Sample records for plagioclase

  1. Partition coefficients for calcic plagioclase - Implications for Archean anorthosites (United States)

    Phinney, W. C.; Morrison, D. A.


    In most Archean cratons, cumulates of equant plagioclase megacrysts form anorthositic complexes, including those at Bad Vermilion Lake (Ontario). In this paper, partition coefficients (Ds) of REEs between natural high-Ca plagioclase megacrysts and their basaltic matrices were determined, using a multiple aliquot techique, and megacrystic plagioclases occurring in anorthosites were analyzed for the same components which, in conjunction with their Ds, were applied to calculations of melts in equilibrium with anorthosites. The REE's Ds were found to agree well with experimentally determined values and to predict equilibrium melts for Archean anorthosites that agree well with coeval basaltic flows and dikes. The Ds also appear to be valid for both the tholeiitic and alkali basalts over a wide range of mg numbers and REE concentrations. It is suggested that the moderately Fe-rich tholeiites that are hosts to plagioclase megacrysts in greenstone belts form the parental melts for megacrysts which make up the Bad Vermilion Lake Archean anorthositic complex.

  2. Application of New Partition Coefficients to Modeling Plagioclase (United States)

    Fagan, A. L.; Neal, C. R.; Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.; Lapen, T. J.


    Previously, studies that determined the partition coefficient for an element, i, between plagioclase and the residual basaltic melt (Di plag) have been conducted using experimental conditions dissimilar from the Moon, and thus these values are not ideal for modeling plagioclase fractionation in a lunar system. However, recent work [1] has determined partition coefficients for plagioclase at lunar oxygen fugacities, and resulted in plagioclase with Anorthite contents =An90; these are significantly more calcic than plagioclase in previous studies, and the An content has a profound effect on partition coefficient values [2,3]. Plagioclase D-values, which are dependent on the An content of the crystal [e.g., 2-6], can be determined using published experimental data and the correlative An contents. Here, we examine new experimental data from [1] to ascertain their effect on the calculation of equilibrium liquids from Apollo 16 sample 60635,2. This sample is a coarse grained, subophitic impact melt composed of 55% plagioclase laths with An94.4-98.7 [7,8], distinctly more calcic than of previous partition coefficient studies (e.g., [3-6, 9-10]). Sample 60635,2 is notable as having several plagioclase trace element analyses containing a negative Europium anomaly (-Eu) in the rare-earth element (REE) profile, rather than the typical positive Eu anomaly (+Eu) [7-8] (Fig. 1). The expected +Eu is due to the similarity in size and charge with Ca2+, thereby allowing Eu2+ to be easily taken up by the plagioclase crystal structure, in contrast to the remaining REE3+. Some 60635,2 plagioclase crystals only have +Eu REE profiles, some only have -Eu REE profiles, and some +Eu and -Eu analyses in different areas on a single crystal [7, 8]. Moreover, there does not seem to be any core-rim association with the +Eu or -Eu analyses, nor does there appear to be a correlation between the size, shape, or location of a particular crystal within the sample and the sign of its Eu anomaly, which

  3. Phase transformations and exsolution in lunar and terrestrial calcic plagioclases. (United States)

    Heuer, A. H.; Radcliffe, S. V.; Lally, J. S.; Christie, J. M.


    A coarse domain structure had been discovered in plagioclase in an electron microscopic study of lunar rocks reported by Christie et al. (1971). The domain structures are described in more detail, and their significance in the light of current knowledge concerning the crystal structures of the plagioclases is discussed. An exsolution texture is also described. On the basis of the scale of exsolution it appears that the Apollo 11 and 12 basalts examined cooled more rapidly than the Apollo 14 basalt, which in turn cooled more rapidly than the Stillwater rock.

  4. Synthesis for Lunar Simulants: Glass, Agglutinate, Plagioclase, Breccia (United States)

    Weinstein, Michael; Wilson, Stephen A.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Stoeser, Douglas


    The video describes a process for making glass for lunar regolith simulants that was developed from a patented glass-producing technology. Glass composition can be matched to simulant design and specification. Production of glass, pseudo agglutinates, plagioclase, and breccias is demonstrated. The system is capable of producing hundreds of kilograms of high quality glass and simulants per day.

  5. Porphyry copper enrichment linked to excess aluminium in plagioclase (United States)

    Williamson, B. J.; Herrington, R. J.; Morris, A.


    Porphyry copper deposits provide around 75%, 50% and 20% of world copper, molybdenum and gold, respectively. The deposits are mainly centred on calc-alkaline porphyry magmatic systems in subduction zone settings. Although calc-alkaline magmas are relatively common, large porphyry copper deposits are extremely rare and increasingly difficult to discover. Here, we compile existing geochemical data for magmatic plagioclase, a dominant mineral in calc-alkaline rocks, from fertile (porphyry-associated) and barren magmatic systems worldwide, barren examples having no associated porphyry deposit. We show that plagioclase from fertile systems is distinct in containing `excess’ aluminium. This signature is clearly demonstrated in a case study carried out on plagioclase from the fertile La Paloma and Los Sulfatos copper porphyry systems in Chile. Further, the presence of concentric zones of high excess aluminium suggests its incorporation as a result of magmatic processes. As excess aluminium has been linked to high melt water contents, the concentric zones may record injections of hydrous fluid or fluid-rich melts into the sub-porphyry magma chamber. We propose that excess aluminium may exclude copper from plagioclase, so enriching the remaining melts. Furthermore, this chemical signature can be used as an exploration indicator for copper porphyry deposits.

  6. Synthesis for Lunar Simulants: Glass, Agglutinate, Plagioclase, Breccia (United States)

    Weinstein, Michael; Wilson, Stephen A.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Stoeser, Douglas


    The video describes a process for making glass for lunar regolith simulants that was developed from a patented glass-producing technology. Glass composition can be matched to simulant design and specification. Production of glass, pseudo agglutinates, plagioclase, and breccias is demonstrated. The system is capable of producing hundreds of kilograms of high quality glass and simulants per day.

  7. Skaergaard Liquidus Temperatures and the Frailty of Plagioclase Thermometry (United States)

    Morse, S. A.


    Because of its refractory nature and low diffusivity, plagioclase is the only mineral likely to record liquidus temperatures of mafic magmas. As such, it has become a talisman of such thermometry, but with limited success. Precise thermal information can perhaps best be obtained experimentally by finding the unique cotectic assemblage of all relevant mineral compositions with melt at relevant pressure. By repeating such experiments at more evolved compositions a relevant plagioclase thermometric history should be obtained. This principle of cotectic calibration was that used as a starting point by Morse (2008). By contrast, unfiltered literature results of experimental plagioclase - liquid determinations were used by Thy et al. (2009), with a T-X regression through all the data including evolved compositions, to describe the Skaergaard liquidus. Implicit in this exercise was the hypothesis that all the data represented stable equilibria and that low-melting components at static melting behaved the same as if in fractional crystallization. Tests for stable equilibrium in such a database [including that of Putirka (2005) and many others as e.g. in LEPR (] can usefully start with an examination of plagioclase loop width versus temperature or plagioclase composition. The loop width of a binary solution against either T or X is described by a slightly skewed parabola anchored at zero at both ends and rising to a broad maximum near An60 in the case of plagioclase. The peak width in XAn (Sol - Liq) has a value of 0.32 at 1 atm in Di-An-Ab and 0.24 at An-57 in a MORB fractional crystallization exercise. Values falling outside this range downward are likely to reflect metastable compositions. All of the 54 data points in one source used by Thy et al. (2009) fall below this range and are scattered to as low as 0.04. Such a shotgun scatter defines metastability and the loss of calibration. Moderate scatter at much higher values of loop width in the LEPR

  8. Further work on experimental plagioclase equilibria and the Skaergaard liquidus temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thy, Peter; Lesher, Charles E.; Tegner, Christian


    Equilibria between plagioclase and ferrobasaltic melt in low-pressure, dry melting experiments can be demonstrated near the liquidus. Further analyses of melting experiments using optimized beam conditions reveals that previous data for understanding the Skaergaard intrusion potentially suffered...... data set provides tighter bounds on experimental plagioclase composition and documents composition-dependent partitioning of Na and Ca between plagioclase and melt. Application of the results to modeling the Skaergaard requires only minor adjustments to the previously proposed liquidus temperatures...

  9. The record of magma chamber processes in plagioclase phenocrysts at Thera Volcano, Aegean Volcanic Arc, Greece (United States)

    Stamatelopoulou-Seymour, Karen; Vlassopoulos, Dimitrios; Pearce, Thomas H.; Rice, Craig


    Lavas and pyroclastic rocks throughout the volcanic stratigraphy of the Tertiary-Quaternary volcanic complex of Thera in the Aegean island arc display inhomogenous plagioclase populations and phenocryst resorption textures, interpreted as indicative of magma mixing. Plagioclase zoning characteristics studied by Nomarski and laser interferometry techniques establish three main categories of plagioclase: (i) inherited plagioclase (nucleated in endmember prior to initial mixing event) (ii) in situ plagioclase (nucleated in mixed or hybrid magma) and (iii) xenocrystic plagioclase. Nomarski contrast images and linearized compositional zoning profiles reveal striking differences between calcic and sodic plagioclases, depending on the composition of the lava in which they are hosted. These differences reflect the contrasting effects of changes in physical-chemical parameters in basic vis-a-vis more acidic melts during magma mixing and/or influx of new magma into the subvolcanic magma chamber, as well as the influence of magma chamber dynamics on plagioclase equilibration. Variations in bulk major and trace element abundances of Thera volcanic products reflect the dominant overprint of crystal fractionation, but decoupling between major and trace element fractionation models and variations in incompatible trace element distributions are all indicative of magma mixing processes, consistent with compositional and textural zoning in plagioclases.

  10. Diversity in the Visible-NIR Absorption Band Characteristics of Lunar and Asteroidal Plagioclase (United States)

    Hiroi, T.; Kaiden, H.; Misawa, K.; Kojima, H.; Uemoto, K.; Ohtake, M.; Arai, T.; Sasaki, S.; Takeda, H.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.


    Studying the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectral properties of plagioclase has been challenging because of the difficulty in obtaining good plagioclase separates from pristine planetary materials such as meteorites and returned lunar samples. After an early study indicated that the 1.25 m band position of plagioclase spectrum might be correlated with the molar percentage of anorthite (An#) [1], there have been few studies which dealt with the band center behavior. In this study, the VNIR absorption band parameters of plagioclase samples have been derived using the modified Gaussian model (MGM) [2] following a pioneering study by [3].

  11. Geochemical Effects of Recrystallization and Exsolution of Plagioclase of Ferroan Anorthosite (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Hsu, W.


    The minor- and trace-element composition of plagioclase of ferroan anorthosite is of special significance because it is used to infer the composition and the geochemical and petrologic evolution of the magma from which it crystallized. It is therefore important to understand not only the distribution of trace elements between plagioclase and melts of relevant temperature, pressure, and composition, but also whether any post-crystallization mechanisms have modified the primary plagioclase compositions. Two potential modification mechanisms are recrystallization and exsolution, driven by either late-magmatic, subsolidus, or impact processes.

  12. The Petrographic Distinction between Basalt and Andesite Based upon the Arrested Fractionation of Plagioclase Phenocrysts. (United States)

    Garlick, G. Donald; Garlick, Benjamin J.


    Discusses the need to take into account the effects of arrested fractional crystallization in the petrographic classification of volcanic rocks containing plagioclase phenocrysts. Describes the development and use of a computer program to accomplish this task graphically. (TW)

  13. Oxygen isotopic determinations of sequentially erupted plagioclases in the 1974 magma of Fuego Volcano, Guatemala (United States)

    Rose, W.I.; Friedman, I.; Woodruff, L.G.


    Plagioclases in the 1974 high-Al basalt from Fuego Volcano have ??O18 values of +6.0 to +8.5 per mil. Meteoric water cannot have played a significant role in Fuego's magma. Large, weakly zone clear phenocrysts had ??O18 values in the accepted mantle range, while patchyzoned and oscillatory-zoned plagioclases inferred to have formed later and shallower levels have slightly heavier oxygen isotopic ratios. ?? 1980 Intern. Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior.

  14. Plagioclase-Rich Itokawa Grains: Space Weathering, Exposure Ages, and Comparison to Lunar Soil Grains (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Berge, E.


    Regolith grains returned by the Hayabusa mission to asteroid 25143 Itokawa provide the only samples currently available to study the interaction of chondritic asteroidal material with the space weathering environment. Several studies have documented the surface alterations observed on the regolith grains, but most of these studies involved olivine because of its abundance. Here we focus on the rarer Itokawa plagioclase grains, in order to allow comparisons between Itokawa and lunar soil plagioclase grains for which an extensive data set exists.

  15. Is plagioclase removal responsible for the negative Eu anomaly in the source regions of mare basalts? (United States)

    Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.


    The nearly ubiquitous presence of a negative Eu anomaly in the mare basalts has been suggested to indicate prior separation and flotation of plagioclase from the basalt source region during its crystallization from a lunar magma ocean (LMO). Are there any mare basalts derived from a mantle source which did not experience prior plagioclase separation? Crystal chemical rationale for REE substitution in pyroxene suggests that the combination of REE size and charge, M2 site characteristics of pyroxene, fO2, magma chemistry, and temperature may account for the negative Eu anomaly in the source region of some types of primitive, low TiO2 mare basalts. This origin for the negative Eu anomaly does not preclude the possibility of the LMO as many mare basalts still require prior plagioclase crystallization and separation and/or hybridization involving a KREEP component.

  16. Crystal-chemical controls on the partitioning of Sr and Ba between plagioclase feldspar, silicate melts, and hydrothermal solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blundy, J.D.; Wood, B.J. (Bristol Univ. (England))


    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the factors which control the partitioning of alkaline earth elements (Ba and Sr) between plagioclase feldspar and silicate melts, specifically the respective role of crystal chemistry, melt chemistry, and temperature. We have selected plagioclase because of the wealth of volcanic and experimental data, the compositional simplicity of plagioclase, and its relevance to many petrological problems. We begin our study by examining experimental data on Sr partitioning between plagioclase and hydrothermal solutions in an attempt to constrain the role of crystal chemistry. We establish a simple thermodynamic model for trace element partitioning between plagioclase and hydrothermal solutions. This treatment is then extended to the plagioclase-melt system using available data from both experimental and volcanic systems in order to derive a general equation for Sr and Ba partitioning. Finally we consider the geochemical applications and implications of our findings.

  17. Composition of plagioclases in volcanic rocks of King George Island, Antarctica with reference to the petrogenetic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Plagioclases occur mainly as phenocrysts in volcanic rocks of King George Island, South Shetland Islands, West Antarctica. In basaltic andesites and andesites of Keller Peninsula and Ullman Spur (Admiralty Bay), they are high structure state labradorite-andesines; and in high-A1 basalts and basaltic andesites of Barton and Weaver peninsulas (Maxwell Bay), they are high structure state bytownite-anorthites.∑REE, La/Yb ratios and δEu values of plagioclases from Admiralty Bay are higher than those from Maxwell Bay. All plagioclases have rather identical chondritenormalized transitional element distribution patterns, probably reflecting that crystal structure rather than composition of plagioclase controls their diversity. Compositions of plagioclases depend chiefly on those of their host rocks, compositional differences of plagioclases reveal that basaltic magmas in the Admiralty Bay area are more evolved than in the Maxwell Bay area.

  18. SCR and GCR exposure ages of plagioclase grains from lunar soil (United States)

    Etique, P.; Baur, H.; Signer, P.; Wieler, R.


    The concentrations of solar wind implanted Ar-36 in mineral grains extracted from lunar soils show that they were exposed to the solar wind on the lunar surface for an integrated time of 10E4 to 10E5 years. From the bulk soil 61501 plagioclase separates of 8 grain size ranges was prepared. The depletion of the implanted gases was achieved by etching aliquot samples of 4 grain sizes to various degrees. The experimental results pertinent to the present discussion are: The spallogenic Ne is, as in most plagioclases from lunar soils, affected by diffusive losses and of no use. The Ar-36 of solar wind origin amounts to (2030 + or - 100) x 10E-8 ccSTP/g in the 150 to 200 mm size fraction and shows that these grains were exposed to the solar wind for at least 10,000 years. The Ne-21/Ne-22 ratio of the spallogenic Ne is 0.75 + or - 0.01 and in very good agreement with the value of this ratio in a plagioclase separate from rock 76535. This rock has had a simple exposure history and its plagioclases have a chemical composition quite similar to those studied. In addition to the noble gases, the heavy particle tracks in an aliquot of the 150 to 200 mm plagioclase separate were investigated and found 92% of the grains to contain more than 10E8 tracks/sq cm. This corresponds to a mean track density of (5 + or - 1) x 10E8 tracks/sq cm. The exploration of the exposure history of the plagioclase separates from the soil 61501 do not contradict the model for the regolith dynamics but also fail to prove it.

  19. Effect of Mineral Reaction on the Deformation of Plagioclase-Olivine Aggregates (United States)

    de Ronde, A.; Stünitz, H.; Tullis, J.


    There have been many studies that have described the relative timing of deformation and metamorphism in natural rocks, but there are few studies that have analysed the interrelationship of the processes that produce simultaneous deformation and chemical reactions. We studied the physical and microstructural relationships between the processes of deformation and chemical reaction by performing simple shear deformation experiments on plagioclase-olivine aggregates. Our study shows that deformation and reaction processes are strongly related by a mutual positive feedback, and point out possible mechanisms for shear localization in the upper mantle lithosphere during subduction and extension. Shear deformation experiments were carried out on dry plagioclase-olivine mixtures (4-10 μ m grain sizes, +/-50-50 vol.% olivine-plagioclase ratio) in a Griggs apparatus under a constant applied shear strain rate of ˜5*10-5s-1 at 900° C and 1.0-1.6 GPa confining pressures. We have studied the plagioclase-olivine deformation in presence and absence of reaction by choosing plagioclase to be of labradorite (An60) and anorthite (An92) composition. At 1.0-1.6 GPa confining pressures, the anorthite-olivine samples react to spinel-pyroxene bearing assemblages, whereas the labradorite-olivine samples do not. Labradorite and anorthite are expected to have fairly similar deformation behaviour. Effect of reaction on deformation: In the absence of reaction, labradorite-olivine mixtures are so strong at the chosen experimental conditions that they hardly deform plastically. In contrast, anorthite-olivine mixtures deformed at the same temperature and strain rate react during deformation, producing a stress maximum ( ˜375 MPa) followed by a significant stress decrease. Regardless of the chosen confining pressure, reacting samples commonly weaken towards a shear stress of ˜275 MPa. The plagioclase-olivine reaction strongly reduces the grain size of the samples (down to 0.1 μ m), and causes

  20. Compositional controls on spinel clouding and garnet formation in plagioclase of olivine metagabbros, Adirondack Mountains, New York (United States)

    McLelland, J.M.; Whitney, P.R.


    Olivine metagabbros from the Adirondacks usually contain both clear and spinel-clouded plagioclase, as well as garnet. The latter occurs primarily as the outer rim of coronas surrounding olivine and pyroxene, and less commonly as lamellae or isolated grains within plagioclase. The formation of garnet and metamorphic spinel is dependent upon the anorthite content of the plagioclase. Plagioclase more sodic than An38??2 does not exhibit spinel clouding, and garnet rarely occurs in contact with plagioclase more albitic than An36??4. As a result of these compositional controls, the distribution of spinel and garnet mimics and visually enhances original igneous zoning in plagioclase. Most features of the arrangement of clear (unclouded) plagioclase, including the shells or moats of clear plagioclase which frequently occur inside the garnet rims of coronas, can be explained on the basis of igneous zoning. The form and distribution of the clear zones may also be affected by the metamorphic reactions which have produced the coronas, and by redistribution of plagioclase in response to local volume changes during metamorphism. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

  1. FeO and MgO in plagioclase of lunar anorthosites: Igneous or metamorphic? (United States)

    Phinney, W. C.


    The combined evidence from terrestrial anorthosites and experimental laboratory studies strongly implies that lunar anorthosites have been subjected to high-grade metamorphic events that have erased the igneous signatures of FeO and MgO in their plagioclases. Arguments to the contrary have, to this point, been more hopeful than rigorous.

  2. Importance of plagioclase morphology and composition in magmagenesis of the Carlsberg Ridge basalts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Banerjee, R.

    The morphology and chemical composition of more than 200 plagioclase crystals in the Carlsberg Ridge basalts (3~'35' and 3~'41'N) in relation to the magmagenesis of the basalts is examined. The results indicate that the different morphotypes...

  3. Chemical Evolution of Intercumulus Liquid, as Seen in Plagioclase Overgrowth Rims from the Skaergaard Intrusion (United States)

    Humphreys, M. C.


    Closed-system solidification of a crystal mush will produce a cumulate rock with strongly zoned intercumulus minerals, as a result of continual thermal and compositional change in the residual liquid. The physical properties of the residual liquid (viscosity, density) also change, which may allow compositional convection or melt migration through the cumulate pile, depending on the porosity and permeability of the mush. However, for fully solidified cumulates, 'fossil' changes in liquid composition or porosity are difficult to identify. This study investigates the changing concentration of Ti in plagioclase overgrowths from the lower parts of the Skaergaard Intrusion. Ti concentrations in plagioclase reflect the changing Ti concentration of the residual liquid during solidification. The plagioclase overgrowths record Ti increasing in the liquid until local (intercumulus) saturation of Fe-Ti oxides, when Ti contents start to fall. Ti continues to fall in the residual liquid until the most evolved plagioclase compositions (An30), which form when only approximately 4 % porosity remains. Ti in clinopyroxene oikocrysts also falls rimward, but zoning in faster diffusing species (Fe, Mg) is not observed. These results are discussed in the context of the changing porosity and permeability during solidification.

  4. Insights into magmatic evolution and recharge history in Capraia Volcano (Italy) from chemical and isotopic zoning in plagioclase phenocrysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnevin, D.; Waight, Tod Earle; Daly, J.S.


    Plagioclase phenocrysts in dacites from the high-K calc-alkaline CapraiaVolcano were investigated for major, trace element and Sr isotope variations in order to gain better insight into the proposed open-system behaviour of the volcano. Repeated dissolution zone in plagioclases from the early-eru...

  5. Strong climate and tectonic control on plagioclase weathering in granitic terrain (United States)

    Rasmussen, C.; Brantley, S.; Richter, D.D.B.; Blum, A.; Dixon, J.; White, A.F.


    Investigations to understand linkages among climate, erosion and weathering are central to quantifying landscape evolution. We approach these linkages through synthesis of regolith data for granitic terrain compiled with respect to climate, geochemistry, and denudation rates for low sloping upland profiles. Focusing on Na as a proxy for plagioclase weathering, we quantified regolith Na depletion, Na mass loss, and the relative partitioning of denudation to physical and chemical contributions. The depth and magnitude of regolith Na depletion increased continuously with increasing water availability, except for locations with mean annual temperature reaction enthalpy for albite. Water availability is suggested as the dominant factor limiting rate kinetics in the water-limited systems. Together, these data demonstrate marked transitions and nonlinearity in how climate and tectonics correlate to plagioclase chemical weathering and Na mass loss. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Plagioclase in the Skaergaard intrusion. Part 1: Core and rim compositions in the layered series (United States)

    Toplis, Michael J.; Brown, William L.; Pupier, Elsa


    The anorthite content of plagioclase grains (XAn) in 12 rocks from the layered series of the Skaergaard intrusion has been studied by electron microprobe (typically ˜30 core and ˜70 rim analyses per thin section). Mean core compositions vary continuously from An66 at the base of the layered series (LZa) to An32-30 at the top. On the other hand, crystal rims are of approximately constant composition (An50 ± 1) from the LZa to the lower Middle Zone (MZ). Above the MZ, core and rim compositions generally overlap. Profiles across individual plagioclase grains from the lower zone show that most crystals have an external zone buffered at XAn ˜50 ± 1. The simplest explanation for these features is that during postcumulus crystallization in the lower zone, interstitial liquids passed through a density maximum. This interpretation is consistent with proposed liquid lines of descent that predict silica enrichment of the liquid associated with the appearance of cumulus magnetite.

  7. Change in Magma Dynamics at Okataina Rhyolite Caldera revealed by Plagioclase Textures and Geochemistry (United States)

    Shane, P. A. R.


    A fundamental reorganization of magma dynamics at Okataina volcano, New Zealand, occurred at 26 ka involving a change from smaller volume, high-temperature rhyodacite magmas to a lower eruptive tempo of larger volume, low-temperature, rhyolite magmas. Zircon studies demonstrate the presence of a periodically active, long-lived (100,000 yr) magmatic reservoir. However, there is little correlation between periods of zircon crystallization and eruption events. In contrast, the changing magmatic dynamics is revealed in plagioclase growth histories. Crystals from the ~0.7 ka Kaharoa eruption are characterized by resorbed cores displaying a cellular-texture of high-An (>40) zones partially replaced by low-An (Mg, Sr and Ti follow the resorption surface and display rimward depletion trends, accompanied by Ba and REE enrichment. The zonation is consistent with fractional crystallization and cooling. The cores display wide trace element diversity, pointing to crystallization in a variety of melts, before transport and mixing into a common magma where the rims grew. Plagioclase from the ~36 ka Hauparu eruption display several regrowth zones separated by resorption surfaces, which surround small resorbed cores with a spongy cellular texture of variable An content (An 40-50). The crystals display step-wise re-growth of successively higher An, Fe, Mg and Ti content, consistent with progressive mafic recharge. Two crystal groups are distinguished by trace element chemistry indicating growth in separate melts and co-occurrence via magma-mingling. The contrasting zoning patterns in plagioclase correspond to the evolutionary history of magmatism at Okataina. Emptying of the magma reservoir following caldera eruption at 46 ka reduced barriers to mafic magma ascent. This is recorded by the frequent resorption and recharge episodes in Hauparu crystals. Subsequent re-development of a more silicic reservoir zone (post-26 ka) dampened thermal and mass perturbations, resulting in simpler

  8. Origin of biotite-hornblende-garnet coronas between oxides and plagioclase in olivine metagabbros, Adirondack region, New York (United States)

    Whitney, P.R.; McLelland, J.M.


    Complex multivariant reactions involving Fe-Ti oxide minerals, plagioclase and olivine have produced coronas of biotite, hornblende and garnet between ilmenite and plagioclase in Adirondack olivine metagabbros. Both the biotite (6-10% TiO2) and the hornblende (3-6% TiO2) are exceptionally Titanium-rich. The garnet is nearly identical in composition to the garnet in coronas around olivine in the same rocks. The coronas form in two stages: (a) Plagioclase+Fe-Ti Oxides+Olivine+water =Hornblende+Spinel+Orthopyroxene??Biotite +more-sodic Plagioclase (b) Hornblende+Orthopyroxene??Spinel+Plagioclase =Garnet+Clinopyroxene+more-sodic Plagioclase The Orthopyroxene and part of the clinopyroxene form adjacent to olivine. Both reactions are linked by exchange of Mg2+ and Fe2+ with the reactions forming pyroxene and garnet coronas around olivine in the same rocks. The reactions occur under granulite fades metamorphic conditions, either during isobaric cooling or with increasing pressure at high temperature. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Titanium in plagioclase as a monitor of magma differentiation in the Skaergaard Intrusion (United States)

    Salmonsen, L.; Tegner, C.; Humphreys, M.


    There is a general consensus that the Skaergaard Intrusion formed by inwards crystallization from the margins. Furthermore, it is agreed that the magma evolved largely due to crystal fractionation. However, the resulting liquid line of descent has been debated and it remains unclear which processes govern the required mass transport, and whether magma zonation developed. In recent studies, the influence of diffusion, crystal mush compaction, compositional convection and segregation of immiscible liquids are under dispute. The liquid line of descent is commonly approached by simple mass balance calculations, which hinge on assumptions regarding the composition of the parent magma and the shape of the intrusion. Moreover, this approach only provides information on the average composition of the main magma and thus, does not address whether the magma was zoned or homogenous. As an alternative, we here invoke an analytical approach; microprobe analyses of unzoned plagioclase cores from a new suite of samples from the Upper Border Series are compared to those in the Layered Series. We find (1) that the Ti concentrations at given anorthite contents in the two series are identical and (2) Ti increases gradually from 0.07 wt% in the most primitive plagioclase analysed (An70) and peaks at 0.13 wt% (An52). It then decreases continuously toward 0.02 wt% in plagioclase from the Sandwich Horizon (An23). Based on experimentally determined distribution coefficients, we calculate a parent magma containing 2.0 wt% Ti. During the early stages of differentiation it gradually increases to 4.3 wt% and subsequently decreases towards 2.3 wt% in the most evolved liquid. As expected, the onset of Ti depletion occurs where the calculated magma crosses the theoretical solubility curve. Consistently, this coincides with appearance of cumulus FeTi oxides in the cumulates at the floor and roof of the intrusion, as indicated by a sudden peak in whole rock Ti and V. Key implications of this study

  10. Plagioclase in Dacites of the Current Mt. St. Helens Eruption: Constraints for Magma Origin and Dynamics (United States)

    Streck, M. J.; Broderick, C.; Thornber, C. R.; Clynne, M. A.; Pallister, J. S.


    The current, now year-long eruption of Mt. St. Helens is remarkable for a variety of reasons. Nearly solid, gas-poor dacite lava is extruding at the surface. Earthquakes are limited to the upper 3 km with most occurring less than 1 km below the surface; no deeper seismicity has been observed. Emissions of SO2, H2S, CO2 are extremely low, suggesting eruption of degassed magma. No direct evidence for mingling of more mafic magma has been observed. We investigated plagioclase crystals in 2004-5 dacite and 1980-86 dacite dome rocks to shed light on the nature and origin of the current magma. Polarized light and Nomarski microscopy in combination with detailed microprobe traverses were used to characterize single plagioclase crystals, focusing on areas near their rims. In addition, we mapped all plagioclase crystals within an area of ~1/3 of each thin section and grouped them according to easily distinguishable mineral features. Although labor-intensive, this new approach was devised to generate data statistically significant enough to compare plagioclase crystal populations of crystal-rich samples. Mappable features within crystals include: i) zones of acicular opx microlitic inclusions (commonly occurring near the rim), ii) resorption surfaces, iii) spatial association of i) and ii). Our key results from the crystal mapping indicate that sequential samples of 2004/5 have remained comparable, but are distinct from 1980-86 dacite dome samples. We interpret this result as strong evidence that the 2004-5 dacite is new magma and not 'left-over' 1980's dacite. The most interesting result from combining compositional profiling with texture is that acicular opx inclusions occur at the lowest observed An content of 40-33 regardless of position within crystal and that overgrowth on resorption surfaces are typically 10-20 mol% higher in An than within opx-rich zones resulting in single to multiple oscillations of An content towards the rim. These features could possibly be

  11. A Clinopyroxene-Plagioclase Geobarometer for A-type Silicic Volcanic Rocks (United States)

    Wolff, J.; Iveson, A. A.; Davis, K.; Johnson, T. A.; Gahagan, S.; Ellis, B. S.


    Constraining the crustal storage depths of magmas is important in understanding volcanism. The reaction: anorthite (pl) = Ca-Tschermak's (cpx) + silica (Q or liq) has a large volume change and hence offers potential as a geobarometer, but has not been extensively exploited as such. One of the chief barriers to its wide application is consistent estimation of melt silica activity for assemblages that lack quartz. We have skirted this problem by confining attention to metaluminous silicic compositions (SiO2 > 60% by weight), for which silica activity during crystallization is presumed to be close to 1, and calibrated the barometer for the range 0 - 2 GPa using the LEPR database and additional experiments from the literature. Additional improvement is obtained by excluding hydrous phase-bearing assemblages. Despite the analytical uncertainties present in older experimental investigations, with knowledge of temperature, and clinopyroxene, plagioclase and host melt compositions, pressures for amphibole- and biotite-free dacites and rhyolites can be estimated to ±0.17 GPa (1 sigma). The limitations of the barometer render it most applicable to intraplate, A-type rhyolites. Application to one such system, the Snake River Plain rhyolites, indicate that both melt-hosted phenocrysts and clinopyroxene-plagioclase aggregate grains found in these rhyolites formed at low pressures, <0.5 GPa. This is consistent with isotopic evidence for a shallow crustal origin for Snake River Plain rhyolites.

  12. High geomagnetic intensity during the mid-Cretaceous from Thellier analyses of single plagioclase crystals. (United States)

    Tarduno, J A; Cottrell, R D; Smirnov, A V


    Recent numerical simulations have yielded the most efficient geodynamo, having the largest dipole intensity when reversal frequency is low. Reliable paleointensity data are limited but heretofore have suggested that reversal frequency and paleointensity are decoupled. We report data from 56 Thellier-Thellier experiments on plagioclase crystals separated from basalts of the Rajmahal Traps (113 to 116 million years old) of India that formed during the Cretaceous Normal Polarity Superchron. These data suggest a time-averaged paleomagnetic dipole moment of 12.5 +/- 1.4 x 10(22) amperes per square meter, three times greater than mean Cenozoic and Early Cretaceous-Late Jurassic dipole moments when geomagnetic reversals were frequent. This result supports a correlation between intervals of low reversal frequency and high geomagnetic field strength.

  13. Hydrothermal alteration of plagioclase and growth of secondary feldspar in the Hengill Volcanic Centre, SW Iceland (United States)

    Larsson, D.; Grönvold, K.; Oskarsson, N.; Gunnlaugsson, E.


    Dissolution of igneous feldspar and the formation and occurrence of secondary feldspar in tholeiitic basalts from the Hengill volcanic centre, in SW Iceland was studied by microprobe analysis of cuttings from two ca. 2000 m deep geothermal wells. Well NG-7 in Nesjavellir represents a geothermal system in a rift zone where the intensity of young, insignificantly altered intrusions increases with depth. Well KhG-1 in Kolviðarhóll represents the margin of a rift zone where the intensity of intrusives is lower and the intensity of alteration higher. This marginal well represents altered basaltic crust in an early retrograde state. The secondary plagioclase in both wells is mainly oligoclase, occurring in association with K-feldspar and chlorite±actinolite. The texture of this assemblage depends on the lithology and intensity of alteration. In Nesjavellir (NG-7) the composition of secondary albite-oligoclase is correlated with the host-rock composition. This connection is not apparent in more intensely altered samples from Kolviðarhóll (KhG-1). The influence of temperature on composition of secondary Na-feldspar is unclear in both wells although Ca is expected to increase with temperature. Any temperature dependence may be suppressed by the influence of rock composition in Nesjavellir and by retrograde conditions at Kolviðarhóll. The absence of clear compositional gradients between igneous plagioclase and secondary feldspar and between Na-feldspar and K-feldspar suggests that secondary feldspars formed by dissolution precipitation reactions.

  14. Partition coefficients for iron between plagioclase and basalt as a function of oxygen fugacity - Implications for Archean and lunar anorthosites (United States)

    Phinney, W. C.


    As a prelude to determinations of the content of total iron as FeO(T) in melts in equilibrium with calcic anorthosites, the partition coefficients (Ds) for FeO(T) between calcic plagioclase and basaltic melt were determined, as a function of oxygen fugacity (f(O2)), for a basaltic composition that occurs as matrices for plagioclase megacrysts. Results showed that, at the liquidus conditions, the value of D for FeO(T) between calcic plagioclase and tholeiitic basalt changed little (from 0.030 to 0.044) between the very low f(O2) of the iron-wustite buffer and that of the quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM) buffer. At fugacities above QFM, the value for D increased rapidly to 0.14 at the magnetite-hematite buffer and to 0.33 in air. The increase in D results from the fact that, at f(O2) below QFM, nearly all of the Fe is in the Fe(2+) state; above QFM, the Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) ratio in the melt increases rapidly, causing more Fe to enter the plagioclase which accepts Fe(3+) more readily than Fe(2+).

  15. Application of the Plagioclase-Liquid Hygrometer to the Bishop Tuff: Consistency with Melt Inclusion H2O Contents (United States)

    Jolles, J.; Lange, R. A.


    High-silica (74-77 wt% SiO2) rhyolites are the most evolved magmas on Earth and constitute some of the largest eruptions (1000s of km3). Of these, one classic example is the Bishop Tuff, a 760 ka eruption of >670 km3 of high-silica rhyolite erupted from Long Valley caldera, CA. Documenting dissolved H2O contents is crucial for understanding its origin and evolution. Analyses of water contents measured in quartz-hosted melt inclusions from the Bishop Tuff (Wallace et al. 1999; Anderson et al. 2000) show that the Early and Middle Bishop Tuff (Ig1Eb, Ig2Ea) have higher water contents (≤ 6.3 wt% H2O) than the Late Bishop Tuff (Ig2NWa; ≤ 5.2 wt%). Our work utilizes the revised plagioclase-liquid hygrometer (Waters & Lange, 2015), which is applicable to rhyolite, to evaluate internal consistency between Fe-Ti oxide temperatures, the plagioclase hygrometer, and melt inclusion H2O analyses. Two-oxide thermometry (Ghiorso & Evans, 2008), using all possible Fe-Ti oxide pairs (between 56 and 1500 pairs for individual samples), was carried out on 2-3 pumice clasts for each sampled eruptive unit. Resulting temperatures (°C ± 1σ) for individual clasts are: 705 ± 12, 728 ± 10 for unit Ig1Eb; 710 ± 12, 728 ± 11 for unit Ig2Ea; 752 ±10, 776 ± 8, 778 ± 7 for unit Ig2NWa; 791 ± 7, 795 ± 8 for unit Ig2Nb. The compositions of the most calcic plagioclase phenocrysts in the Early and Middle units are An17-19, whereas in the Late units they are An29-30. When the Fe-Ti oxide temperatures, whole rock analyses, and plagioclase compositions are incorporated into the plagioclase hygrometer, they give water contents at the onset of plagioclase crystallization of 6.6-6.9 wt% for the Early and Middle units and 4.8-4.9 wt % for the Late units. These results show internal consistency between melt inclusion analyses of water, Fe-Ti oxide thermometry, and the plagioclase-liquid hygrometer; they further support a temperature gradient across the Early, Middle, and Late Bishop Tuff units.

  16. Crystal origins and magmatic system beneath Ngauruhoe volcano (New Zealand) revealed by plagioclase textures and compositions (United States)

    Coote, Alisha C.; Shane, Phil


    The textural variation and compositional zoning of plagioclase in pre-historic and historic basaltic andesite lava flows from Ngauruhoe volcano reveals extensive crystal recycling from a multi-level magma system. Most phenocrysts have a calcic (~ An80-90) resorbed core with diffuse or no zonation that is depleted in Fe and Mg. Some cores display patchy zonation from replacement by high An crystallization prior to resorption. The cores are mantled by oscillatory-zoned rims of lower An content (Mg. Rim zones vary in relative thickness and textural complexity, and include sieve-textured bands, and/or cyclic calcic growth following dissolution events. A subordinate crystal population display similar features, but lack a resorbed core. These latter crystals display overall rimward enrichment in An, Fe and Mg. The resorbed cores crystallized from magmas more mafic than those erupted at Ngauruhoe, and slow cooling and prolonged storage resulted in loss of An zoning patterns and depletion of Fe and Mg by diffusion. These crystals are likely to have originated from deep cumulates or intrusions, and were subsequently entrained in ascending magmas. Patchy-textured cores were produced during decompression in a water under-saturated magma and staged ascent. The diversity in crystal cores reflect different conduits and ascent histories. The crystal rims grew in a more differentiated magma reservoir, and are in equilibrium with the erupted melt. Most of the zoning patterns in the rim zone require water pressure and/or temperature changes. These changes could have been caused by convective self-mixing in a closed system and/or the intrusion of hydrous melts of similar bulk composition. Other crystals display rimward elemental enrichments consistent with mafic recharge. Previously reported rimward enrichment in 87Sr-86Sr compositions can be explained by the re-cycled origin of the crystal cores and progressive crustal assimilation at shallower depths in the magma system where

  17. Oxygen isotope heterogeneity of arc magma recorded in plagioclase from the 2010 Merapi eruption (Central Java, Indonesia) (United States)

    Borisova, Anastassia Y.; Gurenko, Andrey A.; Martel, Caroline; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Cathala, Annick; Bohrson, Wendy A.; Pratomo, Indyo; Sumarti, Sri


    Chemical and isotopic compositions of magmatic crystals provide important information to distinguish between deep juvenile and crustal contributions. In this work, high-resolution multicollector secondary ion mass spectrometry data reveal strong variations of δ18O values in three plagioclase crystals (800-1700 μm) from two representative basaltic andesite samples of the 2010 Merapi eruption (Central Java, Indonesia). The δ18O values (from 4.6‰ to 7.9‰) are interpreted to reflect oxygen isotope heterogeneity in the melt composition during plagioclase growth. The lowest δ18O values (4.6-6.6‰) are found in anorthite-rich cores (An82-97), whereas higher δ18O values (5.7-7.9‰) are found in anorthite-poorer zones (An33-86), typically in crystal rims. Combining these new plagioclase δ18O data with δ18O of calc-silicate crustal xenoliths erupted between 1994 and 1998, the composition of glass inclusions hosted by the anorthite-rich plagioclase (An82-92), available experimental data, and the results of thermodynamic modeling using the Magma Chamber Simulator code, we conclude that the abundant anorthite-rich cores crystallized from a mantle-derived hydrous basaltic to basaltic trachyandesite melt that recharged a deeper (200-600 MPa) magma storage zone, whereas lower anorthite zones crystallized at shallower levels (100-200 MPa). The oxygen isotope variations in the plagioclase are explained by a two-stage model of interaction of the hydrous, mafic mantle-derived magma (1) with old crustal rocks depleted in 18O due to high temperature alteration that yielded the low δ18O values in the anorthite-rich cores at deep levels (13-20 km), and later (2) with 18O-enriched carbonate material that yielded the high δ18O values in anorthite-poorer zones at shallow levels (∼4.5-9 km). Thermodynamic modeling is consistent with ∼18 wt.% assimilation of crustal calc-silicate material at 925-950 °C and 100-200 MPa by the 2010 Merapi basaltic andesite magma prior to

  18. Mixing, Assimilation, Storage and Homogenization, Aeolian Islands, Italy: Evidence from In situ Plagioclase Data from Alicudi Island (United States)

    Hunt, R.; Bohrson, W. A.; Mayfield, A. M.; Creamer, J. B.


    In situ plagioclase data can provide time-transgressive information about petrogenetic processes that contribute to compositional diversity, thereby improving our ability to predict eruption style and to manage associated hazards. Alicudi, Aeolian Island Arc, Italy has a compositional range separated into 3 eruptive stages: stage 1 basalts; stage 2 basaltic andesites; stage 3 andesites (Peccerillo et al., 2004). Plagioclase from 10 samples that span this compositional and temporal range have been analyzed to elucidate magma chamber processes at this arc volcano. Through Nomarski Differential Interference Contrast imaging, 4 textural types were defined for each sample: simple oscillatory; complex oscillatory; sieved/patchy intermediate zone; sieve/patchy core. Andesitic plagioclase commonly exhibits patchy/sieve textures, whereas basaltic plagioclase commonly shows simple or complex oscillatory textures. Locations of core to rim major element analyses are based on textural boundaries. Microprobe results reveal ranges of An50-An88 in basalts, An42-An93 in basaltic andesites, and An45-An88 in andesites. Stage 1 and 2 cores and rims have a wide range in An. Stage 3 cores also have a wide range in An, but are dominated by lower values. In most samples, increasing An content of ≥10% is noted rimward of dissolution rims or within sieved/patchy zones, consistent with possible recharge events. Results of Tukey's Test (analysis of variance) suggest plagioclase crystals are related for stages 1 and 2. Stage 3 cores are unrelated to stage 1 and 2 cores. Laser Ablation Sr isotope data confirm variable 87Sr/86Sr for distinct textural types, and where possible, core and rim 87Sr/86Sr. Basalt plagioclase has the highest and most variable 87Sr/86Sr (0.70327-0.70375), whereas andesite plagioclase has the lowest and least variable (0.70284-0.70353). Whole rock 87Sr/86Sr (0.70316-0.70392) are consistent with in situ 87Sr/86Sr. Collectively, the data suggest mixing, assimilation

  19. Iron in plagioclase in the Bushveld and Skaergaard intrusions: implications for iron contents in evolving basic magmas (United States)

    Tegner, Christian; Cawthorn, R. Grant


    The evolved, iron-rich rocks of the tholeiitic Bushveld and Skaergaard intrusions are similar in containing cumulus magnetite, ilmenite, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, apatite and olivine, and also orthopyroxenes/pigeonite in Bushveld. Here, we evaluate their liquid evolution trends using the total iron content in plagioclase determined by electron microprobe analyses. To aid this analysis a revised mass balance model for the liquid evolution of Skaergaard is presented. For plagioclase in the Upper Zone of Skaergaard it was previously demonstrated that total FeO increases from ~0.25 to ~0.45 wt% with differentiation and correlates inversely with An% [100 × Ca/(Na + Ca)]. The reverse trend is observed in two recently published datasets for Bushveld, showing that total FeO in plagioclase decreases upward through the magnetite-bearing Upper Zone from ~0.30 to ~0.15% and from ~0.40 to ~0.25% in the western and northern limbs, respectively, and correlates positively with An%. The partition coefficient of total iron between plagioclase and magma increases with oxidation and polymerisation in the liquid. Although Bushveld formed under slightly more oxidizing conditions than Skaergaard, differences in the partition coefficients cannot explain the two observed trends. We therefore conclude that the differentiation trends of the liquids subsequent to magnetite saturation were fundamentally different. The inferred liquid composition for Bushveld contained about 15 wt% total FeO at the level of magnetite-in, which is slightly less than the total FeO content of the subsequent cumulates. In contrast, the Skaergaard liquid contained more total FeO than the ensuing cumulates. As a result, in Bushveld residual liquids total FeO decreased after magnetite saturation, whereas in Skaergaard the residual liquids continued to become enriched in iron. This conclusion is corroborated by simple mass balance calculations between modelled residual liquids and extracted cumulate rocks. Despite

  20. Contrasting plagioclase textures and geochemistry in response to magma dynamics in an intra-caldera rhyolite system, Okataina volcano (United States)

    Shane, Phil


    The changing magmatic dynamics of the rhyolite caldera volcano, Okataina Volcanic Centre, New Zealand, is revealed in plagioclase growth histories. Crystals from the ~ 0.7 ka Kaharoa eruption are characterized by resorbed cores displaying a cellular texture of high-An (> 40) zones partially replaced by low-An (Mg, Sr, and Ti follow the resorption surface and display rimward depletion trends, accompanied by Ba and REE enrichment. The zonation is consistent with fractional crystallization and cooling. The cores display wide trace element diversity, pointing to crystallization in a variety of melts, before transport and mixing into a common magma where the rims grew. Plagioclase from the ~ 36 ka Hauparu eruption display several regrowth zones separated by resorption surfaces, which surround small resorbed cores with a spongy cellular texture of variable An content (An40-50). The crystals display step-wise regrowth of successively higher An, Fe, Mg, and Ti content, consistent with progressive mafic recharge. Two crystal groups are distinguished by trace element chemistry, indicating growth in separate melts and co-occurrence via magma mingling. For plagioclase in both eruption deposits, partition coefficients (D) estimated from crystal rim-groundmass glass analyses, produce melt compositions similar to the array of rock and glass compositions erupted and are consistent with the processes of fractional crystallization and recharge. However, D values estimated from some published formulations based on An content and temperature produce unrealistic melts. The contrasting zoning patterns in plagioclase correspond to the evolutionary history of magmatism at Okataina. Emptying of the magma reservoir following caldera eruption at 46 ka reduced barriers to mafic magma ascent. This is recorded by the frequent resorption and recharge episodes in Hauparu crystals. Subsequent redevelopment of a more silicic reservoir zone (post-26 ka) dampened thermal and mass perturbations

  1. FTIR Analysis of Water in Pyroxene and Plagioclase in ALH 84001 and Nakhlites (United States)

    Peslier, A. H.; Cintala, M. J.; Montes, R.; Cardenas, F.


    with crustal reservoirs or hydrothermal fluids. Here, nominally anhydrous minerals (pyroxene, olivine, plagioclase, or maskelynite) in orthopyroxenite ALH 84001 and selected nakhlites are analyzed for water and major elements, in order to determine 1) whether they contain any water; 2) if they do, what controls its distribution (crystallization, degassing, hydrothermal or impact processes); and 3) if any of these measurements can be used to infer the water contents of the parent magma and their mantle sources. A shock-reverberation experiment was also performed on terrestrial orthopyroxenes (opx) to simulate the heavily shocked conditions of ALH 84001 (> 31 GPa [17]).

  2. sup 40^Ar/^sup 39^Ar and cosmic ray exposure ages of plagioclase-rich lithic fragments from Apollo 17 regolith, 78461

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J P Das; S L Baldwin; J W Delano


    ... (CRE) ages, determined for eleven submillimeter-sized (ranging from 0.06 to 1.2 mg) plagioclase-rich lithic fragments from Apollo 17 regolith sample 78461 collected at the base of the Sculptured Hills...

  3. Contrasting Sr isotope ratios in plagioclase from different formations of the mid-Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group (United States)

    Starkel, W. A.; Wolff, J.; Eckberg, A.; Ramos, F.


    Many early Columbia River Basalt flows of the Steens and Imnaha Formations are characterized by abundant, texturally complex, coarse plagioclase phenocrysts. In Imnaha lavas, the feldspars typically have more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr than whole rock and matrix, and may exhibit complex isotopic zoning that is not correlated with An content. Imnaha plagioclase grains are interpreted as variably-contaminated crystals produced when high-crystallinity mid-crustal basaltic intrusions exchanged interstitial melt with adjacent partly-melted crustal rock; this isotopically variable debris was then remobilized by subsequent intrusion of mantle-derived basalt and brought to the surface as an isotopically heterogeneous mixture. In contrast, plagioclase grains in the texturally very similar Steens lavas are isotopically near-homogeneous and 87Sr/86Sr is not significantly displaced from that of the bulk rock. This is consistent with magma- crust interaction at low degrees of crustal melting during the early stages of the Columbia River flood basalt episode, where Steens and Imnaha lavas were erupted from distinct magma systems hosted by different types of crust that exerted different degrees of isotopic leverage on the mantle-derived magmas [1]. Thermal input to the Steens system declined at the same time as the Imnaha magmatic flux increased to ultimately produce the huge outpouring of Grande Ronde lavas, which are mixtures of mantle- and crust-derived liquids, the latter produced during high degrees of crustal melting during the time of peak magmatic flux. [1] Wolff et al. (2008) Nature Geoscience 1, 177-180.

  4. Periodical mixing of MORB magmas near East Pacific Rise 13°N: Evidence from modeling and zoned plagioclase phenocrysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Thirty-six basalt samples from near East Pacific Rise 13°N are analyzed for major and trace elements. Different types of zoned plagioclase phenocrysts in basalts are also backscatter imaged, and major element profiles scanned and analyzed for microprobe. Basalts dredged from a restricted area have evolved to different extents (MgO=9.38wt%—6.76wt%). High MgO basalts are modeled for crystalliza-tion to MgO of about 7wt%, and resulted in the Ni contents (≈28 ppm) that are generally lower than that in observed basalts (>60 ppm). It suggests that low MgO basalts may have experienced more intensive magma mixing. High MgO (9.38wt%) basalt is modeled for self-"mixing-crystallization", and the high Ni contents in low MgO basalts can be generated in small scale and periodical self-mixing of new magma (high MgO). "Mixing-crystallization" processes that low MgO magmas experienced accord with recent 226Ra/230Th disequilibria studies for magma residence time, in which low MgO magmas have experi-enced more circles of "mixing-crystallization" in relatively longer residence time. Magma mixing is not homogeneous in magma chamber, however, low MgO magmas are closer to stable composition pro-duced by periodical "mixing-crystallization", which is also an important reason for magma diversity in East Pacific Rise. Zoned plagioclase phenocrysts can be divided into two types: with and without high An# cores, both of which have multiple reversed An# zones, suggesting periodical mixing of their host magmas. Cores of zoned plagioclase in low MgO (7.45wt%) basalt differ significantly with their mantle in An#, but are similar in An# with microlite cores (products of equilibrium crystallization) in high MgO (9.38wt%) basalt, which further shows that plagioclase phenocryst cores in low MgO basalts may have formed in their parental magmas before entering into the magma chamber.

  5. Rapid crystal recycling at Krafla Volcano, Iceland, inferred from oxygen-isotope and trace- element compositions and U-Th-Ra disequilibria in plagioclase (United States)

    Cooper, K. M.; Sims, K. W.; Eiler, J. M.; Banerjee, N. R.


    The Icelandic central volcano of Krafla exhibits increasing assimilation of hydrothermally-altered crust with increasing differentiation of magmas, as evidenced by decreasing δ18O with decreasing MgO (Nicholson et al., 1991, J Pet 32, p.1005). The Krafla Fires eruption (1975-84) produced two different magma compositions simultaneously: quartz tholeiites near the center of the volcano, and olivine tholeiites north of the central volcano (Gronvold et al., 2008, Goldschmidt abstract). Examination of crystals in these magmas has the potential to provide information about the nature and timescales of mixing of distinct magmas and assimilation of crustal material at Krafla. We present oxygen-isotope compositions, trace-element compositions, and 238U-230Th-226Ra disequilibria measured in plagioclase crystals from samples of lavas erupted during two phases of the Krafla Fires eruption (ol tholeiite erupted Jan-Feb 1981, and qz tholeiite erupted Nov 1981). Oxygen-isotope data for multiple size fractions of plagioclase show a decrease in δ18O with increasing crystal size for the ol tholeiite (from ~4.1 permil to 3.5 permil), whereas there is no clear relationship between plagioclase size and oxygen-isotope composition in the qtz tholeiite (all size fractions average 4.1-4.3 permil). Furthermore, all measured plagioclase have δ18O lower than would be in equilibrium with the whole rock measurements (by up to 1.5 permil). These data imply that (1) few or none of the measured crystals precipitated from the host liquids, and (2) the crystals were entrained in the host magmas shortly prior to eruption, allowing them to maintain oxygen isotopic disequilibrium and heterogeneity within the crystal populations. These inferences are corroborated by trace element compositions measured in plagioclase by laser-ablation ICPMS, as the majority of analyzed points have Ba and Sr concentrations inconsistent with equilibrium partitioning between crystals and liquid. Furthermore, in the case

  6. Cooling and crystallization of rhyolite-obsidian lava: Insights from micron-scale projections on plagioclase microlites (United States)

    Sano, Kyohei; Toramaru, Atsushi


    To reveal the cooling process of a rhyolite-obsidian flow, we studied the morphology of plagioclase microlites in the Tokachi-Ishizawa lava of Shirataki, northern Hokkaido, Japan, where the structure of the lava can be observed from obsidian at the base of the flow to the innermost rhyolite. Needle-like micron-scale textures, known as ;projections;, occur on the short side surfaces of the plagioclase microlites. Using FE-SEM we discovered a positive correlation between the lengths and spacings of these projections. On the basis of the instability theory of an interface between melt and crystal, and to understand the length and spacing data, we developed a model that explains the positive correlation and allows us to simultaneously estimate growth rates and growth times. Applying the model to our morphological data and the estimated growth rates and growth times, we suggest that the characteristics of the projections reflect the degree of undercooling, which in turn correlates with lava structure (the obsidian at the margin of the flow experienced a higher degree of undercooling than the interior rhyolite). The newly developed method provides insights into the degree of undercooling during the final stages of crystallization of a rhyolitic lava flow.

  7. Plagioclase deformation in upper-greenschist facies meta-pegmatite mylonites from the Austroalpine Matsch Unit (Eastern Alps, Italy) (United States)

    Eberlei, Tobias; Habler, Gerlinde; Abart, Rainer; Grasemann, Bernhard


    Feldspars are common rock forming minerals as they are stable over a wide range of bulk rock compositions and metamorphic conditions within the Earth's crust. The deformation mechanisms of feldspar play an important role in rheological models for the crust and therefore have received considerable attention in studies on natural rocks and in experimental studies. The interaction of frictional and viscous deformation mechanisms and the onset of crystal plastic deformation in feldspars occur over a broad range of pressures and temperatures. In this work, we present new microstructural, textural and mineral chemical data of plagioclase from Permian metapegmatites within the Austroalpine Matsch Unit in Southern Tyrol (Italy). These crystalline basement rocks were deformed and metamorphosed at conditions close to the greenschist/amphibolites facies transition at 480±26°C during the Cretaceous (Habler et al., 2009). The investigated samples have been collected from meter-scale shear zones which typically occur at boundaries of lithological subunits. The southern tectonic boundary of this unit is commonly referred to as the "Vinschgau Shear Zone" (Schmid & Haas, 1989). We applied the Electron Backscatter Diffraction method to investigate the grain- and subgrain-boundaries and the nature of effective deformation mechanisms in plagioclase. Large albite porphyroclasts in the mylonitic Permian metapegmatites show grain internal traces of dissolution surfaces and the formation of new, strain-free grains with straight grain boundary segments and partly 120° grain boundary triple junctions in dilatant sites. The aggregates of new grains neither have a lattice preferred orientation nor a crystallographic orientation relation with the adjacent clast, and are characterized by the lack of grain internal deformation, suggesting that these are new precipitates rather than clast-fragments or recrystallized subgrains. Furthermore, the porphyroclasts show cracks and kinks, associated

  8. A Plagioclase Ultraphyric Basalt group in the Neogene flood basalt piles of eastern Iceland: Volcanic architecture and mode of emplacement (United States)

    Oskarsson, B. V.; Riishuus, M. S.


    3D photogrammetry in conjunction with ground mapping was applied in order to assess the architecture of a Plagioclase Ultraphyric Basalt (PUB) group in eastern Iceland, namely the Grænavatn group. The ~10 Myr old group is exposed in steep glacially carved fjords and can be traced over 60 km along strike. Two feeder dikes have been found and show that the group erupted along the trend of the dike swarm associated with the Breiddalur central volcano. The group has 9--14 flows where thickest, and thins to about 3--4 flows up-dip to the east within the distance of 15-20 km from the source. We have estimated the volume of the group to exceed 40 km3. The flows have mixed architecture of simple and compound morphology. The flow lobes have thicknesses from 1--24 m and many reach lengths over 1000 m. The surface morphology varies from rubbly to scoriaceous, but is dominantly of pahoehoe style. The internal structure of the lava flows is well preserved and the flows display abundant vesicle cylinders. The modal percentage of An-rich plagioclase macrocrysts varies from 25--50 % and they are in the range of 5--30 mm. The aspect ratio of the group and the nature of the flows indicate fissure-fed eruptions. A thick flow found at the base of the group in various locations seems to record the largest eruption episode in the formation of the group. This phase is also the most abundant in macrocryst. An asymmetric buildup is seen in one location and may have characterized the general buildup of the group. The general morphology of the lava flows suggests low viscous behavior, at odds with the high crystal content. Petrographic observations and mineral chemistry shows that the plagioclase macrocrysts are very calcic (An80-85) and in disequilibrium with the groundmass and plagioclases therein (An50-70). Thus the apparent lava rheology and emplacement of the PUBs was likely achieved due to fast ascent of the magma through the crust and transfer of heat from the primitive macrocrysts

  9. Crystal size and shape distribution systematics of plagioclase and the determination of crystal residence times in the micromonzogabbros of Qisir Dagh, SE of Sabalan volcano (NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourkhorsandi Hamed


    Full Text Available The Qisir Dagh igneous complex occurs as a combination of volcanic and intrusive rocks to the south-east of the Sabalan volcano, north-western Iran. Micromonzogabbroic rocks in the region consist of plagioclase, alkaline feldspar and clinopyroxene as the major mineral phases and orthopyroxene, olivine, apatite and opaque minerals as the accessory minerals. Microgranular and microporphyritic textures are well developed in these rocks. Considering the importance of plagioclase in reconstructing magma cooling processes, the size and shape distribution and chemical composition of this mineral were investigated. Based on microscopic studies, it is shown that the 2-dimensional size average of plagioclase in the micromonzogabbros is 538 micrometers and its 3-dimensional shape varies between tabular to prolate. Crystal size distribution diagrams point to the presence of at least two populations of plagioclase, indicating the occurrence of magma mixing and/or fractional crystallization during magma cooling. The chemical composition of plagioclase shows a wide variation in abundances of Anorthite-Albite-Orthoclase (An=0.31–64.58, Ab=29.26–72.13, Or=0.9–66.97, suggesting a complex process during the crystal growth. This is also supported by the formation of antiperthite lamellae, which formed as the result of alkali feldspar exsolution in plagioclase. The calculated residence time of magma in Qisir Dagh, based on 3D crystal size distribution data, and using growth rate G=10−10 mm/s, varies between 457 and 685 years, which indicates a shallow depth (near surface magma crystallization and subvolcanic nature of the studied samples.

  10. Luminescence Spectroscopical Properties of Plagioclase Particles from the Hayabusa Sample Return Mission: An Implication for Study of Space Weathering Processes in the Asteroid Itokawa. (United States)

    Gucsik, Arnold; Nakamura, Tomoki; Jäger, Cornelia; Ninagawa, Kiyotaka; Nishido, Hirotsugu; Kayama, Masahiro; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Ott, Ulrich; Kereszturi, Ákos


    We report a systematic spectroscopical investigation of three plagioclase particles (RB-QD04-0022, RA-QD02-0025-01, and RA-QD02-0025-02) returned by the Hayabusa spacecraft from the asteroid Itokawa, by means of scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence microscopy/spectroscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The cathodoluminescence properties are used to evaluate the crystallization effects and the degree of space weathering processes, especially the shock-wave history of Itokawa. They provide new insights regarding spectral changes of asteroidal bodies due to space weathering processes. The cathodoluminescence spectra of the plagioclase particles from Itokawa show a defect-related broad band centered at around 450 nm, with a shoulder peak at 425 nm in the blue region, but there are no Mn- or Fe-related emission peaks. The absence of these crystal field-related activators indicates that the plagioclase was formed during thermal metamorphism at subsolidus temperature and extreme low oxygen fugacity. Luminescence characteristics of the selected samples do not show any signatures of the shock-induced microstructures or amorphization, indicating that these plagioclase samples suffered no (or low-shock pressure regime) shock metamorphism. Cathodoluminescence can play a key role as a powerful tool to determine mineralogy of fine-grained astromaterials.

  11. Incommensurate density modulation in a Na-rich plagioclase feldspar: Z-contrast imaging and single-crystal X-ray diffraction study. (United States)

    Xu, Huifang; Jin, Shiyun; Noll, Bruce C


    Plagioclase feldspars are the most abundant mineral in the Earth's crust. Intermediate plagioclase feldspars commonly display incommensurately modulated or aperiodic structures. Z-contrast images show both Ca-Na ordering and density modulation. The local structure of lamellae domains has I1-like symmetry. The neighboring lamellae domains are in an inversion twinning relationship. With a state-of-the-art X-ray diffraction unit, second-order satellite reflections (f-reflections) are observed for the first time in andesine (An45), a Na-rich e-plagioclase. The f-reflections indicate a structure with a density modulation which is close to a Ca-rich e-plagioclase. The similarity between this e-andesine structure and previously solved e-labradorite structure is confirmed. Refinement of the structure shows density modulation of ∼ 7 mol % in compositional variation of the anorthite (An) component. The results from Z-contrast imaging and low-temperature single X-ray diffraction (XRD) provide a structure consistent with density modulation. The discovery of f-reflections in Na-rich e-plagioclase extends the composition range of e1 structure with density modulation to as low as at least An45, which is the lower end of the composition range of Bøggild intergrowth. The new result supports the loop-shaped solvus for Bøggild intergrowth, below which is a homogenous stable area for e1 structure in the phase diagram. The phase transition between e2 structure without density modulation and e1 structure with density modulation should happen at low temperature. There is a change in modulation period accompanying the phase transition, as well as higher occupancy of Al in the T1o site. The andesine with density modulation also indicates extremely slow cooling of its host rock.

  12. Formation of transgressive anorthosite seams in the Bushveld Complex via tectonically induced mobilisation of plagioclase-rich crystal mushes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolfgang D. Maier; Bartosz T. Karykowski; Sheng-Hong Yang


    The formation of anorthosites in layered intrusions has remained one of petrology’s most enduring enigmas. We have studied a sequence of layered chromitite, pyroxenite, norite and anorthosite overlying the UG2 chromitite in the Upper Critical Zone of the eastern Bushveld Complex at the Smokey Hills platinum mine. Layers show very strong medium to large scale lateral continuity, but abundant small scale irregularities and transgressive relationships. Particularly notable are irregular masses and seams of anorthosite that have intrusive relationships to their host rocks. An anorthosite layer locally transgresses several 10 s of metres into its footwall, forming what is referred to as a “pothole” in the Bushveld Complex. It is proposed that the anorthosites formed from plagioclase-rich crystal mushes that originally accumulated at or near the top of the cumulate pile. The slurries were mobilised during tectonism induced by chamber subsidence, a model that bears some similarity to that generally proposed for oceanic mass flows. The anorthosite slurries locally collapsed into pull-apart structures and injected their host rocks. The final step was down-dip drainage of Fe-rich intercumulus liquid, leaving behind anor-thosite adcumulates.

  13. Zonal structure in plagioclases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harloff, Ch.


    The purpose of this paper is to record the results of a series of observations on zonal plagioelases made with the aid of the Fedorowstage. Some of these results may add to our present knowledge of zonality in general. It is necessary, first of all, to give a definition of what we mean by zonal stru

  14. Mullite-corundum-spinel-cordierite-plagioclase xenoliths in the Skaergaard Marginal Border Group: multi-stage interaction between metasediments and basaltic magma (United States)

    Markl, Gregor


    Metapelitic country rocks were contact- and pyro-metamorphosed by the Tertiary Skaergaard Intrusion, East Greenland. In an initial stage of heating, while they were probably still in place within the host rock contact aureole, they overstepped a range of equilibrium and disequilibrium melting reactions and produced both a granitic melt and very refractory spinel+cordierite+plagioclase±corundum residuals. Parts of these refractory rocks were then subjected to another melting event after being entrained as xenoliths into the Skaergaard Marginal Border Group, where they experienced a temperature of about 1,000°C at a pressure of about 650 bars and at an oxygen fugacity about 0.2-0.5 log units below the FMQ buffer. Here, they underwent bulk melting, but did not mix with the Skaergaard magma, presumably because of the high viscosity contrast. The Al-rich melts crystallized to an assemblage of corundum+mullite+sillimanite+ plagioclase+spinel+rutile±tridymite±cordierite and they reacted with the surrounding basalt producing a strongly cryptically zoned rim of plagioclase (An55 close to the basalt to An90 close to the Al-rich melt). The assemblage in the inner parts of the xenoliths provides textural evidence for disequilibrium growth due to slow diffusivities in the highly viscous, probably water-free Al-rich melt. Later interaction of lower temperature ferrobasaltic to granophyric melts with the xenoliths along their margins and along cracks led to consumption of corundum and mullite and to the stable assemblage of spinel+cordierite+plagioclase+quartz+K-feldspar +magnetite+ilmenite at about 800°C.

  15. Trace element and Pb isotope composition of plagioclase from dome samples from the 2004-2005 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington: Chapter 35 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006 (United States)

    Kent, Adam J.R.; Rowe, Michael C.; Thornber, Carl R.; Pallister, John S.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.


    We report the results of in-situ laser ablation ICP–MS analyses of anorthite content, trace-element (Li, Ti, Sr, Ba, La, Pr, Ce, Nd, Eu, Pb) concentrations, and Pb-isotope compositions in plagioclase from eight dome-dacite samples collected from the 2004-5 eruption of Mount St. Helens and, for comparison, from three dome samples from 1981-85. For 2004-5 samples, plagioclase phenocrysts range in composition from An30 to An80, with the majority An42-An65. With the exception of Li, the range of trace-element abundances in plagioclase phenocrysts is largely constant in material erupted between October 2004 and April 2005 and is broadly consistent with the 1983-85 dome samples. Anomalously high Li contents in the early stage of the eruption are thought to reflect addition of Li to the upper part of the magma chamber immediately before eruption (within ~1 year) by transfer of an alkali-enriched, exsolved vapor from deep within the magma chamber. Other trace elements show significant correlations (at >99 percent confidence limits) with anorthite content in plagioclase phenocrysts--Ba, light rareearth elements (LREE), and Pb show positive correlations, whereas Ti and Sr correlate negatively. Variations in plagioclase-melt partitioning as a function of anorthite content cannot explain trace-element variations--in particular predicting trends for Ti and Sr opposite to those observed. A simple model involving closed-system fractional crystallization of plagioclase + hypersthene + amphibole + oxides largely reproduces the observed trends. The model requires no gain or loss of plagioclase and is consistent with the lack of europium anomalies in bulk dacite samples. Analytical traverses within individual plagioclase phenocrysts support this model but also point to a diversity of melt compositions present within the magma storage zone in which plagioclase crystallized.

  16. The mode of emplacement of Neogene flood basalts in Eastern Iceland: The plagioclase ultraphyric basalts in the Grænavatn group (United States)

    V. Óskarsson, Birgir; B. Andersen, Christina; S. Riishuus, Morten; Sørensen, Erik Vest; Tegner, Christian


    Plagioclase ultraphyric basalt lava with high fraction of solids have a mode of emplacement that is poorly understood. In this study we conduct detailed mapping of a PUB group in eastern Iceland, namely the Grænavatn group, and assess the group architecture, flow morphology and internal structure with additional constraints from petrography, petrology and crystal size distribution, to derive information on emplacement dynamics of plagioclase ultraphyric basalts. We also derive information on the plumbing system of the group with reference to the source of the macrocysts. The group is exposed in steep glacially carved fjords and can be traced for more than 70 km along strike. The flows have mixed architecture of simple and compound flows. Individual flow lobes have thicknesses in the range of 1-24 m and many reach widths and lengths exceeding 1000 m. The flows vary from rubbly to slabby pahoehoe, but are predominantly of pahoehoe type. The aspect ratio of the group and the nature of the flows indicate fissure-fed eruptions. The plagioclase macrocrysts (5-30 mm) are An-rich, exhibit bimodal size distribution and the modal proportions within the group varies from 15-40%. Clinopyroxene macrocrysts are also present ranging from 1-6%. The lowermost flow is thickest and carries the greatest crystal cargo load. The morphology of the lava flows suggests low viscous behavior, at odds with the high crystal content. The very calcic plagioclase macrocrysts (An80-85) are in disequilibrium with the groundmass and plagioclase microlaths therein (An50-70), meaning that the crystal-laden magmas quickly ascended from deeper crustal levels to the surface. The flows with highest crystal content may have maintained high temperatures by heat exchange with the primitive macrocrysts in the flows and developed non-Newtonian behavior such as shear thinning. Such conditions would have enabled the flows to advance rapidly during episodes with high effusion rates forming the simple flows, and

  17. Timescales of magma processes occurred prior to recent Campi Flegrei caldera eruptions: first results from diffusion profiles on plagioclase phenocrysts (United States)

    D'Antonio, Massimo; Arienzo, Ilenia; Fedele, Lorenzo; Iovine, Raffaella; Carmine Mazzeo, Fabio; Civetta, Lucia; Orsi, Giovanni; Wörner, Gerhard


    Knowledge of the timescales of magma rising and stagnation, as well as mingling/mixing processes occurring in the shallow plumbing system of an active volcano is crucial for volcanic hazard assessment and risk mitigation. Among few recently developed methodologies, high-precision, high spatial resolution analysis of major-, minor- and trace elements on zoned phenocrysts through electron microprobe techniques represents a powerful tool to provide good estimates of timescales of pre-eruptive magma rising, stagnation and/or mingling/mixing processes. To this purpose, volcanic rock samples of trachytic composition representative of the Agnano-Monte Spina eruption (4.7 ka CAL BP) occurred at the Campi Flegrei caldera (southern Italy) have been selected. The investigation has been carried out in the framework of Project V2 - Precursori di Eruzioni, funded by the Italian Dipartimento per la Protezione Civile - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. The investigated rock samples are pumice fragments from which double-polished, 100 µm thick thin sections have been prepared for analytical purposes. Back-scattered electrons (BSE) images have been acquired at the scanning electron microscope (SEM), in order to identify the plagioclase phenocrysts suitable to be analyzed successively, selected among those that best display their zoning. After a careful observation of the BSE images, major-, minor- and selected trace element contents have been determined through combined energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive system electron microprobe analyses (EDS-WDS-EMPA) on transects crossing the growth zones of the selected phenocrysts. This methodology has allowed reconstructing the diffusion profile of some key-elements through the growth zones of the investigated phenocrysts. Successively, the diffusion profiles have been combined with textural features obtained through BSE images in order to obtain diffusion models aimed at estimating the timescales of crystals

  18. Time scales of magma recharge and crystal growth rate determined from Mg and Ti zoning in plagioclase phenocrysts from the Upper Toluca Pumice, Mexico (United States)

    Dohmen, Ralf; Smith, Victoria C.; Arce, Jose Luis; Blundy, Jonathan D.


    Major and trace element zoning in plagioclase phenocrysts has the potential to stores information on the temporal evolution of the chemical environment during crystal growth, i.e. the surrounding melt composition as well as the intensive parameters temperature (T) and pressure (P), provided that equilibrium partitioning accompanies growth. However, the problem is complicated by the fact that diffusion of mobile elements changes their initial concentrations due to re-equilibration with the surrounding melt at later stages, making estimation of the pre-diffusive element profiles fraught with uncertainty. Here we present a new approach that combines the information from immobile (e.g., Ca, Ti) and mobile (e.g., Mg) elements in plagioclase to unravel the growth history and time scales of magma recharge events from the 10.5 ka Upper Toluca plinian eruption of Nevado de Toluca volcano, Mexico. Since trace elements are less sensitive to intensive parameters their variations in plagioclase phenocrysts have been used to identify open-system processes in silicic systems [1]. These phenocrysts preserve complex element patterns, such as oscillatory zoning and overgrowths, indicating multiple magma recharging events. Based on available diffusion data major elements and, for example, the trace element Ba, are effectively unchanged since crystallization, but the mobility of Mg [2] is large enough to alter the initial concentration at later growth stages. We made attempts to model the Mg zoning using two endmember cases for the growth history of the plagioclase. In the model the growth rate can either be constant until the final crystal diameter is reached or involve various short growth stages with diffusion relaxation breaks in-between. The corresponding moving boundary problem of the diffusion equation was solved numerically using the method of finite differences and a front-tracking method [3]. A particular challenge of the modelling is to estimate the initial Mg concentration

  19. Micro-textures in plagioclase from 1994e1995 eruption, Barren Island Volcano:Evidence of dynamic magma plumbing system in the Andaman subduction zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.L. Renjith


    A systematic account of micro-textures and a few compositional profiles of plagioclase from high-alumina basaltic aa lava erupted during the year 1994e1995, from Barren Island Volcano, NE India ocean, are presented for the first time. The identified micro-textures can be grouped into two categories:(i) Growth related textures in the form of coarse/fine-sieve morphology, fine-scale oscillatory zoning and resorption surfaces resulted when the equilibrium at the crystal-melt interface was fluctuated due to change in temperature or H2O or pressure or composition of the crystallizing melt;and (ii) morphological texture, like glomerocryst, synneusis, swallow-tailed crystal, microlite and broken crystals, formed by the influence of dynamic behavior of the crystallizing magma (convection, turbulence, degassing, etc.). Each micro-texture has developed in a specific magmatic environment, accordingly, a first order magma plumbing model and crystallization dynamics are envisaged for the studied lava unit. Magma generated has undergone extensive fractional crystallization of An-rich plagioclase in stable magmatic environment at a deeper depth. Subsequently they ascend to a shallow chamber where the newly brought crystals and pre-existing crystals have undergone dynamic crystallization via dissolution-regrowth processes in a convective self-mixing environment. Such repeated recharge-recycling processes have produced various populations of plagioclase with different micro-textural stratigraphy in the studied lava unit. Intermittent degassing and eruption related decompression have also played a major role in the final stage of crystallization dynamics.

  20. Crustal Assimilation and Magma Recharge in the Recent Mt. Etna Magma Plumbing System: Evidence from In Situ Plagioclase Textural and Compositional Data (United States)

    Pitcher, B. W.; Bohrson, W. A.; Viccaro, M.


    Mt. Etna is Europe's largest and most active volcano, and as a result of its proximity to populated areas, understanding the structure of its magma plumbing system and the nature of its magmatic processes is essential for better predicting eruptive hazards. The aim of this study is to document core to rim textural, chemical, and isotopic variations in plagioclase, in order to investigate the physical characteristics of the subvolcanic magma system and processes by which magmas evolve. Nomarski Differential Interference Contrast (NDIC) imaging was used to characterize the complex textures of plagioclase crystals in six trachybasaltic samples from eruption years 1974, 1981, 2001, and 2004. Approximately 30 NDIC images per sample revealed 6 textural categories defined by combinations of monotonous, oscillatory, sieve, and patchy zoning. Core to rim electron microprobe analyses carried out at distinct textural boundaries revealed variable anorthite (An) (mol %) values ranging from 92 to 44. In most phenocrysts, An decreases non-monotonically from core to rim, and simple correlations among An, FeO (wt. %), textural type, and eruption year are lacking, indicating intricate crystallization histories that likely reflect changing magma chamber conditions. Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA-ICPMS) 87Sr/86Sr analyses were performed on cores and rims of selected crystals from each textural type within each sample. Phenocryst 87Sr/86Sr values ranged from ~0.70300 to 0.70370 (±.00002), and were significantly lower than preliminary groundmass 87Sr/86Sr values, which ranged from ~0.70466 to 0.70498. Whole-rock 87Sr/86Sr values are between groundmass and crystal values. The Δ87Sr/86Sr within each crystal, defined as rim minus core, varied from -0.00030 to +0.00011; while most crystals exhibit a core to rim increase, some showed a decrease and some had constant 87Sr/86Sr. The prevalence of core to rim increases, combined with whole rock and preliminary

  1. Experimental study on dehy- dration melting of natural biotite-plagioclase gneiss from High Himalayas and implica- tions for Himalayan crust anatexis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Here we present the results of dehydration melting, melt morphology and fluid migration based on the dehydration melting experiments on natural biotite- plagioclase gneiss performed at the pressure of 1.0-1.4 GPa, and at the temperature of 770-1028℃. Experimental results demonstrate that: (ⅰ) most of melt tends to be distributed along mineral boundaries forming "melt film" even the amount of melt is less than 5 vol%; melt connectivity is con-trolled not only by melt topology but also by melt fraction; (ⅱ) dehydration melting involves a series of subprocesses including subsolidus dehydration reaction, fluid migration, vapor-present melting and vapor-absent melting; (ⅲ) ex-periments produce peraluminous granitic melt whose com-position is similar to that of High Himalayan leucogranites (HHLG) and the residual phase assemblage is Pl+Qz+Gat+Bio+Opx±Cpx+Ilm/Rut±Kfs and can be compa-rable with granulites observed in Himalayas. The experi-ments provide the evidence that biotite-plagioclase gneiss is one of source rocks of HHLG and dehydration melting is an important way to form HHLG and the granulites. Addition-ally, experimental results provide constraints on determining the P-T conditions of Himalayan crustal anatexis.

  2. Light Elements in Plagioclase Phenocrysts of the Nea Kameni Dacites: What do they say about processes during and after crystallization, and just how fast crystallization can take place? (United States)

    Cabato, M. A.; Altherr, R.; Ludwig, T.


    Nea Kameni is the larger of two intra-caldera islands in Santorini Volcano, the most active volcanic center of the Hellenic Arc in Greece. Phenocrysts of samples collected from the 1939-1941 dacite lava flows were analyzed for major and trace element compositions using the EMP and SIMS, with particular focus on concentrations of Li, Be and B. Three types of plagioclase phenocrysts are highlighted in this study. Type N is normally-zoned in terms of An content, with values ranging from 62 in the core to 40 at the rim. A general increase in Li, Be, B from core to rim characterizes this plagioclase, with values of 6.6-7.6 μg/g for Li, 0.37-0.75 μg/g for Be, and 0.10-0.18 μg/g for B. Type O crystals exhibit only oscillatory variations in An content, which ranges from 40 to 57. In terms of Li, however, two subtypes have been identified for this population. Type O1 crystals show Li concentrations that markedly decrease from core to rim, with a maximum value of 23.4 μg/g in the core and a minimum of 6.5 μg/g at the rim. Type O2 crystals are more common, where Li patterns are rather flat and have values within 6.6-11.0 μg/g. Be and B in both subtypes do not vary systematically, except for the slight inverse correlation with An content, and have values of 0.54-0.96 μg/g and 0.10-0.24 μg/g, respectively. Type C phenocrysts have inherited cores with higher An content compared to the outer portions. Within the core, An is between 54 and 63 and Li, Be, B tend to increase from the central portion outwards, with values of 6.5-9.6 μg/g, 0.31-0.60 μg/g, and 0.10-0.16 μg/g, respectively. Towards the rim, the profiles are disrupted: An content drops to 40-54, whereas light elements, especially Be, are elevated at the boundary but decrease gradually toward the rim. Values lie within 6.8-13.9 μg/g for Li, 0.61-0.97 μg/g for Be, and 0.14-0.24 μg/g for B. The different plagioclase types exhibit the complexity of processes involved in the formation of these phenocrysts: from

  3. The role of very fine particle sizes in the reflectance spectroscopy of plagioclase-bearing mixtures: New understanding for the interpretation of the finest sizes of the lunar regolith (United States)

    Serventi, Giovanna; Carli, Cristian


    The lunar surface consists of a regolith layer that covers the underlying bedrocks, and is generally characterized by particulates minerals. Due to the more feldspathic nature of the very fine lunar soils, in this paper, we quantitatively investigate the influence of very fine (minerals using the Modified Gaussian Model. We considered two plagioclases with different iron content and two mafic end-members (1) 56% orthopyroxene and 44% clinopyroxene, and (2) 30% orthopyroxene and 70% olivine. We also compared our results with the deconvolution of the same mixtures at coarser sizes. Our results mainly show that: (1) fine sizes act principally on reflectance and on spectral contrast (with the former increasing and the latter decreasing); (2) very fine plagioclase has a blue slope in the Near Infrared and very shallow 1250 nm band depth, close to zero; (3) consequently, the plagioclase band is always shallower than mafic bands; (4) in mixtures with olivine, the composite band center always shows the typical olivine value, differently from coarser mixtures; and (5) mafic materials have a blue slope in the Short Wavelength Infrared Region, a more V-shaped 1 μm pyroxene absorption and the 1 μm mafic band centers are shifted by ca. 40 nm vs. coarse sizes, reflecting a different weight within the crystal field absorption of the mafic component in very fine size. We also evidenced that a coarse plagioclase could be overestimated, while a very fine one could be underestimated if compared with the 63-125 μm size.

  4. A coupled model between mechanical deformation and chemical diffusion: An explanation for the preservation of chemical zonation in plagioclase at high temperatures (United States)

    Zhong, Xin; Vrijmoed, Johannes; Moulas, Evangelos; Tajcmanová, Lucie


    Compositional zoning in metamorphic minerals have been generally recognized as an important geological feature to decipher the metamorphic history of rocks. The observed chemical zoning of, e.g. garnet, is commonly interpreted as disequilibrium between the fractionated inner core and the surrounding matrix. However, chemically zoned minerals were also observed in high grade rocks (T>800 degree C) where the duration of metamorphic processes was independently dated to take several Ma. This implies that temperature may not be the only factor that controls diffusion timescales, and grain scale pressure variation was proposed to be a complementary factor that may significantly contribute to the formation and preservation of chemical zoning in high temperature metamorphic minerals [Tajcmanová 2013, 2015]. Here, a coupled model is developed to simulate viscous deformation and chemical diffusion. The numerical approach considers the conservation of mass, momentum, and a constitutive relation developed from equilibrium thermodynamics. A compressible viscoelastic rheology is applied, which associates the volumetric change triggered by deformation and diffusion to a change of pressure. The numerical model is applied to the chemically zoned plagioclase rim described by [Tajcmanová 2014]. The diffusion process operating during the plagioclase rim formation can lead to a development of a pressure gradient. Such a pressure gradient, if maintained during ongoing viscous relaxation, can lead to the preservation of the observed chemical zonation in minerals. An important dimensionless number, the Deborah number, is defined as the ratio between the Maxwell viscoelastic relaxation time and the characteristic diffusion time. It characterizes the relative influence between the maintenance of grain scale pressure variation and chemical diffusion. Two extreme regimes are shown: the mechanically-controlled regime (high Deborah number) and diffusion-controlled regime (low Deborah number

  5. Alternating augite-plagioclase wedges in basement dolerites of Lockne impact structure, Sweden: A new shock wave-induced deformation feature (United States)

    Agarwal, A.; Reznik, B.; Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Srivastava, D. C.


    This paper reports peculiar alternating augite-plagioclase wedges in basement dolerites of Lockne impact structure, Sweden. The combined microscopic and spectroscopic studies of the micro/nanoscale wedges reveal that these are deformation-induced features. First, samples showing wedges, 12 out of 18 studied, are distributed in the impact structure within a radius of up to 10 km from the crater center. Second, the margins between the augite and labradorite wedges are sharp and the {110} prismatic cleavage of augite develops into fractures and thereafter into wedges. The fractures are filled with molten labradorite pushed from the neighboring bulk labradorite grain. Third, compared to the bulk labradorite, the dislocation density and the residual strain in the labradorite wedges are significantly higher. A possible mechanism of genesis of the wedges is proposed. The mechanism explains that passing of the shock waves in the basement dolerite induced (i) formation of microfractures in augite and labradorite; (ii) development of the augite prismatic cleavages into the wedges, which overprint the microfracture in the labradorite wedges; and (iii) thereafter, infilling of microfractures in the augite wedges by labradorite.

  6. K-feldspar-quartz and K-feldspar-plagioclase phase boundary interactions in garnet-orthopyroxene gneiss's from the Val Strona di Omegna, Ivrea-Verbano Zone, northern Italy (United States)

    Harlov, Daniel E.; Wirth, Richard

    A detailed study based on textural observations combined with microanalysis [back scattered electron imaging (BSE) and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA)] and microstructural data transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been made of K-feldspar micro-veins along quartz-plagioclase phase and plagioclase-plagioclase grain boundaries in granulite facies, orthopyroxene-garnet-bearing gneiss's (700-825°C, 6-8kbar) from the Val Strona di Omegna, Ivrea-Verbano Zone, northern Italy. The K-feldspar micro-veins are commonly associated with quartz and plagioclase and are not found in quartz absent regions of the thin section. This association appears to represent a localised reaction texture resulting from a common high grade dehydration reaction, namely: amphibole+quartz = orthopyroxene+clinopyroxene+plagioclase+K-feldspar+H2O, which occurred during the granulite facies metamorphism of these rocks. There are a number of lines of evidence for this. These include abundant Ti-rich biotite, which was apparently stable during granulite facies metamorphism, and total lack of amphibole, which apparently was not. Disorder between Al and Si in the K-feldspar indicates crystallisation at temperatures >500°C. Myrmekite and albitic rim intergrowths in the K-feldspar along the K-feldspar-plagioclase interface could only have formed at temperatures >500-600°C. Symplectic intergrowths of albite and Ca-rich plagioclase between these albitic rim intergrowths and plagioclase suggest a high temperature grain boundary reaction, which most likely occurred at the start of decompression in conjunction with a fluid phase. Relatively high dislocation densities (>2×109 to 3×109/cm2) in the K-feldspar suggest plastic deformation at temperatures >500°C. We propose that this plastic deformation is linked with the extensional tectonic environment present during the mafic underplating event responsible for the granulite facies metamorphism in these rocks. Lastly, apparently active garnet grain

  7. Plagioclase-mantled K-feldspar in the Carboniferous porphyritic microgranite of Altenberg-Frauenstein, Eastern Erzgebirge/Krusné Hory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Müller


    Full Text Available The Upper Carboniferous porphyritic microgranite of Altenberg-Frauenstein, formerly known as Granitporphyr (Dalmer 1896 and here abbreviated as GP, forms a 36 km long and up to 18 km wide complex of ring dykes related to the Teplice-Altenberg caldera in the German–Czech border region of the Eastern Erzgebirge/Krusné Hory. The microgranites are characterized by the occurrence of plagioclase-mantled K-feldspar phenocrysts. The microgranite varieties representtwo main stages of intrusion evolved from acid (GP I to intermediaterocks (GP II within the intrusion. The most acid rock (GP Icum occurs as enclaves in GP I and GP II and is interpreted as a cumulate of K-feldspar and quartz phenocrysts. The porphyritic microgranites show field, textural and geochemical evidence suggesting that some of them have formed as a result of interaction between felsic and mafic magmas. Mixing features are abundant in the porphyriticquartz-feldspar-hornblende microgranite (GP II interpreted as a hybrid rock. They are less discrete in the early phase (GP I and not obvious in the acid enclaves (GP Icum. This trend seems to reflect a continuous deflation of the magma chamber from the top to the bottom. According to the definition of rapakivi granites after Haapala and Rämö (1992, the porphyritic microgranite of Altenberg-Frauenstein may be considered as rapakivi granite although ovoid alkali feldspar megacrysts typical of classical rapakivi granites are not recorded.However, due to its Carboniferous age and being the only known granitewith rapakivi texture in the German–Czech part of the Variscan belt, the microgranite of Altenberg-Frauenstein is exceptional.

  8. The Late Cretaceous igneous rocks of Romania (Apuseni Mountains and Banat): the possible role of amphibole versus plagioclase deep fractionation in two different crustal terranes (United States)

    Vander Auwera, Jacqueline; Berza, Tudor; Gesels, Julie; Dupont, Alain


    We provide new whole-rock major and trace elements as well as 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic data of a suite of samples collected in the Late Cretaceous volcanic and plutonic bodies of the Apuseni Mts. (Romania) that belong to the Banatitic Magmatic and Metallogenic Belt, also called the Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie belt. The samples define a medium- to high-K calc-alkaline differentiation trend that can be predicted by a three-step fractional crystallization process which probably took place in upper crustal magma chambers. Published experimental data indicate that the parent magma (Mg# = 0.47) of the Apuseni Mts. trend could have been produced by the lower crustal differentiation of a primary (in equilibrium with a mantle source) magma. The Late Cretaceous magmatic rocks of the Apuseni Mts. and Banat display overlapping major and trace element trends except that Sr is slightly lower and Ga is higher in the Apuseni Mts. parent magma. This difference can be accounted for by fractionating plagioclase-bearing (Apuseni Mts.) or amphibole-bearing (Banat) cumulates during the lower crustal differentiation of the primary magma to the composition of the parent magma of both trends. This, together with results obtained on the Late Cretaceous igneous rocks from the Timok area in Eastern Serbia, further suggests variation of the water content of the primary magma along and across the belt. The Apuseni Mts. versus the Banat samples display different isotopic compositions that likely resulted from the assimilation of two distinct crustal contaminants, in agreement with their emplacement in two separate mega-units of Alpine Europe.

  9. Elastic anisotropy of layered rocks: Ultrasonic measurements of plagioclase-biotite-muscovite (sillimanite) gneiss versus texture-based theoretical predictions (effective media modeling) (United States)

    Ivankina, T. I.; Zel, I. Yu.; Lokajicek, T.; Kern, H.; Lobanov, K. V.; Zharikov, A. V.


    In this paper we present experimental and theoretical studies on a highly anisotropic layered rock sample characterized by alternating layers of biotite and muscovite (retrogressed from sillimanite) and plagioclase and quartz, respectively. We applied two different experimental methods to determine seismic anisotropy at pressures up to 400 MPa: (1) measurement of P- and S-wave phase velocities on a cube in three foliation-related orthogonal directions and (2) measurement of P-wave group velocities on a sphere in 132 directions The combination of the spatial distribution of P-wave velocities on the sphere (converted to phase velocities) with S-wave velocities of three orthogonal structural directions on the cube made it possible to calculate the bulk elastic moduli of the anisotropic rock sample. On the basis of the crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) of major minerals obtained by time-of-flight neutron diffraction, effective media modeling was performed using different inclusion methods and averaging procedures. The implementation of a nonlinear approximation of the P-wave velocity-pressure relation was applied to estimate the mineral matrix properties and the orientation distribution of microcracks. Comparison of theoretical calculations of elastic properties of the mineral matrix with those derived from the nonlinear approximation showed discrepancies in elastic moduli and P-wave velocities of about 10%. The observed discrepancies between the effective media modeling and ultrasonic velocity data are a consequence of the inhomogeneous structure of the sample and inability to perform long-wave approximation. Furthermore, small differences between elastic moduli predicted by the different theoretical models, including specific fabric characteristics such as crystallographic texture, grain shape and layering were observed. It is shown that the bulk elastic anisotropy of the sample is basically controlled by the CPO of biotite and muscovite and their volume

  10. Multiple plagioclase crystal populations identified by crystal size distribution and in situ chemical data: Implications for timescales of magma chamber processes associated with the 1915 eruption of Lassen Peak, CA (United States)

    Salisbury, M.J.; Bohrson, W.A.; Clynne, M.A.; Ramos, F.C.; Hoskin, P.


    Products of the 1915 Lassen Peak eruption reveal evidence for a magma recharge-magma mixing event that may have catalyzed the eruption and from which four compositional members were identified: light dacite, black dacite, andesitic inclusion, and dark andesite. Crystal size distribution, textural, and in situ chemical (major and trace element and Sr isotope) data for plagioclase from these compositional products define three crystal populations that have distinct origins: phenocrysts (long axis > 0??5 mm) that typically have core An contents between 34 and 36 mol %, microphenocrysts (long axis between 0??1 and 0??5 mm) that have core An contents of 66-69, and microlites (long axis crystal growth rates and acicular and swallowtail crystal habits. Some plagioclase phenocrysts from the dacitic chamber were incorporated into the hybrid layer and underwent dissolution-precipitation, seen in both crystal textures and rim compositions. Average microphenocryst residence times are of the order of months. Microlites may have formed in response to decompression and/ or syn-eruptive degassing as magma ascended from the chamber through the volcanic conduit. Chemical distinctions in plagioclase microlite An contents reveal that melt of the dark andesite was more mafic than the melt of the other three compositions. We suggest that mixing of an intruding basaltic andesite and reservoir dacite before magma began ascending in the conduit allowed formation of a compositionally distinct microlite population. Melt in the other three products was more evolved because it had undergone differentiation during the months following initial mixing; as a consequence, melt and microlites among these three products have similar compositions. The results of this study highlight the integrated use of crystal size distribution, textural, and in situ chemical data in identifying distinct crystal populations and linking these populations to the thermal and chemical characteristics of complex magma

  11. Ca/Al值对MORB斜长石熔体包裹体研究的指示意义——以南大西洋中脊19°S为例%The Indication of Ca/Al for Plagioclase-hosted Melt Inclusions from MORB:A Case Study in South Mid-Ocean Ridge 19°S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海桃; 杨耀民; 石学法; 鄢全树; 朱志伟


    Ca/Al ratio has direct indicating significance for the plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions research.Aim to further study the forming mechanism of plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions,this thesis has a research on plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions from South Mid-Atlantic ridge 19°MORB.Combining with the data of plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions in global petrological database(PetDB),we discuss the variation characteristic of Ca/Al during the formation and modifica-tion processesof plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions.The results indicate that:(1 )Ca/Al ratio has a direct potential to assess the chemical fractionation,post-entrapment crystallization and diffusion processes;(2)The melt inclusions with Ca/Al>0. 85(or 0. 80)could not represent the primary or evaluation anhydrous MORB magma;(3)The composition of plagio-clase-hosted melt inclusions in SMAR19°with Ca/Al>1 . 0 could not represent the composition of melt at the time of inclu-sion trapping.%为进一步研究MORB斜长石熔体包裹体的形成机制,结合南大西洋中脊19°区域附近与PetDB中MORB斜长石熔体包裹体数据,对Ca/Al值在斜长石熔体包裹体形成与改造过程中的变化规律进行讨论.结果显示,Ca/Al值可指示斜长石熔体包裹体形成过程中的化学分异作用、寄主结晶作用与扩散再平衡作用;当MORB斜长石熔体包裹体的Ca/Al>0.85(或0.80)时,熔体包裹体不能代表MORBs未分异的原始岩浆或结晶分异后的演化岩浆,SMAR19°研究区中MORB斜长石熔体包裹体的Ca/Al>1.0,其组分不能代表被捕获时的原始熔体.

  12. Creep characteristics of plagioclase hornblende rock under natural and water-saturated conditions in deep underground%自然与饱水状态下深部斜长角闪岩蠕变特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春阳; 曹平; 汪亦显; 宁果果


    通过金川深部斜长角闪岩单轴压缩蠕变实验,选取典型蠕变曲线,发现该岩石黏弹性、黏塑性变形较瞬时变形偏小,卸载后弹性后效不显著.在5.1 MPa轴向应力下,自然状态的岩样近似纯弹性特征.饱水状态下岩样瞬时强度σ’b和长期强度σ’∝总体低于自然状态,且σ’∝已接近深部高地应力,因此,对于深部节理、裂隙很发育的岩体,应特别注意巷道排水,防止围岩因长期强度降低而导致巷道变形和破坏.自然与饱水状态下岩样瞬时弹性应变εme、瞬时塑性应变εmp随应力增大而增加,但增速逐渐放缓,饱水状态下塑性变形更显著;相同应力下,饱水状态岩样蠕变量大于自然状态,应变速率也总体快于自然状态,2种状态的蠕变速率在20~30 h时都逐渐稳定,且速率曲线随应力增大,微裂隙压密,彼此逐渐靠近,岩样处于相对硬化阶段;当轴向应力达到66.3 MPa后,饱水状态蠕变速率有相对加速趋势,速率曲线随应力增大先往左下移动,再朝右上移动,而自然状态蠕变速率曲线总体向右上移动.最后,通过蠕变数据分析,推导γ=ασk型经验方程,对蠕变试验数据进行回归拟合,拟合结果证明该蠕变经验模型的正确性.金川矿区斜长角闪岩蠕变实验研究为分析深部巷道该类围岩流变稳定性及支护方案优化等提供有效帮助.%According to plagioclase-hornblende rock in Jinchuan deep underground mine uniaxial compression creep test results, after selection typical creep curves, it is found that viscoelastic and viscoplastic deformation are significantly less than instantaneous deformation, elastic after-effect is not obvious after unloading. Under 5.1 MPa of uniaxial stress, rock samples show pure elastic properties in natural condition. Under water condition, both instantaneous uniaxial compressive strength σ'b and long-term strength σξx are generally lower than nature condition,

  13. Alteração de plagioclásios dos riodacitos da formação serra geral (JKsg da região de Piraju - SP Alterations of plagioclases of the rhyodacites from the serra geral formation (JKsg of Piraju (SP Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Alessandra Truffi


    petrologic, mineralogical and micromorphological volcanic acid rocks (rhyodacites of the Serra Geral Formation, in the alterations developed above these rocks, making the mineralogical evolution of plagioclases clear. The rhyodacites of the Serra Geral Formation (JKsg possess in their mineralogical composition about 60-65% of plagioclases, (macro and fenocrystals configuring the most important part of their constitution. The study of the alteration of these plagioclases offers important information in relation to the alteration of the rock and related soils. Results obtained by optic microscopy, X-ray diffraction allied to chemical qualitative and semi-quantitative determinations by scanning eletronic microscopy (SEM analyses allowed important interpretations and conclusions on the evolution of the alteration of the plagioclases: a through not very intense weathering processes, that is, through a partial hydrolysis process (monossialitization the plagioclase crystals developed mostly to kaolinite and secondarily to mica and haloysite; b through, intense weathering processes, that is, through a total hydrolysis process (alitization the plagioclase crystals developed to gibbsite.

  14. Shocked plagioclase signatures in Thermal Emission Spectrometer data of Mars (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Staid, M.I.; Titus, T.N.; Becker, K.


    The extensive impact cratering record on Mars combined with evidence from SNC meteorites suggests that a significant fraction of the surface is composed of materials subjected to variable shock pressures. Pressure-induced structural changes in minerals during high-pressure shock events alter their thermal infrared spectral emission features, particularly for feldspars, in a predictable fashion. To understand the degree to which the distribution and magnitude of shock effects influence martian surface mineralogy, we used standard spectral mineral libraries supplemented by laboratory spectra of experimentally shocked bytownite feldspar [Johnson, J.R., Ho??rz, F., Christensen, P., Lucey, P.G., 2002b. J. Geophys. Res. 107 (E10), doi:10.1029/2001JE001517] to deconvolve Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data from six relatively large (>50 km) impact craters on Mars. We used both TES orbital data and TES mosaics (emission phase function sequences) to study local and regional areas near the craters, and compared the differences between models using single TES detector data and 3 ?? 2 detector-averaged data. Inclusion of shocked feldspar spectra in the deconvolution models consistently improved the rms errors compared to models in which the spectra were not used, and resulted in modeled shocked feldspar abundances of >15% in some regions. However, the magnitudes of model rms error improvements were within the noise equivalent rms errors for the TES instrument [Hamilton V., personal communication]. This suggests that while shocked feldspars may be a component of the regions studied, their presence cannot be conclusively demonstrated in the TES data analyzed here. If the distributions of shocked feldspars suggested by the models are real, the lack of spatial correlation to crater materials may reflect extensive aeolian mixing of martian regolith materials composed of variably shocked impact ejecta from both local and distant sources. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of olivine and plagioclase saturation surfaces for the petrogenetic modeling of recrystallized basic plutonic systems (United States)

    Hanson, G. N.


    During petrogenetic studies of basic plutonic rocks, there are at least three major questions to be considered: (1) what were the relative proportions of cumulate crystals and intercumulus melt in a given sample? (2) what is the composition and variation in composition of the melts within the pluton? and (3) what is the original composition of the liquids, their source and evolution prior to the time of emplacement? Use of both saturation surfaces can place strong limits on the compositions of potential cumulate phases and intercumulus melts. Consideration of appropriate trace elements can indicate whether a sample is an orthocumulate, adcumulate or mesocumulate. Thus, when trace element and petrographic data are considered together with the saturation surfaces, it should be possible to begin to answer the three major questions given above, even for strongly recrystallized basic plutons.

  16. Quantification et bilan de matiere de la reaction clinopyroxene-spinelle lors de la formation du plagioclase dans les lherzolites a spinelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández, J.


    Full Text Available Not available.La formación de plagioclasa sódica (Pl y de vidrio en las peridotitas de Saghro (Anti-Atlas marroquí y de La Palma (Islas Canarias se puede explicar como resultado de un proceso de metasomatismo y de fusión parcial de climpyroxeno (Cpx y espinela (Spl, según la reacción: Cpx + Spl + L1 ⇔ Pl + Spl(Cr + L2 Se han calculado las proporciones volumen de las diferentes fases implicadas en la reacción y se han realizado los balances de masa. Se demuestra que la reacción se produce a volumen constante y traduce los siguientes intercambios: - Aporte de Na, Ti, Fe2+ y Fe3+.- Pérdida de Si, Ca, Mg y 02

  17. Corona textures in Proterozoic olivine melanorites of the equeefa suite, Natal metamorphic province, South-Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grantham, GH


    Full Text Available Olivine-plagioclase and phlogopite-plagioclase coronas have been identified from olivine melanorites of the mid- to late Proterozoic Equeefa Suite in southern Natal, South Africa. Olivine, in contact with plagioclase, is mantled by a shell of clear...

  18. Formation of anorthosite on the Moon through magma ocean fractional crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuyuki Arai


    Full Text Available Lunar anorthosite is a major rock of the lunar highlands, which formed as a result of plagioclase-floatation in the lunar magma ocean (LMO. Constraints on the sufficient conditions that resulted in the formation of a thick pure anorthosite (mode of plagioclase >95 vol.% is a key to reveal the early magmatic evolution of the terrestrial planets. To form the pure lunar anorthosite, plagioclase should have separated from the magma ocean with low crystal fraction. Crystal networks of plagioclase and mafic minerals develop when the crystal fraction in the magma (φ is higher than ca. 40–60 vol.%, which inhibit the formation of pure anorthosite. In contrast, when φ is small, the magma ocean is highly turbulent, and plagioclase is likely to become entrained in the turbulent magma rather than separated from the melt. To determine the necessary conditions in which anorthosite forms from the LMO, this study adopted the energy criterion formulated by Solomatov. The composition of melt, temperature, and pressure when plagioclase crystallizes are constrained by using MELTS/pMELTS to calculate the density and viscosity of the melt. When plagioclase starts to crystallize, the Mg# of melt becomes 0.59 at 1291 °C. The density of the melt is smaller than that of plagioclase for P > 2.1 kbar (ca. 50 km deep, and the critical diameter of plagioclase to separate from the melt becomes larger than the typical crystal diameter of plagioclase (1.8–3 cm. This suggests that plagioclase is likely entrained in the LMO just after the plagioclase starts to crystallize. When the Mg# of melt becomes 0.54 at 1263 °C, the density of melt becomes larger than that of plagioclase even for 0 kbar. When the Mg# of melt decreases down to 0.46 at 1218 °C, the critical diameter of plagioclase to separate from the melt becomes 1.5–2.5 cm, which is nearly equal to the typical plagioclase of the lunar anorthosite. This suggests that plagioclase could separate from the

  19. The interplay and effects of deformation and crystallized melt on the rheology of the lower continental crust, Fiordland, New Zealand (United States)

    Miranda, Elena A.; Klepeis, Keith A.


    Microstructural, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and misorientation analyses of a migmatitic granulite-facies orthogneiss from the exhumed lower crust of a Cretaceous continental arc in Fiordland, New Zealand show how deformation was accommodated during and after episodes of melt infiltration and high-grade metamorphism. Microstructures in garnet, omphacite, plagioclase, and K-feldspar suggest that an early stage of deformation was achieved by dislocation creep of omphacite and plagioclase, with subsequent deformation becoming partitioned into plagioclase. Continued deformation after melt infiltration resulted in strain localization in the leucosome of the migmatite, where a change of plagioclase deformation mechanism promoted the onset of grain boundary sliding, most likely accommodated by diffusion creep, in fine recrystallized plagioclase grains. Our results suggest three distinctive transitions in the rheology of the lower crust of this continental arc, where initial weakening was primarily achieved by deformation of both omphacite and plagioclase. Subsequent strain localization in plagioclase of the leucosome indicates that the zones of former melt are weaker than the restite, and that changes in deformation mechanisms within plagioclase, and an evolution of its strength, primarily control the rheology of the lower crust during and after episodes of melting and magma addition.

  20. Glass and mineral chemistry of northern central Indian ridge basalts: Compositional diversity and petrogenetic significance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ray, Dwijesh; Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.; Basavalingu, B.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    (MORBs) from the outer ridge flank (VT area) and a near-ridge seamount (VM area) reveal that they are moderately phyric plagioclase basalts composed of plagioclase (phenocryst [An sub(60-90)] and groundmass [An sub(35-79)]), olivine (Fo sub(81...

  1. Grain size reduction due to fracturing and subsequent grain-size-sensitive creep in a lower crustal shear zone in the presence of a CO2-bearing fluid (United States)

    Okudaira, Takamoto; Shigematsu, Norio; Harigane, Yumiko; Yoshida, Kenta


    To understand rheological weakening in the lower continental crust, we studied mylonites in the Paleoproterozoic Eidsfjord anorthosite, northern Norway. The zones of anorthositic mylonites range from a few millimeters to several meters thick, and include ultramylonites and protomylonites. They contain syn-kinematic metamorphic minerals, including Cl-bearing amphibole and scapolite. Thermodynamic analysis reveals that syn-deformational hydration reactions occurred at ∼600 °C and ∼700 MPa under CO2-bearing conditions. The protomylonites contain many fragmented plagioclase porphyroclasts. The fractures in porphyroclasts are filled with fine-grained plagioclase, suggesting that fracturing is a common mechanism of grain size reduction. The anorthite contents of fine-grained polygonal matrix plagioclase are different from those of porphyroclastic plagioclase, suggesting that the matrix grains nucleated and grew during syn-kinematic metamorphism. Plagioclase aggregates in the matrices of mylonites do not exhibit a distinct crystallographic preferred orientation, which implies that the dominant deformation mechanism was grain-size-sensitive creep. Consequently, in the lower crustal anorthositic mylonites, grain size reduction occurred via fracturing, rather than through dynamic recrystallization, leading to grain-size-sensitive creep. The syn-kinematic recrystallization of minor phases at plagioclase grain boundaries may suppress the growth of plagioclase and contribute to the development of grain-size-sensitive creep.

  2. Thermo-optical properties of optically stimulated luminescence in feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poolton, N.R.J.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Johnsen, O.


    Optically stimulated luminescence processes in feldspars are subject to competing thermal enhancement and quenching processes: this article describes the thermal enhancement effects for orthoclase, albite and plagioclase feldspars. It is demonstrated that certain lattice vibrational modes can...

  3. Mineral chemistry of Carlsberg Ridge basalts at 3 degrees 35'- 3 degrees 41' N

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Banerjee, R.

    (approximately 91 mole %) are few and rarely zoned. The composition of plagioclase and olivine indicate low pressure equilibrium crystallization. The basalts were probably derived through fractional crystallization at shallow depths under low partial melting...

  4. Shocked Feldspar in L Chondrites: Deformation, Transformation and Local Melting (United States)

    Fudge, C.; Sharp, T. G.


    We present textures and compositional profiles of partially to completely transformed plagioclase to maskelynite. Evidence for transformation mechanisms, including solid state transformation and crystallization from melt will be discussed.

  5. A note on incipient spilitisation of central Indian basin basalts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Iyer, S.D.

    Rocks dredged in the vicinity of the 79 degrees E fracture zone, in the Central Indian Basin, are sub-alkaline basalts, which are regarded as precursors to spilites. The minerals identified are mainly albitic plagioclase, augite, olivine, and less...



    KURT, Hüseyin; Kerim KOÇAK; ASAN, Kürşad; KARAKAŞ, Mustafa


    Biotite granitoid contain mainly quartz, biotite, plagioclase, K-feldspar, muscovite as main phases with minor amphiboles, and apatite, zircon, allanite and chlorite and serisite as accessory components. In contrast, enclaves are composed mainly of plagioclase, amphibole, augite, biotite, with accessory sphene, zircon and calcite and epidote. The granitoids including enclaves with metaluminous composition, display chemical and mineralogical characteristics of S-type granitoids, such as peralu...

  7. The Case for a Heat-Pipe Phase of Planet Evolution on the Moon (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Moore, W. B.; Webb, A. A. G.


    The prevalence of anorthosite in the lunar highlands is generally attributed to the flotation of less dense plagioclase in the late stages of the solidification of the lunar magma ocean. It is not clear, however, that these models are capable of producing the extremely high plagioclase contents (near 100%) observed in both Apollo samples and remote sensing data, since a mostly solid lithosphere forms (at 60-70% solidification) before plagioclase feldspar reaches saturation (at approximately 80% solidification). Formation as a floating cumulate is made even more problematic by the near uniformity of the alkali composition of the plagioclase, even as the mafic phases record significant variations in Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratios. These problems can be resolved for the Moon if the plagioclase-rich crust is produced and refined through a widespread episode of heat-pipe magmatism rather than a process dominated by density-driven plagioclase flotation. Heat-pipes are an important feature of terrestrial planets at high heat flow, as illustrated by Io's present activity. Evidence for their operation early in Earth's history suggests that all terrestrial bodies should experience an early episode of heat-pipe cooling. As the Moon likely represents the most wellpreserved example of early planetary thermal evolution in our solar system, studies of the lunar surface and of lunar materials provide useful data to test the idea of a universal model of the way terrestrial bodies transition from a magma ocean state into subsequent single-plate, rigid-lid convection or plate tectonic phases.

  8. Thermodynamic conditions of framework grain dissolution of clastic rocks and its application in Kela 2 gas field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI; Xingyun; YU; Bingsong; CHEN; Junyuan; CHEN; Xiaolin


    Feldspar and clastic debris are the most important constituent framework grains of sedimentary clastic rocks and their chemical dissolution plays an essential role in the formation and evolution of the secondary pore in the reservoir rocks. On the basis of thermodynamic phase equilibrium, this study investigates the chemical equilibrium relationships between fluid and various plagioclase and K-feldspar in diagenesis of the sediments, particularly, the impact of temperature and fluid compositions (pH, activity of K+, Na+, Ca2+ and so on) on precipitation and dissolution equilibria of feldspars. Feldspar is extremely easily dissolved in the acid pore water with a low salinity when temperature decreases. The dissolution of anorthite end-member of plagioclase is related to the Ca content of the mineral and the fluid, higher Ca either in the mineral or in the fluid, easier dissolution of the feldspar. Moreover, the dissolution of albite end-member of plagioclase is related to Na of both the mineral and fluid, lower Na out of both the mineral and fluid, easier dissolution of the mineral. Similarly, lower-K fluid is more powerful to dissolve K-feldspar than the higher. The anorthite component of plagioclase is most easily dissolved in ground water-rock system, the albite is the secondary, and K-feldspar is the most stable. Selective dissolution of plagioclase occurs in diagenesis because of the plagioclase solid solution that is mainly composed of albite and anorthite end-members, Ca-rich part of which is preferentially dissolved by the pore water, in contrast to the Na-rich parts. Based on investigation of reservoir quality, secondary pore, dissolution structures of feldspar, clay minerals and ground water chemistry of the Kela 2 gas field of Kuqa Depression in the Tarim basin of Western China, we discovered that the secondary pore is very well developed in the highest quality section of the reservoir, and the plagioclase of which was obviously selectively dissolved, in

  9. P-T-t Path of Mafic Granulite Metamorphism in Northern Tibet and Its Geodynamical Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Daogong; WU Zhenhan; JIANG Wan; YE Peisheng


    Mafic granulites have been found as structural lenses within the huge thrust system outcropping about 10 km west of Nam Co of the northern Lhasa Terrane, Tibetan Plateau. Petrological evidence from these rocks indicates four distinct metamorphic assemblages. The early metamorphic assemblage (Mi) is preserved only in the granulites and represented by plagioclase+homblende inclusions within the cores of garnet porphyroblasts. The peak assemblage (M2) consists of gamet+clinopyroxene+hornblende+plagioclase in the mafic granulites. The peak metamorphism was followed by near-isothermal decompression (M3), which resulted in the development of horublende+plagioclase symplectites surrounding embayed garnet porphyroblasts, and decompression-cooling (M4) is represented by minerals of homblende+plagioclase recrystallized during mylonization. The peak (M2) P-T conditions of gamet+clinopyroxene+plagioclase+homblende were estimated at 769-905°C and 0.86-1.02 GPa based on the geothermometers and geobarometers. The P-T conditions of plagioclase+hornblende symplectites (M3) were estimated at 720-800°C and 0.55-0.68 GPa, and recrystallized hornblende+plagioclase (M4) at 594-708°C and 0.26-0.47 GPa. It is impossible to estimate the P-T conditions of the early metamorphic assemblage (M1) because of the absence of modal minerals. The combination of petrographic textures, metamorphic reaction history, thermobarometric data and corresponding isotopic ages defines a clockwise near-isothermal decompression metamorphic path, suggesting that the mafic granulites had undergone initial crustal thickening, subsequent exhumation, and cooling and retrogression. This tectonothermal path is considered to record two major phases of collision which resulted in both the assemblage of Gondwanaland during the Pan-African orogeny at 531 Ma and the collision of the Qiangtang and Lhasa Terranes at 174 Ma, respectively.

  10. Cogenetic Rock Fragments from a Lunar Soil: Evidence of a Ferroan Noritic-Anorthosite Pluton on the Moon (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Haskin, L. A.


    The impact that produced North Ray Crater, Apollo 16 landing site, exhumed rocks that include relatively mafic members of the lunar ferroan anorthositic suite. Bulk and mineral compositions indicate that a majority of 2-4 mm lithic fragments from sample 67513, including impact breccias and monomict igneous rocks, are related to a common noritic-anorthosite precursor. Compositions and geochemical trends of these lithic fragments and of related samples collected along the rim of North Ray Crater suggest that these rocks derived from a single igneous body. This body developed as an orthocumulate from a mixture of cumulus plagioclase and mafic intercumulus melt, after the plagioclase had separated from any cogenetic mafic minerals and had become concentrated into a crystal mush (approximately 70 wt% plagioclase, 30 wt% intercumulus melt). We present a model for the crystallization of the igneous system wherein "system" is defined as cumulus plagioclase and intercumulus melt. The initial accumulation of plagioclase is analogous to the formation of thick anorthosites of the terrestrial Stillwater Complex; however, a second stage of formation is indicated, involving migration of the cumulus-plagioclase-intercumulus-melt system to a higher crustal level, analogous to the emplacement of terrestrial massif anorthosites. Compositional variations of the lithic fragments from sample 67513 are consistent with dominantly equilibrium crystallization of intercumulus melt. The highly calcic nature of orthocumulus pyroxene and plagioclase suggests some reaction between the intercumulus melt and cumulus plagioclase, perhaps facilitated by some recrystallization of cumulus plagioclase. Bulk compositions and mineral assemblages of individual rock fragments also require that most of the mafic minerals fortned in close contact with cumulus plagioclase, not as separate layers. The distribution of compositions (and by inference, modes) has a narrow peak at anorthosite and a broader, larger

  11. Geochemistry of apollo 15 basalt 15555 and soil 15531. (United States)

    Schnetzler, C C; Philpotts, J A; Nava, D F; Schuhmann, S; Thomas, H H


    Major and trace element concentrations have been determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, colorimetry, and isotope dilution in Apollo 15 mare basalt 15555 from the Hadley Rille area; trace element concentrations have also been determined in plagioclase and pyroxene separates from basalt 15555 and in soil 15531 from the same area. Basalt 15555 most closely resembles in composition the Apollo 12 olivine-rich basalts. The concentrations of lithium, potassium, rubidium, barium, rare-earth elements, and zirconium in basalt 15555 are the lowest, and the negative europium anomaly is the smallest, reported for lunar basalts; this basalt might be the least differentiated material yet returned from the moon. Crystallization and removal of about 6 percent of plagioclase similar to that contained in the basalt would account for the observed europium anomaly; if plagioclase is not on the liquidus of this basalt, a multistage origin is indicated. Mineral data indicate that plagioclase and pyroxene approached quasi-equilibrium. Most of the chemical differences between basalt 15555 and soil 15531 would be accounted for if the soil were a mixture of 88 percent basalt, 6 percent KREEP (a component, identified in other Apollo soils, rich in potassium, rare-earth elements, and phosphorus) and 6 percent plagioclase (anorthosite?).

  12. Interaction between two contrasting magmas in the Albtal pluton (Schwarzwald, SW Germany): textural and mineral-chemical evidence (United States)

    Michel, Lorenz; Wenzel, Thomas; Markl, Gregor


    The magmatic evolution of the Variscan Albtal pluton, Schwarzwald, SW Germany, is explored using detailed textural observations and the chemical composition of plagioclase and biotite in both granite and its mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs). MMEs probably formed in a two-step process. First, mafic magma intruded a granitic magma chamber and created a boundary layer, which received thermal and compositional input from the mafic magma. This is indicated by corroded "granitic" quartz crystals and by large "granitic" plagioclase xenocrysts, which contain zones of higher anorthite and partly crystallized from a melt of higher Sr content. Texturally, different plagioclase types (e.g. zoned and inclusion-rich types) correspond to different degrees of overprint most likely caused by a thermal and compositional gradient in the boundary layer. The intrusion of a second mafic magma batch into the boundary layer is recorded by a thin An50 zone along plagioclase rims that crystallized from a melt enriched in Sr. Most probably, the second mafic intrusion caused disruption of the boundary layer, dispersal of the hybrid magma in the granite magma and formation of the enclaves. Rapid thermal quenching of the MMEs in the granite magma is manifested by An30 overgrowths on large plagioclase grains that contain needle apatites. Our results demonstrate the importance of microtextural investigations for the reconstruction of possible mixing end members in the formation of granites.

  13. Precambrian tholeiitic-dacitic rock-suites and Cambrian ultramafic rocks in the Pennine nappe system of the Alps: Evidence from Sm-Nd isotopes and rare earth elements (United States)

    Stille, P.; Tatsumoto, M.


    Major element, trace element and Sm-Nd isotope analyses were made of polymetamorphic hornblendefelses, plagioclase amphibolites and banded amphibolites from the Berisal complex in the Simplon area (Italy, Switzerland) to determine their age, origin and genetic relationships. In light of major and rare earth element data, the hornblendefelses are inferred to have originally been pyroxene-rich cumulates, the plagioclase amphibolites and the dark layers of the banded amphibolites to have been tholeiitic basalts and the light layers dacites. The Sm-Nd isotope data yield isochron ages of 475??81 Ma for the hornblendefelses, 1,018??59 Ma for the plagioclase amphibolites and 1,071??43 Ma for the banded amphibolites. The 1 Ga magmatic event is the oldest one ever found in the crystalline basement of the Pennine nappes. The Sm -Nd isotope data support the consanguinity of the tholeiitic dark layers and the dacitic light layers of the banded amphibolites with the tholeiitic plagioclase amphibolites and the ultramafic hornblendefelses. The initial e{open}Nd values indicate that all three rock types originated from sources depleted in light rare earth elements. We suggest that plagioclase and banded amphibolites were a Proterozoic tholeiite-dacite sequence that was strongly deformed and flattened during subsequent folding. The hornblendefelses are thought to be Cambrian intrusions of pyroxene-rich material. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Martian soil component in impact glasses in a Martian meteorite. (United States)

    Rao, M N; Borg, L E; McKay, D S; Wentworth, S J


    Chemical compositions of impact melt glass veins, called Lithology C (Lith C) in Martian meteorite EET79001 were determined by electron microprobe analysis. A large enrichment of S, and significant enrichments of Al, Ca, and Na were observed in Lith C glass compared to Lithology A (Lith A). The S enrichment is due to mixing of plagioclase- enriched Lith A material with Martian soil, either prior to or during impact on Mars. A mixture of 87% Lith A, 7% plagioclase, and 6% Martian soil reproduces the average elemental abundances observed in Lith C. Shock melting of such a mixture of plagioclase-enriched, fine-grained Lith A host rock and Martian soil could yield large excesses of S (observed in this study) and Martian atmospheric noble gases (found by Bogard et al., 1983) in Lith C. These mixing proportions can be used to constrain the elemental abundance of phosphorus in Martian soil.

  15. Phenocryst compositional diversity as a consequence of degassing induced crystallization (United States)

    Frey, H. M.; Lange, R. A.


    In volcanic arc lavas, compositional diversity in phenocryst populations has commonly been attributed to magma mingling or mixing. However, the amount of dissolved water in the magma appears to have a significant effect on composition of the phenocrysts that crystallize from the melt. Tens of plagioclase and pyroxene phenocrysts were analyzed from six crystal-poor (Tequila in western Mexico. The compositions and phase assemblages in the crystal-poor lavas are remarkably similar to that of the crystal-rich lavas (15-30 vol%) from the main edifice and flank flows of Volcán Tequila. Both lava types have plagioclase phenocrysts that span a wide compositional range, up to 45 mol% anorthite. In the crystal-rich lavas, individual phenocrysts have significant compositional variation, from oscillatory zoning of tens of mol% to relatively homogenous composition cores with a 5-10 um rim of significantly different composition. In contrast, plagioclase in the crystal-poor lavas has compositional variation within the population, but not individual phenocrysts. The plagioclase have little core to rim zoning and remarkable euhedral shapes, irrespective of composition. They are often riddled with melt inclusion channels, which broadly parallel the long axis of the crystal. These textures have been recognized in plagioclase crystallization experiments to be the result of rapid and large degrees of undercooling during crystallization. In the crystal-poor lavas, there is no textural evidence to suggest the phenocrysts were ever out of equilibrium with the host magma, so an alternative to magma mingling/mixing must be considered. The composition of plagioclase is dependent on several parameters, but varies most strongly with H2O content. Because of this relationship, a new plagioclase hygrometer (Lange and Frey, 2006) calibrated on plagioclase compositions from water-saturated experiments in the literature, can be used to determine the dissolved water content in the magma from which

  16. Kosmin granodiorite and its variable enclaves (United States)

    Gruszczyńska, Joanna; Pietranik, Anna


    Kośmin granodiorite represents Variscan magmatic activity in Poland, Sudetes. It is ca. 335 Ma and can be correlated with a similar magmatic episode in Czech Republic, Germany and Austria [1]. The geochemical data such as high contents of MgO and K2O, enrichment in LILE, high ratios of LREE/HREE, enrichment in Cr and Ni and low Na2O contents are similar to other K-rich intrusions in the Bohemian Massif [1]. Kośmin granodiorite contains variable dioritic, sjenitic and monzodioritic enclaves which potentially record processes of magma generation and differentiation typical for potassic magmatism. Three analyzed samples of the host granodiorite have similar composition (58 wt. % SiO2, 5 wt. % MgO, 4 wt. % K2O, 43 ppm Ni, 470 ppm Sr, 9 La/LuN). The mineral composition is dominated by K-feldspar and plagioclase, with subordinate hornblende, biotite, quartz and zircon and apatite as accessory minerals. An in plagioclase varies from 33 to 42% and average SrO content in plagioclase is ca. 650-850 ppm. The enclaves in the granodiorite can be divided into 3 groups according to their mineralogy and chemical composition: (1) Monzodiorites are the dominating type and are characterized by a range of chemical compositions (50-55 wt. % SiO2, 6-10 wt. % MgO, 4-5 wt. % K2O, 30-200 ppm Ni, 300-450 ppm Sr, 5-11 La/LuN). They consist of plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole, biotite, K-feldspar, quartz and often contain variable amounts of plagioclase phenocrysts. The phenocrysts have variable An contents from 32 to 70%, but the highest An is observed in thin (ca. 100 μm) patchy zones close to the plagioclase rims. The SrO contents in plagioclase are ca. 900 ppm and are sometimes higher in the patchy zones up to 1100 ppm. The structure and chemical composition of phenocrysts is consistent with their crystallization in the host granodioritic magma and later transport and resorption in the monzodioritic magma. (2) Syenites comprise ca. 10% of enclaves and are characterized by very high K2O

  17. Shooting stars: Our guide to the early solar system`s formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Reilly, J.


    Plagioclase grains were studied from the Allende meteorite, sample 916, to determine a chronology of events that occurred within the first ten million years of the solar system`s formation. Radiometric dating of the {sup 26}-Al-{sup 26}Mg system was accomplished on the ion microprobe mass spectromer. The excess {sup 26}-Mg in core plagioclase grains of calcium-aluminum rich inclusions (CAIs) provided a time of original condensation for {sup 26}-Al of {approximately}4.55 million years ago, a hundred million years prior to the formation of the planets. This data has been found to correlate with other excess {sup 26}-Mg samples. Measurements of plagioclase in the CAI`s periphery dated 1.52 million years later, suggesting an interesting history of collision and melting.

  18. Experimental study of gold activation-transportation in the process of potash metasomatism-alteration——North China platform gold deposit taken as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Chemical reactions of plagioclase, biotite and their singleminerals, as well as a mineral mixture of (plagioclase +biotite+quartz), with KCl and (KCl+KHCO3) solutions were carried out at 150400℃ and 5080 MPa. Experiments show that alkaline fluid promotes plagioclase’s changing into potash feldspar, while acid fluid helps plagioclase, potash feldspar and biotite alteration form chlorite and sericite. After chemical reaction the acidity-alkalinity of solutions often changes reversely. It was observed that gold dissolved from the tube wall and recrystallized on the surfaces of biotite and pyrite. Therefore the transportation and enrichment of gold are related to the elementary effect of the fluid-mineral interfaces. Fe3+-Fe2+, as an oxidition-reduction agent, and volatile components Cl? and CO2 play important roles in the reaction process.

  19. Mineral Chemistry and Pressure and Temperature Estimates of Metasedimentary Rocks of the Araxá Group in the Region of Morrinhos, South of Goiás State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Rafael Beltran Navarro


    Full Text Available In the Morrinhos region, Goiás state, Brazil, the rocks of the Araxá Group have mineral assemblages related to themetamorphic peak which occurred in this region and is typical of the amphibolite facies (kyanite zone. These rocks areassociated with the initial stage of the main ductile deformation that occurred in this area. Thermobarometric calculations,including the associations, garnet + plagioclase + biotite + muscovite; garnet + plagioclase +biotite + muscovite + kyanite;garnet + plagioclase + biotite + muscovite + amphibole, with quartz in excess, indicate that the metamorphic peak occurredat temperatures of approximately 610ºC and pressures in the order of 10 kbar. The P-T path is probably clockwise and is inagreement with the tectonic conditions observed in collisional settings.

  20. Experiments and Spectral Studies of Martian Volcanic Rocks: Implications for the Origin of Pathfinder Rocks and Soils (United States)

    Rutherford, Malcolm J.; Mustard, Jack; Weitz, Catherine


    The composition and spectral properties of the Mars Pathfinder rocks and soils together with the identification of basaltic and andesitic Mars terrains based on Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data raised interesting questions regarding the nature and origin of Mars surface rocks. We have investigated the following questions: (1) are the Pathfinder rocks igneous and is it possible these rocks could have formed by known igneous processes, such as equilibrium or fractional crystallization, operating within SNC magmas known to exist on Mars? If it is possible, what P (depth) and PH2O conditions are required? (2) whether TES-based interpretations of plagioclase-rich basalt and andesitic terrains in the south and north regions of Mars respectively are unique. Are the surface compositions of these regions plagioclase-rich, possibly indicating the presence of old AI-rich crust of Mars, or are the spectra being affected by something like surface weathering processes that might determine the spectral pyroxene to plagioclase ratio?

  1. Experimental study of gold activation-transportation in the process of potash metasomatism-alteration ——North China platform gold deposit taken as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yurong; HU; Shouxi


    Chemical reactions of plagioclase, biotite and their single minerals, as well as a mineral mixture of (plagioclase +biotite+quartz), with KCl and (KCl+KHCO3) solutions were carried out at 150400℃ and 5080 MPa. Experiments show that alkaline fluid promotes plagioclase’s changing into potash feldspar, while acid fluid helps plagioclase, potash feldspar and biotite alteration form chlorite and sericite. After chemical reaction the acidity-alkalinity of solutions often changes reversely. It was observed that gold dissolved from the tube wall and recrystallized on the surfaces of biotite and pyrite. Therefore the transportation and enrichment of gold are related to the elementary effect of the fluid-mineral interfaces. Fe3+-Fe2+, as an oxidition-reduction agent, and volatile components Cl? and CO2 play important roles in the reaction process.

  2. Groundmass crystallisation and cooling rates of lava-like ignimbrites: the Grey's Landing ignimbrite, southern Idaho, USA (United States)

    Ellis, B. S.; Cordonnier, B.; Rowe, M. C.; Szymanowski, D.; Bachmann, O.; Andrews, G. D. M.


    Constraining magmatic and eruptive processes is key to understanding how volcanoes operate. However, reconstructing eruptive and pre-eruptive processes requires the ability to see through any post-eruptive modification of the deposit. The well-preserved Grey's Landing ignimbrite from the central Snake River Plain provides an opportunity to systematically investigate the post-eruptive processes occurring through a single deposit sheet. Despite overall compositional homogeneity in both bulk and glass compositions, the Grey's Landing ignimbrite does preserve differences in the abundance of Li in plagioclase crystals which are strongly associated with the host lithology. Li abundances in plagioclase from the quickly cooled upper and basal vitrophyres are typically low (average 5 ppm, n = 262) while plagioclase from the microcrystalline interior of the deposit has higher Li contents (average 33 ppm, n = 773). Given that no other trace elemental parameter in plagioclase varies, we interpret the variability in Li to reflect a post-depositional process. Groundmass crystallisation of a rhyolite like Grey's Landing requires ˜50 % crystallisation of sanidine and variable amounts of a silica-rich phase (quartz, tridymite, cristobalite) and plagioclase to satisfy mass balance. We suggest the low affinity of Li for sanidine causes migration of groundmass Li into plagioclase during crystallisation. Even within the microcrystalline interior of the deposit, the morphology of the groundmass varies. The more marginal, finer-grained regions are dominated by cristobalite as the SiO2-rich phase while tridymite and quartz are additionally found in the more slowly cooled, coarser-grained portions of thick sections of the ignimbrite. Numerical models of cooling and crystallisation tested against field observations indicate that the groundmass crystallisation occurred relatively rapidly following emplacement (a maximum of a few years where the ignimbrite is thickest). These numerical

  3. Petrographic and geochemical comparisons between the lower crystalline basement-derived section and the granite megablock and amphibolite megablock of the Eyreville-B core, Chesapeake Bay impact structure (United States)

    Townsend, Gabrielle N.; Gibson, Roger L.; Horton, J. Wright; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Schmitt, Ralf T.; Bartosova, Katerina


    The Eyreville B core from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Virginia, USA, contains a lower basement-derived section (1551.19 m to 1766.32 m deep) and two megablocks of dominantly (1) amphibolite (1376.38 m to 1389.35 m deep) and (2) granite (1095.74 m to 1371.11 m deep), which are separated by an impactite succession. Metasedimentary rocks (muscovite-quartz-plagioclase-biotite-graphite ± fibrolite ± garnet ± tourmaline ± pyrite ± rutile ± pyrrhotite mica schist, hornblende-plagioclase-epidote-biotite-K-feldspar-quartz-titanite-calcite amphibolite, and vesuvianite-plagioclase-quartz-epidote calc-silicate rock) are dominant in the upper part of the lower basement-derived section, and they are intruded by pegmatitic to coarse-grained granite (K-feldspar-plagioclase-quartz-muscovite ± biotite ± garnet) that increases in volume proportion downward. The granite megablock contains both gneissic and weakly or nonfoliated biotite granite varieties (K-feldspar-quartz-plagioclase-biotite ± muscovite ± pyrite), with small schist xenoliths consisting of biotite-plagioclase-quartz ± epidote ± amphibole. The lower basement-derived section and both megablocks exhibit similar middle- to upper-amphibolite-facies metamorphic grades that suggest they might represent parts of a single terrane. However, the mica schists in the lower basement-derived sequence and in the megablock xenoliths show differences in both mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry that suggest a more mafic source for the xenoliths. Similarly, the mineralogy of the amphibolite in the lower basement-derived section and its association with calc-silicate rock suggest a sedimentary protolith, whereas the bulk-rock and mineral chemistry of the megablock amphibolite indicate an igneous protolith. The lower basement-derived granite also shows bulk chemical and mineralogical differences from the megablock gneissic and biotite granites.

  4. Disequilibrium dihedral angles in dolerite sills (United States)

    Holness, Marian B.; Richardson, Chris; Helz, Rosalind T.


    The geometry of clinopyroxene-plagioclase-plagioclase junctions in mafic rocks, measured by the median dihedral angle Θcpp, is created during solidification. In the solidifying Kilauea Iki (Hawaii) lava lake, the wider junctions between plagioclase grains are the first to be filled by pyroxene, followed by the narrower junctions. The final Θcpp, attained when all clinopyroxene-plagioclase-plagioclase junctions are formed, is 78° in the upper crust of the lake, and 85° in the lower solidification front. Θcpp in the 3.5-m-thick Traigh Bhàn na Sgùrra sill (Inner Hebrides) is everywhere 78°. In the Whin Sill (northern England, 38 m thick) and the Portal Peak sill (Antarctica, 129 m thick), Θcpp varies symmetrically, with the lowest values at the margins. The 266-m-thick Basement Sill (Antarctica) has asymmetric variation of Θcpp, attributed to a complex filling history. The chilled margins of the Basement Sill are partially texturally equilibrated, with high Θcpp. The plagioclase grain size in the two widest sills varies asymmetrically, with the coarsest rocks found in the upper third. Both Θcpp and average grain size are functions of model crystallization times. Θcpp increases from 78° to a maximum of ∼100° as the crystallization time increases from 1 to 500 yr. Because the use of grain size as a measure of crystallization time is dependent on an estimate of crystal growth rates, dihedral angles provide a more direct proxy for cooling rates in dolerites.

  5. Experimental calibration of Forsterite-Anorthite-Ca-Tschermak-Enstatite (FACE) geobarometer for mantle peridotites (United States)

    Fumagalli, P.; Borghini, G.; Rampone, E.; Poli, S.


    The crystallization of plagioclase-bearing assemblages in mantle rocks is witness of mantle exhumation at shallow depth. Previous experimental works on peridotites have found systematic compositional variations in coexisting minerals at decreasing pressure within the plagioclase stability field. In this experimental study we present new constraints on the stability of plagioclase as a function of different Na2O/CaO bulk ratios, and we present a new geobarometer for mantle rocks. Experiments have been performed in a single-stage piston cylinder at 5-10 kbar, 1050-1150 °C at nominally anhydrous conditions using seeded gels of peridotite compositions (Na2O/CaO = 0.08-0.13; X Cr = Cr/(Cr + Al) = 0.07-0.10) as starting materials. As expected, the increase of the bulk Na2O/CaO ratio extends the plagioclase stability to higher pressure; in the studied high-Na fertile lherzolite (HNa-FLZ), the plagioclase-spinel transition occurs at 1100 °C between 9 and 10 kbar; in a fertile lherzolite (FLZ) with Na2O/CaO = 0.08, it occurs between 8 and 9 kbar at 1100 °C. This study provides, together with previous experimental results, a consistent database, covering a wide range of P- T conditions (3-9 kbar, 1000-1150 °C) and variable bulk compositions to be used to define and calibrate a geobarometer for plagioclase-bearing mantle rocks. The pressure sensitive equilibrium: Mg_{2}SiO_{4}^Ol\\limits_{Forsterite} + CaAl_{2}Si_{2}O_{8}^{Pl\\limits_{Anorthite} = CaAl_{2}SiO_{6}^{Cpx}\\limits_{Ca-Tschermak} + Mg_{2}Si_{2}O_{6}^{Opx}\\limits_{Enstatite}, has been empirically calibrated by least squares regression analysis of experimental data combined with Monte Carlo simulation. The result of the fit gives the following equation: P=7.2( ± 2.9)+0.0078( ± 0.0021)T{{ }}+0.0022( ± 0.0001)T ln K, {R^2}=0.93, where P is expressed in kbar and T in kelvin. K is the equilibrium constant K = a CaTs × a en/ a an × a fo, where a CaTs, a en, a an and a fo are the activities of Ca-Tschermak in

  6. Early active sun - Radiation history of distinct components in fines (United States)

    Crozaz, G.; Taylor, G. J.; Walker, R. M.; Seitz, M. G.


    Plagioclase feldspars were separated from lunar soil samples and their compositions were determined by electron-microprobe analysis followed by etching and track counting in an effort to find effects of early solar activity. The feldspars were assigned on this basis to three major lithologies: mare basalts, anorthositic rocks, and KREEP rock. The results are in sharp contrast to Poupeau et al.'s (1973) observations on track densities in plagioclase crystals in the Luna 16 soil: no evidence is found for an early active sun, although the evidence does not preclude this possibility, either.

  7. Petrologic characteristics of the 1982 and pre-1982 eruptive products of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. (United States)

    McGee, J.J.; Tilling, R.I.; Duffield, W.A.


    Studies on a suite of rocks from this volcano indicate that the juvenile materials of the 1982 and pre-1982 eruptions of the volcano have essentially the same mineralogy and chemistry. Data suggest that chemical composition changed little over the 0.3 m.y. sample period. Modally, plagioclase is the dominant phenocryst, followed by amphibole, clinopyroxene and minor phases including anhydrite. Plagioclase phenocrysts show complex zoning: the anorthite-rich zones are probably the result of changing volatile P on the magma and may reflect the changes in the volcano's magma reservoir in response to repetitive, explosive eruptive activity.-R.E.S.

  8. The Correo and Suwanee Spring meteorites - Two new ordinary chondrite finds (United States)

    Rubin, A. E.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Nelson, G.


    Two new ordinary chondrites were found about 40 km west of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Correo is an H4 chondrite with distinct chondrules and major olivine (Fo 81.4), orthopyroxene (En 82.3) and plagioclase (An 12). Suwanee Spring is an L5 chondrite with few distinct chondrules and a highly recrystallized matrix. Major minerals are olivine (Fo 75.4), orthopyroxene (En 77.7) and plagioclase (An 9). The metallic Ni-Fe phases of both meteorites are typical of slowly cooled ordinary chondrites.

  9. 花岗岩类长石相成分换算及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Based on the data on plagioclase number of granitoids and whole.rock chemical analysis the author has proposed that the percentage of molecules of albite in the coexisting plagioclase and alkali-feldspar can be converted directly by petro-chemical approach. Then, the result is substituted into the formula of J. A. Whitney and J. C. Stormer, Jr. (1975, 1977) in order to work out the temperature during crystallization of the coexisting feldspars, which may represent the diagenetic temperature of host granitoids. Diagenetic temperature values computed by this method as described in the present paper are more accurate than thoes obtained by other geothermometries.

  10. Mineral chemical compositions of late Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the Giresun area, NE Turkey: Implications for the crystallization conditions (United States)

    Oǧuz, Simge; Aydin, Faruk; Uysal, İbrahim; Şen, Cüneyt


    This contribution contains phenocryst assemblages and mineral chemical data of late Cretaceous volcanic (LCV) rocks from the south of Görele and Tirebolu areas (Giresun, NE Turkey) in order to investigate their crystallization conditions. The LCV rocks in the study area occur in two different periods (Coniasiyen-Early Santonian and Early-Middle Campanian), which generally consist of alternation of mafic-intermediate (basaltic to andesitic) and felsic rock series (dacitic and rhyolitic) within each period. The basaltic and andesitic rocks in both periods generally exhibit porphyritic to hyalo-microlitic porphyritic texture, and contain phenocrysts of plagioclase and pyroxene, whereas the dacitic and rhyolitic rocks of the volcanic sequence usually show a vitrophyric texture with predominant plagioclase, K-feldspar, quartz and lesser amphibole-biotite phenocrysts. Zoned plagioclase crystals of the mafic and felsic rocks in different volcanic periods are basically different in composition. The compositions of plagioclase in the first-stage mafic rocks range from An52 to An78 whereas those of plagioclase from the first-stage felsic rocks have lower An content varying from An38 to An50. Rim to core profile for the zoned plagioclase of the first-stage mafic rocks show quite abrupt and notable compositional variations whereas that of the first-stage felsic rocks show slight compositional variation, although some of the grains may display reverse zoning. On the other hand, although no zoned plagioclase phenocryst observed in the second-stage mafic rocks, the compositions of microlitic plagioclase show wide range of compositional variation (An45-80). The compositions of zoned plagioclase in the second-stage felsic rocks are more calcic (An65-81) than those of the first-stage felsic rocks, and their rim to core profile display considerable oscillatory zoning. The compositions of pyroxenes in the first- and second-stage mafic-intermediate rocks vary over a wide range from

  11. Natural Processes Influencing Terrain Attributes. Report 1. Prediction of Residual Soil Texture in Humid Temperate Climates of the Federal Republic of Germany and Selected Analogous Portions of the United States-Pilot Study, (United States)


    like plagio - clase and the ferromagnesium minerals. 165. A partial listing of common minerals listed in descending order of their resistance to...feldspar to orthoclase may be nearly equal or the plagioclase may predominate. In granodiorite, the plagio - clase clearly predominates and in quartz

  12. A new CO carbonaceous chondrite from Acfer, Algeria


    Salvadori, A; Moggi-Cecchi, V.; Pratesi, G.; I. Franchi; Greenwood, R.


    Many small fragments, totally weighing 118 g were found in the Acfer area by an Italian dealer. Chondrules size and types (predominance of granular olivine type), occurrence of twinned clinoenstatite and absence of plagioclase suggested a classification as CO carbonaceous chondrite.

  13. Geochemical interpretation of the Precambrian basement and overlying Cambrian sandstone on Bornholm, Denmark: Implications for the weathering history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Yang, Tian


    was thoroughly altered to clay minerals (Plagioclase Index of Alteration-PIA=93–99) which is likely due to its original Ca-rich composition. The primary Fe–Ti accessory mineralswere oxidized to hematite and anatase. Evidence fromREE distribution patterns and immobile element ratios, e.g. Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta, between...

  14. Age and composition of granulite xenoliths from Paso de Indios, Chubut province, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, Antonio; Aragon, Eugenio; Diaz-Alvarado, Juan; Blanco, Idael; Garcia-Casco, Antonio; Vogt, Katharina; Liu, D-Y.


    Granulite xenoliths enclosed in Paleogene alkali basalts from the locality of Paso de Indios in The Argentinean Patagonia, have been studied for petrology, geochemistry and U–Pb SHRIMP zircon geochronology. These are lower crust xenoliths composed of pyroxene and plagioclase dominantly. Symplectitic


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    20150874Chen Haidong(Inner Mongolia Institute of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration,Hohhot 010010,China);Li Jiao Zircon U-Pb Dating of the Hypersthene-Plagioclase Granulite in Liangcheng Area of Central Inner Mongolia and Its Geological Significance(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11-1167/P,41(4),2014,p.1136-1142,

  16. Over the Moon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao (right) applauds after he unveiled China’s first photo of the moon surface,taken by its lunar probe Chang’e-1,in Beijing on November 26. The framed black-and-white photo,grouping 19 images,shows part of the moon’s highland that is mainly composed of plagioclase,a common

  17. Probing luminescence centers in Na rich feldspar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Amit Kumar; Lapp, Torben; Kook, Myung Ho;


    our understanding of the luminescence mechanisms and recombination sites, in a sample of Na rich plagioclase feldspar (oligoclase). Both the UV and violet–blue emissions show resonant excitations arising from a distribution of energy levels. We propose, contrary to the general understanding...

  18. KREEP basalt petrogenesis: Insights from 15434,181 (United States)

    Cronberger, Karl; Neal, Clive R.


    Returned lunar KREEP basalts originated through impact processes or endogenous melting of the lunar interior. Various methods have been used to distinguish between these two origins, with varying degrees of success. Apollo 15 KREEP basalts are generally considered to be endogenous melts of the lunar interior. For example, sample 15434,181 is reported to have formed by a two-stage cooling process, with large orthopyroxene (Opx) phenocrysts forming first and eventually cocrystalizing with smaller plagioclase crystals. However, major and trace element analyses of Opx and plagioclase coupled with calculated equilibrium liquids are inconsistent with the large orthopyroxenes being a phenocryst phase. Equilibrium liquid rare earth element (REE) profiles are enriched relative to the whole rock (WR) composition, inconsistent with Opx being an early crystallizing phase, and these are distinct from the plagioclase REE equilibrium liquids. Fractional crystallization modeling using the Opx equilibrium liquids as a parental composition cannot reproduce the WR values even with crystallization of late-stage phosphates and zircon. This work concludes that instead of being a phenocryst phase, the large Opx crystals are actually xenocrysts that were subsequently affected by pyroxene overgrowths that formed intergrowths with cocrystallizing plagioclase.

  19. Imperial porphyry from Gebel Abu Dokhan, the Red Sea Mountains, Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Frei, Robert; Karup-Møller, Sven;


    grey to red and are characterized by abundant, weakly aligned white to pink feldspar phenocrysts. The magmatic phenocrysts – plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxene, opaque components and apatite – are always altered. The red colour of the porphyry stems from alteration of phenocrysts and groundmass which...

  20. Silicate mineralogy at the surface of Mercury (United States)

    Namur, Olivier; Charlier, Bernard


    NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft has revealed geochemical diversity across Mercury's volcanic crust. Near-infrared to ultraviolet spectra and images have provided evidence for the Fe2+-poor nature of silicate minerals, magnesium sulfide minerals in hollows and a darkening component attributed to graphite, but existing spectral data is insufficient to build a mineralogical map for the planet. Here we investigate the mineralogical variability of silicates in Mercury's crust using crystallization experiments on magmas with compositions and under reducing conditions expected for Mercury. We find a common crystallization sequence consisting of olivine, plagioclase, pyroxenes and tridymite for all magmas tested. Depending on the cooling rate, we suggest that lavas on Mercury are either fully crystallized or made of a glassy matrix with phenocrysts. Combining the experimental results with geochemical mapping, we can identify several mineralogical provinces: the Northern Volcanic Plains and Smooth Plains, dominated by plagioclase, the High-Mg province, strongly dominated by forsterite, and the Intermediate Plains, comprised of forsterite, plagioclase and enstatite. This implies a temporal evolution of the mineralogy from the oldest lavas, dominated by mafic minerals, to the youngest lavas, dominated by plagioclase, consistent with progressive shallowing and decreasing degree of mantle melting over time.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20131375 Dai Deqiu(Institute of GeologyHunan University of Science and TechnologyXiangtan 411201,China);Wang Shijie Comparison of Petrography and Mineral Chemistry Characters between Plagioclase Olivine Inclusions and Typical Ca,Al-Rich Inclusions(Acta Mineralogica Sinica,ISSN1000-4734CN52-1045/P,32(3),2012,p.341-348,3

  2. Installation Restoration Program. Preliminary Assessment: 143rd Tactical Airlift Group, Rhode Island Air National Guard, Quonset State Airport, North Kingstown, Rhode Island (United States)


    and faults. GABBRO - A group of dark-colored, basic intrusive igneous rocks composed principally of basic plagioclase and clinopyroxene, with or...320 - 360 million years ago. Approximately equivalent to the Lower Carboniferous of the rest of the world . MORAINE - Drift deposited chiefly by direct

  3. Petrological Characteristics and Genesis of the Central Indian Ocean Basin Basalts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, P.; Iyer, S.D.; Hazra, S.

    The Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) basalts are plagioclase-rich, while olivine and pyroxene are very few. The analyses of 41 samples reveal high FeO sup(T) (approx. 10-18 wt percent) and TiO sub(2) (approx. 1.4-2.7 wt percent) indicating a...

  4. Microtextural and mineral chemical analyses of andesite–dacite from Barren and Narcondam islands: Evidences for magma mixing and petrological implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dwijesh Ray; S Rajan; Rasik Ravindra; Ashim Jana


    Andesite and dacite from Barren and Narcondam volcanic islands of Andaman subduction zone are composed of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, olivine, titanomagnetite, magnesio-hornblende and rare quartz grains. In this study, we use the results of mineral chemical analyses of the calc-alkaline rock suite of rocks as proxies for magma mixing and mingling processes. Plagioclase, the most dominant mineral, shows zoning which includes oscillatory, patchy, multiple and repetitive zonation and ‘fritted’ or ‘sieve’ textures. Zoning patterns in plagioclase phenocrysts and abrupt fluctuations in An content record different melt conditions in a dynamic magma chamber. ‘Fritted’ zones (An55) are frequently overgrown by thin calcic (An72) plagioclase rims over well-developed dissolution surfaces. These features have probably resulted from mixing of a more silicic magma with the host andesite. Olivine and orthopyroxene with reaction and overgrowth rims (corona) suggest magma mixing processes. We conclude that hybrid magma formed from the mixing of mafic and felsic magma by two-stage processes initial intrusion of hotter mafic melt (andesitic) followed by cooler acidic melt at later stage.

  5. X-ray diffraction results from mars science laboratory: Mineralogy of rocknest at Gale crater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bish, D.L.; Blake, D.F.; Vaniman, D.T.; Chipera, S.J.; Morris, R.V.; Ming, D.W.; Treiman, A.H.; Sarrazin, P.; Morrison, S.M.; Downs, R.T.; Achilles, C.N.; Yen, A.S.; Bristow, T.F.; Crisp, J.A.; Morookian, J.M.; Farmer, J.D.; Rampe, E.B.; Stolper, E.M.; Spanovich, N.; MSL Science Team, the


    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity scooped samples of soil from the Rocknest aeolian bedform in Gale crater. Analysis of the soil with the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) x-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument revealed plagioclase (~An57), forsteritic olivine (~Fo62), augite, and pigeonite, w

  6. Petrography of basalts from the Carlsberg ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    Petrographic characteristics of basalts collected from a segment of the Carlsberg Ridge (lat. 3 degrees 35'N to 3 degrees 41'N; long. 64 degrees 05'E to 64 degrees 09'E) show typical pillow lava zonations with variable concentrations of plagioclase...

  7. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope study of the Skaergaard intrusion and its country rocks: a description of a 55-M. Y. old fossil hydrothermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, H.P. Jr. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena); Forester, R.W.


    Oxygen isotope analyses have been obtained on rocks and coexisting minerals, principally plagioclase and clinopyroxene, from about 400 samples of the Skaergaard layered gabbro intrusion and its country rocks. The delta/sup 18/O values of plagioclase decrease upward in the intrusion, from normal values of about +6.0 to +6.4 in the Lower Zone and parts of the Middle Zone, to values as low as -2.4 in the Upper Border Group. The /sup 18/O depletions of the plagioclase all took place under subsolidus conditions, and were produced by the Eocene meteoric-hydrothermal system established by this pluton. Clinopyroxene, which is more resistant to /sup 18/O exchange than is plagioclase, also underwent depletion in /sup 18/O, but to a lesser degree. The /sup 18/O-depleted rocks typically show reversed 18/O/sub plag-px/ fractionations, except at the top of the Upper Zone, where the pyroxenes are very fine-grained aggregates pseudomorphous after ferrowollastonite; these inverted pyroxenes were much more susceptible to subsolidus /sup 18/O exchange. D/H analyses of the chloritized basalt country rocks and of the minor quantities of alteration minerals in the pluton (delta D = -116 to -149) confirm these interpretations, indicating that the rocks interacted with meteoric groundwaters.

  8. Microbial Effects in Promoting the Smectite to Illite Reaction: Role of Organic Matter Intercalated in the Interlayer (United States)


    im) was separated by centrifugation at 500 g for 12 inin to remove quartz, plagioclase, and talc followed by 10 min at 10000 g to collect...nontronite in the suspension. The clay size fraction was then air-dried. The clay sample was then sterilized by a 5 min exposure to microwave radiation

  9. Thermal Infrared Spectra of Natural and Manmade Materials: Implications for Remote Sensing. (United States)


    containing the nitrile group, C - N, are often used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, plastics, and synthetic fibers. A relatively strong nitrile feature...analysis: Sample consists of 59% qaartz, 17% Na-rich plagioclase, 21% microcline, 1% alunite, 1% clinoptilolite and 1% clay minerals. Comments: XRD analysis

  10. Best Fit for 'Bounce' (United States)


    The mineralogy of 'Bounce' rock was determined by fitting spectra from a library of laboratory minerals to the spectrum of Bounce taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's miniature thermal emission spectrometer. The minerals that give the best fit include pyroxene, plagioclase and olivine -- minerals commonly found in basaltic volcanic rocks -- and typical martian dust produced by the rover's rock abrasion tool.

  11. Magma storage and plumbing of adakite-type post-ophiolite intrusions in the Sabzevar ophiolitic zone, NE Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jamshidi


    Full Text Available Subduction-related adakite-type intrusive rocks emplaced into the late Cretaceous-Paleocene Sabzevar ophiolite zone, NE Iran, range from Mg-andesite to rhyodacite in composition. Here we investigate the magma supply system to these subvolcanic intrusive rocks by applying thermobarometric mineral and mineral-melt equilibrium models, including amphibole thermobarometry, plagioclase-melt thermobarometry and clinopyroxene-melt barometry. Based on the results of these thermobarometric models, plagioclase crystallized dominantly at pressures of ~ 350 (468–130 MPa, while amphiboles record both low pressures (~ 300 MPa and very high pressures (> 700 MPa of crystallization. The latter is supported by the calculated pressures for clinopyroxene crystallization (550 to 730 MPa. The association of amphibole with clinopyroxene and no plagioclase in the most primitive samples (Mg-andesites is consistent with amphibole fractionation from very hydrous magmas at deep crustal levels of the plumbing system, which may have been a key process to intensify adakite-type affinities in this rock suite. Barometry, combined with frequent disequilibrium features, such as oscillatory-zoned and sieve-textured plagioclase crystals with An-rich overgrowths in more evolved samples, imply final magma differentiation occurred in an open upper crustal magma system that developed progressively stronger compositional modifications during high-level magma storage.

  12. Spatially-Correlated Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Microbe-Mineral Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jill R. Scott; Beizhan Yan; Daphne L. Stoner


    A new methodology for examining the interactions of microbes with heterogeneous minerals is presented. Imaging laser-desorption Fourier transform mass spectrometry was used to examine the colonization patterns of Burkholderia vietnamiensis (Burkholderia cepacia) G4 on a heterogeneous basalt sample. Depth-profile imaging found that the bacterium preferentially colonized the plagioclase mineral phases within the basalt.

  13. Parental magma of the Skaergaard intrusion: constraints from melt inclusions in primitive troctolite blocks and FG-1 dykes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, J.K.; Tegner, Christian; Brooks, Kent;


    Abstract Troctolite blocks with compositions akin to the Hidden Zone are exposed in a tholeiitic dyke cutting across the Skaergaard intrusion, East Greenland. Plagioclase in these blocks contains finely crystallised melt inclusions that we have homogenised to constrain the parental magma to 47...

  14. Magma storage and plumbing of adakite-type post-ophiolite intrusions in the Sabzevar ophiolitic zone, northeast Iran (United States)

    Jamshidi, K.; Ghasemi, H.; Troll, V. R.; Sadeghian, M.; Dahren, B.


    Subduction-related adakite-type intrusive rocks emplaced into the late Cretaceous-Paleocene Sabzevar ophiolite zone, northeast Iran, range from Mg-andesite to rhyodacite in composition. Here we investigate the magma supply system to these subvolcanic intrusive rocks by applying thermobarometric mineral and mineral-melt equilibrium models, including amphibole thermobarometry, plagioclase-melt thermobarometry and clinopyroxene-melt barometry. Based on the results of these thermobarometric models, plagioclase crystallized dominantly at pressures of ~350 (130 to 468) MPa, while amphiboles record both low pressures (~300 MPa) and very high pressures (>700 MPa) of crystallization. The latter is supported by the calculated pressures for clinopyroxene crystallization (550 to 730 MPa). The association of amphibole with clinopyroxene and no plagioclase in the most primitive samples (Mg-andesites) is consistent with amphibole fractionation from very hydrous magmas at deep crustal levels of the plumbing system, which may have been a key process in intensifying adakite-type affinities in this rock suite. Barometry, combined with frequent disequilibrium features such as oscillatory-zoned and sieve-textured plagioclase crystals with An-rich overgrowths in more evolved samples, implies that final magma differentiation occurred in an open upper crustal magma system that developed progressively stronger compositional modifications during high-level magma storage.

  15. Magma storage and plumbing of adakite-type post-ophiolite intrusions in the Sabzevar ophiolitic zone, NE Iran (United States)

    Jamshidi, K.; Ghasemi, H.; Troll, V. R.; Sadeghian, M.; Dahren, B.


    Subduction-related adakite-type intrusive rocks emplaced into the late Cretaceous-Paleocene Sabzevar ophiolite zone, NE Iran, range from Mg-andesite to rhyodacite in composition. Here we investigate the magma supply system to these subvolcanic intrusive rocks by applying thermobarometric mineral and mineral-melt equilibrium models, including amphibole thermobarometry, plagioclase-melt thermobarometry and clinopyroxene-melt barometry. Based on the results of these thermobarometric models, plagioclase crystallized dominantly at pressures of ~ 350 (468-130) MPa, while amphiboles record both low pressures (~ 300 MPa) and very high pressures (> 700 MPa) of crystallization. The latter is supported by the calculated pressures for clinopyroxene crystallization (550 to 730 MPa). The association of amphibole with clinopyroxene and no plagioclase in the most primitive samples (Mg-andesites) is consistent with amphibole fractionation from very hydrous magmas at deep crustal levels of the plumbing system, which may have been a key process to intensify adakite-type affinities in this rock suite. Barometry, combined with frequent disequilibrium features, such as oscillatory-zoned and sieve-textured plagioclase crystals with An-rich overgrowths in more evolved samples, imply final magma differentiation occurred in an open upper crustal magma system that developed progressively stronger compositional modifications during high-level magma storage.

  16. Petrography and geochemistry of volcanic rocks in the east of Nabar (SW of Kashan with emphasis on the role of crustal contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Tabatabaei Manesh


    Full Text Available The studied area is located in the east of Nabar village and southwest of Kashan, a part of the Urumieh – Dokhtar magmatic arc. The volcanic rocks belonging to Eocene age, are composed of pyroxene andesites, andesites, dacites and rhyolites. Porphyritic, glomeroporphyric, microlitic, and sieved textures are the most common textures of these rocks. Plagioclase, clinopyroxene and amphibole are the predominant minerals in the pyroxene andesites and andesites, whereas dacites and rhyolites are characterized by the presence of plagioclase, amphibole, quartz, biotite, and K-feldspar. Inequilibrium textures including embayed plagioclases and quartz with rounded margins, and oscillatory zoning in the plagioclases, sieved texture, and dusty rims are evidences of magma mixing. The enrichment in LREE and LILE and the HREE and HFSE depletion in the chondrite and primitive mantle normalized diagrams point to calc-alkaline nature of the rocks studied and they are related to volcanic arcs setting. High ratio of La/Nb (2-4.36 and negative Ti and Nb anomalies in spider diagrams can support crustal contamination hypotheses of these rocks. Also, low ratio of Nb/La (0.23-0.5 and high ratio of Sr/Ce (8.4-19 indicate contamination of parental magma with crustal materials. The rocks studied are formed from magma which is derived from enriched-mantle with 1-5 percent partial melting of spinel-lehrzolite.

  17. Petrology of offshore basalts of Bombay harbour area, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    basalts, and dolerites. Plagioclase composition of basalts ranges from An72-60 to An40-45 (while in spilitic basalts it is in the range of 10-32%); augite (2Vz = 30 degrees - 50 degrees), fresh and altered olivine with ubiquitous magnetite and devitrified...

  18. Amphibolites and other metamorphic mafic rocks of the blastomylonitic graben in Western Galicia, NW Spain: field relations and petrography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arps, C.E.S.


    Within the strongly migmatized axial zone of the Hesperian massif in western Galicia a graben-like structure has been distinguished, characterized essentially by the presence of non-migmatic rocks that comprise orthogneisses with blastomylonitic textures, leucocratic gneisses, plagioclase-blastbeari

  19. Changes in depositional environment for the past 35 years in the Thane Creek, central west coast of India: Inferences from REEs, metals and magnetic properties

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, L.L.; Kessarkar, P.M.; Parthiban, G.; Rao, V.P.

    ) was investigated. The sediment age was determined using 210Pb analysis. Silty clays were dominant sediments in both the cores. Mineralogy showed the presence of quartz, calcite and plagioclase feldspar in bulk sediments, while smectite was the abundant...

  20. Carbonate assimilation at Merapi volcano, Java Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadwick, J.P; Troll, V.R; Ginibre,, C.


    Recent basaltic andesite lavas from Merapi volcano contain abundant, complexly zoned, plagioclase phenocrysts, analysed here for their petrographic textures, major element composition and Sr isotope composition. Anorthite (An) content in individual crystals can vary by as much as 55 mol% (An40^95...

  1. The Haw River Sites: Archaeological Investigations at Two Stratified Sites in the North Carolina Piedmont. Volume I. (United States)


    fine-grained igneous rocks. The texture is known as felsitic ( Pough 1960:15). Rhyolites common to the Carolina Slate Belt are prime examples of felsic... Pough 1960:235). Of particular interest is the feldspathic sediment called graywacke, a matrix of clay minerals containing 104 abundant plagioclase

  2. Eruption styles of Quaternary basalt in the southern Sierra Nevada Kern Plateau recorded in outcrop and mineral-scale stratigraphies (United States)

    Browne, B. L.; Becerra, R. A.


    The Kern River Plateau in the southern Sierra Nevada contains Quaternary basalt (~0.1 km3) and rhyolite (~2 km3) that ascended through ~30 km of Mesozoic granitic crust. Basaltic vents include from oldest to youngest: Little Whitney Cone, Tunnel and South Fork Cones, and unglaciated Groundhog Cone. Little Whitney Cone is a 120-m-high pile of olivine-CPX-phyric scoria overlying two columnar jointed lava flows extending to the south and east. Tunnel Cone formed through a Hawaiian style eruption along a 400-m-long north-south trending fissure that excavated at least three 25-65-m-wide craters. Crater walls up to 12 meters high are composed of plagioclase-olivine-phyric spatter-fed flows that dip radially away from the crater center and crumble to form steep unconsolidated flanks. South Fork Cone is a 170-m-tall pile of plagioclase-olivine-phyric scoria that formed as a result of Strombolian to violent Strombolian eruptions. It overlies the South Fork Cone lava, the largest lava flow of the Kern Plateau (~0.05 km3), which flowed 7.5 km west into the Kern River Canyon. Scoria and ash fall deposits originating from South Fork Cone are found up to 2 km from the vent. Groundhog Cone is a 140-m-tall cinder and spatter cone breached on the north flank by a 0.03 km3 lava flow that partially buried the South Fork Cone lava and extends 5 km west to Kern River Canyon. Trends in mineral assemblage, texture, composition, and xenocryst abundance exist as a function of eruption style. Scoria and spatter deposits typically have (1) elevated olivine/plagioclase ratios, (2) oscillatory zoned (An63-An72) plagioclase phenocrysts surrounded by unzoned rims and (3) abundant xenocrysts, where up to 20% of plagioclase >200 micron diameter in some samples are granitoid xenocrysts with resorbed and/or reacted textures overprinted by abrupt compositional changes. In contrast, lava flow samples have (1) reduced olivine/plagioclase ratios and (2) plagioclase aggregates with oscillatory zoned

  3. The origin of layered gabbros from the mid lower ocean crust, Hess Deep, East Pacific Rise (United States)

    Cheadle, M. J.; Brown, T. C.; Ceuleneer, G.; Meyer, R.


    IODP Exp. 345 Holes U1415 I & J cored a ~30m thick unit of conspicuously layered gabbroic rocks from the lower plutonic crust at Hess Deep. These rocks likely come from >1500m below the dike gabbro transition and thus provide an unique opportunity to study the origin of layering and the formation of relatively deep, fast spread plutonic crust formed at the EPR. Here we report the initial results of a comprehensive high-resolution petrologic, geochemical and petrographic study of this unit, which focuses on a fairly continuous 1.5m long section recovered at Hole I. The rocks consist of opx-bearing olivine gabbro, olivine gabbro and gabbro and exhibit 1-10cm scale modal layering. Some layers host spectacular 2-3 cm diameter cpx oikocrysts encapsulating partially resorbed plagioclase laths. Downhole variations in mineral chemistry are complicated. Olivine, cpx and opx Mg#'s partly reflect equilibration and show a subtle metre-scale variation (1-2 Mg#), whereas, for example, plagioclase anorthite, and cpx TiO2 contents reveal a more complicated 10-20 cm-scale variation (2-4 An, and 0.2 TiO2). Mineral zonation, for all but Mg# in equilibrated olivine, is of higher magnitude than downhole variations in average mineral compositions. Trace element geochemistry reveals rather homogeneous plagioclase and opx compositions; however cpx exhibits variation at the mineral scale. Cpx shows an increased range of, and highest REE concentrations, in the more olivine rich, near cotectic, composition gabbros, whereas the more plagioclase rich, cumulates show no variation of, and low REE, concentrations.Plagioclase fabrics are moderate to weak and partially modally controlled, but the strength of the plagioclase crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) varies dramatically, within the 1.5m core showing a significant part of the variation recorded by Oman ophiolite plutonic crust. Plagioclase shape preferred orientation and CPO match well suggesting that diffusion enabled compaction

  4. The campsite dykes: A window into the early post-solidification history of the Skaergaard Intrusion, East Greenland (United States)

    Holness, Marian B.; Richardson, Chris; Andersen, Jens C. Ø.


    The Skaergaard Intrusion of East Greenland is cut by several generations of dykes, the earliest of which is thought to have intruded shortly after solidification of the Skaergaard. Two ~ 6 m wide doleritic dykes from the earliest generation are exposed in the campsite area near Homestead Bay of the Skaergaard Peninsula. One of the dykes (the Campsite Dyke) locally contains abundant xenoliths of troctolitic cumulate. The other (the Plagioclase-phyric Dyke) contains abundant large plagioclase phenocrysts. Cross-cutting relationships between the two dykes are not exposed. The median clinopyroxene-plagioclase-plagioclase dihedral angle, Θcpp, in the Campsite Dyke is 88-89.5°, whereas that of the Plagioclase-phyric Dyke is 79°. Using an empirical relationship between Θcpp and the duration of crystallisation derived from dolerite sills, the observed Θcpp suggests that the Campsite Dyke is the older of the two, intruding the Skaergaard when it had cooled to 920-970 °C. The Plagioclase-phyric Dyke intruded later, once the Skaergaard had cooled below 670 °C. The troctolitic xenoliths divide into two separate groups. Type A xenoliths have microstructures similar to those of the Skaergaard Layered Series although mineral compositions are generally more primitive than those of the exposed cumulates - this type of xenolith is likely to have been derived from either deeper levels in the Skaergaard Intrusion or from a closely-related underlying magma chamber. One Type A xenolith has mineral compositions and Θcpp consistent with an origin in LZb of the Layered Series - this xenolith contains partially inverted pigeonite, suggesting that inversion of low-Ca pyroxene in the lower part of the Layered Series took place after the intrusion had completely solidified. Type B xenoliths are characterized by plagioclase containing large and abundant melt inclusions. Comparison with the microstructures of glassy crystalline nodules from Iceland points to a multi-stage cooling history

  5. The magmatic and thermal history of the Dufek Complex, Antarctica (United States)

    Carnes, J. D.; Cheadle, M. J.; Gee, J. S.; Grimes, C. B.; Swapp, S. M.


    The Jurassic (~180Ma) Dufek Complex in the Pensacola Mountains of Antarctica is arguably one of the largest layered mafic intrusions in the world, with a minimum areal extent of 6600km2. However the mechanisms by which it grew are unclear. Gradually varying, decreasing upward trends in plagioclase and pyroxene mineral compositions suggest that it grew by a few large (kilometers thick) injections of magma, but it's hard to understand how these thick "vats" of magma are rheologically stable in the continental crust. Alternatively, it could have grown by repeated replenishments of small volumes of magma, the evidence for which is somehow hidden in the broad scale mineral composition trends. This research documents the thermal and magmatic history of a well-sampled 104m representative section of the Aughenbaugh Gabbro. To test whether magma replenishment is a major factor in constructing this intrusion, we have systematically documented changes in lithology, mineral compositions, and texture across a series of 10-70 cm thick, xenolith bearing, sharp based, modally graded pyroxene-rich layers, which might represent magmatic replenishment events. The section consists of gabbronorites and norites with 19-84 vol.% plagioclase and 14-63 vol.% inverted pigeonite (IP). Clinopyroxene (cpx) is intercumulus and varies from 0-18 vol.%. Modal layering is rare. The rocks have a relatively fine grain size of 0.5-2.25 mm and generally exhibit poorly equilibrated textures. Plagioclase compositions range from An62.0-An66.0 ± 0.3 in grain cores, and An60.9-An65.6 ± 0.3 in grain rims. The An content of the cumulus plagioclase decreases with increasing plagioclase modal abundance. The Mg# of IP ranges from 56.9-62.6 ± 0.3 and shows no zonation, as it has re-equilibrated. The Mg# of cpx varies from 64.9-66.4 ± 0.3. The Mg# of both the IP and the cpx increases in the pyroxene-rich layers. True dihedral angles were measured using a universal stage. The mean dihedral angle of plagioclase-plagioclase

  6. The Sr-isotopic stratigraphy of the Northern Limb of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa (United States)

    Mangwegape, Mpho; Roelofse, Frederick; Mock, Timothy; Carlson, Richard W.


    We present a compilation of Sr-isotopic data obtained on plagioclase from 27 samples covering the entire stratigraphy of the Northern Limb of the Bushveld Complex as determined by LA-MC-ICPMS. The lower parts of the Main Zone in the Northern Limb are characterised by significant variations in Sr-isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr ˜0.7087 ± 0.0005 (1-σ)) coupled with very limited differentiation as exemplified by plagioclase An%, suggesting construction of the lower Main Zone through the repeated influx of magmas. Fairly constant Sr-isotopic compositions of plagioclase within the Upper and upper Main Zones (87Sr/86Sr ˜0.7073 ± 0.0003) coupled with a broad normal differentiation trend are suggestive of fractionation processes being the dominant factor in the petrogenesis of these zones. The present results argue against the laterally extensive troctolite horizon of the Northern Limb having a Critical Zone parentage or being the direct equivalent of the Pyroxenite Marker in the Northern Limb. It may, however, be an analogue of the Pyroxenite Marker in that it occurs at the approximate level where the last voluminuous influx of magma into the Northern Limb is inferred to have taken place. The nature of the magmas that gave rise to the lower parts of the Main Zone in the Northern Limb deserves further investigation in light of the fact that plagioclase here shows considerable variation both within and between individual co-existing plagioclase crystals that may point to the intrusion of crystal mushes as opposed to aphyric liquids.

  7. Deep Fractionation of Ciinopyroxene in the East Pacific Rise 13°N: Evidence from High MgO MORB and Melt Inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guoliang; ZENG Zhigang; YIN Xuebo; WANG Xiaoyuan; CHEN Daigeng


    Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) from East Pacific Rise (EPR) 13°N are analysed for major and trace elements, both of which show a continuous evolving trend. Positive MgO-Al2O3 and negative MgO-Sc relationships manifest the cotectic crystallization of plagioclase and olivine, which exist with the presence of plagioclase and olivine phenocrysts and the absence of clinopyroxene phenocrysts. However, the fractionation of clinopyroxene is proven by the positive correlation of MgO and CaO. Thus, MORB samples are believed to show a "clinopyroxene paradox". The highest magnesium.bearing MORB sample E13-3B (MGO=9.52%) is modelled for isobaric crystallization with COMAGMAT at different pressures. Observed CaO/Al2O3 ratios can be derived from E13-3B only by fractional crystallization at pressure >4±1 kbar, which necessitates clinopyroxene crystallization and is not consistent with cotectic crystallization of olivine plus plagioclase in the magma chamber (at pressure~1 kbar). The initial compositions of the melt inclusions, which could represent potential parental magmas, are reconstructed by correcting for post-entrapment crystallization (PEC). The simulated crystallization of initial melt inclusions also produce observed CaO/Al2O3 ratios only at >4±1 kbar, in which clinopyroxene takes part in crystallization. It is suggested that MORB magmas have experienced clinopyroxene fractionation in the lower crust, in and below the Moho transition zone. The MORB magmas have experienced transition from clinopyroxene+plagioclase+olivine crystallization at >4±1 kbar to mainly olivine+plagioclase crystallization at <1 kbar, which contributes to the explanation of the "clinopyroxene paradox".

  8. P- and S-wave velocities of the lowermost crustal rocks from the Kohistan arc: Implications for seismic Moho discontinuity attributed to abundant garnet (United States)

    Kono, Yoshio; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Harigane, Yumiko; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Arima, Makoto


    P- (Vp) and S-wave (Vs) velocities of garnet-free (two-pyroxene granulite) and garnet-bearing (garnet granulite and garnet pyroxenite) lowermost crustal rocks collected from the Kohistan arc, northern Pakistan, were measured at 0.1-1.0 GPa and 25-400 °C. Garnet granulite had higher Vp (+ 0.31 km/s) and Vs (+ 0.27 km/s) than two-pyroxene granulite. Although Vp and Vs increased with increasing volume percent of garnet, plagioclase-free garnet pyroxenite showed significantly higher Vp and Vs than plagioclase-rich garnet granulite mainly due to the low Vp and Vs of plagioclase. In contrast, we observed two quasi-linear relationships between Vp (Vs) and SiO 2 content for the garnet-bearing and garnet-free rocks. The garnet-bearing rocks had relatively higher Vp and Vs and stronger SiO 2 dependences than the garnet-free rocks. The stronger SiO 2 dependences of Vp and Vs in the garnet-bearing rocks suggest that the garnet formation in mafic to ultramafic rocks (e.g., pyroxenite and hornblendite), having relatively lower SiO 2, leads to more pronounced increases in Vp and Vs than that of relatively felsic rocks (e.g., felsic-to-mafic granulite). Indeed, the Vp and Vs of the garnet pyroxenite were significantly higher than those of garnet granulite but comparable to those of dunite. The significantly high Vp and Vs of the garnet pyroxenite yielded high reflection coefficients between the garnet granulite and garnet pyroxenite of up to 0.13 for P-waves and 0.14 for S-waves, comparable to values expected for Moho reflection. Thus the lithological boundary between plagioclase-rich garnet granulite and plagioclase-free garnet pyroxenite in the lowermost crust of the Kohistan arc corresponds to the seismic Moho discontinuity.

  9. A generalized garnet-forming reaction for metaigneous rocks in the Adirondacks (United States)

    McLelland, J.M.; Whitney, P.R.


    A generalized reaction is presented to account for garnet formation in a variety of Adirondack metaigneous rocks. This reaction, which is the sum of five partial reactions written in aluminum-fixed frames of reference, is given by: 4(y+1+w)Anorthite+4 k(y+1+2 w)Olivine +4(1-k)(y+1+2 w)Fe-oxide+(8(y+1) -4 k(y+1+2 w))Orthopyroxene = 2(y+1)Garnet +2(y+1+2 w)Clinopyroxene+4 wSpinel where y is a function of plagioclase composition, k refers to the relative amounts of olivine and Fe-oxide participating in the reaction, and w is a measure of silicon mobility. When mass balanced for Mg and Fe, this reaction is found to be consistent with analyzed mineral compositions in a wide range of Adirondack metaigneous rocks. The reaction applies equally well whether the garnets were formed directly from the rectants given above or went through an intermadiate stage involving the formation of spinel, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene. The actual reactions which have produced garnet in both undersaturated and quartz-bearing rocks are special cases of the above general reaction. The most important special cases appear to be those in which the reactants include either olivine alone (k=1) or Fe-oxide alone (k=0). Silicon is relatively immobile (w =2) in olivine bearing, magnesium-rich rocks (k???1), and this correlates with the increased intensity in spinel clouding of plagioclase in these rocks. Silicon mobility apparently increases in the more iron-rich rocks, which also tend to contain clear or lightly clouded plagioclase. In all the rocks studied the most common composition of metamorphic plagioclase is close to An33 (i.e., y=1). Plagioclase of lower anorthite content may be too sodic to participate in garnet formation at the P-T conditions involved. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Mineralogy of new Antarctic achondrites with affinity to Lodran and a model of their evolution in an asteroid (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Mori, Hiroshi; Hiroi, Takahiro; Saito, Jun


    We studied five new Antartic achondrites, MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 88177, Yamato (Y)74357, Y75274, Y791491 and Elephant Moraine (EET)84302 by mineralogical techniques to gain a better understanding of the mineral assemblages of a group of meteorites with an affinity to Lodran (stony-iron meteorite) and their formation processes. This group is being called lodranites. These meteorites contain major coarse-grained orthopyroxene (Opx) and olivine as in Lodran and variable amounts of FeNi metal and troilite etc. MAC88177 has more augite and less FeNi than Lodran; Y74357 has more olivine and contains minor augite; Y791491 contains in addition plagioclase. EET84302 has an Acapulco-like chondritic mineral assembladge and is enriched in FeNi metal and plagioclase, but one part is enriched in Opx and chromite. The EET84302 and MAC88177 Opx crystals have dusty cores as in Acapulco. EET84302 and Y75274 are more Mg-rich than other members of the lodranite group, and Y74357 is intermediate. Since these meteorites all have coarse-grained textures, similar major mineral assemblages, variable amounts of augite, plagioclase, FeNi metal, chromite and olivine, we suggest that they are related and are linked to a parent body with modified chondritic compositions. The variability of the abundances of these minerals are in line with a proposed model of the surface mineral assemblages of the S asteroids. The mineral assemblages can best be explained by differing degrees of loss or movements of lower temperature partial melts and recrystallization, and reduction. A portion of EET84302 rich in metal and plagioclase may represent a type of component removed from the lodranite group meteorites. Y791058 and Caddo County, which were studied for comparison, are plagioclase-rich silicate inclusions in IAB iron meteorites and may have been derived by similar process but in a different body.

  11. Tracking intercumulus crystallisation at the Skaergaard intrusion using immobile trace elements: Evidence for liquid immiscibility (United States)

    Humphreys, Madeleine


    A key target in the study of a layered intrusion is to constrain the liquid line of descent of the magma. However, the liquid line of descent of the intercumulus liquid is rarely considered, and is often assumed to be equivalent to that of the bulk magma. If the bulk liquid and interstitial liquids follow the same liquid line of descent, then intercumulus zoning profiles should be similar to the cryptic compositional variations seen with stratigraphic height. Because of extensive sub-solidus and diffusional changes that occur in slowly cooled rocks, clues to the composition of the intercumulus liquid can only be obtained using very slowly diffusing trace elements and components; the anorthite content of plagioclase and its Ti concentration are ideal in this respect. For the Skaergaard Intrusion, east Greenland, anorthite content (XAn) decreases monotonically as temperature decreases and the liquid becomes more evolved. The Ti content decreases in both cumulus and intercumulus plagioclase, as a result of falling liquid Ti after Fe-Ti oxides start to crystallise. However, Ti-XAn zoning in intercumulus plagioclase does not match the cryptic variations observed with increasing stratigraphic height, which demonstrates that the cumulus and intercumulus liquid lines of descent are not equivalent. In the intercumulus plagioclase, different trends develop adjacent to fine-grained, mafic and felsic interstitial pockets, which represent the crystallised products of trapped, late-stage immiscible liquids. The zoning trends vary systematically as a function of stratigraphic height and spatial location within the intrusion. The distribution and composition of the reversed plagioclase are used to infer the spatial distribution and differential movement of interstitial immiscible liquids throughout the Layered Series, and processes affecting the intercumulus liquid.

  12. Enigmatic Late-Stage Textures In Mafic Cumulates: Skaergaard Intrusion, East Greenland. (United States)

    Stripp, G.; Holness, M.; Veksler, I.


    The complexities of slow solidification in deep-seated silicate liquid bodies are poorly understood. Late-stage melt migration, due to compaction of the crystal mush, drives re-crystallisation and metasomatism which can have significant effects on chamber-wide chemical evolution. In this contribution we present novel textural observations from mafic cumulates of the Skaergaard Layered Intrusion which may shed light on liquid movement during the last stages of solidification of the crystal mush. Previously undescribed mafic symplectites are widespread in the Skaergaard Layered Series, and comprise vermicular intergrowths of plagioclase and olivine, which may be replaced by clinopyroxene in the outer parts of the symplectite. The symplectites grow outwards from Fe-Ti oxide grains, consuming adjacent cumulus plagioclase. In the Middle Zone of the Layered Series (where symplectites are best developed) symplectite plagioclase adjacent to the Fe-Ti oxide grains contains 1.2 wt% FeOtot which decreases to 0.6 wt% FeOtot at the symplectite margin, compared to a ~ 0.35 wt% average for adjacent cumulus plagioclase. Symplectite plagioclase is up to 40 mol% more An-rich than the adjacent cumulus grains. Olivine compositions range from Fo45 to Fo32 along the growth direction of the symplectite, compared to ~ Fo44 for cumulus olivine at this level in the intrusion. Biotite commonly replaces olivine. Texturally- and compositionally-related patches of intergrown clinopyroxene and An-rich plagioclase occur locally on plagioclase triple junctions and plagioclase grain boundaries. Symplectites are present, but rare, in the lower parts of the Skaergaard Layered Series; increase significantly in volumetric importance in Lower Zone b; are very common in Middle Zone and disappear in UZ. The symplectites resemble those formed by hydrous partial melting of oceanic gabbros (Koepke et al., 2005) but important differences include the presence of clinopyroxene and Fe-rich plagioclase, and the

  13. Solidification of interstitial melt in a gabbroic crystal mush: the Skaergaard intrusion, Greenland (United States)

    Namur, Olivier; Humphreys, Madeleine C. S.; Holness, Marian B.; Veksler, Ilya V.


    The Eocene Skaergaard intrusion of East Greenland occupies a box-shaped, fault-bounded chamber, approximately 8km × 11km × 4km, at the contact between Precambrian gneisses and a thick overlying sequence of Eocene plateau lavas. The intrusion is divided into three main units: the Layered Series (LS) which crystallized on the floor, the Upper Border Series (UBS) which crystallized from the roof, and the Marginal Border Series (MBS) which grew inwards from the vertical walls. The order of appearance of cumulus phases in the LS is considered to be: plagioclase + olivine (HZ, LZa) + augite (LZb) + Fe-Ti oxides (LZc) - olivine (MZ) + olivine (UZa) + apatite (UZb) + ferro-hedenbergite (UZc). The Marginal Border Series (MBS) is subdivided in an analogous manner to the LS into HZ*, LZa*, LZb*, LZc*, MZ*, UZa* and UZb*. We measured plagioclase compositional profiles in the LS and MBS for major (EPMA) and trace (ion probe and LA-ICP-MS) elements. Plagioclase profiles in the MBS show a relatively simple pattern of continuously decreasing An-content from core to rim. Compatible trace elements evolve similarly to An, while incompatible trace elements continuously increase. In contrast, compositional profiles in the LS are highly complex. In the lowest stratrigraphic unit (LZa), the core of the plagioclase grains has a mantle of decreasing An-content with an external rim of constant composition at An55-58. Compatible and incompatible elements decrease and increase respectively from core to rim, signifying decoupling of major and trace elements in the external rim. In LZb, similar profiles are observed except that the external rim has a composition of An50-51. From LZc to UZa, plagioclase grains are mostly unzoned. However, where zoned they also show an external rim of constant composition, but this time at An40. From UZb to UZc, plagioclase grains are unzoned or show normal zoning without external constant composition rims. We suggest that the external rims at An58, An50 and An

  14. Can cathodoluminescence of feldspar be used as provenance indicator? (United States)

    Scholonek, Christiane; Augustsson, Carita


    We have studied feldspar from crystalline rocks for its textural and spectral cathodoluminescence (CL) characteristics with the aim to reveal their provenance potential. We analyzed ca. 60 rock samples of plutonic, volcanic, metamorphic, and pegmatitic origin from different continents and of 16 Ma to 2 Ga age for their feldspar CL textures and ca. 1200 feldspar crystals from these rocks for their CL color spectra. Among the analyzed rocks, igneous feldspar is most commonly zoned, whereby oscillatory zoning can be confirmed to be typical for volcanic plagioclase. The volcanic plagioclase also less commonly contains twin lamellae that are visible in CL light than crystals from other rock types. Alkali feldspar, particularly from igneous and pegmatitic rocks, was noted to be most affected by alteration features, visible as dark spots, lines and irregular areas. The size of all textural features of up to ca. 150 μm, in combination with possible alteration in both the source area and the sedimentary system, makes the CL textures of feldspar possible to use for qualitative provenance research only. We observed alkali feldspar mostly to luminesce in a bluish color and sometimes in red, and plagioclase in green to yellow. The corresponding CL spectra are dominated by three apparent intensity peaks at 440-520 nm (mainly blue), 540-620 nm (mainly green) and 680-740 nm (red to infrared). A dominance of the peak in the green wavelength interval over the blue one for plagioclase makes CL particularly useful for the differentiation of plagioclase from alkali feldspar. An apparent peak position in red to infrared at < 710 nm for plagioclase mainly is present in mafic rocks. Present-day coastal sand from Peru containing feldspar with the red to infrared peak position mainly exceeding 725 nm for northern Peruvian sand and a larger variety for sand from southern Peru illustrates a discriminative effect of different source areas. We conclude that the provenance application

  15. 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar dating of low grade metamorphism: examples on metabasites from Central Chile (United States)

    Aguirre, L.; Feraud, G.; Fuentes, F.; Delbar, M.; Morata, D.


    Dating low to very low-grade burial metamorphic assemblages is often difficult because of (1) few mineral phases compositionally suitable to apply the 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar methods, and (2) small amount in which these phases are commonly found. K-feldspar adularia, sericitic mica, and celadonite are the best known K-bearing secondary minerals. We present some successful attempts to analyse two distinct secondary phases from a same volcanic formation that allow to test the validity of the measured ages. These ages have been also compared with the crystallisation age of the volcanic rocks in which the secondary phases were lately developed. Adularia and sericite were selected from basic lava flows from a 3 to 13 km thick Cretaceous sequence from the Coastal Range of central Chile, at two different locations: the Bustamante Hill (west from Santiago), and the Cordón de Chacana, c. 80 km further north. Adularia came from a low-variance assemblage with pumpellyite, chlorite and low-albite contained in amygdules whereas sericite was present in milky-white strongly sericitized plagioclase crystals. While small clusters of rare fresh plagioclase grains from lava flows from Bustamante and Chacana displayed concordant plateau ages 119.4 ± 2.4 (2 sigma) and 118.7 ± 0.6 Ma, respectively, the adularia from the same formations gave sensibly younger ages around 94 Ma (high temperature steps), and 96.8 ± 0.2 Ma (plateau age) in Bustamante and Chacana, respectively. Sericite ages were measured in situ into single crystals of strongly transformed plagioclases. The relative proportion of sericite and plagioclase corresponding to each degasing step was monitored by measuring the Ca/K ratio (deduced from 37ArCa/39Ar_K). While intermediate ages were measured on some sericite of both sites (corresponding to a variable but permanent contribution of plagioclase on each step), a plateau age of 97.0 ± 1.6 Ma (concordant with adularia) could be obtained on a strongly sericitized plagioclase

  16. Re-equilibration history and P- T path of eclogites from Variscan Sardinia, Italy: a case study from the medium-grade metamorphic complex (United States)

    Cruciani, Gabriele; Franceschelli, Marcello; Groppo, Chiara; Oggiano, Giacomo; Spano, Maria Elena


    Retrogressed eclogites are hosted within the Variscan low- to medium-grade metamorphic complex near Giuncana, north-central Sardinia. These rocks are medium to fine grained with garnet and amphibole as the most abundant mineral phases along with clinopyroxene, plagioclase, quartz, biotite, chlorite, epidote, ilmenite, rutile and titanite. Four stages of mineralogical re-equilibration have been distinguished. The stage I is characterized by the occurrence of omphacite, epidote, quartz, amphibole, rutile and ilmenite in garnet poikiloblasts. The stage II is characterized by two types of symplectitic microstructures: (1) amphibole + quartz symplectite and (2) clinopyroxene + plagioclase ± amphibole symplectite. The first symplectite type replaces omphacite included in garnet, whereas the second one is widespread in the matrix. Biotite droplets and/or lamellae intimately growing with fine-grained plagioclase resemble biotite + plagioclase symplectite after phengite. The stage III is characterized by the widespread formation of amphibole: (1) as zoned porphyroblasts in the matrix, (2) as corona-type microstructure replacing garnet. Subordinate plagioclase (oligoclase) is also present in the amphibole corona. The stage IV is characterized by the local formation of biotite replacing garnet, actinolite, chlorite, albite and titanite. P- T pseudosections calculated with Perple_X give P- T conditions 580 < T < 660 °C, 1.3 < P < 1.8 GPa for the stage I. After the stage I, pressure decrease and temperature increase led to the breakdown of omphacite with the formation of clinopyroxene + plagioclase ± amphibole symplectite at ~1.25-1.40 GPa and 650-710 °C (stage II). P- T conditions of the amphibolite-facies stage III have been defined at 600-670 °C, P = 0.65-0.95 GPa. P- T conditions of the latest stage IV are in the range of greenschist facies. The P- T path of the retrogressed eclogite hosted in the medium-grade micaschist and paragneiss of Giuncana recalls the P- T

  17. Long-term flow-through column experiments and their relevance to natural granitoid weathering rates (United States)

    White, Art F.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Lawrence, Corey R.; Vivit, Davison V.; Stonestrom, David A.


    Four pairs of fresh and partly-weathered granitoids, obtained from well-characterized watersheds-Merced River, CA, USA; Panola, GA, USA; Loch Vale, CO, USA, and Rio Icacos, Puerto Rico-were reacted in columns under ambient laboratory conditions for 13.8 yrs, the longest running experimental weathering study to date. Low total column mass losses (convergence during the last decade of reaction. NETPATH/PHREEQC code simulations indicated non-stoichiometric dissolution involving Ca release from disseminated calcite and excess K release from interlayer biotite. Effluent 87Sr/85Sr ratios reflected a progressive weathering sequence beginning and ending with 87Sr/85Sr values of plagioclase with an additional calcite input and a radiogenic biotite excursion proportional to the granitoid ages. Effluents became thermodynamically saturated with goethite and gibbsite, slightly under-saturated with kaolinite and strongly under-saturated with plagioclase, consistent with kinetically-limited weathering in which solutes such as Na varied with column flow rates. Effluent Na concentrations showed no clear trend with time during the last decade of reaction (fresh granitoids) or increased slowly with time (weathered granitoids). Analysis of cumulative Na release indicated that plagioclase dissolution achieved steady state in 3 of the 4 fresh granitoids during the last decade of reaction. Surface-area normalized plagioclase dissolution rates exhibited a narrow range (0.95-1.26 10-13 moles m-2 s-1), in spite of significant stoichiometric differences (An0.21 to An0.50). Rates were an order of magnitude slower than previously reported in shorter duration experiments but generally 2-3 orders of magnitude faster than corresponding natural analogs. CrunchFlow simulations indicated that more than a hundredfold decrease in column flow rates would be required to produce near-saturation reaction affinities that would start to slow plagioclase weathering to real-world levels. Extending simulations

  18. Textural and microstructural development of the Barro Alto Complex: implications for seismic anisotropy (United States)

    Silveira, Camila; Lagoeiro, Leonardo; Barbosa, Paola; Cavalcante, Geane Carolina; Ferreira, Filippe; Suita, Marcos; Conte, Thailli


    Crustal rheology is associated with the behavior of its constituents in response to stress and strain, while the seismic anisotropy is a property that can correlate these parameters. Seismic properties are strongly related to the microstructures and crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of the rocks. In this work, we study CPO-derived seismic anisotropy of metamorphosed gabbro-norites from the Barro Alto (Brazil central) layered complex. The EBSD technique was employed to analyze the crystallographic orientation of the main mineral assembly, diopside and feldspar. The Barro Alto complex belongs to the Tocantins Structural Province, developed between the Amazon and São Francisco cratons, during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogenic cycle. This complex was formed by a mafic-ultramafic layered intrusion mylonitized and metamorphosed under granulite facies conditions. The mylonitic foliation shows compositional segregation into felsic and mafic bands. The samples are composed of porphyroclasts of plagioclase and diopside in a fine matrix of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and, less commonly, amphibole and biotite. The plagioclase porphyroclasts exhibit undulose extinction and core-mantle structure. In fine matrix samples the poles to a(100), b(010) and c(001) are randomly distributed in both phases. However, for increasing matrix grain size plagioclase grains shows maxima of a(100) poles sub-parallel to the foliation and b(010) normal to the foliation. The low value of the J index (2.4 for plagioclase and 1.8 for diopside) indicates poorly developed fabric. Misorientation profiles showing high frequency of small angle boundaries are typical of recrystallization by subgrain rotation mechanisms. The microstructural and CPO analyses suggest deformation controlled by diffusive processes. The CPO models were compared to models described in the literature, based on the anorthite + diopside assembly, since these are the major phases, and thus control the

  19. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of gabbro and plagiogranite intrusions in mantle peridotites of the Myitkyina ophiolite, Myanmar (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Liu, Chuan-Zhou; Chen, Yi; Guo, Shun; Wang, Jian-Gang; Sein, Kyaing


    Centimeter-size intrusions of gabbros and plagiogranites occur in mantle peridotites of the Myitkyina ophiolite, Myanmar. The gabbros mainly consist of plagioclase and clinopyroxene, whereas orthopyroxene occasionally occurs. The plagiogranites are mainly composed of plagioclase, quartz and amphibole, with small amount of accessory minerals, such as zircon, apatite and rutile. Plagioclase in the gabbros varies from andesine to anorthite (An37-91), whereas plagioclase in the plagiogranites is less calcic (An1-40). Clinopyroxene in the gabbros is pervasively altered to hornblende. The gabbros contain 42.97-52.88 wt% SiO2, which show negative correlations with Al2O3, CaO and MgO, but positive correlations with Na2O, P2O5 and TiO2. Microtextural relations reveal the crystallization of clinopyroxene prior to plagioclase in the Myitkyina gabbros. This suggests that the gabbros were crystallized from hydrous melts, which is also supported by the occurrence of orthopyroxene and anorthitic plagioclase in some gabbros. The gabbros have slightly enriched Sr-Nd isotopes, with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.703938-0.706609 and εNd(t) values of + 2.4-+7.2, and relatively variable Hf isotopes, with εHf(t) values of + 13.4-+24.9. A subduction component is required to explain the decoupled Nd-Hf isotopes of the gabbros. Binary mixing suggests that addition of ca 2% subducted sediments to a depleted mantle can account for the Nd-Hf decoupling. Therefore, both petrological and geochemical data of the gabbros support that the Myitkyina ophiolite was originated in a supra-subduction zone setting. The plagiogranites have compositions of tonalites and trondhjemites, containing 56.93-77.93 wt% SiO2, 1.27-10.79 wt% Na2O and 0.05-0.71 wt% K2O. They are slightly enriched in LREE over HREE and display positive anomalies in Eu, Zr, Hf but negative Nb anomalies. Very low TiO2 contents (0.03-0.2 wt%) of the plagiogranites suggest that they were not products of fractional crystallization of MORB

  20. Phenocryst complexity in andesites and dacites from the Tequila volcanic field, Mexico: resolving the effects of degassing vs. magma mixing (United States)

    Frey, Holli M.; Lange, Rebecca A.


    The petrology of five phenocryst-poor (2-5%) andesites and dacites, all of which were erupted from different short-lived, monogenetic vents, is compared to that of phenocryst-rich (10-25%) andesites erupted from the adjacent stratovolcano, Volcán Tequila, in the Mexican arc. Despite differences in phenocryst abundances, these magmas have comparable phase assemblages (plagioclase + orthopyroxene + titanomagnetite + ilmenite + apatite ± augite ± hornblende), and similarly wide variations in phenocryst compositions, coupled to complex zoning patterns. For the phenocryst-poor lavas, equilibrium pairs of two Fe-Ti oxides lead to a narrow range of calculated temperatures for each sample that range from 934 (±24) to 1,073 (±6)°C and oxygen fugacities that range from +0.1 to +0.7 log units relative to the Ni-NiO buffer. Application of the plagioclase-liquid hygrometer to each sample at these calculated temperatures leads to maximum melt water concentrations of 4.6-3.1 wt% during plagioclase crystallization, indicating that the magmas were fluid saturated at depths ≥6.4-4.5 km. There is a wide, continuous range in the composition of plagioclase (≤44 mol% An) and orthopyroxene (≤16% Mg#) phenocrysts in each sample, which is consistent with a loss of dissolved water (≤2.8 wt%) from the melt phase during degassing as the magmas ascended rapidly to the surface. Evidence is presented that shows the effect of dissolved water is to reduce the activity of MgO relative to FeO in the melt phase, which indicates that degassing will also affect the Mg# of pyroxene phenocrysts, with higher melt water concentrations favoring Fe-rich pyroxene. Both plagioclase and orthopyroxene commonly display diffusion-limited growth textures (e.g., skeletal and hopper crystals, large interior melt hollows, and swallow tails), which are consistent with large undercoolings produced by degassing-induced crystallization. Therefore, degassing is proposed as a possible cause for the phenocryst

  1. Geochemical interpretation of the Precambrian basement and overlying Cambrian sandstone on Bornholm, Denmark: Implications for the weathering history (United States)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Yang, Tian; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj


    A geochemical study of the Precambrian basement granites from the Borggård borehole on Bornholm, Denmark, suggests that the granites were moderately weathered (Chemical Index of Alteration-CIA = 66-71) during subaerial exposure in a humid climate. The microcline is well preserved, whereas plagioclase was thoroughly altered to clay minerals (Plagioclase Index of Alteration-PIA = 93-99) which is likely due to its original Ca-rich composition. The primary Fe-Ti accessory minerals were oxidized to hematite and anatase. Evidence from REE distribution patterns and immobile element ratios, e.g. Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta, between the weathered basement granite from the Borggård borehole and regional granitoids on Bornholm, constrains the Svaneke Granite as the original basement lithology. A tau (τ) mass transport model (assuming immobile Ti) was applied to quantify the mass transfer during weathering of the basement granite. The results show a depletion of major elements in the following order: Na > Ca > Mg > Si; Al and Ti are immobile and stay constant; K shows sample dependent enrichment or depletion; Fe is slightly enriched. The Cambrian sandstone overlying the basement in the Borggård borehole, assigned to the Gadeby Member of the Nexø Formation, is feldspathic litharenite-litharenite in composition. Provenance indicators including (Gd/Yb)N, Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta ratios and petrological features indicate that source material was derived from both weathered and fresh basement granite of intermediate composition. The Gadeby Member equivalents in Germany, the basal lower Cambrian Adlergrund Konglomerat Member (AKM) in the offshore G-14 well north of Rügen, and the approximately coeval Lubmin Sandstein Formation (LSF) from the Loissin-1 borehole, mainland Germany, must have been sourced from a basement with compositions comparable to the intermediate group of the regional granitoids on Bornholm. The source materials for the AKM (CIA = 71-72, PIA = 94-96), the Gadeby Member in the

  2. Origin of Miocene andesite and dacite in the Goldfield-Superstition volcanic province, central Arizona: Hybrids of mafic and silicic magma mixing (United States)

    Fodor, R. V.; Johnson, Kelly G.


    The Miocene Goldfield-Superstition volcanic province (G-SVP), ∼8000 km2 in central Arizona, is composed largely of silicic pyroclastic rocks and lavas, and smaller volumes of alkalic basalt and intermediate-composition lavas. Volcanism began ∼20.5 Ma as sparse rhyolitic and mainly basaltic lavas followed by intermediate lavas, lasting until ∼19 Ma. At that time, ∼1 m.y. of silicic eruptions began, creating most of the G-SVP. Petrologic studies are available for basalts and some for silicic rocks, but petrologic/geochemical information is sparse for intermediate-composition lavas. These latter, andesites and dacites, are the focus of this study, in which we present the processes and sources responsible for their origins. Goldfield-Superstition andesites and dacites have SiO2 ∼56-70 wt.% and Na2O + K2O that qualifies some as trachy-andesite and -dacite. A prominent petrographic feature is plagioclase-phyric texture (∼11-30 vol% plagioclase), where oligoclase-andesine phenocrysts have cores surrounded by corroded, or reacted, zones, mantled by higher An% plagioclase. Where corroded zones are absent, margins are etched, curved, or embayed. Groundmass plagioclase is labradorite, also more calcic than the phenocrysts. Other minerals are quartz (subrounded; embayed), clinopyroxene, amphibole, biotite, and rare titanite and zircon. A salient compositional characteristic that provides insight to andesite-dacite origins with respect to other G-SVP rocks is revealed when using SiO2 as an index. Namely, abundances of many incompatible elements, mainly HFSE and REE, decrease over the low to high SiO2 range (i.e., abundances are lower in dacites than in co-eruptive andesites and underlying alkalic basalts). As examples: G-SVP basalts have ∼50-70 ppm La, and andesites-dacites have ∼59-22 ppm La; for Zr, basalts have ∼225-170 ppm, but most andesites-dacites have ∼180-50; for Y, basalts >20 ppm, andesites-dacites ∼18-9 ppm. To understand these trends of lower

  3. Age and composition of granulite xenoliths from Paso de Indios, Chubut province, Argentina (United States)

    Castro, Antonio; Aragón, Eugenio; Díaz-Alvarado, Juan; Blanco, Idael; García-Casco, Antonio; Vogt, Katharina; Liu, D.-Y.


    Granulite xenoliths enclosed in Paleogene alkali basalts from the locality of Paso de Indios in The Argentinean Patagonia, have been studied for petrology, geochemistry and U-Pb SHRIMP zircon geochronology. These are lower crust xenoliths composed of pyroxene and plagioclase dominantly. Symplectitic overgrowths with olivine and new pyroxene-plagioclase formation around the large pyroxene crystals are common. The study of phase equilibrium yields a decompression path from pressure 0.9 GPa at temperatures of about 1000 °C. The major element composition does not correspond with any known basaltic or andesitic magmas. They have SiO 2 residual origin of the granulites. In situ age determination with SHRIMP yields a Concordia age of 175.9 ± 4.9 Ma with MSWD = 1.4. This age represent the time of complex lithosphere evolution in relation with the formation of this residual crust.

  4. Origin of High-Alumina Basalt, Andesite, and Dacite Magmas. (United States)

    Hamilton, W


    The typical volcanic rocks of most island arcs and eugeosynclines, and of some continental environments, are basalt, andesite, and dacite, of high alumina content. The high-alumina basalt differs from tholeiitic basalt primarily in having a greater content of the components of calcic plagioclase. Laboratory data indicate that in the upper mantle, below the level at which the basaltic component of mantle rock is transformed by pressure to eclogite or pyroxenite, the entire basaltic portion probably is melted within a narrow temperature range, but that above the level of that transformation plagioclase is melted selectively before pyroxene over a wide temperature range. The broad spectrum of high-alumina magmas may represent widely varying degrees of partial melting above the transformation level, whereas narrow-spectrum tholeiite magma may represent more complete melting beneath it.

  5. Dacite – siltstone peperite from Trlično at Rogatec, Eastern Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Kralj


    Full Text Available Dacitic glassy lava flow at Trlično is surrounded by a dacite – siltstone peperite and peperitic breccia that underwent alteration, recognised in two, only a few metres thick zones. In the higher-temperature alteration zone, albite extensively replaces volcanic glass and primary plagioclases. The siltstone components are altered to microcrystalline quartz, iron oxides and interlayered illite/smectite clay minerals. This zone developed upon thermalmetamorphosis related to the transfer of heat from the cooling lava. In the lower temperature alteration zone, analcime occurs as the replacement of volcanic glass and pore- and fissure-filling, while the primary plagioclases and poorly lithified siltstone remained fairly unchanged. This zone developed under hydrothermal conditions related to the heating, circulation and reactions of pore waters in the sediment surrounding the lava flow.

  6. Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectra of Apollo 15 impact melt rocks by laser step-heating and their bearing on the history of lunar basin formation (United States)

    Dalrymple, G. B.; Ryder, Graham


    Results are reported on 26 high-resolution (16-51 steps) Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectra obtained on 12 Apollo-15 melt rocks of different composition using a continuous laser system on submg fragments of recrystallized melt and single-crystal plagioclase clasts from impact melt rocks collected at the Apennine Front where the Imbrium and Serenitatis basins intersect. A table is presented with the summary of the Ar-40/Ar-39 spectrum data, which represent 891 individual temperature step analyses. Also presented are 20 of the 26 age spectra along with their respective K/Ca plots. Melt rock fragments and plagioclase clasts from seven of the 12 samples analyzed yielded reproducible, intermediate-T Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectrum plateaus, which were interpreted as crystallization ages that represent the times of impact of bolides onto the lunar surface.

  7. The Shahewan rapakivi-textured granite – quartz monzonite pluton, Qinling orogen, central China: mineral composition and petrogenetic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Wang


    Full Text Available The Mesozoic Shahewan pluton consists of four texturally different types of biotite-hornblende quartz monzonite. In the porphyritic types alkali feldspar occurs as euhedral or ovoidal megacrysts that are often mantled by one or more plagioclase shells, and as smaller grains in the groundmass. Quartz, plagioclase (An20–28, biotite, and hornblende occur as inclusions in the alkali feldspar megacrystsand, more abundantly, in the groundmass. Euhedral quartz crystals in the groundmass are not as common and well developed as in typical rapakivi granite. Compared to typical rapakivi granites, the mafic minerals (biotite and hornblende are rich in Mg and poor in Fe, and the whole rock is low in Si, K, F, Ga, Zr, LREE, Fe/Mg, and K/Na. The rocks of the Shahewan pluton are thus regarded as rapakivi-textured quartz monzonites and granites but not true rapakivi granites.

  8. Contrasting compositional trends of rocks and olivine-hosted melt inclusions from Cerro Negro volcano (Central America): implications for decompression-driven fractionation of hydrous magmas (United States)

    Portnyagin, Maxim V.; Hoernle, Kaj; Mironov, Nikita L.


    Melt inclusions in olivine Fo83-72 from tephras of 1867, 1971 and 1992 eruptions of Cerro Negro volcano represent a series of basaltic to andesitic melts of narrow range of MgO (5.6-8 wt %) formed by ~46 wt % fractional crystallization of olivine (~6 wt %), plagioclase (~27 wt %), pyroxene (~13 wt %) and magnetite (high-Mg basalts reflects the process of phenocryst re-distribution in progressively evolving melt. The crystallization scenario is anticipated to operate everywhere in dykes feeding basaltic volcanoes and can explain the predominance of plagioclase-rich high-Al basalts in island arc as well as typical compositional variations of magmas during single eruptions.

  9. Magma chamber processes in central volcanic systems of Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Sigurjón Böðvar; Tegner, Christian


    New field work and petrological investigations of the largest gabbro outcrop in Iceland, the Hvalnesfjall gabbro of the 6-7 Ma Austurhorn intrusive complex, have established a stratigraphic sequence exceeding 800 m composed of at least 8 macrorhythmic units. The bases of the macrorhythmic units......3 of clinopyroxene and magnetite indicative of magma replenishment. Some macrorhythmic units show mineral trends indicative of up-section fractional crystallisation over up to 100 m, whereas others show little variation. Two populations of plagioclase crystals (large, An-rich and small, less An...... olivine basalts from Iceland that had undergone about 20% crystallisation of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene and that the macrorhythmic units formed from thin magma layers not exceeding 200-300 m. Such a "mushy" magma chamber is akin to volcanic plumbing systems in settings of high magma supply...

  10. Sedimentology of clastic rocks from the Fra Mauro region of the moon. (United States)

    Lindsay, J. F.


    A thin-section examination of sixteen clastic rock samples returned by the Apollo 14 mission from the Fra Mauro region of the moon suggests the presence of at least two distinctly different lithologies. Five of the samples (group I) are characterized by an abundant glassy matrix and glass particles and lesser amounts of plagioclase and pyroxene grains, and lithic clasts. The other eleven samples (group II) are relatively fine grained, very poorly sorted, and consist largely of pyroxene, plagioclase, and lithic clasts set in an abundant mineralic matrix. Group I and II lithologies were probably both deposited from impact generated base surges. The differences between them stem not as much from the basic sedimentary processes as from the differences in the magnitude of the events generating the base surges and the resultant difference in available detrital materials.

  11. Are All Obsidians Super-Heated? Insights from Observations of Crystallization Kinetics in Experiments on Glass Mountain Obsidians (Long Valley, CA) (United States)

    Waters, L.; Andrews, B. J.


    The Glass Mountain obsidians (Long Valley, CA) are crystal-poor (obsidians, if the mineral assemblage is phenocrystic. Results of high-resolution SEM mapping and electron microprobe analysis of a Glass Mountain sample reveal that the obsidian is saturated in nine phases (sanidine + quartz + plagioclase + ilmenite + titanomagnetite + zircon + apatite + allanite + biotite). Sanidine (Or78-Or35) and quartz occur in the largest abundances, and plagioclase (obsidians, requires that the mechanism that produced these obsidians have an associated kinetic effect that strongly hinders nucleation. Decompression and cooling experiments, conducted in this study and from the literature, demonstrate that the simplest way to hinder nucleation is to initiate degassing or cooling from super-liquidus conditions. Therefore, the Glass Mountain obsidians were super-heated prior to crystallization, achieved either by fluid under-saturated decompression from a crystalline mush or H2O-saturated partial melting.

  12. Petrology and geochemistry of mafic and ultramafic cumulates occurring as xenoliths in volcanic rocks from Polish part of Central European Volcanic Province. (United States)

    Dajek, Michał; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros


    Mafic xenoliths coexisting with the peridotitic ones in rocks from Polish part of Cenozoic European Volcanic Province have been scarcely examined. (Bakun-Czubarow and Białowolska, 2003, Mineralogical Society of Poland- Spec. Pap. and references therein; Matusiak, 2006, Min. Polonica- Spec. Pap.; Puziewicz et al., 2011, JoP). In this study we present new results on mafic and ultramafic xenolithic rocks from the Wilcza Góra, Winna Góra, Góra Świątek, Mnisia Górka and Grodziec volcanic rocks in the Złotoryja-Jawor Volcanic Complex. The studied xenoliths are either plagioclase-free (clinopyroxenite, websterite) or plagioclase-bearing (anorthosite, gabbro, olivine-bearing gabbro and norite). Both the types may occur in the same volcanic rock. The cumulative xenoliths are smaller than peridotitic ones, blackish and show clear cumulative, coarse grained textures. Beside the rock-forming phases, the xenoliths occasionally contain spinel, sulfides and amphibole. Usually clinopyroxene grains occurring in gabbros are strongly corroded or disintegrated, while other phases are well-preserved. Contacts between xenolith and host volcanic rock are usually sharp with subhedral crystals of clinopyroxene growing at the xenolith surface. The mineral grains are usually zoned and chemical equilibrium between phases is scarce. Clinopyroxene in plagioclase-free rocks has composition of diopside with occasionally elevated Al, Ti and Cr contents. It's mg# varies from 0.89 to 0.79. It is slightly to moderately enriched in LREE; the REE patterns are concave, and the normalized values vary significantly between localities. It shows negative Sr anomaly, depth of Ti anomaly is variable. Orthopyroxene is Al-rich enstatite with mg# varying from 0.85 down to 0.75. Orthopyroxene in websterites is LREE depleted and show strong positive Ti and Zr-Hf anomalies. Opaques are ilmenite - Ti-magnetite solid solution and/or sulfides Clinopyroxene forming plagioclase-bearing rocks also has composition

  13. A Tiny Piece of Basalt Probably from Asteroid 4 Vesta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Yangting; WANG Daode; WANG Guiqing


    Grove Mountains (GRV) 99018 is a new eucrite (0.23 g), consisting mainly of pyroxene (50.5 vol%) and plagioclase (37.2 vol%) with minor silica minerals (7.0 vol%) and opaque minerals (5.2 vol%). It was intensely shocked,leading to partial melting, formation of abundant tiny inclusions in pyroxenes and plagioclase, and heavy brecciation.Exsolution of most pyroxenes (1-3 μm in width of the lamellae), recrystallization of the shock-induced melt pockets and veins (5-20 μm in size), and homogeneous compositions of pyroxenes of various occurrences suggest the intense thermal metamorphism of GRV 99018 in the asteroidal body Vesta. This new eucrite will bring additional constraints on the chemical composition and multi-stage thermal and shock history of Vesta.

  14. Experimental petrology and origin of rocks from the Descartes Highlands (United States)

    Walker, D.; Longhi, J.; Grove, T. L.; Stolper, E.; Hays, J. F.


    Petrographic studies of Apollo 16 samples indicate that rocks 62295 and 68415 are crystallization products of highly aluminous melts. 60025 is a shocked, crushed and partially annealed plagioclase cumulate. 60315 is a recrystallized noritic breccia of disputed origin. 60335 is a feldspathic basalt filled with xenoliths and xenocrysts of anorthosite, breccia, and anorthite. The Fe/(Fe+Mg) of plagioclase appears to be a relative crystallization index. Low pressure melting experiments with controlled Po2 indicate that the igneous samples crystallized at oxygen fugacities well below the Fe/FeO buffer. Crystallization experiments at various pressures suggest that the 62295 and 68415 compositions were produced by partial or complete melting of lunar crustal materials, and not by partial melting of the deep lunar interior.

  15. 29Si and 27AI MAS NMR Study of Alkali Feldspars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲棣; 郭九皋; 袁汉珍; 李丽云


    12 natural alkali feldspars have been studied by(29)~Si and(27)~Al MAS NMR as well as XRD,IR,EPMA and chemical analysis.Three kinds of(29)~Si NMR spectra,i.e.the spectra of microcline,perthiteand perthite with minor plagioclase,have been obtained.There are two types of(27)~Al NMR spectra.The(27)~Alspectrum of microcline is the same as that of perthite,but is different from the spectrum for perthite contain-ing plagioclase.Through this study,we found that the results of NMR and IR are inconsistent with that ofXRD,which shows that the transition of alkali feldspar from monoclinic to triclinic system might be a rathercomplicated process.

  16. Lunar ferroan anorthosites and mare basalt sources - The mixed connection (United States)

    Ryder, Graham


    Global overturn of a hot, gravitationally unstable lunar mantle immediately following the solidification of a magma ocean explains several characteristics of lunar petrology. Lunar mare basalt sources are inferred to be depleted in europium and alumina. These depletions are consensually attributed to complementary plagioclase floating from a magma ocean. However, in contrast to the mare basalt source parent magma, the ferroan anorthosite parent magma was more evolved by virtue of its lower Mg/Fe ratio and Ni abundances, although less evolved in its poverty of clinopyroxene constituents, flat rare earth pattern, and lower incompatible element abundances. The europium anomaly in mare sources is inferred to be present at 400 km depth, too deep to have been directly influenced by plagioclase crystallization. Massive overturning of the post-magma ocean mantle would have carried down clinopyroxene, ilmenite, and phases containing fractionated rare earths, europium anomalies, and some heat-producing radionuclides.

  17. Lunar ferroan anorthosites and mare basalt sources - The mixed connection (United States)

    Ryder, Graham


    Global overturn of a hot, gravitationally unstable lunar mantle immediately following the solidification of a magma ocean explains several characteristics of lunar petrology. Lunar mare basalt sources are inferred to be depleted in europium and alumina. These depletions are consensually attributed to complementary plagioclase floating from a magma ocean. However, in contrast to the mare basalt source parent magma, the ferroan anorthosite parent magma was more evolved by virtue of its lower Mg/Fe ratio and Ni abundances, although less evolved in its poverty of clinopyroxene constituents, flat rare earth pattern, and lower incompatible element abundances. The europium anomaly in mare sources is inferred to be present at 400 km depth, too deep to have been directly influenced by plagioclase crystallization. Massive overturning of the post-magma ocean mantle would have carried down clinopyroxene, ilmenite, and phases containing fractionated rare earths, europium anomalies, and some heat-producing radionuclides.

  18. Predictions of mineral assemblages in planetary interiors (United States)

    Stolper, E.


    It is shown that mineral compatibilities in the model system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 can be applied to deduce the mineral assemblages expected in planetary interiors and their variation with depth. In general, the available estimates of bulk composition of the terrestrial planets suggest that the terrestrial planets can be divided into two groups based on their predicted mineral assemblages. The terrestrial, Venusian, and lunar bulk compositions are expected to display the following sequence of mineral assemblages with increasing pressure: plagioclase lherzolite, spinel lherzolite, and garnet lherzolite. The sequences expected in Martian and Mercurian are different: spinel-plagioclase wehrlite, spinel lherzolite, and spinel-garnet wehrlite. These assemblages have a major influence on the compositions of liquids produced by melting of these planetary interiors, on the solidus temperatures, and thus on the nature of planetary differentiation and the types of magmas extruded at planetary surfaces.

  19. Assimilation in lunar basalts and volcanic glasses: Implications for a heterogenous mantle source region (United States)

    Finnila, A. B.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.


    Several scientists have called on assimilation of anorthositic crustal material or KREEP compositions to explain various lunar lithologies. In order to address the practicality of such processes, some techniques for calculating how much assimilation is possible in magma chambers and dikes based on thermal energy balances and simple fluid mechanical constraints are outlined. In a previous effort, it was demonstrated that dissolution of plagioclase in an iron-free basalt was too slow to contaminate magmas, and that the energy cost of melting plagioclase-rich crustal material was prohibitive both in magma chambers and in dike conduits. This analysis was extended to include dissolution rates in an orange glass composition and to quantitatively predict the maximum contamination possible due to assimilation of both lunar crustal material and KREEP.

  20. Igneous history of the aubrite parent asteroid - Evidence from the Norton County enstatite achondrite (United States)

    Okada, Akihiko; Keil, Klaus; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Newsom, Horton


    Numerous specimens of the Norton County enstatite achondrite (aubrite) were studied by optical microscopy, electron microprobe, and neutron-activation analysis. Norton County is found to be a fragmental impact breccia, consisting of a clastic matrix made mostly of crushed enstatite, into which are embedded a variety of mineral and lithic clasts of both igneous and impact melt origin. The Norton County precursor materials were igneous rocks, mostly plutonic orthopyroxenites, not grains formed by condensation from the solar nebula. The Mg-silicate-rich aubrite parent body experienced extensive melting and igneous differentiation, causing formation of diverse lithologies including dunites, plutonic orthopyroxenites, plutonic pyroxenites, and plagioclase-silica rocks. The presence of impact melt breccias (the microporphyritic clasts and the diopside-plagioclase-silica clast) of still different compositions further attests to the lithologic diversity of the aubrite parent body.

  1. Deep Drilling Results in the Atlantic Ocean: Ocean Crust (United States)


    samples appears to reflect accumu- proportion6 of the crystallizing phases plagio - lation or removal of plagioclase from an initial clase and olivine...the bottom of the deepest Of this material, approximately 6% consists of ye T holes (417D and 418A). The basalts are plagio - smectite And calcite...producing a uralitic product, amphibolites is that altuandine gar-net is not seen -- where primary plagio .-lase survives relatively in ocean floor

  2. Reaction enhanced channelised fluid-flux along mid- crustal shear zone: An example from Mesoproterozoic Phulad Shear Zone, Rajasthan, India (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sadhana M.; Choudhury, Manideepa Roy; Das, Subhrajyoti


    Fluid infiltration at great depth during regional metamorphism plays a major role in mass transport and is responsible for significant rheological changes in the rock. Calc-silicate rocks of the Kajalbas area of Delhi Fold Belt, Rajasthan, are characterised by foliation parallel alternate bands of amphibole-rich and clinopyroxene-plagioclase feldspar-rich layers of varying thicknesses (mm to decimetre thick). Textural relation suggests that the amphibole grains formed from clinopyroxene and plagioclase in the late phase of regional deformation. Algebraic analysis of the reaction textures and mineral compositions was performed with the computer program C-Space to obtain the balanced chemical reactions that led to the formation of amphibole-rich bands. The computed balanced reaction is 70.74 Clinopyroxene + 27.23 Plagioclase + 22.018 H2O + 5.51 K++ 1.00 Mg2++ 27.15 Fe2+ = 22.02 Amphibole + 67.86 SiO2 aqueous + 36.42 Ca2++ 8.98 Na+. The constructed reaction suggests that aqueous fluid permeated the calc-silicate rock along mm to decimetre thick channels, metasomatized the clinopyroxene-plagioclase bearing rocks to form the amphibole-rich layers. The regional deformation presumably created the fluid channels thereby allowing the metasomatic fluid to enter the rock system. The above reaction has large negative volume change for solid phases indicating reaction-induced permeability. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the fluid-rock interaction occurred at 665 ±05∘C and 6.6 ±0.25 kbar (corresponding to ˜20 km depth). Textural modeling integrating the textural features and balanced chemical reaction of the calc-silicate rocks of Mesoproterozoic Phulad Shear Zone thus indicate that extremely channelled fluid flow was reaction enhanced and caused major change in the rock rheology.

  3. Coincidence of gabbro and granulite formation and their implication for Variscan HT metamorphism in the Moldanubian Zone (Bohemian Massif), example from the Kutná Hora Complex (United States)

    Faryad, Shah Wali; Kachlík, Václav; Sláma, Jiří; Jedlicka, Radim


    Leucocratic metagabbro and amphibolite from a mafic-ultramafic body within migmatite and granulite in the Kutná Hora Complex were investigated. The mafic-ultramafic rocks show amphibolite facies metamorphism, but in the central part of the body some metagabbro preserves cumulus and intercumulus plagioclase, clinopyroxene and spinel. Spinel forms inclusions in both clinopyroxene and plagioclase and shows various degree of embayment structure, that was probably a result of reaction with melt during magmatic crystallization. In the metagabbro, garnet forms coronae around clinopyroxene at the contacts with plagioclase. Amphibolite contains garnet with prograde zoning and plagioclase. Phase relations of igneous and metamorphic minerals indicate that magmatic crystallization and subsequent metamorphism occurred as a result of isobaric cooling at a depth of 30-35 km. U-Pb dating on zircon from leucogabbro yielded a Variscan age (337.7 ± 2 Ma) that is similar or close to the age of granulite facies metamorphism (ca 340 Ma) in the Moldanubian Zone. Based on the calculated PT conditions and age data, both the mafic-ultramafic body and surrounding granulite shared the same exhumation path from their middle-lower crustal position at the end of Variscan orogeny. The coincidence of mafic-ultramafic intrusives and granulite-amphibolite facies metamorphism is explained by lithospheric upwelling beneath the Moldanubian Zone that occurred due to slab break-off during the final stages of subduction of the Moldanubian plate beneath the Teplá Barrandian Block. The model also addresses questions about the preservation of minerals and/or their compositions from the early metamorphic history of the rocks subjected to ultradeep subduction and subsequent granulite facies metamorphism.

  4. Complex Dielectric Properties of Several Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks (United States)


    Padovani et al. (1980). 2383 New York (eastern Garnet granulite Adirondacks) 2390 New York (eastern Garnet granulite Adirondacks) 2422 Central Maine...File Report 79-993, 1979. Padovani, E.R., S.B. Shirey, and G. Simons, Microcracks in amphibolite and granulite facies grade rocks from southeastern...hypersthene (pyroxene)-plagioclase granulite with lesser amounts of clinopyroxene, K-feldspar, and pyrite. Garnet, hornblende, and clinopyroxene occur as

  5. Aioun el Atrouss - Evidence for thermal recrystallization of a eurite breccia. [meteoritic mineralogy (United States)

    Duke, M. B.


    The Aioun el Atrouss meteorite is a breccia consisting largely of angular fragments of green orthopyroxene and containing scattered clasts of basaltic composition (mostly pigeonite and calcic plagioclase). It appears to be a physical mixture of two meteorite types - diogenite (hypersthene achondrite) and eucrite (basaltic achondrite). The results of a mineral analysis are tabulated, and typical pyroxene compositions in orthopyroxene (diogenite), subophitic and granoblastic portions of the meteorite are presented.

  6. Water content of primitive low-K tholeiitic basalt magma from Iwate Volcano, NE Japan arc: implications for differentiation mechanism of frontal-arc basalt magmas (United States)

    Kuritani, Takeshi; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Hirahara, Yuka; Takahashi, Toshiro


    The water content of low-K tholeiitic basalt magma from Iwate volcano, which is located on the volcanic front of the NE Japan arc, was estimated using multi-component thermodynamic models. The Iwate lavas are moderately porphyritic, consisting of ~8 vol.% olivine and ~20 vol.% plagioclase phenocrysts. The olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts show significant compositional variations, and the Mg# of olivine phenocrysts (Mg#78-85) correlates positively with the An content of coexisting plagioclase phenocrysts (An85-92). The olivine phenocrysts with Mg# > ~82 do not form crystal aggregates with plagioclase phenocrysts. It is inferred from these observations that the phenocrysts with variable compositions were primarily derived from mushy boundary layers along the walls of a magma chamber. By using thermodynamic calculations with the observed petrological features of the lavas, the water content of the Iwate magma was estimated to be 4-5 wt.%. The high water content of the magma supports the recent consensus that frontal-arc magmas are remarkably hydrous. Using the estimated water content of the Iwate magma, the water content and temperature of the source mantle were estimated. Given that the Iwate magma was derived from a primary magma solely by olivine fractionation, the water content and temperature were estimated to be ~0.7 wt.% and ~1,310 °C, respectively. Differentiation mechanisms of low-K frontal-arc basalt magmas were also examined by application of a thermodynamics-based mass balance model to the Iwate magma. It is suggested that magmatic differentiation proceeds primarily through fractionation of crystals from the main molten part of a magma chamber when it is located at ~200 MPa.

  7. How do olivines record magmatic events? Insights from major and trace element zoning (United States)

    de Maisonneuve, C. Bouvet; Costa, F.; Huber, C.; Vonlanthen, P.; Bachmann, O.; Dungan, M. A.


    Reconciling the diverse records of magmatic events preserved by multiple crystals and minerals in the same sample is often challenging. In the case of basaltic-andesites from Volcán Llaima (Chile), Mg zoning in olivine is always simpler than Ca zoning in plagioclase. A model that explains a number of chemical patterns is that Llaima magmas stall in the upper crust, where they undergo decompression crystallization and form crystal-mush bodies. Frequent magma inputs from deeper reservoirs provide the potential for remobilization and eruption. The records of multiple recharge events in Llaima plagioclase versus an apparent maximum of one such event in coexisting olivine are addressed by using trace element zoning in olivine phenocrysts. We have integrated elements that (1) respond to changes in magma composition due to recharge or mixing (Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, ±Ca), with (2) elements that are incorporated during rapid, disequilibrium crystal growth (P, Ti, Sc, V, Al). A more complex history is obtained when these elements are evaluated considering their partition coefficients, diffusivities, and crystal growth rates. The olivine archive can then be reconciled with the plagioclase archive of magma reservoir processes. Olivine (and plagioclase) phenocrysts may experience up to three or more recharge events between nucleation and eruption. Diffusion modeling of major and trace element zoning in two dimensions using a new lattice Boltzmann model suggests that recharge events occur on the order of months to a couple of years prior to eruption, whereas crystal residence times are more likely to be on the order of a few years to decades.

  8. Petrographical indicators of petrogenesis: Examples from Central Indian Ocean Basin basalts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mislankar, P.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    tholeiitic magma. Rock-forming minerals such as feldspars, olivine, pyroxenes and amphiboles, among others, tend to exhibit different morphological and compositional variations. Plagioclases in lunar and oceanic basalts exhibit a variety of crystal... studies on quenched olivine. The morphology from large to smaller crystals can be related to an increase in the cooling rate of the host rock and suggests a systematic progression in crystal shapes that could reveal information about the cooling...

  9. Kinetic and mineralogic controls on the evolution of groundwater chemistry and 87Sr/86Sr in a sandy silicate aquifer, northern Wisconsin, USA (United States)

    Bullen, T.D.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Kendall, C.


    Substantial flowpath-related variability of 87Sr/86Sr is observed in groundwaters collected from the Trout Lake watershed of northern Wisconsin. In the extensive shallow aquifer composed of sandy glacial outwash, groundwater is recharged either by seepage from lakes or by precipitation that infiltrates the inter-lake uplands. 87Sr/86Sr of groundwater derived mainly as seepage from a precipitation-dominated lake near the head of the watershed decreases with progressive water chemical evolution along its flowpath due primarily to enhanced dissolution of relatively unradiogenic plagioclase. In contrast, 87Sr/86Sr of groundwater derived mainly from precipitation that infiltrates upland areas is substantially greater than that of precipitation collected from the watershed, due to suppression of plagioclase dissolution together with preferential leaching of Sr from radiogenic phases such as K-feldspar and biotite. The results of a column experiment that simulated the effects of changing residence time of water in the aquifer sand indicate that mobile waters obtain relatively unradiogenic Sr, whereas stagnant waters obtain relatively radiogenic Sr. Nearly the entire range of strontium-isotope composition observed in groundwaters from the watershed was measured in the experimental product waters. The constant mobility of water along groundwater recharge flowpaths emanating from the lakes promotes the dissolution of relatively unradiogenic plagioclase, perhaps due to effective dispersal of clay mineral nuclei resulting from dissolution reactions. In contrast, episodic stagnation in the unsaturated zone along the upland recharge flowpaths suppresses plagioclase dissolution, perhaps due to accumulation of clay mineral nuclei on its reactive surfaces. Differences in redox conditions along these contrasting flowpaths probably enhance the observed differences in strontium isotope behavior. This study demonstrates that factors other than the calculated state of mineral saturation

  10. The deformation of the Egersund-Ogna anorthosite massif, south Norway: finite-element modelling of diapirism


    Barnichon, Jean-Dominique; Havenith, Hans-Balder; Hoffer, Benoit; Charlier, Robert; Jongmans, Denis; Duchesne, Jean-Clair


    This paper aims at testing the mechanical relevance of the petrological model of anorthosite massif diapiric emplacement. The Egersund-Ogna massif (S. Norway) is of particular interest because recent petrological and geochronological data constrain the initial geometry, emplacement conditions and timing (about 2 m.y.). The formation of this anorthosite massif is in agreement with the classical petrological model, in which accumulation of plagioclase takes place in a deep-seated magma chamber ...

  11. Microstructural records of multiple retrograde local H2O supplement in the pelitic gneiss, Lützow-Holm Complex at Akarui Point, East Antarctica


    Nakamura, Aya; Kitamura, Masao; Kawakami, Tetsuo


    The alkali-feldspar and biotite in the sillimanite-biotite-garnet gneiss from East Antarctica preserves characteristic microstructural evidence of multi-stage H2O supplement during the retrograde metamorphism. The first microstructural evidence is the "zoned feldspar, " in which the mesoperthitic zone, the anti-perthitic zone, and lamella-free plagioclase zone coexist within a single crystal. They are occasionally found next to biotite, and are always depleted in orthoclase (Or) component tow...

  12. Petrography and geochemical study of Nezam-Abad area, Southwest of Shazand, Arak


    Robabeh Jafari; Moosa Noghreeian; Mohammad Makizadeh


    Nezam-Abad area is located in southwest of Shazand (Arak) which is a part of Sanandaj-Sirjan zone. Major intrusive rocks of Nezam-Abad are quartz diorite and minor amount of granodiorite. Leucogranitic, pegmatite dykes and quartz-tourmaline veins were intruded the quartz diorite. Quartz diorites are mainly composed of plagioclase, hornblende, biotite, quartz and pyroxene as major minerals. Major minerals of leucogranite are microcline, orthoclase, albite, quartz, biotite and muscovite. Access...

  13. Phase equilibrium constraints on the production and storage of peralkaline silicic magmas: insights from Kenya and Pantelleria.


    Scaillet, Bruno; Macdonald, Ray; Buccheri, Vincenzo; Rotolo, Silvio G.; Pichavant, Michel


    The origin of peralkaline silicic rocks is still obscure and stands perhaps as one of the last major unsettled issues in classic igneous petrology. The debate goes back to the end of the 18th century and despite intensive petrological, geochemical and laboratory efforts the consensus has yet to emerge as to which mechanisms produce peralkaline derivatives. Bowen (1937) first proposed that the shift from metaluminous to peralkaline field was due to extensive fractionation of calcic plagioclase...

  14. Two modes of occurrence of garnets from the Tonaru metagabbro mass in the Sambagawa metamorphic belt, central Shikoku, Japan


    蔵谷, 樹; 高須, 晃; カビール, エムデイ ファズレー


    Garnet epidote amphibolite from the central part of the Tonaru metagabbro mass consists mainly of garnet, epidote and amphibole (ferro-hornblende), with small amounts of quartz, plagioclase (albite and oligoclase) and paragonite. Rutile, apatite, hematite, calcite and chlorite occur occasionally. Garnets in the garnet epidote amphibolites exhibit two modes of occurrence. Garnet 1 (Grt 1) occurs as porphyroblast, and garnet 2 (Grt 2) is found as fine grain in the matrix. Porphyroblastic garnet...

  15. Isochemical breakdown of garnet in orogenic garnet peridotite and its implication to reaction kinetics


    Obata, Masaaki; Ozawa , Kazuhito; Naemura, Kosuke; Miyake, Akira


    An isochemical kelyphite (orthopyroxene+spinel+plagioclase) that has nearly the same bulk chemical composition as the precursor garnet was found within a matrix of ordinary kelyphites (orthopyroxene+clinopyroxene+spinel±amphibole) in garnet peridotites from the Czech part of the Moldanubian Zone. It was shown that the kelyphitization of garnet took place in three stages: (1) the garnet-olivine reaction, accompanied by a long-range material transfer across the reaction zone, and (2) the isoche...

  16. Quantitative investigation of felsic rock textures using cathodoluminescence images and other techniques (United States)

    Higgins, Michael Denis


    The qualitative and quantitative study of the textures (microstructures) of felsic rocks has been somewhat neglected, as compared to mafic rocks. This is partly because the major phases are all colourless with similar birefringence. This problem has been addressed using cold-cathode cathodoluminescence (CL). This microscope-based method easily distinguishes quartz, K-feldspar and plagioclase, and can also identify zoning and other structures. A combination of CL and cross-polarised light images can be used to trace the outlines of most crystals in a thin section. These techniques have been applied to a dacite and three granitoids in order to understand the process of solidification. In three of the rocks, macrocrysts or oikocrysts have sealed-in textures whilst the rock was partially solid. These data are used to construct diagrams illustrating possible paths of phase abundance, crystal sizes and temperature during solidification. In all four rocks, the saturation order appears to be amphibole ± biotite + apatite:plagioclase:K-feldspar:quartz. Plagioclase initially crystallises in a regime of increasing undercooling to give a kinetic texture. It is generally coarsened after K-feldspar has saturated. K-feldspar saturated and then immediately started to coarsen in three of the rocks. Competition between the growth of orthoclase and plagioclase may determine if macrocrysts or oikocrysts are formed. Quartz is the last phase to saturate and was coarsened in some rocks. The overall rock texture is therefore controlled by a combination of compositional effects on saturation temperatures, such as volatile content and cooling path. The solidification paths determined here are not unique, but do show what can be achieved from a textural study, with no knowledge of the volatile content of the magma.

  17. Mantle rock exposures at oceanic core complexes along mid-ocean ridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciazela Jakub


    Full Text Available The mantle is the most voluminous part of the Earth. However, mantle petrologists usually have to rely on indirect geophysical methods or on material found ex situ. In this review paper, we point out the in-situ existence of oceanic core complexes (OCCs, which provide large exposures of mantle and lower crustal rocks on the seafloor on detachment fault footwalls at slow-spreading ridges. OCCs are a common structure in oceanic crust architecture of slow-spreading ridges. At least 172 OCCs have been identified so far and we can expect to discover hundreds of new OCCs as more detailed mapping takes place. Thirty-two of the thirty-nine OCCs that have been sampled to date contain peridotites. Moreover, peridotites dominate in the plutonic footwall of 77% of OCCs. Massive OCC peridotites come from the very top of the melting column beneath ocean ridges. They are typically spinel harzburgites and show 11.3–18.3% partial melting, generally representing a maximum degree of melting along a segment. Another key feature is the lower frequency of plagioclase-bearing peridotites in the mantle rocks and the lower abundance of plagioclase in the plagioclase-bearing peridotites in comparison to transform peridotites. The presence of plagioclase is usually linked to impregnation with late-stage melt. Based on the above, OCC peridotites away from segment ends and transforms can be treated as a new class of abyssal peridotites that differ from transform peridotites by a higher degree of partial melting and lower interaction with subsequent transient melt.

  18. Estimation of Temperature, Pressure and Oxygen Fugacity of the Cal-Alkaline Basin-Type Granitoids in the Winneba Area, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyarko Saah Esther


    Full Text Available In Ghana, the granitoids rocks are in two different groups, thus the basin type granitoid and the belt type granitoids. These granitoids have been studied petrographycally mineralogically and geochemically, especially the belt-type granitoids since it is the major host of gold occurrences in Ghana, however there are little studies on the petrogenesis and emplacement conditions of this important rock. In this paper we present the lacking knowledge on the emplacement conditions (temperature, pressure and the oxygen fugacity of the basin-type granitoids in the winneba area of Ghana.The calc-alkaline basin-type granitoids in the Winneba area is composed of quartz+ plagioclase +potash feldspar+ alkali feldspar+ Biotite+ Hornblende +amphibole+ titanite. The plagioclase composition ranges from Ab58 An1.7 Or0.45 to Ab98 An41 Or41 and mainly in the field of albite and oligoclase. The amphiboles however have a compositional range of Mg/(Mg +Fe ranging from 0.52 to 0.62 and a Si content of 7.1 to 7.4 atom per formula unit (afu. Their end-member compositions in the classification diagram are controlled by Magnesio-Hornblend, tschermakitic-Hornblend, and tschemakite substitution types. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM analyses of coexisting hornblende and plagioclase (hornblende-plagioclase thermometry, Al content in hornblende (aluminum-in-hornblende barometry and the assemblage titanite-magnetite-quartz were used to constrain the P, T and fO2 during the crystallization of the parent magmas. The estimated temperature indicated an average temperature of crystallization of 677ºC reflecting late crystallization from highly oxidized magma (log fO2 -20 bars.The rocks were emplaced at an average pressure of 2.2 kbars corresponding to approximately 8 km depth of below the crust.

  19. Hydration vs. oxidation: Modelling implications for Fe–Ti oxide crystallisation in mafic intrusions, with specific reference to the Panzhihua intrusion, SW China

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    Geoffrey H. Howarth


    The H2O content of parent magmas for mafic layered intrusions associated with the ELIP is an important variable. H2O alters the crystallisation sequence of the basaltic magmas so that at high H2O and f(O2 Mt–Uv crystallises earlier than plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Furthermore, the addition of H2O to an anhydrous magma can explain silicate disequilibrium texture observed in the Fe–Ti oxide ore layers.

  20. Crystallization sequence of the Upper Border Series of the Skaergaard Intrusion: revised subdivision and implications for chamber-scale magma homogeneity (United States)

    Salmonsen, Lars Peter; Tegner, Christian


    Although it is one of the best-studied layered mafic intrusions in the world, the crystallization sequence of the Skaergaard Intrusion, east Greenland, remains in debate. In particular, it has been argued that the crystallization sequence in the Upper Border Series, which crystallized downwards from the roof of the magma chamber, differs from that in the Layered Series formed at the floor. The proposed deviation would require chemical stratification of the magma, and a reexamination of the crystallization sequence therefore has important implications for understanding the dynamics of the system. Here, we examine a new sample set from the Upper Border Series, combining field observations, petrography and anorthite contents of plagioclase with bulk rock Ti, V, P, Cu and Mn concentrations. We demonstrate that the first phases on the liquidus were plagioclase and olivine followed by augite, then ilmenite and magnetite (simultaneously), sulfides, apatite and finally ferrobustamite (now inverted to hedenbergite). This crystallization sequence represents extreme differentiation along the tholeiitic trend, and it mirrors those at the floor (Layered Series) and walls (Marginal Border Series). We therefore propose a revised subdivision of the Upper Border Series into equivalents of the subzones in the Layered Series denoted by apostrophes (LZa', LZb', etc.). Moreover, the first appearance of each of the cumulus phases occurs at similar plagioclase core anorthite contents. The mirror images of the crystallization sequences and the anorthite contents of plagioclase cores in the three series imply that the Skaergaard magma chamber solidified by in situ crystallization along the floor, walls and roof from one, largely homogenous, convecting magma body.

  1. The Effects of Oxygen Fugacity on the Crystallization Sequence and Cr Partitioning of an Analog Y-98 Liquid (United States)

    Bell, A. S.; Burger, P. V.; Le, Loan; Papike, J. J.; Jones, J.; Shearer, C. K.


    Interpreting the relationship between "enriched" olivine-phyric shergottites (e.g. NWA 1068/1110) and the "enriched" pyroxene-plagioclase shergottites (e.g. Shergotty, Los Angeles) is problematic. Symes et al. [1] and Shearer et al. [2]) proposed that the basaltic magma that crystallized to produce olivine-phyric shergottite NWA 1068/1110 could produce pyroxene-plagioclase shergottites with additional fractional crystallization. However, additional observations indicate that the relationship among the enriched shergottites may be more complex [1-3]. For example, Herd [3] concluded that some portion of the olivine megacrysts in this meteorite was xenocrystic in origin, seemingly derived from more reduced basaltic liquids. This conclusion may imply that a variety of complex processes such as magma mixing, entrainment, and assimilation may play important roles in the petrologic history of these meteorites. It is therefore possible that these processes have obscured the petrogenetic linkages between the enriched olivine-phyric shergottites and the pyroxene-plagioclase shergottites. As a first order step in attempting to unravel these petrologic complexities, this study focuses upon exploring the effect of fO2 on the crystallization history for an analog primitive shergottite liquid composition (Y98). Results from this work will provide a basis for reconstructing the record of fO2 in shergottites, its effect on both mineral chemistries and valence state partitioning, and a means for examining the role of crystallization on the petrologic linkages between olivine-phyric and pyroxene-plagioclase shergottites. A companion abstract [4] explores the behavior of V over this range of fO2.

  2. Behavior of Cs in Grimsel granodiorite. Sorption on main minerals and crushed rock

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    Muuri, Eveliina; Ikonen, Jussi; Matara-aho, Minja; Voutilainen, Mikko; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry; Lindberg, Antero [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Holgersson, Stellan [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry; Martin, Andrew [Nagra (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste), Wettingen (Switzerland)


    In this study the sorption of cesium was investigated on four different minerals; quartz, plagioclase, potassium feldspar and biotite as well as granodiorite obtained from the Grimsel test site in Switzerland. The experiments were conducted in the presence of the weakly saline Grimsel groundwater simulant by determining the distribution coefficients using batch sorption experiments and PHREEQC-modelling across a large concentration range. In addition, the purity of the minerals was measured by XRD and the specific surface areas by BET method using krypton. The distribution coefficients of cesium were largest on biotite (0.304±0.005 m{sup 3}/kg in 10{sup -8} M). Furthermore, the sorption of cesium on quartz was found to be negligibly small in all investigated concentrations and the sorption of cesium on potassium feldspar and plagioclase showed similar behavior against a concentration isotherm with distribution coefficients of 0.0368±0.0004 m{sup 3}/kg and 0.18±0.04 m{sup 3}/kg in 10{sup -8} M. Finally, cesium sorption behavior on crushed granodiorite followed the trend of one of its most abundant mineral, plagioclase with distribution coefficient values of 0.107±0.003 m{sup 3}/kg in 10{sup -8} M. At low concentrations (<1.0.10{sup -6} M) cesium was sorbed on the frayed edge sites of biotite and once these sites are fully occupied cesium sorbs additionally to the Type II and Planar sites. As a consequence, the sorption of cesium on biotite is decreased at concentrations >1.0.10{sup -6} M. Secondly cesium sorption on potassium feldspar and plagioclase showed similar non-linear behavior with varying concentration. The results were used to assist the interpretation of cesium diffusion process in the 2.5 year in-situ experiment carried out in the underground laboratory at Grimsel test site in Switzerland (2007-2009).

  3. Pre-eruptive conditions of dacitic magma erupted during the 21.7 ka Plinian event at Nevado de Toluca volcano, Central Mexico (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Gardner, J. E.; Macías, J. L.


    The Nevado de Toluca volcano in Central Mexico has been active over the last ca. 42 ka, during which tens of km3 of pyroclastic material were erupted and two important Plinian-type eruptions occurred at ca. 21.7 ka (Lower Toluca Pumice: LTP) and ca. 10.5 ka (Upper Toluca Pumice: UTP). Samples from both the LTP and UTP contain plagioclase, amphibole, iron-titanium oxides, and minor anhedral biotite, set in a vesicular, rhyolitic, glassy matrix. In addition, UTP dacites contain orthopyroxene. Analysis of melt inclusions in plagioclase phenocrysts yields H2O contents of 2-3.5 wt.% for LTP and 1.3-3.6 wt.% for UTP samples. Ilmenite-ulvospinel geothermometry yields an average temperature of ~ 868 °C for the LTP magma (hotter than the UTP magma, ~ 842 °C; Arce et al., 2006), whereas amphibole-plagioclase geothermometry yields a temperature of 825-859 °C for the LTP magma. Water-saturated experiments using LTP dacite suggest that: (i) amphibole is stable above 100 MPa and below 900 °C; (ii) plagioclase crystallizes below 250-100 MPa at temperatures of 850-900 °C; and (iii) pyroxene is stable only below pressures of 200-100 MPa and temperatures of 825-900 °C. Comparison of natural and experimental data suggests that the LTP dacitic magma was stored at 150-200 MPa (5.8-7.7 km below the volcano summit). No differences in pressure found between 21.7 ka and 10.5 ka suggest that these two magmas were stored at similar depths. Orthopyroxene produced in lower temperature LTP experiments is compositionally different to those found in UTP natural samples, suggesting that they originated in two different magma batches. Whole-rock chemistry, petrographic features, and mineral compositions suggest that magma mixing was responsible for the generation of the dacitic Plinian LTP eruption.

  4. Geophysical and petrological modeling of the lower crust and uppermost mantle in the Variscan and Proterozoic surroundings of the Trans-European Suture Zone in Central Europe (United States)

    Puziewicz, Jacek; Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek


    High-quality seismic data on the lower crust and uppermost lithospheric mantle in the Central European part of the Trans European Suture Zone, together with thermal and gravimetric data, enables the quantitative modeling of the rocks occurring in those parts of the lithosphere, including their mineral compositions and the chemical composition of individual minerals. The P3 seismic profile is located at the SW margin of the East European Craton. The lower crust is dominated by gabbronoritic intrusions (plagioclase An45Ab55, clinopyroxene Di80Hed20, orthopyroxene En74Fs26), and the uppermost mantle is harzburgitic (olivine and orthopyroxene Mg# 0.91). The lower crust and upper mantle of the P1 seismic profile belong to the Trans European Suture Zone, albeit the upper crust is of Variscan affinity. The P1 lower crust has gabbronoritic composition which is layered from plagioclase-rich compositions on the top to the orthopyroxene-rich ones at the bottom (plagioclase An45Ab55, clinopyroxene Di80Hed20, orthopyroxene En85Fs15), and is lithologically different Proterozoic and Variscan surroundings. The 100 × 200 km eclogite slice (garnet Alm48Gr25Py27, clinopyroxene Di51Hed10Jd39), with a thickness of 5-10 km, occurs in the uppermost mantle sampled by the P1 profile. The Niedźwiedź Massif is located at the NE margin of the Bohemian Massif, which shows an exposed Variscan basement. The lower crust beneath the Niedźwiedź Massif consists of gabbroic rock of variable proportions of plagioclase (An45Ab55) and clinopyroxene (Di80Hed20), whereas the uppermost mantle is supposedly spinel harzburgite (olivine, ortho- and clinopyroxene Mg# 0.90). Our models show that the lowermost crust and uppermost mantle of the East European Craton do not continue to the SW into the Trans European Suture Zone in its Central European section in Poland.

  5. P-T-X conditions of symplectite formation in the eclogites from the Western Gneiss Region (Norway). (United States)

    Bigge, Nils; Martin, Céline; Harlow, George


    Symplectitic intergrowths of sodic plagioclase + diopside ± amphibole that replace omphacite are commonly found in eclogites. The role of an aqueous fluid as a catalyst of the symplectite formation process has now been demonstrated, but the origin of that fluid is still debated. In the Western Gneiss Region (Norway), basaltic eclogites are found as meter- to kilometer-size lenses embedded within the surrounding gneiss, and many of these display symplectite replacements. X-ray maps of the major elements were acquired by EMPA on six eclogites samples from four locations in the Western Gneiss Region. These maps were processed with XMapTools software to (i) calculate mass balance based on local equilibrium and (ii) estimate the P-T conditions of symplectite formation. One sample shows symplectite with only plagioclase and diopside, whereas the five other samples also contain amphibole lamellae. Kelyphite (intergrowths of amphibole and plagioclase around garnet) is also present in those five samples. Mass balance calculations derived from the standardized X-ray maps reveal that symplectite can form either in a closed (i.e., no influx of an external fluid) or open (i.e., influx of an external fluid) system, but open system behavior is dominant (five samples). The only sample showing symplectite formation in a closed system likely depended on the OH component of the phengite to catalyze the reaction. The estimated P-T paths for the four locations are similar: Symplectite formation is initiated in eclogite facies (20-15 kbar and 650-750 °C), and continues toward amphibolite facies which is indicated by kelyphite formation (15-9 kbar and 500-700 °C). The combination of these data with existing P-T estimates from the same areas, for both peak eclogite and amphibolite, shows that symplectites record the path between eclogite- and amphibolite-facies conditions, when plagioclase becomes stable.

  6. Geochemical modeling of diagenetic reactions in Snorre Field reservoir sandstones: a comparative study of computer codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Klunk

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTDiagenetic reactions, characterized by the dissolution and precipitation of minerals at low temperatures, control the quality of sedimentary rocks as hydrocarbon reservoirs. Geochemical modeling, a tool used to understand diagenetic processes, is performed through computer codes based on thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. In a comparative study, we reproduced the diagenetic reactions observed in Snorre Field reservoir sandstones, Norwegian North Sea. These reactions had been previously modeled in the literature using DISSOL-THERMAL code. In this study, we modeled the diagenetic reactions in the reservoirs using Geochemist's Workbench (GWB and TOUGHREACT software, based on a convective-diffusive-reactive model and on the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters compiled for each reaction. TOUGHREACT and DISSOL-THERMAL modeling showed dissolution of quartz, K-feldspar and plagioclase in a similar temperature range from 25 to 80°C. In contrast, GWB modeling showed dissolution of albite, plagioclase and illite, as well as precipitation of quartz, K-feldspar and kaolinite in the same temperature range. The modeling generated by the different software for temperatures of 100, 120 and 140°C showed similarly the dissolution of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase and kaolinite, but differed in the precipitation of albite and illite. At temperatures of 150 and 160°C, GWB and TOUGHREACT produced different results from the DISSOL-THERMAL, except for the dissolution of quartz, plagioclase and kaolinite. The comparative study allows choosing the numerical modeling software whose results are closer to the diagenetic reactions observed in the petrographic analysis of the modeled reservoirs.

  7. Red Sea rift-related Quseir basalts, central Eastern Desert, Egypt: Petrogenesis and tectonic processes (United States)

    Farahat, Esam S.; Ali, Shehata; Hauzenberger, Christoph


    Mineral and whole-rock chemistry of Red Sea rift-related Tertiary basalts from south Quseir city, central Eastern Desert of Egypt is presented to investigate their petrogenesis and relationship to tectonic processes. The south Quseir basalts (SQB) are classified as high-Ti (TiO2 >2 wt.%) subalkaline transitional lava emplaced in an anorogenic tectonic setting. Their Mg# varies from 48 to 53 indicating the evolved nature of the SQB. Pearce element ratios suggest that the SQB magmas evolved via fractional crystallization of olivine + clinopyroxene ± plagioclase, but the absence of Eu anomalies argues against significant plagioclase fractionation. Clinopyroxene compositions provide evidence for polybaric fractionation of the parental mafic magmas. Estimated temperatures of crystallization are 1015 to 1207 °C for clinopyroxene and 1076 to 1155 °C for plagioclase. These values are interpreted to result from early stage crystallization of clinopyroxene followed by concurrent crystallization of clinopyroxene and plagioclase. The incompatible trace element signatures of the SQB (La/Ba = 0.08-0.10 and La/Nb = 0.89-1.04) are comparable to those of ocean island basalts (OIB) generated from an asthenospheric mantle source unaffected by subduction components. Modeling calculations indicate that the SQB primary magmas were derived from 4-5% partial melting of a garnet-bearing lherzolite mantle source. The NE Egyptian basaltic volcanism is spatially and temporally related to Red Sea rifting and to the local E-W striking faults, confirming a relationship to tectonic activity. Our results suggest that the extensional regime associated with Red Sea rifting controlled the generation of the Egyptian basalts, likely as a result of passive upwelling of asthenospheric mantle.

  8. Genesis of highland basalt breccias - A view from 66095 (United States)

    Garrison, J. R., Jr.; Taylor, L. A.


    Electron microprobe and defocused beam analyses of the lunar highland breccia sample 66095 show it consists of a fine-grained subophitic matrix containing a variety of mineral and lithic clasts, such as intergranular and cataclastic ANT, shocked and unshocked plagioclase, and basalts. Consideration of the chemistries of both matrix and clasts provides a basis for a qualitative three-component mixing model consisting of an ANT plutonic complex, a Fra Mauro basalt, and minor meteoric material.

  9. Hydrothermal alteration studies of gabbros from northern central Indian ridge and their geodynamic implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ray, Dwijesh; Mevel, C.; Banerjee, R.

    and Lloyd 1997), fast spreading Hess Deep, EPR (Mevel and Stamoudi 1996) or ultraslow spreading SWIR (Hole 735B, Stakes et al 1991; Vanko and Stakes 1991; Alt and Bach 2001). In contrast, very less information on hydrothermal alteration of gabbro Keywords...) for amphibole + plagioclase veins in gabbros from Hess Deep (687 ◦ –745 ◦ C). Altered gabbros from corner high adjacent to Vityaz TF formed exclusively under greenschist facies condition (300 ◦ C), resulted the formation of greenschist mineralogical assemblages...

  10. An overview on geochemistry of Proterozoic massif-type anorthosites and associated rocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Maji; A Patra; P Ghosh


    A critical study of 311 published WR chemical analyses,isotopic and mineral chemistry of anorthosites and associated rocks from eight Proterozoic massif anorthosite complexes of India, North America and Norway indicates marked similarities in mineralogy and chemistry among similar rock types.The anorthosite and mafic-leucomafic rocks (e.g.,leuconorite,leucogabbro, leucotroctolite,anorthositic gabbro,gabbroic anorthosite,etc.)constituting the major part of the massifs are characterized by higher Na2O + K2O, Al2O3, SiO2 Mg#and Sr contents,low in plagioclase incompatible elements and REE with positive Eu anomalies. Their 18O %0 (5.7 –7.5), initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7034–0.7066)and Nd values (+1.14 to +5.5)suggest a depleted mantle origin. The Fe-rich dioritic rocks occurring at the margin of massifs have isotopic, chemical and mineral composition more close to anorthosite –mafic-leucomafic rocks. However, there is a gradual decrease in plagioclase content, An content of plagioclase and XMg of orthopyroxene, and an increase in mafic silicates, oxide minerals content, plagioclase incompatible elements and REE from anorthosite – mafic-leucomafic rocks to Fe-rich dioritic rocks. The Fe-rich dioritic rocks are interpreted as residual melt from mantle derived high-Al gabbro melt, which produced the anorthosite and mafic-leucomafic rocks. Mineralogically and chemically, the K-rich felsic rocks are distinct from anorthosite –mafic-leucomafic-Fe-rich dioritic suite. They have higher 18O values (6.8 –10.8%) and initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7067-0.7104). By contrast, the K-rich felsic suites are products of melting of crustal precursors.

  11. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Isotope Systematics of Shergottite NWA 856: Crystallization Age and Implications for Alteration of Hot Desert SNC Meteorites (United States)

    Brandon, A. D.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Wiesmann, H.


    Nakhlite NWA 998 was discovered in Algeria in 2001, and is unique among the six known members of this group of Martian meteorites in containing significant modal orthopyroxene. Initial petrologic and isotopic data were reported by Irving et al. This 456 gram stone consists mainly of sub-calcic augite with subordinate olivine and minor orthopyroxene, titanomagnetite, pyrrhotite, chlorapatite, and intercumulus An(sub 35) plagioclase. We report here preliminary results of radiogenic isotopic analyses conducted on fragmental material from the main mass.

  12. Spatial distribution of mineral components in microcombinations of agrogrey soils with the second humus horizon in the Vladimir opolie area (United States)

    Chizhikova, N. P.; Karpova, D. V.


    Mineralogical composition of silt and clay fractions (humus horizon is replaced by the homogeneous distribution in the agrogrey soils with residual carbonates. The distribution of silt fractions in the soil profiles is relatively homogeneous. The clay (humus horizon is characterized by the lowest content of mica-smectite interstratifications minerals with the high content of smectitic layers and by the lowest content of the clay fraction. Silt fractions are composed of quartz, micas, potassium feldspars, and plagioclases.

  13. Reaction enhanced channelised fluid-flux along midcrustal shear zone: An example from Mesoproterozoic Phulad Shear Zone, Rajasthan, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sadhana M Chatterjee; Manideepa Roy Choudhury; Subhrajyoti Das


    Fluid infiltration at great depth during regional metamorphism plays a major role in mass transport and is responsible for significant rheological changes in the rock. Calc-silicate rocks of the Kajalbas area of Delhi Fold Belt, Rajasthan, are characterised by foliation parallel alternate bands of amphibolerich and clinopyroxene–plagioclase feldspar-rich layers of varying thicknesses (mm to decimetre thick). Textural relation suggests that the amphibole grains formed from clinopyroxene and plagioclase in the late phase of regional deformation. Algebraic analysis of the reaction textures and mineral compositions was performed with the computer program C-Space to obtain the balanced chemical reactions that led tothe formation of amphibole-rich bands. The computed balanced reaction is 70.74 Clinopyroxene + 27.23 Plagioclase + 22.018 H$_2$O+5.51K$^+$+1.00Mg2$^+$+ 27.15 Fe$^{2+}$ = 22.02 Amphibole + 67.86 SiO$_2$ aqueous +36.42 Ca$^{2+}$+ 8.98 Na$^+$. The constructed reaction suggests that aqueous fluid permeated the calc-silicate rock along mm to decimetre thick channels, metasomatized the clinopyroxene–plagioclase bearing rocks to form the amphibole-rich layers. The regional deformation presumably created the fluid channels thereby allowing the metasomatic fluid to enter the rock system. The above reaction has large negative volume change for solid phases indicating reaction-induced permeability. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the fluid–rock interaction occurred at 665±05◦C and 6.6±0.25 kbar (corresponding to ∼20 km depth). Textural modeling integrating the textural features and balanced chemical reaction of the calc-silicate rocks of Mesoproterozoic Phulad Shear Zone thus indicate that extremely channelled fluid flow was reaction enhanced and caused major change in the rock rheology.

  14. Relation between ground-water quality and mineralogy in the coal- producing Norton Formation of Buchanan County, Virginia (United States)

    Powell, John D.; Larson, Jerry D.


    The geochemical processes controlling ground-water chemistry in the coal-producing strata of southwestern Virginia include hydrolysis of silicates, dissolution of carbonates, oxidation of pyrite, cation exchange, and precipitation of secondary minerals, kaolinite and goethite. Core material from the Norton Formation of the Pennsylvania Period is composed of slightly more than one-half sandstone; siltstone and minor amounts of shale, clay, and coal account for the majority of the remainder. Petrographic analyses and x-ray diffraction studies indicate that the sandstone is about 75 percent quartz, 15 percent plagioclase feldspar, 2 percent potassium feldspar, 2 percent muscovite, 4 percent chlorite, and 1 percent siderite. Calcite is present in small amounts and in a few strata as clasts or cement. No limestone strata were identified. The siltstone is about 50 percent quartz, 10 percent plagioclase feldspar, 10 percent mica, 20 percent chlorite, and from 0 to 25 percent siderite. Pyrite is associated with some siltstone and, where present, generally accounts for less than 1 percent. Total sulfur generally constitutes less than 0.1 percent of core samples but about 4 percent in the more pyrite-rich layers. Three reaction models are used to account for the observed water chemistry. The models derive sulfate from pyrite, iron from pyrite and siderite, calcium from plagioclase and calcite, sodium from plagioclase and cation exchange, magnesium from chlorite, and carbon from carbon dioxide, calcite, and siderite. Kaolinite, chalcedony, and goethite are formed authigenically. Carbon-13 data define the relative contributions of carbon sources to models. Comparison of adjacent unmined and mined basins indicates that surface mining significantly increases the weathering reaction of pyrite in contrast to weathering reactions of other minerals. However, in the area studied, reactive pyrite does not appear to be present in sufficient quantities in strata associated with mined

  15. The age and constitution of Cerro Campanario, a mafic stratovolcano in the Andes of central Chile (United States)

    Hildreth, W.; Singer, B.; Godoy, E.; Munizaga, F.


    Cerro Campanario, a towering landmark on the continental divide near Paso Pehuenche, is a glacially eroded remnant of a mafic stratovolcano that is much younger than previously supposed. Consisting of fairly uniform basaltic andesite, rich in olivine and plagioclase, the 10-15 km3 edifice grew rapidly near the end of the middle Pleistocene, about 150-160 ka, as indicated by 40Ar/39Ar and unspiked K-Ar analyses of its lavas.

  16. A study of small-scale foliation in lengths of core enclosing fault zones in borehole WD-3, Permit Area D, Lac du Bonnet Batholith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejeckam, R.B.


    Small-scale foliation measurements in lengths of core from borehole WD-3 of Permit Area D of the Lac du Bonnet Batholith have defined five major mean orientation sets. They strike NW, N and NE. The orientations (strike to the left of the dip direction/dip) of these sets are as follows: Set I - 028/74 deg; II - 001/66 deg; III - 100/58 deg; IV - 076/83 deg; and V - 210/40 deg. The small-scale foliations were defined by different mineral types such as biotite crystals, plagioclase, mineral banding and quartz lenses. Well-developed biotite foliation is commonly present whenever well-developed plagioclase foliation exists, but as the strength of development weakens, the preferred orientations of plagioclase foliation do not correspond to those of biotite. It is also noted that the foliations appear to strike in directions orthogonal to the fractures in the fracture zones in the same depth interval. No significant change in foliation orientation was observed in Zones I to IV. Set V, however, whose mean orientation is 210/40 deg, is absent from the Zone IV interval, ranging from 872 to 905 m. (auth)

  17. Interplay between Micro-Anisotropy and Macro-Isotropy on Evolution of Non-Equilibrium Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Non-equilibrium morphology has received much attention from both scientific and engineering points of view for its intricate pattern selection mechanisms and useful industrial application. Most study of non-equilibrium is about the metal, alloy and other simple system. The complex silicate system is rarely involved. However, silicate is very important in geosciences and ceramic industry. In this paper, two kinds of non-equilibrium crystal morphologies of silicate: dendrite of diopside and spherulite of plagioclase, were introduced. Combining with the other kinds of non-equilibrium morphologies, the characteristics of micro-macro and anisotropy-isotropy of the non-equilibrium morphologies were discussed. Dendrite of diopside is micro- and macro-anisotropic, spherulite of plagioclase is micro-anisotropic, but macro-isotropic, fractal of NH4Cl is also micro-anisotropic, but macro-isotropic, dense-branching morphology (DBM) formed in non-crystalline system is micro-and macro-isotropic. Based on the micro-macro interplay on the pattern formation, it is proposed that the interplay between micro-anisotropy of crystal structure vs macro-isotropy of undercooling in crystal growth system will control the morphological evolution. The nucleation rate related to the anisotropy for the morphological evolution was also discussed. The fact that diopside develops dendrite and plagioclase develop spherulite in our experiment is due to their structural anisotropy difference.

  18. Mineral growth in melt conduits as a mechanism for igneous layering in shallow arc plutons: mineral chemistry of Fisher Lake orbicules and comb layers (Sierra Nevada, USA) (United States)

    McCarthy, Anders; Müntener, Othmar


    Different processes have been proposed to explain the variety of igneous layering in plutonic rocks. To constrain the mechanisms of emplacement and crystallization of ascending magma batches in shallow plutons, we have studied comb layers and orbicules from the Fisher Lake Pluton, Northern Sierra Nevada. Through a detailed study of the mineralogy and bulk chemistry of 70 individual layers, we show that comb layers and orbicule rims show no evidence of forming through a self-organizing, oscillatory crystallization process, but represent crystallization fronts resulting from in situ crystallization and extraction of evolved melt fractions during decompression-driven crystallization, forming a plagioclase-dominated cres-cumulate at the mm- to m-scale. We propose that the crystal content of the melt and the dynamics of the magmatic system control the mechanisms responsible for vertical igneous layering in shallow reservoirs. As comb layers crystallize on wall rocks, the higher thermal gradients will increase the diversity of comb layering, expressed by inefficient melt extraction, thereby forming amphibole comb layers and trapped apatite + quartz saturated evolved melt fractions. High-An plagioclase (An90-An97.5) is a widespread phase in Fisher lake comb layers and orbicule rims. We show that a combination of cooling rate, latent heat of crystallization and pressure variations may account for high-An plagioclase in shallow melt extraction zones.

  19. Chemical trends in the Ice Springs basalt, Black Rock Desert, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, W.C.; Nash, W.P.


    The Holocene Ice Springs volcanic field of west-central Utah consists of 0.53 km/sup 3/ of tholeiitic basalts erupted as a sequence of nested cinder cones and associated lava flows. Whole rock x-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption analysis of ninety-six samples of known relative age document statistically significant inter- and intra-eruption chemical variations. Elemental trends include increases in Ti, Fe, Ca, P, and Sr and decreases in Si, K, Rb, Ni, Cr, and Zr with decreasing age. Microprobe analyses of microphenocrysts of olivine, plagioclase, and Fe-Ti oxides and of groundmass olivine, plagioclase, and clinopyroxene indicate limited chemical variation between mineral assemblages of the eruptive events. Petrographic analyses have identified the presence of minor amounts of silicic xenoliths, orthopyroxene megacrysts, and plagioclase xenocrysts. Potassium-argon determinations establish the existence of excess argon in the basaltic cinder (30.05 x 10/sup -12/ moles/gm) and in distal lava flows (8.29 x 10/sup -12/ moles/gm) which suggest apparent ages of 16 and 4.3 million years respectively. Strontium isotopic data (Puskar and Condie, 1973) show systematic variations from oldest eruptions (87Sr/86Sr=0.7052) to youngest eruptions (87Sr/86Sr=0.7059).

  20. Charnockite Formation and Early Precambrian Crust Evolution in Yishui Area, Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Charnockite and granulite in Yishui area, Shandong Province are located in the middle part of the Tancheng-Lujiang fault zone, eastern China. Field studies have shown that the charnockites, derived from the adjacent granulites, are classified as three types: enderbite, garnet-enderbite and hypersthene-trondhjemite. In addition, two generations of minerals are present in the charnockites: the relic minerals such as garnet, hypersthene and clinopyroxene, and the neocrystallized minerals such as plagioclase and K-feldspar. The relic minerals occurring in the granulite facies stage were affected by the later partial melting. The relic minerals, irregular and usually ragged in shape, occupy the interstitial positions in the neocrystalline minerals. The neocrystalline minerals are usually euhedral-subhedral crystals. The study of petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of charnokites concludes that the enderbite was formed by the anatexis of the two-pyroxene plagioclase granulite, that the garnet-enderbite was formed by the anatexis of sillimanite garnet gneiss, and that the hypersthene-trondhjemite was formed by the anatexis of the leucocratic two-pyroxene plagioclase granulite. The U-Pb dating of the zircon indicates that the formation of the charnockite and granulite was related to the Archean-Proterozoic upwelling of a mantle plume (hot spot)around 2 500 Ma, in Yishui area, Shandong Province.

  1. Diagenesis Along Fractures in an Eolian Sandstone, Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Yen, A. S.; Rampe, E. B.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Blake, D. F.; Bristow, T. F.; Chipera, S. J.; Downs, R.; Morris, R. V.; Morrison, S. M.; Vaniman, D. T.; Gellert, R.; Sutter, B.; Treiman, A. H.


    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has been exploring sedimentary deposits in Gale crater since August 2012. The rover has traversed up section through approx.100 m of sedimentary rocks deposited in fluvial, deltaic, lacustrine, and eolian environments (Bradbury group and overlying Mount Sharp group). The Stimson formation lies unconformable over a lacustrine mudstone at the base of the Mount Sharp group and has been interpreted to be a cross-bedded sandstone of lithified eolian dunes. Mineralogy of the unaltered Stimson sandstone consists of plagioclase feldspar, pyroxenes, and magnetite with minor abundances of hematite, and Ca-sulfates (anhydrite, bassanite). Unaltered sandstone has a composition similar to the average Mars crustal composition. Alteration "halos" occur adjacent to fractures in the Stimson. Fluids passing through these fractures have altered the chemistry and mineralogy of the sandstone. Silicon and S enrichments and depletions in Al, Fe, Mg, Na, K, Ni and Mn suggest aqueous alteration in an open hydrologic system. Mineralogy of the altered Stimson is dominated by Ca-sulfates, Si-rich X-ray amorphous materials along with plagioclase feldspar, magnetite, and pyroxenes, but less abundant in the altered compared to the unaltered Stimson sandstone and lower pyroxene/plagioclase feldspar. The mineralogy and geochemistry of the altered sandstone suggest a complicated history with several (many?) episodes of aqueous alteration under a variety of environmental conditions (e.g., acidic, alkaline).

  2. Important role of magma mixing in generating the Mesozoic monzodioritic-granodioritic intrusions related to Cu mineralization, Tongling, East China: Evidence from petrological and in situ Sr-Hf isotopic data (United States)

    Chen, C. J.; Chen, B.; Li, Z.; Wang, Z. Q.


    The Mesozoic ore-bearing high-Mg monzodioritic-granodioritic rocks in the Tongling mining district (East China) have been described as having adakitic affinities, and their origin has been attributed to partial melting of delaminated eclogite at depth in the mantle, followed by interaction of the resultant granitic magma with mantle peridotite. Here we present petrological data and in situ Sr isotopic data for zoned plagioclase that are inconsistent with the eclogite-derived model and instead propose a model that involves magma mixing of siliceous crustal melts and basaltic magma that was derived from metasomatized mantle in a back-arc extensional regime. The principal geochemical signatures of these Mesozoic rocks include a high-K calc-alkaline affinity, high values of Mg#, high Sr-Ba abundances, high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, εNd(t) = - 13.1 to - 9.0, and ISr = 0.70707-0.70824. The magma mixing model is supported by (1) the common existence of mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) and the disequilibrium textures of plagioclase and amphibole, (2) the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of embayed high-Ca cores of plagioclase that are distinctly lower than in the euhedral low-Ca overgrowth rims, (3) the negative correlations between whole-rock Nd and Sr isotopic ratios, and (4) the significant differences in the values of εHf(t) (- 9.5 to - 26) within different zircons from the same intrusion.

  3. Phase equilibria constraints on pre-eruptive magma storage conditions for the 1956 eruption of Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Vasily D.; Neill, Owen K.; Izbekov, Pavel E.; Plechov, Pavel Yu.


    Phase equilibria experiments were performed on andesites from the catastrophic 1956 eruption of Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, to determine pre-eruptive magma storage conditions. Fifteen experiments were conducted under water-saturated conditions, with oxygen fugacity equal to the Ni-NiO oxygen buffer, at temperatures between 775 and 1100 °C and pressures between 50 and 200 MPa. Simultaneous amphibole and plagioclase crystallization is reproduced at ≤ 850 °C and ≥ 200 MPa. The simultaneous crystallization temperature range of the plagioclase-clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene-Fe-Ti oxide assemblage increases with decreasing pressure, from 840 to 940 °C at 150 MPa to 940-1020 °C at 50 MPa. Melt inclusion compositions in plagioclase phenocrysts and matrix glass match experimental melt compositions reproduced at 50-100 MPa and ≤ 50 MPa, respectively. Presence of the silica phase in groundmass and mature amphibole breakdown rims suggests that magma has been stored at ca. 3 km depth prior to the final ascent for at least 40 days. Syn-eruptive ascent led to decompression-driven crystallization, which caused a temperature increase from 850-900 °C to 950-1000 °C.

  4. Effects of fractional crystallization and cumulus processes on mineral composition trends of some lunar and terrestrial rock series (United States)

    Longhi, J.


    A plot of Mg of mafic minerals versus An of plagioclase in cumulate rocks from various lunar and terrestrial rock series shows each series to have a distinct curvilinear trend. The slopes of these trends vary from nearly vertical in the case of lunar anorthosites and Mg-norites to nearly horizontal in the case of gabbros from the mid-Atlantic ridge. Calculations based upon known major element partitioning between mafic minerals, plagioclase and subalkaline basaltic liquids indicate that fractional crystallization coupled with cotectic accumulation of mafic minerals and plagioclase will produce mineral composition trends on the Mg versus An diagram with slopes greater than 1 for cases where An is approximately greater than Mg. Furthermore, fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas with alkali concentrations approaching zero will produce near vertical Mg versus An trends. Therefore, the steep slopes of the lunar rock series are consistent with relatively simple fractionation processes. The relatively flat slope of mineral compositions from gabbros collected from the mid-Atlantic ridge at 26 deg N is inconsistent with simple fractionation processes, and calculations show that periodic refilling of a fractionating magma chamber with picritic magma cannot simply explain this flat slope either.

  5. Evidence for an early wet Moon from experimental crystallization of the lunar magma ocean (United States)

    Lin, Yanhao; Tronche, Elodie J.; Steenstra, Edgar S.; van Westrenen, Wim


    The Moon is thought to have been covered initially by a deep magma ocean, its gradual solidification leading to the formation of the plagioclase-rich highland crust. We performed a high-pressure, high-temperature experimental study of lunar mineralogical and geochemical evolution during magma ocean solidification that yields constraints on the presence of water in the earliest lunar interior. In the experiments, a deep layer containing both olivine and pyroxene is formed in the first ~50% of crystallization, β-quartz forms towards the end of crystallization, and the last per cent of magma remaining is extremely iron rich. In dry experiments, plagioclase appears after 68 vol.% solidification and yields a floatation crust with a thickness of ~68 km, far above the observed average of 34-43 km based on lunar gravity. The volume of plagioclase formed during crystallization is significantly less in water-bearing experiments. Using the relationship between magma water content and the resulting crustal thickness in the experiments, and considering uncertainties in initial lunar magma ocean depth, we estimate that the Moon may have contained at least 270 to 1,650 ppm water at the time of magma ocean crystallization, suggesting the Earth-Moon system was water-rich from the start.

  6. Complete preservation of ophiolite suite from south Andaman, India: A mineralchemical perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhishek Saha; Avik Dhang; Jyotisankar Ray; Suvankar Chakraborty; David Moecher


    Field studies supplemented by petrographic analyses clearly reveal complete preservation of ophiolite suite from Port Blair (11° 39′ N: 92° 45′E) to Chiriyatapu (11° 30′ 24′′N: 92° 42′ 30′′E) stretch of South Andaman. The ophiolite suite reveals serpentinite at the base which is overlain unconformably by cumulate ultramafic–mafic members with discernible cumulus texture and igneous layering. Basaltic dykes are found to cut across the cumulate ultramafic–mafic members. The succession is capped by well exposed pillow basalts interlayered with arkosic sediments. Olivine from the basal serpentinite unit are highly magnesian (Fo80.1–86.2). All clinopyroxene analyses from cumulate pyroxenite, cumulate gabbro and basaltic dyke are discriminated to be `Quad’ and are uniformly restricted to the diopside field. Composition of plagioclase in different lithomembers is systematically varying from calcic to sodic endmembers progressively from cumulate pyroxenite to pillow basalt through cumulate gabbro and basaltic dyke. Plagioclase phenocrysts from basaltic dyke are found to be distinctly zoned (An60.7–An35.5) whereas groundmass plagioclase are relatively sodic (An33–An23.5). Deduced thermobarometric data from different lithomembers clearly correspond to the observed preservation of complete ophiolite suite.

  7. New moon from an old hand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael John O'Hara


    The outcome of the Apollo lunar exploration program 1969-1974 was a model of lunar petrogenesis which ignored the probability of selective volatilisation of gases and alkalis from fire-fountaining lunar basalts. It overlooked the fact that the average compositions of the erupted basalts were those of plagioclase-saturated and low-pressure cotectic liquids on eruption, cleafly indicating that they were not primary magmas. The basalts may have undergone evolution by gabbro fractionation within the lunar crust, perhaps in large lava lakes now solidified as the lunar maria. The existing model involving a global magma ocean and plagioclase flotation to form the lunar crust arises solely from the incorrect assumption that the basalts are primary magmas. The plagioclase flotation hypothesis requires the presence of a significant positive europium anomaly in the lunar highland crust, and was founded upon its alleged presence. However, that positive anomaly is neither established by the original data set nor by the much broader current data set. Critical observations, and experiments which will advance the debate are suggested, and alternative interpretations outlined.

  8. Characterization of some clay deposits in South West Nigeria

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    Fatai Olufemi ARAMIDE


    Full Text Available Clay minerals are the most important industrial minerals whose application is dependent on its structure and chemical composition. Mineralogical, chemical compositions, phase constitutions, and microstructural morphology of certain clay minerals from three different deposits in south western Nigeria were investigated using state-of-the-art equipment. These were done with the intention of determining the appropriate application for the clay minerals. It was observed that the major phases in the clay samples from the three different deposits are kaolinite, microcline, muscovite/illite, plagioclase/albite and quartz. These phases were observed in varied percentages. It was concluded that sample A (Ifon clay which contains very low kaolinite (5.63%; could not use for making high temperature caliber refractories. But due to its high content of feldspar, it could be processed for the production of feldspar for glass and iron making industries. Sample B is considered to be appropriate for the production the refractory composite due to its most appropriate content of both kaolinite (23.74% kaolinite and feldspars (26.12% microcline and 11.28% plagioclase/albite which is necessary for producing mullite fibers in ceramic matrix at a temperature of around 1400oC. Sample C (Iseyin clay, which contains very low feldspars (3.00% microcline and 3.08% plagioclase/albite and high content of kaolinite was considered suitable for further processing for making high temperature caliber refractories.

  9. Origin of minor and trace element compositional diversity in anorthitic feldspar phenocrysts and melt inclusions from the Juan de Fuca Ridge (United States)

    Adams, David T.; Nielsen, Roger L.; Kent, Adam J.R.; Tepley, Frank J.


    Melt inclusions trapped in phenocryst phases are important primarily due to their potential of preserving a significant proportion of the diversity of magma composition prior to modification of the parent magma array during transport through the crust. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of formational and post-entrapment processes on the composition of melt inclusions hosted in high anorthite plagioclase in MORB. Our observations from three plagioclase ultra-phyric lavas from the Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge document a narrow range of major elements and a dramatically greater range of minor and trace elements within most host plagioclase crystals. Observed host/inclusion partition coefficients for Ti are consistent with experimental determinations. In addition, observed values of DTi are independent of inclusion size and inclusion TiO2 content of the melt inclusion. These observations preclude significant effects from the re-homogenization process, entrapment of incompatible element boundary layers or dissolution/precipitation. The observed wide range of TiO2 contents in the host feldspar, and between bands of melt inclusions within individual crystals rule out modification of TiO contents by diffusion, either pre-eruption or due to re-homogenization. However, we do observe comparatively small ranges for values of K2O and Sr compared to P2O5 and TiO2 in both inclusions and crystals that can be attributed to diffusive processes that occurred prior to eruption.

  10. Depositional conditions of the coal-bearing Hirka Formation beneath late Miocene explosive volcanic products in NW central Anatolia, Turkey

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    Sener, M. [Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey). Dept. of Geology


    This work focuses on the relationship between the coal deposition and explosive volcanism of the Miocene basin, NW central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal-bearing Hirka Formation was deposited over the Galatian Andesitic Complex and/or massive lagoonal environments during the Miocene. The investigated lignite is a high ash (from 32 to 58%) and sulphur (from 1.43 to 3.03%) lignite which is petrographically characterised by a high humunite content. The mineral matter of the studied lignite samples is made up of mainly clay minerals (illite-smectite and kaolinite), plagioclase and quartz in Bolu coal field, clay minerals (illite-smectite, smectite and illite), quartz, calcite, plagioclase and gypsum in Seben coal field, quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase and clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) in Kibriscik, and dolomite, quartz, clinoptilolite, opal CT and gypsum in Camhdere coal field. The differences in these four types of lignite with specific mineralogical patterns may be due to the explosive volcanic events and depositional conditions which changed from one coal field to the others. There is a zonation from SW to SE in the studied area for zeolites. Carbonate minerals are commonly calcite in Seben and Kibriscik coal fields. In Bolu, coal samples are devoid of calcite and dolomite. These analyses show that there is an increase in the amount of Mg and a decrease in the amount of Na from the northwestern part to the southern part in the study area.

  11. Anorthosite assimilation and the origin of the Mg/Fe-related bimodality of pristine moon rocks - Support for the magmasphere hypothesis (United States)

    Warren, P. H.


    The geochemical bimodality of pristine rocks led to proposals that a major fraction of the crust (the Mg rich suite) formed in cumulates in numerous intrusions slightly younger than the magmasphere. It is suggested that assimilation helped to engender the bimodal patterns. Mass/energy balance calculations indicate that large proportions of plagioclase were probably assimilated from the older (Magmasphere-generated) ferroan anorthosite crust by most of the Mg-rich intrusive melts. The magmasphere, in the absence of assimilation probably did not yield appreciable plagioclase until fractional crystallization of mafic silicates had diminished the melt mg ratio to about 0.42. However, assuming identical melt composition, an Mg-rich intrusion assimilating ferroan anorthosite would have reached plagioclase saturation at a much higher mg, about 0.66. It is suggested that the current version of the magmasphere hypothesis (ferroan anorthosites = magmasphere flotation cumulates; Mg-rich rocks = products of younger, localized intrusions) is the only plausable mechanism for engendering the Mg/Fe-relate bimodality.

  12. Processes and sources during late Variscan Dioritic-Tonalitic magmatism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietranik, A.; Waight, Tod Earle


    The Gesiniec Intrusion (Strzelin Massif, East Sudetes) (~307-290 Ma) is composed predominantly of dioritic to tonalitic rocks with 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.7069 to 0.7080 and eNd=-3.1 to -4.2, emplaced as post-collisional magmas following the Variscan orogeny. In situ Sr isotope and trace...... element analyses of plagioclase were carried out on five diorite-tonalite samples with variable whole-rock 87Sr/86Sr compositions to constrain magma sources and elucidate magma chamber processes. Plagioclase is characterized by complex zoning patterns, such as patchy zoning, asymmetrical zoning and strong...... resorption between An-rich cores and more albitic rims.The range of Sr isotopic compositions recorded in plagioclase is 0.7069-0.7091, greater than that of the whole-rocks. No change in isotopic composition is observed across resorbed core-rim boundaries, as would be expected if the resorption was caused...

  13. Influence of water on rheology and strain localization in the lower continental crust (United States)

    Getsinger, A. J.; Hirth, G.; Stünitz, H.; Goergen, E. T.


    We investigated deformation processes within a lower crustal shear zone exposed in gabbros from Arnøya, Norway. Over a distance of ˜1 m, the gabbro progresses from nominally undeformed to highly sheared where it is adjacent to a hydrous pegmatite. With increasing proximity to the pegmatite, there is a significant increase in the abundance of amphibole and zoisite (which form at the expense of pyroxene and calcic plagioclase) and a slight increase in the strength of plagioclase lattice-preferred orientation, but there is little change in recrystallized plagioclase grain size. Phase diagrams, the presence of hydrous reaction products, and deformation mechanism maps all indicate that the water activity (aH2O) during deformation must have been high (˜1) in the sheared gabbro compared with the nonhydrated, surrounding host gabbro. These observations indicate that fluid intrusion into mafic lower crust initiates syn-deformational, water-consuming reactions, creating a rheological contrast between wet and dry lithologies that promote strain localization. Thus, deformation of lower continental crust can be accommodated in highly localized zones of enhanced fluid infiltration. These results provide an example of how fluid weakens lower continental crust lithologies at high pressures and temperatures.

  14. Microstructures and crystallographic preferred orientation of anorthosites from Oman ophiolite and the dynamics of melt lenses (United States)

    Morales, Luiz F. G.; Boudier, FrançOise; Nicolas, Adolphe


    Microstructures and crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of anorthosite samples interlayered in the upper and lower gabbro sections in the Oman ophiolite were analyzed in this paper. In the anorthosites registering the dynamics of the melt lenses, foliation is flat lying and starts to develop a few meters below the root zone of the sheeted dike complex (RZSDC). Microstructures and CPO of these rocks were developed in response to four different mechanisms: (1) density-controlled settling of plagioclase on the lens floor, (2) deposition of anorthosites related to convection currents, (3) melt compaction, and (4) uncompacted melt accumulation. In these anorthosites, the poles to (010) of plagioclase are parallel to the flow plane of convection, whereas the [100] axes and poles to (001) express the convection flow direction and the axis of convection rolls, respectively. The effect of subsidence of melt lens floor is recorded immediately below the RZSDC and is characterized by the rapid (but progressive) development of dipping foliation and lineation, reflecting the increase of deformation downsection. The degree of foliation and CPO development in the anorthosites is directly related to the distance of the center of the melt lenses before the subsidence starts. Despite the uncertain origin of the anorthosites from the lower gabbro section, all the samples lost the magmatic microstructural characteristics and presently are reequilibrated aggregates. However, they still preserve plagioclase CPO, where some of these patterns present similarities with the anorthosites from the upper gabbro section, but no evidence of intracrystalline deformation under high temperatures.

  15. Geochemical characteristics of hydrous basaltic magmas due to assimilation and fractional crystallization: the Ikoma gabbroic complex, southwest Japan (United States)

    Koizumi, N.; Okudaira, T.; Ogawa, D.; Yamashita, K.; Suda, Y.


    To clarify the processes that occur in hydrous basaltic magma chambers, we have undertaken detailed petrological and geochemical analyses of mafic and intermediate rocks from the Ikoma gabbroic complex, southwest Japan. The complex consists mainly of hornblende gabbros, hornblende gabbronorites, and hornblende leucogabbros. The hornblende leucogabbros are characterized by low TiO2 and high CaO contents, whereas the hornblende gabbronorites have high TiO2 and low CaO contents. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (SrI) of the hornblende gabbronorites and hornblende gabbros are higher than those of the hornblende leucogabbros and plagioclase, and they may have resulted from a higher degree of assimilation of metasediments. The geochemical features of the hornblende leucogabbros and hornblende gabbronorites can be explained by accumulation of plagioclase and ilmenite, respectively, in a hybrid magma that formed by chemical interaction between mafic magma and metasediment, whereas the hornblende gabbros were produced by a high degree of crustal assimilation and fractional crystallization of this hybrid magma. As a result of the density differences between crystals and melt, the Ikoma gabbroic rocks formed by the accumulation of plagioclase in the middle of the magma chamber and by the accumulation of ilmenite in the bottom of the chamber. Taking into account the subsequent assimilation and fractional crystallization, our observations suggest an enriched mantle (SrI = ~0.7071) as the source material for the Ikoma gabbros.

  16. P-T evolution of the garnet-amphibolites from the Quanji Massif: Amalgamation of the continental blocks in NW China and Links to assembly of the Columbia supercontinent (United States)

    Chen, N.; Mustafa, H. A.; Li, X.; Xia, B.; Wang, Q.; Sun, M.


    The garnet-bearing amphibolites from the eastern Quanji Massif, NW China had documented five-stage mineral growth, preserves important records of late Paleoproterozoic metamorphic processes and provide insights into the assembly history of the Quanji Massif with the Tarim Craton and other unknown continental blocks. The stage M1 is presented by assemblage of plagioclase + quartz + hornblende + porphyroblastic garnet core + rutile. P-T conditions for this stage cannot be quantitatively estimated. The stage M2 is represented by the porphyroblastic garnet rim with the matrix quartz, plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole, rutile and ilmenite. P-T conditions for this stage are estimated to be 1.0-1.2 GPa and 700-750 °C. The stage M3 is shown by symplectitic coronas of hornblende + plagioclase ± ilmenite around the embayed M2 porphyroblastic garnets and yields P-T conditions of 0.6-0.7 GPa and 600-650 °C. The stage M4 is represented by small garnet rings immediately growing on the embayed M2 garnet or around the M2 pyroxene and hornblende, or by assemblage of fine-grain garnet + hornblende + sodium plagioclase growing from the M3 intergrowth of hornblende + Calcium plagioclase. The stage M5 is represented by albite, chlorite, epidote and actinolite growing in greenschist-facies conditions reasonably of 400-500 °C at relatively lower pressures. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating on the metamorphic zircon indicates that the M2 garnet porphyroblast and related assemblage and the M3 coronas grew at ca. 1.95 Ga; the M4 garnet growth occurred at ca. 1.82 Ga with reference to regional geochronological data. Both M2 and M4 garnets and related assemblages are indicative of medium P/T-type metamorphism. Qualitative and quantitative P-T estimates for stages M1, M2 and M3 define a clockwise P-T path. The resulting data suggest two late Paleoproterozoic collisional metamorphic events with important implication for amalgamation of the Quanji Massif with unknown continental blocks in NW China and

  17. Differentiation mechanism of frontal-arc basalt magmas (United States)

    Kuritani, T.; Yoshida, T.; Kimura, J.; Hirahara, Y.; Takahashi, T.


    In a cooling magma chamber, magmatic differentiation can proceed both by fractionation of crystals from the main molten part of the magma body (homogeneous fractionation) and by mixing of the main magma with fractionated melt derived from low-temperature mush zones (boundary layer fractionation) (Jaupart and Tait, 1995, and references therein). The geochemical path caused by boundary layer fractionation can be fairly different from a path resulting from homogeneous fractionation (e.g., Langmuir, 1989). Therefore, it is important to understand the relative contributions of these fractionation mechanisms in magma chambers. Kuritani (2009) examined the relative roles of the two fractionation mechanisms in cooling basaltic magma chambers using a thermodynamics-based mass balance model. However, the basaltic magmas examined in the work were alkali-rich (Na2O+K2O > 4 wt.%). In this study, to explore differentiation mechanisms of frontal-arc basalt magmas that are volumetrically much more important than rear-arc alkali basalt magmas, the relative roles of the two fractionation mechanisms are examined for low-K tholetiitic basalt magma from Iwate Volcano, NE Japan arc, using the same mass balance model. First, the water content and the temperature of the Iwate magma were estimated. The Iwate lavas are moderately porphyritic, consisting of ~8 vol.% olivine and ~20 vol.% plagioclase phenocrysts. The olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts show significant compositional variations, and the Mg# of olivine phenocrysts (Mg#78-81) correlates positively with the An content of coexisting plagioclase phenocrysts (An85-92). The olivine phenocrysts with Mg# > ~82 do not form crystal aggregates with plagioclase. It is inferred from these observations that the phenocrysts with variable compositions were derived from a common magma with variable temperature in a magma chamber, and the plagioclase phenocrysts were all derived from mushy boundary layers along the walls of the magma chamber. By

  18. Large-scale magmatic layering in the Main Zone of the Bushveld Complex and episodic downward magma infiltration (United States)

    Hayes, Ben; Ashwal, Lewis D.; Webb, Susan J.; Bybee, Grant M.


    The Bellevue drillcore intersects 3 km of Main and Upper Zone cumulates in the Northern Limb of the Bushveld Complex. Main Zone cumulates are predominately gabbronorites, with localized layers of pyroxenite and anorthosite. Some previous workers, using bulk rock major, trace and isotopic compositions, have suggested that the Main Zone crystallized predominantly from a single pulse of magma. However, density measurements throughout the Bellevue drillcore reveal intervals that show up-section increases in bulk rock density, which are difficult to explain by crystallization from a single batch of magma. Wavelet analysis of the density data suggests that these intervals occur on length-scales of 40 to 170 m, thus defining a scale of layering not previously described in the Bushveld Complex. Upward increases in density in the Main Zone correspond to upward increases in modal pyroxene, producing intervals that grade from a basal anorthosite (with 5% pyroxene) to gabbronorite (with 30-40% pyroxene). We examined the textures and mineral compositions of a 40 m thick interval showing upwardly increasing density to establish how this type of layering formed. Plagioclase generally forms euhedral laths, while orthopyroxene is interstitial in texture and commonly envelops finer-grained and embayed plagioclase grains. Minor interstitial clinopyroxene was the final phase to crystallize from the magma. Plagioclase compositions show negligible change up-section (average An62), with local reverse zoning at the rims of cumulus laths (average increase of 2 mol%). In contrast, interstitial orthopyroxene compositions become more primitive up-section, from Mg# 57 to Mg# 63. Clinopyroxene similarly shows an up-section increase in Mg#. Pyroxene compositions record the primary magmatic signature of the melt at the time of crystallization and are not an artefact of the trapped liquid shift effect. Combined, the textures and decoupled mineral compositions indicate that the upward density

  19. Magmatic controls on eruption dynamics of the 1950 yr B.P. eruption of San Antonio Volcano, Tacaná Volcanic Complex, Mexico-Guatemala (United States)

    Mora, Juan Carlos; Gardner, James Edward; Macías, José Luis; Meriggi, Lorenzo; Santo, Alba Patrizia


    San Antonio Volcano, in the Tacaná Volcanic Complex, erupted ~ 1950 yr. B.P., with a Pelean type eruption that produced andesitic pyroclastic surges and block-and-ash flows destroying part of the volcano summit and producing a horse-shoe shaped crater open to the SW. Between 1950 and 800 yr B.P. the eruption continued with effusive andesites followed by a dacite lava flow and a summit dome, all from a single magma batch. All products consist of phenocrysts and microphenocrysts of zoned plagioclase, amphibole, pyroxene, magnetite ± ilmenite, set in partially crystallized groundmass of glass and microlites of the same mineral phases, except for the lack of amphibole. Included in the andesitic blocks of the block-and-ash flow deposit are basaltic andesite enclaves with elongated and ellipsoidal forms and chilled margins. The enclaves have intersertal textures with brown glass between microphenocrysts of plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxene, and olivine, and minor proportions of phenocrysts of plagioclase, hornblende, and pyroxene. A compositional range obtained of blocks and enclaves resulted from mixing between andesite (866 °C ± 22) and basaltic andesite (enclaves, 932 °C ± 22), which may have triggered the explosive Pelean eruption. Vestiges of that mixing are preserved as complex compositional zones in plagioclase and clinopyroxene-rich reaction rims in amphibole in the andesite. Whole-rock chemistry, geothermometry, experimental petrology and modeling results suggest that after the mixing event the eruption tapped hybrid andesitic magma (≤ 900 °C) and ended with effusive dacitic magma (~ 825 °C), all of which were stored at ~ 200 MPa water pressure. A complex open-system evolution that involved crustal end-members best explains the generation of effusive dacite from the hybrid andesite. Amphibole in the dacite is rimmed by reaction products of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxides produced by decompression during ascent. Amphibole in the andesite

  20. Chemical weathering rates in deep-sea sediments: Comparison of multicomponent reactive transport models and estimates based on 234U (United States)

    Maher, K.; Steefel, C. I.; Depaolo, D. J.


    Chemical weathering rates in natural systems are typically much slower than expected based on experiments and theory. There are several possible explanations. However, because it has been difficult to determine what effects in particular reduce the rates in specific settings, natural rates remain difficult to predict. Silicate-rich deep-sea sediments provide an ideal in-situ laboratory for investigating weathering rates because certain potentially important factors, such as advective transport through heterogeneous media, limitations on the availability of reactive surface area due to low porosity and/or cementation, unsaturated flow conditions, and seasonal variations in fluid flux and temperature, do not occur in this setting. Geochemical profiles from Site 984 in the North Atlantic are modeled using a multi-component reactive transport model (CRUNCH) to determine in-situ rates of plagioclase dissolution and other diagenetic processes, including sulfate reduction and anaerobic methane oxidation. Various possible processes which might contribute to slower rates in the field are considered, including the effect of mineral saturation state, secondary precipitation of clays, inhibition by dissolved aluminum, and the availability of reactive surface area. The reactive transport model includes an isotopic solid-solution formulation that tracks the isotopic composition of precipitating (calcite) and dissolving (plagioclase and calcite) phases, thus allowing the determination of plagioclase dissolution rates. The rate constants for plagioclase determined by geochemical transport modeling of major element profiles are within the same range determined from U-series calculations and suggest that natural weathering rates for this system are on the order of 10-17.5 to 10-17.7 mol/m2/sec assuming estimates of reactive surface area are correct, several orders of magnitude slower than laboratory-derived rates. The slow plagioclase rates are most likely due to the fact that

  1. Petrogenesis of the Dalongkai ultramafic-mafic intrusion and its tectonic implication for the Paleotethyan evolution along the Ailaoshan tectonic zone (SW China) (United States)

    Liu, Huichuan; Wang, Yuejun; Zi, Jian-Wei


    Layered ultramafic-mafic intrusions are usually formed in an arc/back-arc or intra-plate tectonic environment, or genetically related to a mantle plume. In this paper, we report on an ultramafic-mafic intrusion, the Dalongkai intrusion in the Ailaoshan tectonic zone (SW China), whose occurrence is closely associated with arc/back-arc magmatic rocks. The Dalongkai intrusion is composed of plagioclase-lherzolite, hornblende-peridotite, lherzolite and wehrlite at the bottom, cumulate plagioclase-pyroxenite at the middle part, changing to fine-grained gabbro towards the upper part of the intrusion, forming layering structure. Zircons from the plagioclase-pyroxenites and gabbros yielded U-Pb ages of 272.1 ± 1.7 Ma and 266.4 ± 5.8 Ma, respectively. The plagioclase-pyroxenites show cumulate textures, and are characterized by high MgO (25.0-28.0 wt.%; mg# = 80.6-82.3), Cr (1606-2089 ppm) and Ni (893-1203 ppm) contents, interpreted as early cumulate phases. By contrast, the gabbros have relatively lower mg# values (56.3-62.7), and Cr (157-218 ppm) and Ni (73-114 ppm) concentrations, and may represent frozen liquids. The plagioclase-pyroxenites and gabbros share similar chondrite-normalized REE patterns and primitive mantle-normalized trace element profiles which are analogous to those of typical back-arc basin basalts. The εNd(t) values for both rock types range from +2.20 to +4.22. These geochemical and isotopic signatures suggest that the Dalongkai ultramafic-mafic rocks originated from a MORB-like mantle source metasomatized by subduction-related, sediment-derived fluids. Our data, together with other geological evidence, indicate that the emplacement of the Dalongkai ultramafic-mafic intrusion most likely occurred in a back-arc extensional setting associated with subduction of the Ailaoshan Paleotethyan branch ocean during the Middle Permian, thus ruling out the previously speculated linkage to the Emeishan mantle plume, or to an intra-continental rift.


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    Castellanos O.M


    Full Text Available Metacarbonate rocks (pure and impure marbles, carbonate-silicate rocks, calc-silicate rocks and carbonate-bearing silicate rocks form a very complex group within the metamorphic sequence of the Silgará Formation at the central Santander Massif (CSM. These rocks are interpreted as derived from a sedimentary sequence (including limestones and dolostones, carbonate-bearing mudstones,  sandstones, tuffaceous and evaporitic sediments and marlstones overprinted by near-isochemical regional metamorphism. They usually appear as scarce intercalations from millimeter up to meter scale, within the high-grade pelitic rocks, in the lower part of the metamorphic section, although the proportion of metacarbonate rocks can be higher and different marble layers are exploited. We report for the first time the occurrence of a "reaction calcic exoskarn", which corresponds to
    such metacarbonate rocks, taking into account that a skarn can be developed during regional metamorphism and by different metasomatic processes, adjacent to intrusive bodies, along faults and shear zones, and what defines these rocks as a skarn is its mineralogy, which includes a variety of calc-silicate and associated minerals, usually dominated by garnet and pyroxene. Therefore, this paper focus attention to the occurrence of metacarbonate and
    related rocks, which occurs as small scale reactions zones that show a gradational contact from garnet-bearing pelitic rocks to marbles or carbonate-silicate rocks, giving particular interest to the calc-silicate rocks, which are characterized by the presence of elongated grains of banded clinopyroxene (diopside and scapolite and massive
    or scattered garnet. Several reaction-zones occur in the contact between impure calcite marble and garnet-bearing metapelite and the sequence of mineral assemblages in these reaction zones is: biotite + plagioclase K-feldspar garnet (Zone I, biotite + plagioclase K-feldspar garnet staurolite epidote

  3. Quantifying elemental compositions of primary minerals from granitic rocks and saprolite within the Santa Catalina Mountain Critical Zone Observatory (United States)

    Lybrand, R. A.; Rasmussen, C.


    Granitic terrain comprises a significant area of the earth's land surface (>15%). Quantifying weathering processes involved in the transformation of granitic rock to saprolite and soil is central to understanding landscape evolution in these systems. The quantification of primary mineral composition is important for assessing subsequent mineral transformations and soil production. This study focuses on coupling detailed analysis of primary mineral composition to soil development across an array of field sites sampled from the Santa Catalina Mountain Critical Zone observatory (SCM-CZO) environmental gradient. The gradient spans substantial climate-driven shifts in vegetation, ranging from desert scrub to mixed conifer forests. The parent material is a combination of Precambrian and Tertiary aged granites and quartz diorite. Primary mineral type and composition are known to vary among the various aged granitic materials and this variability is hypothesized to manifest as significant variation in regolith forming processes across the SCM-CZO. To address this variability, the mineral composition and mineral formulae of rock and saprolite samples were determined by electron microprobe chemical analyses. The rocks were pre-dominantly quartz, biotite, muscovite, orthoclase and calcium/sodium-rich plagioclase feldspars. Trace minerals observed in the samples included sphene, rutile, zircon, garnet, ilmenite, and apatite. Mineral formulae from electron microprobe analyses were combined with quantitative x-ray diffraction (QXRD) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) data to quantify both primary and secondary mineralogical components in soil profiles from each of the field sites. Further, electron microprobe analyses of <2mm mixed conifer saprolite revealed weathered plagioclase grains coated with clay-sized particles enriched in silica and aluminum (~25% and 15%, respectively), suggesting kaolin as the secondary phase. The coatings were interspersed within each plagioclase grain, a

  4. Melt segregation evidence from a young pluton, Takidani Granodiorite (Japan) (United States)

    Hartung, Eva; Caricchi, Luca; Floess, David; Wallis, Simon; Harayama, Satoru; Chiaradia, Massimo; Kouzmanov, Kalin


    We are presenting new petrological data from one of the youngest exposed plutons in the world, the Takidani Granodiorite (Japan), which has been suggested as a source for large volume ignimbrites (> 300km3). Takidani Granodiorite (1.54 Ma ± 0.23 Ma) is located within the active Norikura Volcanic Chain in the Northen Japan Alps and has been previously linked to large andesitic (1.76 Ma ± 0.17 Ma) and rhyolitic eruptions (1.75 Ma ± 0.17 Ma). The pluton is vertically zoned and consists of granites (67 to 68 wt.% SiO2) in the lower section, granodiorites (65 to 66 wt.% SiO2) in the middle section, a chemically more evolved fine-grained porphyritic unit (67 to 71 wt.% SiO2) near the roof and a marginal granodiorite at the roof (67 to 68 wt.% SiO2). The porphyritic texture of the more evolved unit near the roof indicates rapid crystallisation, which could be the result of the late intrusion of this unit at the roof of the magmatic system. However, no sharp contact is found between the underlying granodiorite and the porphyritic unit. Instead, a gradual change in rock fabric, whole-rock chemistry and mineralogy is observed suggesting that melt was extracted from the granodiorite. Electron microprobe analyses of plagioclases show three main crystal populations (Type I, II and III) with distinct anorthite and Fe contents. Type I plagioclase (An30-40) occurs dominantly within the marginal granodiorite at the roof. Type II plagioclase (An40-45) are common in the granodiorite and porphyritic unit. Type III plagioclase (An45-50) is predominantly present in the granite. All plagioclase populations share a common sodic rim (An22) across the different units. Takidani Granodiorite rocks are compared to crystallisation experiments from similar magmatic suites. Emplacement conditions of the Takidani Granodiorite are obtained from the latter as well as barometry, thermometry and hygrometry indicating that magmas were ultimately emplaced at around 200 MPa, 850° C to 875° C and

  5. Cumulate xenoliths from St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles Island Arc: a window into upper crustal differentiation of mantle-derived basalts (United States)

    Tollan, P. M. E.; Bindeman, I.; Blundy, J. D.


    In order to shed light on upper crustal differentiation of mantle-derived basaltic magmas in a subduction zone setting, we have determined the mineral chemistry and oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of individual cumulus minerals in plutonic blocks from St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles. Plutonic rock types display great variation in mineralogy, from olivine-gabbros to troctolites and hornblendites, with a corresponding variety of cumulate textures. Mineral compositions differ from those in erupted basaltic lavas from St. Vincent and in published high-pressure (4-10 kb) experimental run products of a St. Vincent high-Mg basalt in having higher An plagioclase coexisting with lower Fo olivine. The oxygen isotope compositions (δ18O) of cumulus olivine (4.89-5.18‰), plagioclase (5.84-6.28‰), clinopyroxene (5.17-5.47‰) and hornblende (5.48-5.61‰) and hydrogen isotope composition of hornblende (δD = -35.5 to -49.9‰) are all consistent with closed system magmatic differentiation of a mantle-derived basaltic melt. We employed a number of modelling exercises to constrain the origin of the chemical and isotopic compositions reported. δ18OOlivine is up to 0.2‰ higher than modelled values for closed system fractional crystallisation of a primary melt. We attribute this to isotopic disequilibria between cumulus minerals crystallising at different temperatures, with equilibration retarded by slow oxygen diffusion in olivine during prolonged crustal storage. We used melt inclusion and plagioclase compositions to determine parental magmatic water contents (water saturated, 4.6 ± 0.5 wt% H2O) and crystallisation pressures (173 ± 50 MPa). Applying these values to previously reported basaltic and basaltic andesite lava compositions, we can reproduce the cumulus plagioclase and olivine compositions and their associated trend. We conclude that differentiation of primitive hydrous basalts on St. Vincent involves crystallisation of olivine and Cr-rich spinel at depth

  6. Textural and chemical variation in phenocrysts from the early eruptions of Lutao volcanic island, the northern Luzon arc (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Iizuka, Y.; Huang, K.


    The Lutao volcanic island at the northern end of Luzon arc was formed by the subduction of South China Sea Plate beneath the Philippine Sea plate. Three edifices on the island were built up by pyroclastic deposits from different eruption stages. In this study, the textural and chemical zonings in phenocrysts are used to characterize the subvolcanic magma chamber for the earliest eruption stage (1.4-2.0 Ma). The high 143Nd/144Nd and 176Hf/177Hf ratios of six volcanic breccias collected from the lowermost layer indicate that they were derived from a common depleted mantle source. However, their compositional variations cannot be explained by simple fractional crystallization. The textures and compositions of the phenocrysts reveal the complication in the magma chamber processes. Compared to the average primitive arc basalts, two basaltic andesites have similar major element compositions with higher incompatible trace element abundances. The un-zoned or normally zoned olivine, plagioclase, and pyroxenes indicate the relatively undisturbed processes (961-1011°C and 2.8-5.5 kb) at the earlier crystallization stage. The peritectic olivine and abundance melt inclusions accompanied by abrupt XAn increase at the rims of plagioclase inferred recharge of H2O-rich mafic melt at later stage, which also triggered rapid eruption. The cryptic magma mixing had limited effect on isotopic signatures and major element variations, but had great chance to modify the bulk trace element abundances. In contrast, plagioclase phenocrysts in four low-mg# basaltic samples contain An-rich dissolved or resorbed cores with abundant melt inclusions, which were formed from rapid decompression of volatile-rich magma at H2O-undersaturated conditions. The calcic plagioclase and minor Mg-rich olivine formed at greater depth were rapidly brought to magma chamber to crystallized sodic plagioclase rim, clinopyroxene, and minor orthopyroxene (954-994°C and 2.1-4.1 kb). The normally zoned clinopyroxene

  7. Rhyolites contaminated with metapelite and gabbro, Lipari, Aeolian Islands, Italy: products of lower crustal fusion or of assimilation plus fractional crystallization? (United States)

    Barker, Daniel S.


    Pleistocene lavas from Monte S. Angelo and Chiesa Vecchia volcanoes on Lipari contain two suites of inclusions. A metapelitic suite consists of gneisses and granulites with combinations of cordierite, garnet, corundum, hercynite, andalusite, sillimanite, orthopyroxene, ilmenite, magnetite, biotite, plagioclase, and quartz. A gabbroic suite has cumulus texture and contains plagioclase, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and magnetite. All megacryst phases in the lavas appear to be derived from rock fragments, with the exception of euhedral strongly zoned calcic plagioclase, and none has grown by homogeneous nucleation from liquid represented by the groundmass, which is peraluminous rhyolite (>70 wt% SiO2, >6 wt% K2O). Ground-mass microcrysts were nearly all derived from disaggregated metapelites; overgrowths of alkali feldspar on plagioclase and of orthopyroxene on clinopyroxene, and quartz intergrown with alkali feldspar, are the only phases that grew from the rhyolitic liquid. Euhedral cordierite, hercynite, and plagioclase at the margins of some rock fragments grew by reaction of metapelite with liquid. For grains in contact within metapelite inclusions, geothermometers and geobarometers yield estimates of equilibration conditions in the range of 800±100° C and 5±1 kbar. Compositions of phases in the same thin section, but not in the same inclusion, yield broadly erratic P and T estimates indicating disequilibrium among metapelite inclusions. Pyroxene thermometry in the gabbro suite indicates a crystallization temperature of 1020±50° C and a lack of subsequent thermal equilibration with the rhyolitic liquid. The metapelite suite may partly be restite, but much is xenolithic, derived from a vertical interval of perhaps several kilometers, and may have undergone a much earlier episode of melting. The gabbro fragments are accidental xenoliths incorporated as the magma rose. Contaminants (metapelite and gabbro) account for 50 vol.% of the lavas, and cause them to be

  8. Mechanics and Timescales of Magma Mixing Inferred by Texture and Petrology of Basalt Inclusions and Host Andesite From the 2006 Eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Vitale, M. L.; Browne, B. L.


    This study characterizes the texture, mineralogy and phenocryst disequilibrium textures in basaltic inclusions and host andesite lavas and scoria to advance our understanding of the mechanics and timescales of open system magma processes driving the 2006 eruption at Augustine Volcano, Alaska. Inclusions account for approximately 1 volume percent in all andesite lithologies emplaced during the explosive, continuous, and effusive eruption phases. In outcrop, quenched basaltic to andesite inclusions (51.3 to 57.3 weight percent SiO2) hosted by andesite lavas (59.1-62.6 weight percent SiO2) range in diameter from 1 cm to over 9 cm, are dark black and characterized by vesicular interiors, quenched and cuspate margins, and porphyritic texture. Inclusion mineralogy is dominated by phenocryst-sized plagioclase with lesser amounts of hornblende, clinopyroxene and olivine, as well as, microphenocrysts-sized plagioclase, hornblende, clinopryoxene, olivine, magnetite, ilmenite and apatite in a glassy, vesicular and acicular groundmass. Intrusion of a hotter, basaltic magma into a cooler silicic magma followed by inclusion formation through mingling processes is evidenced by (1) plagioclase crystal textures displaying (a) oscillatory zoned interiors surrounded by a dusty sieved layer and enclosed by clear, euhedral overgrowth rims, (b) coarsely-sieved interiors characterized by 0.01 mm -0.02 mm diameter melt inclusions and/or similarly sized inclusions of clinopyroxene, orthopryoxene, or hornblende, (2) Anorthite concentration profiles of engulfed host plagioclase crystals displaying contact with a basaltic magma, (3)Fe-Ti oxides from inclusions and low-silica andesite host recording core to rim temperatures ranging from 908°C to 1100°C, indicative of pre- and post- mixing temperatures, respectively, with oxygen fugacity approximately 2 log units above the nickel-nickel oxide buffer. The closest approximation of the basaltic end-member magma composition involved in magma

  9. Liquidus temperatures for the layered series of the Skaergaard intrusion (United States)

    Thy, P.; Tegner, C.; Lesher, C. E.


    A new petrographic study of the Skaergaard intrusion allows us to construct a profile through the 2200-meter layered series (LS) using GPS-located samples and drill cores. The petrographic and chemical results include textures, mineralogy, mineral compositions (cryptic variation), bulk gabbro compositions (major and trace elements), gabbro density, and calculated mineral mode variations. The cryptic variation shows a systematic nearly linear decline for An-content of plagioclase from An60 at the base of the exposed part of LZa to An29 at the top of UZc. The corresponding olivine compositions are Fo61 and pure fayalite, respectively. Olivine is present throughout the LS with the exception of MZ, where it only sporadically occurs. Augite varies in composition from Mg/(Mg+Fe2+) of 0.71 at the base to pure hedenbergite at the top and displays a strong decline in Al upward. Ca-poor pyroxenes are present throughout the lower part of the LS until and including the lower parts of UZa, only in part reflecting a large trapped liquid component in the lower part of LZ together with subsolidus equilibration. Ilmenite and magnetite appear as early crystallizing phases in LZc and persist until the top. Apatite first appears at the base of UZb, with the exception of a few appearances together with biotite in the LZ for which a high trapped liquid content is inferred. Quartz and orthoclase are present in small amounts in UZc. The modal contents of plagioclase, olivine, and augite display some variation throughout most of LS, with most notably a marked increase in olivine from UZb. Ilmenite and titanomagnetite decrease systematically upwards from ~20 % in LZc to Skaergaard intrusions liquid lines of descent. Here we evaluate the liquidus temperature for the Skaergaard layered series using the new plagioclase compositions. Plagioclase saturation in one-atmosphere melting experiments on evolved North Atlantic basalts is a function of An-content (mole %) and can be described by an

  10. An abrupt change in the magmatic source of rhyolite volcanism in Long Valley, CA recorded by pre-eruptive oxygen fugacities of the Early Rhyolites (Obsidians): evidence of transition from subduction-modified lithosphere to asthenosphere (United States)

    Waters, L.; Lange, R. A.


    Detailed mapping of the Long Valley (CA) region (Hildreth, 2004) reveals that the eruption of the Late Bishop Tuff (LBT) is followed by eruption of the Early Rhyolites (ER), which are obsidian lavas. The obsidians are paradoxical, as they erupted effusively, contain multiple phases (some of which vary in composition), and yet, they are crystal-poor. The obsidians are saturated in ≥7 phases (plagioclase + orthopyroxene + ilmenite + titanomagnetite + biotite + apatite + zircon ± pyrrhotite). Plagioclase and orthopyroxene crystals have rounded edges accompanying euhedral margins, and large (>200µm) ilmenites have swallow-tail growth. Plagioclase and orthopyroxene span a compositional range between An20-45 and En43-58, respectively, and phase equilibrium experiments confirm that these are phenocrysts, despite their complex textures. Pre-eruptive temperatures and fO2 values are calculated applying Fe-Ti oxide thermometry to all possible oxide pairs and range from 724-861°C and ∆NNO -0.3 to -0.9, respectively. Application of the plagioclase hygrometer to crystals in ER obsidians reveals pre-eruptive H2O contents of 3-5wt%. We propose that mineral compositions and textures within the ER obsidians record rapid growth due to degassing-induced crystallization of a superheated melt. Superheating is required to explain the origin of the ER lavas as it eliminates nucleation sites, requiring crystallization to occur on nuclei that form during degassing enabling effusive eruption of crystal-poor lavas. The ER obsidians differ from the LBT in their crystallinities (12%), phenocryst phases (e.g., sanidine is absent in ER obsidians), plagioclase compositions (An20-45 vs. An20-29), and fO2 values (∆NNO obsidians formed as partial melts of a mixed lithology, consisting of pre-existing crust and an additional component with low fO2. We propose that the reduced component in the ER source is aesthenospheric basalt, which suggests that a transition in mantle source, from

  11. Ultra Sodic gedrite and micro-scale metasomatic processes in granulitised kyanite eclogites from the Rhodope UHPM Province, Greece (United States)

    Moulas, Evangelos; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios K.; Connolly, James A. D.; Burg, Jean-Pierre


    The Rhodope Massif occupies most of northeastern Greece and southern Bulgaria and comprises high-grade metamorphic rocks such as metapelites with microdiamond inclusions. The (U)HP mineral paragenesis underwent extensive metamorphic overprint at granulite-facies followed by amphibolite-facies retrograde metamorphism. A kyanite-eclogite that occurs as lenses in orthogneisses from Thermes village was used to unravel the pressure-temperature-time path of the (U)HP rocks from the Rhodope. The peak-pressure mineral assemblage is omphacite, garnet, kyanite, phengite, rutile, apatite and zircon. Quartz is absent from the matrix and it can be found either as inclusions in garnet or as post-peak veins. This late quartz contains primary and secondary fluid inclusions implying the presence of a fluid phase during post high-pressure metamorphism. Kyanite is never observed in direct contact with quartz being armoured by an intervening stripe of plagioclase which itself shows zoning, becoming increasingly albitic towards quartz. Plagioclase formation at the Ky-Qtz interface requires certain Na and Ca influx that was provided by matrix omphacite. Two types of symplectites were formed by reaction between omphacite and kyanite. Firstly, corundum+plagioclase symplectites were formed at the expense of the jadeitic component of omphacite during decompression. Subsequently, the residual diopsidic component of omphacite reacted with the already formed corundum to give rise to spinel+plagioclase symplectites. The previous mechanisms demonstrate metasomatism in the micro-scale by diffusion controlled processes. During decompression matrix omphacite was decomposed to amphibole+plagioclase symplectites which reacted with garnet to form coronas consisting of two amphiboles (ortho- and clino-), plagioclase, ilmenite and magnetite. Biotite and plagioclase are also found as symplectites replacing phengite during decompression. Thermodynamic modelling of the symplectitic domains that replace

  12. The mineral dissolution rate conundrum: Insights from reactive transport modeling of U isotopes and pore fluid chemistry in marine sediments (United States)

    Maher, Kate; Steefel, Carl I.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Viani, Brian E.


    Pore water chemistry and 234U/ 238U activity ratios from fine-grained sediment cored by the Ocean Drilling Project at Site 984 in the North Atlantic were used as constraints in modeling in situ rates of plagioclase dissolution with the multicomponent reactive transport code Crunch. The reactive transport model includes a solid-solution formulation to enable the use of the 234U/ 238U activity ratios in the solid and fluid as a tracer of mineral dissolution. The isotopic profiles are combined with profiles of the major element chemistry (especially alkalinity and calcium) to determine whether the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field dissolution rates still exists when a mechanistic reactive transport model is used to interpret rates in a natural system. A suite of reactions, including sulfate reduction and methane production, anaerobic methane oxidation, CaCO 3 precipitation, dissolution of plagioclase, and precipitation of secondary clay minerals, along with diffusive transport and fluid and solid burial, control the pore fluid chemistry in Site 984 sediments. The surface area of plagioclase in intimate contact with the pore fluid is estimated to be 6.9 m 2/g based on both grain geometry and on the depletion of 234U/ 238U in the sediment via α-recoil loss. Various rate laws for plagioclase dissolution are considered in the modeling, including those based on (1) a linear transition state theory (TST) model, (2) a nonlinear dependence on the undersaturation of the pore water with respect to plagioclase, and (3) the effect of inhibition by dissolved aluminum. The major element and isotopic methods predict similar dissolution rate constants if additional lowering of the pore water 234U/ 238U activity ratio is attributed to isotopic exchange via recrystallization of marine calcite, which makes up about 10-20% of the Site 984 sediment. The calculated dissolution rate for plagioclase corresponds to a rate constant that is about 10 2 to 10 5 times smaller than

  13. Hydrothermal alteration and mass exchange in the hornblende latite porphyry, Rico, Colorado (United States)

    Larson, P.B.; Cunningham, C.G.; Naeser, C.W.


    The Rico paleothermal anomaly, southwestern Colorado, records the effects of a large hydrothermal system that was active at 4 Ma. This hydrothermal system produced the deep Silver Creek stockwork Mo deposit, which formed above the anomaly's heat source, and shallower base and precious-metal vein and replacement deposits. A 65 Ma hornblende latite porphyry is present as widespread sills throughout the area and provided a homogenous material that recorded the effects of the hydrothermal system up to 8 km from the center. Hydrothermal alteration in the latite can be divided into a proximal facies which consists of two assemblages, quartz-illite-calcite and chlorite-epidote, and a distal facies which consists of a distinct propylitic assemblage. Temperatures were gradational vertically and laterally in the anomaly, and decreased away from the centra heat source. A convective hydrothermal plume, 3 km wide and at least 2 km high, was present above the stock-work molybdenum deposit and consisted of upwelling, high-temperature fluids that produced the proximal alteration facies. Distal facies alteration was produced by shallower cooler fluids. The most important shallow base and precious-metal vein deposits in the Rico district are at or close to the boundary of the thermal plume. Latite within the plume had a large loss of Na2O, large addition of CaO, and variable SiO2 exchante. Distal propylitized latite samples lost small amounts of Na2O and CaO and exchanged minor variable amounts of SiO2. The edge of the plume is marked by steep Na2O exchange gradients. Na2O exchange throughout the paleothermal anomaly was controlled by the reaction of the albite components in primary plagioclase and alkali feldspars. Initial feldspar alteration in the distal facies was dominated by reaction of the plagioclase, and the initial molar ratio of reactants (alkali feldspar albite component to plagioclase albite component) was 0.35. This ratio of the moles of plagioclase to alkali feldspar

  14. Polarization of mafic and felsic rocks In the Skaergaard Layered Series (Invited) (United States)

    McBirney, A. R.; Johnston, A.; Webster, J. D.


    When it became apparent that plagioclase could never sink in a magma as iron rich and dense as that of the Skaergaard Intrusion, we were faced with the problem of explaining the formation of anorthositic layers, foundered blocks, and schlieren that consist almost entirely of plagioclase but were obviously stable on the floor of the intrusion. Sonnenthal (Jour. Pet., 1998, 39: 633-661) found that gabbroic blocks that fell from the roof series were originally more gabbroic and were altered metasomatically to anorthosites after they reached the floor were buried it the advancing front of crystallization. Their mafic components were expelled into the surrounding gabbro and replaced by plagioclase. Similar processes appear to have transformed parts of the Layered and Marginal Border Series into strongly polarized anorthosites and olivine pyroxenites. The studies of Filiberto and Treiman (Chem. Geol. 2009, 263: 50-68) of the effect of chlorine on the liquidus of basalts, together with our on-going experimental investigation of its effect on the system plagioclase-pyroxene, has opened new possibilities that may enable us to explain these enigmatic rocks. When Webster and his co-workers (Geoch Cosmoch. Acta, 2009, 73: 559-581) showed that, unlike water, chlorine is much more soluble in mafic silicate melts than felsic ones, these contrasting properties suggested that the effect of chlorine on the cotectic relations of plagioclase and pyroxene might be the opposite of that of water: it could depress the melting temperature of pyroxene just as water depressed that of plagioclase. Experiments currently underway at the American Museum of Natural History and University of Oregon are showing that this is indeed the case. Consider what might happen if a crystallizing gabbro were infiltrated by a chlorine-rich aqueous fluid of the kind that Larsen and Brooks (Jour. Pet., 1997, 35: 1651-79) have shown permeated the rocks while they were still at a high temperature. Flux melting

  15. Sphene-centered ocellar texture as a petrological tool to unveil the mechanism facilitating magma mixing (United States)

    Gogoi, Bibhuti; Saikia, Ashima; Ahmad, Mansoor


    The sphene-centered ocellar texture is a unique magma mixing feature characterized by leucocratic ocelli of sphene enclosed in a biotite/hornblende-rich matrix (Hibbard, 1991). The ocelli usually consist of plagioclase, K-feldspar and quartz with sphene crystals at its centre. Although geochemical and isotopic data provide concrete evidence for the interaction between two compositionally distinct magmas, the exact processes by which mixing takes place is yet uncertain. So, textural analysis can be used to decipher the behaviour of two disparate magmas during mixing. Presented work is being carried out on the sphene ocelli, occurring in hybrid rocks of the Nimchak Granite Pluton (NGP), to understand its formation while two compositionally different magmas come in contact and try to equilibrate. The NGP is ca. 1 km2in extent which has been extensively intruded by number of mafic dykes exhibiting well preserved magma mixing and mingling structures and textures in the Bathani Volcano-Sedimentary Sequence (BVSS) located on the northern fringe of the Proterozoic Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC) of eastern Indian Shield. From petrographic and mineral chemical studies we infer that when basaltic magma intruded the crystallizing granite magma chamber, initially the two compositionally different magmas existed as separate entities. The first interaction that took place between the two phases is diffusion of heat from the relatively hotter mafic magma to the colder felsic one followed by diffusion of elemental components like K and incompatible elements from the felsic to the mafic domain. Once thermal equilibrium was attained between the mafic and felsic melts, the rheological contrasts between the two phases were greatly reduced. This allowed the felsic magma to back-vein into the mafic magma. The influx of back-veined felsic melt into the mafic system disrupted the equilibrium conditions in the mafic domain wherein minerals like amphibole, plagioclase and biotite

  16. Melt inclusions are not reliable proxies for magmatic liquid composition: evidence from crystal-poor andesites and dacites in the Tequila volcanic field, Mexico (United States)

    Frey, H. M.; Lange, R. A.


    A compositional study of >200 melt inclusions in plagioclase and orthopyroxene phenocrysts from six crystal-poor (2-5 vol%) andesite and dacite lavas (60-68 wt% SiO2) from the Tequila volcanic field in the Mexico arc is used to evaluate whether melt inclusions in phenocrysts accurately record magmatic liquid compositions. The crystal-poor andesites and dacites were erupted contemporaneously with crystal-poor rhyolites, and there is a continuum in the SiO2 concentration of the erupted magmas. The liquid line of descent defined by the whole-rock compositions ranges from andesite to rhyolite (60-77 wt% SiO2), as illustrated on Harker diagrams. The crystal-poor andesites and dacites are multiply saturated with five to seven mineral phases (plagioclase + orthopyroxene + titanomagnetite + ilmenite + apatite ± augite ± hornblende), most of which crystallized via degassing during magma ascent (Frey and Lange, 2009). By comparison with phase equilibrium experiments from the literature, it is shown that the vast majority of crystals are phenocrysts and not xenocrysts. Textural evidence of rapid crystal growth includes skeletal, hopper, and swallow-tail morphologies and abundant melt inclusions. The inclusions range in size from a few microns to > 50 μm and occur as isolated pockets and extensive channels that mimic the crystal morphology. Inclusions are typically brown glass, with occasional microphenocrysts of titanomagnetite and/or apatite within or adjacent to the melt inclusions. The compositions of the melt inclusions in the plagioclase and orthopyroxene phenocrysts, when plotted on Harker diagrams, vary systematically from one another and from the liquid line of descent defined by the whole rock compositions of erupted magmas. For example, melt inclusions in plagioclase are systematically depleted in Al2O3 relative to the whole rock samples, whereas those in coexisting orthopyroxenes are systematically enriched in Al2O3. The opposite trend is found for FeO, where it

  17. Petrological cannibalism: the chemical and textural consequences of incremental magma body growth (United States)

    Cashman, Kathy; Blundy, Jon


    The textures of minerals in volcanic and plutonic rocks testify to a complexity of processes in their formation that is at odds with simple geochemical models of igneous differentiation. Zoning in plagioclase feldspar is a case in point. Very slow diffusion of the major components in plagioclase means that textural evidence for complex magmatic evolution is preserved, almost without modification. Consequently, plagioclase affords considerable insight into the processes by which magmas accumulate in the crust prior to their eventual eruption or solidification. Here, we use the example of the 1980-1986 eruptions of Mount St. Helens to explore the causes of textural complexity in plagioclase and associated trapped melt inclusions. Textures of individual crystals are consistent with multiple heating and cooling events; changes in total pressure ( P) or volatile pressure () are less easy to assess from textures alone. We show that by allying textural and chemical analyses of plagioclase and melt inclusions, including volatiles (H2O, CO2) and slow-diffusing trace elements (Sr, Ba), to published experimental studies of Mount St. Helens magmas, it is possible to disambiguate the roles of pressure and temperature to reconstruct magmatic evolutionary pathways through temperature-pressure-melt fraction ( T-- F) space. Our modeled crystals indicate that (1) crystallization starts at > 300 MPa, consistent with prior estimates from melt inclusion volatile contents, (2) crystal cores grow at = 200-280 MPa at F = 0.65-0.7, (3) crystals are transferred to = 100-130 MPa (often accompanied by 10-20 °C of heating), where they grow albitic rims of varying thicknesses, and (4) the last stage of crystallization occurs after minor heating at ~ 100 MPa to produce characteristic rim compositions of An50. We hypothesize that modeled decreases in excess of ~50 MPa most likely represent upward transport through the magmatic system. Small variations in modeled , in contrast, can be effected by

  18. Petrology of arkosic sandstones, Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation and Pennsylvanian and Permian Sangre de Cristo Formation, Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado - data and preliminary interpretations (United States)

    Lindsey, D.A.


    This report describes the mineral and chemical composition of immature, arkosic sandstones of the Pennsylvanian Minturn and Pennsylvanian and Permian Sangre de Cristo Formations, which were derived from the Ancestral Rocky Mountains. Located in the Sangre de Cristo Range of southern Colorado, the Minturn and Sangre de Cristo Formations contain some of the most immature, sodic arkoses shed from the Ancestral Rocky Mountains. The Minturn Formation was deposited as fan deltas in marine and alluvial environments; the Sangre de Cristo Formation was deposited as alluvial fans. Arkoses of the Minturn and Sangre de Cristo Formations are matrix-rich and thus may be properly considered arkosic wackes in the terminology of Gilbert (Williams and others, 1954). In general, potassium feldspar and plagioclase are subequal in abundance. Arkose of the Sangre de Cristo Formation is consistently plagioclase-rich; arkose from the Minturn Formation is more variable. Quartz and feldspar grains are accompanied by a few percent rock fragments, consisting mostly of intermediate to granitic plutonic rocks, gneiss, and schist. All of the rock fragments seen in sandstone are present in interbedded conglomerate, consistent with derivation from a Precambrian terrane of gneiss and plutonic rocks much like that exposed in the present Sangre de Cristo Range. Comparison of mineral and major oxide abundances reveals a strong association of detrital quartz with SiO2, all other detrital minerals (totaled) with Al2O3, potassium feldspar plus mica with K2O, and plagioclase with Na2O. Thus, major oxide content is a good predictor of detrital mineralogy, although contributions from matrix and cement make these relationships less than perfect. Detrital minerals and major oxides tend to form inverse relationships that reflect mixtures of varying quantities of minerals; when one mineral is abundant, the abundance of others declines by dilution. In arkose of the Minturn and Sangre de Cristo Formations, the

  19. Nepheline formation in chondrite parent bodies: Verification through experiments (United States)

    Ichimura, Shun; Seto, Yusuke; Tomeoka, Kazushige


    Nepheline is present as fine grains mainly in refractory inclusions and chondrules in CV and CO carbonaceous chondrites. The nepheline has been formed primarily by replacement of melilite and plagioclase in refractory inclusions and plagioclase and glass in chondrules. The nepheline formation is thought to have occurred during aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism in the meteorite parent bodies. To verify this hypothesis, we performed the following experiments. Hydrothermal experiments of gehlenite (Al-rich melilite) and plagioclase (An48) were carried out at 200 °C and ∼15 bar for 168 h using solutions of pH 0, 7, 13, and 14 with a uniform Na concentration. In the gehlenite experiments, various amounts of SiO2 were added. The results revealed that a Na zeolite, analcime, was produced from 10/3 and 10/6 mixtures of gehlenite/SiO2 at pH 7, 13, and 14, and from a 10/10 mixture of gehlenite/SiO2 and plagioclase at pH 13 and 14. In particular, at pH 14, in addition to analcime, significant amounts of two other zeolites, fabriesite and hydroxycancrinite, were produced from the 10/6 mixture of gehlenite/SiO2, and fabriesite from plagioclase. Isothermal heating experiments for 24 h showed that fabriesite, hydroxycancrinite, and analcime transform to nepheline at 600-650, 550-600, and 750-800 °C, respectively. Differential thermal analysis of these zeolites revealed that fabriesite and hydroxycancrinite exhibit exothermic peaks, which correspond to transformation to nepheline, and that the temperatures of those peaks decrease steadily with decreasing heating rate. Kinetic analysis using these data revealed that fabriesite transforms to nepheline at 102 yr and hydroxycancrinite transforms to nepheline at 1 yr. Analcime heated non-isothermally at a rate of 1 °C/min transformed to nepheline at temperature higher than that determined by the isothermal experiments, suggesting that its transformation temperature also decreases if it is heated for a much longer

  20. Contact metamorphism, partial melting and fluid flow in the granitic footwall of the South Kawishiwi Intrusion, Duluth Complex, USA (United States)

    Benko, Z.; Mogessie, A.; Molnar, F.; Severson, M.; Hauck, S.; Lechler, P.; Arehart, G.


    The footwall of the South Kawishiwi Intrusion (SKI) a part of the Mesoproterozoic (1.1 Ga) Duluth Complex consists of Archean granite-gneiss, diorite, granodiorite (Giant Range Batholith), thin condensed sequences of Paleoproterozoic shale (Virginia Fm.), as well as banded iron formation (Biwabik Iron Fm). Detailed (re)logging and petrographic analysis of granitic footwall rocks in the NM-57 drillhole from the Dunka Pit area has been performed to understand metamorphic processes, partial melting, deformation and geochemical characteristics of de-volatilization or influx of fluids. In the studied drillhole the footwall consists of foliated metagranite that is intersected by mafic (dioritic) dykes of older age than the SKI. In the proximal contact zones, in the mafic dykes, the orthopyroxene+clinopyroxene+plagioclase+quartz+Fe-Ti-oxide+hornblende±biotite porphyroblasts embedded in a plagioclase+K-feldspar+orthopyroxene+apatite matrix indicate pyroxene-hornfels facies conditions. Migmatitization is revealed by the euhedral crystal faces of plagioclase and pyroxene against anhedral quartz crystals in the in-situ leucosome and by the presence of abundant in-source plagioclase±biotite leucosome veinlets. Amphibole in the melanosome of mafic dykes was formed with breakdown of biotite and implies addition of H2O to the system during partial melting. Towards the deeper zones, the partially melted metatexite-granite can be characterized by K-feldspar+plagioclase+quartz+ortho/clinopyroxene+biotite+Fe-Ti-oxide+apatite mineral assemblage. The felsic veins with either pegmatitic or aplititic textures display sharp contact both to the granite and the mafic veins. They are characterized by K-feldspar+quartz±plagioclase±muscovite mineral assemblage. Sporadic occurrence of muscovite suggest local fluid saturated conditions. Emplacement of gabbroic rocks of the SKI generated intense shear in some zones of the granitic footwall resulting in formation of biotite-rich mylonites with

  1. Unraveling eclogite-facies fluid-rock interaction using thermodynamic modelling and whole-rock experiments: the in-situ eclogitization of metapelites from Val Savenca (Sesia Zone, Western Alps) (United States)

    Jentsch, Marie; Tropper, Peter


    A common feature of HP and UHP terranes is the subduction of crustal rocks to great depths. Previous investigations have shown that this process is triggered by fluids present during an eclogite-facies metamorphic overprint. An examples is exposed in the metapelites at Val Savenca in the Sesia-Lanzo Zone, Italy where Alpine eclogite-facies metamorphism and fluid flow led to partial transformation of Variscan amphibolite-eclogite facies metapelites (garnet + biotite + sillimanite + K-feldspar + plagioclase + quartz) to zoisite ± jadeite + kyanite + phengite + quartz. This transformation took place under P-T conditions of 1.7 - 2.1 GPa at 600°C and low a(H2O) of 0.3-0.6. The replacement of plagioclase by jadeite + zoisite + kyanite + quartz takes place also along former fractures. Biotite is replaced by the assemblage phengite + omphacite ± kyanite adjacent to former plagioclase, otherwise by phengite + rutile/titanite. Garnet and clinopyroxene show variable compositions depending in which micro-domain (plagioclase or biotite) they grew. The extreme development of microdomains can best be studied by thermodynamic pseudosection modelling of individual microdomains using stoichiometric mixtures of protolith minerals from this domain and the program DOMINO (De Capitani & Petrakakis, 2010). The aim of these calculations was: 1.) to reproduce the observed mineral assemblage and 2.) to provide constraints on the amount of fluid present in the transformation. The results so far indicate that the amount of fluid was very low, otherwise paragonite would have formed instead of jadeite and reproduction of the observed mineral assemblage has only been partly successful so far since biotite is still stable in the calculations. In addition to understand the role of fluids in the mineralogical and textural transformation piston-cylinder experiments with a fresh, natural orthogneiss granulite from the Moldanubic Unit in upper Austria with the assemblage garnet + biotite + K

  2. Petrology of arkosic sandstones, Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation and Pennsylvanian and Permian Sangre de Cristo Formation, Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado - data and preliminary interpretations (United States)

    Lindsey, D.A.


    This report describes the mineral and chemical composition of immature, arkosic sandstones of the Pennsylvanian Minturn and Pennsylvanian and Permian Sangre de Cristo Formations, which were derived from the Ancestral Rocky Mountains. Located in the Sangre de Cristo Range of southern Colorado, the Minturn and Sangre de Cristo Formations contain some of the most immature, sodic arkoses shed from the Ancestral Rocky Mountains. The Minturn Formation was deposited as fan deltas in marine and alluvial environments; the Sangre de Cristo Formation was deposited as alluvial fans. Arkoses of the Minturn and Sangre de Cristo Formations are matrix-rich and thus may be properly considered arkosic wackes in the terminology of Gilbert (Williams and others, 1954). In general, potassium feldspar and plagioclase are subequal in abundance. Arkose of the Sangre de Cristo Formation is consistently plagioclase-rich; arkose from the Minturn Formation is more variable. Quartz and feldspar grains are accompanied by a few percent rock fragments, consisting mostly of intermediate to granitic plutonic rocks, gneiss, and schist. All of the rock fragments seen in sandstone are present in interbedded conglomerate, consistent with derivation from a Precambrian terrane of gneiss and plutonic rocks much like that exposed in the present Sangre de Cristo Range. Comparison of mineral and major oxide abundances reveals a strong association of detrital quartz with SiO2, all other detrital minerals (totaled) with Al2O3, potassium feldspar plus mica with K2O, and plagioclase with Na2O. Thus, major oxide content is a good predictor of detrital mineralogy, although contributions from matrix and cement make these relationships less than perfect. Detrital minerals and major oxides tend to form inverse relationships that reflect mixtures of varying quantities of minerals; when one mineral is abundant, the abundance of others declines by dilution. In arkose of the Minturn and Sangre de Cristo Formations, the

  3. Long-term flow-through column experiments and their relevance to natural granitoid weathering rates (United States)

    White, Arthur F.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Lawrence, Corey R.; Vivit, Davison V.; Stonestrom, David A.


    Four pairs of fresh and partly-weathered granitoids, obtained from well-characterized watersheds—Merced River, CA, USA; Panola, GA, USA; Loch Vale, CO, USA, and Rio Icacos, Puerto Rico—were reacted in columns under ambient laboratory conditions for 13.8 yrs, the longest running experimental weathering study to date. Low total column mass losses (Fe-oxyhydroxide precipitation. Surface areas returned to within factors of 2 to 3 of their original values after dithionite extraction. Miscible displacement experiments indicated homogeneous plug flow with negligible immobile water, commonly cited for column experiments. Fresh granitoid effluent solute concentrations initially declined rapidly, followed by much slower decreases over the next decade. Weathered granitoid effluent concentrations increased modestly over the same time period, indicating losses of natural Fe-oxide and/or clay coatings and the increased exposure of primary mineral surfaces. Corresponding (fresh and weathered) elemental effluent concentrations trended toward convergence during the last decade of reaction. NETPATH/PHREEQC code simulations indicated non-stoichiometric dissolution involving Ca release from disseminated calcite and excess K release from interlayer biotite. Effluent 87Sr/85Sr ratios reflected a progressive weathering sequence beginning and ending with 87Sr/85Sr values of plagioclase with an additional calcite input and a radiogenic biotite excursion proportional to the granitoid ages.Effluents became thermodynamically saturated with goethite and gibbsite, slightly under-saturated with kaolinite and strongly under-saturated with plagioclase, consistent with kinetically-limited weathering in which solutes such as Na varied with column flow rates. Effluent Na concentrations showed no clear trend with time during the last decade of reaction (fresh granitoids) or increased slowly with time (weathered granitoids). Analysis of cumulative Na release indicated that plagioclase dissolution

  4. Solidification of Trapped Liquid in Rocks and Crystals (United States)

    Morse, S. A.


    Trapped liquid in an igneous cumulate solidifies over a range of time and temperature that can be retrieved by use of the lever rule in binary solutions applied to plagioclase using the range in the An content found for the individual rock studied. The resident crystals in the cumulate count in the phase equilibria as though deposited by the resident liquid in pure fractional crystallization at the moment of trapping. The An range (Morse JPet 53:891, 2012) when measured in sufficient detail, defines the solidification history. The instantaneous solid composition along the solidus defines the zoning of the plagioclase as it follows the trapped liquid on the liquidus. The reference bulk composition of the trapped liquid is given by an intercept on the initial solid-liquid lever, defined by the fraction of plagioclase in the trapped parent magma times the residual porosity. The mafic fraction is assumed to solidify by reaction independently of the plagioclase zoning. The residual porosity is calculated from the An range when that is calibrated to a value independently determined from the evolved components. Examples from a recent treatment of residual porosity (cited above) will be given for the solidification of selected rock compositions from the Kiglapait and Skaergaard intrusions. The same principles apply to the solidification of melt inclusions, with the difference that the latter tend to sample an evolved sheath by capture, rather than a parent magma trapped by closure of a cumulate. Melt inclusions are evolved from birth, and then are likely to evolve further with continued growth and re-equilibration of the container. The cumulate, by contrast, given any small degree of adcumulus growth, has had time to exchange the evolved rejected solute owing to its slow solidification, so its trapped liquid is the contemporaneous magma at the cumulate interface. Experimental results on melt inclusions in mafic magma demonstrate their intrinsic evolved nature. For example

  5. The paleomagnetism of single silicate crystals: Recording geomagnetic field strength during mixed polarity intervals, superchrons, and inner core growth (United States)

    Tarduno, J. A.; Cottrell, R. D.; Smirnov, A. V.


    The basic features of the geomagnetic reversal chronology of the last 160 million years are well established. The relationship between this history and other features of the field, however, has been elusive. The determination of past field strength (paleointensity) is especially challenging. Commonly accepted results have come from analyses of bulk samples of lava. Historic lavas have been shown to faithfully record the past field strength when analyzed using the Thellier double-heating method. Data from older lavas, however, tend to show effects of in situ and laboratory-induced alteration. Here we review an alternative approach. Single plagioclase crystals can contain minute magnetic inclusions, 50-350 nm in size, that are potential high-fidelity field recorders. Thellier experiments using plagioclase feldspars from an historic lava on Hawaii provide a benchmark for the method. Rock magnetic data from older lavas indicate that the feldspars are less susceptible to experimental alteration than bulk samples. This resistance is likely related to the lack of clays. In addition, magnetic minerals are sheltered by the encasing silicate matrix from natural alteration that can otherwise transform the well-defined thermoremanent magnetization into an irresolute chemical remanent magnetization. If there is a relationship between geomagnetic reversal frequency and paleointensity, it should be best expressed during superchrons, intervals with few (or no) reversals. Thellier data sets based on single plagioclase crystals from lavas erupted during the Cretaceous Normal Polarity Superchron (~83-120 million years ago) suggest a strong (>12 × 1022 Am2), stable field, consistent with an inverse relationship between reversal frequency and paleointensity. Superchrons may represent times when the pattern of core-mantle boundary heat flux allows the geodynamo to operate at peak efficiency, as suggested in some numerical models. Thellier data from single plagioclase crystals formed

  6. Low magnification EBSD mapping of texture distribution in a fine-grained matrix (United States)

    Gardner, Joseph; Mariani, Elisabetta; Wheeler, John


    The study of texture (CPO) in rocks is often restricted to individual phases within a given sample or specific area of said sample. Large scale EBSD mapping of the matrix of a greenschist facies albite mylonite has shown that an overall significant CPO within albite grains is strongly domainal, and each domain has a unique CPO that is independent of both common slip systems in plagioclase and the specimen geometry (i.e. foliation and lineation). Observational evidence suggests the metamorphic breakdown of plagioclase to albite (Ab) plus a Ca-bearing phase (clinozoisite, Cz) has produced a two phase mixture in which each phase has a contrasting solubility. New grains of albite are thought to nucleate epitaxially from original plagioclase as a reaction front passes through parent grains. A pseudomorphic region of Ab plus Cz after an original plagioclase crystal, protected from intense deformation by enclosure in a cm-scale augite clast, gives insight into pre-deformation daughter grain distributions. The albite in the region inherits a strong CPO and 180° misorientation peak from a relict twin pattern due to epitaxial growth while clinozoisite is randomly distributed and oriented (despite some grains nucleating from the plagioclase parent twin boundary). In the deformed matrix, daughter Ab is seen to be the more mobile phase, having undergone obvious dissolution, transport and reprecipitation into fractures and pressure shadows, whereas Cz grains are relatively insoluble and rotate into parallelism with the foliation, forming bands that anastamose around Cpx porphyroclasts. Despite this modification, albite in the matrix retains significant CPOs that comprise distinct domains with sharp boundaries. A 180° misorientation peak thought to be a signature of twinning inherited from parent plagioclase is also observed in each domain. Why a CPO should be preserved under these conditions (contrary to our traditional understanding that CPOs are a signature of dislocation

  7. Petrology and geochemistry of mantle peridotites from the Kalaymyo and Myitkyina ophiolites (Myanmar): Implications for tectonic settings (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Zhou; Zhang, Chang; Xu, Yang; Wang, Jian-Gang; Chen, Yi; Guo, Shun; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Sein, Kyaing


    Ophiolites within Myanmar have been commonly divided into two belts, i.e., the Eastern Belt and Western Belt. The Kalaymyo ophiolite from the Western Belt crops out at the eastern margin of the Indo-Burma Range and was formed during the Early Cretaceous, whereas the Myitkyina ophiolite from the Eastern Belt was formed during the Middle Jurassic. Both ophiolites are characterized by the occurrence of big massifs of mantle peridotites. Mantle peridotites of the Kalaymyo ophiolite are mainly composed of spinel lherzolites and harzburgites, with minor plagioclase peridotites. Mantle peridotites of the Myitkyina ophiolite mainly consist of spinel harzburgites, with minor dunites. Spinel lherzolites from the Kalaymyo ophiolite have relatively fertile compositions, with 40.12-45.19 wt.% MgO, 1.1-2.74 wt.% Al2O3 and 0.67-2.67 wt.% CaO. Their spinels have Cr# values of 0.12-0.4, yielding fractional melting degrees of 3-15%. In comparison, spinel harzburgites from the Kalaymyo ophiolite are more refractory, with 42.08-48.73 wt.% MgO, 0.09-0.99 wt.% Al2O3 and 0.07-0.8 wt.% CaO. Their spinels have Cr# values of 0.3-0.73, giving 12-21% degrees of fractional melting. Plagioclase peridotites from the Kalaymyo ophiolite have compositions intermediate between spinel lherzolites and harzburgites. Compared to the spinel peridotites, spinels in the plagioclase peridotites have relatively higher TiO2 contents. Harzburgites from the Myitkyina ophiolite, containing 40.88-48.16 wt.% MgO, 0.13-1.65 wt.% Al2O3 and 0.1-1.68 wt.% CaO, have refractory compositions similar to the Kalaymyo harzburgites. Spinels in the Myitkyina harzburgites with low TiO2 contents (i.e., < 0.2 wt.%) have variable Cr# values of 0.28-0.72, yielding 11-21% degrees of fractional melting. Clinopyroxenes in all Kalaymyo peridotites display flat patterns in MREE and HREE, but variably LREE-depleted patterns. They also show remarkably negative Sr and Zr anomalies. Plagioclases in the Kalaymyo plagioclase peridotites

  8. Volcanic stratigraphy of intermediate to acidic rocks in southern Paraná Magmatic Province, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Angélica Polo


    Full Text Available This article presents the first map in detail scale for an area covered by Palmas type volcanic rocks in the south border of the eocretaceous Paraná Magmatic Province, south Brazil. The study of the structural features coupled with petrography and geochemistry made it possible to separate these rocks into three main volcanic sequences and recognize their stratigraphy. The older Caxias do Sul sequence rests directly over the first low-Ti basalt flows (Gramado type, and corresponds to the stacking of lobated lava flows, laminar flows and lava domes, mostly emitted as continuous eruptions; only the latest eruptions are intercalated with thin sandstone deposits. These rocks have dacitic composition (~ 68 wt% SiO2 with microphenocrysts of plagioclase and subordinate pyroxenes and Ti-magnetite immersed in glassy or devitrified matrix. A second volcanic sequence, named Barros Cassal, is composed of several lava flows of basaltic andesite, andesitic and dacitic composition (~ 54; ~ 57 and ~ 63 wt% SiO2 , respectively, with microphenocrysts of plagioclase, pyroxenes and Ti-magnetite. The frequent intercalation of sandstone between the flows attests to the intermittent behaviour of this event. The upper sequence, Santa Maria, is made up of more silica-rich (~ 70 wt% SiO2 rocks occurring as laminar flows, lobated flows and lava-domes. These rocks have rhyolitic composition with microphenocrysts of plagioclase and Ti-magnetite set in a glassy or devitrified matrix with microlites. The structures and textures of all three silicic sequences favor the interpretation that they had a predominantly effusive character, which is thought to be a reflection of the remarkably high temperatures of the lavas (~ 1,000 ºC.

  9. Multi-stage melt-rock interaction in the Mt. Maggiore (Corsica, France) ophiolitic peridotites: microstructural and geochemical evidence (United States)

    Rampone, Elisabetta; Piccardo, Giovanni B.; Hofmann, Albrecht W.


    Spinel and plagioclase peridotites from the Mt.Maggiore (Corsica, France) ophiolitic massif record a composite asthenosphere-lithosphere history of partial melting and subsequent multi-stage melt-rock interaction. Cpx-poor spinel lherzolites are consistent with mantle residues after low-degree fractional melting ( F = 5-10%). Opx + spinel symplectites at the rims of orthopyroxene porphyroclasts indicate post-melting lithospheric cooling ( T = 970-1,100°C); this was followed by formation of olivine embayments within pyroxene porphyroclasts by melt-rock interaction. Enrichment in modal olivine (up to 85 wt%) at constant bulk Mg values, and variable absolute REE contents (at constant LREE/HREE) indicate olivine precipitation and pyroxene dissolution during reactive porous melt flow. This stage occurred at spinel-facies depths, after incorporation of the peridotites in the thermal lithosphere. Plagioclase-enriched peridotites show melt impregnation microtextures, like opx + plag intergrowths replacing exsolved cpx porphyroclasts and interstitial gabbronoritic veinlets. This second melt-rock interaction stage caused systematic chemical changes in clinopyroxene (e.g. Ti, REE, Zr, Y increase), related to the concomitant effects of local melt-rock interaction at decreasing melt mass, and crystallization of small (<3%) trapped melt fractions. LREE depletion in minerals of the gabbronoritic veinlets indicates that the impregnating melts were more depleted than normal MORB. Preserved microtextural evidence of previous melt-rock interaction in the impregnated peridotites suggests that they were progressively uplifted in response to lithosphere extension and thinning. Migrating melts were likely produced by mantle upwelling and melting related to extension; they were modified from olivine-saturated to opx-saturated compositions, and caused different styles of melt-rock interaction (reactive spinel harzburgites, vs. impregnated plagioclase peridotites) depending on the

  10. Experimental and theoretical constraints on the origin of mid-ocean ridge geothermal fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndt, M.E.


    Hydrothermal experiments were performed using basalt, diabase, and two synthetic plagioclase bearing assemblages and Na-Ca-K-Cl fluids of seawater chlorinity at conditions from 350 to 425/sup 0/C and 250 to 400 bars. Dissolved Ca, Na, SiO/sub 2/, and pH appear to be controlled by equilibrium with plagioclase and epidote. Fluids reacting with diabase at low fluid/rock ratios (0.5-1) remain undersaturated with respect to quartz due to formation of olivine hydration products, whereas fluids reacting with basalt become supersaturated with respect to quartz due to breakdown of fractionated glass and formation of amphibole. High SiO/sub 2/ activities during basalt alteration, leads to high Ca and base metal concentrations and low pH compared to diabase alteration at the same conditions. Dissolved Li, K, Rb, and Ba concentrations reach higher levels during basalt alteration than during diabase alteration. Since these elements avoid incorporation into crystalline phases during solidification of magmas they are concentrated in the glass which is easily altered by fluids and explains their increased mobility during basalt alteration. Na-Ca-pH-SiO/sub 2/ relationships in vent fluids can be used to constrain reaction zone conditions assuming the fluids are equilibrated with plagioclase and epidote. The temperatures predicted by such models are higher than measured vent fluid temperatures. Dissolved Sr/Ca ratios for ridge crest fluids are similar to those produced during diabase alteration and higher than those produced during basalt alteration. This observation supports deep-seated reaction of the hydrothermal fluids with diabase dikes and/or gabbro for vent fluid origin. Only 4% of the Sr initially present in basalt is mobilized during hydrothermal alteration even after 800 hours of reaction.

  11. Geochemistry of the 1989-1990 eruption of redoubt volcano: Part II. Evidence from mineral and glass chemistry (United States)

    Swanson, S.E.; Nye, C.J.; Miller, T.P.; Avery, V.F.


    Early stages (December 1989) of the 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano produced two distinct lavas. Both lavas are high-silica andesites with a narrow range of bulk composition (58-64 wt.%) and similar mineralogies (phenocrysts of plagioclase, hornblende, augite, hypersthene and FeTi oxides in a groundmass of the same phases plus glass). The two lavas are distinguished by groundmass glass compositions, one is dacitic and the other rhyolitic. Sharp boundaries between the two glasses in compositionally banded pumices, lack of extensive coronas on hornblende phenocrysts, and seismic data suggest that a magma-mixing event immediately preceeded the eruption in December 1989. Textural disequilibrium in the phenocrysts suggests both magmas (dacitic and rhyolitic glasses) had a mixing history prior to their interaction and eruption in 1989. Sievey plagioclase and overgrowths of magnetite on ilmenite are textures that are at least consistent with magma mixing. The presence of two hornblende compositions (one a high-Al pargasitic hornblende and one a low-Al magnesiohornblende) in both the dacitic and rhyolitic groundmasses indicates a mixing event to yield these two amphibole populations prior to the magma mixing in December 1989. The pargasitic hornblende and the presence of Ca-rich overgrowths in the sievey zones of the plagioclase together indicate at least one component of this earlier mixing event was a mafic magma, either a basalt or a basaltic andesite. Eruptions in 1990 produced only andesite with a rhyolitic groundmass glass. Glass compositions in the 1990 andesite are identical to the rhyolitic glass in the 1989 andesite. Cognate xenoliths from the magma chamber (or conduit) are also found in the 1990 lavas. Magma mixing probably triggered the eruption in 1989. The eruption ended when this rather viscous (rhyolitic groundmass glass, magma capable of entraining sidewall xenoliths) magma stabalized within the conduit. ?? 1994.

  12. Plutonic xenoliths from Martinique, Lesser Antilles: evidence for open system processes and reactive melt flow in island arc crust (United States)

    Cooper, George F.; Davidson, Jon P.; Blundy, Jon D.


    The Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc is remarkable for the abundance and variety of erupted plutonic xenoliths. These samples provide a window into the deeper crust and record a more protracted crystallisation history than is observed from lavas alone. We present a detailed petrological and in situ geochemical study of xenoliths from Martinique in order to establish their petrogenesis, pre-eruptive storage conditions and their contribution to construction of the sub-volcanic arc crust. The lavas from Martinique are controlled by crystal-liquid differentiation. Amphibole is rarely present in the erupted lavas, but it is a very common component in plutonic xenoliths, allowing us to directly test the involvement of amphibole in the petrogenesis of arc magmas. The plutonic xenoliths provide both textural and geochemical evidence of open system processes and crystal `cargos'. All xenoliths are plagioclase-bearing, with variable proportions of olivine, spinel, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and amphibole, commonly with interstitial melt. In Martinique, the sequence of crystallisation varies in sample type and differs from other islands of the Lesser Antilles arc. The compositional offset between plagioclase (~An90) and olivine (~Fo75), suggests crystallisation under high water contents and low pressures from an already fractionated liquid. Texturally, amphibole is either equant (crystallising early in the sequence) or interstitial (crystallising late). Interstitial amphibole is enriched in Ba and LREE compared with early crystallised amphibole and does not follow typical fractionation trends. Modelling of melt compositions indicates that a water-rich, plagioclase-undersaturated reactive melt or fluid percolated through a crystal mush, accompanied by the breakdown of clinopyroxene, and the crystallisation of amphibole. Geothermobarometry estimates and comparisons with experimental studies imply the majority of xenoliths formed in the mid-crust. Martinique cumulate xenoliths are

  13. Geophysical and Chemical Weathering Signatures Across the Deep Weathered-Unweathered Granite Boundary of the Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory (United States)

    Richter, D., Jr.; Bacon, A. R.; Brantley, S. L.; Holbrook, W. S.


    To understand the relationship between geophysical measurements and chemical weathering at Earth's surface, we combine comprehensive chemical and physical analyses of a 70-m granite weathering profile in the Southern Piedmont in the southeastern United States. The research site is in the uplands of the Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory and is similar to many geomorphically stable, ancient, and highly-weathered Ultisol soils of the region. Surface and downhole geophysical analyses suggest significant physical changes to depths of about 40 m, where geophysical properties are consistent with competent and unweathered granite. At this depth, surface refraction velocities increase to >4.5 km/s; variations in downhole sonic velocities decrease by more than two-fold; and deviations in the downhole caliper log sharply decrease as well. Forty meters depth is also the depth of initiation of plagioclase feldspar weathering, as inferred from bulk geochemical measurement of the full 70-m deep core. Specifically, element-depth profiles, cast as mass transfer coefficient profiles using Ti and Zr as immobile elements, document inferred loss of plagioclase in the depth interval between 15 and 40-m depth. Plagioclase feldspar is the most abundant of the highly reactive minerals in the granite. Such a wide reaction front is characteristic of weathering granites. Some loss of K is observed at these depths but most K loss, as well as Mg loss, occurs at shallower depths. Nearby geophysical profiles and 3D stress models have been interpreted as showing that seismic velocities decrease at 40 m depth due to opening of fractures as rock is exhumed toward the surface. Given our interpretations of both the geochemical and geophysical data, we infer that the onset of chemical weathering of feldspar coincides with the opening of these fractures. The data highlight the ability of geochemistry and geophysics to complement each other and enrich our understanding of Earth's Critical Zone.

  14. Sandstone provenance and diagenesis in relation to Late Cretaceous regional depositional systems and paleogeography, Sacramento Basin, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, K.A. Jr. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (USA)); Nilsen, T.H. (Applied Earth Technology, Inc., Redwood City, CA (USA))


    Petrographic modal analyses of sandstone samples from the Upper Cretaceous Guinda, Forbes, Kone, Marsh Creek, Chico, Starky, Winters, and Mokelumne River formations of the Sacramento basin reveal that samples are dominated by plutoniclastic and volcaniclastic detritus, have intermediate plagioclase-to-total=feldspar ratios (0.48-0.65), and have high but variable L{sub v}/L ratios (0.51-0.80). Forbes/Kione sandstones, in comparison to Starkey/Winters samples, have higher proportions of volcaniclastic (plagioclase) to plutoniclastic (Q{sub m}, K) detritus and higher W{sub p}/total Q and L{sub m}/L{sub v} ratios. The Chico Formation, like the Starkey/Winters, is dominated by plutoniclastic material; in comparison to Forbes/Kione samples, the Chico has higher total lithic values (L{sub t}), especially in the L{sub m} fraction. These data strongly support derivation of the sands from the Cordilleran magmatic arc system to the north and east. Sandstones from the Chico, Starkey, Winters, and Mokelumne River formations were derived primarily from the dissected Sierran magmatic arc complex to the east, with a minor but significant secondary source in foothill belt metamorphic complexes. Forbes and Kione sandstones, in contrast, appear to have been derived from the Idaho Batholith and Blue Mountain regions of Idaho/Oregon to the north and northeast. When corrections are applied to account for significant diagenetic dissolution of plagioclase and compactional alteration of lithic fragments (especially L{sub v}), the dissected or transitional arc provenance for most samples is strengthened. Modal data and paleogeographic reconstructions suggest that during the early and middle Campanian, most detritus in the Sacramento basin was derived from the north/northeast (erosion of the Idaho batholith arc system), reflecting southward progradation of the Kion/Forbes delta-submarine fan system into the longitudinal forearc basin.

  15. Depositional conditions of the coal-bearing Hirka Formation beneath Late Miocene explosive volcanic products in NW central Anatolia, Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehmet Şener


    This work focuses on the relationship between the coal deposition and explosive volcanism of the Miocene basin, NW central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal-bearing Hirka Formation was deposited over the Galatian Andesitic Complex and/or massive lagoonal environments during the Miocene. The investigated lignite is a high ash (from 32 to 58%) and sulphur (from 1.43 to 3.03%) lignite which is petrographically characterised by a high humunite content. The mineral matter of the studied lignite samples is made up of mainly clay minerals (illite–smectite and kaolinite), plagioclase and quartz in Bolu coal field, clay minerals (illite–smectite, smectite and illite), quartz, calcite, plagioclase and gypsum in Seben coal field, quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase and clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) in Kıbrıscık, and dolomite, quartz, clinoptilolite, opal CT and gypsum in C¸ amlıdere coal field. The differences in these four types of lignite with specific mineralogical patterns may be due to the explosive volcanic events and depositional conditions which changed from one coal field to the others. There is a zonation from SW to SE in the studied area for zeolites such as Opal CT+smectite-clinoptilolite-analcime-K-feldspar. Carbonate minerals are commonly calcite in Seben and Kıbrıscık coal fields. In Bolu, coal samples are devoid of calcite and dolomite. These analyses show that there is an increase in the amount of Mg and a decrease in the amount of Na from the northwestern part to the southern part in the study area.

  16. Mafic Volcanism Along the Sinaloa Coast, Mexico, and its Relation to the Opening of the Gulf of California (United States)

    Orozco Esquivel, T.; Ferrari, L.; Lopez Martinez, M.


    We report on new localities with mafic volcanism along the Sinaloa coast, which record changes in the magma generation processes along the eastern margin of the Gulf of California. South of Culiacán, Sinaloa, isolated outcrops of basaltic lavas built a ca. 60 km long belt aligned to the SE. The similarity in the mineralogy and composition of the lavas suggest that these outcrops could have been part of a single flow. Lavas contain abundant plagioclase (up to 3 mm), and olivine (up to 1.5 mm) phenocrysts, and scarce clinopyroxene, in a relatively coarse matrix. In multiement diagrams, the lavas show the negative Nb and Ta, and positive Pb and Sr anomalies characteristic of subduction related rocks. The age determination of these rocks is in process, nevertheless, rocks with similar compositions are known from ~11 Ma mafic dikes that outcrop in southern Sinaloa. The Pericos volcanic field, located about 25 km to the NW of Culiacán is composed by lava flows, shield volcanoes, and cinder cones of basaltic composition that cover an area of aprox. 20 x 32 km, and have a well preserved morphology suggestive of a Pliocene-Quaternary age. Lavas are porphyritic and contain olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene in a microcrystalline matrix. Some lava flows contain abundant megacrysts of green clinopyroxene (up to 8 cm), olivine (up to 1 cm), and/or plagioclase (up to 1 cm), or aggregates of olivine and clinopyroxene. Trace element abundances are remarkably uniform among all analyzed samples and are characteristic of intraplate magmas. Rocks with very similar composition, mineralogy, and also containing megacrysts, have been reported in the Pliocene Punta Piaxtla and Mesa Cacaxtla, located 200 km to the SSE at the Sinaloa coast. Those similarities indicate that mafic intraplate volcanism related to the opening of the Gulf of California is more broadly represented in the area than previously considered.

  17. The petrology, geochronology and geochemistry of Hauhungatahi volcano, S.W. Taupo Volcanic Zone (United States)

    Cameron, Errol; Gamble, John; Price, Richard; Smith, Ian; McIntosh, William; Gardner, Mairi


    Hauhungatahi volcano is an eroded andesitic edifice 10 km west of Ruapehu volcano constructed on an upfaulted block of Mesozoic marine sediments. Hauhungatahi andesites are distinctively clinopyroxene-phyric with high ratios of clinopyroxene:plagioclase. This contrasts with the plagioclase-phyric dominated assemblages in the stratovolcanoes such as Ruapehu and Tongariro. Hauhungatahi andesites show high MgO (> 8.0% wt), Sr (> 400 ppm), Ni (> 100 ppm) and Cr (> 400 ppm) and low Si, Rb, Ba and Zr relative to andesites from Ruapehu volcano, with fractionated LREE (Ce/Sm) n ~ 2 and flat HREE (Dy/Yb) n ~ 1. Sr-isotope ratios are lower at equivalent Nd isotope ratios than Ruapehu andesites of the (oldest) Te Herenga Formation. 40Ar/ 39Ar step-heating experiments of groundmass concentrates of 4 samples have yielded ages between 881 ± 83 ka and 961 ± 59 ka, with a weighted mean age of 933 ± 46 ka, indicating that Hauhungatahi is significantly older than Ruapehu Volcano where volcanism commenced ~ 250-300 ka. Hauhungatahi is therefore similar in age to the older andesitic edifices that are marginal to the TVZ (eg Titiraupenga, Pureora and Rolles Peak). We suggest that these high-Mg andesites hold clues to the early conditioning of the lithosphere beneath TVZ, prior to the establishment of the large andesite stratovolcanoes that presently dominate the skyline at the southern end of TVZ. The relatively low abundance of plagioclase in the phenocryst assemblages hints at high P H 2O and possible involvement of amphibole in the source.

  18. Constraints from Xenoliths on the Rheology of the Mojave Lower Crust and Lithospheric Mantle (United States)

    Bernard, R. E.; Behr, W. M.


    We use xenoliths from young (3 Ma to present) cinder cones in the tectonically active Mojave region of southern California to characterize the rheological properties of the lower crust and upper mantle beneath the Eastern California Shear Zone. The xenoliths, which include spinel and plagioclase facies peridotites and lower crustal rocks (representing a depth range of ~25-60 km), were collected from two localities ~80 km apart: the Cima and Dish Hill volcanic fields. We document how stress, temperature, water content, deformation mechanism, lattice preferred orientation (LPO), and style of localization vary spatially and with depth. Key findings include the following: (1) Both xenolith suites exhibit a wide range of deformation textures, ranging from granular, to protogranular, to porphyroclastic and mylonitic. Higher strain fabrics show no evidence for static annealing, thus are likely reflecting youthful deformation and strain gradients at depth. (2) Both xenolith suites show abundant dynamic recrystallization and other evidence for dislocation creep as the dominant deformation mechanism. (3) A- and E-type olivine LPOs occur in both xenolith suites. In general, E-type LPO is associated with higher strain fabrics than A-type. (4) Water contents—found using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)—range from 115-254 ppm for clinopyroxene, 35-165 ppm for orthopyroxene, and less than 10 ppm for olivine. We have found no correlation between water content and olivine LPO, despite experimental work associating higher water content with the development of E-type LPO, compared to A-type. (5) Deformation in most lower crustal gabbros is weak, but some show strong fabrics associated with plagioclase-rich zones. Water content from clinopyroxene in one highly-deformed gabbro is <1 ppm. (6) Paleopiezometers for olivine and plagioclase indicate stress magnitudes of 16-21 MPa for the uppermost mantle, and 0.1 MPa for the

  19. Groundmass Crystallinities of Proximal and Distal Lavas from Cinder Cone, Lassen Volcanic Field (United States)

    Szymanski, M. E.; Teasdale, R.


    Cinder Cone is located in the northeast corner of Lassen Volcanic Center, approximately 35 km southeast of Old Station, California. The area consists of a cinder cone constructed of loose scoria, lava flows and a 13-16 km diameter ash deposit. According to radiocarbon ages from trees affected by the lava flows and paleomagnetic data, Cinder Cone erupted in about 1650 AD (1). The youngest products of the Cinder Cone eruption are two Fantastic Lava Beds flows which are basaltic andesite and andesite with olivine (1). Samples were collected along the longest flow from Cinder Cone, the Fantastic Lava Beds Flow 2 (4.5 km) at approximately 0.5 km interval. The samples contain olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene phenocrysts in fine grained groundmass with varying vesicularity. Quartz xenocrysts also occur. SEM-Back Scatter Electron images are used to map and quantify groundmass crystallinities along the length of the Fantastic Lava Beds flow 2 and of tephra units. The average area of groundmass plagioclase crystals increases along the length of the lava flow from 94.7 to 292.6 μm2. The number of groundmass plagioclase crystals per area (μm2) decreases from 0.0045 to 0.0018 from proximal to distal samples. Crystals also become blockier in distal samples along the lava flow. The larger number of crystals per area in near vent samples establishes a baseline from which we interpret crystal growth and nucleation to have occurred in the flow channel. Increasing crystal size and a decrease in the number of crystals per area indicates growth dominated nucleation during cooling and crystallization in the flow channel. Relative cooling rates along the length of the flow from proximal to distal samples can be inferred based on groundmass crystallinities, distance travelled and estimates of flow and crystallization rates. (1) Muffler and Clynne, 2015.

  20. Erupted cumulate fragments in rhyolites from Lipari (Aeolian Islands) (United States)

    Forni, Francesca; Ellis, Ben S.; Bachmann, Olivier; Lucchi, Federico; Tranne, Claudio A.; Agostini, Samuele; Dallai, Luigi


    Over the last ~267 ky, the island of Lipari has erupted magmas ranging in compositions from basaltic andesites to rhyolites, with a notable compositional gap in the dacite field. Bulk geochemical and isotopic compositions of the volcanic succession, in conjunction with major and trace elemental compositions of minerals, indicate that the rhyolites were dominantly generated via crystal fractionation processes, with subordinate assimilation. Radiogenic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) and stable (O) isotopes independently suggest ≤30 % of crustal contamination with the majority of it occurring in mafic compositions, likely relatively deep in the system. Within the rhyolites, crystal-rich, K2O-rich enclaves are common. In contrast to previous interpretations, we suggest that these enclaves represent partial melting, remobilization and eruption of cumulate fragments left-over from rhyolite melt extraction. Cumulate melting and remobilization is supported by the presence of (1) resorbed, low-temperature minerals (biotite and sanidine), providing the potassic signature to these clasts, (2) reacted Fo-rich olivine, marking the presence of mafic recharge, (3) An38-21 plagioclase, filling the gap in feldspar composition between the andesites and the rhyolites and (4) strong enrichment in Sr and Ba in plagioclase and sanidine, suggesting crystallization from a locally enriched melt. Based on Sr-melt partitioning, the high-Sr plagioclase would require ~2300 ppm Sr in the melt, a value far in excess of Sr contents in Lipari and Vulcano magmas (50-1532 ppm) but consistent with melting of a feldspar-rich cumulate. Due to the presence of similar crystal-rich enclaves within the rhyolites from Vulcano, we propose that the eruption of remobilized cumulates associated with high-SiO2 rhyolites may be a common process at the Aeolian volcanoes, as already attested for a variety of volcanic systems around the world.

  1. Low-(18)O Silicic Magmas: Why Are They So Rare?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsley, S.D.; Gregory, R.T.


    LOW-180 silicic magmas are reported from only a small number of localities (e.g., Yellowstone and Iceland), yet petrologic evidence points to upper crustal assimilation coupled with fractional crystallization (AFC) during magma genesis for nearly all silicic magmas. The rarity of 10W-l `O magmas in intracontinental caldera settings is remarkable given the evidence of intense 10W-l*O meteoric hydrothermal alteration in the subvolcanic remnants of larger caldera systems. In the Platoro caldera complex, regional ignimbrites (150-1000 km3) have plagioclase 6180 values of 6.8 + 0.1%., whereas the Middle Tuff, a small-volume (est. 50-100 km3) post-caldera collapse pyroclastic sequence, has plagioclase 8]80 values between 5.5 and 6.8%o. On average, the plagioclase phenocrysts from the Middle Tuff are depleted by only 0.3%0 relative to those in the regional tuffs. At Yellowstone, small-volume post-caldera collapse intracaldera rhyolites are up to 5.5%o depleted relative to the regional ignimbrites. Two important differences between the Middle Tuff and the Yellowstone 10W-180 rhyolites elucidate the problem. Middle Tuff magmas reached water saturation and erupted explosively, whereas most of the 10W-l 80 Yellowstone rhyolites erupted effusively as domes or flows, and are nearly devoid of hydrous phenocrysts. Comparing the two eruptive types indicates that assimilation of 10W-180 material, combined with fractional crystallization, drives silicic melts to water oversaturation. Water saturated magmas either erupt explosively or quench as subsurface porphyrins bejiire the magmatic 180 can be dramatically lowered. Partial melting of low- 180 subvolcanic rocks by near-anhydrous magmas at Yellowstone produced small- volume, 10W-180 magmas directly, thereby circumventing the water saturation barrier encountered through normal AFC processes.

  2. High-grade contact metamorphism in the Reykjanes geothermal system: Implications for fluid-rock interactions at mid-oceanic ridge spreading centers (United States)

    Marks, Naomi; Schiffman, Peter; Zierenberg, Robert A.


    Granoblastic hornfels identified in cuttings from the Reykjanes seawater-dominated hydrothermal system contains secondary pyroxene, anorthite, and hornblendic amphibole in locally equilibrated assemblages. Granoblastic assemblages containing secondary orthopyroxene, olivine, and, locally, cordierite and spinel occur within groups of cuttings that show dominantly greenschist facies hydrothermal alteration. Granoblastic plagioclase ranges continuously in composition from An54 to An96, in contrast with relict igneous plagioclase that ranges from An42 to An80. Typical hydrothermal clinopyroxene compositions range from Wo49En3Fs48 to Wo53En30Fo17; clinopyroxene from the granoblastic grains is less calcic with an average composition of Wo48En27Fs25. The hornfels is interpreted to form during contact metamorphism in response to dike emplacement, resulting in local recrystallization of previously hydrothermally altered basalts. Temperatures of granoblastic recrystallization estimated from the 2-pyroxene geothermometer range from 927°C to 967°C. Redox estimates based on the 2-oxide oxybarometer range from log fO2 of -13.4 to -15.9. Granoblastic hornfels comprised of clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and calcic plagioclase have been described in a number of ancient hydrothermal systems from the conductive boundary layer between the hydrothermal system and the underlying magma source, most notably in Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Hole 1256D, Ocean Drilling Program Hole 504B, and in the Troodos and Oman ophiolites. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of high-grade contact metamorphism from an active geothermal system and the first description of equilibrated amphibole-absent pyroxene hornfels facies contact metamorphism in any mid-ocean ridge (MOR) hydrothermal system. This contribution describes how these assemblages develop through metamorphic reactions and allows us to predict that higher-temperature assemblages may also be present in MOR systems.

  3. Oxygen-isotope exchange and mineral alteration in gabbros of the Lower Layered Series, Kap Edvard Holm Complex, East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehlhaber, K.; Bird, D.K. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))


    Multiple intrusions of gabbros, mafic dikes, and syenites in the Kap Edvard Holm Complex gave rise to prolonged circulation of meteoric hydrothermal solutions and extreme isotope exchange and mineral alteration in the 3,600-m-thick Lower Layered Series gabbros. In the Lower Layered Series, {delta}{sup 18}O of plagioclase varies from +0.3{per thousand} to {minus}5.8{per thousand}, and it decreases with an increase in the volume of secondary talc, chlorite, and actinolite. In the same gabbros, pyroxenes have a more restricted range in {delta}{sup 18}O, from 5.0{per thousand} to 3.8{per thousand}, and values of {delta}{sup 18}O{sub pyroxene} are independent of the abundance of secondary minerals, which ranges from 14% to 30%. These relations indicate that large amounts of water continued to flow through the rocks at temperatures of < 500-600C, altering the gabbros to assemblages of talc + chlorite + actinolite {plus minus}epidote {plus minus}albite and causing significant oxygen-isotope exchange in plagioclase, but not in pyroxene. The extensive low-temperature secondary mineralization and {sup 18}O depletion of plagioclase in the Lower Layered Series are associated with the later emplacement of dikes and gabbros and syenites, which created new fracture systems and provided heat sources for hydrothermal fluid circulation. This produced subsolidus mineral alteration and isotope exchange in the Lower Layered Series that are distinct from those in the Skaergaard and Cuillin gabbros of the North Atlantic Tertiary province, but are similar to those observed in some oceanic gabbros.

  4. Iron Isotope Systematics of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: Initial Results (United States)

    Stausberg, N.; Lesher, C. E.; Hoffmann-Barfod, G.; Glessner, J. J.; Tegner, C.


    Iron isotopes show systematic changes in igneous rocks that have been ascribed to fractional crystallization, partial melting, as well as, diffusion effects. Layered mafic intrusions, such as the Paleoproterozoic Bushveld Igneous Complex, are ideally suited to investigate stable isotope fractionation arising principally by fractional crystallization. The upper 2.1km of the Bushveld Complex (Upper and Upper Main Zone, UUMZ) crystallized from a basaltic magma produced by a major recharge event, building up a sequence of tholeiitic, Fe-rich, gabbroic cumulate rocks that display systematic variations in mineralogy and mineral compositions consistent with fractional crystallization. Within this sequence, magnetite joins the liquidus assemblage at ˜260m, followed by olivine at 460m and apatite at 1000m. Here, we present iron isotope measurements of bulk cumulate rocks from the Bierkraal drill core of UUMZ of the western limb. Iron was chemically separated from its matrix and analyzed for δ56Fe (relative to IRMM- 014) with a Nu plasma MC-ICPMS at the University of California, Davis, using (pseudo-) high resolution and sample-standard bracketing. The δ56Fe values for Bushveld cumulates span a range from 0.04‰ to 0.36‰, and systematically correlate with the relative abundance of pyroxene + olivine, magnetite and plagioclase. Notably, the highest δ56Fe values are found in plagioclase-rich cumulates that formed prior to magnetite crystallization. δ56Fe is also high in magnetite-rich cumulates at the onset of magnetite crystallization, while subsequent cumulates exhibit lower and variable δ56Fe principally reflecting fractionation of and modal variations in magnetite, pyroxene and fayalitic olivine. The overall relationships for δ56Fe are consistent with positive mineral - liquid Fe isotope fractionation factors for magnetite and plagioclase, and negative to near zero values for pyroxene and olivine. These initial results are being integrated into a forward model of

  5. Metamorphic P-T-t path retrieved from metapelites in the southeastern Taihua metamorphic complex, and the Paleoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the southern North China Craton (United States)

    Lu, Jun-Sheng; Zhai, Ming-Guo; Lu, Lin-Sheng; Wang, Hao Y. C.; Chen, Hong-Xu; Peng, Tao; Wu, Chun-Ming; Zhao, Tai-Ping


    The Taihua metamorphic complex in the southern part of the North China Craton is composed of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) gneisses, amphibolites, metapelitic gneisses, marbles, quartzites, and banded iron formations (BIFs). The protoliths of the complex have ages ranging from ∼2.1 to ∼2.9 Ga and was metamorphosed under the upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions with NWW-SEE-striking gneissosity. Metapelitites from the Wugang area have three stages of metamorphic mineral assemblages. The prograde metamorphic mineral assemblage (M1) includes biotite + plagioclase + quartz + ilmenite preserved as inclusions in garnet porphyroblasts. The peak mineral assemblage (M2) consists of garnet porphyroblasts and matrix minerals of sillimanite + biotite + plagioclase + quartz + K-feldspar + ilmenite + rutile + pyrite. The retrograde mineral assemblage (M3), biotite + plagioclase + quartz, occurs as symplectic assemblages surrounding embayed garnet porphyroblasts. Garnet porphyroblasts are chemically zoned. Pseudosection calculated in the NCKFMASHTO model system suggests that mantles of garnet porphyroblasts define high-pressure granulites facies P-T conditions of 12.2 kbar and 830 °C, whereas garnet rims record P-T conditions of 10.2 kbar and 840 °C. Integrating the prograde mineral assemblages, zoning of garnet porphyroblasts with symplectic assemblages, a clockwise metamorphic P-T path can be retrieved. High resolution SIMS U-Pb dating and LA-ICP-MS trace element measurements of the metamorphic zircons demonstrate that metapelites in Wugang possibly record the peak or near peak metamorphic ages of ∼1.92 Ga. Furthermore, 40Ar/39Ar dating of biotite in metapelites suggests that the cooling of the Taihua complex may have lasted until ∼1.83 Ga. Therefore, a long-lived Palaeoproterozoic metamorphic event may define a slow exhumation process. Field relationship and new metamorphic data for the Taihua metamorphic complex does not support the previous

  6. Degassing history of a mid-ocean ridge rhyolite dome on the Alarcon Rise, Gulf of California (United States)

    Portner, R. A.; Dreyer, B. M.; Clague, D. A.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Head, J. W., III; Saal, A. E.


    A 2350 meter deep rhyolite lava dome and surrounding intermediate-mafic complex on the Alarcon Rise mid-ocean ridge in the Gulf of California was sampled extensively during a 2012 MBARI expedition. The dome is predominantly composed of sparsely vesicular (obsidian with local deposits of pumiceous breccia. Pumiceous lapilli comprise highly vesicular (40-60%) fracture networks that separate non-vesicular obsidian "pseudoclasts". Textures and major element geochemistry suggest that both lithologies originated from the same magma that formed the majority of the dome. This is corroborated by comparable major element compositions (~75% SiO2) and near-equilibrium phenocryst assemblages including olivine (Fo10) and plagioclase (An17). Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and transmission FTIR spectroscopy was used to measure H2O concentrations in olivine and plagioclase melt inclusions as well as host glasses (CO2 was below detection, <30 ppm). Rhyolite host glass contains 1.5-2.0 wt% H2O, similar to nearby andesite and dacite. These concentrations agree with saturation limits for H2O (1.7%) at the depth of Alarcon Rise, but are slightly less than what is predicted by fractional crystallization modeling. Melt inclusions from plagioclase and olivine in rhyolite contain a maximum of 3.5-4.5% H2O suggesting that up to 3.0% H2O exsolved into bubbles during a 3 km ascent. Hydrostatic pressures (23 MPa) at the eruptive vent would have permitted 53% vesiculation in agreement with petrographic observations. Although ~50% vesiculation and exsolved H2O contents of 3.0 wt% are less than the ideal threshold for magmatic fragmentation, the presence of highly vesicular ash particles representing fragmented pumiceous breccia argues otherwise. We posit that decoupled volatiles from a deeper magma body migrated through fracture networks to the surface causing mild explosivity.

  7. Lunar Magma Ocean Crystallization: Constraints from Fractional Crystallization Experiments (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.


    The currently accepted paradigm of lunar formation is that of accretion from the ejecta of a giant impact, followed by crystallization of a global scale magma ocean. This model accounts for the formation of the anorthosite highlands crust, which is globally distributed and old, and the formation of the younger mare basalts which are derived from a source region that has experienced plagioclase extraction. Several attempts at modelling the crystallization of such a lunar magma ocean (LMO) have been made, but our ever-increasing knowledge of the lunar samples and surface have raised as many questions as these models have answered. Geodynamic models of lunar accretion suggest that shortly following accretion the bulk of the lunar mass was hot, likely at least above the solidus]. Models of LMO crystallization that assume a deep magma ocean are therefore geodynamically favorable, but they have been difficult to reconcile with a thick plagioclase-rich crust. A refractory element enriched bulk composition, a shallow magma ocean, or a combination of the two have been suggested as a way to produce enough plagioclase to account for the assumed thickness of the crust. Recently however, geophysical data from the GRAIL mission have indicated that the lunar anorthositic crust is not as thick as was initially estimated, which allows for both a deeper magma ocean and a bulk composition more similar to the terrestrial upper mantle. We report on experimental simulations of the fractional crystallization of a deep (approximately 100km) LMO with a terrestrial upper mantle-like (LPUM) bulk composition. Our experimental results will help to define the composition of the lunar crust and mantle cumulates, and allow us to consider important questions such as source regions of the mare basalts and Mg-suite, the role of mantle overturn after magma ocean crystallization and the nature of KREEP

  8. P-T history and geochemical characteristics of mafic granulites and charnockites from west of Periya, North Kerala, southern India (United States)

    Prakash, D.; Chandra Singh, P.; Arima, M.; Singh, Triveni


    The study region forms the northern part of Kerala (south India) and constitutes part of granulite-facies rocks of the exhumed Proterozoic south Indian Granulite Terrain (SGT). The SGT consists of a large variety of rock types with a wide range of mineral parageneses and chemical compositions, namely charnockite, mafic granulite, gneiss, schist, anorthosite, granite and minor meta-sedimentary rocks. Garnet-bearing mafic granulites occur as small enclaves within charnockites. We report for the first time P-T constraints on the prograde path preceding peak metamorphism in the northernmost part of Kerala. An increase of the Mg, Fe and decrease of Ca and Mn contents from the core towards the rim of garnet in the mafic granulites suggest prograde garnet growth. The prograde path was followed by peak metamorphism at a temperature of c. 800 °C and a pressure of c. 7.5 kbar as computed by isopleths of XMg garnet, XCa garnet and XAn plagioclase. The resorption of garnet in various reaction textures and the development of spectacular orthopyroxene-plagioclase, biotite-quartz and hornblende-plagioclase symplectites characterize the subsequent stages of metamorphism. The PT path is characteristically T-convex suggesting an isothermal decompression path and reflects rapid uplift followed by cooling of a tectonically thickened crust. Diffusion modeling of Fe-Mg exchange between garnet and hornblende suggests a near-peak cooling rate of 10-70 °C/myr. Such cooling rates are too high to be accounted for by normal isostatic uplift and erosion and suggest that the terrain was tectonically exhumed. Charnockites are richer in SiO2 and lower in MgO and CaO when compared to mafic granulites. Their REE patterns are relatively flat and show prominent negative europium anomalies. The mafic granulites are metamorphosed tholeiitic basalts as revealed by major- and trace-element geochemistry.

  9. Insights into the Mount St. Helens Magma Plumbing System from Coarse-grained, Crystal-rich Enclaves (United States)

    Wanke, M.; Bachmann, O.; Ellis, B. S.; Guillong, M.; Clynne, M. A.; Pallister, J. S.


    Co-magmatic plutonic enclaves provide information about the conditions of magmatic storage and magmatic processes. The deposits of Mount St. Helens contain a variety of coarse-grained, crystal-rich enclaves, dominantly derived from the Tertiary basement. However, zircons in two enclaves returned ages of 5-108 ka (n=29) and 45-486 ka (n=16), overlapping with zircon ages from the volcanics. From textures and mineralogy, we define five enclave types, interpreted as crystal mush from the current magmatic system: hbl-gabbros with ad-cumulate structure (type 1), dioritic meso-cumulates with partly decomposed minerals (type 2), and dioritic rocks enriched in incompatible elements (type 3). All three occur in Pine Creek dacite domes ( 2900 BP), and comprise amphibole, plagioclase, orthopyroxene and oxides (±apatite and zircon) with variable amounts of residual melt. A heterad-cumulate (type 4) from 1980 dacite consists of olivine, plagioclase, ortho- and clinopyroxene (±oxides and apatite) with poikilitic overgrowth of amphibole. Inclusions of pyroxene-plagioclase-oxide-bearing crystal aggregates (type 5) are found in Late Pine Creek andesites ( 2600 BP). Compositional similarity between amphiboles in type 1 and 2 cumulates and those from their dacitic host rock suggests these cumulates co-erupted with their extracted melt. Modelled trace element compositions of coexisting liquids indicate that the high-Al amphibole cores (up to 14.5 wt.% Al2O3) crystallized from andesitic melts that are parental to the dacites. In contrast, andesites erupted during the same eruptive period lack amphibole suggesting drier/shallower crystallization resulting in the predominant fractionation of pyroxene seen in type 5 inclusions. Different cumulates represent residues from basaltic andesitic to dacitic melts. Mid to upper crustal pressures determined via barometry are consistent with crystallization within the bottle-shaped magma reservoir ( 7-20 km) imaged during the recent activity.

  10. Glass ceramic obtained by tailings and tin mine waste reprocessing from Llallagua, Bolivia (United States)

    Arancibia, Jony Roger Hans; Villarino, Cecilia; Alfonso, Pura; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Martinez, Salvador; Parcerisa, David


    In Bolivia Sn mining activity produces large tailings of SiO2-rich residues. These tailings contain potentially toxic elements that can be removed into the surface water and produce a high environmental pollution. This study determines the thermal behaviour and the viability of the manufacture of glass-ceramics from glass. The glass has been obtained from raw materials representative of the Sn mining activities from Llallagua (Bolivia). Temperatures of maximum nucleation rate (Tn) and crystallization (Tcr) were calculated from the differential thermal analyses. The final mineral phases were determined by X-ray diffraction and textures were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline phases are nefeline occurring with wollastonite or plagioclase. Tn for nepheline is between 680 ºC and 700 ºC, for wollastonite, 730 ºC and for plagioclase, 740 ºC. Tcr for nefeline is between 837 and 965 ºC; for wollastonite, 807 ºC and for plagioclase, 977 ºC. In order to establish the mechanical characteristics and efficiency of the vitrification process in the fixation of potentially toxic elements the resistance to leaching and micro-hardness were determined. The obtained contents of the elements leached from the glass ceramic are well below the limits established by the European legislation. So, these analyses confirm that potentially toxic elements remain fixed in the structure of mineral phases formed in the glass-ceramic process. Regarding the values of micro-hardness results show that they are above those of a commercial glass. The manufacture of glass-ceramics from mining waste reduces the volume of tailings produced for the mining industry and, in turn enhances the waste, transforming it into a product with industrial application. Acknowledgements: This work was partly financed by the project AECID: A3/042750/11, and the SGR 2009SGR-00444.

  11. The magma plumbing system for the 1971 Teneguía eruption on La Palma, Canary Islands (United States)

    Barker, Abigail K.; Troll, Valentin R.; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Nicholls, Peter A.


    The 1971 Teneguía eruption is the most recent volcanic event of the Cumbre Vieja rift zone on La Palma. The eruption produced basanite lavas that host xenoliths, which we investigate to provide insight into the processes of differentiation, assimilation and magma storage beneath La Palma. We compare our results to the older volcano magmatic systems of the island with the aim to reconstruct the temporal development of the magma plumbing system beneath La Palma. The 1971 lavas are clinopyroxene-olivine-phyric basanites that contain augite, sodic-augite and aluminium augite. Kaersutite cumulate xenoliths host olivine, clinopyroxene including sodic-diopside, and calcic-amphibole, whereas an analysed leucogabbro xenolith hosts plagioclase, sodic-augite-diopside, calcic-amphibole and hauyne. Mineral thermobarometry and mineral-melt thermobarometry indicate that clinopyroxene and plagioclase in the 1971 Teneguía lavas crystallised at 20-45 km depth, coinciding with clinopyroxene and calcic-amphibole crystallisation in the kaersutite cumulate xenoliths at 25-45 km and clinopyroxene, calcic-amphibole and plagioclase crystallisation in the leucogabbro xenolith at 30-50 km. Combined mineral chemistry and thermobarometry suggest that the magmas had already crystallised, differentiated and formed multiple crystal populations in the oceanic lithospheric mantle. Notably, the magmas that supplied the 1949 and 1971 events appear to have crystallised deeper than the earlier Cumbre Vieja magmas, which suggests progressive underplating beneath the Cumbre Vieja rift zone. In addition, the lavas and xenoliths of the 1971 event crystallised at a common depth, indicating a reused plumbing system and progressive recycling of Ocean Island plutonic complexes during subsequent magmatic activity.

  12. Prograde and retrograde evolution of eclogite from Adrar Izzilatène (Egéré-Aleksod terrane, Hoggar, Algeria) determined from chemical zoning and pseudosections, with geodynamic implications (United States)

    Doukkari, Sid Ali; Ouzegane, Khadidja; Godard, Gaston; Diener, Johann F. A.; Kienast, Jean-Robert; Liégeois, Jean-Paul; Arab, Amar; Drareni, Amar


    Adrar Izzilatène in the Egéré-Aleksod terrane of the LATEA metacraton (Hoggar, Algeria) exposes one of the best preserved examples of eclogite facies metamorphism in Hoggar. Three distinct stages of metamorphic development are recognised, namely, the pre-peak stage (M1), characterised by garnet, amphibole, epidote, quartz and rutile, the peak eclogite facies stage (M2), consisting of omphacite, garnet, edenite, epidote, quartz and rutile, and the retrograde stage (M3), where initial decompression resulted in the appearance of plagioclase, the development of pargasite + plagioclase kelyphites and finally the formation of anhydrous plagioclase + diopside coronas. Porphyroblastic omphacite has a jadeite content of up to XJd = 0.36, which is the highest yet observed for eclogite facies rocks from the Tuareg Shield. Garnet growth zoning patterns are characterised by flat profiles in the cores (XAlm = 0.55-0.60; XPrp = 0.12-0.16; XGrs = 0.26-0.30) before showing a decrease in almandine to XAlm = 0.45, coupled to an increase in pyrope to XPrp = 0.29 and decrease in grossular to XGrs = 0.26 at the rims. Calculated P-T-MH2O pseudosections show that the prograde M1 assemblage equilibrated at 13-14 kbar and 580 °C, before pressure and temperature increased to 19 kbar and 650-700 °C at fluid-saturated conditions during peak metamorphism. Retrogression involved near-isothermal decompression to 8-9 kbar and 700-750 °C at fluid-undersaturated conditions. Prograde-to-peak metamorphism of the Izzilatène eclogite could have involved either oceanic or continental subduction, followed by exhumation as the area was obducted towards the LATEA metacraton during the Pan-African orogeny and the assembly of Western Gondwana.

  13. Sorting out compositional trends in sedimentary rocks of the Bradbury group (Aeolis Palus), Gale crater, Mars (United States)

    Siebach, K. L.; Baker, M. B.; Grotzinger, J. P.; McLennan, S. M.; Gellert, R.; Thompson, L. M.; Hurowitz, J. A.


    Sedimentary rocks are composed of detrital grains derived from source rocks, which are altered by chemical weathering, sorted during transport, and cemented during diagenesis. Fluvio-lacustrine sedimentary rocks of the Bradbury group, observed on the floor of Gale crater by the Curiosity rover during its first 860 Martian solar days, show trends in bulk chemistry that are consistent with sorting of mineral grains during transport. The Bradbury group rocks are uniquely suited for sedimentary provenance analysis because they appear to have experienced negligible cation loss (i.e., open-system chemical weathering) at the scale of the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer bulk chemistry analyses based on low Chemical Index of Alteration values and successful modeling of >90% of the (volatile-free) targets as mixtures of primary igneous minerals. Significant compositional variability between targets is instead correlated to grain-size and textural characteristics of the rocks; the coarsest-grained targets are enriched in Al2O3, SiO2, and Na2O, whereas the finer-grained targets are enriched in mafic components. This is consistent with geochemical and mineralogical modeling of the segregation of coarse-grained plagioclase from finer-grained mafic minerals (e.g., olivine and pyroxenes), which would be expected from hydrodynamic sorting of the detritus from mechanical breakdown of subalkaline plagioclase-phyric basalts. While the presence of a distinctive K2O-rich stratigraphic interval shows that input from at least one distinctive alkali-feldspar-rich protolith contributed to basin fill, the dominant compositional trends in the Bradbury group are consistent with sorting of detrital minerals during transport from relatively homogeneous plagioclase-phyric basalts.

  14. Melt-rock interactions and fabric development of peridotites from North Pond in the Kane area, Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Implications of microstructural and petrological analyses of peridotite samples from IODP Hole U1382A (United States)

    Harigane, Yumiko; Abe, Natsue; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Chang, Qing


    North Pond is an isolated sedimentary pond on the western flank of the Kane area along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Drill-hole U1382A of IODP Expedition 336 recovered peridotite and gabbro samples from a sedimentary breccia layer in the pond, from which we collected six fresh peridotite samples. The peridotite samples came from the southern slope of the North Pond where an oceanic core complex is currently exposed. The samples were classified as spinel harzburgite, plagioclase-bearing harzburgite, and a vein-bearing peridotite that contains tiny gabbroic veins. No obvious macroscopic shear deformation related to the formation of a detachment fault was observed. The spinel harzburgite with a protogranular texture was classified as refractory peridotite. The degree of partial melting of the spinel harzburgite is estimated to be ˜17%, and melt depletion would have occurred at high temperatures in the uppermost mantle beneath the spreading axis. The progressive melt-rock interactions between the depleted spinel harzburgite and the percolating melts of Normal-Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt (N-MORB) produced the plagioclase-bearing harzburgite and the vein-bearing peridotite at relatively low temperatures. This implies that the subsequent refertilization occurred in an extinct spreading segment of the North Pond after spreading at the axis. Olivine fabrics in the spinel and plagioclase-bearing harzburgites are of types AG, A, and D, suggesting the remnants of a mantle flow regime beneath the spreading axis. The initial olivine fabrics appear to have been preserved despite the later melt-rock interactions. The peridotite samples noted above preserve evidence of mantle flow and melt-rock interactions beneath a spreading ridge that formed at ˜8 Ma.

  15. Regional variation in the Amitsoq gneisses related to crustal levels during late Archean granulite facies metamorphism: Southern west Greenland (United States)

    Nutman, A. P.; Bridgwater, D.; Mcgregor, V. R.


    The dominant lithology at Kangimut sangmissoq is described as nebulitic tonalitic gneiss containing highly distended plagioclase phyric amphibolites. The gneiss amphibolite complex was intruded by Nuk gneiss between 3.05 and 2.90 Ga and later (2.6 to 2.7 Ga) by post granulite facies granitoid sheets. The amphibolites are though to be Ameralik dikes and the older gray gneiss are then Amitsoq by definition. The problem arises when the isotopic data are considered, none of which indicate rocks older that about 3.0 Ga.

  16. The Classifications of Metamorphic Rocks and Their Applications to Air Photo Interpretation Procedures, (United States)


    minerals and the facies "". to which that assemblage belongs, such as orthopyroxene-plagioclase granulite . -.., Q 6 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 717...prehnite or green- ." schist); whereas, high-grade rocks were assumed to be of higher facies (amphibolite or granulite ). Specific facies names were then...350/400 3-8 .. - Greenschist,. - Upper 350-400/500 3-8 ’-" Lower 450/500-550 3--8 ~Amphibolite 2 ~Upper 550-650/700 3-8 ." Granulite Above 650 3--I12 l

  17. Important role of magma mixing in generating the Mesozoic monzodioritic-granodioritic intrusions related to Cu mineralization, Tongling, East China: evidence from petrological and in situ Sr-Hf isotopic data (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Chen, ChangJian


    The Mesozoic ore-bearing high-Mg monzodioritic-granodioritic rocks in the Tongling mining district (East China) have been described as having adakitic affinities, and their origin has been attributed to partial melting of delaminated eclogite at depth in the mantle, followed by interaction of the resultant granitic magma with mantle peridotite. Here we present petrological data and in situ Sr isotopic data for zoned plagioclase that are inconsistent with the eclogite-derived model, and instead propose a model that involves magma mixing of siliceous crustal melts and basaltic magma that was derived from metasomatized mantle by subduction zone fluids in an extensional regime. The principal geochemical signatures of these Mesozoic rocks include a hydrous and high-K calc-alkaline affinity, high values of Mg#, high Sr abundances, high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, ɛNd(t)=-13.1 to -9.0, and ISr=0.70707-0.70824. The magma mixing model is supported by (1) the common existence of mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) and the disequilibrium textures of plagioclase and hornblende, (2) the increase in Ti and Al(IV) from hornblende cores to rims, and the overgrowths of high-Ca pyroxene around hornblende grains as well, indicative of episode of heating and rejuvenation of the magma chamber as a result of recharge of mafic magma, (3) the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of embayed high-Ca cores of plagioclase that are distinctly lower than in the euhedral low-Ca overgrowth rims, (4) negative correlations between whole-rock Nd and Sr isotopic ratios, and (5) the significant differences in the values of ɛHf(t) (-9.5 to -26) within different zircons from the same intrusion. We propose that underplating of hydrous basaltic magma from the metasomatized lithospheric mantle in the lower crust resulted in partial melting of the lower crustal rocks (Precambrian TTG gneisses and amphibolite/granulite) under water-saturated conditions, during which plagioclase decomposed, leaving hornblende-rich restites and

  18. Mineral chemistry, P-T-t paths and exhumation processes of mafic granulites in Dinggye, Southern Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Shuwen; ZHANG; Jinjiang; SHU; Guiming; LI; Qiugen


    The mafic granulites in Dinggye, as various scale lense-shaped enclaves within the high Himalayan crystalline rock series, occur along mylonitic foliations at the junction between the Southern Tibetan Detachment System (STDS) and the Xainza-Dinggye normal fault system. The main lithological assemblage comprises garnet plagioclase pyroxenite, garnet two-pyroxene granulite, pyroxene garnet amphibolite and so on. The detailed petrological analyses show that these mafic granulites underwent at least four-stage metamorphic evolution. The first metamorphic stage, the garnet+clinopyroxene+quart mineral assemblage (M1) was probably formed under eclogite facies, the second stage, the plagioclase+clinopyroxene symplectite mineral assemblage (M2) was produced under high-pressure granulite facies by the early decompressive breakdown of M1 mineral assemblage, the third stage, the plagioclase+clinopyroxene+ hypersthene symplectite mineral assemblage (M3) was formed at granulite facies by the late period decompressive breakdown of M1 and M2 mineral assemblages and the final stage, plagioclase+hornblende mineral assemblage (M4) was formed by hydrolysis of earlier mineral assemblages during late uplifting. The detailed mineral composition analyses suggest that garnets and clinopyroxenes within M1 and M2 mineral assemblages display similar compositions to the equivalents in the B and C types of eclogites, whereas the M3 clinopyroxenes are akin to these of the same kind of minerals in the granulite. These mineral chemistry features and P-T estimates calculated by mineral thermometers and barometers indicate that the early stage relic porphyroblasts (M1) could be formed at the eclogite facies, the early decompressive breakdown (M2) occurred at the high-pressures granulite facies of 1.35―1.48 GPa and 625―675℃, the M3 mineral assemblage recorded the granulite facies of 0.7―0.95 GPa and 775―900℃ and M4 plagioglase+hornblende retrograde mineral assemblage was produced under

  19. Petrology of the zoned calcalkaline magma chamber of Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon (United States)

    Druitt, T.H.; Bacon, C.R.


    Evolution of the magma chamber at Mount Mazama involved repeated recharge by two types of andesite (high-Sr and low-Sr), crystal fractionation, crystal accumulation, assimilation, and magma mixing (Bacon and Druitt 1988). This paper addresses the modal compositions, textures, mineral chemistry and magmatic temperatures of (i) products of the 6845??50 BP climactic eruption, (ii) blocks of partially fused granitoid wallrock found in the ejecta, and (iii) preclimactic rhyodacitic lavas leaked from the chamber in late Pleistocene and early Holocene time. Immediately prior to the climactic eruption the chamber contained ??? 40 km3 of rhyodacite (10 vol% plag + opx + aug + hb + mt + ilm, ???880?? C) overlying high-Sr andesite and cumulus-crystal mush (28-51 vol% plag + hb ?? opx ?? aug + mt ?? ilm, 880?? to ???950?? C), which in turn overlay low-Sr crystal mush (50-66 vol% plag + opx + aug ?? hb ?? ol + mt + ilm, 890?? to ???950??? C). Despite the well known compositional gap in the ejecta, no thermal discontinuity existed in the chamber. Pre-eruptive water contents of pore liquids in most high-Sr and low-Sr mushes were 4-6 wt%, but on average the high-Sr mushes were slightly richer in water. Although parental magmas of the crystal mushes were andesitic, xenocrysts of bytownite and Ni-rich magnesian olivine in some scoriae record the one-time injection of basalt into the chamber. Textures in ol-bearing scoriae preserve evidence for the reactions ol + liq = opx and ol + aug + liq(+ plag?) = hb, which occurred in andesitic liquids at Mount Mazama. Strontium abundances in plagioclase phenocrysts constrain the petrogenesis of preclimactic and climactic rhyodacites. Phenocryst cores derived from high-Sr and low-Sr magmas have different Sr contents which can be resolved by microprobe. Partition coefficients for plagioclase in andesitic to rhyolitic glasses range from 2 to 7, and increase as glass %SiO2 increases. Evolved Pleistocene rhyodacites (???30-25,000 BP) and

  20. Petrogenesis and provenance of ungrouped achondrite Northwest Africa 7325 from petrology, trace elements, oxygen, chromium and titanium isotopes, and mid-IR spectroscopy (United States)

    Goodrich, Cyrena A.; Kita, Noriko T.; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Sanborn, Matthew E.; Williams, Curtis D.; Nakashima, Daisuke; Lane, Melissa D.; Boyle, Shannon


    Northwest Africa (NWA) 7325 is an ungrouped achondrite that has recently been recognized as a sample of ancient differentiated crust from either Mercury or a previously unknown asteroid. In this work we augment data from previous investigations on petrography and mineral compositions, mid-IR spectroscopy, and oxygen isotope compositions of NWA 7325, and add constraints from Cr and Ti isotope compositions on the provenance of its parent body. In addition, we identify and discuss notable similarities between NWA 7325 and clasts of a rare xenolithic lithology found in polymict ureilites. NWA 7325 has a medium grained, protogranular to poikilitic texture, and consists of 10-15 vol.% Mg-rich olivine (Fo 98), 25-30 vol.% diopside (Wo 45, Mg# 98), 55-60 vol.% Ca-rich plagioclase (An 90), and trace Cr-rich sulfide and Fe,Ni metal. We interpret this meteorite to be a cumulate that crystallized at ⩾1200 °C and very low oxygen fugacity (similar to the most reduced ureilites) from a refractory, incompatible element-depleted melt. Modeling of trace elements in plagioclase suggests that this melt formed by fractional melting or multi-stage igneous evolution. A subsequent event (likely impact) resulted in plagioclase being substantially remelted, reacting with a small amount of pyroxene, and recrystallizing with a distinctive texture. The bulk oxygen isotope composition of NWA 7325 plots in the range of ureilites on the CCAM line, and also on a mass-dependent fractionation line extended from acapulcoites. The ε54Cr and ε50Ti values of NWA 7325 exhibit deficits relative to terrestrial composition, as do ordinary chondrites and most achondrites. Its ε54Cr value is distinct from that of any analyzed ureilite, but is not resolved from that of acapulcoites (as represented by Acapulco). In terms of all these properties, NWA 7325 is unlike any known achondrite. However, a rare population of clasts found in polymict ureilites (;the magnesian anorthitic lithology;) are strikingly

  1. Microgranular enclaves in island-arc andesites: A possible link between known epithermal Au and potential porphyry Cu-Au deposits in the Tulasu ore cluster, western Tianshan, Xinjiang, China (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaobo; Xue, Chunji; Symons, David T. A.; Zhang, Zhaochong; Wang, Honggang


    The successful exploration for porphyry copper deposit in western Tianshan, Xinjiang, faces great challenge. Tulasu basin is an important epithermal gold ore cluster in western Tianshan, which was formed in a southwest-Pacific-type island-arc setting during the late Paleozoic by the southward subduction of the North Tianshan ocean beneath the Yili plate. Porphyry Cu-Au deposits are possibly to be found at depth or adjacent to these epithermal gold deposits. Some sulfide-mineralized microgranular enclaves of monzonite porphyry and microdiorite were found in andesites of the Tawuerbieke gold district, Tulasu basin. The enclaves are randomly distributed, with generally round or subangular shape and commonly clearly defined within their host andesite, and have a chilled surrounding margin of andesite. The monzonite porphyry enclaves (MPE) exhibit porphyritic texture with the phenocrysts of plagioclase and K-feldspar. The microdiorite enclaves (MDE) are mainly composed of plagioclase and hornblende with an aplitic texture and massive structure. The host andesites show porphyritic texture, with the phenocrysts major of plagioclase, minor of hornblende and clinopyroxene. The groundmass consists of short-column plagioclase and minor clinopyroxene with a hyalopilitic texture. Zircon grains from a MPE sample yield a weighted 206Pb/238U age of 356.2 ± 4.3 Ma (n = 13, MSWD = 1.11), which is effectively coincident with the 360.5 ± 3.4 Ma (n = 20, MSWD = 0.61) of an andesite sample within analytical error, indicating that they were coeval. In addition, the MPE, MDE and the andesite samples share similar normalized incompatible element and rare earth element patterns that are characterized by a pronounced enrichment of large ion lithophile elements and a deficit of high field strength elements. Moreover, the samples show similar Nd isotope compositions to the contemporary andesites and basaltic andesites. Detailed petrology, geochronology and geochemistry studies suggest that

  2. Northernmost Known Outcrop in North America of Lower Cretaceous Porphyritic Ocoite Facies (Ocoa, Chile) at Western Mexico: the Talpa Ocoite (United States)

    Zárate-del Valle, P. F.; Demant, A.


    At Talpa de Allende region in Western Mexico is located the northernmost known outcrop of ocoite facies (andesite): the Talpa ocoite (TO). The ocoite facies consists of an calk-alkaline andesitic rock rich in K and characterized by the presence of megacrysts of plagioclase (An48-65). TO belongs to the so-called Guerrero Terrane composed of plutono-volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequences of the Alisitos-Teloloapan arc that was accreted to the North American craton at the end of the early Cretaceous (Lapierre et al., 1992, Can. J. Earth Sci. 29. 2478--2489). Geodynamically TO belongs to lithological sequence number IV or "Tecoman" of Tardy et al. (1994, Tectonophysics 230, 49--73). TO in hand-sample shows typical megacrysts (>1 cm) of plagioclase and clinopyroxene in a dark green aphanitic matrix. This andesitic lava has a shoshonitic character as evidenced by chemical composition: SiO_2 TiO_2 Al_2O_3 Fe_2O_3 MnO MgO CaO Na_2O K_2O P_2O_5 LOI % Ba Sr (ppm) 55.64 0.73 16.61 8.39 0.13 3.59 6.40 3.55 2.85 0.36 1.84% 1093 880 Under microscope TO is characterized by a porphyritic texture made of large labradorite phenocrysts (up to 3 cm) and clinopyroxene with a matrix made of plagioclase microlites; TO has been affected by a low grade metamorphism process belonging to the prehnite-pumpellite facies as it happens in Chile (Levi, 1969, Contr. Mineral. and Petrol. 24-1, p. 30--49). Electron microprobe analysis shows that plagioclase (An55-57) is partly transformed into albite (An7-9); clinopyroxene shows a variation in composition from Wo33En41Fs17 to Wo40En44Fs24 and it is transformed towards the margin first into amphibole and then into biotite. TO outcrops located at East of Talpa river are affected by a deep rubefaction process. TO is not characterized by the presence of bitumen as it occurs in Northern Chile (Nova-Muñoz et al., 2001, EUG XI Meeting, OS09 Supo09 PO, 606); TO is related in time with albian-cenomanian volcanogenic massive sulphides of Western Mexico

  3. Basaltic Soil of Gale Crater: Crystalline Component Compared to Martian Basalts and Meteorites (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Schmidt, M.; Downs, R. T.; Stolper, E. M.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Achilles, C. N.; Chipera, S. J.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Farmer, J. A.; Morookian, J. M.; Morrison, S. M.; Rampe, E. B.; Sarrazin, P.; Yen, A. S.; Anderosn, R. C.; DesMarais, D. J.; Spanovich, N.


    A significant portion of the soil of the Rocknest dune is crystalline and is consistent with derivation from unweathered basalt. Minerals and their compositions are identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) data from the CheMin instrument on MSL Curiosity. Basalt minerals in the soil include plagioclase, olivine, low- and high-calcium pyroxenes, magnetite, ilmenite, and quartz. The only minerals unlikely to have formed in an unaltered basalt are hematite and anhydrite. The mineral proportions and compositions of the Rocknest soil are nearly identical to those of the Adirondack-class basalts of Gusev Crater, Mars, inferred from their bulk composition as analyzed by the MER Spirit rover.

  4. Lunar Dust Effects on Spacesuit Systems: Insights from the Apollo Spacesuits (United States)

    Christoffersen, Roy; Lindsay, John R.; Noble, Sarah K.; Meador, Mary Ann; Kosmo, Joseph J.; Lawrence, J. Anneliese; Brostoff, Lynn; Young, Amanda; McCue, Terry


    Systems and components of selected Apollo A7L/A7LB flight-article spacesuits that were worn on the lunar surface have been studied to determine the degree to which they suffered contamination, abrasion and wear or loss of function due to effects from lunar soil particles. Filter materials from the lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canisters from the Apollo Command Module were also studied to determine the amount and type of any lunar dust particles they may have captured from the spacecraft atmosphere. The specific spacesuit study materials include the outermost soft fabric layers on Apollo 12 and 17 integrated thermal micrometeorite garment assemblies and outermost fabrics on Apollo 17 extravehicular pressure gloves. In addition, the degree of surface wear in the sealed wrist rotation bearing from Apollo 16 extravehicular and intravehicular pressure gloves was evaluated and compared. Scanning electron microscope examination of the Apollo 12 T-164 woven TeflonO fabric confirms the presence of lunar soil particles and the ability of these particles to cause separation and fraying of the Teflon fibers. Optical imaging, chemical analysis and particle sampling applied to the outer fabric of the Apollo 17 spacesuit has identified Ti as a potentially useful chemical marker for comparing the amount of lunar soil retained on different areas of the spacesuit outer fabric. High-yield particle sampling from the Apollo 17 fabric surfaces using adhesive tape found 80% of particles on the fabric are lunar soil particles averaging 10.5 m in diameter, with the rest being intrinsic fabric materials or environmental contaminants. Analysis of the mineralogical composition of the lunar particles found that on a grain-count basis the particle population is dominated by plagioclase feldspar and various types of glassy particles derived mostly from soil agglutinates, with a subordinate amount of pyroxene. On a grain size basis, however, the pyroxene grains are generally a factor of 2 larger than

  5. Anorthosites: Classification, mythology, trivia, and a simple unified theory (United States)

    Ashwal, Lewis D.


    An overview was presented of anorthosites. They were classified into six types: (1) Archean megacrystic, (2) Proterozoic massif-type, (3) stratiform, (4) oceanic, (5) inclusions, and (6) extraterrestrial. Some of the anorthosite mythology was discussed, such as the existence of a distinct, catastrophic anorthosite event in the late Proterozoic, the misconception that anorthosite is a major constituent of the lower continental crust, and the misconception that Archean anorthosites represent metamorphosed equivalents of mafic layered intrusions such as Bushveld or Stillwater. A general statement was offered about the origin of all anorthosites: They are cumulates of plagioclase from mantle-derived basaltic magmas.

  6. Trace Element Geochemistry of Matrix Glass from the Bedout Impact Structure,Canning Basin NW Australia (United States)

    Poreda, R. J.; Basu, A. R.; Chakrabarti, R.; Becker, L.


    We report on geochemical and petrographic analysis of separated matrix glass from Lagrange-1 and Bedout-1 drill cores that penetrated the Bedout structure offshore NW Australia. The results support the conclusion that the Bedout structure was produced by a a major ET impact at the end-Permian that generated shock melted glass and impact breccias (Becker et al., Science, v.304, p.1469, 2004) The Bedout structure is a 30 km, circular, 1.5 km uplifted basment high that occurs on the passive margin offshore NW Australia. The isolated feature, covered by 3 km of Triassic to Recent sediments,is not consistent with any typical volcanic province (i.e. arc or hotspot volcanism). This hypothesis is supported by the unique mineralogy and chemistry of the matrix glass. At Lagrange, major elements crudely resemble low-K, Fe-Ti basalts while the trace element patterns have two distinct signatures. The lower 250 m of Lagrange (3260 - 3010 m depth) have essentially flat REE and "spider" patterns that superficially resemble some E-MORB; a signal not typically found in arc, hotspot or continental margin settings. The upper 150 meters (3000 - 2850m) of Lagrange and the entire Bedout core (3030 - 3070m) have similar light REE-enriched patterns but low levels of alkalis, alkaline-earths and high field strength elements. Again, the chemistry is not consistent with an arc or hotspot setting, based on the low Ba and extremely low Sr (30-110 ppm) concentrations. Based on the geophysical, chemical and petrologic evidence, we hypothesize that the Bedout structure formed as the result` of an ET impact with Permian age rift margin basalts and continental sediment. The basalts did not completely melt as evidenced by the abundance of large (1 mm) An50 plagioclase,that exist as both crystalline plag and shock melted maskelynite. Plagioclase is the major repository of Sr in basalts and the lack of a plagioclase contribution to the melt glass is reflected in the low Sr abundance. Shock

  7. Grove Mountains (GRV) 99027: A new Martian meteorite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Yangting; WANG Daode; MIAO Bingkui; OUYANG Ziyuan; LIU Xiaohan; JU Yitai


    We report the petrography, mineral chemistry and oxygen isotopic composition of GRV 99027, a new Martian meteorite recently collected during the 16th Chinese Antarctic Research Expedition. This meteorite consists of two textural regions. The interstitial region is characterized by the presence of plagioclase and phosphate, and higher FeO contents of olivine and orthopyroxene, in comparison with the poikilitic region. All of the observations are similar to the three known Martian lherzolites. We classify GRV 99027 as the fourth sample of Martian lherzolite.

  8. The Nakhla parent melt: REE partition coefficients and clues to major element composition (United States)

    Mckay, G.; Le, L.; Wagstaff, J.


    Nakhla is one of the SNC meteorites, generally believed to be of Martian origin. It is a medium-grained augite-olivine cumulate with a variolitic groundmass of sodic plagioclase, alkali feldspar, and Fe-rich pyroxenes and olivine. One of the major tasks in deciphering Nakhla's petrogenesis is determining the composition of its parent melt. Gaining an understanding of the composition and petrogenesis of this parent melt may help unravel Nakhla's relationship to the other SNCs, and provide clues to Martian petrogenesis in general. Our experimental partitioning studies provide new information that helps constrain both the major and trace element composition of the Nakhla parent melt.

  9. Mineral weathering in acid saprolites from subtropical, southern Brazil Intemperismo subtropical de minerais em saprolitos ácidos do Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Augusto Clemente


    Full Text Available Because weathering of minerals releases chemical elements into the biogeochemical cycle, characterization of their weathering products helps to better model groundwater quality, formation of secondary minerals and nutrient flux through the trophic chain. Based on microscopic and elemental analyses, weathering of riodacite from Serra Geral formation was characterized and weathering paths proposed. Three weathering paths of plagioclase phenocrystals were identified: plagioclase to gibbsite (Pg1; plagioclase to gels and gibbsite (Pg2; and plagioclase to gels, gibbsite and kaolinite (Pg3. Pyroxenes weathered to smectite and goethite (Py1, or to goethite and gibbsite (Py2, and magnetite weathered directly into iron oxides. Rock matrix comprises 90% of rock volume, and weathered to kaolinite and gibbsite, which explains why these minerals were the most abundant in the weathering products of these saprolites.O intemperismo de minerais primários disponibiliza elementos químicos no ciclo biogeoquímico, que por sua vez influencia a qualidade da água subterrânea, formação de minerais secundários e o fluxo de nutrientes na cadeia trófica. Com base na análise microscópica e elemental, o intemperismo de riodacito da formação Serra Geral foi caracterizado e mecanismos de intemperismo propostos. Três processos principais de intemperismo de fenocristais de plagioclásios foram identificados: plagioclásio para gibbsita (Pg1; plagioclásio para gel e gibbsita (Pg2, e plagioclásio para gel, gibbsita e caulinita (Pg3. Piroxênios intemperizaram-se para esmectita e goetita (Py1, ou para goethita e gibbsita (Py2, e magnetita intemperizou-se para óxidos de ferro. A matriz da rocha compõe 90% do volume total, e intemperiza-se para caulinita e gibbsita, o que explica a abundância destes minerais nos produtos de intemperismo destes saprolitos.

  10. Tourmaline, an indicator of external Mg-contamination of granitic pegmatites from host serpentinite; examples from the Moldanubian Zone, Czech Republic (United States)

    Novák, M.; Prokop, J.; Losos, Z.; Macek, I.


    Dominant primary solidus and minor subsolidus tourmalines from a variety of granitic pegmatites enclosed in serpentinites of the Moldanubian Zone, Czech Republic were examined, mainly by electron probe micro-analyser, to reveal the degree of external Mg(Ca)-contamination from their host rocks. The rocks include: (i) homogeneous to slightly heterogeneous nests of plagioclase-tourmaline rocks (group A) of anatectic or metasomatic origin, (ii) subhomogeneous to simply zoned barren pegmatite dikes (group B), and (iii) Li-bearing zoned pegmatite dikes of rare-element class (group C). The plagioclase-tourmaline rocks (group A) show spatial relation to pegmatites of the group B. Mostly black primary tourmalines (dravite, oxy-dravite, uvite, schorl, oxy-schorl, fluor-schorl) show extensive Mg- and Ca-contamination (group A), moderate Mg- and locally minor Ca-contamination (group B plus the locality Věžná I of the group C) and weak Mg-contamination of the tourmaline solely from outermost pegmatite units (group C); tourmalines from internal units of the pegmatites are typically Mg-free. The substitution mechanisms include MgR2+ -1 (R2+ = Fe2+ > Mn2+) in all groups, NaR2+ (□Al)-1 and R2+ (OH) (AlO)-1 in Ca-poor tourmalines and CaO (NaOH)-1 combined with the substitution CaR2+ (NaAl)-1 in Ca-enriched tourmalines (group A). Both Mg- and Ca-contamination events were very likely contemporaneous. The extent of contamination is higher in small and texturally simple plagioclase-tourmaline rocks (group A). Larger and more highly evolved Li-bearing pegmatites (group C) with zoned internal structure show a high degree of undercooling; consequently, rapid crystallization of outer zones with biotite and/or tourmaline depleted melt in almost all Mg and isolated the pegmatite body from further external contamination during solidus crystallisation. The granitic pegmatites (group B and group C) were open to the host serpentinite during early solidus crystallization immediately after

  11. Experimental constraints on the solidification of a nominally dry lunar magma ocean (United States)

    Lin, Yanhao; Tronche, Elodie J.; Steenstra, Edgar S.; van Westrenen, Wim


    The lunar magma ocean (LMO) concept has been used extensively for lunar evolution models for decades, but to date the full cooling and crystallization path of the LMO has not been studied experimentally. Here we present results of a high-pressure, high-temperature experimental study of the mineralogical and geochemical evolution accompanying the full solidification of a nominally dry LMO. Experiments used a bulk composition based on geophysical data, and assumed an initial LMO depth of 700 km. The effect of pressure within a deep magma ocean on solidification at different levels in the ocean was explicitly taken into account, by performing experiments at multiple pressures and constant temperature during each solidification step. Results show formation of a deep harzburgite (olivine + low-Ca pyroxene) layer in the first ∼50% of equilibrium crystallization. The crystallising mineral assemblage does not change until plagioclase and clinopyroxene appear at 68 PCS (per cent solid by volume), while low-Ca pyroxene stops forming. Olivine disappears at 83 PCS, and ilmenite and β-quartz start crystallizing at 91 and 96 PCS, respectively. At 99 PCS, we observe an extremely iron-rich (26.5 wt.% FeO) residual LMO liquid. Our results differ substantially from the oft-cited LMO solidification study of Snyder et al. (1992), which was based on a limited number of experiments at a single pressure. Differences include the mineralogy of the deepest sections of the solidified LMO (harzburgitic instead of dunitic), the formation of SiO2 in the lunar interior, and the development of extreme iron enrichment in the last remaining dregs of the LMO. Our findings shed new light on several aspects of lunar petrology, including the formation of felsic and iron-rich magmas in the Moon. Finally, based on our experiments the lunar crust, consisting of the light minerals plagioclase and quartz, would reach a thickness of ∼67.5 km. This is far greater than crustal thickness estimates from

  12. Mechanical behaviour of the Oman metamorphic sole: rheology of amphibolites at lower crustal conditions during subduction initiation (United States)

    Soret, Mathieu; Agard, Philippe; Ildefonse, Benoît; Dubacq, Benoît; Prigent, Cécile; Yamato, Philippe


    Amphibolites are commonly found in the middle to lower continental crust and along oceanic transform faults and detachments. Amphibolites are also the main component of metamorphic soles beneath highly strained peridotites at the base of large-scale ophiolites as exemplified in Oman. Metamorphic soles are crustal slivers stripped from the slab during early subduction and underplated below the upper plate (future ophiolite) mantle when the subduction interface is still young and warm (i.e. during the first million years -My- of intra-oceanic subduction). Understanding the rheological behaviour of amphibolitic rocks is therefore of major interest to model and quantify deformation and strain localisation in varied geodynamical environments. This contribution focuses on the deformation mechanisms of amphibole through a microstructural and petrological study of garnet-bearing and garnet-free clinopyroxene-bearing amphibolites, using EBSD analysis. The first aim is to test the influence of progres- sive changes in PT conditions during deformation and of the appearance/disappearance of anhydrous minerals (plagioclase, clinopyroxene and garnet) on the mechanical behaviour of mafic amphibolites. The second aim is to track deformation mechanisms during early subduction, through the study of these metamorphosed oceanic rocks, commonly 10-100 m thick, which range from high- to low-grade away from the contact with the peridotites (i.e. from 800 ± 100˚C - 0.9 ± 0.2 GPa to 500 ± 100˚C - 0.5 ± 0.1 GPa) and are essentially mafic at the top). Our study points out the existence of two major steps of deformation in the high-temperature amphibolite slices of the metamorphic soles during the early subdduction dynamics. These two steps witness important mechanical coupling and progressive strain localization at plate interface under cooling and hydrated conditions after subduction initiation. During the accretion of the first slice of metamorphic sole at 850 ± 50˚C (the garnet

  13. Extreme differentiation in single samples from the olivine-rich zone of the Palisades Sill, NY and NJ (United States)

    Chau, K. X.; Sen, G.; Naslund, H. R.


    The Palisades Sill, NY and NJ, has long been the focus of much attention due to its potential contributions to the understanding of igneous differentiation. Many early authors, including N.L. Bowen, thought of the intrusion as an ideal example of crystal settling because of an olivine-rich zone that occurs close to the base of the sill. Later investigations demonstrated that at least three geochemically distinct batches of magma were emplaced at different levels within this body, one of which produced the olivine-rich zone. Here we report the results of our detailed electron probe study of 27 olivine grains, 134 plagioclase grains, and 181 pyroxene grains from four samples of the olivine-rich zone. In one of the rocks plagioclase ranges from An84 (large grain; core) to An0.5 (interstitial plagioclase), whereas olivine ranges from Fo81 - Fo69. These ranges are comparable to our other samples. The plagioclase range is far greater than what is shown by the Skaergaard (An25 - An69) and Bushveld (An30 - An80) intrusions. Though the sill has long been known to be vertically differentiated, such extreme differentiation in individual thumb-sized samples was not expected. The implication is that interstitial melt pockets were so well enclosed (i.e., zero permeability) by the surrounding crystals that they were sealed off from further communication with larger volumes of melt that may have existed at a higher levels in the sill at that time. That is, compaction and associated filter pressing was not efficient in removing the interstitial melt. It is unlikely that such a situation could occur if the olivine-rich zone formed early from a large body of magma because the load pressure of the overlying crystals and melt would be too great to avoid compaction. A better explanation is that the olivine-rich zone was emplaced as a separate magma batch (as suggested by several previous workers based on bulk rock geochemistry) in a mostly solidified magma-crystal mush. In this setting

  14. Liquids of the Skaergaard intrusion traced by melt inclusions (United States)

    Jakobsen, J. K.; Veksler, I. V.; Tegner, C.


    The Skaergaard intrusion, East Greenland, has for the past 75 years played a central role in the understanding of differentiation of tholeiitic magma. However, there is still no agreement on the general line of liquid descent. Here we compile the inference from melt inclusion in cumulus apatite and plagioclase as a direct tracer of the parental melt composition and its evolution. Compositions of crystallized melt inclusions have been estimated by broad beam analysis, mass balance summation and by remelting and homogenization. Melt inclusions in apatite are found in the Upper Zone and are of two types: One is dark brownish or opaque and contains finely crystallized daughter phases of plagioclase, ilmenite, magnetite, iron-rich biotite (lepidomelane) and a fine-grained matrix; a less abundant type is light-colored, transparent and consists of quartz, orthoclase, albite, minor magnetite and finely intergrown matrix. The predominant dark melt inclusions are extremely rich in FeOT (30.9 ± 4.2 wt%) and low in SiO2 (40.7 ± 3.6 wt%) whereas the light colored type contains 8.6 ± 5.9 wt% FeOT and 65.6 ± 7.3 wt% SiO2. The contrasting compositions is interpreted as entrapment of conjugate end-members of two immiscible liquids. Before apatite is saturated (Lower- and Middle Zone), melt inclusions in plagioclase represent the best available tracer of liquid compositions. The melt inclusions are fully crystallized and consist of a uniform daughter phase assemblage of highly variable modal proportions: plagioclase (42-59 %), clinopyroxene (29-41 %), ilmenite (6-9 %), magnetite (4-10%), apatite (1-9 %), and accessory phases (Skaergaard in the upper part of the Lower Zone close to the first appearance of liquidus magnetite and that the Upper Zone crystallized from an immiscible emulsion. The extent of gravitational separation of the two contrasting melts and macroscopic effects of unmixing on the Skaergaard magma remain, however, unclear. We expect to clarify these issues by

  15. The problem of evaluating the gaseous component of intrusive rocks of a basic composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balykin, P.A.; Proskuryakov, A.A.; Yurkovskiy, S.A.


    The methodological problems which come up in evaluating the gaseous phase of intrusive rocks and minerals extracted by a thermal method and analyzed on a gas chromatograph are discussed. The issue of selecting the optimal temperature range for extraction of gases from samples is touched upon. The results of analyses in pairs of rock, plagioclase from this rock are compared in a series of ultrabasic rock and basic plutons of the Zabaykal and upper Amur region in order to solve the issue of selecting the material for analysis. The apparatus on which the analysis was conducted is described.

  16. Quaternary basaltic volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina

    The extensive Quaternary volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Mendoza, Argentina, is investigated in this study by major and trace element analyses, Sr, Nd, Hf and Pb-isotopic analyses and Zr-Hf isotope dilution data on samples from almost the entire province. The samples are mainly...... in basalts from all the studied volcanic fields in Payenia is signs of lower crustal contamination indicating assimilation of, in some cases, large amounts of trace element depleted, mafic, plagioclase-bearing rocks. The northern Payenia is dominated by backarc basalts erupted between late Pliocene to late...

  17. Inside the volcano: The how and why of Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland (United States)

    LaFemina, Peter; Hudak, Michael; Feineman, Maureen; Geirsson, Halldor; Normandeau, Jim; Furman, Tanya


    The Thrihnukagigur volcano, located in the Brennisteinsfjöll fissure swarm on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland, offers a unique exposure of the upper magmatic plumbing system of a monogenetic volcano. The volcano formed during a dike-fed strombolian eruption ~3500 BP with flow-back leaving an evacuated conduit, elongated parallel to the regional maximum horizontal stress. At least two vents were formed above the dike, as well as several small hornitos south-southwest of the main vent. In addition to the evacuated conduit, a cave exists 120 m below the vent. The cave exposes stacked lava flows and a buried cinder cone. The unconsolidated tephra of the cone is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to the vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~3500 BP fissure eruption. We present geochemical, petrologic and geologic observations, including a high-resolution three-dimensional scan of the system that indicate the dike intersected, eroded and assimilated unconsolidated tephra from the buried cinder cone, thus excavating a region along the dike, allowing for future slumping and cave formation. Two petrographically distinct populations of plagioclase phenocrysts are present in the system: a population of smaller (maximum length 1 mm) acicular phenocrysts and a population of larger (maximum length 10 mm) tabular phenocrysts that is commonly broken and displays disequilibrium sieve textures. The acicular plagioclase crystals are present in the dike and lavas while the tabular crystals are in these units and the buried tephra. An intrusion that appears not to have interacted with the tephra has only acicular plagioclase. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single acicular population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the tabular population of phenocrysts from the cone. Petrographic thin-sections of lavas sampled near the vent show undigested fragments of tephra from

  18. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Analysis of Minerals: Carbonates and Silicates (United States)


    and analysis in the labo- ratory. The mapping process could be extended to cover the entire three-dimensional exposure of the rock unit, using field...KMg3AlSi3O10(OH)2 Serpentine (2) Mg6Si4O10(OH)8 Talc Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 Feldspars K-feldspar (3) (K,Na)AlSi3O8 Plagioclase (8) NaAlSi3O8–CaAl2Si2O8 the interlayer site between tetrahedral sheets. In other phyllosilicates ( talc , serpentine), the interlayer site is absent or contains atoms other

  19. NanoSIMS mapping and LA-ICP-MS chemical and U-Th-Pb data in monazite from a xenolith enclosed in andesite (Central Slovakia Volcanic Field) (United States)

    Didier, A.; Bosse, V.; Bouloton, J.; Mostefaoui, S.; Viala, M.; Paquette, J. L.; Devidal, J. L.; Duhamel, R.


    In this study, we use NanoSIMS element and isotope ratio mapping and LA-ICP-MS trace element measurements to elucidate the origins of monazites from a restitic xenolith enclosed in a 13.5 ± 0.3 Ma andesitic lava (Slovakia). The xenolith/lava interaction is mainly characterized by the growth of a plagioclase-bearing corona around the xenolith and magmatic garnet overgrowths on primary metamorphic garnets within the xenolith. NanoSIMS images (89Y, 139La, 208Pb, 232Th and 238U) and trace element analyses indicate that variations of HREE, Y and Eu contents in the monazite are correlated with the resorption and the following overgrowth of garnet and plagioclase in the xenolith. Three domains are distinguished in the monazite grains: the inherited Variscan core at ca. 310 Ma (M1 domain) characterized by low Y and HREE contents and a weak negative Eu anomaly; the inner rim (M2 domain) crystallized during the growth of the plagioclase magmatic corona (large negative Eu anomaly) and the resorption of metamorphic garnet (high HREE and Y contents); and the external rim (M3 domain) crystallized during the growth of the plagioclase corona (large negative Eu anomaly) and during the crystallization of magmatic garnet (low Y, HREE contents) at ~13 Ma, i.e. the age of the andesitic lava. The age and chemical zonation of the monazites attest to the preservation of primary monazite in the xenolith despite the interaction with the andesite lava. NanoSIMS imaging provides high-quality sub-µm scale images of the monazite that reveals chemical domains that were not distinguishable on WDS X-ray maps, especially for depleted elements such as U and Pb. Owing to its small size, the M2 domain could not be accurately dated by the LA-ICP-MS method. However, NanoSIMS isotopic maps reveal that the M2 domain has similar 208Pb/232Th isotope ratios to the M3 domain and thus similar ages. These results support the hypothesis that melt-assisted partial dissolution-precipitation in monazite

  20. Fluid-present disequilibrium melting in Neoarchean arc-related migmatites of Daeijak Island, western Gyeonggi Massif, Korea (United States)

    Lee, Yuyoung; Cho, Moonsup


    The melting process of meta-igneous rocks was investigated via field, petrographic and geochemical analyses of the Neoarchean (~ 2.51 Ga) migmatite complex in Daeijak Island, western Gyeonggi Massif. This complex consists primarily of garnet-free amphibolites and tonalitic migmatites, both of which contain hornblende, plagioclase and quartz as major constituents. Neosomes and leucosomes in the migmatite have dioritic-tonalitic and tonalitic-trondhjemitic compositions, respectively. Compositions of hornblende (XFe = 0.39-0.42) and plagioclase (An24-27) vary little between the neosomes and leucosomes. The amphibolites show distinct depletions in Nb, Ta, Zr, and Ti relative to large ion lithophile elements, suggesting an arc-related origin for their basaltic protolith. Leucosomes have lower contents of K2O, MgO, FeO*, TiO2, Zr, Rb, and rare earth elements (REE) than amphibolites and neosomes, but are higher in SiO2, Na2O, and Sr contents. Leucosomes and neosomes have positive [(Eu/Eu*)N = 1.32-7.26] and negative (0.71-0.97) Eu anomalies, respectively, which are attributed to the variable degree of plagioclase fractionation during the partial melting. The P-T condition for the migmatite formation was estimated to be ~ 700-730 °C and 4.7-5.5 kbar, primarily based on the hornblende-plagioclase thermobarometry and phase equilibria. Various lines of textural evidence, such as the channel flow of melt along migmatitic layers and the segregation of melt into shear bands or boudin necks suggest a syn-deformation crystallization of melt. Chemical disequilibrium in migmatites is documented not only by petrographic and geochemical data but also by the REE modeling between melt product and source rock. Disequilibrium process is most likely attributed to the rapidity of melt extraction or migration, compared to chemical diffusion rate. In summary, the fluid-present disequilibrium melting of dioritic-tonalitic protoliths has produced tonalitic-trondhjemitic leucosomes in a dynamic

  1. Tracking Magma Degassing and Changes in Magma Rheology Between Major Dome Collapse Events (United States)

    Genareau, K.; Cronin, S. J.; Lube, G.


    Merapi volcano, Java, Indonesia, produced two particularly large dome collapse events on 26 October and 5 November 2010, during its largest eruption since 1872. These were accompanied by explosive eruptions and highly destructive pyroclastic density currents that killed several hundred people in villages on the southern flanks. Previous work revealed that the tephras from the 26 October surges were dominated by free crystals liberated from a vesicular melt, while the 5 November tephras were dominated by juvenile lava fragments as the result of the development of permeable pathways for gas escape caused by vesicle coalescence and collapse. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination of lava clasts from the 2010 surge-producing events at Merapi revealed differences in the groundmass crystallinities as a result of decompression-induced crystallization during magma ascent over a time period of ten days. Lava clasts from the 5 November event contain microlite number densities over an order of magnitude higher than lava clasts from the 26 October collapse, 7.6 x 104 per mm2 versus 5.7 x 103 per mm2, respectively. The number density of plagioclase feldspar microlites is ten times higher in the 5 November event, while the number of pyroxene/Fe-oxide microlites is fifteen times higher compared to the 26 October event. Additionally, textures of the microlites provide information on magma ascent rates during the two phases of magma extrusion. 26 October lava clasts display euhedral and tabular plagioclase microlites with an average area of 133 μm2(n=100). 5 November lava clasts contain plagioclase microlites with lath-shaped and swallowtail morphologies and pyroxene/Fe-oxide microlites with anhedral, skeletal, and hopper morphologies, with most of the latter on the order of 1 μm in diameter. These variations in groundmass textures indicate that the lava extruded prior to the 5 November collapse event experienced a significant amount of decompression

  2. Petrology and classification of the Garraf, Spain chondrite (United States)

    Keil, K.; Conrad, G. H.; King, E. A.; San Miguel, A.


    Microscopic and electron microprobe studies indicate that the Garraf meteorite is a highly-recrystallized chondrite of petrologic type 6. Olivine (Fa24.7; PMD 1.1) and low-Ca pyroxene (Fs20.9; PMD 1.1) compositions indicate that it belongs to the L-group. Based on contents of noble gases, pervasive fracturing of silicates, common undulose extinction of olivine and plagioclase, and the lack of melt pockets and maskelynite, Garraf is placed into shock facies b. It is concluded that Garraf is a highly recrystallized L6b chondrite that, after recrystallization, was cataclased and comminuted by shock.

  3. Magma plumbing system at the beginning of repeated caldera eruption: A case study on Aso-1 erupted about 270 ky ago from Aso caldera, SW Japan (United States)

    Miyagi, I.; Hoshizumi, H.; Miyabuchi, Y.


    In order to understand the commencement of magma plumbing system of a polygenetic caldera, we started petrological study on the earliest eruptive product of Aso caldera, SW Japan. Aso caldera is one of the active volcano in Japan which have produced four stages (Aso-1, -2, -3, -4) of large-scale pyroclastic flow deposits 270 to 90 ky. ago. A suite of samples were collected from the bottom of Aso-1 pyroclastic flow deposit and from the underlying tephra layer (Ono et al., 1979). The tephra comprises more than 10 pumice fall units inter-layered by dark gray volcanic ash. For whole rock chemistry, coarser pumice fragments were separated. For mineral and glass chemistry, phenocrysts and glass particles were handpicked from the sieved 500-1000 um fractions under a binocular microscope. This fraction consist of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, variably vesiculated volcanic glass fragments, and clinopyroxene phenocrysts. They were analyzed using an electron micro-probe. The suite of samples are similar and major temporal change is the chemical composition of orthopyroxenes; those from upper horizon are relatively Mg rich. Anorthite content of plagioclase phenocryst is bimodal 49-53 mol. % (major) and 57-70 mol. % (minor). Silica content of matrix glass fall in a narrow range 68-70 wt. %. Temperature and oxygen fugacity were estimated to be 865-905 deg-C and FMQ+2 log unit, respectively, using ILMAT (Lepage, 2003). Pressure and water content of the magma are estimated to be 5-7 kbar and 0.5-1 wt. % H2O, respectively, using rhyolite-MELTS (Gualda et al., 2012) on the most undifferentiated tholeiitic basalt of Aso 4KC-03 (Hunter, 1998) to reproduce the observed composition of matrix glass (68-70 wt. % SiO2) and plagioclase (An 49-53 mol. %). The calcic plagioclase (An 57-70 mol. %), however, suggest that the basalt was initially hydrous and require magma degassing before the differentiation. If we assume degassing by magma convection in a conduit (Kazahaya et al., 1994), the

  4. Petrologic and Oxygen-Isotopic Investigations of Eucritic and Anomalous Mafic Achondrites (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Greenwood, R. C.; Peng, Z. X.; Ross, D. K.; Berger, E. L.; Barrett, T. J.


    The most common asteroidal igneous meteorites are eucrite-type basalts and gabbros rocks composed of ferroan pigeonite and augite, calcic plagioclase, silica, ilmenite, troilite, Ca-phosphate, chromite and Fe-metal. These rocks are thought to have formed on a single asteroid along with howardites and diogenites (HEDs). However, Northwest Africa (NWA) 011 is mineralogically identical to eucrites, but has an O-isotopic composition distinct from them and was derived from a different asteroid. Modern analyses with higher precision have shown that some eucrites have smaller O-isotopic differences that are nevertheless well-resolved from the group mean.

  5. New Evidence for 26Al in CAI and Chondrules from Type 3 Ordinary Chondrites (United States)

    Srinivasan, G.; Russell, S. S.; MacPherson, G. J.; Huss, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.


    We have known since 1976 that 26A1 (tl/2 = 7.2 x 105 yrs) was alive in the early solar system, at a level of (26Al/27Al)o z 5 x 10-5 in calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAI). However, several outstanding questions remain. Little evidence for 26A1 has been found in other chondritic material, and none has been found in differentiated meteorites. These results might imply that 26A1 was heterogeneously distributed in the nebula or by mineralogic site in nebular dust, or they might reflect differences in time of formation. There are strict limitations on finding evidence of 26A1 in normal chondrules with bulk Al/Mg ~ 0.1, since even quenched, perfectly preserved, late-stage glasses would have low Al/Mg. Primary plagioclase crystals provide the only possibility, but these only crystallize rarely in melts within the compositional range of normal chondrules. Also, metamorphism can erase the evidence in high-AI/Mg phases. To address these issues, we have conducted a search for chondrules and CAI with high-Al/Mg phases suitable for ion-probe measurement in type 3 ordinary chondrites. Previous work has revealed evidence for 26Al in a plagioclase bearing, olivine-pyroxene class from Semarkona (LL3.0; (26Al/27Al)o = 7.7+/-2.1 x 10-6)), a plagioclase-rich object from Bovedy (L3.7?; 2.5+/-1.2 x 10-7), in separated plagioclase from St. Marguerite (H4; 2.0+/-0.6 x 10-7), an isolated hibonite grain from Dhajala (H3.8; 8.4+0.5 x 10-6), and in Al2O3 and hibonite grains ((26Al/27Al)o = 2-5 x 10-5; [GRH, unpublished]) from acid residues of Semarkona, Bishunpur (LL3.1), and Krymka (LL3.1). We have identified and measured Al-Mg isotope systematics in two CAI and seven chondrules from ordinary chondrites of low metamorphic grade and have found clear evidence for 26A1 in both CAI and in two chondrules.

  6. Sm-Nd Isotopic Studies of Two Nakhlites, NWA 5790 and Nakhla (United States)

    C.-Y. Shih; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Jambon, A.


    NWA 5790 is a Martian meteorite recently found in the Mauritania part of the Saharan desert and is classified as a nakhlite, containing a small amount of interstitial plagioclase. Unlike other Martian meteorites ( e.g., shergottites), nakhlites have been only moderately shocked and their original igneous textures are still well-preserved. In this report, we present Sm-Nd isotopic data for NWA 5790 and Nakhla, a rare "fall" nakhlite, correlate their ages with those of other nakhlites and discuss their petrogenesis.

  7. Identification of new meteorite, Mihonoseki (L), from broken fragments in Japan (United States)

    Miura, Y.; Noma, Y.


    New meteorite of Mihonoseki fallen in Shimane-ken was identified by fine broken pieces by using an energy-dispersive scanning electron microprobe analyzer. It shows fusion-crust (i.e. Fe-Si melt), meteoritic minerals (kamacite, taenite, troilite, amorphous plagioclase etc.) and chrondrule with clear glassy rim. Mineralogical, and petrological data of several fine grains suggest that broken fragments of Mihonoseki are L3/4 chondritic meteorite which is the first identification in a Japanese fallen meteorite. The prompt identification method of meteorite-fragments will be applied to the next lunar, Martian and asteroid explorations, as well as meteorite falls on the terrestrial surface.

  8. A Silicate Inclusion in Puente del Zacate, a IIIA Iron Meteorite (United States)

    Olsen, Edward J.; Davis, Andrew M.; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.; Moore, Carleton B.; Steele, Ian M.


    The IIIA and IIIB iron meteorites are considered to have formed in the cores of asteroids. A silicate inclusion within the IIIA meteorite Puente del Zacate consisting of olivine (Fa_4), low-calcium pyroxene (Fs_6Wo_1), chromium diopside (Fs_3Wo47), plagioclase (An14Or_4), graphite, troilite, chromite, daubreelite, and iron metal resembles inclusions in IAB iron meteorites. The oxygen isotopic composition of the Puente del Zacate inclusion is like chromite and phosphate inclusions in other IIIA and IIIB irons. The Puente del Zacate inclusion may have been derived from the lower mantle of the IIIAB parent asteroid.

  9. Lunar "dunite", "pyroxenite" and "anorthosite" (United States)

    Wilshire, H.G.; Jackson, E.D.


    Monomineralic aggregates of olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and plagioclase with granoblastic textures are widespread minor constituents of Apollo 14 breccias. Recrystallization is commonly incomplete within these aggregates, leaving relict material that clearly indicates single-mineral-grain sources for the aggregates. The aggregates are not, therefore, properly characterized by igneous rock names, nor can any conclusions regarding differentiation be drawn from them. Average sizes of the aggregates indicate source rocks with grain sizes mostly larger than 1 to 5 mm, a few clasts of which occur in the breccias; the proportions of the different types of aggregates suggest dominantly feldspathic source rocks. ?? 1972.

  10. Genetic aspects of basalts from the Carlsberg Ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    are similar to T - (transi - tional) type MOR basalts (MORB) from the Atla n tic and the Pacific 21 . In the AFM diagram (Figure 2), the samples grouping near the FeO ? MgO side of the triangle probably correspond to the fractional crystallization... ?primitive? ca l- cic melts prior to their incorporation in the phyric basa l- tic magma 12 . Laboratory experiments on aphyric basalts have r e vea - led plagioclase to occur on the liquidus over a conside r a - ble temperature interval 13 as typified...

  11. Petrology of metabasic and peridotitic rocks of the Songshugou ophiolite, Qinling orogen, China (United States)

    Belic, Maximilian; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Dong, Yunpeng


    The Proterozoic Songshugou ophiolite outcrops as a rootless nappe which was emplaced into the southern margin of the Qinling Group. It consists mainly of amphibolite facies metamafic and -ultramafic rocks. Trace element geochemistry and isotope composition show that the mafic rocks are mainly E-MORB and T-MORB metabasalts (Dong et al., 2008b). Within the ophiolite sequence, ultramafic rocks consist mainly of peridotites and serpentinites. Particularly, extremely fresh dunites and harzburgites, are found which do not display a conspicuous metamorphic overprint. The low CaO (non-fertile mantle rocks. Chromite is found as disseminated phase but can sometimes form massive chromite bands. The platinumgroup mineral Laurite (RuS2) could be identified as inclusion in chromites. Usually part of Ru is substituted by Os and Ir. The metamafic rocks consist of garnet, amphibole, symplectitic pyroxenes, ilmenite, apatite, ±zoisite, ±sphene and show a strong metamorphic overprint. Garnet contains numerous inclusions in the core but are nearly inclusion free at the rim. The cores have sometimes snowball textures indicating initially syndeformative growth. Pure albite and prehnite were found in the central parts of the garnets. In the outer portions, pargasitic amphibole, rutile and rarely glaukophane were found. The symplectitic pyroxenes are of diopsidic composition which enclose prehnite and not albite, as common in retrograde eclogitic rocks. Different stages of garnet breakdown to plagioclase and amphibole, from thin plagioclase rims surrounding the garnets to plagioclase rich pseudomorphs, can be observed in different samples. Based on the glaukophane inclusions and symplectitic pyroxenes a high pressure metamorphic event can be concluded. The garnet breakdown to plagioclase and the symplectites clearly indicate a rapid exhumation phase. The age of the metamorphic event is unclear but probably related to the closure of the Shangdan ocean during the early Paleozoic. The

  12. Possible polyphase metamorphic evolution of high grade metabasic rocks from the Songshugou ophiolite, Qinling orogen, China (United States)

    Belic, Maximilian; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Dong, Yunpeng; Chen, Danling


    The Proterozoic Songshugou ophiolite consists of a series of ultrabasic and tholeitic metabasic rocks. They were emplaced as a lense shaped body into the southern margin of the Qinling Group. Isotope composition and trace element geochemistry display an E-MORB and T-MORB signature for the mafic rocks (Dong et al., 2008). Within the ophiolite sequence some rudimental fresh peridotites (dunites and harzburgites) within serpentines display low CaO (non-fertile mantle rocks. The metabasic rocks comprise the mineral assemblage garnet, amphibole, symplectitic pyroxenes, ilmenite, apatite, ±zoisite, ±sphene and show a strong retrograde metamorphic overprint. Garnet typically contains many inclusions within the core but are nearly inclusion free at the rim. The cores have sometimes snowball textures indicating initially syndeformative growth. Albite and prehnite were found in central parts of garnet. In the outer portions, pargasitic amphibole, rutile and a bluish amphibole, probably glaukophane were found. Garnet zoning pattern clearly show a discontinous growth seen in an sudden increase in grossular and decrease in almandine components. The symplectitic pyroxenes are of diopsidic composition which enclose typically prehnite and not albite, as common in retrograde eclogitic rocks. Different stages of garnet breakdown to plagioclase and amphibole, from thin plagioclase rims surrounding the garnets to plagioclase rich pseudomorphs, can be observed in different samples. Based on symplectitic pyroxenes a high pressure metamorphic event can be concluded (Zhang, 1999). The garnet breakdown to plagioclase and the symplectites clearly indicate a rapid exhumation phase. The age of the metamorphic event is probably related to the closure of the Shangdan ocean during the early Paleozoic. It is unclear if the garnet rims grew during a later stage of the metamorphic cycle or developed during a separate event. The financial support by Eurasia-Pacific Uninet is gratefully

  13. A survey of lunar rock types and comparison of the crusts of earth and moon (United States)

    Wood, J. A.


    The principal known types of lunar rocks are briefly reviewed, and their chemical relationships discussed. In the suite of low-KREEP highland rocks, Fe/(Fe + Mg) in the normative mafic minerals increases and the albite content of normative plagio-clase decreases as the total amount of normative plagioclase increases, the opposite of the trend predicted by the Bowen reaction principle. The distribution of compositions of rocks from terrestrial layered mafic intrusives is substantially different: here the analyses fall in several discrete clusters (anorthositic rocks, norites, granophyres and ferrogabbros, ultramafics), and the chemical trends noted above are not reproduced. It is suggested that the observed trends in lunar highland rocks could be produced by crystal fractionation in a deep global surface magma system if (1) plagiociase tended to float, upon crystallization, and (2) the magma was kept agitated and well mixed (probably by thermal convection) until crystallization was far advanced and relatively little residual liquid was left. After the crustal system solidified, but before extensive cooling had developed a thick, strong lithosphere, mantle convection was able to draw portions of the lunar anorthositic crust down into the mantle.

  14. Metamorphism of the Basement of the Qilian Fold Belt in the Minhe-Ledu Area, Qinghai Province, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡金郎; 魏光华; 王庆树


    The basement of the central Qilian fold belt exposed along the Minhe-Ledu highway consists of psammiticschists, metabasitic rocks, and crystalline limestone. Migmatitic rocks occur sporadically among psammitic schist andmetabasitic rocks. The mineral assemblage of psammitic schist is muscovite + biotite + feldspar + quartz + tourmaline ±titanite ± sillimanite and that of metabasitic rocks is amphibole + plagioclase + biotite ± apatite ± magnetite ± pyroxene ±garnet ± quartz. The migmatitic rock consists of leucosome and restite of various volume proportions; the former consistsof muscovite + alkaline feldspar + quartz ± garnet ± plagioclase while the latter is either fragments of psammitic schist orthose of metabasitic rock. The crystalline limestone consists of calcite that has been partly replaced by olivine. The olivinewas subsequently altered to serpentine. Weak deformations as indicated by cleavages and fractures were imposed promi-nently on the psammitic schists, occasionally on metabasitic rocks, but not on migmatitic rocks. The basement experiencedmetamorphism up to temperature 606-778C and pressure 4.8-6.1 kbar (0.48-0.61 GPa), equivalent to amphibolite-granulite facies. The peak of the metamorphism is marked by a migmatization which occurred at several localities alongthe studied route 587-535 Ma ago. The basement also recorded a retrograde metamorphism of greenschist facies, duringwhich biotite, garnet, amphibole, and pyroxene were partly altered to chlorite.

  15. Bedout: a possible end-Permian impact crater offshore of northwestern Australia. (United States)

    Becker, L; Poreda, R J; Basu, A R; Pope, K O; Harrison, T M; Nicholson, C; Iasky, R


    The Bedout High, located on the northwestern continental margin of Australia, has emerged as a prime candidate for an end-Permian impact structure. Seismic imaging, gravity data, and the identification of melt rocks and impact breccias from drill cores located on top of Bedout are consistent with the presence of a buried impact crater. The impact breccias contain nearly pure silica glass (SiO2), fractured and shock-melted plagioclases, and spherulitic glass. The distribution of glass and shocked minerals over hundreds of meters of core material implies that a melt sheet is present. Available gravity and seismic data suggest that the Bedout High represents the central uplift of a crater similar in size to Chicxulub. A plagioclase separate from the Lagrange-1 exploration well has an Ar/Ar age of 250.1 +/- 4.5 million years. The location, size, and age of the Bedout crater can account for reported occurrences of impact debris in Permian-Triassic boundary sediments worldwide.

  16. Lunar Mare Basalts as Analogues for Martian Volcanic Compositions: Evidence from Visible, Near-IR, and Thermal Emission Spectroscopy (United States)

    Graff, T. G.; Morris, R. V.; Christensen, P. R.


    The lunar mare basalts potentially provide a unique sample suite for understanding the nature of basalts on the martian surface. Our current knowledge of the mineralogical and chemical composition of the basaltic material on Mars comes from studies of the basaltic martian meteorites and from orbital and surface remote sensing observations. Petrographic observations of basaltic martian meteorites (e.g., Shergotty, Zagami, and EETA79001) show that the dominant phases are pyroxene (primarily pigeonite and augite), maskelynite (a diaplectic glass formed from plagioclase by shock), and olivine [1,2]. Pigeonite, a low calcium pyroxene, is generally not found in abundance in terrestrial basalts, but does often occur on the Moon [3]. Lunar samples thus provide a means to examine a variety of pigeonite-rich basalts that also have bulk elemental compositions (particularly low-Ti Apollo 15 mare basalts) that are comparable to basaltic SNC meteorites [4,5]. Furthermore, lunar basalts may be mineralogically better suited as analogues of the martian surface basalts than the basaltic martian meteorites because the plagioclase feldspar in the basaltic Martian meteorites, but not in the lunar surface basalts, is largely present as maskelynite [1,2]. Analysis of lunar mare basalts my also lead to additional endmember spectra for spectral libraries. This is particularly important analysis of martian thermal emission spectra, because the spectral library apparently contains a single pigeonite spectrum derived from a synthetic sample [6].

  17. Petrology, geochemistry and geodynamics of basic granulite from the Altay area, North Xinjiang, China. (United States)

    Li, Zi-Long; Chen, Han-Lin; Yang, Shu-Feng; Dong, Chuan-Wan; Xiao, Wen-Jiao


    The basic granulite of the Altay orogenic belt occurs as tectonic lens in the Devonian medium- to lower-grade metamorphic beds through fault contact. The Altay granulite (AG) is an amphibole plagioclase two-pyroxene granulite and is mainly composed of two pyroxenes, plagioclase, amphibole and biotite. Its melano-minerals are rich in Mg/(Mg+Fe2+), and its amphibole and biotite are rich in TiO2. The AG is rich in Mg/(Mg+Fe2+), Al2O3 and depletion of U, Th and Rb contents. The AG has moderate SigmaREE and LREE-enriched with weak positive Eu anomaly. The AG shows island-arc pattern with negative Nb, P and Ti anomalies, reflecting that formation of the AG may be associated with subduction. Geochemical and mineral composition data reflect that the protolith of the AG is calc-alkaline basalt and formed by granulite facies metamorphism having peak P-T conditions of 750 degrees C-780 degrees C and 0.6-0.7 Gpa. The AG formation underwent two stages was suggested. In the early stage of oceanic crustal subduction, calc-alkaline basalt with island-arc environment underwent granulite facies metamorphism to form the AG in deep crust, and in the late stage, the AG was thrust into the upper crust.

  18. Ion microprobe (SHRIMP dates complex granulite from Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Complex polymetamorphic granulites have been dated in the Santa Catarina granulite complex of southern Brazil through SHRIMP study of zircon. This complex is dominated by intermediate-acid plutonic rocks and contains small volumes of mafic and ultramafic rocks, and minor quartzite and banded iron formation. Porphyroblasts of orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and plagioclase in mafic and acid rocks are interpreted as magmatic remnants in a volumetrically dominant granoblastic aggregate (M1 of the same minerals and hornblende. Hornblende formed during a later M2 metamorphic event constitutes rims around pyroxene, but the hornblende is also rimmed by granoblastic simplectites of orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, hornblende and plagioclase in a second granulite facies event (M3. Chlorite and epidote occur in shear zones (M4. This granulite terrain is part of a Neoproterozoic craton, because it was little affected by the Brasiliano Cycle. The two granulite-facies events (M1 and M3 are dated by U/Pb zircon SHRIMP at about 2.68 and 2.17 Ga, while the magmatic protoliths formed at about 2.72 Ga. The amphibolite facies event (M2 probably occurred close to the 2.17 Ga granulitic metamorphism.

  19. Petrology, geochemistry and geodynamics of basic granulite from the Altay area, North Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    厉子龙; 陈汉林; 杨树锋; 董传万; 肖文交


    The basic granulite of the Altay orogenic belt occurs as tectonic lens in the Devonian medium- to lower-grade metamorphic beds through fault contact. The Altay granulite (AG) is an amphibole plagioclase two-pyroxene granulite and is mainly composed of two pyroxenes, plagioclase, amphibole and biotite. Its melano-minerals are rich in Mg/(Mg+Fe2+),and its amphibole and biotite are rich in TiO2. The AG is rich in Mg/(Mg+Fe2+), Al2O3 and depletion of U, Th and Rb contents. The AG has moderate ∑REE and LREE-enriched with weak positive Eu anomaly. The AG shows island-arc pattern with negative Nb, P and Ti anomalies, reflecting that formation of the AG -05 be associated with subduction. Geochemical and mineral composition data reflect that the protolith of the AG is calc-alkaline basalt and formed by granulite facies metamorphism having peak P-T conditions of 750 ℃-780 ℃ and 0.6-0.7 Gpa. The AG formation underwent two stages was suggested. In the early stage of oceanic crustal subduction, calc-alkaline basalt with island-arc environment underwent granulite facies metamorphism to form the AG in deep crust, and in the late stage, the AG was thrust into the upper crust.

  20. Geochemistry and zircon U-Pb ages of granulite xenolith from Tuoyun basalts, Xinjiang: Implications for the petrogenesis and the lower crustal nature beneath the southwestern Tianshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jianping; LUO Zhaohua; YU Chunmei; YU Xiaolu; ZHANG Ruisheng; LU Fengxiang; LI Huimin


    The granulitic xenoliths discovered in the late Cretaceous basaltic rocks from Tuoyun basin, western Xinjiang Province contain the assemblage of Opx + Cpx + Pl ± Grt ± Qtz ± Kfs. Mineral chemistry, petrochemistry and zircon U-Pb ages from the xenoliths have been reported in the paper. Petrogenesis, the lower crustal nature and the mantle-crust interaction reflected by the granulites are discussed as well. Tuoyun granulites are mainly mafic with few intermediate components, and represent the magmatic products underwent granulite-facies metamorphism in lower crustal condition. Equilibrium temperature and the maximum pressure estimates of the granulites are 910 ± 35℃ and 13.5 × 108 Pa respectively, indicating that the crust beneath southwestern Tianshan had the thickness of less than 44 km and high geotherm (e.g. > 80 mW/m2) when the host magma erupted. During their formation, the fractional crystallization of olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase and ilmenite, plagioclase accumulation and the contamination of felsic components or fluid metasomatism processes had happened. Metamorphic zircon U-Pb age of 253 Ma may record the crust-mantle interaction caused by the orogenic root delamination beneath the southwestern Tianshan.

  1. Petrology, geochemistry and geodynamics of basic granulite from the Altay area, North Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    厉子龙; 陈汉林; 杨树锋; 董传万; 肖文交


    The basic granulite of the Altay orogenic belt occurs as tectonic lens in the Devonian medium- to lower-grade metamorphic beds through fault contact. The Altay granulite (AG) is an amphibole plagioclase two-pyroxene granulite and is mainly composed of two pyroxenes, plagioclase, amphibole and biotite. Its melano-minerals are rich in Mg/(Mg+Fe2+),and its amphibole and biotite are rich in TiO2. The AG is rich in Mg/(Mg+Fe2+), Al2O3 and depletion of U, Th and Rbcontents. The AG has moderate ∑REE and LREE-enriched with weak positive Eu anomaly. The AG shows island-arc pattern with negative Nb, P and Ti anomalies, reflecting that formation of the AG may be associated with subduction. Geochemical and mineral composition data reflect that the protolith of the AG is calc-alkaline basalt and formed by granulite facies metamorphism having peak P-T conditions of 750℃-780℃ and 0.6-0.7 Gpa. The AG formation underwent two stages was suggested. In the early stage of oceanic crustal subduction, calc-alkaline basalt with island-arc environment underwent granulite facies metamorphism to form the AG in deep crust, and in the late stage, the AG was thrust into the upper crust.

  2. Zircon U-Pb Dating of Yushugou Terrain of High-Pressure Granulite Facies in Southern Tianshan Mountain and Its Geological SIgnificance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Yushugou terrain of high-pressure granulite facies in southern Tianshan Mountain is composed mainly of an ophiolite suite.Most selected zirocons are round or elliptical in shape,and some are of tetragonal prism with round edges.The granulometric analyses show that they are well sorted in sedimentation.ZrO2/HfO2 ratios in zircons range from 45 to 57.these characters,together with the petrologic and geochemical characters of plagioclase-garnet-orthopyroxenite bearing zircons,indicate that the protolith of plagioclase-garnet-orthopyroxenite may be derived mainly from volcanic base surge sedimentary debris in oceanic islands and from clays formed by seafloor weathering.Zircons are simply of pyroclastic debris.The ophiolite formation age of (440±18)Ma and the first-stage metamorphic age(amphibolite or granulite facies) of (364±5) Ma were obtained with a method of multiple grains in different groups and a method of concordia plot.These ages provide important information on the temporal and spatial occurrence of southern Paleoxoic Tianshan Ocean,The subduction rate of the oceanic crust and the formation mechanism of ophiolite of granulite facies.

  3. Geochemical constraints on the regolith hypothesis for the middle Pleistocene transition (United States)

    Roy, Martin; Clark, Peter U.; Raisbeck, Grant M.; Yiou, Françoise


    The transition from 41- to 100-kyr glacial cycles and concomitant increase in global ice volume ˜1 Ma remain an enigmatic feature of late Cenozoic climate. Here, we examine the petrology, mineralogy, and geochemistry of the silicate fraction of tills spanning the past 2 Ma from the north-central United States to evaluate the hypothesis that this so-called middle Pleistocene transition (MPT) occurred by erosion of regolith and subsequent exposure of underlying Canadian Shield bedrock by the Laurentide ice sheet. These data indicate that late Pliocene tills are depleted in crystalline lithologies, unstable minerals, and major-element oxides derived from plagioclase and ferromagnesians and are enriched in kaolinite, quartz, iron oxides, TiO 2-bearing resistates, and meteoric 10Be. In contrast, early and middle Pleistocene tills show enrichment in crystalline lithologies, stable minerals, and major oxides derived from plagioclase and ferromagnesians and depletion in meteoric 10Be, whereas late Pleistocene tills show major-element concentrations that are most similar to that of fresh shield bedrock. Marine isotope records of Sr, Os, and Hf show significant changes around the MPT that are consistent with the removal of a regolith and the exhumation of fresh silicate bedrock. These results indicate that ice sheets initially expanded on highly weathered bedrock and progressively exhumed a fresher rock source, thereby supporting the hypothesis that a change in the composition of the substrate underlying ice sheets best explains the origin of the MPT.

  4. Possible seismic reflector in the lower crust: Evidence from fabrics and experiments of seismic velocity on layered gabbro at high temperature and high pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Lattice preferred orientations (LPO) of plagioclase and augite are measured on layered gabbro from the Panxi region, Sichuan Province. The LPO concentration [010] of plagioclase and [100] of augite are perpendicular to the foliation, which indicates a kind of growth fabric associated with crystallizing habits of minerals when the magma is solidifying under the compaction. Calculated seismic velocities based on LPO data of minerals give rise to rather strong anisotropy 5.81% and 5.54% for compressional seismic wave (Vp) and shear seismic wave (Vs), respectively. The experiments at high temperature and high pressure show that the P-wave velocity of layered gabbro is 6.44-6.97 km/s with the maximum Vp anisotropy 5.22% and the Poisson's ratio is between 0.28-0.31. According to the comparison of fabrics with seismic velocities of layered gabbro, it is uggested that the large-scale layered intrusive body or the similar layered geological body may exist in the lower crust of this area. Such a layered intrusive body which has strong seismic anisotropy may be the seismic reflector in the lower crust.

  5. Contrasted glass-whole rock compositions and phenocryst re-distribution, IPOD Sites 417 and 418 (United States)

    Staudigel, H.; Bryan, W. B.


    Major element composition ranges of closely associated basalt glass-whole rock pairs from individual small cooling units approach the total known range of basalt glass and whole rock compositions at IPOD sites 417 and 418. The whole rock samples fall into two groups: one is depleted in MgO and distinctly enriched in plagioclase but has lost some olivine and/or pyroxene relative to its corresponding glass; and the other is enriched in MgO and in phenocrysts of olivine and pyroxene as well as plagioclase compared to its corresponding glass. By analogy with observed phenocryst distributions in lava pillows, tubes, and dikes, and with some theoretical studies, we infer that bulk rock compositions are strongly affected by phenocryst redistribution due to gravity settling, flotation, and dynamic sorting after eruption, although specific models are not well constrained by the one-dimensional geometry of drill core. Compositional trends or groupings in whole rock data resulting from such late-stage processes should not be confused with more fundamental compositional effects produced in deep chambers or during partial melting.

  6. Petrografía y geoquímica preliminar de los basaltos cretácicos de la sierra de Las Quijadas y cerrillada de Las Cabras, provincia de San Luis, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Amancay N.


    Full Text Available Preliminary petrography and geochemistry of the Cretacic basalts of the Sierra de Las Quijadasand Cerrillada de Las Cabras, San Luis province, Argentina. We present preliminary results of the petrologyand geochemistry of Cretaceous basalts exposed in the anticlines of the sierra of Las Quijadas and cerrillada ofLas Cabras. In the mountainous western of San Luis crop out at least two depositional sequences which togetherexceed the 1500 m thick and consists mainly of clastic sedimentary sequences typical continental red beds belongingto the Giant Group and Lagarcito Formation. Within this group, recognizes two types of basalt events, representedby lava flows and dykes. The lava flows were described in the northeastern sector of the anticline, in a landscapeof gentle hills. The dykes were found on the western flank of the anticline, northern sector of that mountain.Basalt lava flows have porphyritic texture with phenocrystals show idiomorphic olivine with clinopyroxene,amphibole and plagioclase, while the basaltic dykes show olivine in porphyritic texture embedded in a plagioclasepaste without orientation, amphibole and apatite needles. The basalts of the cerrillada de Las Cabras presented asa volcanic breccia associated with basaltic bombs. They have phenocrystals of olivine and clinopyroxene in pastewith plagioclase oriented. The basalts are classified as alkali basalts and related to intraplate basalts. When analyzingrare earth elements chondrite normalized according to Nakamura’s design are observed with a steep negative slopefor the heavy rare earth elements, a design that is similar to that found in alkaline basalts from the Sierra Chica deCórdoba.

  7. Geochemistry of the volcanic rocks from Bioko Island (“Cameroon Hot Line”: Evidence for plume-lithosphere interaction

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    Fadimatou Ngounouno Yamgouot


    Full Text Available Bioko Island (3008 m a.s.l is located in the presently more active volcanic zone of the Cameroon Line and composed essentially of alkaline basalts and hawaiites, and lesser mugearites. The rocks show microlitic porphyritic texture with phenocrysts of olivine (83% < Fo < 87% and clinopyroxene in a matrix of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and oxides. Hawaiites and mugearites also include phenocrysts of plagioclase (An62-67Ab35-32Or3-1. Major element variation diagrams show an increase in SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O and K2O with increasing MgO for the studied rock groups. The rocks are characterized by low (86Sr/87Sri ratios (0.70320–0.70406, high ɛNd(t values (2.56–4.33 and high (206Pb/204Pbi ratios (20.032–20.035 values. Basalts are enriched in LILE and LREE, and have (Hf/SmN = 0.57–1.16. These geochemical signatures are similar to those of the Mount Cameroon rocks, and might be attributed to low degrees of partial melting from a garnet-amphibole-bearing mantle source. The trace elements and isotopic compositions suggest that the parental magma source might have involved HIMU- and EM1-components.

  8. Geochemistry and mineral chemistry of Shahabad gabbroic intrusion, NW Nourabad, Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Zarei Sahamieh


    Full Text Available The Shahabad gabbroic intrusion, with NW-SE trend cropped out at the boundary of Zagros and Sanandaj-Sirjan zones is composed of olivine gabbro, orthogabbro and troctolite. Plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine are the main minerals; and magnetite, titanomagnetite and serpentine are minor and secondary minerals. Microprobe analyses of the minerals show that plagioclase is labradorite, pyroxene diopsidic augite and olivine, chrysolite. The rocks appear to have calc-alkaline and metaluminous nature. The plots of some trace elements and composition of clinopyroxenes in the tectonic discrimination diagrams indicate a volcanic arc environment. In addition, spider diagram pattern of elements shows Sr enrichment and Ti, Nb, Zr and P depletion, typical characteristics of volcanic arc subduction related magmas. Furthermore, close similarity between the patterns of spider diagram for the Shahabad pluton with those of Andean basic rocks suggests that the Shahabad calc-alkaline basic magma may have formed in a subduction environment. Based on geological, geochemical and mineralogical features, formation of the gabbros, as a part of ophiolite mélange, is attributed to a suprasubduction system.

  9. Petrology, mineralogy, porosity, and cosmic-ray exposure history of Huaxi ordinary chondrite (United States)

    Li, Shijie; Wang, Shijie; Leya, Ingo; Li, Yang; Li, Xiongyao; Smith, Thomas


    A meteorite fall was heard and collected on July 13, 2010 at about 18:00 (local time) in the Shibanjing village of the Huaxi district of Guiyang, Guizhou province, China. The total mass of the fall is estimated to be at least 1.6 kg; some fragments are missing. The meteorite consists mainly of olivine, low-Ca pyroxene, high-Ca pyroxene, plagioclase, kamacite, taenite, and troilite. Minor phases include chromite and apatite. Various textural types of chondrules exist in this meteorite: most chondrule textures can be easily defined. The grain sizes of secondary plagioclase in this meteorite range from 2 to 50 μm. The chemical composition of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene are uniform; Fa in olivine and Fs in low-Ca pyroxene are, respectively, 19.6 ± 0.2 and 17.0 ± 0.3 (mole%). Huaxi has been classified as an H5 ordinary chondrite, with a shock grade S2, and weathering W0. The weak shock features, rare fractures, and the high porosity (17.6%) indicates that Huaxi is a less compacted meteorite. The preatmospheric radius of Huaxi is 11 cm, corresponding to 21 kg. The meteorite experienced a relatively short cosmic-ray exposure of about 1.6 ± 0.1 Ma. The 4He and 40Ar retention ages are older than 4.6 Ga implying that Huaxi did not degas after thermal metamorphism on its parent body.

  10. Experimental Crystallization of Yamato 980459 (United States)

    Jones, John H.; Galenas, M. G.; Danielson, L. R.


    Currently, only two martian meteorites QUE 94201 (QUE) and Yamato 980459 (Y98) have been experimentally shown to me true melt compositions. Most martian meteorites are instead, cumulates or partial cumulates. We have performed experiments on a Y98 composition to assess whether QUE could be related to Y98 by some fractionation process [1]. Y98 is a basaltic shergottite from the SNC (Shergotty, Nakhla, Chassigny) meteorite group. Y98 is composed of 26% olivine, 48% pyroxene, 25% mesostasis, and no plagioclase [2]. The large size of the olivine megacrysts and absence of plagioclase suggest that the parental melt which formed this meteorite had begun cooling slowly until some mechanism, such as magma ascent, caused rapid cooling [3]. Y98 s olivines have the highest Mg content of all the shergottites suggesting that it is the most primitive [4]. Y98 has been determined to be a melt composition by comparing the composition of experimental liquidus olivines with the composition of the cores of Y98 olivines [4]. The liquidus of Y98 is predicted by MELTS [5] and by experimentation [6] to be 1450 C. Analyses of Y98 show it to be very depleted in LREEs and it has similar depleted patterns as other shergottites such as QUE [7].

  11. Hydrothermal alteration studies of gabbros from Northern Central Indian Ridge and their geodynamic implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dwijesh Ray; Catherine Mevel; Ranadip Banerjee


    Mylonitic gabbro and altered gabbro were recovered from off-axis high and corner high locations at ridge-transform intersection, adjacent to Vityaz transform fault of the slow spreading (32–35mm/yr, full spreading) Northern Central Indian Ridge. Both the varieties show signatures of extensive alteration caused due to interaction with sea water. Mylonitic gabbro represents high temperature metamorphism (∼700–800° C) and comprised of hornblende mineral which exhibits well defined foliation/gneissic appearance along with dynamically recrystallised plagioclase grains frequently intercalated with magnetite-ilmenite. Altered gabbro from corner high generally includes low temperature greenschist grade (∼300° C) mineralogical assemblages: chlorite, albite, quartz and locally magnesio hornblende. Crystal plastic deformation resulted in mylonite formation and often porphyroclasts of plagioclase and clinopyroxene grains, while altered gabbro locally exhibits cataclastic texture. Presence of Vityaz transform fault and adjacent megamullion at the weakly magmatic ridge-transform intersection and off-axis high locations prompted the present scenario very much conducive for hydrothermal circulation and further facilitate the exhumation of present suite of gabbro.

  12. Petrography and Geochemistry (Trace, Ree and Pge of Pedda Cherlo Palle Gabbro-Diorite Pluton, Prakasam Igneous Province, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanyam K.S.V.


    Full Text Available Prakasam Igneous Province (PIP is an important geological domain in the Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC, found in the junction zone between the EDC and Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB. The Pedda Cherlo Palle (PCP gabbros are massive, leucocratic-mesocractic, and show cumulus textures with minerals plagioclase, cpx, and amphiboles. Compositionally, plagioclase is a labradorite-bytownite, cpx is diopside to augite, olivines are hyalosiderites and amphiboles are magnesiohornblendes. PCP gabbros have normal SiO2, high Al2O3, moderate to high TiO2, Na2O and medium Fe2O3, so, classified as subalkaline tholeiitic gabbros. Fractionated rare earth element (REE patterns, high abundance of large ion lithofile elements (LILE and transitional metals coupled with light REE (LREE relative enrichment over heavy REE (HREE and Nb are characteristics of partial melting of depleted mantle and melts that have undergone fractional crystalisation. These partial melts are enriched in LREE and LILE, due to the addition of slab derived sediment and fluids. PCP gabbros contain low abundance (5.1 to 24.6 ng/g of platinum group elements (PGE, and show an increase in the order Ir>Os>Pt>Ru»Pd>Rh. We propose that the subduction related intraoceanic island arc might have accreted to the southeastern margin of India to the east of Cuddapah basin in a collisional regime that took place during Ur to Rodinia amalgamations.

  13. Petrochemistry and mineral chemistry of Late Permian hornblendite and hornblende gabbro from the Wang Nam Khiao area, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand: Indication of Palaeo-Tethyan subduction (United States)

    Fanka, Alongkot; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Daorerk, Veerote; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Takamura, Yusuke; Endo, Takahiro; Sutthirat, Chakkaphan


    In the Wang Nam Khiao area, Nakhon Ratchasima, northeastern Thailand, there are various mafic-ultramafic plutons composed of hornblendite, hornblende gabbro and hornblende microgabbro. The rocks are generally dominated by hornblende, plagioclase and clinopyroxene. The mineral chemistry and whole-rock geochemistry of hornblendite, hornblende gabbro and hornblende microgabbro show their similarities, suggesting a close relationship of their magmatic evolution. The flat REE pattern and low HREE concentration indicate fractional crystallization from hydrous magma. The enrichment in LILE (e.g. Ba, K, Sr) and depletion of HFSE (e.g. Nb, Ta, Zr) together with compositions of clinopyroxene and hornblende reflect arc-related subduction. Hornblende-plagioclase geothermometry and Al-in-hornblende geobarometry indicate the PT conditions of crystallization are 5.3-9.8 kbar and 670-1000 °C, 7.6-9.0 kbar and 850-950 °C, and 7.6-8.8 kbar and 750-850 °C for hornblendite, hornblende gabbro and hornblende microgabbro, respectively, at the lower crustal depth (28-31 km). Zircon U-Pb age of hornblende microgabbro dike, that intruded into hornblendite, yields 257 Ma of intrusion age, suggesting the emplacement of the mafic-ultramafic rock in this area is related to Late Permian arc magmatism resulted from subduction of Palaeo-Tethys beneath Indochina Terrane.

  14. Petrology and physical conditions of metamorphism of calcsilicate rocks from low- to high-grade transition area, Dharmapuri District, Tamil Nadu (United States)

    Narayana, B. L.; Natarajan, R.; Govil, P. K.


    Calc-silicate rocks comprising quartz, plagioclase, diopside, sphene, scapolite, grossularite-andradite and wollastonite occur as lensoid enclaves within the greasy migmatitic and charnockitic gneisses of the Archaean amphibolite- to granulite-facies transition zone in Dharmapuri district, Tamil Nadu. The calc-silicate rocks are characterized by the absence of K-feldspar and primary calcite, presence of large modal quartz and plagioclase and formation of secondary garnet and zoisite rims around scapolite and wollastonite. The mineral distributions suggest compositional layering. The chemical composition and mineralogy of the calc-silicate rocks indicate that they were derived from impure silica-rich calcareous sediments whose composition is similar to that of pelite-limestone mixtures. From the mineral assemblages the temperature, pressure and fluid composition during metamorphism were estimated. The observed mineral reaction sequences require a range of X sub CO2 values demonstrating that an initially CO2-rich metamorphic fluid evolved with time towards considerably more H2O-rich compositions. These variations in fluid composition suggest that there were sources of water-rich fluids external to the calc-silicate rocks and that mixing of these fluids with those of calc-silicate rocks was important in controlling fluid composition in calc-silicate rocks and some adjacent rock types as well.

  15. Petrology, geochemistry of hornblende gabbro and associated dolerite dyke of Paharpur, Puruliya, West Bengal: Implication for petrogenetic process and tectonic setting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aditi Mandal; Arijit Ray; Mayukhee Debnath; Sankar Prasad Paul


    Paharpur gabbroic intrusive is an arcuate body running east–west paralleling the foliation of Chhotanagpur Granite Gneiss which acts as country rock. The main gabbroic body is intruded by a number of dolerite dykes running north–south. It is composed of clinopyroxene (Wo48En40Fs12–Wo51En40Fs09, mg no. 72–82), plagioclase (An52–An90), hornblende (magnesian hornblende to ferro-tschermackite), orthopyroxene (En76–En79) and ilmenite. Hornblende occurs as large poikilitic grain and constitutes around 60% of the rock. Both gabbro and associated dolerite dykes, show relatively primitive character (mg no. 65–73). Primitive mantle-normalized and MORB-normalized spider diagrams indicate enrichment in Rb, Ba, Th, La, Sr and depletion in Nb, Zr, Y, Ti and Nd. The LILE enrichment and Nb, Ti, Zr, Y depletion suggest arc like geochemical signature for the gabbroic and doleritic rocks of Paharpur. Flat to slightly LREE fractionated pattern and variable degree of REE enrichment is observed. An early stage fractionation of clinopyroxene, plagioclase, orthopyroxene, ilmenite and late stage reaction of cumulate pile and evolved melt/hydrous fluid is suggested for magmatic evolution of gabbro. Associated dolerite dykes, which are geochemically similar to the gabbro, have tholeiitic with boninitic character. The mineralogical and chemical compositions of intrusive rocks also have some similarity with mafic rocks of ophiolite complex of subduction zone.

  16. Discovery of Late Paleozoic retrograded eclogites from the middle part of the northern margin of North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Zhiyao; ZHAI Mingguo; WANG Renmin; TONG Ying; SHU Guiming; HAl Xiuling


    The retrograded eciogites have been discovered in the middle part of the northern margin of the North China Craton, which occur as lens or boudin within biotite-plagioclase gneisses in Paleoproterozoic Hongqiyingzi Group. The peak eclogite facies (P > 1.40-1.50 GPa, T = 680-730℃) mineral assemblage is composed of garnet, omphacite and rutile (+ quartz), which was overprinted by the granulite facies mineral assemblage of vermicular symplectite of sodic clinopyroxene and plagioclase which replaced the precursory omphacite, and then amphibolite facies retrograded minerals with characterization of Amp+Pl kelyphitic rim and symplectite, and amphibole replaced clinopyroxene. The protolith of retrograded eclogites is oceanic basalt formed at 438 + 11 Ma. The peak eclogite facies metamorphic age of the retrograded eclogite is 325 + 4 Ma. These relict eclogites may be formed by the subduction of Paleo-Asian oceanic crust beneath the North China Craton during Late Paleozoic. The discovery of relict eclogite in this paper provides a new insight into farther understanding of tectonic evolution of the northern margin of the North China Craton, and the relationship between the Paleo-Asian Ocean and the North China Craton.

  17. Contrasting metamorphism across Cauvery Shear Zone, south India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manish M John; S Balakrishnan; B K Bhadra


    The Palghat Cauvery Shear Zone (CSZ) is a major shear zone that possibly extends into different fragments of Gondwanaland. In the present study mafic granulites occurring on either side of the CSZ in Namakkal area, southern India are examined. Textural features recorded in the mafic granulites are crucial in elucidating the metamorphic history of the southern granulite terrane (SGT). In the mafic granulites occurring to the south of CSZ, evidence of garnet breaking down during near isothermal decompression (ITD) is indicated by the development of orthopyroxene + plagioclase moats in between quartz and garnet. The presence of comparatively small elongated second generation garnet embedded in pyroxenes from the mafic granulites occurring to the north of CSZ is indicative of the garnet formation via reaction between pyroxenes and plagioclase, which occurred during isobaric cooling (IBC). Rocks occurring to the south of CSZ have recorded comparatively higher temperature and pressure (849°C and 9.6 kbar) than those occurring to the north of the CSZ (731°C and 8.6 kbar) using conventional geothermobarometry. The rocks occurring to the north of CSZ have suffered more complex metamorphic histories in comparison to the southern part. Integrating the results of the present field and metamorphic studies with the earlier investigations and available geochronological data we suggest that the CSZ could represent a suture zone between two different continental blocks that underwent distinct metamorphic evolution.

  18. Insights into the P–T evolution path of TsoMorari eclogites of the north-western Himalayas: Constraints on the geodynamic evolution of the region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preeti Singh; Ashima Saikia; Naresh Chandra Pant; Pramod Kumar Verma


    The present study is on the Ultra High Pressure Metamorphic rocks of the Tso Morari Crystalline Complex of the northwestern Himalayas. Five different mineral associations representative of five stages of P–T (pressure–temperature) evolution of these rocks have been established based on metamorphic textures and mineral chemistry. The pre-UHP metamorphic association 1 of Na-Ca-amphibole + epidote ± paragonite ± rutile ± magnetite with T–P of ∼500° C and 10 kbar. This is followed by UHP metamorphic regime marked by association 2 and association 3. Association 2 (Fe< Mg< Ca-garnet + omphacite + coesite + phengite + rutile ± ilmenite) marks the peak metamorphic conditions of atleast 33 kbar and ∼750° C. Association 3 (Fe< Mg< Ca-garnet + Na-Ca amphibole + phengite ± paragonite ± calcite ± ilmenite ± titanite) yields a P–T condition of ∼28 kbar and 700°C. The post-UHP metamorphic regime is defined by associations 4 and 5. Association 4 (Fe< Ca< Mg-garnet + Ca-amphibole + plagioclase (An05) + biotite + epidote ± phengite yields a P–T estimate of ∼14 kbar and 800°C) and association 5 (Chlorite + plagioclase (An0.5) + quartz + phengite + Ca- amphibole ± epidote ± biotite ± rutile ± titanite ± ilmenite) yields a P–T value of ∼7 kbar and 350°C.

  19. The Jugsaipatna Anorthosite Complex, Eastern Ghats Belt, India: Magmatic lineage and petrogenetic implications (United States)

    Mahapatro, S. N.; Nanda, J. K.; Tripathy, A. K.


    The Jugsaipatna Anorthosite Complex (JAC) in the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (India) comprises a central anorthosite - leuconorite - troctolitic norite core mantled by a rim of high-Al gabbronorite (HAG). Small dykes of ferrodiorite occur in the core region of the JAC. A lensoidal body of eucritic gabbronorite occurs in contact with leuconorite and outer gabbronorite rim. Baring ferrodiorites, the mafic members such as HAG, troctolitic norite and eucritic gabbronorite are not known in other anorthosite complexes of this high grade belt. The HAG is characterised by high Al 2O 3 content (17 wt.%), enriched ΣREE and LREE, absence of 'Eu-anomaly' and negative Sr anomaly and is, therefore inferred to be the source melt for the JAC suite of rocks. The eucritic gabbronorite comprising An-rich plagioclase and high-Al pyroxenes has a komatiitic affinity with high Cr-Ni contents and primitive REE patterns. Troctolitic norite, leuconorite and anorthosite are interpreted to be cumulate rocks fractionated from the HAG. The ferrodiorite with enriched Fe, Ti, P, Zr and REE abundances and a prominent 'negative Eu' anomaly corresponds to the residual melt of the plagioclase (+pyroxene) dominated fractionates that comprise anorthosite-leuconorite.

  20. Formation of cordierite-bearing lavas during anatexis in the lower crust beneath Lipari Island (Aeolian arc, Italy) (United States)

    di Martino, Corrado; Forni, Francesca; Frezzotti, Maria Luce; Palmeri, Rosaria; Webster, James D.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Lucchi, Federico; Tranne, Claudio A.


    Cordierite-bearing lavas (CBL;~105 ka) erupted from the Mt. S. Angelo volcano at Lipari (Aeolian arc, Italy) are high-K andesites, displaying a range in the geochemical and isotopic compositions that reflect heterogeneity in the source and/or processes. CBL consist of megacrysts of Ca-plagioclase and clinopyroxene, euhedral crystals of cordierite and garnet, microphenocrysts of orthopyroxene and plagioclase, set in a heterogeneous rhyodacitic-rhyolitic groundmass containing abundant metamorphic and gabbroic xenoliths. New petrographic, chemical and isotopic data indicate formation of CBL by mixing of basaltic-andesitic magmas and high-K peraluminous rhyolitic magmas of anatectic origin and characterize partial melting processes in the lower continental crust of Lipari. Crustal anatectic melts generated through two main dehydration-melting peritectic reactions of metasedimentary rocks: (1) Biotite + Aluminosilicate + Quartz + Albite = Garnet + Cordierite + K-feldspar + Melt; (2) Biotite + Garnet + Quartz = Orthopyroxene + Cordierite + K-feldspar + Melt. Their position into the petrogenetic grid suggests that heating and consequent melting of metasedimentary rocks occurred at temperatures of 725 Lipari was induced by protracted emplacement of basic magmas in the lower crust (~130 Ky). Crustal melting of the lower crust at 105 ka affected the volcano evolution, impeding frequent mafic-magma eruptions, and promoting magma stagnation and fractional crystallization processes.

  1. High Temperature Metamorphism In The Conductive Boundary Layer Of An Intrusion Of Rhyolite Magma In The Krafla Geothermal System, Iceland (United States)

    Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Elders, W. A.; Mortensen, A. K.


    A rhyolite magma body within the Krafla geothermal system- encountered at a depth of 2.1 km during drilling of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project's IDDP-1 borehole - is producing high temperature metamorphism within adjacent country rocks. Cuttings recovered during drilling within a few meters of the intrusive contact are undergoing recrystallization into granoblastic, pyroxene hornfelses. In mafic rocks, clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene-plagioclase-magnetite-ilmenite assemblages record temperatures in the range of 800-950°C. Silicic lithologies - mainly older felsitic intrusions -contain pockets of rhyolite melt, quenched to glass during drilling, amongst alkali feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, clinopyroxene, and magnetite. Curiously, no lower grade metamorphic assemblages have been identified in the drill cuttings, and country rocks at distances beyond 30 m of the contact are essentially unaltered. These findings suggest that the intruding rhyolite magma body has created a thin conductive boundary layer above it, but that a contact metamorphic aureole has not as yet developed beyond this. The heat flow across the boundary layer is calculated to be a minimum of 23 W m-2. This flux is capable of supplying steam to a geothermal power plant that can produce approximately 40 MW of electrical generation from a single well that has a measured well-head temperature of up to 415°C.

  2. An analysis of Apollo lunar soil samples 12070,889, 12030,187, and 12070,891: Basaltic diversity at the Apollo 12 landing site and implications for classification of small-sized lunar samples (United States)

    Alexander, Louise; Snape, Joshua F.; Joy, Katherine H.; Downes, Hilary; Crawford, Ian A.


    Lunar mare basalts provide insights into the compositional diversity of the Moon's interior. Basalt fragments from the lunar regolith can potentially sample lava flows from regions of the Moon not previously visited, thus, increasing our understanding of lunar geological evolution. As part of a study of basaltic diversity at the Apollo 12 landing site, detailed petrological and geochemical data are provided here for 13 basaltic chips. In addition to bulk chemistry, we have analyzed the major, minor, and trace element chemistry of mineral phases which highlight differences between basalt groups. Where samples contain olivine, the equilibrium parent melt magnesium number (Mg#; atomic Mg/[Mg + Fe]) can be calculated to estimate parent melt composition. Ilmenite and plagioclase chemistry can also determine differences between basalt groups. We conclude that samples of approximately 1-2 mm in size can be categorized provided that appropriate mineral phases (olivine, plagioclase, and ilmenite) are present. Where samples are fine-grained (grain size lava flow diversity and petrological significance.

  3. Rapakivi texture in porphyritic dikes within the Karavanke Granitic Massif (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Bellieni


    Full Text Available The northern Karavanke Granitic Massif straddles the Slovenian–Austrian border. The investigated area lies in northern Slovenia, and extends from the western Slovenian–Austrian border to the east for about 30 km, with a maximum width of 2 km. The massif exhibits a bimodal magmatic association comprising mainly syenogranite and syenite with contemporaneous gabbroic rocks. Rocks of intermediate composition are less abundant and show field, textural and chemical features suggesting that they have formed as a result of the interaction (mixing and mingling between felsic and mafic magmas. Plagioclasemantled alkali feldspars occur in dikes of porphyritic syenite, which cut larger bodies of gabbroic rocks. Field, mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical evidences suggest that the porphyritic syenite is a hybrid rock, formed by the interaction of mafic and felsic magmas. The formation of plagioclase-mantled alkali feldspar can be explained by the introduction of alkali feldspar from felsic, syenogranitic magma into more mafic magma, causing local undercooling in the portion of mafic magma surrounding the crystals. This resulted in the growth of cellular plagioclase, with quartz infilling, in a thermally and compositionally equilibrating system.

  4. Novel Experimental Simulations of the Atmospheric Injection of Meteoric Metals (United States)

    Gómez Martín, J. C.; Bones, D. L.; Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D.; James, A. D.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Fegley, B., Jr.; Plane, J. M. C.


    A newly developed laboratory, Meteoric Ablation Simulator (MASI), is used to test model predictions of the atmospheric ablation of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) with experimental Na, Fe, and Ca vaporization profiles. MASI is the first laboratory setup capable of performing time-resolved atmospheric ablation simulations, by means of precision resistive heating and atomic laser-induced fluorescence detection. Experiments using meteoritic IDP analogues show that at least three mineral phases (Na-rich plagioclase, metal sulfide, and Mg-rich silicate) are required to explain the observed appearance temperatures of the vaporized elements. Low melting temperatures of Na-rich plagioclase and metal sulfide, compared to silicate grains, preclude equilibration of all the elemental constituents in a single melt. The phase-change process of distinct mineral components determines the way in which Na and Fe evaporate. Ca evaporation is dependent on particle size and on the initial composition of the molten silicate. Measured vaporized fractions of Na, Fe, and Ca as a function of particle size and speed confirm differential ablation (i.e., the most volatile elements such as Na ablate first, followed by the main constituents Fe, Mg, and Si, and finally the most refractory elements such as Ca). The Chemical Ablation Model (CABMOD) provides a reasonable approximation to this effect based on chemical fractionation of a molten silicate in thermodynamic equilibrium, even though the compositional and geometric description of IDPs is simplistic. Improvements in the model are required in order to better reproduce the specific shape of the elemental ablation profiles.

  5. Monazite geochronology, magmatism, and extensional dynamics within the Menderes Massif, western Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catlos, E J [University of Texas at Austin, Jackson School of Geosciences, Geological Science Department, 1 University Station C1100, Austin, TX 78712-0254 (United States); Baker, C B; Cemen, I [Oklahoma State University, School of Geology, 105 Noble Research Center, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Sorensen, S S [Smithsonian Institution Museum of Natural History, PO Box 37012, MRC 119, Washington, DC, 20013-7012 (United States); Hancer, M [Pamukkale Universitesi, Muhendislik Fakultesi, Jeoloji Muh. Bolmu, Denizli, 20070 Turkey (Turkey)], E-mail:


    Geochemical and geochronological data were collected from S-type, peraluminous granites (Salihli and Turgutlu) that intrude a detachment that bounds the northern edge of the central Menderes Massif core complex (Aegean region, western Turkey). The granites may have been generated due to subduction of the Eastern Mediterranean floor along the Hellenic trench. In situ Th-Pb ion microprobe monazite ages from the rocks range from 21.7{+-}4.5 Ma to 9.6{+-}1.6 Ma ({+-}1{sigma}), which could record their exhumation history. Higher uncertainty in the ages is attributed to monazite common Pb, but the range is consistent with cathodoluminescence (CL) images that document complex textures within the granites. Salihli and Turgutlu granites share many similar characteristics, including multiple generations of plagioclase, plagioclase replacing K-feldspar and the development of myrmekite, evidence for fluid interaction, and multiple generations of microcracks. Ages reported here are similar to dates constraining extension reported elsewhere in the Aegean, but indicate additional complexities when linking movement within the Menderes Massif to large-scale geodynamic processes that created other metamorphic core complexes in the region. Difficulties exist in linking the ages obtained from the granites to specific tectonic events due to the presence of secondary alteration textures, generations of mineral growth and multiple episodes of deformation.

  6. 40Ar/ 39Ar ages for the alkaline volcanism and the basement of Gorringe Bank, North Atlantic ocean (United States)

    Féraud, Gilbert; Gastaud, Janine; Auzende, Jean-Marie; Olivet, Jean-Louis; Cornen, Guy


    Gorringe Bank is situated on the Europe-Africa plate boundary at the eastern end of the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone. It has two summits, Gettysburg Bank to the Southwest and Ormonde Bank to the northeast. We applied the 40Ar/ 39Ar stepwise heating method to date six samples of the alkaline volcanic rocks, two gabbros from the Ormonde Bank and a dolerite from the Gettysburg Bank. The results that the alkaline volcanism lasted probably for less than 6 Ma(66-60 Ma). Although the nature of this volcanism precludes any subduction feature during its setting, the alkaline volcanism of Ormonde is probably linked to Upper Cretaceous/Eocene compressive tectonic events. The basement rocks of Gorringe Bank reveal distrubed 40Ar/ 39Ar age spectra. One plagioclase and one biotite from a gabbro give evidence for a thermic event whose age is tentatively estimated at about 75 Ma, and related to a variation in the direction of the relative movement between Europe and Africa. The more probable age given by a plagioclase of another gabbro and by a dolerite (110 Ma) corresponds to tilting northeastward of the Gorringe massif.

  7. Effect of Calcined Temperature on the Solubility of Trace Elements from Manifanshi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Hanlie; TIE Liyun; BIAN Qiujuan; ZHOU Yong


    A medical stone manifanshi were researched by using polarized light microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) methods. The XRD pattern of the raw Manifanshi indicates that it is dominantly composed of plagioclase, orthoclase, quartz, and that of the calcined Manifanshi at 1000 ℃ shows that the distortion of crystal structure in both plagioclase and orthoclase takes place at the calcined temperature. The polarized light microscopy observation suggests that the Manifanshi is naturally weathered monzo-granite porphyry. Chemical analyses reveal that the Manifanshi contains a number of healthful trace elements and rare toxic trace elements, therefore, it is a high quality Manifanshi. The solubility of trace elements was determined by measuring the concentration of trace elements from Manifanshi calcined under varying temperature conditions by ICP method, the results suggest that the calcined product at 1000 ℃ shows the ideal result in ionic concentrations and dissolution rate of trace elements in water, which is contributed to the distortion of the crystal structure of feldspar at the calcined temperature.

  8. Two types of gabbroic xenoliths from rhyolite dominated Niijima volcano, northern part of Izu-Bonin arc: petrological and geochemical constraints (United States)

    Arakawa, Yoji; Endo, Daisuke; Ikehata, Kei; Oshika, Junya; Shinmura, Taro; Mori, Yasushi


    We examined the petrography, petrology, and geochemistry of two types of gabbroic xenoliths (A- and B-type xenoliths) in olivine basalt and biotite rhyolite units among the dominantly rhyolitic rocks in Niijima volcano, northern Izu-Bonin volcanic arc, central Japan. A-type gabbroic xenoliths consisting of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene with an adcumulate texture were found in both olivine basalt and biotite rhyolite units, and B-type gabbroic xenoliths consisting of plagioclase and amphibole with an orthocumulate texture were found only in biotite rhyolite units. Geothermal- and barometricmodelling based on mineral chemistry indicated that the A-type gabbro formed at higher temperatures (899-955°C) and pressures (3.6-5.9 kbar) than the B-type gabbro (687-824°C and 0.8-3.6 kbar). These findings and whole-rock chemistry suggest different parental magmas for the two types of gabbro. The A-type gabbro was likely formed from basaltic magma, whereas the B-type gabbro was likely formed from an intermediate (andesitic) magma. The gabbroic xenoliths in erupted products at Niijima volcano indicate the presence of mafic to intermediate cumulate bodies of different origins at relatively shallower levels beneath the dominantly rhyolitic volcano.

  9. Luminescence dating on Mars: OSL characteristics of Martian analogue materials and GCR dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, M.; Andersen, C.E.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.


    Luminescence chronology may be the key to understanding climatically and tectonically driven changes on Mars. However, the success of Martian luminescence dating will depend upon our understanding of the luminescence properties of silicates such as olivine, pyroxenes and plagioclases, and sedimen......), and the effect of radiation damage due to cosmic ray exposure are presented and implications discussed for Martian luminescence dating. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......Luminescence chronology may be the key to understanding climatically and tectonically driven changes on Mars. However, the success of Martian luminescence dating will depend upon our understanding of the luminescence properties of silicates such as olivine, pyroxenes and plagioclases......-aerial transport; this may allow possibility of using deep traps for extending the age range on Mars. Dose rates on Mars are largely due to charged particles present in the galactic cosmic rays. Some new results on proton dosimetry with Al2O3:C (Bragg curve and luminescence efficiency as a function of LET...

  10. Two types of gabbroic xenoliths from rhyolite dominated Niijima volcano, northern part of Izu-Bonin arc: petrological and geochemical constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arakawa Yoji


    Full Text Available We examined the petrography, petrology, and geochemistry of two types of gabbroic xenoliths (A- and B-type xenoliths in olivine basalt and biotite rhyolite units among the dominantly rhyolitic rocks in Niijima volcano, northern Izu-Bonin volcanic arc, central Japan. A-type gabbroic xenoliths consisting of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene with an adcumulate texture were found in both olivine basalt and biotite rhyolite units, and B-type gabbroic xenoliths consisting of plagioclase and amphibole with an orthocumulate texture were found only in biotite rhyolite units. Geothermal- and barometricmodelling based on mineral chemistry indicated that the A-type gabbro formed at higher temperatures (899–955°C and pressures (3.6–5.9 kbar than the B-type gabbro (687–824°C and 0.8–3.6 kbar. These findings and whole-rock chemistry suggest different parental magmas for the two types of gabbro. The A-type gabbro was likely formed from basaltic magma, whereas the B-type gabbro was likely formed from an intermediate (andesitic magma. The gabbroic xenoliths in erupted products at Niijima volcano indicate the presence of mafic to intermediate cumulate bodies of different origins at relatively shallower levels beneath the dominantly rhyolitic volcano.

  11. Electron Microprobe Analyses of Lithic Fragments and Their Minerals from Luna 20 Fines (United States)

    Conrad, G. H.; Hlava, P. F.; Green, J. A.; Moore, R. B.; Moreland, G.; Dowty, E.; Prinz, M.; Keil, K.; Nehru, C. E.; Bunch, T. E.


    The bulk analyses (determined with the broad beam electron microprobe technique) of lithic fragments are given in weight percentages and are arranged according to the rock classification. Within each rock group the analyses are arranged in order of increasing FeO content. Thin section and lithic fragment numbers are given at the top of each column of analysis and correspond to the numbers recorded on photo mosaics on file in the Institute of Meteoritics. CIPW molecular norms are given for each analysis. Electron microprobe mineral analyses (given in oxide weight percentages), structural formulae and molecular end member values are presented for plagioclase, olivine, pyroxene and K-feldspar. The minerals are selected mostly from lithic fragments that were also analyzed for bulk composition. Within each mineral group the analyses are presented according to the section number and lithic fragment number. Within each lithic fragment the mineral analyses are arranged as follows: Plagioclase in order of increasing CaO; olivine and pyroexene in order of increasing FeO; and K-feldspar in order of increasing K2O. The mineral grains are identified at the top of each column of analysis by grain number and lithic fragment number.

  12. 锡林浩特杂岩中斜长角闪岩锆石U-Pb年代学及Hf同位素研究%U-Pb Dating and Hf Isotopic Composition of Zircons in Amphibolite from the Xilinhot Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王善辉; 陈岳龙; 李大鹏


    锡林浩特杂岩是一套经历强变形变质作用的变质岩,主要由黑云斜长片麻岩、角闪斜长片麻岩、斜长角闪片麻岩及变粒岩夹透镜状或脉状斜长角闪岩组成.查明其形成年龄、变质年龄对深入认识中亚造山带的形成演化具有重要意义.本次研究对锡林浩特杂岩中斜长角闪岩进行了SHRIMP锆石U-Pb测年和LA-MC-ICP-MS锆石Hf同位素组成分析,给出了锆石SHRIMP U-Pb的加权平均年龄为(316 ±4) Ma,该年龄代表斜长角闪岩的原岩形成年龄,表明锡林浩特杂岩不是前寒武纪地质体.通过锆石Hf同位素分析,εHf(t)值主要为正值(+4.1~+17.0),揭示其物源可能来自亏损地幔或壳幔混合.根据亏损地幔和古老地壳的锆石Hf同位素进行两端元的混合计算,得到斜长角闪岩原岩岩浆的源区以幔源增生组分为主体(经过计算壳幔混合比例大约1∶2).部分锆石的模式年龄在1.8 ~2.5 Ga之间,表明斜长角闪岩的原岩在形成过程中有古元古代地壳物质的加入,通过兴蒙造山带和锡林浩特杂岩中斜长角闪岩的Hf模式年龄对比可知,物源可能来自兴蒙造山带内部.基于Hf同位素的两端元混合计算表明该区在晚古生代存在地壳增生.根据野外观察和室内岩石特征分析,该套杂岩可能是一套经历强变形与变质作用的晚古生代火山-沉积建造.%The Xilinhot complex is mainly composed of biotite-plagioclase gneiss, hornblende-plagioclase gneiss, amphibolitic gneiss and granulite with lenticular or vein amphibolite rocks, whose formation and metamorphosed age and petrogenesis have been debating. Accurate determination of its formation and metamorphosed age is of great significance to understanding the formation and evolution of the Hinggan-Mongolia Orogenic Belt. Through zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating and LA-MC-ICP-MS Hf isotopic analysis on zircons in plagioclase amphibolite from the Xilinhot complex, weighted average value of

  13. Quaternary rhyolite from the Mineral Mountains, Utah, USA. Final report, Volume 77-10

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    Evans, S.H. Jr.; Nash, W.P.


    A suite of silicic volcanic rocks is associated with the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal area in southwestern Utah. The volcanic sequence includes Tertiary rhyolite 8 My old and obsidian, ash and rhyolite of Quaternary age. The Quaternary lavas are characterized by high silica content (76.5% Si0/sub 2/) and total alkalies in excess of 9 percent. Obsidians commonly contain greater amounts of fluorine than water. Two older flows (0.8 My) can be distinguished from younger dome and pyroclastic material (approximately 0.5 My) by subtle differences in their chemistry. The mineralogy of the rhyolites consists of alkali feldspar, plagioclase, and small amounts of Fe-Ti oxides, biotite, hornblende and rare allanite. Fe-Ti oxide temperatures are 740 to 785/sup 0/C for the flows and 635 to 665/sup 0/C for the domes; two feldspar temperatures give similar results. The phase relationships of bulk rock, glass and feldspar compositions demonstrate that the younger Quaternary rhyolites could have been derived from the earlier magma type, represented by the obsidian flows, by a process of crystal fractionation. The major phases which must fractionate are alkali feldspar, plagioclase and quartz with minor amounts of biotite, magnetite and ilmenite participating also. Trace element patterns support this scheme as well. The Tertiary lavas cannot be related to the Quaternary rhyolites and are thought to represent a separate event.

  14. Light stable isotope study of the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Southwestern Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrs D.T.; Bowman, J.R.


    The isotopic composition of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon has been determined for regional cold springs, thermal fluids, and rocks and minerals from the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area. The geothermal system has developed within plutonic granitic rocks and amphibolite facies gneiss, relying upon fracture-controlled permeability for the migration of the thermal fluids. Probably originating as meteoric waters in the upper elevations of the Mineral Mountains, the thermal waters sampled in the production wells display an oxygen isotopic shift of at least +1.2. Depletions of delta /sup 18/O in wole rock, K-feldspar, and biotite have a positive correlation with alteration intensity. W/R mass ratios, calculated from the isotopic shifts of rock and water, range up to 3.0 in a producing horizon of one well, although the K-feldspar has experienced only 30% exchange with the thermal waters. While veinlet quartz has equilibrated with the thermal waters, the /sup 18/O values of K-mica clay, an alteration product of plagioclase, mimic the isotopic composition of K-feldspar and whole rock. This suggests that locally small W/R ratios enable plagioclase to influence its alteration products by isotopic exchange.

  15. Chemical and Mineralogical study of Nabataean painted pottery from Petra, Jordan. (United States)

    Alawneh, Firas; Bala'awi, Fadi

    Nabataean pottery is distinguished by the thinness of its walls, which were sometimes only 1.5 mm thick. It was a pinkish/red color, often decorated by hand with dark brown flower and leaf designs. The typical (egg-shell) shallow open bowls productions were very difficult to make on the potter's wheel, demonstrating how skilled their craftsmen were Nabataean painted pottery from Petra Jordan were examined in order to determine the mineralogical characteristics of the raw pigment materials used for their production and to elucidate the ceramic manufacturing technologies employed. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) were the analytical techniques used. The initial examination of the ceramic shreds in optical microscopy showed all samples to be identical in their paint and paste textures. The mineralogical composition of the paste (unpainted outer surface) is typical of a clay poor in calcium and fired at moderate-high temperature in an oxidizing atmosphere. The paste is composed of quartz, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, hematite, dolomite, and calcite. The latter two phases might be attributed to post-depositional contamination, since examination with both optical and scanning electron microscopes show fine carbonate particles deposited in the pores and cracks of the shred. The paint on the inner surface of the vessel, on the other hand is composed of hematite as a major phase with only some quartz and plagioclase.

  16. Magombedze - A new H-chondrite with light-dark structure (United States)

    Macpherson, Glenn J.; Jarosewich, Eugene; Lowenstein, Peter


    Magombedze is a light-dark structured H-chondrite breccia that fell in Zimbabwe on July 2, 1990 at 15:30 GMT. White clasts are moderately shocked and have equilibrated mafic silicates (pyroxene Fs(16-18), olivine Fa(18-19)) together with clear optically-recognizable plagioclase of variable composition (An(9-13) found); chondrules are distinct but contain no trace of preserved glass. The darker surrounding material contains a higher proportion of fine-grained metal and sulfide than the white clasts, and many of its constituent grains show little evidence of shock. Mafic silicates in the dark lithology are distinctly less-equilibrated (pyroxene Fs(5-21), olivine Fa(11-20)) than those in the white clasts, and many chondrules preserve brown devitrified glass; some metamorphic plagioclase of variable composition (An(11-22) found) is present. Some monoclinic pyroxene occurs in both fractions, but it is relatively common in the dark fraction. The white clasts are classified as H5, and the enclosing dark material is H3-5.

  17. Surface Morphology of Basalt Columns at Svartifoss, VatnajökulsÞjóðgarður, Southern Iceland

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    Lawrence H. Tanner


    Full Text Available A spectacular example of columnar-jointed basalt occurs at Svartifoss in the Vatnajökull National Park of southern Iceland. The columns are notable for a variety of features on the vertical joint surfaces and the horizontal parting surfaces. The jointed surfaces of the columns display horizontal striations at a spacing of centimeters to decimeters. The individual striations exhibit crescentic hackles with a plumose pattern, the orientation of which varies between adjacent striations. Also present are gently dipping, millimeter-scale laminations not previously described. Horizontal parting surfaces of the columns display a circular ring that inscribes most of the diameter column. The ring features alternately positive or negative relief against the perimeter of the column and exhibits a radiating pattern of hackles originating at the center of the ring. Petrographic examination reveals that the basalt contains an interlocking network of plagioclase laths preferentially aligned perpendicular to the column axes. The circular features have been described previously and attributed to late-stage melt migration driven by a load-induced pressure gradient. The striations were formed from stepwise, downward propagation of the polygonal fracture system, and the plumose structures were formed from tensile stresses during fracture propagation. The small-scale laminations may result from preferential grain alignment of plagioclase laths.

  18. A coupled model for intragranular deformation and chemical diffusion (United States)

    Zhong, Xin; Vrijmoed, Johannes; Moulas, Evangelos; Tajčmanová, Lucie


    A coupled model for chemical diffusion and mechanical deformation is developed in analogy to the studies of poroelasticity and thermoelasticity. Nondimensionalization of the governing equations yields a controlling dimensionless parameter, the Deborah number, given by the ratio of the characteristic time for pressure relaxation and concentration homogenization. Using the Deborah number two types of plausible chemical zonation are distinguished, i.e. diffusion controlled, and mechanically controlled. The transition between these two types of chemical zonation is determined at the conditions where the Deborah number equals one. We apply our model to a chemically zoned plagioclase rim in a spherical coordinate frame assuming homogeneous initial pressure. Using thermodynamic data, an experimentally derived diffusion coefficient and a viscous flow law for plagioclase, our numerical simulations show that up to ∼0.6 GPa grain-scale pressure variation is generated during the diffusion-deformation process. Due to the mechanical-chemical coupling, the pressure variations maintain the chemical zonation longer than predicted by the classical diffusion model. The fully coupled mechanical-chemical model provides an alternative explanation for the preservation of chemically zoned minerals, and may contribute to a better understanding of metamorphic processes in the deep Earth interior.

  19. Formation of cordierite-bearing lavas during anatexis in the lower crust beneath Lipari Island (Aeolian arc, Italy) (United States)

    Di, Martino C.; Forni, F.; Frezzotti, M.L.; Palmeri, R.; Webster, J.D.; Ayuso, R.A.; Lucchi, F.; Tranne, C.A.


    Cordierite-bearing lavas (CBL;~105 ka) erupted from the Mt. S. Angelo volcano at Lipari (Aeolian arc, Italy) are high-K andesites, displaying a range in the geochemical and isotopic compositions that reflect heterogeneity in the source and/or processes. CBL consist of megacrysts of Ca-plagioclase and clinopyroxene, euhedral crystals of cordierite and garnet, microphenocrysts of orthopyroxene and plagioclase, set in a heterogeneous rhyodacitic-rhyolitic groundmass containing abundant metamorphic and gabbroic xenoliths. New petrographic, chemical and isotopic data indicate formation of CBL by mixing of basaltic-andesitic magmas and high-K peraluminous rhyolitic magmas of anatectic origin and characterize partial melting processes in the lower continental crust of Lipari. Crustal anatectic melts generated through two main dehydration-melting peritectic reactions of metasedimentary rocks: (1) Biotite + Aluminosilicate + Quartz + Albite = Garnet + Cordierite + K-feldspar + Melt; (2) Biotite + Garnet + Quartz = Orthopyroxene + Cordierite + K-feldspar + Melt. Their position into the petrogenetic grid suggests that heating and consequent melting of metasedimentary rocks occurred at temperatures of 725 crust of Lipari was induced by protracted emplacement of basic magmas in the lower crust (~130 Ky). Crustal melting of the lower crust at 105 ka affected the volcano evolution, impeding frequent maficmagma eruptions, and promoting magma stagnation and fractional crystallization processes. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Emplacement of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) in a deep-sea environment: The Val d'Aveto Formation case (Northern Apennines, Italy) (United States)

    Di Capua, Andrea; Groppelli, Gianluca


    The occurrence of PDC deposits in a foredeep basin sequence, named Val d'Aveto Formation (32-29 Ma, Northern Apennines, Italy), provides new information on the behavior of pyroclastic density currents entering the water. In this work, stratigraphic, petrographic and mineralogical features that characterize three pyroclastic deposits have been described and analyzed in the field (facies and lithological analysis on the blocky-size fraction) and in the laboratory (image analyses on the blocky-size detritus, optical analyses of the microtextures, mineralogical analyses through X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectometry (SEM-EDS). The deposits are lapilli- to blocky-size, with a blocky-size fraction constituted of accidental detritus. In thin sections, their groundmass texture varies from porphyritic to eutaxitic where coarser particles become close each others. Growth rims have been also detected around plagioclase crystals. Pyrite habits and oxidation, and plagioclase albitization are consistent with hydrothermal temperature conditions of 200 °C. All these results have been compared with the information provided by modern examples of PDC deposits and laboratory experiments on the behavior of water/hot particles mixing. Grain-to-grain collision has been considered as the main flow mechanism that sustained and avoided the disaggregation of the PDCs entering the water.

  1. Petrology of metabasites in the south of Arousan, northeastern Isfahan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Bayat


    Full Text Available Metagabbro, metadiabase and metabasalt of the Chah Palang and Me'raji mountains associated with Lower Paleozoic metamorphites are situated in the south of Arousan. Metabasites of these areas are relatively similar in terms of mineralogy and geochemical characteristics. Rock-forming minerals of the Me'raji metabasites are feldspar, amphibole, biotite, sphene, epidote, chlorite ± calcite. Metagabbro and metadiabase of the Chah Palang area are similar to the Me'raji metabasites in mineralogy and geochemistry. Volcanic rocks are overlain by metagabbros and consist of plagioclase, biotite, sphene, sanidine, chlorite, epidote and iron oxides. The rigid dykes, which are found in the volcanic units are associated with metagabbros and mineralogically are similar to the metavolcanics. Amphibolitic dykes are composed of amphibole, plagioclase and biotite with preferred orientation. Metabasites show limited range of differentiation. Me'raji metabasites are basalt and trachy-basalt in composition, whereas the Chah Palang ones present basalt and trachy-basalt composition. Similar to metabasites of the other parts of Iran, the studied basic rocks demonstrate alkaline to transitional chemical characteristic and are formed in an extensional environment by low-degree partial melting of a garnet-spinel peridotite. Metamorphic episodes have changed the studied rocks to amphibolite and greenschist, but the primitive igneous textures are preserved.

  2. Impact-melt origin for the Simondium, Pinnaroo, and Hainholz mesosiderites: implicatiions for impact processes beyond the Earth--Moon system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floran, R J; Caulfield, J B.D.; Harlow, G E; Prinz, M


    The Simondium, Pinnaroo, and Hainholz mesosiderites are interpreted to be clast-laden impact melts that crystallized from immiscible silicate, metallic (Fe-FeS) liquids. The existence of silicate melts is shown by intergranular basaltic textures. Metallic melts are inferred on the basis of smooth boundaries between metal and troilite and the occurrence of troilite as anastomosing areas that radiate outward into the silicate fractions. These relations suggest that troilite crystallized after silicates, concentrating as a late-stage residuum. Evidence for impact melting includes: diversity and abundance of clast types (mineral, metal, lithic) in various stages of recrystallization and assimilation; differences in mineral chemistries between clasts and igneous-textured matrix silicates; unusual metal plus silicate bulk composition. Silicate clasts consist primarily of orthopyroxene and minor olivine with a range of Fe/Fe + Mg ratios, anorthitic plagioclase, and rare orthopyroxenite (diogenite) fragments. Substantial amounts of Fe-Ni metal were melted during the impact events and minor amounts were incorporated into the melts as clasts. The clast populations suggest that at least four rock types were melted and mixed: (a) diogenite, (b) a plagioclase-rich source, possibly cumulate eucrite, (c) dunite, and (d) metal. Most orthopyroxene appears to have been derived from fragmentation of diogenites. Orthopyroxene (En/sub 82-61/) and olivine (Fo/sub 86-67/) clasts include much material unsampled as individual meteorites and probably represent a variety of source rocks.

  3. Carbonation of Rock Minerals by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide at 250 degrees C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, T.; Ecker, L.; Butcher, T.


    Wet powder-samples of five rock minerals, granite, albite, hornblende, diorite, and biotite mica, were exposed in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) for 3 days at 250 C under 17.23 MPa pressure, and then the susceptibility of the various crystalline phases present in these mineral structures to reactions with hot scCO2 was investigated by XRD and FT-IR. The anorthite present in diorite was identified as the most vulnerable phase to carbonation. In contrast, biotite displayed a great resistance, although its phase was transformed hydrothermally to sanidine and quartz. Granite comprised of two phases, anorthoclase-type albite and quartz. The carbonation of former phase led to the formation of amorphous sodium and potassium carbonates coexisting with the clay-like by-products of the carbonation reaction. The reactivity of quartz to scCO2 was minimal, if any. Among these rock minerals, only hornblende formed crystalline carbonation products, such as calcite and magnesite after exposure, reflecting the likelihood of an increase in its volume. Based upon the feldspar ternary diagram, the carbonation rate of various different minerals in the plagioclase feldspar family depended primarily on the amount of anorthite. On the other hand, alkali feldspar minerals involving anorthoclase-type albite and sanidine had a lower reactivity with scCO2, compared with that of plagioclase feldspar minerals.

  4. Magma plumbing beneath Anak Krakatau volcano, Indonesia: evidence for multiple magma storage regions (United States)

    Dahren, Börje; Troll, Valentin R.; Andersson, Ulf B.; Chadwick, Jane P.; Gardner, Màiri F.; Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Koulakov, Ivan


    Understanding magma plumbing is essential for predicting the behaviour of explosive volcanoes. We investigate magma plumbing at the highly active Anak Krakatau volcano (Indonesia), situated on the rim of the 1883 Krakatau caldera by employing a suite of thermobarometric models. These include clinopyroxene-melt thermobarometry, plagioclase-melt thermobarometry, clinopyroxene composition barometry and olivine-melt thermometry. Petrological studies have previously identified shallow magma storage in the region of 2-8 km beneath Krakatau, while existing seismic evidence points towards mid- to deep-crustal storage zone(s), at 9 and 22 km, respectively. Our results show that clinopyroxene in Anak Krakatau lavas crystallized at a depth of 7-12 km, while plagioclase records both shallow crustal (3-7 km) and sub-Moho (23-28 km) levels of crystallization. These magma storage regions coincide with well-constrained major lithological boundaries in the crust, implying that magma ascent and storage at Anak Krakatau is strongly controlled by crustal properties. A tandem seismic tomography survey independently identified a separate upper crustal (7 km). Both petrological and seismic methods are sensitive in detecting magma bodies in the crust, but suffer from various limitations. Combined geophysical and petrological surveys, in turn, offer increased potential for a comprehensive characterization of magma plumbing at active volcanic complexes.

  5. A New Sample Transect through the Sierra Madre Occidental Silicic Large Igneous Province in Southern Chihuahua State, Mexico: First Stratigraphic, Petrologic, and Geochemical Results (United States)

    Andrews, G. D.; Davila Harris, P.; Brown, S. R.; Anderson, L.; Moreno, N.


    We completed a field sampling transect across the northern Sierra Madre Occidental silicic large igneous province (SMO) in December 2013. Here we present the first stratigraphic, petrological, and geochemical data from the transect between Hidalgo del Parral and Guadalupe y Calvo, Chihuahua, Mexico. This is the first new transect across the SMO in 25 years and the only one between existing NE - SW transects at Chihuahua - Hermosillo and Durango - Mazatlan. The 245 km-long transect along Mexican Highway 24 crosses the boundary between the extended (Basin and Range) and non-extended (Sierra Madre Occidental plateau) parts of the SMO, and allows sampling of previously undescribed Oligocene (?) - early Miocene (?) rhyolitic ignimbrites and lavas, and occasional post-rhyolite, Miocene (?) SCORBA basaltic andesite lavas. 54 samples of rhyolitic ignimbrites (40) and lavas (7), and basaltic andesite lavas (7) were sampled along the transect, including 8 canyon sections with more than one unit. The ignimbrites are overwhelming rhyodacitic (plagioclase and hornblende or biotite phyric) or rhyolitic (quartz (+/- sanidine) in additon to plagioclase and hornblende or biotite phyric) and sparsely to highly phyric. Preliminary petrographic (phenocryst abundances) and geochemical (major and trace element) will be presented and compared to existing data from elsewhere in the SMO. Future work will include U-Pb zircon dating and whole rock and in-zircon radiogenic isotopes analyses.

  6. The Boulder Creek Batholith, Front Range, Colorado (United States)

    Gable, Dolores J.


    The Boulder Creek batholith is the best known of several large Precambrian batholiths of similar rock composition that crop out across central Colorado. The rocks in the batholith belong to the calc-alkaline series and range in composition from granodiorite through quartz diorite (tonalite) to gneissic aplite. Two rock types dominate': the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, the major rock unit, and a more leucocratic and slightly younger unit herein named Twin Spruce Quartz Monzonite. Besides mafic inclusions, which occur mainly in hornblende-bearing phases of the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, there are cogenetic older and younger lenses, dikes, and small plutons of hornblende diorite, hornblendite, gabbro, and pyroxenite. Pyroxenite is not found in the batholith. The Boulder Creek Granodiorite in the batholith represents essentially two contemporaneous magmas, a northern body occurring in the Gold Hill and Boulder quadrangles and a larger southern body exposed in the Blackhawk and the greater parts of the Tungsten and Eldorado Springs quadrangles. The two bodies are chemically and mineralogically distinct. The northern body is richer in CaO and poorer in K2O, is more mafic, and has a larger percentage of plagioclase than the southern body. A crude sequence of rock types occurs from west to east in the batholith accompanied by a change in plagioclase composition from calcic plagioclase on the west to sodic on the east. Ore minerals tend to decrease, and the ratio potassium feldspar:plagioclase increases inward from the western contact of the batholith, indicating that the Boulder Creek batholith is similar to granodiorite batholiths the world over. Emplacement of the Boulder Creek batholith was contemporaneous with plastic deformation and high-grade regional metamorphism that folded the country rock and the batholith contact along west-northwest and north-northwest axes. Also, smaller satellitic granodiorite bodies tend to conform to the trends of foliation and fold axes in

  7. Sr-Isotope Composition of Feldspar: Implication for age and Evolution of Gabbros from Uralian-Alaskan Type Complexes in the Ural Mountains, Russia (United States)

    Bruegmann, G. E.; Krause, J.; Pushkarev, E.


    Compared to whole-rock or bulk mineral analyses single mineral composition could reveal disequilibrium features between crystals or within individual crystals which provide important information on magma chamber processes. We applied a LA-ICPMS technique to determine Sr isotopes in plagioclase and K-feldspar of gabbroic rocks from the Nizhnii Tagil and Kytlym complexes in the Ural Mountains in Russia. These complexes are Uralian-Alaskan-type zoned mafic-ultramafic complexes, consisting of dunite, clinopyroxenite and gabbro bodies. The rock association is considered to represent a cumulate sequence of a single parental melt feeding a magma chamber system. The instruments used were a NU Plasma MC-ICPMS and a solid-state 193 and 213 nm Nd:YAG laser ablation system from New Wave. The data of the present study includes up to five spot analyses (100-120 μm spot size) of each mineral in a thin section. Baselines for analyses were measured on-peak for 20 s while flushing the sample chamber with He. About 300 to 500 isotope ratios were measured during the ablation time of 80-100 s. Raw data were exported to an external data reduction spreadsheet and corrected for interferences (Kr, Rb) and mass bias using 87Sr/^{88}Sr=0.1194. During the time of analyses we measured the Sr isotope composition of an in-house marine carbonate reference material. Its 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70923±6 (2SD) agrees within error limits with our TIMS measurements. The gabbros have porphyric textures with clinopyroxene phenocrysts in a matrix of olivine, clinopyroxene and spinel. Two gabbro types can be distinguished based on additional matrix minerals. One type of gabbro is silica saturated, contains plagioclase (An57-88) and in places orthopyroxene as matrix phases. The second gabbro type is silica undersaturated and contains in the matrix plagioclase (An29-56) and pseudoleucite, a fine grained intergrowth of nepheline and K-feldspar (Or30-81). In this gabbro plagioclase has generally higher Sr

  8. Late sodic metasomatism evidences in bimodal volcanic rocks of the Acampamento Velho Alloformation, Neoproterozoic III, southern Brazil

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    Delia Del Pilar M. de Almeida


    Full Text Available A mineralogical study was carried out in mafic and felsic volcanic rocks of the Acampamento Velho Alloformation at Cerro do Bugio, Perau and Serra de Santa Bárbara areas (Camaquã Basin in southern Brazil. The Acampamento Velho bimodal event consists of two associations: lower mafic at the base and upper felsic at the top. Plagioclase and alkali-feldspar were studied using an electronic microprobe, and magnetite, ilmenite, rutile, illite and alkali-feldspar were investigated through scanning electron microscopy. The rocks were affected by a process of late sodic autometasomatism. In mafic rocks, Ca-plagioclase was transformed to albite and pyroxenes were altered. In felsic rocks, sanidine was partially pseudomorphosed, generating heterogeneous alkali-feldspar. In this association, unstable Ti-rich magnetite was replaced by rutile and ilmenite. In mafic rocks, the crystallization sequence was: (1 Ti-rich magnetite (?, (2 pyroxene and Ca-plagioclase, (3 albite (alteration to Ca-plagioclase, (4 sericite, chlorite and calcite (alteration to pyroxene, and kaolinite (alteration to plagioclase/albite. In felsic rocks: (1 zircon, (2 Ti-rich magnetite, (3 sanidine, (4 quartz. The introduction of late Na-rich fluids, generated the formation of (5 heterogeneous alkali-feldspar, (6 ilmenite and rutile from the Ti-rich magnetite, (7 albite in the spherulites. Finally, alteration of sanidine, vitroclasts and pumice to (8 illite.Um estudo mineralógico de detalhe foi realizado nas rochas vulcânicas da Aloformação Acampamento Velho nos Cerros do Bugio, Perau e Serra de Santa Bárbara (Bacia do Camaquã, sudeste do Brasil. Este evento bimodal é constituído por duas associações: máfica inferior na base e félsica superior no topo. Foram estudados grãos de plagioclásio e feldspato alcalino com o uso de microssonda eletrônica, sendo que, magnetita,ilmenita, rutilo e ilita além de feldspato alcalino foram pesquisados através do microscópio eletr

  9. Shergottite Lead Isotope Signature in Chassigny and the Nakhlites (United States)

    Jones, J. H.; Simon, J. I.


    The nakhlites/chassignites and the shergottites represent two differing suites of basaltic martian meteorites. The shergottites have ages less than or equal to 0.6 Ga and a large range of initial Sr-/Sr-86 and epsilon (Nd-143) ratios. Conversely, the nakhlites and chassignites cluster at 1.3-1.4 Ga and have a limited range of initial Sr-87/Sr-86 and epsilon (Nd-143). More importantly, the shergottites have epsilon (W-182) less than 1, whereas the nakhlites and chassignites have epsilon (W-182) approximately 3. This latter observation precludes the extraction of both meteorite groups from a single source region. However, recent Pb isotopic analyses indicate that there may have been interaction between shergottite and nakhlite/chassignite Pb reservoirs.Pb Analyses of Chassigny: Two different studies haveinvestigated 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb in Chassigny: (i)TIMS bulk-rock analyses of successive leaches and theirresidue [3]; and (ii) SIMS analysis of individual minerals[4]. The bulk-rock analyses fall along a regression of SIMSplagioclase analyses that define an errorchron that is olderthan the Solar System (4.61±0.1 Ga); i.e., these define amixing line between Chassigny’s principal Pb isotopic components(Fig. 1). Augites and olivines in Chassingy (notshown) also fall along or near the plagioclase regression [4].This agreement indicates that the whole-rock leachateslikely measure indigenous, martian Pb, not terrestrial contamination[5]. SIMS analyses of K-spars and sulfides definea separate, sub-parallel trend having higher 207Pb/206Pbvalues ([4]; Fig. 1). The good agreement between the bulkrockanalyses and the SIMS analyses of plagioclases alsoindicates that the Pb in the K-spars and sulfides cannot be amajor component of Chassigny.The depleted reservoir sampled by Chassigny plagioclaseis not the same as the solar system initial (PAT) andrequires a multi-stage origin. Here we show a two-stagemodel (Fig. 1) with a 238U/204Pb (µ) of 0.5 for 4.5-2.4 Gaand a µ of

  10. Pervasive, high temperature hydrothermal alteration in the RN-17B drill core, Reykjanes Geothermal System-Iceland Deep Drilling Project (United States)

    Zierenberg, R. A.; Schiffman, P.; Marks, N. E.; Reed, M. H.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.


    In November 2008, 9.5 m of core were recovered from Reykjanes production well RN-17B at a depth of 2800m. The core consists mainly of hyaloclastite breccias, hetrolithic breccias with clasts of crystalline basalt, and volcaniclastic sandstones/siltstones. Much of the material appears to have been transported and redeposited, but homolithic breccias and hyaloclastites, some with upright flow lobes of basalt with quenched rims, are interpreted to have erupted in situ. Fine-scale features (glass rims, quench crystals, vesicles, phenocrysts) are well preserved, but all lithologies are pervasively hydrothermally altered such that primary clinopyroxene is ubiquitously uralitized and primary plagioclase (An42-80) is replaced by albite and/or more calcic plagioclase. In contrast, cuttings of similar lithologies, recovered by rotary drilling in intervals immediately above and below the core, exhibit much lesser degrees of hydrothermal alteration and commonly contain igneous plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Vitric clasts in the core are recrystallized into aggregates of chlorite and actinolite. In some breccias, cm-scale metadomains are composed of patchy albite or actinolite/magnesiohornblende giving the core a green and white spotted appearance. Minor amounts (<1%) of disseminated pyrite occur throughout the core, but two intervals with more abundant sulfide contain chalcopyrite and sphalerite in addition to pyrite. Amygdales and vugs in the breccias, initially filled with chlorite, actinolite, epidote, and/or albite, have been partly overprinted with hornblende and anorthite. The core is cut in places by < 1 cm- wide veins composed of early epidote + actinolite + titanite and later anorthite + magnesiohornblende/pargasite. Quartz is not present in any alteration domains observed in the core, although it is reported from virtually all of the cutting intervals above and below the cored section. Seawater-basalt reaction calculations suggest that albite formed during early

  11. The Hidden Zone of the Skaergaard Intrusion Revealed (United States)

    Tegner, Christian; Salmonsen, Lars Peter


    The Hidden Zone of Skaergaard was hypothesized by LR Wager and co-workers as representing a large, unexposed, basal cumulate series rich in calcic plagioclase and with subordinate olivine and pyroxene. Although the size, shape and composition of this subzone have been debated, all subsequent works include it in their models. In 1966 a team from Oxford and Cambridge drilled a core penetrating most of Lower Zone a of the exposed Layered Series and c. 150 metres into the Hidden Zone. This core was drilled close to the western margin of the intrusion but did not reach the base although S. Maaløe argued it stopped near to the basement contact. Recent work on this core is underway by M. Holness and co-workers. Here we report on "new" outcrops at Dobbeltgletscheren in the central, basal zone of the northern part of the intrusion; these outcrops appear to be exposed only recently due to melting of the glaciers. A c. 200 m thick section is exposed. Upwards the section grades into typical Lower Zone rocks. Downwards the section is covered by ice and moraine, and the contact to the underlying basement is not exposed. The lowermost outcrops are composed of fine-grained, olivine-rich micro-troctolite layered on a scale of centimetres to decimetres. The melanocratic layers have a distinct sugary texture due to abundant (up to 60% by volume), equant olivine grains typically 0.5-1 mm across. The plagioclase is of similar size and with habits ranging from subhedral laths to anhedral grains interstitial to olivine, and oikocrysts of Ca-rich and Ca-poor pyroxene enclose equant olivine and subhedral plagioclase laths as chadacrysts. The lighter coloured mesocratic layers show the same mineralogy with less olivine (up to 40%) and more and slightly larger plagioclase relative to the melanocratic layers. Upsection the layering largely fades away and the grain size increases gradually reaching textures similar to typical Lower Zone a. Olivine (Fo72-64, 0.22-0.17 wt% NiO) and plagioclase

  12. Decoding low dihedral angles in gabbroic layered intrusions (United States)

    Holness, M. B.; Humphreys, M.; Veksler, I. V.


    Texturally equilibrated rocks are granular with a unimodal grain size, smoothly curved grain boundaries, and angles at three-grain junctions of 110-140°. Gabbros are not texturally equilibrated: primocrysts commonly have planar faces whereas later-formed phases fill in the interstitial spaces. Augite-plagioclase-plagioclase dihedral angles (Θcpp) rarely attain the equilibrium value in gabbros and the population of disequilibrium angles preserves otherwise inaccessible information about rock history. The Θcpp population varies significantly between different basaltic bodies. In a rapidly cooled dolerite Θcpp has a low median (60-70°) and a high standard deviation (20-25°). The plagioclase-augite grain boundaries are generally planar. In more slowly cooled gabbros in layered intrusions, the angle populations have a higher median (80-110°) with a low standard deviation (10-15°). The plagioclase-augite grain boundaries are generally planar far from the triple junction, but curve within 10 microns of the junction. This curvature is commonly asymmetric. The angle population in solidified gabbros infiltrated by low-temperature melts is similar to that in dolerites, although the low angles are associated with cuspate interstitial grains. The dihedral angle is a function of both the original solidification process and subsequent high-temperature (melt-absent) grain boundary migration. Infilling of a melt pocket by overgrowth of the bounding solid phases necessitates supersaturation, and this is easier to attain for planar faces, resulting in inhibition of augite growth into pores bounded by planar plagioclase grains and an asymmetry of the initial augite-plag-plag junction. If the solidified gabbro is kept sufficiently hot these initial junction geometries can change during textural equilibration. In the Skaergaard, Rum and Bushveld intrusions, the median Θcpp varies with liquidus assemblage, increasing step-wise on the addition of a new liquidus phase. Locally

  13. Primitive and contaminated basalts from the Southern Rocky Mountains, U.S.A (United States)

    Doe, B.R.; Lipman, P.W.; Hedge, C.E.; Kurasawa, H.


    Basalts in the Southern Rocky Mountains province have been analyzed to determine if any of them are primitive. Alkali plagioclase xenocrysts armored with calcic plagioclase seem to be the best petrographic indicator of contamination. The next best indicator of contamination is quartz xenocrysts armored with clinopyroxene. On the rocks and the region studied, K2O apparently is the only major element with promise of separating primitive basalt from contaminated basalt inasmuch as it constitutes more than 1 % in all the obviously contaminated basalts. K2O: lead (> 4 ppm) and thorium (> 2 ppm) contents and Rb/Sr (> 0.035) are the most indicative of the trace elements studied. Using these criteria, three basalt samples are primitive (although one contains 1.7% K2O) and are similar in traceelement contents to Hawaiian and Eastern Honshu, Japan, primitive basalts. Contamination causes lead isotope ratios, 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb, to become less radiogenic, but it has little or no effect on 87Sr/86Sr. We interpret the effect on lead isotopes to be due to assimilation either of lower crustal granitic rocks, which contain 5-10 times as much lead as basalt and which have been low in U/Pb and Th/Pb since Precambrian times, or of upper crustal Precambrian or Paleozoic rocks, which have lost much of their radiogenic lead because of heating prior to assimilation. The lack of definite effects on strontium isotopes may be due to the lesser strontium contents of granitic crustal rocks relative to basaltic rocks coupled with lack of a large radiogenic enrichment in the crustal rocks. Lead isotope ratios were found to be less radiogenic in plagioclase separates from an obviously contaminated basalt than in the primitive basalts. The feldspar separate that is rich in sodic plagioclase xenocrysts was found to be similar to the whole-rock composition for 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb whereas a more dense fraction probably enriched in more calcic plagioclase phenocrysts is more similar

  14. An example of post-collisional mafic magmatism: the gabbro-anorthosite layered complex from the Tin Zebane area (western Hoggar, Algeria) (United States)

    Aı̈t-Djafer, Saı̈da; Ouzegane, Khadidja; Paul-Liégeois, Jean; Kienast, Jean Robert


    The Tin Zebane gabbro-anorthosite layered mafic intrusion represented by plagioclase-rich cumulates forms a set of small lenticular to round-shaped mainly undeformed bodies intruding the Pan-African high-pressure metamorphic rocks from western Hoggar (Tuareg shield, southwest Algeria). The coarse-grained anorthosites are mainly made of slightly zoned bytownite (An 86-74) with the higher anorthite content at the cores. Anorthosites are interlayered with leucogabbros and gabbros that show preserved magmatic structures and with olivine gabbros characterised by coronitic textures. The primary assemblage in gabbros includes plagioclase (An 93-70), olivine (Fo 77-70), zoned clinopyroxene (En 43-48Fs 05-13Wo 41-49 with Al 2O 3 up to 4.3 wt.%) and rare orthopyroxene (En 73-78). Pyroxenes and olivine are commonly surrounded by Ca-amphibole. The olivine-plagioclase contact is usually marked by a fine orthopyroxene-Cr-spinel-amphibole symplectite. A magnesian pigeonite (En 70-75Fs 19-20Wo 6-10) is also involved in corona. The coronitic minerals have equilibrated with the primary mineral rims at P- T- aH2O conditions of 797 ± 42 °C for aH2O=0.5 and 808 ± 44 °C for aH2O=0.6 at 6.2 ± 1.4 kbar. The Tin Zebane gabbroic rocks are depleted in REE with a positive Eu anomaly, high Sr (>10 ∗ chondrite) and Al 2O 3 concentrations (17-33%) that support plagioclase accumulation with the extreme case represented by the anorthosites. The REE patterns can be modelised using plagioclase, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene REE signature, without any role played by accessory minerals. High MgO content points to olivine as a major cumulate phase. Anorthositic gabbros Sr and Nd isotopic initial ratios are typical of a depleted mantle source (Sr i=0.70257-0.70278; ɛNd=+5.9 to +7.8). This isotopic signature is identical to that of the 10-km wide 592 Ma old dyke complex composed of alkaline to peralkaline granites and tholeiitic gabbros and one single bimodal complex can be inferred. The source

  15. Characterization of fluids associated to mineral paragenesis of uraniferous albitites and their gnessic embedding rocks from Lagoa da Rabicha Uranium Deposit, Lagoa Real, BA, Brazil; Caracterizacao dos fluidos associados a paragenese mineral dos albititos uraniferos e encaixantes gnaissicas da jazida Lagoa da Rabicha, provincia uranifera de Lagoa Real, BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Lucilia Aparecida Ramos de


    Brazil has now the seventh largest uranium reserve in the world. The Lagoa Real Uranium Province (PULR) is located in central-south region of Bahia State. Along a helical structure, north-south oriented, with approximately 33 km long, there are 34 known uranium mineralized areas. In its central-south portion is located anomaly 03 (AN03), named Lagoa da Rabicha, discovered and mapped by NUCLEBRAS (Brazilian Nuclear Enterprises), in the 80s. The Cachoeira Mine (AN13), located in northern PULR, is currently the only uranium mine in production in Brazil and even in South America. Nowadays it is observed a growth in energy demand in Brazil and also worldwide and studies and research applied to the petrogenetic uranium deposits are relevant both to be able to increase their potential for exploration and to assist in the possible future occurrences discovery. In recent years, fluid inclusions analysis (FI) have been widely used to study the genesis of uranium deposits in PULR and even thought there are still doubts about the uranium mineralization metallogenesis at Lagoa Real. Therefore, this work aimed to study the minerals and fluids associated with Lagoa da Rabicha albitites uraniferous and gneissic host rocks. In this way it was prepared an overview of the fluids found in this sector, establishing a comparison with several authors' studies in this and others Lagoa Real anomalies, trying to show the solutions evolution, at the same time that happened the uraninite precipitation. Petrography, electronic microprobe, laser ablation (LA-ICP-MS) and fluid inclusion studies were the applied methodologies. The fluids inclusions assemblages present in pyroxene, garnet and plagioclase, the main mineralogical constituents, were studied. The older fluid was found in aegirine-augite pyroxene and had aquo-saline composition (without carbonic phases) with Ca, Fe and Mg, 9-13 wt% NaCl salinities and homogenization temperatures between 220 and 290 deg C. Concomitantly, occurred a

  16. Melt extraction and enrichment processes in the New Caledonia lherzolites: Evidence from geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope data (United States)

    Secchiari, Arianna; Montanini, Alessandra; Bosch, Delphine; Macera, Patrizia; Cluzel, Dominique


    The New Caledonia ophiolite (Peridotite Nappe) is dominated by mantle lithologies, composed of forearc-related refractory harzburgites and minor lherzolites in both the spinel and plagioclase facies. In this study, a comprehensive geochemical data set (major, trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes) is used to constrain the mantle evolution of the lherzolites and their relationships with the basalts from the Poya Terrane, which tectonically underlies the mantle rocks. The majority of the lherzolites are low-strain porphyroclastic tectonites. They likely record an asthenospheric origin followed by re-equilibration at lithospheric conditions, as supported by geothermometric estimates (T = 1100-940 °C and 920-890 °C for porphyroclastic and neoblastic spinel-facies assemblages, respectively). Olivine composition (Fo = 88.5-90.0 mol%), spinel Cr# ([molar 100 • Cr/(Cr + Al)] = 13-17) and relatively high amounts (7-8 vol%) of Al2O3- and Na2O-rich clinopyroxene (up to 0.5 and 6.5 wt.%, respectively) indicate a moderately depleted geochemical signature for the spinel lherzolites. Bulk rock and clinopyroxene rare earth elements (REE) patterns display a typical abyssal-type signature, i.e. steeply plunging LREE accompanied by nearly flat HREE to MREE. Clinopyroxene REE compositions of the spinel lherzolites may be reproduced by small amounts of fractional melting of a garnet lherzolite precursor (~ 4%), followed by 4%-5% melting in the spinel peridotite field. The plagioclase lherzolites show melt impregnation microstructures, Cr- and Ti-rich spinels and incompatible trace element enrichments (REE, Ti, Y, and Zr) in bulk rocks and clinopyroxenes. Impregnation modelling for these elements suggests that the plagioclase lherzolites originated from residual spinel lherzolites by entrapment of highly depleted (non-aggregated) MORB melt fractions in the shallow oceanic lithosphere. Nd isotope compositions of the investigated peridotites are consistent with derivation from an

  17. Crystallization conditions and petrogenesis of the lava dome from the ˜900 years BP eruption of Cerro Machín Volcano, Colombia (United States)

    Laeger, Kathrin; Halama, Ralf; Hansteen, Thor; Savov, Ivan P.; Murcia, Hugo F.; Cortés, Gloria P.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter


    The last known eruption at Cerro Machín Volcano (CMV) in the Central Cordillera of Colombia occurred ˜900 years BP and ended with the formation of a dacitic lava dome. The dome rocks contain both normally and reversely zoned plagioclase (An24-54), unzoned and reversely zoned amphiboles of dominantly tschermakite and pargasite/magnesio-hastingsite composition and olivine xenocrysts (Fo = 85-88) with amphibole/clinopyroxene overgrowth, all suggesting interaction with mafic magma at depth. Plagioclase additionally exhibits complex oscillatory zoning patterns reflecting repeated replenishment, fractionation and changes in intrinsic conditions in the magma reservoir. Unzoned amphiboles and cores of the reversely zoned amphiboles give identical crystallization conditions of 910 ± 30 °C and 360 ± 70 MPa, corresponding to a depth of about 13 ± 2 km, at moderately oxidized conditions (f = +0.5 ± 0.2 ΔNNO). The water content in the melt, calculated based on amphibole chemistry, is 7.1 ± 0.4 wt.%. Rims of the reversely zoned amphiboles are relatively enriched in MgO and yield higher crystallization temperatures (T = 970 ± 25 °C), slightly lower melt H2O contents (6.1 ± 0.7 wt.%) and overlapping pressures (410 ± 100 MPa). We suggest that these rims crystallized following an influx of mafic melt into a resident magma reservoir at mid-crustal depths, further supported by the occurrence of xenocrystic olivine. Crystallization of biotite, albite-rich plagioclase and quartz occurred at comparatively low temperatures (probably rock chemistry of the CMV lava dome dacites is homogenous. They have elevated (La/Nb)N ratios of 3.8-4.5, typical for convergent margin magmas, and display several geochemical characteristics of adakites. Both Sr and Nd isotope compositions (87Sr/86Sr ˜0.70497, 143Nd/144Nd ˜0.51267) are among the most radiogenic observed for the Northern Volcanic Zone of the Andes. They are distinct from oceanic crust that has been subducted in the region

  18. Lithology, Geochemistry and Paleomagnetism of the Table Mountain Formation at the Little Walker Caldera (United States)

    Schubert, R.; Pluhar, C. J.; Carlson, C. W.; Jones, S. A.


    West of Bridgeport Valley near the Central Sierra Nevada crest, the Little Walker Caldera (LWC) erupted Stanislaus Group lavas and tuffs during the Late Miocene. Remnants of these rocks are now distributed from the western Sierra Nevada foothills across the range and into the Walker Lane. This wide distribution is attributed to the lavas flowing down paleochannels, which provide an excellent marker for deformation over the last 10 Ma. Priest (1978) identified a thick section of these lavas along Flatiron Ridge, the southeast margin of the LWC, which our preliminary data suggests may correlate with lavas in the Sweetwater Mountains to the northeast and at Rancheria Mtn near Hetch Hetchy to the southwest. The oldest unit in the Stanislaus group is the Table Mountain Formation, a trachyandesite. At Priest's measured section it is divided into three members. By our measurements, the Lower Member (Tmtl) is 256 meters thick, has a fine-grained groundmass with plagioclase and augite phenocrysts (<0.5 cm), and the presence of augite phenocrysts distinguishes it from the other members. Some Tmtl flows have chalcedony amigdules. Overlying this, the Large Plagioclase member (Tmtp) is 43.5 meters thick. Distinguished by (~1 cm) plagioclase and occasional small olivine phenocrysts. The Upper Member (Tmtu) is 116 meters thick, very fine-grained and often platy. Tmtl has a distinctive northwest-oriented normal polarity and geochemistry, similar to several localities at Rancheria Mtn. Tmtu has a reversed polarity similar to the polarity of Table Mountain Formation in the Sweetwater Mountains and lavas that directly underlie the ~9.5 Ma Tollhouse Flat member of the Eureka Valley Tuff at Rancheria Mtn. Thus, our preliminary data suggest that the lower member at Priest's Measured Section could correlate to the normal polarity samples at Rancheria Mtn. Also, that the upper Member reversed-polarity samples may correlate with lavas both at the Sweetwater Mountains and Rancheria Mtn

  19. Geology and geochemistry of the Macheng Algoma-type banded iron-formation, North China Craton: Constraints on mineralization events and genesis of high-grade iron ores (United States)

    Wu, Huaying; Niu, Xianglong; Zhang, Lianchang; Pirajno, Franco; Luo, Huabao; Qin, Feng; Cui, Minli; Wang, Changle; Qi, Min


    The Macheng iron deposit is located in the eastern Hebei province of the North China Craton (NCC). It is hosted in Neoarchean metamorphic rocks of Baimiaozi formation in the Dantazi Group, consisting of biotite-leptynite, plagioclase-gneiss, plagioclase-amphibolite, migmatite, migmatitic granite and quartz schist. Geochemical analyses of the host biotite leptynite and plagioclase amphibolites show that their protoliths are both volcanics, inferred to be trachytic basalt and basaltic andesite, respectively. Based on the geochemical signature of the host rocks, together with geology of the iron deposit, it is inferred that the Macheng BIF is an Algoma-type iron exhalative formation, formed in an arc-related basin in the Neoarchean. Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalized rare earth elements (REEs) plus yttrium (Y) concentrations of different BIF ores with gneissic, striated and banded structure in the Macheng deposit, show similar patterns with depletions in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and middle rare earth elements (MREEs) relative to heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and with apparently positive La, Y and Eu anomalies. Y/Ho ratios of the gneissic, striated and banded BIF ores vary from 37 to 56. These geochemical features of the BIF ores reveal their affinity with the sea water and the presence of a high-temperature hydrothermal component, indicating that both the seawater and high temperature hydrothermal fluids derived from alteration of oceanic basalts and komatiites may contribute to formation of the Macheng BIF. Geological, mineralogical and geochemical studies of the Macheng deposit recognized two kinds of high-grade iron ores. One is massive oxidized high-grade ore (Fe2O3T = 74.37-86.20 wt.%), mainly consisting of hematite with some magnetite, which shows geochemical characteristics of the gneissic, striated and banded BIF ores. The other type is magnetite high-grade ore, also massive and consisting of magnetite, with distinct characteristics

  20. Petrogenesis of incipient charnockite in the Ikalamavony sub-domain, south-central Madagascar: New insights from phase equilibrium modeling (United States)

    Endo, Takahiro; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.; Shaji, E.; Rambeloson, Roger A.


    Incipient charnockites representing granulite formation on a mesoscopic scale occur in the Ambodin Ifandana area of Ikalamavony sub-domain in south-central Madagascar. Here we report new petrological data from these rocks, and discuss the process of granulite formation on the basis of petrography, mineral equilibrium modeling, and fluid inclusion studies. The incipient charnockites occur as brownish patches, lenses, and layers characterized by an assemblage of biotite + orthopyroxene + K-feldspar + plagioclase + quartz + magnetite + ilmenite within host orthopyroxene-free biotite gneiss with an assemblage of biotite + K-feldspar + plagioclase + quartz + magnetite + ilmenite. Lenses and layers of calc-silicate rock (clinopyroxene + garnet + plagioclase + quartz + titanite + calcite) are typically associated with the charnockite. Coarse-grained charnockite occurs along the contact between the layered charnockite and calc-silicate rock. The application of mineral equilibrium modeling on the mineral assemblages in charnockite and biotite gneiss employing the NCKFMASHTO system as well as fluid inclusion study on coarse-grained charnockite defines a P-T range of 8.5-10.5 kbar and 880-900 °C, which is nearly consistent with the inferred P-T condition of the Ikalamavony sub-domain (8.0-10.5 kbar and 820-880 °C). The result of T versus H2O activity (a(H2O)) modeling demonstrates that orthopyroxene-bearing assemblage in charnockite is stable under relatively low a(H2O) condition of 0.42-0.43, which is consistent with the popular models of incipient-charnockite formation related to the lowering of water activity and stabilization of orthopyroxene through dehydration of biotite. The occurrence of calc-silicate rocks adjacent to the charnockite suggests that the CO2-bearing fluid that caused dehydration and incipient-charnockite formation might have been derived through decarbonation of calc-silicate rocks during the initial stage of decompression slightly after the peak

  1. Granulites by name but eclogite facies by formation conditions: extreme metamorphism recorded by Saxony-type granulites (United States)

    O Brien, P. J.


    The type locality `granulite' from the Saxonian Granulitgebirge is a felsic, granitic to granodioritic rock, composed predominantly of feldspars and quartz along with minor garnet, kyanite and rutile, and exhibiting a strong mylonitic fabric. In such rocks abundant mesoperthitic K-feldspar testifies to the former presence of high temperature (>900^oC) ternary feldspar. In intermediate to mafic layers the common antiperthite, when reconstituted to its single phase precursor, yields unequivocal ultrahigh-temperature (>1000^oC) conditions by feldspar solvus thermometry. The presence of kyanite together with such feldspar requires pressures (>15 kbar) equivalent to mantle depths. In addition, orthopyroxene, where present, is demonstrably of secondary origin. Importantly, experimental results show that the position of the orthopyroxene-out reaction curve for granitic/granodioritic compositions coincides with that of the plagioclase-out reaction in rocks of quartz-tholeiite composition. This means that the orthopyroxene-free felsic `granulites' formed at conditions above those generally taken as defining the start of the eclogite facies. It has long been known that rare mafic lenses contain clinopyroxene with jadeite content approaching or even exceeding that of omphacite. The presence or absence of plagioclase in these omphacite-bearing rocks is purely a function of bulk composition: more quartz tholeiitic rocks are plagioclase-free and are thus eclogites. Likewise, tectonic lenses of garnet peridotites in the granulite massifs are a clear indicator of metamorphism at mantle depths. Recent discoveries have extended the formation depths of some of these rocks even further as coesite (in eclogite) and microdiamond (in granulites) have been discovered in the nearby Erzgebirge. Even more remarkable are consistent ca. 340 Ma zircon ages which, along with other evidence, point to exhumation rates of several mm/a. The presence of garnet peridotites, combined with the

  2. Assimilation of sediments embedded in the oceanic arc crust: myth or reality? (United States)

    Bezard, Rachel; Davidson, Jon P.; Turner, Simon; Macpherson, Colin G.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Boyce, Adrian J.


    Arc magmas are commonly assumed to form by melting of sub-arc mantle that has been variably enriched by a component from the subducted slab. Although most magmas that reach the surface are not primitive, the impact of assimilation of the arc crust is often ignored with the consequence that trace element and isotopic compositions are commonly attributed only to varying contributions from different components present in the mantle. This jeopardises the integrity of mass balance recycling calculations. Here we use Sr and O isotope data in minerals from a suite of volcanic rocks from St Lucia, Lesser Antilles arc, to show that assimilation of oceanic arc basement can be significant. Analysis of 87Sr/86Sr in single plagioclase phenocrysts from four Soufrière Volcanic Complex (SVC; St Lucia) hand samples with similar composition (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7089-0.7091) reveals crystal isotopic heterogeneity among hand samples ranging from 0.7083 to 0.7094 with up to 0.0008 difference within a single hand sample. δO18 measurements in the SVC crystals show extreme variation beyond the mantle range with +7.5 to +11.1‰ for plagioclase (n=19), +10.6 to +11.8‰ for quartz (n=10), +9.4 to +9.8‰ for amphibole (n=2) and +9 to +9.5‰ for pyroxene (n=3) while older lavas (Pre-Soufriere Volcanic Complex), with less radiogenic whole rock Sr composition (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7041-0.7062) display values closer to mantle range: +6.4 to +7.9‰ for plagioclase (n=4) and +6 to +6.8‰ for pyroxene (n=5). We argue that the 87Sr/86Sr isotope disequilibrium and extreme δO18 values provide compelling evidence for assimilation of material located within the arc crust. Positive correlations between mineral δO18 and whole rock 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd and 206,207,208Pb/204Pb shows that assimilation seems to be responsible not only for the isotopic heterogeneity observed in St Lucia but also in the whole Lesser Antilles since St Lucia encompasses almost the whole-arc range of isotopic compositions. This

  3. Physical, Chemical and Mineral Properties of the Polonnaruwa Stones (United States)

    Wallis, Jamie; Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Wallis, Daryl H.; Miyake, Nori; Wallis, M. K.; Hoover, Richard B.; Samaranayake, Anil; Wickramarathne, Keerthi; Oldroyd, Anthony

    We report on the physical, chemical and mineral properties of a series of stone fragments recovered from the North Central Province of Sri Lanka following a witnessed fireball event on 29 December 2012. The stones exhibit highly porous poikilitic textures comprising of isotropic silica-rich/plagioclase-like hosts. Inclusions range in size and shape from mm-sized to smaller subangular grains frequently more fractured than the surrounding host and include ilmenite, olivine (fayalitic), quartz and accessory zircon. Bulk mineral compositions include accessory cristobalite, hercynite, anorthite, wuestite, albite, anorthoclase and the high pressure olivine polymorph wadsleyite, suggesting previous endurance of a shock pressure of ~20GPa. Further evidence of shock is confirmed by theconversion of all plagioclase to maskelynite. Here the infrared absorption spectra in the region 580 cm-1 to 380 cm-1 due to the Si-O-Si or Si-O-Al absorption band shows a partial shift in the peak at 380 cm-1 towards 480 cm-1 indicating an intermediate position between crystalline and amorphous phase. Host matrix chemical compositions vary between samples, but all are rich in SiO2. Silica-rich melts display a heterogeneous K-enrichment comparable to that reported in a range of nonterrestrial material from rare iron meteorites to LL chondritic breccias and Lunar granites. Bulk chemical compositions of plagioclase-like samples are comparable to reported data e.g. Miller Ranger 05035 (Lunar), while Si-rich samples accord well with mafic and felsic glasses reported in NWA 1664 (Howardite)as well asdata for fusion crust present in a variety of meteoritic samples.Triple oxygen isotope results show Δ17O = .0.335 with δ18O (‰ rel. SMOW) values of 17.816 ± 0.100 and compare well with those of known CI chondrites and are within the range of CI-like (Meta-C) chondrites. Rare earth elemental abundances show a profound Europium anomaly of between 0.7 and 0.9 ppm while CI normalized REE patterns

  4. Nature and geodynamic setting of the protoliths of the UHP metamorphic Complex and migmatites in Bixiling area, the Dabie Orogen, China (United States)

    Li, H.; Jahn, B.; Wang, D.; Yu, H.; Liu, Z.; Hou, G.


    As the largest coesite-bearing mafic-ultramafic body in the Dabie-Sulu orogen, the Bixiling Complex is composed of meta-ultramafic rocks, MgAl-rich eclogites and FeTi-rich eclogites. The FeTi-rich eclogites are further divided into low-Si-high-Fe type (Type I) and high-Si-low-Fe type (Type II) according to their mineral assemblages and bulk chemical composition. Field, petrographic, petrological and geochemical characteristics of these rocks, although suffered an ultra-high pressure metamorphism, still show a magmatic differentiation process among the protoliths of the meta-ultramafic rocks, MgAl-rich eclogites and Type I FeTi-rich eclogites. A small degree of lower crustal contamination occurred during their magma chamber process. Amphibolite is widespread in the periphery of the complex. Non-foliation and fine-grained texture are their obvious characteristics. Geochemical and isotopic affinities suggest that the amphibolites represent a product of complete retrogression from type II FeTi-rich eclogites. The UHP complex is enclosed in granitic gneisses, which variably include two-mica plagioclase gneiss, epidote two-mica plagioclase gneiss, or white-mica plagioclase gneiss. They all show TTG, especially trondjhemitic composition. A migmatite outcrop was found near the northeastern end of the complex. The migmatites consist of dark colored, non-foliated amphibolites and light-colored, fine-grained trondhjemitic gneisses. Field occurrences, microstructures observed under optical microscope and SEM, Sr-Nd isotopic data suggest an origin of partial melting. Chemical composition of two stages of amphiboles occurred in both the amphibolites and the trondhjemitic gneisses also imply a partial melting process occurred. Trace element, Sr-Nd isotope and SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating of MgAl-rich eclogite, amphibolites and trondhjemite suggest that the migmatites represent a partial melting of crustal materials at about 780Ma, possibly accompanied by the coeval emplacement of a

  5. Controls on rind thickness on basaltic andesite clasts weathering in Guadeloupe (United States)

    Sak, P.B.; Navarre-Sitchler, A. K.; Miller, C.E.; Daniel, C.C.; Gaillardet, J.; Buss, H.L.; Lebedeva, M.I.; Brantley, S.L.


    A clast of low porosity basaltic andesite collected from the B horizon of a soil developed on a late Quaternary volcaniclastic debris flow in the Bras David watershed on Basse-Terre Island, Guadeloupe, exhibits weathering like that observed in many weathered clasts of similar composition in other tropical locations. Specifically, elemental profiles measured across the core-rind interface document that primary minerals and glass weather to Fe oxyhydroxides, gibbsite and minor kaolinite in the rind. The earliest reaction identified in the core is oxidation of Fe in pyroxene but the earliest reaction that creates significant porosity is plagioclase dissolution. Elemental loss varies in the order Ca???Na>K???Mg>Si>Al>Fe???P??Ti, consistent with the relative reactivity of phases in the clast from plagioclase???pyroxene???glass>apatite>ilmenite. The rind surrounds a core of unaltered material that is more spherical than the original clast. The distance from the core-rind boundary to a visually prominent rind layer, L, was measured as a proxy for the rind thickness at 36 locations on a slab cut vertically through the nominal center of the clast. This distance averaged 24.4??3.1mm. Maximum and minimum values for L, 35.8 and 20.6mm, were observed where curvature of the core-rind boundary is greatest (0.12mm-1) and smallest (0.018mm-1) respectively. Extrapolating from other rinds in other locations, the rate of rind formation is estimated to vary by a factor of about 2 (from ~4 to 7??10-14ms-1) from low to high curvature. The observation of a higher rate of rind formation for a higher curvature interface is consistent with a diffusion-limited model for weathering rind formation. The diffusion-limited model predicts that, like rind thickness, values of the thickness of the reaction front (h) for a given reaction, defined as the zone over which a parent mineral such as plagioclase completely weathers to rind material, should also increase with curvature. Values of h were

  6. Ultrahigh-temperature metagabbros from Wynad: Implications for Paleoproterozoic hot orogen in the Moyar Suture Zone, southern India (United States)

    Yano, Minami; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.; Yang, Qiong-Yan; Shaji, E.; Takamura, Yusuke


    The Wynad region is located along the confluence of the Mercara and Moyar Suture Zones in southern India which mark major zones of amalgamation of microcontinental blocks during Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic. Here we report garnet- and clinopyroxene-bearing metagabbros from this region and present petrological, geochemical, and zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic data. The prograde, peak, and retrograde mineral assemblages of the metagabbro are garnet + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + ilmenite + hornblende + quartz, garnet + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + ilmenite, and garnet + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + ilmenite + hornblende + orthopyroxene, respectively. The geochemical data showing nearly flat or slightly depressed LREE and constant HREE patterns, with the absence of negative Nb anomaly in primitive mantle-normalized plots suggest N-MORB affinity for the protolith, indicating remnants of oceanic lithosphere accreted during the subduction-collision event associated with the microblock amalgamation. The metamorphic conditions of the rock were estimated using phase equilibria modeling in the system NCFMASHTO which yield P-T conditions of >960 °C and >12.8 kbar, suggesting high-pressure and ultrahigh-temperature conditions. The prograde P-T conditions are inferred as 7.8-8.3 kbar at 600 °C and 10.6-11.8 kbar at 900 °C, whereas the retrograde P-T conditions computed based on hornblende- and orthopyroxene-bearing mineral assemblages show phase equilibria modeling, suggesting rapid heating and cooling in the lower crustal level. This P-T path is in contrast to those reported from other meta-mafic rocks in southern India. The absence of any decompression texture involving garnet also supports near-isobaric cooling of the rock. Our zircon U-Pb data suggest Neoarchean (2.51 Ga) magmatism and Early Paleoproterozoic (2.36-2.22 Ga) high-grade metamorphism. Zircon Lu-Hf data indicate that the protolith magma was derived from Meso- to Neoarchean juvenile components with very

  7. The formation of Luoboling porphyry Cu-Mo deposit: Constraints from zircon and apatite (United States)

    Li, Cong-ying; Hao, Xi-luo; Liu, Ji-qiang; Ling, Ming-xing; Ding, Xing; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Wei-dong


    The Luobuling porphyry Cu-Mo deposit belongs to the Late Cretaceous Zijinshan Cu-Au-Mo mineralization field in southeastern China. Due to intensive hydrothermal alteration and weathering, it is very difficult to collect fresh whole rock samples for geochemical and isotopic studies in Luobuling. Zircon and apatite are accessory minerals that are resistant to hydrothermal alterations. In this study, we compared the trace element and isotope compositions of zircon and apatite from ore-bearing and barren samples to understand the formation of the Luoboling Cu-Mo deposit. Zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating shows that the Luoboling porphyries formed at 100 Ma (100.3 ± 1.2 Ma, 100.6 ± 1.5 Ma and 98.6 ± 1.2 Ma), which belongs to the late stage mineralization of the Zijinshan mineralization field. Zhongliao porphyritic granodiorite has the same age as the deposit (99.5 ± 1.6 Ma). The age of barren Sifang granodiorite is slightly older (109.7 ± 0.8 Ma). All these zircon grains have high Ce4+/Ce3+ ratios, indicating high oxygen fugacities. The ore-bearing samples show variable εHf(t) of - 7.3 to 0.2, suggesting either heterogeneous sources or mixing of two different magmas. Interestingly, the Hf isotope composition of barren samples is systematically higher (εHf(t) of - 3.6 to 5.5), implying a lower contribution of crustal materials. The OH mole percent of apatite grains from barren samples (LBL22-03 and SF09-05) is 0.5, which is higher than that of apatite from the ore-bearing samples (LBL20-01 LBL20-02 and LBL22-02), indicating lower F, Cl contents or higher water contents in the magma. In apatite from the ore-bearing samples, Sr is high, indicating the absence of plagioclase crystallization. In contrast, barren samples have varied and lower Sr, indicating that apatite crystallization was accompanied by plagioclase. These patterns were controlled by water contents because the crystallization of plagioclase is suppressed by high water contents in magmas. It also suggests

  8. Highly impregnated slow-spread lithosphere : microstructure and geochemistry of olivine-rich troctolites from IODP Hole U1309D (United States)

    Ildefonse, B.; Drouin, M.; Godard, M.


    IODP Expeditions 304-305 sampled the Atlantis Massif, an oceanic core complex located at 30°N in the inside corner of the intersection of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with the Atlantis Fracture Zone. IODP Hole U1309D was drilled to 1415.5 meters below seafloor; it is the second deepest hole in slow-spreading crust, after Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 735B on the Southwest Indian Ridge. The recovered rocks are mostly gabbroic. We present a petrostructural (EBSD) and in-situ geochemical (EPMA, LA-ICPMS and LA-HR-ICPMS) study of olivine-rich troctolites (ol > 70%; 5.5 % of recovered section) and associated gabbros. Olivine-rich troctolites from Hole U1309D display poikilitic textures, with olivine ranging from coarse-grained subhedral crystals to medium-grained rounded crystals, embedded in large, undeformed clinopyroxene and plagioclase poikiloblasts. Trace element compositions of clinopyroxene and plagioclase poikiloblasts indicate that they crystallized from the same depleted MORB melt in both olivine-rich troctolites and associated gabbros. Olivine trace element compositions appear too depleted in light REE to be in equilibrium with plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Olivine crystallographic preferred orientations are weak, and misorientations are consistent with deformation by dislocation creep with activation of the high-temperature (010) [100] slip system, commonly described in asthenospheric mantle. The fabrics also display a relatively strong uncommon [001] concentration that we interpret as resulting from abundant melt impregnation. The joint study of geochemical processes and microstructures in these rocks suggest a complex crystallization history in an open system with percolation of large volume of MORB-type melt that postdate olivine crystal-plastic deformation. Although the mantle origin of the olivine is difficult to demonstrate unequivocally, we propose that olivine-rich troctolites represent the ultimate residue of melt-mantle reaction processes. Our

  9. Composition of the crust in the Grenville and Appalachian Provinces of North America inferred from VP/VS ratios (United States)

    Musacchio, G.; Mooney, W.D.; Luetgert, J.H.; Christensen, N.I.


    We use the ratios between P and S wave velocities (VP/VS), derived from seismic refraction data, to infer the composition of the crust in the Grenville and the Appalachian Provinces of North America. The crust exhibits VP/VS increasing with depth from 1.64 to 1.84; there is a clear distinction between the Grenville Province (average VP/VS=1.81) and the Appalachian Province (average VP/VS=1.73) which persists at all depths. The boundary between these provinces is east dipping extending for 100 km east of the Champlain thrust. In the Appalachian Province the increase in VP/VS ratios with depth from 1.67 to 1.74 ?? 0.02 may reflect a normal decrease of silica content in the continental crust. In the Grenville Province beneath the Central Granulite Terrane, an anomalous VP/VS ratio of 1.82 ?? 0.02 is observed extending to a depth of 10 km; this correlates with the abundance of Ca-plagioclase in the Marcy Anorthosite. At greater depth (15-20 km), where seismic lamination and high electrical conductivity is observed, VP/VS is 1-84 ?? 0.02 and correlates with the Tahawus Complex, a layered mafic intrusion. Within the 25-km-thick lower crust of the Grenville Province the VP/VS is 1-84 ?? 0.02 and P-velocity is 7.0 ?? 0.1 km/s, which are typical for plagioclase-bearing rocks (gabbro-norite). The high VP/VS ratio in the Grenville Province has not been reported in crust of any other age. Since the Grenville Province contains 75% of the world's known anorthosites, high VP/VS ratio is related to high plagioclase. We suggest that the composition of the Grenville lower crust was significantly modified by the emplacement of the anorthosites in the mid-Proterozoic. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Marble-hosted ruby deposits of the Morogoro Region, Tanzania (United States)

    Balmer, Walter A.; Hauzenberger, Christoph A.; Fritz, Harald; Sutthirat, Chakkaphan


    The ruby deposits of the Uluguru and Mahenge Mts, Morogoro Region, are related to marbles which represent the cover sequence of the Eastern Granulites in Tanzania. In both localities the cover sequences define a tectonic unit which is present as a nappe structure thrusted onto the gneissic basement in a north-western direction. Based on structural geological observations the ruby deposits are bound to mica-rich boudins in fold hinges where fluids interacted with the marble-host rock in zones of higher permeability. Petrographic observations revealed that the Uluguru Mts deposits occur within calcite-dominated marbles whereas deposits in the Mahenge Mts are found in dolomite-dominated marbles. The mineral assemblage describing the marble-hosted ruby deposit in the Uluguru Mts is characterised by corundum-dolomite-phlogopite ± spinel, calcite, pargasite, scapolite, plagioclase, margarite, chlorite, tourmaline whereas the assemblage corundum-calcite-plagioclase-phlogopite ± dolomite, pargasite, sapphirine, titanite, tourmaline is present in samples from the Mahenge Mts. Although slightly different in mineral assemblage it was possible to draw a similar ruby formation history for both localities. Two ruby forming events were distinguished by textural differences, which could also be modeled by thermodynamic T-XCO2 calculations using non-ideal mixing models of essential minerals. A first formation of ruby appears to have taken place during the prograde path (M1) either by the breakdown of diaspore which was present in the original sedimentary precursor rock or by the breakdown of margarite to corundum and plagioclase. The conditions for M1 metamorphism was estimated at ∼750 °C at 10 kbar, which represents granulite facies conditions. A change in fluid composition towards a CO2 dominated fluid triggered a second ruby generation to form. Subsequently, the examined units underwent a late greenschist facies overprint. In the framework of the East African Orogen we

  11. Lifetime of an ocean island volcano feeder zone: constraints from U-Pb dating on coexisting zircon and baddeleyite, and 40/39Ar age determinations, Fuerteventura, Canary Islands (United States)

    Allibon, James; Ovtcharova, Maria; Bussy, Francois; Cosca, Michael; Schaltegger, Urs; Bussien, Denise; Lewin, Eric


    High-precision isotope dilution - thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) U-Pb zircon and baddeleyite ages from the PX1 vertically layered mafic intrusion Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, indicate initiation of magma crystallization at 22.10 ± 0.07 Ma. The magmatic activity lasted a minimum of 0.52 Ma. 40Ar/39Ar amphibole dating yielded ages from 21.9 ± 0.6 to 21.8 ± 0.3, identical within errors to the U-Pb ages, despite the expected 1% theoretical bias between 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb dates. This overlap could result from (i) rapid cooling of the intrusion (i.e., less than the 0.3 to 0.6 Ma 40Ar/39Ar age uncertainties) from closure temperatures (Tc) of zircon (699-988 °C) to amphibole (500-600 °C); (ii) lead loss affecting the youngest zircons; or (iii) excess argon shifting the plateau ages towards older values. The combination of the 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb datasets implies that the maximum amount of time PX1 intrusion took to cool below amphibole Tc is 0.8 Ma, suggesting PX1 lifetime of 520,000 to 800,000 Ma. Age disparities among coexisting baddeleyite and zircon (22.10 ± 0.07/0.08/0.15 Ma and 21.58 ± 0.15/0.16/0.31 Ma) in a gabbro sample from the pluton margin suggest complex genetic relationships between phases. Baddeleyite is found preserved in plagioclase cores and crystallized early from low silica activity magma. Zircon crystallized later in a higher silica activity environment and is found in secondary scapolite and is found close to calcite veins, in secondary scapolite that recrystallised from plagioclase. close to calcite veins. Oxygen isotope δ18O values of altered plagioclase are high (+7.7), indicating interaction with fluids derived from host-rock carbonatites. The coexistence of baddeleyite and zircon is ascribed to interaction of the PX1 gabbro with CO2-rich carbonatite-derived fluids released during contact metamorphism.

  12. Mineral dissolution in the Cape Cod aquifer, Massachusetts, USA: I . Reaction stoichiometry and impact of accessory feldspar and glauconite on strontium isotopes, solute concentrations, and REY distribution (United States)

    Bau, Michael; Alexander, Brian; Chesley, John T.; Dulski, Peter; Brantley, Susan L.


    To compare relative reaction rates of mineral dissolution in a mineralogically simple groundwater aquifer, we studied the controls on solute concentrations, Sr isotopes, and rare earth element and yttrium (REY) systematics in the Cape Cod aquifer. This aquifer comprises mostly carbonate-free Pleistocene sediments that are about 90% quartz with minor K-feldspar, plagioclase, glauconite, and Fe-oxides. Silica concentrations and pH in the groundwater increase systematically with increasing depth, while Sr isotopic ratios decrease. No clear relationship between 87Sr/ 86Sr and Sr concentration is observed. At all depths, the 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio of the groundwater is considerably lower than the Sr isotopic ratio of the bulk sediment or its K-feldspar component, but similar to that of a plagioclase-rich accessory separate obtained from the sediment. The Si- 87Sr/ 86Sr-depth relationships are consistent with dissolution of accessory plagioclase. In addition, solutes such as Sr, Ca, and particularly K show concentration spikes superimposed on their respective general trends. The K-Sr- 87Sr/ 86Sr systematics suggests that accessory glauconite is another major solute source to Cape Cod groundwater. Although the authigenic glauconite in the Cape Cod sediment is rich in Rb, it is low in in-grown radiogenic 87Sr because of its young Pleistocene age. The low 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios are consistent with equilibration of glauconite with seawater. The impact of glauconite is inferred to vary due to its variable abundance in the sediments. In the Cape Cod groundwater, the variation of REY concentrations with sampling depth resembles that of K and Rb, but differs from that of Ca and Sr. Shale-normalized REY patterns are light REY depleted, show negative Ce anomalies and super-chondritic Y/Ho ratios, but no Eu anomalies. REY input from feldspar, therefore, is insignificant compared to input from a K-Rb-bearing phase, inferred to be glauconite. These results emphasize that interpretation of

  13. Genetic Mechanism of Mineral Inclusions in Zircons from the Khondalite Series, Southeastern Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The early Precambrian khondalite series is widely distributed in the Jining-Zhuozi-Fengzhen- Liangcheng area, southeastern Inner Mongolia. The khondalite series mainly consists of sillimanite garnet potash feldspar (or two-feldspar) gneiss and garnet biotite plagioclase gneiss. These gneissic rocks have commonly experienced granulite-facies metamorphism. In zircons separated from sillimanite garnet potash feldspar gneisses, many mineral inclusions, including Sil, Grt, Ky, Kfs, Qtz and Ap, have been identified by the Laser Raman spectroscopy. Generally, prograde metamorphic mineral inclusion assemblages such as Ky + Kfs + Qtz + Ap and Ky + Grt + Kfs + Qtz are preserved in the core of zircon, while peak granulite-facies metamorphic minerals including Sil + Grt + Kfs + Qtz and Sil + Grt + Kfs + Qtz + Ap are identified in the mantle and rim of the same zircon. However, in some zircons are only preserved the peak metamorphic minerals such as Sil + Grt + Kfs + Qtz and Sil + Grt + Kfs + Qtz + Ap from core to rim, and in others are inherited the primary cores with minor mineral inclusions of Kfs + Qtz, with peak metamorphic mineral inclusions around the inherited cores. These data indicate that the mineral assemblage evolution of sillimanite garnet potash feldspar gneisses in the study are did experience a polymorphic transformation of kyanite to sillimanite. In garnet biotite plagioclase gneisses, secondary electron microscopic images reveal that most zircons display distinct zoning textures, which comprise cores and rims, each with distinctive inclusion assemblages. The inherited mineral inclusions, mainly consisting of Kfs + Pl + Qtz, Kfs + Qtz and Kfs + Qtz + Ap, are preserved in the primary cores, while peak granulite-facies mineral asemblages, including Grt + Bt + Pl + Qtz + Ap, Grt + Bt + Pl + Qtz and Grt + Bt + Pl + Qtz + Rt, are identified on the rims. The occurrence of peak metamorphic mineral inclusions in zircons indicates that these gneissic rocks, including

  14. Contrasting records from mantle to surface of Holocene lavas of two nearby arc volcanic complexes: Caburgua-Huelemolle Small Eruptive Centers and Villarrica Volcano, Southern Chile (United States)

    Morgado, E.; Parada, M. A.; Contreras, C.; Castruccio, A.; Gutiérrez, F.; McGee, L. E.


    Most of the small eruptive centers of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone are built over the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ), a NS strike-slip (> 1000 km length) major structure, and close to large stratovolcanoes. This contribution compares textural features, compositional parameters, and pre- and syn-eruptive P,T conditions, between basaltic lavas of the Caburgua-Huelemolle Small Eruptive Centers (CHSEC) and the 1971 basaltic andesite lava of the Villarrica Volcano located 10 km south of the CHSEC. Olivines and clinopyroxenes occur as phenocrysts and forming crystal clots of the studied lavas. They do not markedly show compositional differences, except for the more scattered composition of the CHSEC clinopyroxenes. Plagioclase in CHSEC lavas mainly occur as phenocrysts or as microlites in a glass-free matrix. Two groups of plagioclase phenocrysts were identified in the 1971 Villarrica lava based on crystal size, disequilibrium features and zonation patterns. Most of the CHSEC samples exhibit higher LaN/YbN and more scattered Sr-Nd values than 1971 Villarrica lava samples, which are clustered at higher 143Nd/144Nd values. Pre-eruptive temperatures of the CHSEC-type reservoir between 1162 and 1165 ± 6 °C and pressures between 10.8 and 11.4 ± 1.7 kb consistent with a deep-seated reservoir were obtained from olivine-augite phenocrysts. Conversely, olivine-augite phenocrysts of 1971 Villarrica lava samples record pre-eruptive conditions of two stages or pauses in the magma ascent to the surface: 1208 ± 6 °C and 6.3-8.1 kb ± 1.7 kb (deep-seated reservoir) and 1164-1175 ± 6 °C and ≤ 1.4 kb (shallow reservoir). At shallow reservoir conditions a magma heating prior to the 1971 Villarrica eruption is recorded in plagioclase phenocrysts. Syn-eruptive temperatures of 1081-1133 ± 6 °C and 1123-1148 ± 6 °C were obtained in CHSEC and 1971 Villarrica lava, respectively using equilibrium olivine-augite microlite pairs. The LOFZ could facilitate a direct transport to

  15. Melt-rock interaction near the Moho: Evidence from crystal cargo in lavas from near-ridge seamounts (United States)

    Coumans, Jason P.; Stix, John; Clague, David A.; Minarik, William G.; Layne, Graham D.


    The Taney Seamounts are a NW-SE trending linear, near mid-ocean ridge chain consisting of five volcanoes located on the Pacific plate 300 km west of San Francisco, California. Taney Seamount-A, the largest and oldest in the chain, is defined by four well-exposed calderas, which expose previously infilled lavas. The calderas can be differentiated in time by their cross-cutting relationships, creating a relative chronology. The caldera walls and intracaldera pillow mounds were sampled systematically by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to obtain stratigraphically-controlled samples, a unique aspect of this study. The geochemistry of the seamount varies from more differentiated to more primitive with time (6.2-8.6 wt.% MgO), suggesting that the sub-caldera reservoir is open and undergoes periodic collapse, replenishment, crystallization, and eruption. The youngest and least differentiated lavas entrained a crystal cargo of plagioclase (An80-90) with melt inclusion volatile saturation pressures indicating entrapment in the lower oceanic crust and upper mantle (6-12 km, with 45% between 8 and 10 km below the sea floor). Melt inclusions exhibit high Al2O3, low SiO2, positive Sr and Eu anomalies and negative Zr and Nb anomalies when normalized to typical Pacific mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB). In comparison, the host lavas exhibit positive Sr anomalies, but no concurrent Zr, and Nb anomalies. Based on thermodynamic modeling using alphaMELTS, we develop a melt-rock interaction model defined by melting and assimilation of plagioclase-rich cumulates by hot, primitive mantle-derived melts. Significantly, the variability of the negative Zr and Nb anomalies cannot be explained by either cumulate melting or AFC alone. We propose that the melt inclusions record the interaction between cumulate partial melts and the assimilating melt, demonstrating the importance of cumulate melting during the assimilation process. Later percolating melts underwent diffusive interaction with, and

  16. Geochemistry of the Spor Mountain rhyolite, western Utah, as revealed by laser ablation ICP-MS, cathodoluminescence, and electron microprobe analysis (United States)

    Dailey, S. R.; Christiansen, E. H.; Dorais, M.; Fernandez, D. P.


    The Miocene topaz rhyolite at Spor Mountain in western Utah hosts one of the largest beryllium deposits in the world and was responsible for producing 85% of the beryllium mined worldwide in 2010 (Boland, 2012). The Spor Mountain rhyolite is composed primarily of Ca-poor plagioclase (An8), sodic sanidine (Or40), Fe-rich biotite (Fe/(Fe+Mg)>0.95; Al 1.2-1.4 apfu), and Ti-poor quartz, along with several trace-element rich accessory phases including zircon, monazite, thorite, columbite, and allanite. Cathodoluminescence (CL) studies of quartz show oscillatory zoning, with 80% of the examined crystals displaying euhedral edges and slightly darker rims. CL images were used to guide laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS analysis of quartz, along with analyses of plagioclase, sanidine, biotite, and glass. Ti concentrations in quartz are 20±6 ppm; there is no quantifiable variation of Ti from core to rim within the diameter of the laser spot (53 microns). Temperatures, calculated using Ti in quartz (at 2 kb, aTiO2=0.34), vary between 529±10 C (Thomas et al., 2011), 669±13 C (Huang and Audetat, 2012), and 691±13 C (Wark and Watson, 2006). Two feldspar thermometry yield temperatures of 686±33 C (Elkins and Grove, 1990) and 670±41 C (Benisek et al., 2010). Zr saturation temperatures (Watson and Harrison, 1983) average 711±28 C. Analysis of the glass reveal the Spor Mountain rhyolite is greatly enriched in rare elements (i.e. Li, Be, F, Ga, Rb, Nb, Mo, Sn, and Ta) compared to average continental crust (Rudnick and Gao, 2003). Be in the glass can have as much as 100 ppm, nearly 50 times the concentration in continental crust. REE partition coefficients for sanidine are 2 to 3 times higher in the Spor Mountain rhyolite when compared to other silicic magmas (Nash and Crecraft, 1985; Mahood and Hildreth, 1983), although plagioclase tends to have lower partition coefficients; biotite has lower partition coefficients for LREE and higher partition coefficients for HREE. The patterns of

  17. Metamorphic constraints on the Caledonian Upper Allochthon of Central Norway - the Gula Complex staurolite-garnet-kyanite mica schist (United States)

    Engvik, A. K.; Grenne, T.; Lutro, O.; Meyer, G. B.


    Petrological studies of staurolite-garnet-kyanite-biotite schist and garnet-muscovite schist of the Gula Complex provide constraints on the metamorphic evolution of the Caledonian Upper Allochthon in the eastern Trondheim Region, Central Norway. The biotite schist contains conspicuous porphyroblasts of Fe-rich staurolite (Mg#=0.21-0.24), garnet (Alm64-71Prp13-19Grs3-11Sps7-20) and kyanite, set in a fine-grained, well foliated matrix of biotite (Mg#=0.57- 0.62), quartz, minor plagioclase (An19-31) and locally muscovite. The muscovite schist is fine to medium grained with a muscovite-quartz dominated matrix, including garnet (Alm54-70Prp10-14Grs12-25Sps1-11), biotite (Mg#=0.56-0.57), minor plagioclase (An31-45) and clinozoisite. P-T modeling based on thermobarometric calculations and construction of P-T pseudosections illustrates that significant mineralogical heterogeneity in the high grade mica schists arise from only modest geochemical heterogeneities in the original pelitic rocks. Based on garnet ±staurolite ±kyanite ±muscovite +biotite +plagioclase +quartz-assemblages, peak metamorphism reached 680 °C with pressures estimated to 1.01 ±0.11 GPa for the garnet-muscovite schist, and 0.86 ±0.12 GPa for the staurolite-garnet-kyanite-biotite schist. A clockwise P-T path is constrained by secondary mineral reactions; the replacement of kyanite to fibrous sillimanite indicates decompression below 0.65 GPa at elevated temperatures. Growth of foliation-parallel chlorite reflects cooling below 640 °C. Chlorite formation proceeded during cooling and decompression towards 550 °C and 0.4 GPa. Peak metamorphic conditions are associated with a strong N-S trending regional foliation, and the initial uplift continued within the same strain regime. The documented high grade metamorphism and subsequent decompression and retrogression of the Gula Complex metapelites prevailed during the mid-Silurian continent-continent collision and Caledonian burial and exhumation of the

  18. Evolution of fluid-rock interaction in the Reykjanes geothermal system, Iceland: Evidence from Iceland Deep Drilling Project core RN-17B (United States)

    Fowler, Andrew P. G.; Zierenberg, Robert A.; Schiffman, Peter; Marks, Naomi; Friðleifsson, Guðmundur Ómar


    We describe the lithology and present spatially resolved geochemical analyses of samples from the hydrothermally altered Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) drill core RN-17B. The 9.3 m long RN-17B core was collected from the seawater-dominated Reykjanes geothermal system, located on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. The nature of fluids and the location of the Reykjanes geothermal system make it a useful analog for seafloor hydrothermal processes, although there are important differences. The recovery of drill core from the Reykjanes geothermal system, as opposed to drill cuttings, has provided the opportunity to investigate evolving geothermal conditions by utilizing in-situ geochemical techniques in the context of observed paragenetic and spatial relationships of alteration minerals. The RN-17B core was returned from a vertical depth of ~ 2560 m and an in-situ temperature of ~ 345 °C. The primary lithologies are basaltic in composition and include hyaloclastite breccia, fine-grained volcanic sandstone, lithic breccia, and crystalline basalt. Primary igneous phases have been entirely pseudomorphed by calcic plagioclase + magnesium hornblende + chlorite + titanite + albitized plagioclase + vein epidote and sulfides. Despite the extensive hydrothermal metasomatism, original textures including hyaloclastite glass shards, lithic clasts, chilled margins, and shell-fragment molds are superbly preserved. Multi-collector LA-ICP-MS strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) measurements of vein epidote from the core are consistent with seawater as the dominant recharge fluid. Epidote-hosted fluid inclusion homogenization temperature and freezing point depression measurements suggest that the RN-17B core records cooling through the two-phase boundary for seawater over time to current in-situ measured temperatures. Electron microprobe analyses of hydrothermal hornblende and hydrothermal plagioclase confirm that while alteration is of amphibolite-grade, it is in disequilibrium

  19. Disequilibrium dihedral angles in layered intrusions: the microstructural record of fractionation (United States)

    Holness, Marian; Namur, Olivier; Cawthorn, Grant


    The dihedral angle formed at junctions between two plagioclase grains and a grain of augite is only rarely in textural equilibrium in gabbros from km-scale crustal layered intrusions. The median of a population of these disequilibrium angles, Θcpp, varies systematically within individual layered intrusions, remaining constant over large stretches of stratigraphy with significant increases or decreases associated with the addition or reduction respectively of the number of phases on the liquidus of the bulk magma. The step-wise changes in Θcpp are present in Upper Zone of the Bushveld Complex, the Megacyclic Unit I of the Sept Iles Intrusion, and the Layered Series of the Skaergaard Intrusion. The plagioclase-bearing cumulates of Rum have a bimodal distribution of Θcpp, dependent on whether the cumulus assemblage includes clinopyroxene. The presence of the step-wise changes is independent of the order of arrival of cumulus phases and of the composition of either the cumulus phases or the interstitial liquid inferred to be present in the crystal mush. Step-wise changes in the rate of change in enthalpy with temperature (ΔH) of the cooling and crystallizing magma correspond to the observed variation of Θcpp, with increases of both ΔH and Θcpp associated with the addition of another liquidus phase, and decreases of both associated with the removal of a liquidus phase. The replacement of one phase by another (e.g. olivine ⇔ orthpyroxene) has little effect on ΔH and no discernible effect on Θcpp. An increase of ΔH is manifest by an increase in the fraction of the total enthalpy budget that is the latent heat of crystallization (the fractional latent heat). It also results in an increase in the amount crystallized in each incremental temperature drop (the crystal productivity). An increased fractional latent heat and crystal productivity result in an increased rate of plagioclase growth compared to that of augite during the final stages of solidification

  20. Geochemistry of the Topuk Pluton associated with the Kozbudaklar W-skarn deposit (Western Anatolia, Turkey): Implication for crystallization conditions (United States)

    Orhan, Ayşe; Demirbilek, Mehmet; Mutlu, Halim


    The Kozbudaklar scheelite-bearing skarn deposit in the Tavşanlı Zone, western Turkey, occurs at the contact between Eocene Topuk pluton and Triassic İnönü marble of calcic character. The Topuk pluton is medium-coarse grained, granodiorite in composition and has a hypidiomorphic equigranular texture. The host rock contains mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) of monzodiorite-monzogabbro composition and is interrupted by porphyritic granodiorite and granite-aplite vein rocks. The pluton is calk-alkaline, metaluminous and composed of I-type melt character. δ18O and δD compositions of silicate minerals from granodioritic host rock are 5.9-10.6‰ and -77.0 to -71.4‰ and conformable with the range of unaltered I-type granites. Trace element contents indicate that pluton is crystallized from mantle-derived magma interacted with continental crust in a volcanic arc or subduction related setting. Major and trace element concentrations of Topuk pluton are quite consistent with geochemical patterns of Cu-skarn granitoids. Results of mineral chemistry analysis of the pluton yield that plagioclases are of oligoclase-andesine, amphiboles are of magnesio-hornblende and biotites are of ferro-magnesian composition. Amphiboles and biotites of granodioritic host rock are represented by calc-alkaline, I-type melt composition evolved in a subduction environment. Based on the results of plagioclase-Al in hornblende and amphibole chemistry data from the pluton, two different stages are proposed for the magma crystallization. The first stage was developed in a relatively deeper environment (>15 km) under high pressure (>4 kbar) and low log ƒO2 (>-17.6) conditions which reflect fractional crystallization and magma-mixing depth of basaltic magma and these conditions are not correlated with scheelite mineralization. The second crystallization stage of magma which proceeded at shallow depths (-12.9 to -11.0) values are accompanied by high H2O contents (5.39-6.88 wt.%). High water

  1. Open-system behaviour of magmatic fluid phase and transport of copper in arc magmas at Krakatau and Batur volcanoes, Indonesia (United States)

    Agangi, Andrea; Reddy, Steven M.


    The Sunda arc of Indonesia is an excellent example of how volcanic processes at convergent plate margins affect the distribution of metals and control the distribution of ore deposits. In this paper, we report microtextural observations and microanalytical data (SEM-EDS and LA-ICP-MS) of silicate and sulfide melt inclusions from fresh samples of volcanic rocks from the 2008 eruption of Mt. Krakatau and 1963 eruption of Mt. Batur, Sunda arc, Indonesia that bear implications on the concentration and transport of Cu and other chalcophile elements in mafic-intermediate magmas in arc settings. These multi-phase inclusions contain glass, amphibole and plagioclase, together with co-trapped apatite, magnetite, sulfides and lobed, drop-like Fe-oxide. We observed two stages of sulfide formation: 1) early-formed sulfide globules (pyrrhotite and intermediate solid solution), which derived from an immiscible sulfide melt and only occur as inclusions in phenocrysts; and 2) late-formed, irregular Cu-rich sulfides (intermediate solid solution to bornite), which were deposited in the presence of an aqueous fluid, and are contained as fluid phase precipitates in vapour bubbles of melt inclusions and in vesicles, as well as finely dispersed grains in the groundmass. Microtextural observations and X-ray elemental maps show that interaction between sulfide globules and aqueous fluid resulted in partial oxidation and transfer of Cu between the fluid and the sulfide phase. A compilation of whole-rock analyses from the Sunda arc indicates that Cu reaches 250-300 ppm in mafic samples (SiO2 ≤ 52 wt.%), and then suddenly drops with progressive fractionation to MS analyses of whole multi-phase melt inclusions hosted in olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase indicate variable Cu and S contents (Cu up to 6000 ppm), which do not correlate with fractionation indicators (e.g. SiO2, MgO, Rb), consistent with co-trapping of Cusbnd S phases with silicate melt. The highest Cu concentrations, Cu/S and

  2. Main Characteristics and Prospecting Perspective of Aketasi Gold Field Prospecting Target Area in Fuyun County, Xinjiang%新疆富蕴县阿克塔斯金矿找矿靶区主要特征及找矿远景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘东; 丁汝福; 张华; 游军


    Akatasi gold field prospecting target is located in Cu-Ni-Mo-Cu-Fe metallogenic belt of Irtysh. Plagio-clase granite, monzonite are the main magmatic rocks in the area. However, the Nanmingshui formation of lower Carboniferous is the main ore-bearing stratum. Cu-Au mineralization of the target area is distributed along the contact zone of plagioclase granite porphyry and phyllite. Geophysical prospecting shows that there is definite anomalies of IP and magnetic prospecting, and the geophysical prospecting anomalies and chemical prospecting anomalies are superimposed together. There is visible Au-Cu mineralization in the trenching and drilling. Plagioclase granite dike is considered to be the source rocks of Au-Cu mineralization in the prospecting target area based on the comprehensive analysis of anomalies of geophysical prospecting and chemical prospecting, and mineralization characteristics. Therefore, the genetic type belongs to mesothermal lode and the area is worth the further geological prospecting.%阿克塔斯找矿靶区位于重要的额尔齐斯Cu-Ni-Mo-Au-Fe成矿带中.区域内主要分布有斜长花岗岩、二长岩,石炭统南明水组为区域上主要的赋矿地层.靶区内的铜金矿化主要分布在斜长花岗斑岩与千枚岩的接触带中.工作成果显示该找矿靶区存在明显的物探激电和磁法异常,物探异常区与化探异常位置套合较好,地表槽探与钻孔中见有明显金铜矿化.综合分析物探化探异常及矿化特征,认为该靶区斜长花岗岩脉是本区金铜矿化的成矿母岩,属于岩浆热液型金矿床,找矿远景较好.

  3. Neoarchean arc magmatism followed by high-temperature, high-pressure metamorphism in the Nilgiri Block, southern India (United States)

    Samuel, Vinod O.; Sajeev, K.; Hokada, T.; Horie, K.; Itaya, T.


    The Nilgiri Block, southern India is an exhumed lower crust formed through arc magmatic processes in the Neoarchean. The main lithologies in this terrane include charnockites, gneisses, volcanic tuff, metasediments, banded iron formation and mafic-ultramafic bodies. Mafic-ultramafic rocks are present towards the northern and central part of the Nilgiri Block. We examine the evolution of these mafic granulites/metagabbros by phase diagram modeling and U-Pb sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) dating. They consist of a garnet-clinopyroxene-plagioclase-hornblende-ilmenite ± orthopyroxene ± rutile assemblage. Garnet and clinopyroxene form major constituents with labradorite and orthopyroxene as the main mineral inclusions. Labradorite, identified using Raman analysis, shows typical peaks at 508 cm- 1, 479 cm- 1, 287 cm- 1 and 177 cm- 1. It is stable along with orthopyroxene towards the low-pressure high-temperature region of the granulite facies (M1 stage). Subsequently, orthopyroxene reacted with plagioclase to form the peak garnet + clinopyroxene + rutile assemblage (M2 stage). The final stage is represented by amphibolite facies-hornblende and plagioclase-rim around the garnet-clinopyroxene assemblage (M3 stage). Phase diagram modeling shows that these mafic granulites followed an anticlockwise P-T-t path during their evolution. The initial high-temperature metamorphism (M1 stage) was at 850-900 °C and ~ 9 kbar followed by high-pressure granulite facies metamorphism (M2 stage) at 850-900 °C and 14-15 kbar. U-Pb isotope studies of zircons using SHRIMP revealed late Neoarchean to early paleoproterozoic ages of crystallization and metamorphism respectively. The age data shows that these mafic granulites have undergone arc magmatism at ca. 2539.2 ± 3 Ma and high-temperature, high-pressure metamorphism at ca. 2458.9 ± 8.6 Ma. Thus our results suggests a late Neoarchean arc magmatism followed by early paleoproterozoic high-temperature, high

  4. Convective Regimes in Crystallizing Basaltic Magma Chambers (United States)

    Gilbert, A. J.; Neufeld, J. A.; Holness, M. B.


    Cooling through the chamber walls drives crystallisation in crustal magma chambers, resulting in a cumulate pile on the floor and mushy regions at the walls and roof. The liquid in many magma chambers, either the bulk magma or the interstitial liquid in the mushy regions, may convect, driven either thermally, due to cooling, or compositionally, due to fractional crystallization. We have constructed a regime diagram of the possible convective modes in a system containing a basal mushy layer. These modes depend on the large-scale buoyancy forcing characterised by a global Rayleigh number and the proportion of the chamber height constituting the basal mushy region. We have tested this regime diagram using an analogue experimental system composed of a fluid layer overlying a pile of almost neutrally buoyant inert particles. Convection in this system is driven thermally, simulating magma convection above and within a porous cumulate pile. We observe a range of possible convective regimes, enabling us to produce a regime diagram. In addition to modes characterised by convection of the bulk and interstitial fluid, we also observe a series of regimes where the crystal pile is mobilised by fluid motions. These regimes feature saltation and scouring of the crystal pile by convection in the bulk fluid at moderate Rayleigh numbers, and large crystal-rich fountains at high Rayleigh numbers. For even larger Rayleigh numbers the entire crystal pile is mobilised in what we call the snowglobe regime. The observed mobilisation regimes may be applicable to basaltic magma chambers. Plagioclase in basal cumulates crystallised from a dense magma may be a result of crystal mobilisation from a plagioclase-rich roof mush. Compositional convection within such a mush could result in disaggregation, enabling the buoyant plagioclase to be entrained in relatively dense descending liquid plumes and brought to the floor. The phenocryst load in porphyritic lavas is often interpreted as a

  5. Zircon U-Pb age, Lu-Hf isotope, mineral chemistry and geochemistry of Sundamalai peralkaline pluton from the Salem Block, southern India: Implications for Cryogenian adakite-like magmatism in an aborted-rift (United States)

    Renjith, M. L.; Santosh, M.; Li, Tang; Satyanarayanan, M.; Korakoppa, M. M.; Tsunogae, T.; Subba Rao, D. V.; Kesav Krishna, A.; Nirmal Charan, S.


    The Sundamalai peralkaline pluton is one among the Cryogenian alkaline plutons occurring in the Dharmapuri Rift Zone (DRZ) of the Salem Block in the Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) of India. Here we present zircon U-Pb age and Lu-Hf isotopic composition, mineral chemistry and geochemistry of the pluton to explore the petrogenesis and geodynamic implications. Systematic modal variation of orthoclase, Na-plagioclase, Ca-amphibole (ferro-edenite and hastingsite) and quartz developed quartz-monzonite and granite litho units in the Sundamalai pluton. Thermometry based on amphibole-plagioclase pair suggests that the pluton was emplaced and solidified at around 4.6 kbar pressure with crystallization of the major phases between 748 and 661 °C. Estimated saturation temperature of zircon (712-698 °C) is also well within this range. However, apatite saturation occurred at higher temperatures between 835 and 870 °C, in contrast with monazite saturation (718-613 °C) that continued up to the late stage of crystallization. Estimated oxygen fugacity values (log fO2: -14 to -17) indicate high oxidation state for the magma that stabilized titanite and magnetite. The magmatic zircons from Sundamalai pluton yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 832.6 ± 3.2 Ma. Geochemically, the Sundamalai rocks are high-K to shoshonitic, persodic (Na2O/K2O ratio > 1), silica-saturated (SiO2:65-72 wt.%), and peralkaline in composition (aluminum saturation index, ASI effect) controlled differentiation between quartz-monzonite and granite. Both rock types have high content of Na2O (5.1-6.3 wt.%), Ba (350-2589 ppm) and Sr (264-1036 ppm); low content of Y (8.7-17 ppm) and Yb (0.96-1.69 ppm); elevated ratios of La/Yb (11-46) and Sr/Y (46-69) and are depleted in Ti, with a positive Sr anomaly suggesting an adakite-like composition and garnet controlled melting of a plagioclase-poor source. The low content of MgO (aborted rifting along the DRZ generating the magma that crystallized the Sundamalai

  6. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Neoproterozoic Mylliem granitoids, Meghalaya Plateau, northeastern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jyotisankar Ray; Abhishek Saha; Sohini Ganguly; V Balaram; A Keshav Krishna; Sampa Hazra


    The Mylliem granitoids of the Meghalaya Plateau, northeastern India, represent one of the disharmonic Neoproterozoic igneous plutons, which are intrusive into low-grade Shillong Group of metasediments. Field studies indicate that the Mylliem granitoids cover an area of about 40 km2 and is characterized by development of variable attitude of primary foliations mostly marked along the margin of the pluton. Xenoliths of both Shillong Group of metasediments and mafic rocks have been found to occur within Mylliem granitoids. Structural study of the primary foliation is suggestive of funnel-shaped intrusion of Mylliem granitoids with no appreciable evidence of shearing. Petrographically, Mylliem granitoids are characterized by pink to white phenocrysts of prismatic microcline/perthite and lath-shaped plagioclase (An20–An29). Groundmass material is characterized by quartz, microcline, plagioclase, muscovite and biotite. Sphene and apatite occur as accessory minerals. Petrographically Mylliem granitoids have been discriminated as granite and granodiorite according to IUGS system of classification. Critical evaluation of geochemical data and variation trends of major oxides/trace elements suggests a significant role of fractional crystallization in the evolution of Mylliem pluton. Th/U ratios (3.22–6.77) indicate a relatively higher abundance of Th over U. Chondrite-normalized REE diagram characteristically shows an enriched LREE pattern and prominent negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.16–0.42) indicating the significant role of plagioclase fractionation from the parent magma. An overall strong REE fractionation pattern has been envisaged for Mylliem granitoids. The strong REE fractionation of the Mylliem granitoids is depicted by (Ce/Yb) values, which show a range of 1.39 to 1.65. The aluminium saturation index (ASI) (ranging from 1.0 to 1.3), A/CNK ratios (ranging from 1.4 to 2.11) and A/NK ratios (ranging from 1.75 to 2.43) provide evidences for the peraluminous, S

  7. Evolution of magma feeding system in Kumanodake agglutinate activity, Zao Volcano, northeastern Japan (United States)

    Takebe, Yoshinori; Ban, Masao


    The Kumanodake agglutinate of Zao Volcano in northeastern Japan consists of pyroclastic surge layers accumulated during the early part of the newest stage of activity (ca. 33 ka to present). Our petrologic study of this agglutinate based on systematically collected samples aims to reveal the evolution of magma feeding system. To understand the magma evolution, we have examined samples from the agglutinate by using petrologic data including, petrography, analysis of minerals (plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine), glass compositions, and whole rock major element and trace element (Ba, Sr, Cr, Ni, V, Rb, Zr, Nb, and Y) compositions. Agglutinate are mixed, medium-K, calc-alkaline olv-cpx-opx basaltic andesite (55.2-56.2% SiO2). Results show that the magma feeding system comprised a shallow felsic chamber injected by mafic magma from depth. The felsic magma (59-62% SiO2, 950-990 °C), which was stored at a shallower depth, had orthopyroxene (Mg# = 60-69), clinopyroxene (Mg# = 65-71), and low-An plagioclase (Anca. 58-70). The mafic magma is further divisible into two types: less-differentiated and more-differentiated, designed respectively as an initial mafic magma-1 and a second mafic magma-2. The original mafic magma-1 was olivine (Fo 84) basalt (ca. 48-51% SiO2, 1110-1140 °C). The second mafic magma-2, stored occasionally at 4-6 km depth, was basalt (1070-1110 °C) having Foca. 80 olivine and high-An (Anca. 90) plagioclase phenocrysts. These two magmas mixed (first mixing) to form hybrid mafic magma. The forced injections of the hybrid mafic magmas activated the felsic magma, and these two were mixed (second mixing) shortly before eruptions. The explosivity is inferred to have increased over time because the abundance of large scoria increased. Furthermore, the erupted magma composition became more mafic, which reflects increased percentage of the hybrid mafic magma involved in the second mixing. At the beginning of activity, the mafic magma also acted as a heat

  8. Constraints on the Rates of Replenishment, Magma Mixing, and Crystal Recycling at Santorini Volcano, Greece (United States)

    Martin, V. M.; Davidson, J. P.; Morgan, D. J.; Jerram, D. A.


    Santorini is a young, active volcano, which preserves abundant evidence for open-system processes such as magma replenishment and crystal recycling, and thus represents an ideal system in which to study magma chamber dynamics. Santorini is the largest volcanic centre in the Aegean arc, with an eruptive history spanning more than 250,000 years over two eruptive cycles. The cycles are dominated by extended periods of effusive shield-building activity with occasional large-magnitude explosive eruptions, the Minoan eruption of ~3600 years ago being the most recent. Current activity consists of a phase of post-caldera reconstruction, focused recently on the intra-caldera Kameni islands. Microsampling to measure 87Sr/86Sr ratios of plagioclase cores indicates the presence of a complex plumbing system beneath Santorini. Large rhyodacitic deposits typically contain a mafic component, interpreted as the eruption trigger. In some cases, the mafic magma groundmass and phenocrysts are isotopically similar to their rhyodacite host; other deposits show the opposite, implying the coexistence of isotopically distinct magma batches. To add further complexity, plagioclase phenocrysts are in some cases in equilibrium with their groundmass while others show the reverse, implying modification due to crystal recycling or shallow mixing processes prior to eruption. Mafic enclaves in the recent Kameni lavas, again interpreted as the probable eruption trigger, provide some constraints on the rates of these recycling, mixing, and triggering processes. Glomerocrysts and xenocrysts of recycled gabbroic cumulate material are present in a number of Kameni enclaves. Isotopic and chemical disequilibrium between the cumulate crystals and the host indicate that these fragments are derived from pre- existing crystal mush piles pervaded by the replenishing melts as they migrated to shallow levels, creating disequilibrium between the cumulate mineral cores and the replenishing melts. 87Sr/86Sr isotope

  9. Cadomian (˜560 Ma) crust buried beneath the northern Arabian Peninsula: Mineral, chemical, geochronological, and isotopic constraints from NE Jordan xenoliths (United States)

    Stern, Robert J.; Ali, Kamal A.; Ren, Minghua; Jarrar, Ghaleb H.; Romer, Rolf L.; Leybourne, Matthew I.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Ibrahim, Khalil M.


    In order to better understand the nature and formation of the lower continental crust beneath northern Arabia, we studied lower crustal xenoliths brought up by Neogene basalts in NE Jordan. Most of these xenoliths are comprised of primary phases plagioclase + two-pyroxenes with magnetite and ilmenite. Most clinopyroxene are augite whereas orthopyroxene mostly are hypersthene (Mg# = 50-80). Plagioclase feldspar is dominantly andesine-labradorite; pyrope-rich garnet and Fe-rich olivine (Fo75 to Fo62) are rare. These xenoliths represent cumulates formed from intermediate magmas that pooled in the lower crust. Many xenoliths also contain small, fine-grained K-rich zones interpreted as melt pockets reflecting late magmatic infiltration of the lower crust. The xenoliths display a wide range in major element compositions (37-51 wt.% SiO2, 4-15 wt.% MgO and 0.1-6.3 wt.% TiO2), enrichment in Ba, K, Sr, Pb and Eu, and some trace element ratios atypical of bulk continental crust (e.g., K/Rb = 1265 ± 565, K/U = 63 000 ± 60 080 and Th/U = 0.96 ± 0.56); these extreme ratios reflect widespread K-metasomatism associated with melt pockets. The magmas from which these cumulates formed may have been generated at a reararc convergent margin setting. Four U-Pb zircon populations yield indistinguishable ages of 554 ± 4 Ma; 559 ± 5 Ma; 559 ± 6 Ma, and 563 ± 5 Ma. Initial 87Sr/86Sr values (0.70260-0.70352) and positive εNd(560) (with the exception of a single, more radiogenic sample (+9.6), range = + 1.3 to +4.8) indicate that the lower crust sampled by the xenoliths originated in the asthenospheric mantle, with little or no interaction with older crust, although Pb isotopic compositions allow for some interaction with older or subducted crustal materials. We interpret the geochemistry and mineralogy of these xenoliths to indicate that the lower crust beneath NE Jordan is mafic and comprised of plagioclase-rich 2-pyroxene igneous rocks. The lower crust of this area formed by

  10. Experimental study into the petrogenesis of crystal-rich basaltic to andesitic magmas at Arenal volcano (United States)

    Parat, F.; Streck, M. J.; Holtz, F.; Almeev, R.


    Arenal volcano is nearly unique among arc volcanoes with its 42 year long (1968-2010) continuous, small-scale activity erupting compositionally monotonous basaltic andesites that also dominate the entire, ~7000 year long, eruptive history. Only mineral zoning records reveal that basaltic andesites are the result of complex, open-system processes deriving minerals from a variety of crystallization environments and including the episodic injections of basalt. The condition of the mafic input as well as the generation of crystal-rich basaltic andesites of the recent, 1968-2010, and earlier eruptions were addressed by an experimental study at 200 MPa, 900-1,050 °C, oxidizing and fluid-saturated conditions with various fluid compositions [H2O/(H2O + CO2) = 0.3-1]. Phase equilibria were determined using a phenocryst-poor (~3 vol%) Arenal-like basalt (50.5-wt% SiO2) from a nearby scoria cone containing olivine (Fo92), plagioclase (An86), clinopyroxene (Mg# = 82) and magnetite (Xulvö = 0.13). Experimental melts generally reproduce observed compositional trends among Arenal samples. Small differences between experimental melts and natural rocks can be explained by open-system processes. At low pressure (200 MPa), the mineral assemblage as well as the mineral compositions of the natural basalt were reproduced at 1,000 °C and high water activity. The residual melt at these conditions is basaltic andesitic (55 wt% SiO2) with 5 wt% H2O. The evolution to more evolved magmas observed at Arenal occurred under fluid-saturated conditions but variable fluid compositions. At 1,000 °C and 200 MPa, a decrease of water content by approximately 1 wt% induces significant changes of the mineral assemblage from olivine + clinopyroxene + plagioclase (5 wt% H2O in the melt) to clinopyroxene + plagioclase + orthopyroxene (4 wt% H2O in the melt). Both assemblages are observed in crystal-rich basalt (15 vol%) and basaltic andesites. Experimental data indicate that the lack of orthopyroxene

  11. Investigating sulfur partitioning between nominally volatile-free minerals and silicate melts (United States)

    Marzoli, A.; Callegaro, S.; Baker, D. R.; Geraki, K.; Maneta, V.


    Despite the key role played by volatile species in magmatic systems, it is still challenging to quantify their concentrations in ancient melts. We suggested a quantitative approach for estimating S contents in basaltic melts (Callegaro et al., 2014), based on direct measurement of S on clinopyroxene and calculation of its concentration in the melt through an experimentally determined partition coefficient (KD). We further investigated the partitioning of sulfur between silicate melts and nominally volatile-free minerals (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase), as well as between melt and amphibole. Partitioning experiments were performed with basaltic, andesitic and dacitic bulk compositions, at hydrous and anhydrous conditions, and at high and low oxygen fugacities (fO2), where sulfur in the melt is dominantly present as an S6+ or S2- species, respectively (Wilke et al., 2011). Sulfur concentrations in melts were measured by electron microprobe and in crystals by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence. At low fO2 the average crystal/liquid KDs for sulfur vary from 0.0004 (at a maximum) for olivine, to 0.003 (another maximum) for orthopyroxene, to 0.03 for clinopyroxene, and to 0.07 for plagioclase. The KDs correlate positively with the cation-oxygen bond lengths in the crystals. At high fO2 the KDs drop to approximately one-third of those observed at low fO2. These observations suggest that S2- replaces oxygen in the crystal structure. Water has no measureable influence on the crystal/melt partitioning of sulfur. Clinopyroxene/melt KDs are correlated with the Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratio of the crystal, but appear insensitive to the IVAl in the structure. Plagioclase/melt S partitioning appears unaffected by anorthite content and iron concentration in the crystal. These new KDs allow the determination of sulfur concentration in the igneous melts co-existing with these crystals and provide insights into the volatile concentrations of ancient magmas and their possible

  12. The Ksar Ghilane 002 shergottite—The 100th registered Martian meteorite fragment (United States)

    Llorca, Jordi; Roszjar, Julia; Cartwright, Julia A.; Bischoff, Addi; Ott, Ulrich; Pack, Andreas; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fimiani, Leticia; Ludwig, Peter; Casado, José V.; Allepuz, David


    We report on the discovery of a new shergottite from Tunisia, Ksar Ghilane (KG) 002. This single stone, weighing 538 g, is a coarse-grained basaltic shergottite, mainly composed of maskelynitized plagioclase (approximately 52 vol%) and pyroxene (approximately 37 vol%). It also contains Fe-rich olivine (approximately 4.5 vol%), large Ca-phosphates, including both merrillites and Cl-apatites (approximately 3.4 vol%), minor amounts of silica or SiO2-normative K-rich glass, pyrrhotite, Ti-magnetite, ilmenite, and accessory baddeleyite. The largest crystals of pyroxene and plagioclase reach sizes of approximately 4 to 5 mm. Pyroxenes (Fs26-96En5-50Wo2-41). They typically range from cores of about Fs29En41Wo30 to rims of about Fs68En14Wo17. Maskelynite is Ab41-49An39-58Or1-7 in composition, but some can be as anorthitic as An93. Olivine (Fa91-96) occurs mainly within symplectitic intergrowths, in paragenesis with ilmenite, or at neighboring areas of symplectites. KG 002 is heavily shocked (S5) as indicated by mosaic extinction of pyroxenes, maskelynitized plagioclase, the occurrence of localized shock melt glass pockets, and low radiogenic He concentration. Oxygen isotopes confirm that it is a normal member of the SNC suite. KG 002 is slightly depleted in LREE and shows a positive Eu anomaly, providing evidence for complex magma genesis and mantle processes on Mars. Noble gases with a composition thought to be characteristic for Martian interior is a dominant component. Measurements of 10Be, 26Al, and 53Mn and comparison with Monte Carlo calculations of production rates indicate that KG 002 has been exposed to cosmic rays most likely as a single meteoroid body of 35-65 cm radius. KG 002 strongly resembles Los Angeles and NWA 2800 basaltic shergottites in element composition, petrography, and mineral chemistry, suggesting a possible launch-pairing. The similar CRE ages of KG 002 and Los Angeles may suggest an ejection event at approximately 3.0 Ma.

  13. Chemical evolution and origin of the Luumäki gem beryl pegmatite: Constraints from mineral trace element chemistry and fractionation modeling (United States)

    Michallik, Radoslaw M.; Wagner, Thomas; Fusswinkel, Tobias; Heinonen, Jussi S.; Heikkilä, Pasi


    The 1928 Ma old Luumäki gem beryl pegmatite is hosted by rapakivi granites of the Wiborg batholith in southeast Finland. The moderately evolved niobium-yttrium-fluorine (NYF) pegmatite system belongs to the topaz-beryl type of the rare-element pegmatite class. It has a simple major mineral assemblage of K-feldspar + plagioclase + quartz + biotite ± fluorite throughout the main pegmatite zones (border, wall, intermediate, and core zone). It consists of at least two chemically related bodies (Luumäki N and Luumäki S), of which only Luumäki N contains gem beryl (heliodor) bearing miarolitic pockets. We characterize the geology, mineral assemblages, and the major and trace element chemistry of K-feldspar, plagioclase, biotite and quartz from the pegmatite. The mineral chemistry data show a progressive enrichment of Rb, Cs and Tl in K-feldspars, and depletion in Sr and Ba. The K-feldspar from the beryl-bearing pockets records the highest enrichment in incompatible elements, distinct from the data trend shown by K-feldspar from the main pegmatite zones. The REE data for plagioclase show a decrease of the positive Eu-anomaly and then a change to negative Eu-anomaly in the more evolved inner zones. This demonstrates an increase of the oxidation state of the pegmatite melt over time, consistent with the abundance of hematite in late-stage mineral assemblages including those of the miarolitic pockets. Fractional crystallization modeling is able to replicate the progressive enrichment of incompatible elements in K-feldspar, and to predict degrees of crystallization, which are in good agreement with volume estimates for the different pegmatite zones. The modeling results demonstrate that formation of the zoned pegmatite up to the quartz core can be well explained by an igneous crystallization process, leading up to considerable enrichment in incompatible elements. The melt reached saturation with an aqueous hydrothermal fluid only after more than 90% of the pegmatite melt

  14. Geology, petrology and U-Pb geochronology of Serra da Rajada Granitic Pluton: implications about ediacaran magmatic evolution in NE portion of the Rio Piranhas-Serido Domain (NE of Borborema Province); Geologia, petrologia e geocronologia U-Pb do Pluton Granitico Serra da Rajada: implicacoes sobre a evolucao magmatica ediacarana na porcao do Dominio Rio Piranhas-Serido (NE da Provincia Borborema)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alan Pereira da; Dantas, Alexandre Ranier, E-mail:, E-mail: [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Natal, RN (Brazil). Nucleo de Apoio de Natal/Superintendencia Regional de Recife; Nascimento, Marcos Antonio Leite do; Galindo, Antonio Carlos, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia


    The Ediacaran plutonic activity, related to the Brazilian/Pan-African orogeny, is one of the most important geological features in the Borborema Province, formed by batholiths, stocks and dikes. The Serra da Rajada Granitic Pluton (SRGP), located in the central portion of the Rio Piranhas-Serido Domain, is an example of these bodies. This site is the target of cartographic, petrographic, lithochemical and geochronological studies. Its rocks are described as monzogranites consisting of K-feldspar, plagioclase (oligoclase-An{sub 23-24%}), quartz and biotite (main mafic), having as accessory minerals opaque, titanite, allanite, apatite and zircon. Chlorite, white mica and carbonate are alteration minerals. Lithochemical data from 15 samples show quite evolved rocks (SiO{sub 2} , 69% to 75%), rich in alkalis (Na{sub 2}O + K{sub 2}O ≥ 8.0%), depleted in MgO (≤ 0.45%), CaO (≤ 1.42%) and TiO{sub 2} (≤ 0.36%), and displaying moderate levels of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} t (2.16 to 3.53%). These rocks present a transitional nature between metaluminous and peraluminous (predominance of the latter) and have subalkaline/monzonitic affinity (high-K Calc-alkaline). Harker diagrams represent negative correlations in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}t, MgO and CaO, indicating fractionation of mafic and plagioclase. The REE spectrum show enrichment of light in relation to heavy REE (LaN/YbN = 23.70 to 10.13), with negative anomaly in Eu (Eu/ Eu* = 0.70 to 10.13) suggesting fractionation or accumulation in the feldspars source (plagioclase). Data integration allows correlating the SRGP rocks with those described as Equigranular high-K Calc-alkaline Suite. The U-Pb geochronology and Sm-Nd isotope dating indicate that the biotite monzogranite have a crystallization age of 557 ± 13 Ma and TDM model age of 2.36 Ga, respectively, and ε{sub Nd} value of - 20.10 for the crystallization age, allowing to infer a crustal source for the magma generated in the Paleoproterozoic age. (author)

  15. How to identify garnet lherzolite melts and distinguish them from pyroxenite melts (United States)

    Grove, T. L.; Holbig, E.; Barr, J. A.; Till, C.; Krawczynski, M. J.


    Liquids form in equilibrium with garnet lherzolite sources when the Earth's mantle melts at depths of greater than ~ 60 km. We present a phase equilibrium investigation of Tibetan plateau olivine leucitites from 2.2 to 2.8 GPa and 1380 to 1480 °C. The resulting liquids were multiply saturated with spinel and garnet lherzolite assemblages (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and spinel +/-garnet) under nominally anhydrous conditions. These SiO2-undersaturated liquids and published experimental data have been used to develop a new model that parameterizes the major element compositions of garnet lherzolite partial melts, allowing the prediction of melt compositions from depleted to metasomatically enriched peridotite. The model is calibrated over the pressure range of 1.9 to 6 GPa. The model also predicts the suprasolidus pressure and temperature of the spinel to garnet lherzolite phase transition for natural peridotite compositions. Combined with the recent parameterization of melting in the plagioclase- and spinel- lherzolite facies (Till et al., 2012, JGR, 117, B06206), the new model distinguishes between melts of garnet vs. spinel vs. plagioclase lherzolites, but can also be used to distinguish between melts of lherzolitic vs. pyroxenitic source regions, allowing source lithology to be uniquely identified. Pyroxenite melts fall into two compositionally distinct groups; an olivine-normative, SiO2-undersaturated group and quartz-normative, SiO2-oversaturated group. Melts of plagioclase, spinel, and garnet lherzolite plot between these two types of pyroxenitic melts in mineral normative composition space. When our model is applied to high-K lavas erupted in the Tibetan plateau, we find that these magmas are derived from both pyroxenite and lherzolite source regions. Distinctive enrichments in compatible trace elements (Ni, Cr) are observed in the lherzolite-derived magmas. Applied to Hawaiian basalts, our model suggests the transitional and weakly alkaline pre

  16. Martian meteorite Tissint records unique petrogenesis among the depleted shergottites (United States)

    Basu Sarbadhikari, A.; Babu, E. V. S. S. K.; Vijaya Kumar, T.; Chennaoui Aoudjehane, H.


    Tissint, a new unaltered piece of Martian volcanic materials, is the most silica-poor and Mg-Fe-rich igneous rock among the "depleted" olivine-phyric shergottites. Fe-Mg zoning of olivine suggests equilibrium growth (<0.1 °C h-1) in the range of Fo80-56 and olivine overgrowth (Fo55-18) through a process of rapid disequilibrium (~1.0-5.0 °C h-1). The spatially extended (up to 600 μm) flat-top Fe-Mg profiles of olivine indicates that the early-stage cooling rate of Tissint was slower than the other shergottites. The chemically metastable outer rim of olivine (plagioclase ratios of Tissint are more comparable to the enriched basaltic and enriched olivine-phyric shergottites. Dominance of augite over plagioclase induced augite to control the Ca-buffer in the residual melt suppressing the plagioclase crystallization, which also caused a profound effect on the Al-content in the late-crystallized pyroxenes. Mineral chemical stability, phase-assemblage saturation, and pressure-temperature path of evolution indicates that the parent magma entered the solidus and left the liquidus field at a depth of 40-80 km in the upper mantle. Petrogenesis of Tissint appears to be similar to LAR 06319, an enriched olivine-phyric shergottite, during the early to intermediate stage of crystallization. A severe shock-induced deformation resulted in remelting (10-15 vol%), recrystallization (most Fe-rich phases), and exhumation of Tissint in a time scale of 1-8 yr. Tissint possesses some distinct characteristics, e.g., impact-induced melting and deformation, forming phosphorus-rich recrystallization rims of olivine, and shock-induced melt domains without relative enrichment of LREEs compared to the bulk; and shared characteristics, e.g., modal

  17. Crystallization of microlites during magma ascent: the fluid mechanics of 1980 1986 eruptions at Mount St Helens (United States)

    Geschwind, C.-H.; Rutherford, Malcolm J.


    Eruptions of Mount St Helens (Washington, USA) decreased in intensity and explosivity after the main May 18, 1980 eruption. As the post-May 18 eruptions progressed, albitic plagioclase microlites began to appear in the matrix glass, although the bulk composition of erupted products, the phenocryst compositions and magmatic temperatures remained fairly constant. Equilibrium experiments on a Mount St Helens white pumice show that at 160 MPa water pressure and 900°C, conditions deduced for the 8 km deep magma storage zone, the stable plagioclase is An47. The microlites in the natural samples, which are more albitic, had to grow at lower water pressures during ascent. Isothermal decompression experiments reported here demonstrate that a decrease in water pressure from 160 to 2 MPa over four to eight days is capable of producing the albitic groundmass plagioclase and evolved melt compositions observed in post-May 18 1980 dacites. Because groundmass crystallization occurs over a period of days during and after decreases in pressure, microlite crystallization in the Mount St Helens dacites must have occurred during the ascent of each magma batch from a deep reservoir rather than continuously in a shallow holding chamber. This is consistent with data on the kinetics of amphibole breakdown, which require that a significant portion of magma vented in each eruption ascended from a depth of at least 6.5 km (˜160 MPa water pressure) in a matter of days. The size and shape of the microlite population have not been studied because of the small size of the experimental samples; it is possible that the texture continues to mature long after chemical equilibrium is approached. As the temperature, composition, crystal content and water content of magma in the deep reservoir remained approximately constant from May 1980 to at least March 1982, the spectacular decrease in eruption intensity during this period cannot be attributed to changes in viscosity or density of the magma

  18. Mineral chemistry of Pangidi basalt flows from Andhra Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P V Nageswara Rao; P C Swaroop; Syed Karimulla


    This paper elucidates the compositional studies on clinopyroxene, plagioclase, titaniferous magnetite and ilmenite of basalts of Pangidi area to understand the geothermometry and oxybarometry conditions. Petrographic evidence and anorthite content (up to 85%) of plagioclase and temperature estimates of clinopyroxene indicate that the clinopyroxene is crystallized later than or together with plagioclase. The higher An content indicates that the parent magma is tholeiitic composition. The equilibration temperatures of clinopyroxene (1110–1190°C) and titaniferous magnetite and ilmenite coexisting mineral phases (1063–1103°C) are almost similar in lower basalt flow and it is higher for clinopyroxene (900–1110°C) when compared to titaniferous magnetite and ilmenite coexisting mineral phases (748–898°C) in middle and upper basalt flows. From this it can be inferred that the clinopyroxene is crystallized earlier than Fe–Ti oxide phases reequilibration, which indicates that the clinopyroxene temperature is the approximate eruption temperature of the present lava flows. The wide range of temperatures (900–1190°C) attained by clinopyroxene may point out that the equilibration of clinopyroxene crystals initiated from depth till closer to the surface before the melt erupted. Pangidi basalts follow the QFM buffer curve which indicates the more evolved tholeiitic composition. This suggests the parent tholeiitic magma suffered limited fractionation at high temperature under increasing oxygen fugacity in lower basalt flow and more fractionation at medium to lower temperatures under decreasing oxygen fugacity conditions during cooling of middle and upper basalt flows. The variation of oxygen fugacity indicates the oxidizing conditions for lower basalt flow (9.48–10.3) and extremely reducing conditions for middle (12.1–15.5) and upper basalt (12.4–15.54) flows prevailed at the time of cooling. Temperature vs. (FeO+Fe2O3)/(FeO+Fe2O3+MgO) data plots for present

  19. Petrology and geochemistry of three early Holocene eruptions from Makushin volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Larsen, J. F.; Schaefer, J. R.


    Makushin volcano is an 1800-meter-high stratovolcano with an ice-filled, 2x3 km summit crater, 25 km west of Dutch Harbor and Unalaska, Alaska on Unalaska Island. This study examines the petrology and geochemistry of the three largest, early Holocene eruptions from Makushin: "CFE", (ca. 9000 BP), "Nateekin" (ca. 8700 BP), and "Driftwood" (ca. 8200 BP). The CFE eruption produced thick scoria fall deposits to the northeast and pyroclastic-flow deposits in upper Makushin and "Waterfall" valleys extending >12 km to the east and north. The Nateekin eruption produced fine ash to fine lapilli deposits that are up to 20 cm thick in the Unalaska town area. The Driftwood eruption produced tan pumice and dense, black scoriaceous fall deposits, up to 2 m thick, primarily in the Driftwood valley area to the northeast. Whole rock major (XRF) and trace element (LA-ICPMS) compositions were collected from the CFE and Driftwood samples. Samples from the Nateekin unit were too fine-grained for whole-rock analyses. Analyses of glass, phenocryst, and microlite phases from all three units were collected at UAF using the JEOL JXA-8530F electron microcprobe. The CFE and Driftwood eruptions produced medium K2O, tholeiitic andesites: CFE = 56 to 60 wt. % SiO2; Driftwood = 60 to 63 wt. % SiO2. The three units have andesite to rhyodacite glass compositions: CFE= 57 to 64 wt. % SiO2; Nateekin = 59 to 61 wt. % SiO2; Driftwood = 67 to 70 wt. % SiO2. The CFE and Driftwood samples have plagioclase, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene phenocrysts, with minor olivine in the CFE fall deposit scoria. The pyroxenes are uniform in composition: Opx = Wo4.6En58.7Fs36.7 (n=58) and Cpx = Wo39.7En41.9Fs18.4 (n=132). Plagioclase phenocrysts from Driftwood pumice have An52-54 cores and An48-49 rims. CFE plagioclase phenocrysts are bimodal, with a lower An50-54 group and a higher An70-89 group. Nateekin glass compositions are similar to CFE scoria analyses from the middle to top of the unit, indicating little

  20. The timing of compositionally-zoned magma reservoirs and mafic 'priming' weeks before the 1912 Novarupta-Katmai rhyolite eruption (United States)

    Singer, Brad S.; Costa, Fidel; Herrin, Jason S.; Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy


    The June, 6, 1912 eruption of more than 13 km3 of dense rock equivalent (DRE) magma at Novarupta vent, Alaska was the largest of the 20th century. It ejected >7 km3 of rhyolite, ∼1.3 km3 of andesite and ∼4.6 km3 of dacite. Early ideas about the origin of pyroclastic flows and magmatic differentiation (e.g., compositional zonation of reservoirs) were shaped by this eruption. Despite being well studied, the timing of events that led to the chemically and mineralogically zoned magma reservoir remain poorly known. Here we provide new insights using the textures and chemical compositions of plagioclase and orthopyroxene crystals and by reevaluating previous U-Th isotope data. Compositional zoning of the magma reservoir likely developed a few thousand years before the eruption by several additions of mafic magma below an extant silicic reservoir. Melt compositions calculated from Sr contents in plagioclase fill the compositional gap between 68 and 76% SiO2 in whole pumice clasts, consistent with uninterrupted crystal growth from a continuum of liquids. Thus, our findings support a general model in which large volumes of crystal-poor rhyolite are related to intermediate magmas through gradual separation of melt from crystal-rich mush. The rhyolite is incubated by, but not mixed with, episodic recharge pulses of mafic magma that interact thermochemically with the mush and intermediate magmas. Hot, Mg-, Ca-, and Al-rich mafic magma intruded into, and mixed with, deeper parts of the reservoir (andesite and dacite) multiple times. Modeling the relaxation of the Fe-Mg concentrations in orthopyroxene and Mg in plagioclase rims indicates that the final recharge event occurred just weeks prior to the eruption. Rapid addition of mass, volatiles, and heat from the recharge magma, perhaps aided by partial melting of cumulate mush below the andesite and dacite, pressurized the reservoir and likely propelled a ∼10 km lateral dike that allowed the overlying rhyolite to reach the

  1. The Anita Peridotite, New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czertowicz, Tom; Scott, James; Waight, Tod Earle;


    –93, spinel Cr# of 70, orthopyroxene with low Al2O3, and extremely depleted whole-rock geochemical characteristics indicate that the peridotite body experienced >30% melt extraction, probably within the spinel facies. Mineral compositions show some similarity to those of cratonic peridotitic mantle. Rare Cr....../86Sr (0.705–0.706), eNd ( +6.3 to +11.1), 208Pb/204Pb (37.8–38.9) and eHf ( +5.6 to 36.9) indicate that the metasomatic agent, which caused crystallization of clinopyroxene and plagioclase, had an isotopic composition similar to ocean island basalt. On the basis of isotopic data and mineral chemistry...

  2. 40Ar/39Ar dates from the West Siberian Basin: Siberian flood basalt province doubled. (United States)

    Reichow, Marc K; Saunders, Andrew D; White, Rosalind V; Pringle, Malcolm S; Al'Mukhamedov, Alexander I; Medvedev, Alexander I; Kirda, Nikolay P


    Widespread basaltic volcanism occurred in the region of the West Siberian Basin in central Russia during Permo-Triassic times. New 40Ar/39Ar age determinations on plagioclase grains from deep boreholes in the basin reveal that the basalts were erupted 249.4 +/- 0.5 million years ago. This is synchronous with the bulk of the Siberian Traps, erupted further east on the Siberian Platform. The age and geochemical data confirm that the West Siberian Basin basalts are part of the Siberian Traps and at least double the confirmed area of the volcanic province as a whole. The larger area of volcanism strengthens the link between the volcanism and the end-Permian mass extinction.

  3. Provenance of the Pendales Fm in the Sinu-San Jacinto Basin of Colombia's Caribbean margin (United States)

    Abreu, A.; Schonwalder, D.; Jaramillo, J.; Martens, U.


    Petrography of the Pendales Formation at Arroyo Henequén (Atlantico) revealed that conglomeratic lithoarenites and polymictic conglomerates contain detrital quartz, potassium feldspars, plagioclase, serpentinite, chert, epidote, tourmaline, actinolite and volcanic rock fragments. This composition indicates provenance from two sources, one mainly composed of ocean floor materials, and another composed of granites. Twenty U-Pb ages of detrital zircon form a single population ranging 80-65 Ma. This age is interpreted to reflect the time of magmatism of the granitic source. Taking into account paleogeographic reconstructions, the most likely source was the Leeward Antilles Arc. We propose that Pendales Formation was derived from a recycled orogen uplifted by the Pre-Andean orogeny during the Middle Eocene.

  4. K-Ca and Rb-Sr Dating of Lunar Granite 14321 Revisited (United States)

    Simon, Justin I.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.


    K-Ca and Rb-Sr age determinations were made for a bulk feldspar-rich portion of an Apollo rock fragment of the pristine lunar granite clast (14321,1062), an acid-leached split of the sample, and the leachate. K-Ca and Rb-Sr data were also obtained for a whole rock sample of Apollo ferroan anorthosite (FAN, 15415). The recent detection [1] of widespread intermediate composition plagioclase indicates that the generation of a diversity of evolved lunar magmas maybe more common and therefore more important to our understanding of crust formation than previously believed. Our new data strengthen the K-Ca and Rb-Sr internal isochrons of the well-studied Apollo sample 14321 [2], which along with a renewed effort to study evolved lunar magmas will provide an improved understanding of the petrogenetic history of evolved rocks on the Moon.

  5. Kyanite-garnet gneisses of the Kåfjord Nappe - North Norwegian Caledonides: P-T conditions and monazite Th-U-Pb dating (United States)

    Ziemniak, Grzegorz; Kośmińska, Karolina; Majka, Jarosław; Janák, Marian; Manecki, Maciej


    The Kåfjord Nappe is the part of the Skibotn Nappe Complex traditionally ascribed to the Upper Allochthon of the North Norwegian Caledonides. Pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions and metamorphic age of the Kåfjord Nappe are not well constrained, geochronological data are limited to a single Rb-Sr age of c. 440 Ma (Dangla et al. 1978). Metamorphic evolution of kyanite-garnet gneisses of the Kåfjord Nappe is presented here. The kyanite-garnet gneisses are associated with a few meters thick amphibolite lenses. The gneisses mainly consist of quartz, plagioclase, biotite, muscovite, garnet, kyanite, and rutile. Retrograde minerals are represented by sillimanite and chlorite. Garnet occurs as two textural types. Garnet-I forms euhedral porphyroblasts with multiple small inclusions. Profiles through garnet-I show chemical zonation in all components. The composition varies from Alm64-68Prp11-16Grs13-18Sps2-8 in the core to Alm68-70Prp17-18Grs10-13Sps1-3 in the rim. Garnet-II is subhedral to anhedral, its core is inclusion-rich, whereas rim contains only single inclusions. Chemical composition of garnet-II is similar to that of the garnet-I rim. P-T conditions have been estimated using the garnet-biotite-muscovite-plagioclase (GBPM) geothermobarometer (Holdaway, 2001; Wu, 2014). Calculated peak P-T metamorphic conditions are 610-625 °C and 7.6-8.2 kbar corresponding to the amphibolite facies conditions. Phase equilibrium modelling in the NCKFMMnASH system yields peak metamorphic conditions of c. 620 °C at 8 kbar. Growth conditions of garnet-I core modelled in the NCKFMMnASH system are c. 570 °C at 9.7 kbar. Chemical Th-U-total Pb monazite dating has been performed. Preliminary dating results from the kyanite-garnet gneiss of the Kåfjord Nappe yield an array of dates from 468 Ma to 404 Ma. There is a correlation between an increase of yttrium content and decrease of monazite single dates. Compositional maps confirm an increase of yttrium towards the rim of the

  6. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions recycled during formation of porphyritic chondrules from CH carbonaceous chondrites (United States)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; van Kooten, Elishevah M. M.; Bizzarro, Martin


    We report on the mineralogy, petrography, and O-isotope compositions of ∼60 Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) incompletely melted during formation of porphyritic chondrules from the CH metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites and Isheyevo (CH/CB). These include (i) relict polymineralic CAIs in porphyritic chondrules, (ii) CAIs surrounded by chondrule-like igneous rims, (iii) igneous pyroxene-rich and Type C-like CAIs, and (iv) plagioclase-rich chondrules with clusters of relict spinel grains. 26Al-26Mg systematics were measured in 10 relict CAIs and 11 CAI-bearing plagioclase-rich chondrules. Based on the mineralogy, the CH CAIs incompletely melted during chondrule formation can be divided into grossite-rich (n = 13), hibonite-rich (n = 11), spinel ± melilite-rich (n = 33; these include plagioclase-rich chondrules with clusters of relict spinel grains) types. Mineralogical observations indicate that these CAIs were mixed with different proportions of ferromagnesian silicates and experienced incomplete melting and gas-melt interaction during chondrule formation. These processes resulted in partial or complete destruction of the CAI Wark-Lovering rims, replacement of melilite by Na-bearing plagioclase, and dissolution and overgrowth of nearly end-member spinel by chromium- and iron-bearing spinel. Only two relict CAIs and two CAI-bearing chondrules show resolvable excess of radiogenic 26Mg; the inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratios are (1.7 ± 1.3) × 10-6, (3.7 ± 3.1) × 10-7, (1.9 ± 0.9) × 10-6 and (4.9 ± 2.6) × 10-6. There is a large range of Δ17O among the CH CAIs incompletely melted during chondrule formation, from ∼-37‰ to ∼-5‰; the unmelted minerals in individual CAIs, however, are isotopically uniform and systematically 16O-enriched relative to the host chondrules and chondrule-like igneous rims, which have Δ17O ranging from ∼-7‰ to ∼+4‰. Most of the CH CAIs incompletely melted during chondrule formation are mineralogically and isotopically

  7. The dissolution of high-FeO olivine rock from the Lovasjaervi intrusion (SE-Finland) at 25 deg. C as a function of pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duro, Lara [Enviros-Spain S.L. Passeig de Rubi, 29-31, 08197 Valldoreix (Spain); El Aamrani, Fatima [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEIB-UPC (H4), Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rovira, Miquel [CTM-Centre Technologic, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Gimenez, Javier [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEIB-UPC (H4), Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail:; Casas, Ignasi [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEIB-UPC (H4), Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Pablo, Joan de [CTM-Centre Technologic, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Bruno, Jordi [Enviros-Spain S.L. Passeig de Rubi, 29-31, 08197 Valldoreix (Spain)


    The high-FeO olivine-rich rock from the Lovasjaervi intrusion (65% olivine, 20% plagioclase, 8% magnetite, 4% pyroxene and 3% serpentine) has been proposed as a potential redox-active backfill-additive in deep high level nuclear waste repositories. In this work, the authors report on kinetic dissolution studies of this solid under different pH and redox conditions performed by using a flow-through methodology. Assuming that silicon is mainly released to solution from the olivine contained in the solid, the experimental results have been adjusted to an empirical rate law as a function of proton concentration. The proton concentration reaction orders agree with results found in the literature for both acidic and alkaline pH ranges. The calculations conducted with the reactive transport code RETRASO show that at alkaline pH, the olivine rock might have a lower redox buffer capacity than expected.

  8. Sapphirine-bearing high pressure mafic granulite and its implications in the south Altyn Tagh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jianxin; MENG Fancong


    Sapphirine-bearing high pressure mafic granulites are recognized in the Bashiwake area of the south Altyn Tagh. Mafic granulites and associated peridotites occur as lenses within kyanite-bearing high pressure felsic granulites. Sapphirine occurs as intergrowths with corundum, spinel and Ca-rich plagioclase in symplectite in between garnet and clinopyroxene. Reaction textures and mineral compositions indicate that sapphirine-bearing symplectites formed by reactions consuming kyanite, garnet and clinopyroxene. Therefore, both petrographic observations and the mineral compositions suggest that these quartz-free mafic granulites had an eclogite origin with an assemblage of garnet + clinopyroxene + kyanite, which is estimated to be stable at T = 1000℃ and P≥2.1 Gpa. The sapphirine-bearing symplectites are resulted from isothermal decompression or decompression with slight cooling during exhumation of the host rock.

  9. Confirmation of pelitic granulite in the Altai orogen and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WEI ChunJing; WANG Tao; LOU YuXing; CHU Hang


    The existence of pelitic granulite in the Altai orogen was confirmed for the first time by detailed petro-graphic research and P-T pseudosection modeling. The pelitic granulite has the assemblage of garnet + cordierite + K-feldspar + biotite + sillimanite + plagioclase + quartz with some samples containing the paragenesis of cordierite + spinel. Peak conditions of the pelitic granulite determined from the P-T pseudosection involved P= 0.5-0.6 GPa, T= 780-800?*, belonging to medium-to low-pressure type. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircon presented a metamorphic age of 292.8 ± 2.3 Ma. The discovery of pelitic granulite reflects an extensional environment with high heat flow in the southern margin of the Altai orogen during the Early Permian, which provides an important petrological constraint on the evolution of the Altai orogen.

  10. Refining the granulite suite (United States)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Norman, Marc D.; Keil, Klaus; Cushing, Janet A.


    Early studies of rocks retrieved from the Moon during the Apollo missions defined a group of rocks as granulites or 'granulitic impactites'. This included rocks with cataclastic, granulitic, and poikilitic or poikiloblastic textures. Petrographic studies indicate that the textures of 'granulitic breccias' are significantly varied so as to redefine the granulitic suite into at least two distinct groups. The first group consists of rocks that have true granulitic textures: polygonal to rounded, equant grains that are annealed, and have triple junctions with small dispersions from the average 120 degrees. The second group of rocks have poikilitic or poikiloblastic textures, with subhedral to euhedral plagioclase and/or olivine grains enclosed in pyroxene oikocrysts. In some instances, the relationship between the minerals resembles an orthocumulate texture. Rocks previously thought of as granulites may have formed in more than one way. These formation mechanisms are briefly discussed.

  11. Finding of corundum-bearing rocks in the Lapland granulite belt (United States)

    Terekhov, E. N.; Shcherbakova, T. F.; Konilov, A. N.


    Corundum-bearing rocks are described for the first time in the Kandalaksha structure of the Lapland granulite belt. Corundum is confined to rocks of two types: metagabbro‒anorthosites constituting lenses among metaanarthosites of the Kandalaksha massif and basic granulites. Corundum crystals (up to 200 μm long) occur in plagioclase and garnet and differ from each other depending on the host mineral, which serves as evidence against their xenogenic nature. Some corundum crystals exhibit an axial zone, which may indicate their crystallization from the gaseous phase. Corundum-bearing rocks are accompanied by piclogites (pyroxene‒garnet varieties with olivine). Piclogites and their minerals (clinopyroxene, garnet) are characterized by a positive Eu anomaly, which implies rock reworking by fluids during corundum formation, when deep-seated complexes were subjected to exhumation.

  12. Magma underplating and Hannuoba present crust-mantle transitional zone composition: Xenolith petrological and geochemical evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Qicheng; ZHANG Hongfu; SUI Jianli; ZHAI Mingguo; SUN Qian; LI Ni


    On the basis of mineral assemblage, mineralogy, petrology, and major, trace elemental and isotopic geochemistry of the underplated granulite- and eclogite-facies accumulate, peridotite and pyroxenite xenoliths entrained in Hannuoba Cenozoic basalts, this work constrained the petrological constituents for the crust-mantle transitional zone, which is supported by the results of high-temperature and pressure velocity experiments on rocks and geophysics deep survey. Present lower part of lower crust is mainly composed of granulite-facies mafic accumulates (dominantly plagioclase websterite) and crust-mantle transitional zone dominantly composed of eclogite-facies pyroxenites with or without garnet and spinel lherzolites; Archaean terrain granulite is only nominally early lower crust. Magma underplating in the crust-mantle boundary led to the crustal vertical accretion and the formation of the crust-mantle transitional zone, which is a significant mechanism for the chemical adjustment of the crust-mantle boundary since the Phanerozoic.

  13. Experimental study on the P wave velocity in rocks from lower crust and crust-mantle transitional zone beneath the Hannuoba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Cenozoic basalt-borne mafic granulite-facies plagioclase pyroxenite and eclogite-facies garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from the Hannuoba, as well as nearby Archean terrain granulites, are selected for the experimental study on the P wave velocity at high temperature and high pressure in order to reveal the present-day compositional features for the lower crust and crust-mantle transitional zone. Results show that mafic xenoliths have high Vp (7.0~8.0 km/s), in contrast, the Archean terrain granulites have low Vp (<7.0 km/s). High Vp mafic xenoliths can represent the present-day compositional features for the lower crust and crust-mantle transitional zone beneath the Hannuoba. This provides new evidence for the crust vertical growth and the formation of the crust-mantle transitional zone resulting from the magma underplating. Low Vp Archean granulite still remains the characteristics of the early lower crust.

  14. Alkali and alkaline earth element geochemistry of Los Humeros Caldera, Puebla, Mexico (United States)

    Verma, Surendra P.


    Results of the measurements of alkali (K, Rb and Cs) and alkaline earth (Ba and Sr) elements on seven pre-caldera and twenty post-caldera samples of Los Humeros volcanics (Pliocene to Recent) are described. These data are interpreted in terms of the known solid-liquid partition coefficients. It appears that fractional crystallization is a dominant petrogenetic process and is controlled by the observed modal phases, namely plagioclase, olivine and clinopyroxene (in decreasing importance), and perhaps, in addition, biotite and titanomagnetite in the later stages of the differentiation sequence. The available major element chemistry and mass-balance calculations support these conclusions. Sr and Nd isotopic data further suggest that these magmas were generated in the underlying mantle, fractionated in a shallow-level magma chamber and underwent very insignificant sialic contamination before eruption.

  15. Evaluation of mineral kaolinite present in portuguese clays for use in porcelain stoneware; Avaliacao do mineral caulinita presente em argilas portuguesas para uso em gres porcelanato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna da Silveira, G.C. [Instituto Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), RN (Brazil); Acchar, W.; Gomes, U.U.; Luna da Silveira, R.V. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grnde do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil); Labrincha, A.; Miranda, C.M.P., E-mail: [Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal)


    Kaolinite is a mineral from the kaolin, product resulting from transformation in depth of alumino silicate mineral type, such as feldspars, plagioclase and feldspars contained in the rocks. Clays are raw materials that have as main characteristic the plasticity property, which gives the product, after applying a certain pressure, a defined shape and an increase in the mechanical resistance when they become from green to dry and then to sintered. Given these characteristics, this paper analyzes the presence of the existing mineral kaolinite in two portuguese clays who are used in the preparation of formulations of porcelain stoneware tiles. The analyzes of the two clays were made by fluorescence x-ray diffraction of x-rays, thermal analysis, particle size and scanning electron microscopy, to better use of this mineral in the formulations. In both clays were found aluminum oxide, as well as mineral quartz, kaolinite and illite. (author)

  16. Petrology of Impact-Melt Rocks at the Chicxulub Multiring Basin, Yucatan, Mexico (United States)

    Schuraytz, Benjamin C.; Sharpton, Virgil L.; Marin, Luis E.


    Compositions and textures of melt rocks from the upper part of the Chicxulub structure are typical of melt rocks at other large terrestrial impact structures. Apart from variably elevated iridium concentrations (less than 1.5 to 13.5 +/- 0.9 ppb) indicating nonuniform dissemination of a meteoritic component, bulk rock and phenocryst compositions imply that these melt rocks were derived exclusively from continental crust and platform-sediment target lithologies. Modest differences in bulk chemistry among samples from wells located approximately 40 km apart suggest minor variations in relative contributions of these target lithologies to the melts. Subtle variations in the compositions of early-formed pyroxene and plagioclase also support minor primary differences in chemistry between the melts. Evidence for pervasive hydrothermal alteration of the porous mesostasis includes albite, K-feldspar, quartz, epidote, chlorite, and other phyllosilicates, as well as siderophile element-enriched sulfides, suggesting the possibility that Chicxulub, like Sudbury, may host important ore deposits.

  17. U-Pb geochronology by La-CIP-MS and petrography of Sao Carlos massif - stanniferous province of Rondonia; Geocronologia U-Pb por La-ICP-MS e petrografia do macico Sao Carlos - Provincia Estanifera de Rondonia

    Energy Techno