundamental data regarding Taiwan’s wetlands. Determining how to adopt these scientific methodologies and transfer them into enforceable mechanisms is a sizeable challenge for both biologists and lawyers as the Wetland Conservation Act creates many legal norms without clarifying definitions. This article will review the current wetland regulations from the legal perspective and provide suggestions for enforcement in the future.

  4. Ecohydrological characterization of the Nyando wetland, Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ihe

    hydrological factors that have influenced wetland evolution. Multi-temporal .... ongoing experimental and modeling investigations by the authors of this paper. Soils .... season (dry) imagery due to the lack of suitable (cloud free) wet season scenes. ..... basins where the interactions between land use, climatic characteristics ...

  5. 2011 Summary: Coastal wetland restoration research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Wiley, Michael J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Czayka, Alex; Dominguez, Andrea; Doty, Susan; Eggleston, Mike; Green, Sean; Sweetman, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) projects currently taking place in Great Lakes coastal wetlands provide a unique opportunity to study ecosystem response to management actions as practitioners strive to improve wetland function and increase ecosystem services. Through a partnership between the U.S. Geological Survey – Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Ducks Unlimited, a GLRI-funded project has reestablished the hydrologic connection between an intensively managed impounded wetland (Pool 2B) and Crane Creek, a small Lake Erie tributary, by building a water-control structure that was opened in the spring of 2011. The study site is located within the USFWS Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge (ONWR) and lies within the boundaries of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-designated Maumee River Area of Concern. The broad objective of the project is to evaluate how hydrologically reconnecting a previously diked wetland impacts fish, mollusks, and other biota and affects nutrient transport, nutrient cycling, water quality, flood storage, and many other abiotic conditions. The results from this project suggest large system-wide benefits from sustainable reestablishment of lake-driven hydrology in this and other similar systems. We comprehensively sampled water chemistry, fish, birds, plants, and invertebrates in Crane Creek coastal wetlands, Pool 2A (a reference diked wetland), and Pool 2B (the reconnected wetland) in 2010 and 2011 to: 1) Characterize spatial and seasonal patterns for these parameters. 2) Examine ecosystem response to the opening of a water-control structure that allows fish passage Our sampling efforts have yielded data that reveal striking changes in water quality, hydrology, and fish assemblages in our experimental unit (2B). Prior to the reconnection, the water chemistry in pools 2A and 2B were very similar. Afterwards, we found that the water chemistry in reconnected Pool 2B was more

  6. Wetlands as energy-dissipating systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, J.; Květ, Jan; Rejšková, A.; Brom, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 12 (2010), s. 1299-1305 ISSN 1367-5435 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : wetlands * vegetation * energy fluxes * primary production * landscape management Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2010 http://www.springerlink.com/content/y5t4750647q84553/

  7. Wetlands Conservation and Use. Issue Pac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The overview stresses the significance of wetland habitats in all 50 states. The needs of wildlife and humans are also considered in respect to…

  8. Quantification of Seepage in Groundwater Dependent Wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole; Beven, Keith; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    2018-01-01

    Restoration and management of groundwater dependent wetlands require tools for quantifying the groundwater seepage process. A method for determining point estimates of the groundwater seepage based on water level observations is tested. The study is based on field data from a Danish rich fen...

  9. Methane emission from wetland rice fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    1996-01-01


    Methane (CH 4 ) is an important greenhouse gas and plays a key role in tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Wetland rice fields are an important source of methane, accounting for approximately 20% of the global anthropogenic

  10. River and wetland classifications for freshwater conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    River and wetland classifications for freshwater conservation planning in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... regional- or provincial-scale conservation planning. The hierarchical structure of the classifications provides scope for finer resolution, by the addition of further levels, for application at a sub-regional or municipal scale.

  11. Distribution of clonal growth forms in wetlands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sosnová, Monika; van Diggelen, R.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 1 (2010), s. 33-39 ISSN 0304-3770 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : clonal growth organ * the Netherlands * wetland plant community Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.087, year: 2010

  12. Radar geomorphology of coastal and wetland environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A. J.; Macdonald, H. C.

    1973-01-01

    Details regarding the collection of radar imagery over the past ten years are considered together with the geomorphic, geologic, and hydrologic data which have been extracted from radar imagery. Recent investigations were conducted of the Louisiana swamp marsh and the Oregon coast. It was found that radar imagery is a useful tool to the scientist involved in wetland research.

  13. A description of the wetlands research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walmsley, RD

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available ) What is the relationship between soil moisture and vegetation type? 2) What is the relationship between soil type and vegetation type? 3 ) What are the environmental requirements of wetland dependent animals? 4) What are the roles of microbiota...

  14. Ages of plains volcanism on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Ernst; Jagert, Felix; Broz, Petr

    2010-05-01

    Plain-style volcanism [1] is widespread in the Tharsis and Elysium volcanic provinces on Mars, [2,3]. Detailed images and topographic data reveal the morphology and topography of clusters of low shields and associated lava flows. The landforms of plains volcanism on Mars have all well-known terrestrial analogues in basaltic volcanic regions, such as Hawaii, Iceland, and in particular the Snake River Plains [4]. The very gentle flank slopes (J. (1981) Icarus, 45, 586-601. [3] Hodges C.A. and Moore H.J. (1994) Atlas of volcanic features on Mars: USGS Prof. Paper 1534, 194 p. [4] Hauber E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 69-95. [5] Wilson L. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 28-46. [6] Vaucher, J. et al. (2009) Icarus 204, 418-442. [7] Baratoux D. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 47-68. [8] Bleacher J.E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 96-102. [9] Ivanov B.A. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 87-104. [10] Hartmann W.H. and Neukum G. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 165-194 [11] Kneissl T. et al. (2010) LPS XVI, submitted. [12] Michael, G.G. and Neukum G. (2010) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., in press. . [13] Malin M.C. et al. (2007) JGR 112, E05S04, doi: 10.1029/2006JE002808.

  15. Assessment of Wetland Water Quality and Avian Diversity of a Human-Modified Floodplain Wetland on River Yamuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upma MANRAL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Okhla Bird Sanctuary (OBS is an Important Bird Area, which comes under the protected area network of Uttar Pradesh with one-third area lying in the state of Delhi (India. OBS has widest flood plains along the Delhi stretch of river Yamuna and is important in conserving the ecological wealth of floodplains of the river. Rapid urbanization and industrialization and discharge of untreated wastewater into the river have resulted in deteriorated water quality. The present study focused on assessment of water quality, aquatic flora and avifaunal diversity in the OBS. Water quality was analyzed following methods of APHA. For vegetation analysis, sub-merged and free-floating plants were scooped up from five randomly selected sites. Total bird counts were conducted for water birds and species richness, evenness and Shannon-Weaver species diversity indices were calculated. Results indicate that the organic load is very high in the wetland as evident from low levels of dissolved oxygen (2.26 ± 1.62 mg/l and high Biological and Chemical Oxygen Demands (15.20 ± 3.75 mg/l, 44.60 ± 12.07 mg/l. Nine species of free-floating and submerged plants were recorded; Hydrilla verticillata, Vallisneria spiralis, Azolla pinnata and Ceratophyllum demersum dominated both deep and shallow water areas. 52 species of waterbirds including four near-threatened species viz., Anhinga melanogaster, Mycteria leucocephala, Threskiornis melanocephalus and Aythya nyroca were recorded. OBS provides opportunities for conservation in a metropolitan area, thus, appropriate measures should be taken to maintain its ecological integrity.

  16. The origin and disappearance of the late Pleistocene-early Holocene short-lived coastal wetlands along the Carmel coast, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Dorit; Greenbaum, Noam; Cohen-Seffer, Ronit; Sisma-Ventura, Guy; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva

    The formation of short-lived backswamps along the Carmel coast of Israel coincides with the rapid global sea-level rise during the late Pleistocene-early Holocene transition. The current study shows that the wetland phenomena originated around 10,000 yr ago and dried up shortly before the local Pre-Pottery Neolithic humans settled on the wetland dark clay sediments 9430 cal yr BP. Palaeontological and stable-isotope data were used in this study to elucidate previously published sedimentological reconstruction obtained from a core drilled into the western trough of the Carmel coastal plain. The water body contained typical brackish calcareous fauna, with variable numerical abundance and low species richness of ostracods and foraminifera. The δ 18O and δ 13C of the ostracod Cyprideis torosa show close similarity to the present Pleistocene coastal aquifer isotopic values. This study therefore concludes that the wetlands were shallow-water bodies fed by groundwater, with no evidence of sea-water mixing. It seems that they developed as the result of high groundwater levels, transportation of sediments landward, and deposition of sand bars at the paleo-river mouths. It is still not fully understood why these wetlands deteriorated abruptly and disappeared within less than 1000 yr.

  17. Spatial and stress-related variation in benthic microbial gas flux in northeastern Alberta wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciborowski, J.; Gardner Costa, J.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of oil sands process material (OSPM) on the sediment microbial respiration in newly constructed wetlands located in northeastern Alberta. The sediment gas flux in 10 wetlands with various sediment characteristics and ages was studied. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) were used to contrast the mean wetland production of methane (CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) with season, wetland status, wetland age, and wetland zones. The study showed that CH 4 was significantly higher in reference wetlands than in OSPM-impacted wetlands. A significant relationship between the status and zone of the wetland was observed for CH 4 fluxes in reference wetlands. CH 4 fluxes were higher in the non-vegetated zones of reference wetlands than in the vegetated zones of reference wetlands. CO 2 fluxes were low and not significantly different in any of the studied sites. Results indicated that the wetlands contributed little atmospheric carbon.

  18. {sup 210}Pb geochronology and chemical characterization of sediment cores from lakes of the Parana river alluvial plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, L.F.L.; Damatto, S.R.; Scapin, M.A. [IPEN - Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Brazil); Remor, M.B.; Sampaio, S.C. [UNIOESTE - Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The flood plain of the upper Parana River is located among the lakes formed by the Brazilian hydroelectric plants being the last part of the Parana river, in Brazil, where there is an ecosystem with interaction river-flood plain. This flood plain has considerable habitat variability, with great diversity of terrestrial and aquatic species, and the floods are the main factor that regulates the operation of this ecosystem. The seasonality of the flood pulses is mainly influenced by the El Nino phenomenon, which increases precipitation in the drainage basin of the flood plain of the upper Parana River. Because of its unique characteristics this ecosystem is the subject of intense study since 1980, mainly from the ecological point of view. Therefore, two sediment cores were collected in the ponds formed by the floods, Patos pond and Garcas pond, in order to characterize the sediment chemically and evaluate a possible historic contamination. The trace element concentrations As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Hf, La, Lu, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn (mg.kg{sup -1}) and the major elements Si, Al, Fe, Ti, K, Ca, Mg, P, V, Mn, and Na (%) were determined in the sediment cores dated by {sup 210}Pb method, using instrumental neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence and gross beta counting, respectively. The results obtained for the elements Ce, Cr, Cs, La, Nd, Sc, Sm and Th are higher than the values of Upper Continental Crust for both ponds. The sedimentation rates obtained for Garca pond, 0.77 cm.y{sup -1}, and Patos pond, 0.62 cm.y{sup -1} are in agreement with studies performed in sedimentary environments similar to the present work, such as Brazilian wetland Pantanal. The enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index were used to assess the presence of anthropogenic sources of pollution. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  19. Wetland Management - A Success Story In Transition - Restoration of Bhoj Wetland, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgal, M. K.; Tech, B. M.; Miwwa

    Wetlands are beautiful, biologically diverse, hydrologically disperse and ecological vibrant landscape world wide, embracing soils, water, plants, animals and human be- ing. The population growth in the catchment of wetlands led to multifarious human interventions for deriving maximum benefit from the wetlands and their catchments neglecting and disrespecting the principles of sustainability. This act of destruction has been pronounced in developing countries which are under the grip of poverty, illiteracy and lack of environmental education. SBhoj WetlandS is a Lake situated ´ in Central India, Earthen Dam across the river KOLANS in 1061 AD by then ruler king BHOJ. Till 1950 this Wetland was served as a principal source of water supply, even not requiring filtration. As the city grew and the wetland started getting encir- cled by habitation and urban development, the anthropogenic pressures on the lake increased, thus accelerating the process of eutrophication, making the water unfit for human consumption without due treatment due to deterioration of quality of water. For the conservation and management of Bhoj Wetland (Lake Bhopal) a project is under- taken in the financial assistance from Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC, Japan). The project envisages tackle various issues of conservation and management ofn the wetlands under a multi prongs strategies and manner. Although these issues are deeply interrelated and interlinked but for operational and management ease, these issues have been divided into various sub projects which are being tackled indepen- dently, albeit with undercurrent knowledge and understanding of the related issues and interconnectivity with each other. The Project itself is an apt example of the spectrum of varied problems and issues that come to light when attempts are made for sustain- able conservation and management of a wetland. The Project as envisaged intends to conserve and manage through 14 sub projects as under:- Sub

  20. The significant surface-water connectivity of "geographically isolated wetlands"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Mushet, David M.; Alexander, Laurie C.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Richter, Stephen; Walls, Susan

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the current literature, coupled with our collective research expertise, on surface-water connectivity of wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” (sensu Tiner Wetlands 23:494–516, 2003a) to critically assess the scientific foundation of grouping wetlands based on the singular condition of being surrounded by uplands. The most recent research on wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” shows the difficulties in grouping an ecological resource that does not reliably indicate lack of surface water connectivity in order to meet legal, regulatory, or scientific needs. Additionally, the practice of identifying “geographically isolated wetlands” based on distance from a stream can result in gross overestimates of the number of wetlands lacking ecologically important surface-water connections. Our findings do not support use of the overly simplistic label of “geographically isolated wetlands”. Wetlands surrounded by uplands vary in function and surface-water connections based on wetland landscape setting, context, climate, and geographic region and should be evaluated as such. We found that the “geographically isolated” grouping does not reflect our understanding of the hydrologic variability of these wetlands and hence does not benefit conservation of the Nation’s diverse wetland resources. Therefore, we strongly discourage use of categorizations that provide overly simplistic views of surface-water connectivity of wetlands fully embedded in upland landscapes.

  1. Working group report on wetlands, wildlife and fisheries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltby, L.

    1990-01-01

    A workshop was held to discuss the impacts of climatic change on wetlands, wildlife and fisheries. Impacts that could occur as a result of climatic change include: sea level rise affecting coastal wetlands by inundation, erosion and saltwater intrusion; temperature rise/moisture balance changes on other wetlands; lake level changes affecting shoreline wetlands; vegetation species/community modification of biological systems; and changes in values derived from wetlands impacting socio-economic systems. The Great Lakes shoreline is considered to be at high risk, and it is predicted that there will be profound effects on the ecological and socio-economic value of the Great Lakes wetlands. Presentations were given on wildlife as biological indicators, modelling the effects of climate warming on the stream habitats of brook trout, and the effects of an altered water regime on Great Lakes coastal wetlands. It was concluded that a fundamental research program of an interdisciplinary nature be established to determine current linkages of climatic variables to the function, distribution and productivity of wetlands and associated fish and wildlife resources. A national wetlands monitoring network should be established to trace the influence of climatic variables on wetlands and fish, to identify environmental indicators for reporting and to complement other monitoring programs

  2. Winter Tourism and mountain wetland management and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucherand, S.; Mauz, I.

    2012-04-01

    The degradation and loss of wetlands is more rapid than that of other ecosystems (MEA 2005). In mountains area, wetlands are small and scattered and particularly sensitive to global change. The development of ski resorts can lead to the destruction or the deterioration of mountain wetlands because of hydrologic interferences, fill in, soil compression and erosion, etc. Since 2008, we have studied a high altitude wetland complex in the ski resort of Val Thorens. The aim of our study was to identify the impacts of mountain tourism development (winter and summer tourism) on wetland functioning and to produce an action plan designed to protect, rehabilitate and value the wetlands. We chose an approach based on multi-stakeholder participatory process at every stage, from information gathering to technical choices and monitoring. In this presentation, we show how such an approach can efficiently improve the consideration of wetlands in the development of a ski resort, but also the bottlenecks that need to be overcome. We will also discuss some of the ecological engineering techniques used to rehabilitate or restore high altitude degraded wetlands. Finally, this work has contributed to the creation in 2012 of a mountain wetland observatory coordinated by the conservatory of Haute-Savoie. The objective of this observatory is to estimate ecosystem services furnished by mountain wetlands and to find restoration strategies adapted to the local socio-economical context (mountain agriculture and mountain tourism).

  3. Lithosphere stress changes due to groundwater unloading in North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yajin; Zhang, Huai; Shi, Yaolin

    2015-04-01

    During the past 50 years, excessive groundwater pumping has led to the continuous decline of groundwater table in North China Plain, which becomes one of the global hotspots of groundwater depletion. Over most of the rural areas of the plain, the shallow aquifer has experienced a water-table decline of more than 15m, with greater declines up to 50m in most urban centres, such as Beijing, Tangshan, Shijiangzhuang and so forth in 1960-2000. The entire groundwater depletion area covers a total area of approximately 56,273 km2 , more than 40% of the North China Plain. The vast area of enormous groundwater exploitation in North China Plain will definitely unload the lithosphere and create stress perturbations, the problem is if the stresses change large enough to affect tectonic activities. In this essay, we set up a 3 dimensional numerical visco-elastic model to discuss the effect of groundwater over-pumping on the lithosphere deformation and stress state in North China Plain. Based on the records of total groundwater-table decline during 1960-2010 in North China Plain, we estimate the accumulated deformation and lithosphere stress due to unloading of human-induced groundwater depletion. The area in the model ranges from 34° To 42°N, and 112° To 119°E, including the major groundwater depression cones in North China Plain. According to the simulating result, the maximum surface vertical uplift caused by groundwater unloading is 8cm. Meanwhile cumulative horizontal crustal stress changes near the surface goes up to 100kPa, and up to 40kPa at 15km depth where most earthquakes occurred in this area. The tectonic compressive stress rate is about 0.25kPa per year. Therefore, the stress changes due to groundwater pumping is significant compared with the tectonic driven stress changes. As China developed rapidly since 1978, the groundwater table mainly declined after 1978. Taking the earthquake catalog in the vicinity of groundwater depression zone into consideration, we

  4. The cost of wetland creation and restoration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.; Bohlen, C.

    1995-08-01

    This report examines the economics of wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement projects, especially as they are used within the context of mitigation for unavoidable wetland losses. Complete engineering-cost-accounting profiles of over 90 wetland projects were developed in collaboration with leading wetland restoration and creation practitioners around the country to develop a primary source database. Data on the costs of over 1,000 wetland projects were gathered from published sources and other available databases to develop a secondary source database. Cases in both databases were carefully analyzed and a set of baseline cost per acre estimates were developed for wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement. Observations of costs varied widely, ranging from $5 per acre to $1.5 million per acre. Differences in cost were related to the target wetland type, and to site-specific and project-specific factors that affected the preconstruction, construction, and post-construction tasks necessary to carry out each particular project. Project-specific and site-specific factors had a much larger effect on project costs than wetland type for non-agricultural projects. Costs of wetland creation and restoration were also shown to differ by region, but not by as much as expected, and in response to the regulatory context. The costs of wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement were also analyzed in a broader economic context through examination of the market for wetland mitigation services, and through the development of a framework for estimating compensation ratios-the number of acres of created, restored, or enhanced wetland required to compensate for an acre of lost natural wetland. The combination of per acre creation, restoration, and enhancement costs and the compensation ratio determine the overall mitigation costs associated with alternative mitigation strategies.

  5. Observation of Wetland Dynamics with Global Navigation Satellite Signals Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuffada, C.; Shah, R.; Nghiem, S. V.; Cardellach, E.; Chew, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland dynamics is crucial to changes in both atmospheric methane and terrestrial water storage. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC AR5) highlights the role of wetlands as a key driver of methane (CH4) emission, which is more than one order of magnitude stronger than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas in the centennial time scale. Among the multitude of methane emission sources (hydrates, livestock, rice cultivation, freshwaters, landfills and waste, fossil fuels, biomass burning, termites, geological sources, and soil oxidation), wetlands constitute the largest contributor with the widest uncertainty range of 177-284 Tg(CH4) yr-1 according to the IPCC estimate. Wetlands are highly susceptible to climate change that might lead to wetland collapse. Such wetland destruction would decrease the terrestrial water storage capacity and thus contribute to sea level rise, consequently exacerbating coastal flooding problems. For both methane change and water storage change, wetland dynamics is a crucial factor with the largest uncertainty. Nevertheless, a complete and consistent map of global wetlands still needs to be obtained as the Ramsar Convention calls for a wetlands inventory and impact assessment. We develop a new method for observations of wetland change using Global Navigation Satellite Signals Reflectometry (GNSS-R) signatures for global wetland mapping in synergy with the existing capability, not only as a static inventory but also as a temporal dataset, to advance the capability for monitoring the dynamics of wetland extent relevant to addressing the science issues of CH4 emission change and terrestrial water storage change. We will demonstrate the capability of the new GNSS-R method over a rice field in the Ebro Delta wetland in Spain.

  6. Placing prairie pothole wetlands along spatial and temporal continua to improve integration of wetland function in ecological investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.; Newton, Wesley E.; Otto, Clint R.V.; Nelson, Richard D.; LaBaugh, James W.; Scherff, Eric J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of using chemical characteristics to rank wetland relation to surface and groundwater along a hydrologic continuum ranging from groundwater recharge to groundwater discharge. We used 27 years (1974–2002) of water chemistry data from 15 prairie pothole wetlands and known hydrologic connections of these wetlands to groundwater to evaluate spatial and temporal patterns in chemical characteristics that correspond to the unique ecosystem functions each wetland performed. Due to the mineral content and the low permeability rate of glacial till and soils, salinity of wetland waters increased along a continuum of wetland relation to groundwater recharge, flow-through or discharge. Mean inter-annual specific conductance (a proxy for salinity) increased along this continuum from wetlands that recharge groundwater being fresh to wetlands that receive groundwater discharge being the most saline, and wetlands that both recharge and discharge to groundwater (i.e., groundwater flow-through wetlands) being of intermediate salinity. The primary axis from a principal component analysis revealed that specific conductance (and major ions affecting conductance) explained 71% of the variation in wetland chemistry over the 27 years of this investigation. We found that long-term averages from this axis were useful to identify a wetland’s long-term relation to surface and groundwater. Yearly or seasonal measurements of specific conductance can be less definitive because of highly dynamic inter- and intra-annual climate cycles that affect water volumes and the interaction of groundwater and geologic materials, and thereby influence the chemical composition of wetland waters. The influence of wetland relation to surface and groundwater on water chemistry has application in many scientific disciplines and is especially needed to improve ecological understanding in wetland investigations. We suggest ways that monitoring in situ wetland conditions could be linked

  7. Depression and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Symptoms Depression Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Depression Depression Fatigue Walking (Gait) Difficulties Numbness or Tingling ... away from addictive substances such as alcohol. Clinical depression It’s important to distinguish between mild, everyday “blues” — ...

  8. Depression in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression affects more ... combination of both. [8] Older Adult Attitudes Toward Depression: According to a Mental Health America survey [9] ...

  9. Older Adults and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find more information? Reprints Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... depression need treatment to feel better. Types of Depression There are several types of depression. The most ...

  10. Depression and Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home Depression and Caregiving Order this publication Printer-friendly version ... a more serious depression over time. Symptoms of Depression People experience depression in different ways. Some may ...

  11. Depression and Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... due to another medical disorder Relationship Between Depression & Suicide: 1. Depression is the psychiatric diagnosis most commonly associated with ... of patients with treated depression eventually die by suicide. xiv 4. Depression is present in at least 50 percent of ...

  12. Methane emissions from global wetlands: An assessment of the uncertainty associated with various wetland extent data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bowen; Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Chen, Guangsheng; Pan, Shufen; Anderson, Christopher; Poulter, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    A wide range of estimates on global wetland methane (CH4) fluxes has been reported during the recent two decades. This gives rise to urgent needs to clarify and identify the uncertainty sources, and conclude a reconciled estimate for global CH4 fluxes from wetlands. Most estimates by using bottom-up approach rely on wetland data sets, but these data sets show largely inconsistent in terms of both wetland extent and spatiotemporal distribution. A quantitative assessment of uncertainties associated with these discrepancies among wetland data sets has not been well investigated yet. By comparing the five widely used global wetland data sets (GISS, GLWD, Kaplan, GIEMS and SWAMPS-GLWD), it this study, we found large differences in the wetland extent, ranging from 5.3 to 10.2 million km2, as well as their spatial and temporal distributions among the five data sets. These discrepancies in wetland data sets resulted in large bias in model-estimated global wetland CH4 emissions as simulated by using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM). The model simulations indicated that the mean global wetland CH4 emissions during 2000-2007 were 177.2 ± 49.7 Tg CH4 yr-1, based on the five different data sets. The tropical regions contributed the largest portion of estimated CH4 emissions from global wetlands, but also had the largest discrepancy. Among six continents, the largest uncertainty was found in South America. Thus, the improved estimates of wetland extent and CH4 emissions in the tropical regions and South America would be a critical step toward an accurate estimate of global CH4 emissions. This uncertainty analysis also reveals an important need for our scientific community to generate a global scale wetland data set with higher spatial resolution and shorter time interval, by integrating multiple sources of field and satellite data with modeling approaches, for cross-scale extrapolation.

  13. Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in the Great Plains region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Michelle; Butman, David; Hawbaker, Todd; Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Jinxun; Liu, Shu-Guang; McDonald, Cory; Reker, Ryan R.; Sayler, Kristi; Sleeter, Benjamin; Sohl, Terry; Stackpoole, Sarah; Wein, Anne; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2011-01-01

    This assessment was conducted to fulfill the requirements of section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 and to improve understanding of carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in the Great Plains region in the central part of the United States. The assessment examined carbon storage, carbon fluxes, and other GHG fluxes (methane and nitrous oxide) in all major terrestrial ecosystems (forests, grasslands/shrublands, agricultural lands, and wetlands) and freshwater aquatic systems (rivers, streams, lakes, and impoundments) in two time periods: baseline (generally in the first half of the 2010s) and future (projections from baseline to 2050). The assessment was based on measured and observed data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and many other agencies and organizations and used remote sensing, statistical methods, and simulation models.

  14. Recreating wetland ecosystems in an oil sands disturbed landscape : Suncor consolidated-tailings demonstration wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, C. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada). Aquatic Reclamation Research; Tedder, W.; Marlowe, P. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Oil Sands Div.

    2009-10-01

    Open pit oil sands mining involves the disturbance of thin overburden covers of Boreal forest lands that must be returned to equivalent land capability after mining activities have ceased. Before mining starts, any wetlands are drained, timber is harvested, and peat, topsoils and subsoils are stockpiled for later use. This article discussed wetland reclamation activities conducted by Suncor Energy at its open pit mining operations. Research facilities were constructed in order to determine if wetlands constructed with consolidated tailings (CT) and pond effluent water (PEW) were able to support a sustainable vegetation community. Thirty-three cat-tail plots were established at the facility as well as unplanted plots in order to determine how quickly natural establishment occurred. Shoreline plug transplants and transplants from a natural saline lake were also introduced. Within 5 years, over 23 plant species had naturally colonized the CT wetlands. However, diversity was lower in CT and PEW-constructed wetlands. It was concluded that the application of a native peat-mineral mix soil may help to increase plant diversity. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Applicability Assessment of Uavsar Data in Wetland Monitoring: a Case Study of Louisiana Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Niu, Y.; Lu, Z.; Yang, J.; Li, P.; Liu, W.

    2018-04-01

    Wetlands are highly productive and support a wide variety of ecosystem goods and services. Monitoring wetland is essential and potential. Because of the repeat-pass nature of satellite orbit and airborne, time-series of remote sensing data can be obtained to monitor wetland. UAVSAR is a NASA L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor compact pod-mounted polarimetric instrument for interferometric repeat-track observations. Moreover, UAVSAR images can accurately map crustal deformations associated with natural hazards, such as volcanoes and earthquakes. And its polarization agility facilitates terrain and land-use classification and change detection. In this paper, the multi-temporal UAVSAR data are applied for monitoring the wetland change. Using the multi-temporal polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) data, the change detection maps are obtained by unsupervised and supervised method. And the coherence is extracted from the interfometric SAR (InSAR) data to verify the accuracy of change detection map. The experimental results show that the multi-temporal UAVSAR data is fit for wetland monitor.

  16. Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or guilty. These emotions can affect a woman’s self-esteem and how she deals with stress. Fatigue—Many ... FAQs Exercise After Pregnancy (FAQ131) Depression (FAQ106) Patient Education FAQs Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient ...

  17. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Forested Wetlands in the West Gulf Coastal Plain Region of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    shrub species in reference standard sites, but may dominate in degraded systems Carya illinoensis Carya cordiformis Carpinus caroliniana Carya ovata...americana sedges Carex spp. ironwood Carpinus caroliniana water hickory Carya aquatica bitternut hickory Carya cordiformis pecan Carya illinoensis ...and water hickory ( Carya aquatica). Less flooded sites are often dominated by green ash, Nuttall oak (Q. nuttallii), or willow oak, and the driest

  18. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Forested Wetlands in Alluvial Valleys of the Coastal Plain of the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    galli Barnyard grass Imperata  cylindrica   Cogongrass Ligustrum japonicum   Japanese privet Ligustrum sinense   Chinese Privet Lonicera japonica... Imperata  cylindrica   Cogongrass Ligustrum japonicum   Japanese privet Ligustrum sinense   Chinese Privet Lonicera japonica   Japanese Honeysuckle...crus-galli Barnyard grass Imperata  cylindrica   Cogongrass Ligustrum japonicum   Japanese privet Ligustrum sinense   Chinese Privet Lonicera

  19. Resilience of coastal wetlands to extreme hydrologicevents in Apalachicola Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, S. C.; Singh, A.; Tahsin, S.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme hydrologic events such as hurricanes and droughts continuously threaten wetlands which provide key ecosystem services in coastal areas. The recovery time for vegetation after impact fromthese extreme events can be highly variable depending on the hazard type and intensity. Apalachicola Bay in Florida is home to a rich variety of saltwater and freshwater wetlands and is subject to a wide rangeof hydrologic hazards. Using spatiotemporal changes in Landsat-based empirical vegetation indices, we investigate the impact of hurricane and drought on both freshwater and saltwater wetlands from year 2000to 2015 in Apalachicola Bay. Our results indicate that saltwater wetlands are more resilient than freshwater wetlands and suggest that in response to hurricanes, the coastal wetlands took almost a year to recover,while recovery following a drought period was observed after only a month.

  20. Study of Wetland Ecosystem Vegetation Using Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyukarev, E. A.; Alekseeva, M. N.; Golovatskaya, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is used to estimate the aboveground net production (ANP) of wetland ecosystems for the key area at the South Taiga zone of West Siberia. The vegetation index and aboveground production are related by linear dependence and are specific for each wetland ecosystem. The NDVI grows with an increase in the ANP at wooded oligotrophic ecosystems. Open oligotrophic bogs and eutrophic wetlands are characterized by an opposite relation. Maps of aboveground production for wetland ecosystems are constructed for each study year and for the whole period of studies. The average aboveground production for all wetland ecosystems of the key area, which was estimated with consideration for the area they occupy and using the data of satellite measurements of the vegetation index, is 305 g C/m2/yr. The total annual carbon accumulation in aboveground wetland vegetation in the key area is 794600 t.

  1. Integrating geographically isolated wetlands into land management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Heather E.; Creed, Irena F.; Ali, Genevieve; Basu, Nandita; Neff, Brian; Rains, Mark C.; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Ameli, Ali A.; Christensen, Jay R.; Evenson, Grey R.; Jones, Charles N.; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands across the globe provide extensive ecosystem services. However, many wetlands – especially those surrounded by uplands, often referred to as geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) – remain poorly protected. Protection and restoration of wetlands frequently requires information on their hydrologic connectivity to other surface waters, and their cumulative watershed‐scale effects. The integration of measurements and models can supply this information. However, the types of measurements and models that should be integrated are dependent on management questions and information compatibility. We summarize the importance of GIWs in watersheds and discuss what wetland connectivity means in both science and management contexts. We then describe the latest tools available to quantify GIW connectivity and explore crucial next steps to enhancing and integrating such tools. These advancements will ensure that appropriate tools are used in GIW decision making and maintaining the important ecosystem services that these wetlands support.

  2. Landscape hydrology. The hydrological legacy of deforestation on global wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, C; Shulmeister, J; Larsen, J; Jacobsen, G E; Zawadzki, A

    2014-11-14

    Increased catchment erosion and nutrient loading are commonly recognized impacts of deforestation on global wetlands. In contrast, an increase in water availability in deforested catchments is well known in modern studies but is rarely considered when evaluating past human impacts. We used a Budyko water balance approach, a meta-analysis of global wetland response to deforestation, and paleoecological studies from Australasia to explore this issue. After complete deforestation, we demonstrated that water available to wetlands increases by up to 15% of annual precipitation. This can convert ephemeral swamps to permanent lakes or even create new wetlands. This effect is globally significant, with 9 to 12% of wetlands affected, including 20 to 40% of Ramsar wetlands, but is widely unrecognized because human impact studies rarely test for it. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Wetlands Assessment for site characterization, Advanced Neutron Source (ANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, M.C.; Socolof, M.L.

    1994-10-01

    This Wetlands Assessment has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 1022, Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, which established the policy and procedure for implementing Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands. The proposed action is to conduct characterization activities in or near wetlands at the ANS site. The proposed action will covered under a Categorical Exclusion, therefore this assessment is being prepared as a separate document [10 CFR 1022.12(c)]. The purpose of this Wetlands Assessment is to fulfill the requirements of 10 CFR 1022.12(a) by describing the project, discussing the effects of the proposed action upon the wetlands, and considering alternatives to the proposed action

  4. Radiocarbon dating of sediment cores from Hachinohe, the Kamikita Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitoki, Eri; Nakamura, Toshio; Matsumoto, Yui; Tsuji, Sei-ichiro; Fujine, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated stratigraphy and chronology by analyses of Holocene sediments and radiocarbon dating of sediment cores from the Kamikita Plain. On the Kamikita Plain, which faces the Pacific coast of Northeast Japan, marine and fluvial terraces covered with tephras derived from Towada and Hakkoda volcanoes are well developed. We clarified that Towada Chuseri tephra and fluvial deposits consisted of volcanic sediments influenced an alluvial depositional system in the Kamikita Plain after a maximum of the Jomon Transgression. (author)

  5. Ecosystem Development after Mangrove Wetland Creation: Plant-Soil Change across a 20-year Chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangrove wetland restoration and creation efforts are increasingly proposed as mechanisms to compensate for mangrove wetland loss. However, ecosystem development and functional equivalence in restored and created mangrove wetlands is poorly understood. We compared a 20-yr chrono...

  6. Tree establishment in response to hydrology at IDOT wetland mitigation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) has compensated for unavoidable impacts to wetlands in transportation : project corridors by restoring and creating wetlands throughout Illinois. As part of the IDOT Wetlands Program, monitoring : of p...

  7. Hyperdensity liver tumor on plain CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Shozo; Hanaguri, Katsuro [Kochi Municipal Central Hospital (Japan); Shimizu, Masahumi; Sako, Masao; Harada, Yasushi

    1984-12-01

    Most liver tumors on plain CT have been recognized as low density or iso-density masses. Sometimes calcified high density masses were shown on plain CT in case of cysts or metastatic liver tumors. However, hyperdensity mass of the liver on CT, of which the density was a little higher than surrounding tissues, was very rare. Recently 7 patients with hyperdensity liver masses on plain CT were experienced: 6 hepatocellular carcinomas and 1 hepatic cavernous hemangioma. A single hyperdensity mass was shown in 4 patients, a hyperdensity mass of multiple hepatic tumors was shown in 2 patients, and some hyperdensity masses of multiple hepatic tumors were shown in 1 patient. Lesions are classified in 3 types according to the appearance of hyperdensity masses: diffuse hyperdensity all over the mass, ring like hyperdensity, creascent like hyperdensity. Intravenous contrast enhancement was performed in 2 patients: one with a primary hepatocellular carcinoma, and another with a hepatic cavernous hemangioma. In the former case the tumor margin had changed unclear, in the latter case the tumor was markedly enhanced. Our results revealed that hyperdensity liver tumors were divided into 2 types: One type, shown in a cavernous hemangioma with fatty liver, demonstrated relative hyperdensity due to lower density of the surrounding tissue. Another type, shown in 6 hepatocellular carcinomas, showed hyperdensity since the density of the tumor was hyperdensity relative to the surrounding tissue of the liver. It was suggested that the tumor with the latter type had been strongly probable of malignant one, and been recommended to receive further examination. Cause of hyperdensity was thought to be due to hemorrhage, though microcalcification could not be denyed. In Japan, no hyperdensity liver tumor had been reported partly due to a wide window width with which CT photographs were taken.

  8. Precipitation Dynamical Downscaling Over the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Ming; Xue, Ming; McPherson, Renee A.; Martin, Elinor; Rosendahl, Derek H.; Qiao, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Detailed, regional climate projections, particularly for precipitation, are critical for many applications. Accurate precipitation downscaling in the United States Great Plains remains a great challenge for most Regional Climate Models, particularly for warm months. Most previous dynamic downscaling simulations significantly underestimate warm-season precipitation in the region. This study aims to achieve a better precipitation downscaling in the Great Plains with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. To this end, WRF simulations with different physics schemes and nudging strategies are first conducted for a representative warm season. Results show that different cumulus schemes lead to more pronounced difference in simulated precipitation than other tested physics schemes. Simply choosing different physics schemes is not enough to alleviate the dry bias over the southern Great Plains, which is related to an anticyclonic circulation anomaly over the central and western parts of continental U.S. in the simulations. Spectral nudging emerges as an effective solution for alleviating the precipitation bias. Spectral nudging ensures that large and synoptic-scale circulations are faithfully reproduced while still allowing WRF to develop small-scale dynamics, thus effectively suppressing the large-scale circulation anomaly in the downscaling. As a result, a better precipitation downscaling is achieved. With the carefully validated configurations, WRF downscaling is conducted for 1980-2015. The downscaling captures well the spatial distribution of monthly climatology precipitation and the monthly/yearly variability, showing improvement over at least two previously published precipitation downscaling studies. With the improved precipitation downscaling, a better hydrological simulation over the trans-state Oologah watershed is also achieved.

  9. Land area change and fractional water maps in the Chenier Plain, Louisiana, following hurricane Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaseanu-Lovejoy, M.; Kranenburg, C.; Brock, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a fractional water map at 30-m resolution scale using QuickBird and/or IKONOS high-resolution imagery as dependent variable to investigate the impact of hurricane Rita in the Chenier Plain, Louisiana. Eleven different indices were tested to obtain a high-resolution land / water classification on QuickBird (acquired on 05/23/2003) and IKONOS (acquired on 03/25/2006) images. The percent area covered by water in the high resolution images varied from 22 to 26% depending on the index used , with the simple ratio index (red band / NIR band) accounting for the lowest percent and the blue ratio index (blue band / sum(all bands)) for the highest percent. Using the ERDAS NLCD (National Land Cover Data) Mapping tool module, 100, 000 stratified random sample points with minimum 1000 points per stratum were selected from the high resolution dependent variable as training information for the independent variable layers. The rules for the regression tree were created using the data mining software Rulequest Cubist v. 2.05. This information was used to generate a fractional water map for the entire Landsat scene. The increase in water areas of about 10 - 15% between 2003 to 2006, as well as temporary changes in the water - land configurations are attributed to remnant flooding and removal of aquatic vegetation caused by hurricane Rita, and water level variations caused by tidal and / or meteorological variations between the acquisition dates of the satellite images. This analysis can assist in monitoring post-hurricane wetland recovery and assess trends in land loss due to extreme storm events, although estimation of permanent land loss cannot be made until wetland areas have the opportunity to recover from hurricane impacts.

  10. Plain film diagnosis of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.V. Jr.; Torres, W.E.; Clements, J.L. Jr.; Gedgaudas-McClees, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    One of the first examinations obtained routinely in abdominal radiography is the plain radiograph of the abdomen. The liver occupies anywhere from 15 to 30 percent of the area on such examinations. Thus, it is important to pay particular attention to the region of the liver and obtain as much information as possible from these films. The purpose of this chapter is to review the normal radiographic anatomy and pathology. Also, pathologic calcifications, gas collections, unusual collections of fat, and the systemic manifestations of hepatic disease are discussed within this chapter

  11. Innovative techniques cut costs in wetlands drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an approach to drilling oil and gas wells in sensitive wetlands areas contributed to a savings of over $1.2 million on a three-well, $3 million drilling project in south Louisiana. ARCO Oil and Gas Co. drilled a three-well project in the Bayou Sale field with a truck-mounted workover rig and a modified solids-control system. This smaller equipment eliminated the need to build a large location in the marsh. Traditional drilling techniques require a large drillsite to accommodate all the equipment of a modern drilling complex. However, recently imposed environmental regulations substantially limit, and in some cases prohibit, the use of these conventional techniques for drilling wells in wetlands areas. Based on the potentially huge economic and operational impact on the drilling industry because of these stricter regulations, alternatives to these traditional practices are essential

  12. Guidelines for Developing Wetlands in Agricultural Catchments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This publication presents the results of an international research project on optimizing the capture and storage of water by assessing nutrient using water conservation zones in agricultural landscapes. Eight countries from Asia-Pacific, Africa and Europe participated in the project. Field studies were established in all participating countries using isotopic and nuclear techniques to assess three types of water conservation zones that are used to harvest water for irrigation, crop production and improve downstream water quality. In addition, isotopic and nuclear techniques were used to collect data to identify the ideal locations in the landscapes for developing wetlands. The publication provides information to researchers working in the area of soil and water management, natural resource managers, policy makers and farmers. For those working to develop wetlands, information is provided to support planning, monitoring and evaluation.

  13. The state of oil sands wetland reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The state of oil sand and wetlands reclamation was the subject of this presentation. Wildlife habitat and response, plant community and production, and microbial biology were examples of research areas surrounding this body of knowledge. Hydrological research and landscape ecology were discussed along with peatlands and marshes such as the Corvette and the Kia. A few examples of what has been learned in the area of wetlands reclamation was presented. Other topics were also discussed, such as timeframes, pragmatic policy approaches, reclamation costs, research needs and some ideas on maturing the field. It was concluded that environmental conditions change with time and area because of time, chemistry, physics, stoichiometry, as well as biotic mediation and facilitation. figs.

  14. Wetland Resources Action Planning (WRAP) toolkit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunting, Stuart W.; Smith, Kevin G.; Lund, Søren

    2013-01-01

    The Wetland Resources Action Planning (WRAP) toolkit is a toolkit of research methods and better management practices used in HighARCS (Highland Aquatic Resources Conservation and Sustainable Development), an EU-funded project with field experiences in China, Vietnam and India. It aims to communi......The Wetland Resources Action Planning (WRAP) toolkit is a toolkit of research methods and better management practices used in HighARCS (Highland Aquatic Resources Conservation and Sustainable Development), an EU-funded project with field experiences in China, Vietnam and India. It aims...... to communicate best practices in conserving biodiversity and sustaining ecosystem services to potential users and to promote the wise-use of aquatic resources, improve livelihoods and enhance policy information....

  15. Internal aeration development and the zonation of plants in wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith

    differing in flooding tolerance. Maintaining species diversity in managed wetlands therefore involves hydrological conditions suitable for a variety of plants that differ in their flooding tolerance. The shallowest areas of wetlands, in which soils are waterlogged but there is little standing water, can...... of pressurized gas flows in their aerenchyma. These close linkages between flooding tolerance and species distributions are key considerations for maintaining species diversity in wetlands....

  16. Hydroperiod regime controls the organization of plant species in wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Foti, R.; del Jesus, M.; Rinaldo, A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2012-01-01

    With urban, agricultural, and industrial needs growing throughout the past decades, wetland ecosystems have experienced profound changes. Most critically, the biodiversity of wetlands is intimately linked to its hydrologic dynamics, which in turn are being drastically altered by ongoing climate changes. Hydroperiod regimes, e.g., percentage of time a site is inundated, exert critical control in the creation of niches for different plant species in wetlands. However, the spatial signatures of ...

  17. Wetland forest statistics for the South Atlantic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown; Greg M. Smith; Joseph McCollum

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-one percent, or 17.6 million acres, of the timberland in the South Atlantic States was classified as wetland timberland. Sixty percent of the region’s wetland timberland was under nonindustrial private forest ownership. Forty-eight percent of the region’s wetland timberland was classified as sawtimber-sized stands. Lowland hardwood types made up 62 percent of...

  18. Desert wetlands in the geologic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, Jeff S.; Rech, Jason A.; Quade, Jay; Bright, Jordon; Edwards, L.; Springer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Desert wetlands support flora and fauna in a variety of hydrologic settings, including seeps, springs, marshes, wet meadows, ponds, and spring pools. Over time, eolian, alluvial, and fluvial sediments become trapped in these settings by a combination of wet ground conditions and dense plant cover. The result is a unique combination of clastic sediments, chemical precipitates, and organic matter that is preserved in the geologic record as ground-water discharge (GWD) deposits. GWD deposits contain information on the timing and magnitude of past changes in water-table levels and, therefore, are a potential source of paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic information. In addition, they can be important archeological and paleontological archives because desert wetlands provide reliable sources of fresh water, and thus act as focal points for human and faunal activities, in some of the world's harshest and driest lands. Here, we review some of the physical, sedimentological, and geochemical characteristics common to GWD deposits, and provide a contextual framework that researchers can use to identify and interpret geologic deposits associated with desert wetlands. We discuss several lines of evidence used to differentiate GWD deposits from lake deposits (they are commonly confused), and examine how various types of microbiota and depositional facies aid in reconstructing past environmental and hydrologic conditions. We also review how late Quaternary GWD deposits are dated, as well as methods used to investigate desert wetlands deeper in geologic time. We end by evaluating the strengths and limitations of hydrologic and climatic records derived from GWD deposits, and suggest several avenues of potential future research to further develop and utilize these unique and complex systems.

  19. Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John T.; Stanley, Emily H.; Spawn, Seth A.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Stream and river carbon dioxide emissions are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Methane emissions from streams could also contribute to regional or global greenhouse gas cycling, but there are relatively few data regarding stream and river methane emissions. Furthermore, the available data do not typically include the ebullitive (bubble-mediated) pathway, instead focusing on emission of dissolved methane by diffusion or convection. Here, we show the importance of ebullitive methane emissions from small streams in the regional greenhouse gas balance of a lake and wetland-dominated landscape in temperate North America and identify the origin of the methane emitted from these well-oxygenated streams. Stream methane flux densities from this landscape tended to exceed those of nearby wetland diffusive fluxes as well as average global wetland ebullitive fluxes. Total stream ebullitive methane flux at the regional scale (103 Mg C yr−1; over 6400 km2) was of the same magnitude as diffusive methane flux previously documented at the same scale. Organic-rich stream sediments had the highest rates of bubble release and higher enrichment of methane in bubbles, but glacial sand sediments also exhibited high bubble emissions relative to other studied environments. Our results from a database of groundwater chemistry support the hypothesis that methane in bubbles is produced in anoxic near-stream sediment porewaters, and not in deeper, oxygenated groundwaters. Methane interacts with other key elemental cycles such as nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, which has implications for ecosystem changes such as drought and increased nutrient loading. Our results support the contention that streams, particularly those draining wetland landscapes of the northern hemisphere, are an important component of the global methane cycle.

  20. Community-based wetland comanagement in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record This chapter explains new solutions to problems resulting from top-down approaches to resource conservation and sustainability. The management of natural resources - in this case, wetlands - is complicated and risky. To address the risks involved with resource management, a case study was done in Bangladesh to evaluate the effectiveness of community-based comanagement. Using multidisciplinary approaches and adaptive management strategies, the Management of Aquatic Ecos...

  1. Trace gas emissions from burning Florida wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, Wesley R.; Levine, Joel S.; Winstead, Edward L.; Lebel, Peter J.; Koller, Albert M.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1990-02-01

    Measurements of biomass burn-produced trace gases are presented that were obtained using a helicopter at low altitudes above burning Florida wetlands on November 9, 1987, and from both helicopter and light-aircraft samplings on November 7, 1988. Carbon dioxide (CO2) normalized emission ratios (ΔX/ΔCO2; V/V; where X is trace gas) for carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHC), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were obtained over burning graminoid wetlands consisting primarily of Spartina bakeri and Juncus roemerianus. Some interspersed scrub oak (Quercus spp) and saw palmetto (Screnoa repens) were also burned. No significant differences were observed in the emission ratios determined for these gases from samples collected over flaming, mixed, and smoldering phases of combustion during the 1987 fire. Combustion-categorized differences in emission ratios were small for the 1988 fire. Combustion efficiency was relatively good (low emission ratios for reduced gases) for both fires. We believe that the consistently low emission ratios were a unique result of graminoid wetlands fires, in which the grasses and rushes (both small-size fuels) burned rapidly down to standing water and were quickly extinguished. Consequently, the efficiency of the combustion was good and the amount and duration of smoldering combustion was greatly diminished.

  2. Trace gas emissions from burning Florida wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.; Lebel, Peter J.; Winstead, Edward L.; Koller, Albert M., Jr.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of biomass burn-produced trace gases were obtained using a helicopter at low altitudes above burning Florida wetlands on November 9, 1987, and from both helicopter and light-aircraft samplings on November 7, 1988. Carbon dioxide normalized emission ratios for carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, total nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitrous oxide were obtained over burning graminoid wetlands consisting primarily of Spartina bakeri and Juncus roemerianus. Some interspersed scrub oak and saw palmetto were also burned. No significant differences were observed in the emission ratios determined for these gases from samples collected over flaming, mixed, and smoldering phases of combustion during the 1987 fire. Combustion-categorized differences in emission ratios were small for the 1988 fire. Combustion efficiency was relatively good (low emission ratios for reduced gases) for both fires. It is believed that the consistently low emission ratios were a unique result of graminoid wetlands fires, in which the grasses and rushes burned rapidly down to standing water and were quickly extinguished. Consequently, the efficiency of the combustion was good and the amount and duration of smoldering combustion was greatly deminished.

  3. Relating groundwater to seasonal wetlands in southeastern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalbeck, J.D.; Reed, D.M.; Hunt, R.J.; Lambert, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, drier types of wetlands have been difficult to characterize and are not well researched. Nonetheless, they are considered to reflect the precipitation history with little, if any, regard for possible relation to groundwater. Two seasonal coastal wetland types (wet prairie, sedge meadow) were investigated during three growing seasons at three sites in the Lake Michigan Basin, Wisconsin, USA. The six seasonal wetlands were characterized using standard soil and vegetation techniques and groundwater measurements from the shallow and deep systems. They all met wetland hydrology criteria (e.g., water within 30 cm of land surface for 5% of the growing season) during the early portion of the growing season despite the lack of appreciable regional groundwater discharge into the wetland root zones. Although root-zone duration analyses did not fit a lognormal distribution previously noted in groundwater-dominated wetlands, they were able to discriminate between the plant communities and showed that wet prairie communities had shorter durations of continuous soil saturation than sedge meadow communities. These results demonstrate that the relative rates of groundwater outflows can be important for wetland hydrology and resulting wetland type. Thus, regional stresses to the shallow groundwater system such as pumping or low Great Lake levels can be expected to affect even drier wetland types. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  4. Carbon Storage in US Wetlands. | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in US wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. We provide unbiased estimates of soil carbon stocks for wetlands at regional and national scales and describe how soil carbon stocks vary by anthropogenic disturbance to the wetland. To estimate the quantity and distribution of carbon stocks in wetlands of the conterminous US, we used data gathered in the field as part of the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) conducted by USEPA. During the growing season, field crews collected soil samples by horizon from 120-cm deep soil pits at 967 randomly selected wetland sites. Soil samples were analyzed for bulk density and organic carbon. We applied site carbon stock averages by soil depth back to the national population of wetlands and to several subpopulations, including five geographic areas and anthropogenic disturbance level. Disturbance levels were categorized by the NWCA as least, intermediately, or most disturbed using a priori defined physical, chemical, and biological indicators that were observable at the time of the site visit.Results/Conclusions We find that wetlands in the conterminous US store a total of 11.52 PgC – roughly equivalent to four years of annual carbon emissions by the US, with the greatest soil ca

  5. Wetlands in a changing climate: Science, policy and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, William R.; Chmura, G.L.; Davies, Gillian T.; Finlayson, Max; Middleton, Beth A.; Natali, Sue M.; Perry, James; Roulet, Nigel; Sutton-Grier, Ariana

    2018-01-01

    Part 1 of this review synthesizes recent research on status and climate vulnerability of freshwater and saltwater wetlands, and their contribution to addressing climate change (carbon cycle, adaptation, resilience). Peatlands and vegetated coastal wetlands are among the most carbon rich sinks on the planet sequestering approximately as much carbon as do global forest ecosystems. Estimates of the consequences of rising temperature on current wetland carbon storage and future carbon sequestration potential are summarized. We also demonstrate the need to prevent drying of wetlands and thawing of permafrost by disturbances and rising temperatures to protect wetland carbon stores and climate adaptation/resiliency ecosystem services. Preventing further wetland loss is found to be important in limiting future emissions to meet climate goals, but is seldom considered. In Part 2, the paper explores the policy and management realm from international to national, subnational and local levels to identify strategies and policies reflecting an integrated understanding of both wetland and climate change science. Specific recommendations are made to capture synergies between wetlands and carbon cycle management, adaptation and resiliency to further enable researchers, policy makers and practitioners to protect wetland carbon and climate adaptation/resiliency ecosystem services.

  6. Description of floodplains and wetlands, Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Floodplains and wetlands are important features of the Texas Panhandle landscape, and are found on the Deaf Smith County site and in its vicinity. Use or disturbance of floodplains and wetlands in relation to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is subject to environmental review requirements implementing two Executive Orders. This report provides general information on playa wetlands in the Texas Panhandle, and describes and maps floodplains and wetlands on the Deaf Smith site and in its vicinity. The report is based on the published literature, with information from limited field reconnaissance included

  7. Constructed wetlands for pollution control: processes, performance, design and operation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... Types of constructed wetland, major design parameters, role of vegetation, hydraulic patterns, loadings, treatment efficiency, construction, operation and maintenance costs are discussed in depth...

  8. Disturbance metrics predict a wetland Vegetation Index of Biotic Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Mack, John; Adams, Jean V.; Gara, Brian; Micacchion, Mick

    2013-01-01

    Indices of biological integrity of wetlands based on vascular plants (VIBIs) have been developed in many areas in the USA. Knowledge of the best predictors of VIBIs would enable management agencies to make better decisions regarding mitigation site selection and performance monitoring criteria. We use a novel statistical technique to develop predictive models for an established index of wetland vegetation integrity (Ohio VIBI), using as independent variables 20 indices and metrics of habitat quality, wetland disturbance, and buffer area land use from 149 wetlands in Ohio, USA. For emergent and forest wetlands, predictive models explained 61% and 54% of the variability, respectively, in Ohio VIBI scores. In both cases the most important predictor of Ohio VIBI score was a metric that assessed habitat alteration and development in the wetland. Of secondary importance as a predictor was a metric that assessed microtopography, interspersion, and quality of vegetation communities in the wetland. Metrics and indices assessing disturbance and land use of the buffer area were generally poor predictors of Ohio VIBI scores. Our results suggest that vegetation integrity of emergent and forest wetlands could be most directly enhanced by minimizing substrate and habitat disturbance within the wetland. Such efforts could include reducing or eliminating any practices that disturb the soil profile, such as nutrient enrichment from adjacent farm land, mowing, grazing, or cutting or removing woody plants.

  9. Threatened Plants in China’s Sanjiang Plain: Hotspot Distributions and Gap Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojia Du

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Global biodiversity is markedly decreasing in response to climate change and human disturbance. Sanjiang Plain is recognized as a biodiversity hotspot in China due to its high forest and wetland coverage, but species are being lost at an unprecedented rate, induced by anthropogenic activities. Identifying hotspot distributions and conservation gaps of threatened species is of particular significance for enhancing the conservation of biodiversity. Specifically, we integrated the principles and methods of spatial hotspot inspection, geographic information system (GIS technology and spatial autocorrelation analysis along with fieldwork to determine the spatial distribution patterns and unprotected hotspots of vulnerable and endangered plants in Sanjiang Plain. A gap analysis of the conservation status of vulnerable and endangered plants was conducted. Our results indicate that six nationally-protected plants were not observed in nature reserves or were without any protection, while the protection rates were <10% for 10 other nationally-protected plants. Protected areas (PAs cover <5% of the distribution areas for 31 threatened plant species, while only five species are covered by national nature reserves (NNRs within >50% of the distribution areas. We found 30 hotspots with vulnerable and endangered plants in the study area, but the area covered by NNRs is very limited. Most of the hotspots were located in areas with a high-high aggregation of plant species. Therefore, it is necessary to expand the area of existing nature reserves, establish miniature protection plots and create new PAs and ecological corridors to link the existing PAs. Our findings can contribute to the design of a PA network for botanical conservation.

  10. Monitoring and Modeling Water and Energy Fluxes in North China Plain: From Field to Regional Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y.

    2012-12-01

    North China Plain is one of the mostly water deficit region in the world. Even though the total water withdrawal from surface and groundwater exceeded its renewable ability for long years, due to its importance to balance the food budget in China, large amount of groundwater is still extracted every year for intensive irrigation. With winter wheat and summer maize double-cropping system, the grain yield of NCP can reach a very high level of around 15 t/ha annually, which is largely depended on timely irrigation. As a result, the ceaseless over exploitation of groundwater caused serious environmental and ecological problems, e.g. nearly all the rivers run drying-up at plain areas, groundwater declined, land subsidence, and wetland shrank. The decrease in precipitation over past half century reinforced the water shortage in NCP. The sustainability of both the water resources and agriculture became the most important issue in this region. A key issue to the sustainable use of water resources is to improve the water use efficiency and reduce agricultural water consumptions. This study will introduce the efforts we put to clarify the water and heat balances in irrigated agricultural lands and its implications to crop yield, hydrology, and water resources evolution in NCP. We established a multi-scale observation system in NCP to study the surface water and heat processes and agricultural aspect of hydrological cycle in past years. Multi-disciplinary methods are adopted into this research such as micro-meteorologic, isotopic, soil hydrologic methods at the field scale, and remote sensing and modeling for study the water fluxes over regional scale. Detailed research activities and interesting as well as some initial results will be introduced at the workshop.

  11. Remotely sensed MODIS wetland components for assessing the variability of methane emissions in Indian tropical/subtropical wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sangeeta; Katyal, Deeksha; Saluja, Ridhi; Chakraborty, Monojit; Garg, J. K.

    2018-02-01

    Temperature and area fluctuations in wetlands greatly influence its various physico-chemical characteristics, nutrients dynamic, rates of biomass generation and decomposition, floral and faunal composition which in turn influence methane (CH4) emission rates. In view of this, the present study attempts to up-scale point CH4 flux from the wetlands of Uttar Pradesh (UP) by modifying two-factor empirical process based CH4 emission model for tropical wetlands by incorporating MODIS derived wetland components viz. wetland areal extent and corresponding temperature factors (Ft). This study further focuses on the utility of remotely sensed temperature response of CH4 emission in terms of Ft. Ft is generated using MODIS land surface temperature products and provides an important semi-empirical input for up-scaling CH4 emissions in wetlands. Results reveal that annual mean Ft values for UP wetlands vary from 0.69 (2010-2011) to 0.71(2011-2012). The total estimated area-wise CH4 emissions from the wetlands of UP varies from 66.47 Gg yr-1with wetland areal extent and Ft value of 2564.04 km2 and 0.69 respectively in 2010-2011 to 88.39 Gg yr-1with wetland areal extent and Ft value of 2720.16 km2 and 0.71 respectively in 2011-2012. Temporal analysis of estimated CH4 emissions showed that in monsoon season estimated CH4 emissions are more sensitive to wetland areal extent while in summer season sensitivity of estimated CH4 emissions is chiefly controlled by augmented methanogenic activities at high wetland surface temperatures.

  12. Amphibians of the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.; Euliss, Ned H.; Lannoo, Michael J.; Mushet, David M.; Mac, M.J.; Opler, P.A.; Puckett Haecker, C. E.; Doran, P.D.

    1998-01-01

    No cry of alarm has been sounded over the fate of amphibian populations in the northern grasslands of North America, yet huge percentages of prairie wetland habitat have been lost, and the destruction continues. Scarcely 30% of the original mixedgrass prairie remains in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota (See Table 1 in this chapter). If amphibian populations haven’t declined, why haven’t they? Or, have we simply failed to notice? Amphibians in the northern grasslands evolved in a boom-or-bust environment: species that were unable to survive droughts lasting for years died out long before humans were around to count them. Species we find today are expert at seizing the rare, wet moment to rebuild their populations in preparation for the next dry season. When numbers can change so rapidly, who can say if a species is rare or common? A lot depends on when you look.

  13. Creep of plain weave polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhishek

    Polymer matrix composites are increasingly used in various industrial sectors to reduce structural weight and improve performance. Woven (also known as textile) composites are one class of polymer matrix composites with increasing market share mostly due to their lightweight, their flexibility to form into desired shape, their mechanical properties and toughness. Due to the viscoelasticity of the polymer matrix, time-dependent degradation in modulus (creep) and strength (creep rupture) are two of the major mechanical properties required by engineers to design a structure reliably when using these materials. Unfortunately, creep and creep rupture of woven composites have received little attention by the research community and thus, there is a dire need to generate additional knowledge and prediction models, given the increasing market share of woven composites in load bearing structural applications. Currently, available creep models are limited in scope and have not been validated for any loading orientation and time period beyond the experimental time window. In this thesis, an analytical creep model, namely the Modified Equivalent Laminate Model (MELM), was developed to predict tensile creep of plain weave composites for any orientation of the load with respect to the orientation of the fill and warp fibers, using creep of unidirectional composites. The ability of the model to predict creep for any orientation of the load is a "first" in this area. The model was validated using an extensive experimental involving the tensile creep of plain weave composites under varying loading orientation and service conditions. Plain weave epoxy (F263)/ carbon fiber (T300) composite, currently used in aerospace applications, was procured as fabrics from Hexcel Corporation. Creep tests were conducted under two loading conditions: on-axis loading (0°) and off-axis loading (45°). Constant load creep, in the temperature range of 80-240°C and stress range of 1-70% UTS of the

  14. Process-Based Modeling of Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, S.; Brovelli, A.; Rossi, L.; Barry, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are widespread facilities for wastewater treatment. In subsurface flow wetlands, contaminated wastewater flows through a porous matrix, where oxidation and detoxification phenomena occur. Despite the large number of working CWs, system design and optimization are still mainly based upon empirical equations or simplified first-order kinetics. This results from an incomplete understanding of the system functioning, and may in turn hinder the performance and effectiveness of the treatment process. As a result, CWs are often considered not suitable to meet high water quality-standards, or to treat water contaminated with recalcitrant anthropogenic contaminants. To date, only a limited number of detailed numerical models have been developed and successfully applied to simulate constructed wetland behavior. Among these, one of the most complete and powerful is CW2D, which is based on Hydrus2D. The aim of this work is to develop a comprehensive simulator tailored to model the functioning of horizontal flow constructed wetlands and in turn provide a reliable design and optimization tool. The model is based upon PHWAT, a general reactive transport code for saturated flow. PHWAT couples MODFLOW, MT3DMS and PHREEQC-2 using an operator-splitting approach. The use of PHREEQC to simulate reactions allows great flexibility in simulating biogeochemical processes. The biogeochemical reaction network is similar to that of CW2D, and is based on the Activated Sludge Model (ASM). Kinetic oxidation of carbon sources and nutrient transformations (nitrogen and phosphorous primarily) are modeled via Monod-type kinetic equations. Oxygen dissolution is accounted for via a first-order mass-transfer equation. While the ASM model only includes a limited number of kinetic equations, the new simulator permits incorporation of an unlimited number of both kinetic and equilibrium reactions. Changes in pH, redox potential and surface reactions can be easily incorporated

  15. Tidal Wetlands and Coastal Ocean Carbon Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, C.; Wang, S. R.; Forbrich, I.; Giblin, A. E.; Cai, W. J.

    2017-12-01

    Recent overviews of coastal ocean C dynamics have tidal wetlands in a prominent position: a local sink for atmospheric CO2, a local store of OC, and a source of DIC and OC for the adjacent estuary and nearshore ocean. Over the past decade there have been great strides made in quantifying and understanding these flows and linkages. GPP and R of the wetlands are not nearly as imbalanced as thought 30 yrs ago. Heterotrophy of adjacent estuarine waters is not solely due to the respiration of OC exported from the marsh, rather we see the marsh directly respiring into the water during tidal inundation and accumulated marsh DIC draining into tidal creeks. Organic carbon burial on the marsh is still a relatively minor flux, but it is large relative to marsh NEE. Using literature and unpublished data on marsh DIC export, we used examples from Sapelo Island GA USA and Plum Island MA USA to constrain estimates of NEP and potential OC export. P. There remain large uncertainties in quantifying C dynamics of coupled wetland - estuary systems. Gas exchange from the water to atmosphere is one of the largest uncertainties. Work at Sapelo suggests that upwards of 40% of all daily exchange occurs from water flooding the marsh, which is but a few hours a day. This estimate is based on the intercept value for gas exchange vs wind velocity. Another major uncertainty comes from converting between O2 based estimates of metabolism to C. At Sapelo we find PQ and RQ values diverging greatly from Redfield. Finally, C dynamics of the coastal ocean, especially the role of tidal wetlands is likely to change substantially in the future. Studies at Plum Island show a reversal of the 4000 yr process of marsh progradation with marshes eroding away at their edges because of inadequate sediment supply and rising sea level. The fate of eroded OC is questionable. Landward transgression with SLR is the only likely counter to continued wetland loss - but that's a complex social issue requiring new

  16. Transfer and transformation of soil iron and implications for hydrogeomorpholocial changes in Naoli River catchment, sanjiang plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, J.; Xianguo, L.; Hongqing, W.; Yuanchun, Z.; Haitao, W.

    2011-01-01

    Wetland soils are characterized by alternating redox process due to the fluctuation of waterlogged conditions. Iron is an important redox substance, and its transfer and transformation in the wetland ecosystem could be an effective indicator for the environment changes. In this paper, we selected the Naoli River catchment in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China as the study area to analyze the dynamics of transfer and transformation of soil iron, and the relationship between iron content change and environmental factors. The results show that the total and crystalline iron contents reach the peak in the depth of 60 cm in soil profile, while the amorphous iron content is higher in the topsoil. In the upper reaches, from the low to high landscape positions, the total and crystalline iron contents decrease from 62.98 g/kg to 41.61 g/kg, 22.82 g/kg to 10.53 g/kg respectively, while the amorphous iron content increases from 2.42 g/kg to 8.88 g/kg. Amorphous iron content has positive correlation with organic matter and soil water contents, while negative correlation with pH. Moreover, both the crystalline and amorphous iron contents present no correlation with total iron content, indicating that environmental factors play a more important role in the transfer and transformation of iron other than the content of the total iron. Different redoximorphic features were found along the soil profile due to the transfer and transformation of iron. E and B horizons of wetland soil in the study area have a matrix Chroma 2 or less, and all the soil types can meet the criteria of American hydric soil indicators except albic soil. ?? Science Press, Science Press, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  17. Ecosystem function in oil sands wetlands : rates of detrital decomposition, moss growth, and microbial respiration in oilsands wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wytrykush, C. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada); Hornung, J. [Petro-Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    A study was conducted in which leaf litter breakdown and biomass accrual in 31 reference and oilsands affected (OSPM) wetlands in Northeastern Alberta was examined. The purpose was to determine how the decomposition of dead plant matter controls the primary productivity in wetlands. The data collected from this study will provide information about carbon flow and dynamics in oilsands affected wetlands. The study involved the investigation of wetlands that contrasted in water origin (OSPM vs. reference), sediment origin (OSPM vs. natural), sediment organic content and age. Mesh bags containing 5 g of dried Typha (cattail) or 20 g of damp moss were placed into 31 wetlands in order to monitor the rate at which biomass was lost to decomposition, as measured by changes in dry mass. After 1 year, moss growth was found to be greatest in younger wetlands with natural sediments. Cattail decomposition was found to be slower in wetlands containing OSPM water than that in reference wetlands. Preliminary analysis of respiration rates of biota associated with decomposing cattail indicate that the amount of oxygen consumed is not affected by wetland water source, sediment source, level of initial sediment organic content, or age.

  18. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Rainwater Basin Depressional Wetlands in Nebraska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stutheit, Randy

    2004-01-01

    .... However, a variety of other potential uses have been identified, including the determination of minimal effects under the Food Security Act, design of wetland restoration projects, and management...

  19. Pre-Construction Biogeochemical Analysis of Mercury in Wetlands Bordering the Hamilton Army Airfield (HAAF) Wetlands Restoration Site. Part 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, Elly P; Fredrickson, Herbert L; Hintelmann, Holger; Clarisse, Olivier; Dimock, Brian; Lutz, Charles H; Lotufo, Gui R; Millward, Rod N; Bednar, Anthony J; Furey, John S

    2007-01-01

    ...) is working with the San Francisco Basin Regional Water Board, California State Coastal Conservancy, and San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission to reconstruct wetlands at the former...

  20. Accounting for wetlands loss in a changing climate in the estimation of long-term flood risks of Devils Lake, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbin, S.; Kirilenko, A.; Zhang, X.

    2016-12-01

    Endorheic (terminal) lakes with no water outlets are sensitive indicators of changes in climate and land cover in the watershed. Regional variation in precipitation pattern in the US Northern Great Plaines lead to a long term flooding of Devils Lake (DL), ND, leading to a 10-m water level rise in just two decades, with estimated flood mitigation costs of over $1 billion. While the climate change contribution to flooding has been established, the role of large scale land conversion to agriculture has not been researched. Wetlands play a very important part in hydrological balance by storing, absorbing and slowing peak water discharge. In ND, 49 % of wetlands are drained and converted to agriculture. We investigated the role of wetlands loss in DL flooding in current and future climate. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate streamflow in all DL watershed subbasins. The model was calibrated using the 1991-2000 USGS gauge data for the first 10 years of study period and validated for the second 10 years (2001-2010), resulting in a satisfactory model performance compared against the measured water discharge in five streams in the watershed and against observed DL water level. A set of wetland loss scenarios were created based on the historical data and the Compound Topographic Index. To emulate the historical and future climate conditions, an ensemble of CMIP5 weather integrations based on IPCC AR5 RCP scenarios was downscaled with the MarkSim weather simulator. Model simulations indicate that the land use change in the DL watershed increased the impacts of climate change on hydrology by further elevating DL water level. Conversely, wetland restoration reduce the flooding and moderates risks of a potential high-impact DL overspill to the Sheyenne River watershed. Further research will concentrate on differentiation of climate change impacts under different types of land use change scenarios.

  1. Restoration of Bhoj Wetlands At Bhopal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S. S.; Kulshrestha, M.; Wetland Project, Bhoj

    Bhoj Wetlands comprise the two lakes at Bhopal, India. These wetlands are listed amongst the 21 lakes recognized by Ministry of Environment and Forest, India and are under consideration for Ramsar lake status. The twin lakes have a total water- spread area of 32.29 sq. kms and catchment area of 370.6 sq. kms and both lakes support a rich and diverse range of flora and fauna. Currently with the help of 7055-m Yen soft loan from Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC), a comprehen- sive project called the Bhoj Wetland Project has been launched for Eco-conservation management of twin lakes and this is one of the most reputed projects of its kind being undertaken in India. This paper presents details of the various works being undertaken for restoration of these wetlands at Bhopal. The Bhoj Wetlands are located at Bhopal, a city founded in 11th century AD by King Bhoj and which became known for the worst industrial Gas tragedy in 1984 when thousands lost their lives. The city is still recovering and the Bhoj Wetland Project is playing a very crucial role in improving the overall environmental status of the City. These wetlands are at present facing acute en- vironmental degradation due to pollution from a number of sources such as inflow of untreated sewage and solid waste, silt erosion and inflow from catchment, commercial activities like washing of clothes and cleaning of vehicles etc., inflow of agricultural residues and pesticides, and encroachment by builders all of which are fast eroding the rich eco-culture, flora fauna in and around the wetlands. The Bhoj Wetland Project is being implemented since the year 1995 and is scheduled to end in March 2002. The project works are being undertaken under the overall aegis of Ministry of Housing Environment, Govt. of Madhya Pradesh (M.P.) State, India. All the detailed project reports (DPRs) and preliminary ground work was undertaken by the in-house staff of Bhoj Wetland project, resulting in huge amounts of

  2. Assessment of nutrient retention by Natete wetland Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyiginya, V.; Kansiime, F.; Kimwaga, R.; Mashauri, D. A.

    Natete wetland which is located in a suburb of Kampala city in Uganda is dominated by C yperus papyrus and covers an area of approximately 1 km 2. The wetland receives wastewater and runoff from Natete town which do not have a wastewater treatment facility. The main objective of this study was to assess nutrient retention of Natete wetland and specifically to: determine the wastewater flow patterns in the wetland; estimate the nutrient loads into and out of the wetland; determine the nutrient retention by soil, plants and water column in the wetland; and assess the above and belowground biomass density of the dominant vegetation. Soil, water and plant samples were taken at 50 m intervals along two transects cut through the wetland; soil and water samples were taken at 10 cm just below the surface. Physico-chemical parameters namely pH, electrical conductivity and temperature were measured in situ. Water samples were analyzed in the laboratory for ammonium-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate and total phosphorus. Electrical conductivity ranged between 113 μS/cm and 530 μS/cm and the wastewater flow was concentrated on the eastern side of the wetland. pH varied between 6 and 7, temperature ranged from 19 °C to 24 °C. NH 4-N, NO 3-N, and TN concentrations were retained by 21%, 98%, and 35% respectively. Phosphorus concentration was higher at the outlet of the wetland possibly due to release from sediments and leaching. Nutrient loads were higher at the inlet (12,614 ± 394 kgN/day and 778 ± 159 kgP/day) than the outlet (2368 ± 425 kgN/day and 216 ± 56 kgP/day) indicating retention by the wetland. Plants stored most nutrients compared to soil and water. The belowground biomass of papyrus vegetation in the wetland was higher (1288.4 ± 8.3 gDW/m 2) than the aboveground biomass (1019.7 ± 13.8 gDW/m 2). Plant uptake is one of the important routes of nutrient retention in Natete wetland. It is recommended that harvesting papyrus can be an

  3. Use of created cattail ( Typha) wetlands in mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobberteen, Ross A.; Nickerson, Norton H.

    1991-11-01

    In order to balance pressures for land-use development with protection of wetland resources, artificial wetlands have been constructed in an effort to replace lost ecosystems. Despite its regulatory appeal and prominent role in current mitigation strategies, it is unclear whether or not created systems actually compensate for lost wetland resources. Mitigation predictions that rely on artificial wetlands must be analyzed critically in terms of their efficacy. Destruction of wetlands due to burial by coal fly ash at a municipal landfill in Danvers, Massachusetts, USA, provided an opportunity to compare resulting growth of created cattail ( Typha) marshes with natural wetland areas. Once the appropriate cattail species was identified for growth under disturbed landfill conditions, two types of artificial wetlands were constructed. The two systems differed in their hydrologic attributes: while one had a surface water flow characteristic of most cattail wetlands, the second system mimicked soil and water conditions found in naturally occurring floating cattail marshes. Comparison of plant growth measurements for two years from the artificial systems with published values for natural cattail marshes revealed similar structure and growth patterns. Experiments are now in progress to investigate the ability of created cattail marshes to remove and accumulate heavy metals from polluted landfill leachate. Research of the type reported here must be pursued aggressively in order to document the performance of artificial wetlands in terms of plant structure and wetland functions. Such research should allow us to start to evaluate whether artificial systems actually compensate for lost wetlands by performing similar functions and providing the concomitant public benefits.

  4. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: General. 215.107... Suspension System § 215.107 Defective plain bearing box: General. A railroad may not place or continue in... the bearing; or (2) Have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and the bearings. ...

  5. Analyzing the Various Approaches of Plain Language Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Betsy A., And Others

    1986-01-01

    Proposes a two-phase evaluation of the plain language laws that are designed to ensure that consumers can understand and use the personal business contracts they sign so that the best model for plain language legislation can be identified. (DF)

  6. 27 CFR 9.207 - Outer Coastal Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outer Coastal Plain. 9.207... Outer Coastal Plain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Outer Coastal Plain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Outer Coastal Plain” is a term of viticultural...

  7. Clinical and Plain Radiograph Pattern of Joint Dislocations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plain radiograph is an integral part of early assessment of patients' evaluation, though newer imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ... Conclusion: The shoulder joint is the most frequently dislocated and a conventional plain radiograph is still valuable as a first line investigative modality in ...

  8. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood plain management and protection. 801.8 Section 801.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands...

  9. The landscape pattern characteristics of coastal wetlands in Jiaozhou Bay under the impact of human activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dongqi; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Fu, Jun; Zhang, Xuliang

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we interpreted coastal wetland types from an ASTER satellite image in 2002, and then compared the results with the land-use status of coastal wetlands in 1952 to determine the wetland loss and degradation around Jiaozhou Bay. Seven types of wetland landscape were classified, namely: shallow open water, inter-tidal flats, estuarine water, brackish marshes, salt ponds, fishery ponds and ports. Several landscape pattern indices were analysed: the results indicate that the coastal wetlands have been seriously degraded. More and more natural wetlands have been transformed into artificial wetlands, which covered about 33.7% of the total wetlands in 2002. In addition, we used a defined model to assess the impacts of human activities on coastal wetlands. The results obtained show that the coastal wetlands of Jiaozhou Bay have suffered severe human disturbance. Effective coastal management and control is therefore needed to solve the issues of the coastal wetland loss and degradation existing in this area.

  10. Review of Constructed Subsurface Flow vs. Surface Flow Wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HALVERSON, NANCY

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to use existing documentation to review the effectiveness of subsurface flow and surface flow constructed wetlands in treating wastewater and to demonstrate the viability of treating effluent from Savannah River Site outfalls H-02 and H-04 with a subsurface flow constructed wetland to lower copper, lead and zinc concentrations to within National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit limits. Constructed treatment wetlands are engineered systems that have been designed and constructed to use the natural functions of wetlands for wastewater treatment. Constructed wetlands have significantly lower total lifetime costs and often lower capital costs than conventional treatment systems. The two main types of constructed wetlands are surface flow and subsurface flow. In surface flow constructed wetlands, water flows above ground. Subsurface flow constructed wetlands are designed to keep the water level below the top of the rock or gravel media, thus minimizing human and ecological exposure. Subsurface flow wetlands demonstrate higher rates of contaminant removal per unit of land than surface flow (free water surface) wetlands, therefore subsurface flow wetlands can be smaller while achieving the same level of contaminant removal. Wetlands remove metals using a variety of processes including filtration of solids, sorption onto organic matter, oxidation and hydrolysis, formation of carbonates, formation of insoluble sulfides, binding to iron and manganese oxides, reduction to immobile forms by bacterial activity, and uptake by plants and bacteria. Metal removal rates in both subsurface flow and surface flow wetlands can be high, but can vary greatly depending upon the influent concentrations and the mass loading rate. Removal rates of greater than 90 per cent for copper, lead and zinc have been demonstrated in operating surface flow and subsurface flow wetlands. The constituents that exceed NPDES limits at outfalls H-02 a nd H

  11. Analysis of wetland change in the Songhua River Basin from 1995 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, L H; Jiang, W G; Liu, Y H; Luo, Z L; He, X H

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands in the Songhua River Basin in both 1995 and 2008 were mapped from land use/land cover maps generated from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. These maps were then divided into two categories, i.e. artificial wetland and natural wetland. From 1995 to 2008, the total area of wetland in the Songhua River Basin increased from 93 072.3 km 2 to 99 179.6 km 2 a net increase of 6107.3 km 2 . The area of natural wetland decreased by 4043.7 km 2 while the area of artificial wetland increased by 10 166.2 km 2 . Swamp wetland and paddy field wetland became the dominant wetlands and the swamp wetland in the east of the Heilong River system and the north of the Wusuli River system disappeared, being transformed into paddy field wetland. The diversity of wetland landscape is worsening and the distribution of wetland landscape is becoming more unbalanced; the fragmentation of natural wetland has intensified whereas the patch connectivity of artificial wetland has increased. Changes in natural wetlands were primarily caused by climate and socio-economic changes, while changes in artificial wetland were mainly caused by the growth of population and gross domestic product

  12. Human wetland dependency and socio-economic evaluation of wetland functions through participatory approach in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malabika Biswas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are an important source of natural resources upon which rural economies depend. They have increasingly been valuable for their goods and services, and the intrinsic ecological value they provide to local populations, as well as people living outside the periphery of the wetlands. Stakeholders' participation is essential to the protection and preservation of wetlands because it plays a very important role economically as well as ecologically in the wetland system. The objective of this study was to determine whether gender, educational status, mouzas (which are constituents of a block according to the land reform of the West Bengal Government in India, and wetland functions have any influence on the annual income of the local community. Considering a floodplain wetland in rural India, the focus was extended to recognize the pattern of wetland functions according to the nature of people's involvement through cluster analysis of the male and female populations. Using the statistical software R-2.8.1, an ANOVA (analysis of variance table was constructed. Since the p value (significance level was lower than 0.05 for each case, it can be concluded that gender, educational status, mouzas, and wetland functions have a significant influence on annual income. However, S-PLUS-2000 was applied to obtain a complete scenario of the pattern of wetland functions, in terms of involvement of males and females, through cluster analysis. The main conclusion is that gender, educational status, mouzas, and wetland functions have significant impacts on annual income, while the pattern of occupation of the local community based on wetland functions is completely different for the male and female populations.

  13. SYNOPTIC ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND FUNCTION: A PLANNING TOOL FOR PROTECTION OF WETLAND SPECIES DIVERSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present a synoptic assessment intended to maximize the benefits to wetland species biodiversity gained through Clean Water Act regulatory efforts within 225 sub-basins in Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 7), USA. Our assessment...

  14. SYNOPTIC ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND FUNCTION: A PLANNING TOOL FOR PROTECTION OF WETLAND SPECIES BIODIVERSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present a synoptic assessment intended to maximize the benefits to wetland species biodiversity gained through Clean Water Act regulatory efforts within 225 sub-basins in Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (U.S. EPA, Region 7) USA. Our assessment provides a method for identif...

  15. Classifying and mapping wetlands and peat resources using digital cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Cornelia C.; Emery, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Digital cartography allows the portrayal of spatial associations among diverse data types and is ideally suited for land use and resource analysis. We have developed methodology that uses digital cartography for the classification of wetlands and their associated peat resources and applied it to a 1:24 000 scale map area in New Hampshire. Classifying and mapping wetlands involves integrating the spatial distribution of wetlands types with depth variations in associated peat quality and character. A hierarchically structured classification that integrates the spatial distribution of variations in (1) vegetation, (2) soil type, (3) hydrology, (4) geologic aspects, and (5) peat characteristics has been developed and can be used to build digital cartographic files for resource and land use analysis. The first three parameters are the bases used by the National Wetlands Inventory to classify wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. The fourth parameter, geological aspects, includes slope, relief, depth of wetland (from surface to underlying rock or substrate), wetland stratigraphy, and the type and structure of solid and unconsolidated rock surrounding and underlying the wetland. The fifth parameter, peat characteristics, includes the subsurface variation in ash, acidity, moisture, heating value (Btu), sulfur content, and other chemical properties as shown in specimens obtained from core holes. These parameters can be shown as a series of map data overlays with tables that can be integrated for resource or land use analysis.

  16. The ecological value of constructed wetlands for treating urban runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratz, S; Young, T; Cuevas-Arellano-, H; Kumar, R; Ambrose, R F; Suffet, I H

    2007-01-01

    The Sweetwater Authority's urban runoff diversion system (URDS) comprises constructed wetlands on a hillside between the town of Spring Valley and the Sweetwater Reservoir, California, USA. The URDS were designed to divert dry-weather and first-flush urban runoff flows from the Sweetwater reservoir. However, these constructed wetlands have developed into ecologically valuable habitat. This paper evaluates the following ecological questions related to the URDS: (1) the natural development of the species present and their growth pattern; (2) the biodiversity and pollutant stress on the plants and invertebrates; and (3) the question of habitat provided for endangered species. The URDS wetlands are comprised primarily of rush (Scirpus spp.) and cattails (Typha spp.). This vegetative cover ranged from 39-78% of the area of the individual wetland ponds. Current analyses of plant tissues and wetland sediment indicates the importance of sediment sorption for metals and plant uptake of nutrients. Analyses of URDS water following runoff events show the URDS wetlands do reduce the amount of nutrients and metals in the water column. Invertebrate surveys of the wetland ponds revealed lower habitat quality and environmental stress compared to unpolluted natural habitat. The value of the wetlands as wildlife habitat is constrained by low plant biodiversity and pollution stress from the runoff. Since the primary Sweetwater Authority goal is to maintain good water quality for drinking, any secondary utilization of URDS habitat by species (endangered or otherwise) is deemed an added benefit.

  17. Remote sensing of wetlands at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, E.J.; Jensen, J.R.; Sharitz, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) occupies about 300 sq mi along a 10-mile stretch of the Savannah River. Large areas of wetlands cover the site, especially along tributary stream floodplains and the Savannah River. Some of these areas have been altered by cooling water discharges from nuclear production reactors onsite. To assess the effects of current and future plant operations on SRP and regional wetlands, an accurate quantitative survey was needed. Several studies were initiated to provide wetland acreage and distribution information: regional wetland inventories were provided from an analysis of LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) satellite data. Wetlands were mapped throughout the entire Savannah River watershed and in the Savannah River floodplain. SRP wetlands were identified using a combination of LANDSAT MSS and Thematic Mapper satellite data and aerial photography. Wetlands in the SRP Savannah River swamp and thermally affected areas were mapped using high resolution MSS data collected from a low-flying aircraft. Vegetation communities in areas receiving cooling water discharges were then compared to surface temperatures measured from the airborne scanner at the same time to evaluate plant temperature tolerance. Historic changes to SRP wetlands from cooling water discharges were tabulated using aerial photography

  18. Healthy Wetlands: Valuing Both the Wet and the Dry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kim; Panizzon, Debra

    2009-01-01

    February 2nd of each year is World Wetlands Day. It commemorates the signing of the Ramsar Convention in Iran in 1971 and the crucial role wetlands play in terms of ecological health. Not only do they provide essential habitats for many aquatic species of organisms but they are used by many terrestrial animals as temporary havens for food, or…

  19. Assessing the value of wetlands to waterbirds: exploring a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditionally, species richness, species diversity, total count, biomass, energy consumption and the Ramsar '1% threshold' have been used to assess the importance of wetlands for waterbirds. Designation of wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites) based on waterbirds has focused on those species meeting the ...

  20. ('fingerponds\\') in the wetlands of Lake Victoria, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential effect on ecosystem integrity of the use of natural wetlands for seasonal wetland fishponds ('fingerponds\\'), integrated with vegetable production for livelihood demands, was evaluated using experimental sites at Lake Victoria, Kenya. Soluble reactive phosphorous and total phosphorus, ammonium, nitrate and ...