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Sample records for placental function tests

  1. Selenomethionine Uptake Test as a Sensitive Indicator of Placental Function in the Last Trimester of Pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrow, J. S. [Medical Research Council, Department of Obstetrics, Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1971-02-15

    During the last trimester of pregnancy the demands of the human foetus for nutrients can only just be met by the normal placenta. If the placenta is damaged or poorly developed foetal growth is impaired or, in severe cases, the baby dies. It is clinically important to detect placental failure as early as possible so that the underlying cause can be treated, or if this is not possible the baby can be delivered before term. {sup 75}Se-selenomethionine is one of the amino-acids which is taken up by the placenta from the mother's blood and actively transported against a concentration gradient to the foetus. In the selenomethionine uptake test two 3-in. diameter Nal detectors in cylindrical collimators are used; one is positioned over the mother's mediastinum and the other over her uterus. The output from each detector is fed through a pulse-height analyser to a recording ratemeter. A dose of 2 {mu}Ci of selenomethionine is given intravenously to the mother, and from the recorded count-rates during the next 15 minutes the efficiency of placental amino-acid transport can be assessed. The maximum radiation dose to the mother or foetus is 20 mrad. This test has been applied without ill effects to over 500 patients in whom there were clinical grounds for suspecting placental damage. Gross placental failure and intrauterine death were invariably associated with a very low selenomethionine-uptake over the uterus, and high uterine uptakes were always associated with good placental function. Misleading results may be obtained in cases with rhesus immunization or congenital defect in the foetus, since in such cases foetal growth failure is not due to a defect of transport in the placenta. Generally the test provides a quick, simple and reliable indication of the nutritive function of the placenta, and can be safely used to select those mothers who need particularly careful clinical management. (author)

  2. Imaging and assessment of placental function.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Mary

    2011-09-01

    The placenta is the vital support organ for the developing fetus. This article reviews current ultrasound (US) methods of assessing placental function. The ability of ultrasound to detect placental pathology is discussed. Doppler technology to investigate the fetal, placental, and maternal circulations in both high-risk and uncomplicated pregnancies is discussed and the current literature on the value of three-dimensional power Doppler studies to assess placental volume and vascularization is also evaluated. The article highlights the need for further research into three-dimensional ultrasound and alternative methods of placental evaluation if progress is to be made in optimizing placental function assessment.

  3. Effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kristy R.; Powell, Theresa L.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions and pregnancies in obese mothers have increased risk for complications including gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders, preterm birth and caesarian section. Children born to obese mothers are at increased risk of obesity and metabolic disease and are susceptible to develop neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders. Changes in placental function not only play a critical role in the development of pregnancy complications but may also be involved in linking maternal obesity to long-term health risks in the infant. Maternal adipokines i.e., interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), leptin and adiponectin link maternal nutritional status and adipose tissue metabolism to placental function. Adipokines and metabolic hormones have direct impact on placental function by modulating placental nutrient transport. Nutrient delivery to the fetus is regulated by a complex interaction between insulin signaling, cytokine profile and insulin responsiveness, which is modulated by adiponectin and IL-1β. In addition, obese pregnant women are at risk for hypertension and preeclampsia with reduced placental vascularity and blood flow, which would restrict placental nutrient delivery to the developing fetus. These sometimes opposing signals regulating placental function may contribute to the diversity of short and long-term outcomes observed in pregnant obese women. This review focuses on the changes in adipokines and obesity-related metabolic hormones, how these factors influence placental function and fetal development to contribute to long-term metabolic and behavioral consequences of children born to obese mothers. PMID:27864335

  4. 2011 and 2012 Early Careers Achievement Awards: Placental programming: how the maternal environment can impact placental function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonnahme, K A; Lemley, C O; Shukla, P; O'Rourke, S T

    2013-06-01

    Proper establishment of the placenta is important for fetal survival; however, placental adaptations to inadequate maternal nutrition or other stressors are imperative for fetal growth to be optimal. The effects of maternal nutritional status and activity level on placental vascular function and uteroplacental blood flows are important to understand as improper placental function leads to reduced growth of the fetus. In environments where fetal growth can be compromised, potential therapeutics may augment placental function and delivery of nutrients to improve offspring performance during postnatal life. Factors that could enhance placental function include supplementation of specific nutrients, such as protein, hormone supplements, such as indolamines, and increased activity levels of the dam. To understand the mechanism of how the maternal environment can impact uterine or umbilical blood flows, assessment of placental vascular reactivity has been studied in several large animal models. As we begin to understand how the maternal environment impacts uterine and umbilical blood flows and other uteroplacental hemodynamic parameters, development of management methods and therapeutics for proper fetal growth can be achieved.

  5. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jinghua; Zhang, Jianyun; Li, Feixue; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Tebuconazole (TEB) inhibited the proliferation of human placental trophoblasts. • TEB changed cell cycle distribution of G1 and G2 phases of trophoblasts. • TEB induced apoptosis of trophoblasts via mitochondrial pathway. • TEB decreased the invasive and migratory capacities of trophoblasts. • TEB altered the mRNA levels of key regulatory genes in trophoblasts - Abstract: Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy.

  6. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jinghua [Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Jianyun [Research Center for Air Pollution and Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Li, Feixue [Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Organ Development and Regeneration, Institute of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Liu, Jing, E-mail: jliue@zju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Research Center for Air Pollution and Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Tebuconazole (TEB) inhibited the proliferation of human placental trophoblasts. • TEB changed cell cycle distribution of G1 and G2 phases of trophoblasts. • TEB induced apoptosis of trophoblasts via mitochondrial pathway. • TEB decreased the invasive and migratory capacities of trophoblasts. • TEB altered the mRNA levels of key regulatory genes in trophoblasts - Abstract: Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy.

  7. Is Placental Mitochondrial Function a Regulator that Matches Fetal and Placental Growth to Maternal Nutrient Intake in the Mouse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R Chiaratti

    Full Text Available Effective fetal growth requires adequate maternal nutrition coupled to active transport of nutrients across the placenta, which, in turn requires ATP. Epidemiological and experimental evidence has shown that impaired maternal nutrition in utero results in an adverse postnatal phenotype for the offspring. Placental mitochondrial function might link maternal food intake to fetal growth since impaired placental ATP production, in response to poor maternal nutrition, could be a pathway linking maternal food intake to reduced fetal growth.We assessed the effects of maternal diet on placental water content, ATP levels and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content in mice at embryonic (E day 18 (E18. Females maintained on either low- (LPD or normal- (NPD protein diets were mated with NPD males.Fetal dry weight and placental efficiency (embryo/placental fresh weight were positively correlated (r = 0.53, P = 0.0001. Individual placental dry weight was reduced by LPD (P = 0.003, as was the expression of amino acid transporter Slc38a2 and of growth factor Igf2. Placental water content, which is regulated by active transport of solutes, was increased by LPD (P = 0.0001. However, placental ATP content was also increased (P = 0.03. To investigate the possibility of an underlying mitochondrial stress response, we studied cultured human trophoblast cells (BeWos. High throughput imaging showed that amino acid starvation induces changes in mitochondrial morphology that suggest stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion. This is a defensive response, believed to increase mitochondrial efficiency, that could underlie the increase in ATP observed in placenta.These findings reinforce the pathophysiological links between maternal diet and conceptus mitochondria, potentially contributing to metabolic programming. The quiet embryo hypothesis proposes that pre-implantation embryo survival is best served by a relatively low level of metabolism. This may extend to post

  8. Evolution of placental function in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael

    2012-01-01

    Placenta has a wide range of functions. Some are supported by novel genes that have evolved following gene duplication events while others require acquisition of gene expression by the trophoblast. Although not expressed in the placenta, high-affinity fetal hemoglobins play a key role in placenta...

  9. Adiponectin supplementation in pregnant mice prevents the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L M H; Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-10-13

    Mothers with obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus have low circulating levels of adiponectin (ADN) and frequently deliver large babies with increased fat mass, who are susceptible to perinatal complications and to development of metabolic syndrome later in life. It is currently unknown if the inverse correlation between maternal ADN and fetal growth reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. We tested the hypothesis that ADN supplementation in obese pregnant dams improves maternal insulin sensitivity, restores normal placental insulin/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and nutrient transport, and prevents fetal overgrowth. Compared with dams on a control diet, female C57BL/6J mice fed an obesogenic diet before mating and throughout gestation had increased fasting serum leptin, insulin, and C-peptide, and reduced high-molecular-weight ADN at embryonic day (E) 18.5. Placental insulin and mTORC1 signaling was activated, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) phosphorylation was reduced, placental transport of glucose and amino acids in vivo was increased, and fetal weights were 29% higher in obese dams. Maternal ADN infusion in obese dams from E14.5 to E18.5 normalized maternal insulin sensitivity, placental insulin/mTORC1 and PPARα signaling, nutrient transport, and fetal growth without affecting maternal fat mass. Using a mouse model with striking similarities to obese pregnant women, we demonstrate that ADN functions as an endocrine link between maternal adipose tissue and fetal growth by regulating placental function. Importantly, maternal ADN supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Improving maternal ADN levels may serve as an effective intervention strategy to prevent fetal overgrowth caused by maternal obesity.

  10. Maternal perception of reduced fetal movements is associated with altered placental structure and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne K Warrander

    Full Text Available Maternal perception of reduced fetal movement (RFM is associated with increased risk of stillbirth and fetal growth restriction (FGR. DFM is thought to represent fetal compensation to conserve energy due to insufficient oxygen and nutrient transfer resulting from placental insufficiency. To date there have been no studies of placental structure in cases of DFM.To determine whether maternal perception of reduced fetal movements (RFM is associated with abnormalities in placental structure and function.Placentas were collected from women with RFM after 28 weeks gestation if delivery occurred within 1 week. Women with normal movements served as a control group. Placentas were weighed and photographs taken. Microscopic structure was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining and image analysis. System A amino acid transporter activity was measured as a marker of placental function. Placentas from all pregnancies with RFM (irrespective of outcome had greater area with signs of infarction (3.5% vs. 0.6%; p<0.01, a higher density of syncytial knots (p<0.001 and greater proliferation index (p<0.01. Villous vascularity (p<0.001, trophoblast area (p<0.01 and system A activity (p<0.01 were decreased in placentas from RFM compared to controls irrespective of outcome of pregnancy.This study provides evidence of abnormal placental morphology and function in women with RFM and supports the proposition of a causal association between placental insufficiency and RFM. This suggests that women presenting with RFM require further investigation to identify those with placental insufficiency.

  11. Placental oxidative stress and maternal endothelial function in pregnant women with normotensive fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Atsumi; Watanabe, Kazushi; Iwasaki, Ai; Kimura, Chiharu; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Wakatsuki, Akihiko

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between placental oxidative stress and maternal endothelial function in pregnant women with normotensive fetal growth restriction (FGR). We examined serum concentrations of oxygen free radicals (d-ROMs), maternal angiogenic factor (PlGF), and sFlt-1, placental oxidative DNA damage, and maternal endothelial function in 17 women with early-onset preeclampsia (PE), 18 with late-onset PE, 14 with normotensive FGR, and 21 controls. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was assessed as a marker of maternal endothelial function. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to measure the proportion of placental trophoblast cell nuclei staining positive for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage. Maternal serum d-ROM, sFlt-1 concentrations, and FMD did not significantly differ between the control and normotensive FGR groups. The proportion of nuclei staining positive for 8-OHdG was significantly higher in the normotensive FGR group relative to the control group. Our findings demonstrate that, despite the presence of placental oxidative DNA damage as observed in PE patients, pregnant women with normotensive FGR show no increase in the concentrations of sFlt-1 and d-ROMs, or a decrease in FMD.

  12. Positive cell-free fetal DNA testing for trisomy 13 reveals confined placental mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, April L; Drendel, Holli M; Verbrugge, Jennifer L; Reese, Angela M; Schumacher, Katherine L; Griffith, Christopher B; Weaver, David D; Abernathy, Mary P; Litton, Christian G; Vance, Gail H

    2013-09-01

    We report on a case in which cell-free fetal DNA was positive for trisomy 13 most likely due to confined placental mosaicism. Cell-free fetal DNA testing analyzes DNA derived from placental trophoblast cells and can lead to incorrect results that are not representative of the fetus. We sought to confirm commercial cell-free fetal DNA testing results by chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis. These results were followed up by postnatal chromosome analysis of cord blood and placental tissue. First-trimester cell-free fetal DNA test results were positive for trisomy 13. Cytogenetic analysis of chorionic villus sampling yielded a mosaic karyotype of 47,XY,+13[10]/46,XY[12]. G-banded analysis of amniotic fluid was normal, 46,XY. Postnatal cytogenetic analysis of cord blood was normal. Karyotyping of tissues from four quadrants of the placenta demonstrated mosaicism for trisomy 13 in two of the quadrants and a normal karyotype in the other two. Our case illustrates several important aspects of this new testing methodology: that cell-free fetal DNA may not be representative of the fetal karyotype; that follow-up with diagnostic testing of chorionic villus sampling and/or amniotic fluid for abnormal test results should be performed; and that pretest counseling regarding the full benefits, limitations, and possible testing outcomes of cell-free fetal DNA screening is important.

  13. Computational modeling of the structure-function relationship in human placental terminal villi.

    OpenAIRE

    Plitman, Mayo R; Olsthoorn, Jason; Charnock-Jones, David Stephen; Burton, Graham James; Oyen, Michelle Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Placental oxygen transport takes place at the final branches of the villous tree and is dictated by the relative arrangement of the maternal and fetal circulations. Modeling techniques have failed to accurately assess the structure-function relationship in the terminal villi due to the geometrical complexity. Three-dimensional blood flow and oxygen transport was modeled in four terminal villi reconstructed from confocal image stacks. The blood flow was analyzed along the center lines of capil...

  14. Rac1 Regulates Endometrial Secretory Function to Control Placental Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanmahel Davila

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During placenta development, a succession of complex molecular and cellular interactions between the maternal endometrium and the developing embryo ensures reproductive success. The precise mechanisms regulating this maternal-fetal crosstalk remain unknown. Our study revealed that the expression of Rac1, a member of the Rho family of GTPases, is markedly elevated in mouse decidua on days 7 and 8 of gestation. To investigate its function in the uterus, we created mice bearing a conditional deletion of the Rac1 gene in uterine stromal cells. Ablation of Rac1 did not affect the formation of the decidua but led to fetal loss in mid gestation accompanied by extensive hemorrhage. To gain insights into the molecular pathways affected by the loss of Rac1, we performed gene expression profiling which revealed that Rac1 signaling regulates the expression of Rab27b, another GTPase that plays a key role in targeting vesicular trafficking. Consequently, the Rac1-null decidual cells failed to secrete vascular endothelial growth factor A, which is a critical regulator of decidual angiogenesis, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, which regulates the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors that promote proliferation and differentiation of trophoblast cell lineages in the ectoplacental cone. The lack of secretion of these key factors by Rac1-null decidua gave rise to impaired angiogenesis and dysregulated proliferation of trophoblast cells, which in turn results in overexpansion of the trophoblast giant cell lineage and disorganized placenta development. Further experiments revealed that RAC1, the human ortholog of Rac1, regulates the secretory activity of human endometrial stromal cells during decidualization, supporting the concept that this signaling G protein plays a central and conserved role in controlling endometrial secretory function. This study provides unique insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating endometrial secretions

  15. Rac1 Regulates Endometrial Secretory Function to Control Placental Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Juanmahel; Laws, Mary J.; Kannan, Athilakshmi; Li, Quanxi; Taylor, Robert N.; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2015-01-01

    During placenta development, a succession of complex molecular and cellular interactions between the maternal endometrium and the developing embryo ensures reproductive success. The precise mechanisms regulating this maternal-fetal crosstalk remain unknown. Our study revealed that the expression of Rac1, a member of the Rho family of GTPases, is markedly elevated in mouse decidua on days 7 and 8 of gestation. To investigate its function in the uterus, we created mice bearing a conditional deletion of the Rac1 gene in uterine stromal cells. Ablation of Rac1 did not affect the formation of the decidua but led to fetal loss in mid gestation accompanied by extensive hemorrhage. To gain insights into the molecular pathways affected by the loss of Rac1, we performed gene expression profiling which revealed that Rac1 signaling regulates the expression of Rab27b, another GTPase that plays a key role in targeting vesicular trafficking. Consequently, the Rac1-null decidual cells failed to secrete vascular endothelial growth factor A, which is a critical regulator of decidual angiogenesis, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, which regulates the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors that promote proliferation and differentiation of trophoblast cell lineages in the ectoplacental cone. The lack of secretion of these key factors by Rac1-null decidua gave rise to impaired angiogenesis and dysregulated proliferation of trophoblast cells, which in turn results in overexpansion of the trophoblast giant cell lineage and disorganized placenta development. Further experiments revealed that RAC1, the human ortholog of Rac1, regulates the secretory activity of human endometrial stromal cells during decidualization, supporting the concept that this signaling G protein plays a central and conserved role in controlling endometrial secretory function. This study provides unique insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating endometrial secretions that mediate stromal

  16. No correlation between ultrasound placental grading at 31-34 weeks of gestation and a surrogate estimate of organ function at term obtained by stereological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, T T; Loughna, P; Ong, S S; Padfield, J; Mayhew, T M

    2009-08-01

    We test the experimental hypothesis that early changes in the ultrasound appearance of the placenta reflect poor or reduced placental function. The sonographic (Grannum) grade of placental maturity was compared to placental function as expressed by the morphometric oxygen diffusive conductance of the villous membrane. Ultrasonography was used to assess the Grannum grade of 32 placentas at 31-34 weeks of gestation. Indications for the scans included a history of previous fetal abnormalities, previous fetal growth problems or suspicion of IUGR. Placentas were classified from grade 0 (most immature) to grade III (most mature). We did not exclude smokers or complicated pregnancies as we aimed to correlate the early appearance of mature placentas with placental function. After delivery, microscopical fields on formalin-fixed, trichrome-stained histological sections of each placenta were obtained by multistage systematic uniform random sampling. Using design-based stereological methods, the exchange surface areas of peripheral (terminal and intermediate) villi and their fetal capillaries and the arithmetic and harmonic mean thicknesses of the villous membrane (maternal surface of villous trophoblast to adluminal surface of vascular endothelium) were estimated. An index of the variability in thickness of this membrane, and an estimate of its oxygen diffusive conductance, were derived secondarily as were estimates of the mean diameters and total lengths of villi and fetal capillaries. Group comparisons were drawn using analysis of variance. We found no significant differences in placental volume or composition or in the dimensions or diffusive conductances of the villous membrane. Subsequent exclusion of smokers did not alter these main findings. Grannum grades at 31-34 weeks of gestation appear not to provide reliable predictors of the functional capacity of the term placenta as expressed by the surrogate measure, morphometric diffusive conductance.

  17. Functional Differences Between Placental Micro- and Macrovascular Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Ioana; O’Reilly, Megan; Ionescu, Lavinia; Alphonse, Rajesh S.; Rajabali, Saima; Zhong, Shumei; Vadivel, Arul; Shelley, W. Chris; Yoder, Mervin C.

    2016-01-01

    -forming cells (ECFCs) exist in the micro- and macrovasculature of the normal, term human placenta. Their isolation from two different anatomical locations yields two functionally different ECFC populations. Investigation of these ECFC populations during placental pathologies, such as preeclampsia, may lead to a better understanding of the disease process and aid in developing new therapies. PMID:26819255

  18. A stochastic model for early placental development.

    KAUST Repository

    Cotter, Simon L; Klika, Vá clav; Kimpton, Laura; Collins, Sally; Heazell, Alexander E P

    2014-01-01

    In the human, placental structure is closely related to placental function and consequent pregnancy outcome. Studies have noted abnormal placental shape in small-for-gestational-age infants which extends to increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular

  19. Microparasites and Placental Invasiveness in Eutherian Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Capellini

    Full Text Available Placental invasiveness-the number of maternal tissue layers separating fetal tissues from maternal blood-is variable across mammalian species. Although this diversity is likely to be functionally important, variation in placental invasiveness remains unexplained. Here we test the hypothesis that increased risk of transplacental transmission of pathogens from the mother to the fetus promotes the evolution of non-invasive placentation, the most likely derived condition in eutherian mammals. Specifically, we predict that non-invasive placentation is associated with increased microparasite species richness relative to more invasive placental types, based on the assumption that higher numbers of microparasites in a population reflects greater risk of transplacental transmission to fetuses. As predicted, higher bacteria species richness is associated with non-invasive placentation. Protozoa species richness, however, shows the opposite pattern. Because invasive placentae facilitate the transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus, we propose that the ancestral condition of invasive placentation is retained under selection for protection of newborns from higher risk of postnatal protozoan infection. Hence, our findings suggest that a tradeoff exists between protection against bacterial infection prenatally and protozoan infection postnatally. Future studies are needed to investigate how maternal prevalence of infection and the relative pre- versus postnatal risk of fetal infection by different microparasite groups vary among mammalian hosts in relation to placental invasiveness.

  20. Role of Placental VDR Expression and Function in Common Late Pregnancy Disorders

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    Julia Knabl

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D, besides its classical role in bone metabolism, plays a distinct role in multiple pathways of the feto-maternal unit. Calcitriol is the major active ligand of the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR. The vitamin D receptor (VDR is expressed in different uteroplacental parts and exerts a variety of functions in physiologic pregnancy. It regulates decidualisation and implantation, influences hormone secretion and placental immune modulations. This review highlights the role of the vitamin D receptor in physiologic and disturbed pregnancy, as preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, gestational diabetes and preterm birth. We discuss the existing literature regarding common VDR polymorphisms in these pregnancy disorders.

  1. Mammalian Placentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    This guide to animal models of human placentation assesses the strengths and weaknesses of species in common use. We argue that structural differences from human placenta, though important in some contexts, are less of a drawback than differences in reproductive strategy. Many laboratory rodents...... of the placenta. This information is collated both to assess common animal models such as mouse, sheep, and primates and to introduce some alternatives that we consider worthy of attention....... have brief gestations resulting in the birth of poorly developed young. They can provide useful insights on placental development and function relevant to early human pregnancy. However, to model the events of a 9-month gestation, which imposes added requirements on the placenta, it is necessary...

  2. The effect of androgen excess on maternal metabolism, placental function and fetal growth in obese dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornes, Romina; Maliqueo, Manuel; Hu, Min; Hadi, Laila; Jimenez-Andrade, Juan M; Ebefors, Kerstin; Nyström, Jenny; Labrie, Fernand; Jansson, Thomas; Benrick, Anna; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2017-08-14

    Pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are often overweight or obese. To study the effects of maternal androgen excess in obese dams on metabolism, placental function and fetal growth, female C57Bl6J mice were fed a control (CD) or a high fat/high sucrose (HF/HS) diet for 4-10 weeks, and then mated. On gestational day (GD) 15.5-17.5, dams were injected with dihydrotestosterone (CD-DHT, HF/HS-DHT) or a vehicle (CD-Veh, HF/HS-Veh). HF/HS dams had higher fat content, both before mating and on GD18.5, with no difference in glucose homeostasis, whereas the insulin sensitivity was higher in DHT-exposed dams. Compared to the CD groups, the livers from HF/HS dams weighed more on GD18.5, the triglyceride content was higher, and there was a dysregulation of liver enzymes related to lipogenesis and higher mRNA expression of Fitm1. Fetuses from HF/HS-Veh dams had lower liver triglyceride content and mRNA expression of Srebf1c. Maternal DHT exposure, regardless of diet, decreased fetal liver Pparg mRNA expression and increased placental androgen receptor protein expression. Maternal diet-induced obesity, together with androgen excess, affects maternal and fetal liver function as demonstrated by increased triglyceride content and dysfunctional expression of enzymes and transcription factors involved in de novo lipogenesis and fat storage.

  3. An international network (PlaNet) to evaluate a human placental testing platform for chemicals safety testing in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownbill, Paul; Chernyavsky, Igor; Bottalico, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The human placenta is a critical life-support system that nourishes and protects a rapidly growing fetus; a unique organ, species specific in structure and function. We consider the pressing challenge of providing additional advice on the safety of prescription medicines and environmental exposures...... placental function in pregnancy-related pathologies and influx/efflux transporter polymorphisms are a few caveats that could be addressed by HPTSs, not the specific focus of current mammalian reproductive toxicology systems. An international consortium, “PlaNet”, will bridge academia, industry...

  4. Effect of placental factors on growth and function of the human fetal adrenal in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riopel, L; Branchaud, C L; Goodyer, C G; Zweig, M; Lipowski, L; Adkar, V; Lefebvre, Y

    1989-11-01

    Conditioned medium from human placental monolayer cultures (PM) had a marked stimulatory effect on proliferation (3H-thymidine uptake) of human fetal zone adrenal cells in primary monolayer culture, even in the absence of serum. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) also significantly stimulated fetal adrenal cell growth. However, the effects of PM differed from those of EGF and FGF in several respects: 1) maximal response to PM was 2-5 times greater; 2) mitogenic effects of EGF and FGF were suppressed by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), whereas that of 50% PM was not; 3) PM inhibited ACTH-stimulated steroidogenesis (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cortisol), but EGF and FGF did not. Preliminary characterization studies have indicated that approximately half of the placental growth-promoting activity is heat resistant and sensitive to bacterial proteases, and that 50-60% of the activity is lost after dialysis with membranes having a molecular weight cutoff of 3500. These findings suggest a role for the placenta in the growth and differentiated function of the human fetal adrenal gland.

  5. Effect of placental factors on growth and function of the human fetal adrenal in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riopel, L.; Branchaud, C.L.; Goodyer, C.G.; Zweig, M.; Lipowski, L.; Adkar, V.; Lefebvre, Y. (McGill Univ.-Montreal Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Quebec (Canada))

    1989-11-01

    Conditioned medium from human placental monolayer cultures (PM) had a marked stimulatory effect on proliferation (3H-thymidine uptake) of human fetal zone adrenal cells in primary monolayer culture, even in the absence of serum. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) also significantly stimulated fetal adrenal cell growth. However, the effects of PM differed from those of EGF and FGF in several respects: (1) maximal response to PM was 2-5 times greater; (2) mitogenic effects of EGF and FGF were suppressed by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), whereas that of 50% PM was not; (3) PM inhibited ACTH-stimulated steroidogenesis (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cortisol), but EGF and FGF did not. Preliminary characterization studies have indicated that approximately half of the placental growth-promoting activity is heat resistant and sensitive to bacterial proteases, and that 50-60% of the activity is lost after dialysis with membranes having a molecular weight cutoff of 3500. These findings suggest a role for the placenta in the growth and differentiated function of the human fetal adrenal gland.

  6. Effect of placental factors on growth and function of the human fetal adrenal in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riopel, L.; Branchaud, C.L.; Goodyer, C.G.; Zweig, M.; Lipowski, L.; Adkar, V.; Lefebvre, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Conditioned medium from human placental monolayer cultures (PM) had a marked stimulatory effect on proliferation (3H-thymidine uptake) of human fetal zone adrenal cells in primary monolayer culture, even in the absence of serum. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) also significantly stimulated fetal adrenal cell growth. However, the effects of PM differed from those of EGF and FGF in several respects: (1) maximal response to PM was 2-5 times greater; (2) mitogenic effects of EGF and FGF were suppressed by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), whereas that of 50% PM was not; (3) PM inhibited ACTH-stimulated steroidogenesis (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cortisol), but EGF and FGF did not. Preliminary characterization studies have indicated that approximately half of the placental growth-promoting activity is heat resistant and sensitive to bacterial proteases, and that 50-60% of the activity is lost after dialysis with membranes having a molecular weight cutoff of 3500. These findings suggest a role for the placenta in the growth and differentiated function of the human fetal adrenal gland

  7. Placental chorangioma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Kano; live birth; placental chorangioma; Pregnancy. Introduction. Placental ... single live intrauterine fetus in longitudinal lie and breech presentation with ... Pelvic examination revealed normal external genitalia; the cervix was ...

  8. High-Throughput Testing of Antibody-Dependent Binding Inhibition of Placental Malaria Parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten A; Salanti, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The particular virulence of Plasmodium falciparum manifests in diverse severe malaria syndromes as cerebral malaria, severe anemia and placental malaria. The cause of both the severity and the diversity of infection outcome, is the ability of the infected erythrocyte (IE) to bind a range......-throughput assay used in the preclinical and clinical development of a VAR2CSA based vaccine against placental malaria....

  9. Thyroid Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Thyroid Function Tests Leer en Español Thyroid Function Tests FUNCTION HOW DOES THE THYROID GLAND FUNCTION? ... Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid Function Tests Resources Thyroid Function Tests Brochure PDF En ...

  10. Effects of vitamin C, vitamin E, and molecular hydrogen on the placental function in trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhong; Li, Huai-Fang; Guo, Li-Li; Yang, Xiang

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of three different antioxidants, namely vitamin C, vitamin E, and molecular hydrogen, on cytotrophoblasts in vitro. Two trophoblast cell lines, JAR and JEG-3, were exposed to different concentrations of vitamin C (0, 25, 50, 100, 500, 1,000, 5,000 μmol/L), vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 100, 500, 1,000, 5,000 μmol/L), and molecular hydrogen (0, 25, 50, 100, 500 μmol/L) for 48 h. The cell viability was detected using the MTS assay. The secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were assessed and the expression of TNF-α mRNA was observed by real-time RT-PCR. Cell viability was significantly suppressed by 500 μmol/L vitamins C and E (P 0.05). The expression of TNF-α was increased by 100 μmol/L vitamin C and 50 μmol/L vitamins E, separately or combined (P vitamin C and E, separately or combined. High levels of antioxidant vitamins C and E may have significant detrimental effects on placental function, as reflected by decreased cell viability and secretion of hCG; and placental immunity, as reflected by increased production of TNF-a. Meanwhile hydrogen showed no such effects on cell proliferation and TNF-α expression, but it could affect the level of hCG, indicating hydrogen as a potential candidate of antioxidant in the management of preeclampsia (PE) should be further studied.

  11. Ultrasound assessment of placental function: the effectiveness of placental biometry in a low-risk population as a predictor of a small for gestational age neonate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinty, Patricia

    2012-07-01

    The aims of the study were to establish reference ranges for placental length and thickness in a low-risk obstetric population and to assess the likelihood of a small for gestational age (SGA) neonate on the basis of placental length at 18-24 weeks\\' gestation.

  12. Luteal and placental function in the bitch: spatio-temporal changes in prolactin receptor (PRLr expression at dioestrus, pregnancy and normal and induced parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Bernd

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine mechanisms governing canine reproductive function remain still obscure. Progesterone (P4 of luteal origin is required for maintenance of pregnancy. Corpora lutea (CL are gonadotrop-independent during the first third of dioestrus; afterwards prolactin (PRL is the primary luteotropic factor. Interestingly, the increasing PRL levels are accompanied by decreasing P4 concentrations, thus luteal regression/luteolysis occurs in spite of an increased availability of gonadotropic support. PRL acts through its receptor (PRLr, the expression of which has not yet been thoroughly investigated at the molecular and cellular level in the dog. Methods The expression of PRLr was assessed in CL of non-pregnant dogs during the course of dioestrus (days 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 65 post ovulation; p.o. as well as in CL, the utero/placental compartments (Ut/Pl and interplacental free polar zones (interplacental sites from pregnant dogs during the pre-implantation, post-implantation and mid-gestation period of pregnancy and during the normal and antigestagen-induced luteolysis. Expression of PRLr was tested by Real Time PCR, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results In non-pregnant CL the PRLr expression was significantly upregulated at day 15 p.o. and decreased significantly afterwards, towards the end of dioestrus. CL of pregnancy showed elevated PRLr expression until mid gestation while prepartal downregulation was observed. Interestingly, placental but not interplacental expression of PRLr was strongly time-related; a significant upregulation was observed towards mid-gestation. Within the CL PRLr was localized to the luteal cells; in the Ut/Pl it was localized to the fetal trophoblast and epithelial cells of glandular chambers. Moreover, in mid-pregnant animals treated with an antigestagen, both the luteal and placental, but not the uterine PRLr were significantly downregulated. Conclusions The data presented suggest that the

  13. Luteal and placental function in the bitch: spatio-temporal changes in prolactin receptor (PRLr) expression at dioestrus, pregnancy and normal and induced parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Mariusz P; Michel, Erika; Gram, Aykut; Boos, Alois; Guscetti, Franco; Hoffmann, Bernd; Aslan, Selim; Reichler, Iris

    2011-08-03

    Endocrine mechanisms governing canine reproductive function remain still obscure. Progesterone (P4) of luteal origin is required for maintenance of pregnancy. Corpora lutea (CL) are gonadotrop-independent during the first third of dioestrus; afterwards prolactin (PRL) is the primary luteotropic factor. Interestingly, the increasing PRL levels are accompanied by decreasing P4 concentrations, thus luteal regression/luteolysis occurs in spite of an increased availability of gonadotropic support. PRL acts through its receptor (PRLr), the expression of which has not yet been thoroughly investigated at the molecular and cellular level in the dog. The expression of PRLr was assessed in CL of non-pregnant dogs during the course of dioestrus (days 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 65 post ovulation; p.o.) as well as in CL, the utero/placental compartments (Ut/Pl) and interplacental free polar zones (interplacental sites) from pregnant dogs during the pre-implantation, post-implantation and mid-gestation period of pregnancy and during the normal and antigestagen-induced luteolysis. Expression of PRLr was tested by Real Time PCR, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. In non-pregnant CL the PRLr expression was significantly upregulated at day 15 p.o. and decreased significantly afterwards, towards the end of dioestrus. CL of pregnancy showed elevated PRLr expression until mid gestation while prepartal downregulation was observed. Interestingly, placental but not interplacental expression of PRLr was strongly time-related; a significant upregulation was observed towards mid-gestation. Within the CL PRLr was localized to the luteal cells; in the Ut/Pl it was localized to the fetal trophoblast and epithelial cells of glandular chambers. Moreover, in mid-pregnant animals treated with an antigestagen, both the luteal and placental, but not the uterine PRLr were significantly downregulated. The data presented suggest that the luteal provision of P4 in both pregnant and non-pregnant dogs

  14. Sex Differences in Placental Mitochondrial Function Associated with Ozone-Induced Fetal Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal growth restriction is a major underlying cause of infant mortality worldwide. Despite knowledge of risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes, the mechanisms that drive compromised growth during pregnancy have not been well established. Placental maladaptation, particularl...

  15. Placental alterations in structure and function in intra-uterine growth-retarded horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, M; Peugnet, P M; Valentino, S A; Dubois, C; Dahirel, M; Aubrière, M-C; Reigner, F; Serteyn, D; Wimel, L; Couturier-Tarrade, A; Chavatte-Palmer, P

    2018-05-01

    Following embryo transfer (ET), the size and breed of the recipient mare can affect fetal development and subsequent post natal growth rate and insulin sensitivity in foals. To investigate placental adaptation in pregnancies where increased or restricted fetal growth was induced through ET between Pony, Saddlebred and Draught horses. In vivo experiment. Control Pony (P, n = 21) and Saddlebred (S, n = 28) pregnancies were obtained by artificial insemination. Increased pregnancies were obtained by transferring Pony (P-D, n = 6) and Saddlebred (S-D, n = 8) embryos into Draught mares. Restricted pregnancies were obtained by transferring Saddlebred embryos into Pony mares (S-P, n = 6). Placental weight and surface were recorded and samples collected for stereology and analysis of expression of genes involved in placental growth, vascularisation and nutrient transport. Data were analysed by linear model. S-P foals were growth retarded when compared with controls despite increased gestational length. Placental weight was reduced but placental surface density and volume fraction were increased. Placental expression of genes involved in growth and development and nutrient transfer was strongly reduced. In contrast, placental size and weight were increased in enhanced growth P-D and S-D foals. The trophoblastic surface density and the allantoic vessels surface density were decreased in P-D and S-D, respectively, both with very few modifications in gene expression. Control embryos were produced by artificial insemination whereas experimental embryos were produced by ET. Placental structure and gene expression are modified after ET into a smaller or larger breed than that of the embryo. These adaptations contribute to the observed phenotype of foal growth restriction or enhanced growth at birth. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  16. Longitudinal assessment of maternal endothelial function and markers of inflammation and placental function throughout pregnancy in lean and obese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Frances M; Freeman, Dilys J; Ramsay, Jane E; Greer, Ian A; Caslake, Muriel; Ferrell, William R

    2007-03-01

    Obesity in pregnancy is increasing and is a risk factor for metabolic pathology such as preeclampsia. In the nonpregnant, obesity is associated with dyslipidemia, vascular dysfunction, and low-grade chronic inflammation. Our aim was to measure microvascular endothelial function in lean and obese pregnant women at intervals throughout their pregnancies and at 4 months after delivery. Plasma markers of endothelial function, inflammation, and placental function and their association with microvascular function were also assessed. Women in the 1st trimester of pregnancy were recruited, 30 with a body mass index (BMI) less than 30 kg/m(2) and 30 with a BMI more than or equal to 30 kg/m(2) matched for age, parity, and smoking status. In vivo endothelial-dependent and -independent microvascular function was measured using laser Doppler imaging in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy and at 4 months postnatal. Plasma markers of endothelial activation [soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1], inflammation (IL-6, TNFalpha, C-reactive protein, and IL-10), and placental function (PAI-1/PAI-2 ratio) were also assessed at each time point. The pattern of improving endothelial function during pregnancy was the same for lean and obese, but endothelial-dependent vasodilation was significantly lower (P lean women but declined to near 1st trimester levels in the obese (lean/obese difference, 115%; P lean response being greater than obese (P = 0.021), and response declined in both groups in the postpartum period. In multivariate analysis, time of sampling had the most impact on endothelial-independent function [18.5% (adjusted sum of squares expressed as a percentage of total means squared), P lean 0.30 (0.21-0.47), P lean counterparts. There was a higher PAI-1/ PAI-2 ratio in the 1st trimester in obese women, which improved later in

  17. Endocrine and molecular control of luteal and placental function in dogs: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, M P

    2012-12-01

    In the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), the corpus luteum (CL) is the only source of progesterone (P4) in non-pregnant and pregnant animals. The progesterone secretion profiles are almost identical in both conditions until the last third of the luteal phase when the gradual P4 decline turns into a steep drop in pregnant bitches, indicating the onset of parturition. Consequently, the length of the CL-phase in non-pregnant dogs exceeds the luteal lifespan in pregnant animals. The canine CL-function is regulated by many species-specific regulatory mechanisms, the most intriguing of which is the reported independence of gonadotropic support during the first third of dioestrus. Recently, PGE2 has been proposed as one of the most important luteotropic factors acting locally during this time, but afterwards prolactin (PRL) appears to be the main luteotropic factor. Luteal regression/luteolysis occurs, however, in spite of an increased gonadotropic support. Lately, by demonstrating the expression of PRL-receptor (PRLr), a new insight into possible regulatory mechanisms has indicated that the supply of P4 could be controlled upstream of the steroidogenic machinery at the level of PRLr expression and/or function, subsequently leading to the functional suppression of the steroidogenic machinery. An endogenous source of a luteolytic agent is apparently lacking, implicating the luteal regression in non-pregnant bitches as a passive, degenerative process even if the PGF2α-receptor is constitutively expressed in canine CL. This is in contrast to pregnant dogs in which prepartum luteolysis seems to be an active process of CL destruction by PGF2α of utero/placental origin targeting the luteal PGF2α-receptor. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Comparison of functional assays used in the clinical development of a placental malaria vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehrson, Caroline; Heno, Kristine Klysner; Adams, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy is associated with significant morbidity in pregnant women and their offspring. Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) express VAR2CSA that mediates binding to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) in the placenta. Two VAR2CSA-based vaccines for placental malaria...

  19. Life after placental dysfunction : the mother's renal function and her child's health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paauw, N.D.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: over the last decades it has become apparent that implications of pregnancy complications are not limited to the pregnancy itself, but extend to later life, not only for the exposed mother, but also for the exposed child. After placental dysfunction, characterized by the development of

  20. Placental lactogen secretion during prolonged-pregnancy in the rat: the ovary plays a pivotal role in the control of placental function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, K; Furuyama, N; Takahashi, M

    1991-10-01

    The serum of rats at mid-pregnancy contains at least 2 distinct placental lactogen (PL)-like substances tentatively termed placental lactogen-alpha (PL-alpha) and placental lactogen-beta (PL-beta) (Endocrinol Japon 38: 533-540, 1991). We have investigated the secretory patterns of three placental lactogens (PL-alpha, PL-beta and placental lactogen-II) during normal pregnancy and in two prolonged-pregnancy models. Pregnancy was prolonged by the introduction of new corpora lutea by inducing ovulation on day 15 of pregnancy by successive treatments with PMSG (30 IU/rat, sc on day 12) and hCG (10 IU/rat, iv on day 14), and in the second model by progesterone implants on day 15 of pregnancy. During normal pregnancy, each of the 3 PLs exhibited only one secretory peak in the serum; PL-alpha and PL-beta on day 12 and placental lactogen II (PL-II) on day 20. Interestingly, in the rats with new sets of corpora lutea, serum PL-alpha and PL-beta levels began to increase again on day 18 and showed peaks on day 20 for PL-alpha and on day 22 for PL-beta. In this model, the initiation of PL-II secretion was not affected, but high levels were maintained until day 26, when parturition occurred. In rats receiving either PMSG or hCG, the secretory patterns of the PLs were similar to as those during normal pregnancy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Comparative intrauterine development and placental function of ART concepti: implications for human reproductive medicine and animal breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, Enrrico; Feuer, Sky K; Rinaudo, Paolo F

    2014-01-01

    The number of children conceived using assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has reached >5 million worldwide and continues to increase. Although the great majority of ART children are healthy, many reports suggest a forthcoming risk of metabolic complications, which is further supported by the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis of suboptimal embryo/fetal conditions predisposing adult cardiometabolic pathologies. Accumulating evidence suggests that fetal and placental growth kinetics are important features predicting post-natal health, but the relationship between ART and intrauterine growth has not been systematically reviewed. Relevant studies describing fetoplacental intrauterine phenotypes of concepti generated by in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in the mouse, bovine and human were comprehensively researched using PubMed and Google Scholar. Intrauterine growth plots were created from tabular formatted data available in selected reports. ART pregnancies display minor but noticeable alterations in fetal and placental growth curves across mammalian species. In all species, there is evidence of fetal growth restriction in the earlier stages of pregnancy, followed by significant increases in placental size and accelerated fetal growth toward the end of gestation. However, there is a species-specific effect of ART on birthweights, that additionally vary in a culture condition-, strain-, and/or stage at transfer-specific manner. We discuss the potential mechanisms that underlie these changes, and how they are affected by specific components of ART procedures. ART may promote measurable alterations to intrauterine growth trajectory and placental function. Key findings include evidence that birthweight is not a reliable marker of fetal stress, and that increases in embryo manipulation result in more deviant fetal growth curves. Because growth kinetics in early life are

  2. Comparative intrauterine development and placental function of ART concepti: implications for human reproductive medicine and animal breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, Enrrico; Feuer, Sky K.; Rinaudo, Paolo F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The number of children conceived using assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has reached >5 million worldwide and continues to increase. Although the great majority of ART children are healthy, many reports suggest a forthcoming risk of metabolic complications, which is further supported by the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis of suboptimal embryo/fetal conditions predisposing adult cardiometabolic pathologies. Accumulating evidence suggests that fetal and placental growth kinetics are important features predicting post-natal health, but the relationship between ART and intrauterine growth has not been systematically reviewed. METHODS Relevant studies describing fetoplacental intrauterine phenotypes of concepti generated by in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in the mouse, bovine and human were comprehensively researched using PubMed and Google Scholar. Intrauterine growth plots were created from tabular formatted data available in selected reports. RESULTS ART pregnancies display minor but noticeable alterations in fetal and placental growth curves across mammalian species. In all species, there is evidence of fetal growth restriction in the earlier stages of pregnancy, followed by significant increases in placental size and accelerated fetal growth toward the end of gestation. However, there is a species-specific effect of ART on birthweights, that additionally vary in a culture condition-, strain-, and/or stage at transfer-specific manner. We discuss the potential mechanisms that underlie these changes, and how they are affected by specific components of ART procedures. CONCLUSIONS ART may promote measurable alterations to intrauterine growth trajectory and placental function. Key findings include evidence that birthweight is not a reliable marker of fetal stress, and that increases in embryo manipulation result in more deviant fetal growth curves

  3. Placental Chemokine Receptor D6 Is Functionally Impaired in Pre-Eclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Tersigni

    Full Text Available Pre-eclampsia (PE is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is defined by new onset of hypertension and proteinuria after the 20th week of gestation and characterized by systemic exaggerated inflammatory response. D6 is a chemokines scavenger receptor that binds with high affinity CC chemokines, internalizes and targets the ligands for degradation. It is expressed in trophoblast-derived tissues and prevents excessive placenta leukocyte infiltration.The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and function of D6 in human placentae from pre-eclamptic and healthy pregnant women.Plasma levels of D6-binding CC chemokines (CCL-2, CCL-3, CCL-4, CCL-7, CCL-11 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, CRP were analyzed in 37 healthy pregnant women and 38 patients with PE by multiplex bead assay. Higher circulating levels of CCL7, CCL11, IL-6, (p<0.0001 and CRP (p<0.05 were observed in PE women compared to controls. Levels of circulating CCL4 were decreased in PE (p<0.001, while no significant differences of CCL2, CCL3 or TNF-α levels were detected. Immunofluorescent staining of placental sections showed higher expression of D6 receptor in the PE syncytiotrophoblast. Confocal and Western blot (WB analyses revealed a prevalent distribution of D6 in trophoblast cells membranes in PE. Increased activation of D6 intracellular pathway was observed by Western blot analyses of p-LIMK and p-cofilin in trophoblast cell lysates. D6 functional assays showed reduced scavenging of CCL2 in PE cells compared to controls. Since actin filaments spatial assembling is essential for D6 intracellular trafficking and scavenging activity, we investigated by confocal microscopy trophoblast cytoskeleton organization and we observed a dramatic disarrangement in PE compared to controls.our results suggest membrane distribution of D6 receptor on trophoblast cell membranes in PE, together with reduced functionality, probably due

  4. A novel mechanism of angiotensin II-regulated placental vascular tone in the development of hypertension in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qinqin; Tang, Jiaqi; Li, Na; Zhou, Xiuwen; Li, Yongmei; Liu, Yanping; Wu, Jue; Yang, Yuxian; Shi, Ruixiu; He, Axin; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Yingying; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Lubo; Sun, Miao; Xu, Zhice

    2017-05-09

    The present study tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II plays a role in the regulation of placental vascular tone, which contributes to hypertension in preeclampsia. Functional and molecular assays were performed in large and micro placental and non-placental vessels from humans and animals. In human placental vessels, angiotensin II induced vasoconstrictions in 78.7% vessels in 155 tests, as referenced to KCl-induced contractions. In contrast, phenylephrine only produced contractions in 3.0% of 133 tests. In non-placental vessels, phenylephrine induced contractions in 76.0% of 67 tests, whereas angiotensin II failed to produce contractions in 75 tests. Similar results were obtained in animal placental and non-placental vessels. Compared with non-placental vessels, angiotensin II receptors and β-adrenoceptors were significantly increased in placental vessels. Compared to the vessels from normal pregnancy, angiotensin II-induced vasoconstrictions were significantly reduced in preeclamptic placentas, which was associated with a decrease in angiotensin II receptors. In addition, angiotensin II and angiotensin converting enzyme in the maternal-placenta circulation in preeclampsia were increased, whereas angiotensin I and angiotensin1-7 concentrations were unchanged. The study demonstrates a selective effect of angiotensin II in maintaining placental vessel tension, which may play an important role in development of hypertension in preeclampsia.

  5. Extraocular muscle function testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003397.htm Extraocular muscle function testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. ...

  6. Platelet Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Platelet Function Tests Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Also Known As Platelet Aggregation Studies PFT Platelet Function Assay PFA Formal Name Platelet Function Tests This ...

  7. Kidney function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney function tests are common lab tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working. Such tests include: ... Oh MS, Briefel G. Evaluation of renal function, water, electrolytes ... and Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, ...

  8. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see ... as hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or ...

  9. Canine placental prostaglandin E2 synthase: expression, localization, and biological functions in providing substrates for prepartum PGF2alpha synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, Aykut; Fox, Barbara; Büchler, Urs; Boos, Alois; Hoffmann, Bernd; Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2014-12-01

    The prepartum output of PGF2alpha in the bitch is associated with increased placental PGE2-synthase (PTGES) mRNA levels. Contrasting with this is a decreased expression of PGF2alpha-synthase (PGFS/AKR1C3) in uteroplacental compartments during prepartum luteolysis, suggesting an involvement of alternative synthetic pathways in PGF2alpha synthesis, for example, conversion of PGE2 to PGF2alpha. However, because the expression and possible functions of the respective PTGES proteins remained unknown, no further conclusion could be drawn. Therefore, a canine-specific PTGES antibody was generated and used to investigate the expression, cellular localization, and biochemical activities of canine uteroplacental PTGES throughout pregnancy and at prepartum luteolysis. Additionally, the biochemical activities of these tissues involved in the conversion of PGE2 to PGF2alpha were investigated. The endometrial PTGES was localized in the uterine surface epithelium at preimplantation and in superficial and deep uterine glands, endothelial cells, and myometrium throughout pregnancy and at parturition. Placental signals were mostly in the trophoblast. The biochemical properties of recombinant PTGES protein were confirmed. Additionally, expression of two PGE2-receptors, PTGER2/EP2 and PTGER4/EP4, revealed their decreasing expression during luteolysis. In contrast, the uteroplacental expression of prostaglandin transporter (PGT) was strongly elevated prior to parturition. These localization patterns resembled that of PTGES. The increased expression of PTGES and PGT at parturition, together with the accompanying decreased levels of PGE2-receptors and the capability of canine uterine and placental homogenates to take part in the conversion of PGE2 to PGF2alpha, as found in this study, suggest that PGE2 could be used locally as a substrate for prepartum PGF2alpha synthesis in the dog. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  10. Placental Aromatase Is Deficient in Placental Ischemia and Preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Perez-Sepulveda

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a maternal hypertensive disorder with uncertain etiology and a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality worldwide, causing nearly 40% of premature births delivered before 35 weeks of gestation. The first stage of preeclampsia is characterized by reduction of utero-placental blood flow which is reflected in high blood pressure and proteinuria during the second half of pregnancy. In human placenta androgens derived from the maternal and fetal adrenal glands are converted into estrogens by the enzymatic action of placental aromatase. This implies that alterations in placental steroidogenesis and, subsequently, in the functionality or bioavailability of placental aromatase may be mechanistically involved in the pathophysiology of PE.Serum samples were collected at 32-36 weeks of gestation and placenta biopsies were collected at time of delivery from PE patients (n = 16 and pregnant controls (n = 32. The effect of oxygen tension on placental cells was assessed by incubation JEG-3 cells under 1% and 8% O2 for different time periods, Timed-mated, pregnant New Zealand white rabbits (n = 6 were used to establish an in vivo model of placental ischemia (achieved by ligature of uteroplacental vessels. Aromatase content and estrogens and androgens concentrations were measured.The protein and mRNA content of placental aromatase significantly diminished in placentae obtained from preeclamptic patients compared to controls. Similarly, the circulating concentrations of 17-β-estradiol/testosterone and estrone/androstenedione were reduced in preeclamptic patients vs. controls. These data are consistent with a concomitant decrease in aromatase activity. Aromatase content was reduced in response to low oxygen tension in the choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cell line and in rabbit placentae in response to partial ligation of uterine spiral arteries, suggesting that reduced placental aromatase activity in preeclamptic patients may be associated with chronic

  11. The accuracy of placental alpha-microglobuline-1 test in diagnosis of premature rupture of the membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khooshideh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature rupture of membranes (PROM is a common obstetric issue during pregnancy which might lead to serious fetal or maternal problems. Therefore, an appropriate diagnosis and management of PROM are of significant importance in patients. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of placental alpha microglobuline-1 (PAMG-1 test in PROM diagnosis and compare this diagnostic method with other standard tests in diagnosis of PROM. Materials and Methods: In this prospective diagnostic accuracy study, patients with symptoms of membrane rupture in 16-39 weeks of gestation were involved. Three tests including Fern, Nitrazine and PAMG-1 were performed at the same time. Results: PROM was confirmed in 86 patients out of 100. The sensitivity and specificity were respectively 81.3% and 100% for Fern test, 93% and 92.8% for Nitrazine test, 98.9% and 92.8% for PAMG-1 test. PAMG-1 test showed higher sensitivity (98.9% with p<0.001 and accuracy (98% compared with conventional tests. Although PAMG-1showed a lower positive predictive value (PPV compared to conventional tests such as Fern test (100%, it was shown to be more accurate. Conclusion: The accuracy of PAMG-1 test was superior to both Fern and Nitrazine test in PROM diagnosis.

  12. Pancreatic Exocrine Function Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, J. Edward

    1982-01-01

    It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and par...

  13. Expression of Biglycan in First Trimester Chorionic Villous Sampling Placental Samples and Altered Function in Telomerase-Immortalized Microvascular Endothelial Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chui, Amy; Gunatillake, Tilini; Brennecke, Shaun P.; Ignjatovic, Vera; Monagle, Paul T.; Whitelock, John M.; van Zanten, Dagmar E.; Eijsink, Jasper; Wang, Yao; Deane, James; Borg, Anthony J.; Stevenson, Janet; Erwich, Jan Jaap; Said, Joanne M.; Murthi, Padma

    Objective-Biglycan (BGN) has reduced expression in placentae from pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR). We used first trimester placental samples from pregnancies with later small for gestational age (SGA) infants as a surrogate for FGR. The functional consequences of reduced

  14. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; hide

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  15. Pancreatic exocrine function testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and para-aminobenzoic acid bound to a dipeptide. Of all these tests the secretin stimulation test is the most accurate and reliable if done by experienced personnel. However, the indirect tests are simpler to do and appear to be comparable to the secretin test at detecting pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. These indirect tests are becoming clinically available and clinicians should familiarize themselves with the strengths and weaknesses of each

  16. Diagnostic performance of placental alpha-microglobulin-1 test in women with prolonged pre-labour rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleje, George Uchenna; Ezugwu, Euzebus Chinonye; Eke, Ahizechukwu Chigoziem; Eleje, Lydia Ijeoma; Ikechebelu, Joseph Ifeanyichukwu; Afiadigwe, Evaristus Anthony; Ezugwu, Frank O; Udigwe, Gerald Okanandu; Okafor, Charles I; Ezeama, Chukwuemeka Okwudili

    2016-01-01

    To determine diagnostic performance of placental alpha-microglobulin-1 (PAMG-1) test compared to conventional clinical assessment (CCA) in women with prolonged pre-labour rupture of membranes (PROM). A double-blind study of women with symptoms and signs of PROM in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi and University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, in south-east Nigeria using CCA for PROM and PAMG-1 test was done. Women were included if their symptoms, signs or complaints suggestive of PROM was more than 24 h duration. PROM was diagnosed if two out of three methods from CCA (pooling, positive nitrazine test or ferning) were present. Confirmation of PROM was done after delivery using any two of these clinical criteria: delivery in 48 h to 7 days, evidence of chorioamnionitis, membranes obviously ruptured at delivery and adverse perinatal outcomes strongly correlated with prolonged PROM. Accuracy, specificity and sensitivity value for CCA were 72.5, 36.8 and 86.0% lower than for PAMG-1 test which were 95.7, 94.1 and 96.2%. In equivocal cases, PAMG-1 was significantly more accurate than CCA (92.3% versus 38.5%; p < 0.001). This study in women with prolonged PROM, confirms that PAMG-1 test has high diagnostic accuracy irrespective of the duration of PROM before clinical evaluation.

  17. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  18. Automate functional testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kalindri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, software engineers are increasingly turning to the option of automating functional tests, but not always have successful in this endeavor. Reasons range from low planning until over cost in the process. Some principles that can guide teams in automating these tests are described in this article.

  19. What is the most suitable MR signal index for quantitative evaluation of placental function using Half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo compared with T2-relaxation time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, Kyoko Nakao; Kido, Aki; Himoto, Yuki; Moribata, Yusaku; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Konishi, Ikuo; Togashi, Kaori

    2018-06-01

    Background Half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) imaging is now widely used for placental and fetal imaging because of its rapidity and low sensitivity to fetal movement. If placental dysfunction is also predicted by quantitative value obtained from HASTE image, then it might be beneficial for evaluating placental wellbeing. Purpose To ascertain the most suitable magnetic resonance (MR) signal indexes reflecting placental function using HASTE imaging. Material and Methods This retrospective study included 37 consequent patients who had given informed consent to MR imaging (MRI) examinations. All had undergone MRI examinations between February 2014 and June 2015. First, the correlation between T2-relaxation time of normal placenta and gestational age (GA) was examined. Second, correlation between signal intensity ratios (SIRs) using HASTE imaging and placental T2-relaxation time were assessed. The SIRs were calculated using placental signal intensity (SI) relative to the SI of the amniotic fluid, fetal ocular globes, gastric fluid, bladder, maternal psoas major muscles, and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. Results Among the 37 patients, the correlation between T2-relaxation time of the 25 normal placentas and GA showed a moderately strong correlation (Spearman rho = -0.447, P = 0.0250). The most significant correlation with placental T2-relaxation time was observed with the placental SIR relative to the maternal psoas major muscles (SIR pl./psoas muscle ) (Spearman rho = -0.531, P = 0.0007). Conclusion This study revealed that SIR pl./psoas muscle showed the best correlation to placental T2-relaxation time. Results show that SIR pl./psoas muscle might be optimal as a clinically available quantitative index of placental function.

  20. IFPA meeting 2015 workshop report II: mechanistic role of the placenta in fetal programming; biomarkers of placental function and complications of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraweera, P H; Bobek, G; Bowen, C; Burton, G J; Correa Frigerio, P; Chaparro, A; Dickinson, H; Duncombe, G; Hyett, J; Illanes, S E; Johnstone, E; Kumar, S; Morgan, T K; Myers, J; Orefice, R; Roberts, C T; Salafia, C M; Thornburg, K L; Whitehead, C L; Bainbridge, S A

    2016-12-01

    Workshops are an integral component of the annual International Federation of Placenta Association (IFPA) meeting, allowing for networking and focused discussion related to specialized topics on the placenta. At the 2015 IFPA meeting (Brisbane, Australia) twelve themed workshops were held, three of which are summarized in this report. These workshops focused on various aspects of placental function, particularly in cases of placenta-mediated disease. Collectively, these inter-connected workshops highlighted the role of the placenta in fetal programming, the use of various biomarkers to monitor placental function across pregnancy, and the clinical impact of novel diagnostic and surveillance modalities in instances of late onset fetal growth restriction (FGR). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal hair testing for the assessment of fetal exposure to drug of abuse during early pregnancy: Comparison with testing in placental and fetal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon, M; Pichini, S; Joya, J; Pujadas, M; Sanchez, A; Vall, O; García Algar, O; Luna, A; de la Torre, R; Rotolo, M C; Pellegrini, M

    2012-05-10

    Drug use by pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy and subsequent fetal exposure during early gestation can be assessed only by repetitive/systematic maternal blood/urine analysis or segmental hair analysis. No evidence of any relationship between maternal/fetal exposure during this specific period of gestation has been demonstrated to date in a human model. To clarify drugs toxicokinetics and transplacental passage during early pregnancy, the presence of the most widely used recreational drugs of abuse and metabolites was investigated in the proximal 4cm hair segments of women undergoing voluntary termination of pregnancy (n=280) during the 12th week of gestation and the results were compared to those from placenta and fetal tissue samples in order to verify whether maternal hair testing can reflect fetal exposure and, if so, to what extent. Hair, placenta and fetal remains were analyzed by validated gas chromatography mass spectrometry assays. Eighty one positive hair samples were identified: 60 were positive for cannabis (74.1%), 28 for cocaine (34.6%), 7 for opiates (8.6%), 3 for MDMA (3.7%) and 18.5% were positive for more than one drug. The positive hair test results were confirmed in placenta/fetal tissues in 10 cases out of 60 for cannabis (16. 7%); in 7 out of 28 for cocaine (25%); and none for the 6 opiates positive cases and 3 MDMA cases, respectively. Drugs/metabolites in hair of pregnant women can be used as biomarkers of past drug use (repetitive or sporadic), although the use is not always reflected in fetal/placental tissues. There are several possible hypotheses to explain the results: (1) the use occurred before the start of pregnancy, (2) past sporadic consumption which could be measured in hair but not in fetal and placental remains because of the narrow window of drug detection in placental/fetal tissues; (3) the sensitivity of the analytical methods was not high enough for the detection of the minute amount of drugs of abuse and

  2. Vestibular function testing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lang, E E

    2010-06-01

    Vestibular symptoms of vertigo, dizziness and dysequilibrium are common complaints which can be disabling both physically and psychologically. Routine examination of the ear nose and throat and neurological system are often normal in these patients. An accurate history and thorough clinical examination can provide a diagnosis in the majority of patients. However, in a subgroup of patients, vestibular function testing may be invaluable in arriving at a correct diagnosis and ultimately in the optimal treatment of these patients.

  3. Placental lesions and outcome in preterm born children : the relation between placental lesions, neonatal morbidity and neurological development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roescher, Annemiek

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is the link between the mother and her fetus during pregnancy and plays a crucial role in fetal growth and development. A less than optimal placental function as a result of placental lesions, may lead to maternal and or fetal problems. It is known that placental lesions are an

  4. Differential induction of functional IgG using the Plasmodium falciparum placental malaria vaccine candidate VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Vera V; Ditlev, Sisse B; Jensen, Kamilla E

    2011-01-01

    In Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemic areas placental malaria (PM) is an important complication of malaria. The recurrence of malaria in primigravidae women irrespective of acquired protection during childhood is caused by the interaction between the parasite-expressed VAR2CSA antigen and chon...

  5. Functional Testing Airborne Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-27

    recorded, and presented in accordance with this TOP? Yes No Comment : 2. Were the facilities, test equipment, instrumentation, and support accommo- dations...adequate to accomplish the test objectives? Yes No Comment : 3. Have all data collected been reviewed for correctness and completeness? Yes No ... Comment : 4. Were the test results compromised in any way due to insufficient test planning? Yes No . Comment : 5. Were the test results compromised in any

  6. Testing properties of generic functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansson, P.; Jeuring, J.T.; Cabenda, L.; Engels, G.; Kleerekoper, J.; Mak, S.; Overeem, M.; Visser, Kees

    2006-01-01

    Software testing is an important part of the software devel- opment process. Testing comes in many flavours: unit testing, property testing, regression testing, contract checking, etc. QuickCheck is proba- bly one of the most advanced tools for testing properties of functional programs. It

  7. The 4-vessel Sampling Approach to Integrative Studies of Human Placental Physiology In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Ane M; Holm, Maia B; Roland, Marie C P; Horne, Hildegunn; Michelsen, Trond M; Haugen, Guttorm; Henriksen, Tore

    2017-08-02

    The human placenta is highly inaccessible for research while still in utero. The current understanding of human placental physiology in vivo is therefore largely based on animal studies, despite the high diversity among species in placental anatomy, hemodynamics and duration of the pregnancy. The vast majority of human placenta studies are ex vivo perfusion studies or in vitro trophoblast studies. Although in vitro studies and animal models are essential, extrapolation of the results from such studies to the human placenta in vivo is uncertain. We aimed to study human placenta physiology in vivo at term, and present a detailed protocol of the method. Exploiting the intraabdominal access to the uterine vein just before the uterine incision during planned cesarean section, we collect blood samples from the incoming and outgoing vessels on the maternal and fetal sides of the placenta. When combining concentration measurements from blood samples with volume blood flow measurements, we are able to quantify placental and fetal uptake and release of any compound. Furthermore, placental tissue samples from the same mother-fetus pairs can provide measurements of transporter density and activity and other aspects of placental functions in vivo. Through this integrative use of the 4-vessel sampling method we are able to test some of the current concepts of placental nutrient transfer and metabolism in vivo, both in normal and pathological pregnancies. Furthermore, this method enables the identification of substances secreted by the placenta to the maternal circulation, which could be an important contribution to the search for biomarkers of placenta dysfunction.

  8. A stochastic model for early placental development.

    KAUST Repository

    Cotter, Simon L

    2014-08-01

    In the human, placental structure is closely related to placental function and consequent pregnancy outcome. Studies have noted abnormal placental shape in small-for-gestational-age infants which extends to increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. The origins and determinants of placental shape are incompletely understood and are difficult to study in vivo. In this paper, we model the early development of the human placenta, based on the hypothesis that this is driven by a chemoattractant effect emanating from proximal spiral arteries in the decidua. We derive and explore a two-dimensional stochastic model, and investigate the effects of loss of spiral arteries in regions near to the cord insertion on the shape of the placenta. This model demonstrates that disruption of spiral arteries can exert profound effects on placental shape, particularly if this is close to the cord insertion. Thus, placental shape reflects the underlying maternal vascular bed. Abnormal placental shape may reflect an abnormal uterine environment, predisposing to pregnancy complications. Through statistical analysis of model placentas, we are able to characterize the probability that a given placenta grew in a disrupted environment, and even able to distinguish between different disruptions.

  9. Protein Profiling of Preeclampsia Placental Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Chang; Liu, Zitao; Cui, Lifeng; Wei, Chengguo; Wang, Shuwen; Tang, Jian Jenny; Cui, Miao; Lian, Guodong; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiufen; Xu, Hongmei; Jiang, Jing; Lee, Peng; Zhang, David Y.; He, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder involved in pregnancy without an effective treatment except delivery. The precise pathogenesis of this complicated disorder is still not completely understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the alterations of protein expression and phosphorylations that are important in regulating placental cell function in preterm and term preeclampsia. Using the Protein Pathway Array, 38 proteins in placental tissues were found to be differentially expres...

  10. Testing properties of generic functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansson, P.; Jeuring, J.T.; Cabenda, L.; Engels, G.; Kleerekoper, J.; Mak, S.; Overeem, M.; Visser, Kees

    2007-01-01

    A datatype-generic function is a family of functions indexed by (the structure of) a type. Examples include equality tests, maps and pretty printers. Property based testing tools like QuickCheck and Gast support the de¯nition of properties and test-data generators, and they check if a

  11. Review: Maternal health and the placental microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Elise; Gomez-Arango, Luisa F; Barrett, Helen L; Nitert, Marloes Dekker

    2017-06-01

    Over the past decade, the role of the microbiome in regulating metabolism, immune function and behavior in humans has become apparent. It has become clear that the placenta is not a sterile organ, but rather has its own endogenous microbiome. The composition of the placental microbiome is distinct from that of the vagina and has been reported to resemble the oral microbiome. Compared to the gut microbiome, the placental microbiome exhibits limited microbial diversity. This review will focus on the current understanding of the placental microbiota in normal healthy pregnancy and also in disease states including preterm birth, chorioamnionitis and maternal conditions such as obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia. Factors known to alter the composition of the placental microbiota will be discussed in the final part of this review. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Placental Origins of Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Graham J.; Fowden, Abigail L.; Thornburg, Kent L.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence links an individual's susceptibility to chronic disease in adult life to events during their intrauterine phase of development. Biologically this should not be unexpected, for organ systems are at their most plastic when progenitor cells are proliferating and differentiating. Influences operating at this time can permanently affect their structure and functional capacity, and the activity of enzyme systems and endocrine axes. It is now appreciated that such effects lay the foundations for a diverse array of diseases that become manifest many years later, often in response to secondary environmental stressors. Fetal development is underpinned by the placenta, the organ that forms the interface between the fetus and its mother. All nutrients and oxygen reaching the fetus must pass through this organ. The placenta also has major endocrine functions, orchestrating maternal adaptations to pregnancy and mobilizing resources for fetal use. In addition, it acts as a selective barrier, creating a protective milieu by minimizing exposure of the fetus to maternal hormones, such as glucocorticoids, xenobiotics, pathogens, and parasites. The placenta shows a remarkable capacity to adapt to adverse environmental cues and lessen their impact on the fetus. However, if placental function is impaired, or its capacity to adapt is exceeded, then fetal development may be compromised. Here, we explore the complex relationships between the placental phenotype and developmental programming of chronic disease in the offspring. Ensuring optimal placentation offers a new approach to the prevention of disorders such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity, which are reaching epidemic proportions. PMID:27604528

  13. LUNG FUNCTION TESTING IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Fležar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lung function testing in children above five years old is standardised similarly as is in adult population (1. Nevertheless bronchial provocation testing can be more hazardous since the calibre and reactivity of childhood airway is different. We analysed the frequency of different lung function testing procedures and addressed the safety issues of bronchial provocation testing in children.Methods. We analysed lung function testing results in 517 children, older than 5 years, tested in our laboratory in threeyear period. Spirometry was done in every patient, metacholine provocation test was used as a part of diagnostic work-up in suspected asthma. In case of airway obstruction, bronchodilator test with salbutamol was used instead of a metacholine provocation test.Results. The most common procedure in children was spirometry with bronchial provocation test as a part of diagnostic work-up of obstructive syndrome (mostly asthma. 291 children required metacholine test and 153 tests were interpreted as positive. The decline in expiratory flows (forced expiratory flow in first second – FEV1 in positive tests was greater than in adult population as was the dose of metacholine, needed to induce bronchoconstriction. The compliance of children was better than in adults.Conclusions. Lung function testing in children is reliable and safe and can be done in a well-standardised laboratory that follows the regulations of such testing in adults.

  14. Characterization of placental cholesterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie L; Wassif, Christopher A; Vaisman, Boris

    2008-01-01

    Patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal cholesterol supplementation is provided; however, it cannot correct developmental malformations due to in utero cholesterol deficit. Increased transport of cholesterol from maternal to fetal...... circulation might attenuate congenital malformations. The cholesterol transporters Abca1, Abcg1, and Sr-b1 are present in placenta; however, their potential role in placental transport remains undetermined. In mice, expression analyses showed that Abca1 and Abcg1 transcripts increased 2-3-fold between...... embryonic days 13.5 and 18.5 in placental tissue; whereas, Sr-b1 expression decreased. To examine the functional role of Abca1, Abcg1 and Sr-b1 we measured the maternal-fetal transfer of (14)C-cholesterol in corresponding mutant embryos. Disruption of either Abca1 or Sr-b1 decreased cholesterol transfer...

  15. Vitamin C supplementation ameliorates the adverse effects of nicotine on placental hemodynamics and histology in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Jamie O; Schabel, Matthias C; Roberts, Victoria H J; Morgan, Terry K; Rasanen, Juha P; Kroenke, Christopher D; Shoemaker, Sophie R; Spindel, Eliot R; Frias, Antonio E

    2015-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that prenatal nicotine exposure decreases neonatal pulmonary function in nonhuman primates, and maternal vitamin C supplementation attenuates these deleterious effects. However, the effect of nicotine on placental perfusion and development is not fully understood. This study utilizes noninvasive imaging techniques and histological analysis in a nonhuman primate model to test the hypothesis that prenatal nicotine exposure adversely effects placental hemodynamics and development but is ameliorated by vitamin C. Time-mated macaques (n = 27) were divided into 4 treatment groups: control (n = 5), nicotine only (n = 4), vitamin C only (n = 9), and nicotine plus vitamin C (n = 9). Nicotine animals received 2 mg/kg per day of nicotine bitartrate (approximately 0.7 mg/kg per day free nicotine levels in pregnant human smokers) from days 26 to 160 (term, 168 days). Vitamin C groups received ascorbic acid at 50, 100, or 250 mg/kg per day with or without nicotine. All underwent placental dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) at 135-140 days and Doppler ultrasound at 155 days to measure uterine artery and umbilical vein velocimetry and diameter to calculate uterine artery volume blood flow and placental volume blood flow. Animals were delivered by cesarean delivery at 160 days. A novel DCE-MRI protocol was utilized to calculate placental perfusion from maternal spiral arteries. Placental tissue was processed for histopathology. Placental volume blood flow was significantly reduced in nicotine-only animals compared with controls and nicotine plus vitamin C groups (P = .03). Maternal placental blood flow was not different between experimental groups by DCE-MRI, ranging from 0.75 to 1.94 mL/mL per minute (P = .93). Placental histology showed increased numbers of villous cytotrophoblast cell islands (P vitamin C. Prenatal nicotine exposure significantly decreased fetal blood supply via reduced placental volume blood flow, which

  16. Imaging of placental transport mechanisms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sölder, Elisabeth; Rohr, Irena; Kremser, Christian; Hutzler, Peter; Debbage, Paul L

    2009-05-01

    Functional analysis of material transfers requires precise statement of residence times in each tissue compartment. For the placenta, neither extractive biochemistry, isotope partitioning, nor mass-based quantitative assays provide adequate spatial resolution to allow the necessary precision. Dual-perfusion assays of material transfer in isolated placental cotyledons provide time-series data for two compartments, the maternal and fetal blood, but fail to distinguish the two cellular compartments (syncytiotrophoblast, fetal endothelium) which actively regulate rates of transfer in each direction for essentially every important molecule type. At present, no definitive technology exists for functional analysis of placental transfer functions. The challenge in developing such a technology lies in the exquisitely small and delicate structures involved, which are scaled at cellular and subcellular sizes (between 50 nm and 50 microm). The only available technologies attaining this high spatial resolution are imaging technologies, primarily light and electron microscopy. To achieve the high-quality images necessary, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is required, to provide a uniform optical sectioning plane. In turn, this requires relatively high fluorescence intensities. Design of an adequate technology therefore bases on CLSM imaging fluorochrome-tagged tracers. The temporal resolution necessary to analyse placental material transfers is expected to be of the order of a few seconds, so that conventional wet-fixation protocols are too slow. For adequately rapid fixation, snap-freezing is required. As part of this review we report results obtained from an appropriately designed experimental protocol, analysed by CLSM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The images acquired were tested for uniformity of illumination and fluorescence emission strength. Relevant data was encoded in the green channel of the trichrome images obtained, and this was thresholded by

  17. Accuracy and cost-analysis of placental alpha-microglobulin-1 test in the diagnosis of premature rupture of fetal membranes in resource-limited community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleje, George Uchenna; Ezugwu, Euzebus Chinonye; Ogunyemi, Dotun; Eleje, Lydia Ijeoma; Ikechebelu, Joseph Ifeanyichukwu; Igwegbe, Anthony Osita; Okonkwo, John E; Ikpeze, Okechukwu Christian; Udigwe, Gerald Okanandu; Onah, Hyacinth Eze; Nwosu, Betrand Obi; Ezeama, Chukwuemeka Okwudili; Ezenkwele, Eziamaka Pauline

    2015-01-01

    To determine accuracy and costs of placental α-microglobulin-1 (PAMG-1) test compared to standard clinical assessment (SCA) for diagnosing rupture of membranes (ROM). A multicenter double-blind study of consecutive women with symptoms and signs of ROM in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi and University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, both in south-east Nigeria using SCA for ROM and the PAMG-1 test was done. ROM was diagnosed if two out of three methods from SCA (pooling, positive nitrazine test or ferning) were present and confirmed post-delivery based on presence of any two of these clinical criteria: delivery in 48 h to 7 days, evidence of chorioamnionitis, membranes overtly ruptured at delivery and adverse perinatal outcomes strongly correlated with prolonged PROM. A cost-analysis was also done. The outcome measures included sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and costs for the two tests. Accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for the PAMG-1 test were 97.2%, 97.4% and 96.7%, higher than for SCA which were 83.7%, 87.9% and 70.5%, respectively (P < 0.001). Accuracy of SCA was higher at less than 34 weeks than 34 weeks or more (88.3% vs 81.4%) while the PAMG-1 test performed equally at both gestational age categories (96.1% vs 97.7%). In women without pooling, accuracy of the PAMG-1 test was 96.7%, while it was 40.0% with SCA. Analysis showed that the overall cost of SCA was 45% higher than the PAMG-1 test. This study confirms that the PAMG-1 test has a consistently high diagnostic accuracy at all gestational ages and with equivocal cases of ROM. The PAMG-1 test appears less costly than SCA. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Functional tests for myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, J.R.; Guiney, T.E.; Boucher, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Functional tests for myocardial ischemia are numerous. Most depend upon a combination of either exercise or pharmacologic intervention with analysis of the electrocardiogram, of regional perfusion with radionuclide imaging, or of regional wall motion with radionuclide imaging or echocardiography. While each test has unique features, especially at the research level, they are generally quite similar in clinical practice, so the clinician is advised to concentrate on one or two in which local expertise is high.22 references

  19. Safety of pulmonary function testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Cara; Ward, Simon; Walsted, Emil

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary function testing (PFT) is a key investigation in the evaluation of individuals with respiratory symptoms; however, the safety of routine and specialised PFT testing has not been reported in a large data set. Using patient safety incident (PSI) records, we aimed to assess risk...... was rated using the NHS National Patient Safety Agency and any hospital admission reported. RESULTS: There were 119 PSIs reported from 186 000 PFT; that is, 0.6 PSIs per 1000 tests. Cardiopulmonary PSIs were 3.3 times more likely to occur than non-cardiopulmonary (95% CI 2.17 to 5.12). Syncope was the most...

  20. Novel use of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS to non-invasively assess placental metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona C Denison

    Full Text Available Placental insufficiency is a major cause of antepartum stillbirth and fetal growth restriction (FGR. In affected pregnancies, delivery is expedited when the risks of ongoing pregnancy outweigh those of prematurity. Current tests are unable to assess placental function and determine optimal timing for delivery. An accurate, non-invasive test that clearly defines the failing placenta would address a major unmet clinical need. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H MRS can be used to assess the metabolic profile of tissue in-vivo. In FGR pregnancies, a reduction in N-acetylaspartate (NAA/choline ratio and detection of lactate methyl are emerging as biomarkers of impaired neuronal metabolism and fetal hypoxia, respectively. However, fetal brain hypoxia is a late and sometimes fatal event in placental compromise, limiting clinical utility of brain (1H MRS to prevent stillbirth. We hypothesised that abnormal placental (1H MRS may be an earlier biomarker of intrauterine hypoxia, affording the opportunity to optimise timing of delivery in at-risk fetuses.We recruited three women with severe placental insufficiency/FGR and three matched controls. Using a 3T MR system and a combination of phased-array coils, a 20×20×40 mm(1H MRS voxel was selected along the 'long-axis' of the placenta with saturation bands placed around the voxel to prevent contaminant signals. A significant choline peak (choline/lipid ratio 1.35-1.79 was detected in all healthy placentae. In contrast, in pregnancies complicated by FGR, the choline/lipid ratio was ≤0.02 in all placentae, despite preservation of the lipid peak (p<0.001.This novel proof-of-concept study suggests that in severe placental insufficiency/FGR, the observed 60-fold reduction in the choline/lipid ratio by (1H MRS may represent an early biomarker of critical placental insufficiency. Further studies will determine performance of this test and the potential role of 1H-MRS in the in-vivo assessment of

  1. Functional Genomic Approaches for the Study of Fetal/Placental Development in Swine with Special Emphasis on Imprinted Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall focus of this chapter will be the application of functional genomic approaches for the study of the imprinted gene family in swine. While there are varied definitions of “functional genomics” in general they focus on the application of genomic approaches such as DNA microarrays, single n...

  2. Structural and functional insight into how the Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA protein mediates binding to chondroitin sulfate A in placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas M; Christoffersen, Stig; Dahlbäck, Madeleine

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a major global health problem. Pregnant women are susceptible to infection regardless of previously acquired immunity. Placental malaria is caused by parasites capable of sequestering in the placenta. This is mediated by VAR2CSA, a parasite antigen that interacts with chondroitin sulfa...

  3. The Armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus: A Witness but Not a Functional Example for the Emergence of the Butyrophilin 3/Vγ9Vδ2 System in Placental Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Suzann Fichtner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available 1–5% of human blood T cells are Vγ9Vδ2 T cells whose T cell receptor (TCR contain a TRGV9/TRGJP rearrangement and a TRDV2 comprising Vδ2-chain. They respond to phosphoantigens (PAgs like isopentenyl pyrophosphate or (E-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl-pyrophosphate (HMBPP in a butyrophilin 3 (BTN3-dependent manner and may contribute to the control of mycobacterial infections. These cells were thought to be restricted to primates, but we demonstrated by analysis of genomic databases that TRGV9, TRDV2, and BTN3 genes coevolved and emerged together with placental mammals. Furthermore, we identified alpaca (Vicugna pacos as species with typical Vγ9Vδ2 TCR rearrangements and currently aim to directly identify Vγ9Vδ2 T cells and BTN3. Other candidates to study this coevolution are the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus and the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus with genomic sequences encoding open reading frames for TRGV9, TRDV2, and the extracellular part of BTN3. Dolphins have been shown to express Vγ9- and Vδ2-like TCR chains and possess a predicted BTN3-like gene homologous to human BTN3A3. The other candidate, the armadillo, is of medical interest since it serves as a natural reservoir for Mycobacterium leprae. In this study, we analyzed the armadillo genome and found evidence for multiple non-functional BTN3 genes including genomic context which closely resembles the organization of the human, alpaca, and dolphin BTN3A3 loci. However, no BTN3 transcript could be detected in armadillo cDNA. Additionally, attempts to identify a functional TRGV9/TRGJP rearrangement via PCR failed. In contrast, complete TRDV2 gene segments preferentially rearranged with a TRDJ4 homolog were cloned and co-expressed with a human Vγ9-chain in murine hybridoma cells. These cells could be stimulated by immobilized anti-mouse CD3 antibody but not with human RAJI-RT1Bl cells and HMBPP. So far, the lack of expression of TRGV9 rearrangements and BTN3

  4. Placental Protein 13 (PP13 – a placental immunoregulatory galectin protecting pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandor Gabor Than

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Galectins are glycan-binding proteins that regulate innate and adaptive immune responses, and some confer maternal-fetal immune tolerance in eutherian mammals. A chromosome 19 cluster of galectins has emerged in anthropoid primates, species with deep placentation and long gestation. Three of the five human cluster galectins are solely expressed in the placenta, where they may confer additional immunoregulatory functions to enable deep placentation. One of these is galectin-13, also known as Placental Protein 13 (PP13. It has a jelly-roll fold, carbohydrate-recognition domain and sugar-binding preference resembling to other mammalian galectins. PP13 is predominantly expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast and released from the placenta into the maternal circulation. Its ability to induce apoptosis of activated T cells in vitro, and to divert and kill T cells as well as macrophages in the maternal decidua in situ suggests important immune functions. Indeed, mutations in the promoter and an exon of LGALS13 presumably leading to altered or non-functional protein expression are associated with a higher frequency of preeclampsia and other obstetrical syndromes, which involve immune dysregulation. Moreover, decreased placental expression of PP13 and its low first trimester maternal serum concentrations are associated with elevated risk of preeclampsia. Indeed, PP13 turned to be a good early biomarker to assess maternal risk for the subsequent development of pregnancy complications caused by impaired placentation. Due to the ischemic placental stress in preterm preeclampsia, there is an increased trophoblastic shedding of PP13 immunopositive microvesicles starting in the second trimester, which leads to high maternal blood PP13 concentrations. Our meta-analysis suggests that this phenomenon may enable the potential use of PP13 in directing patient management near to or at the time of delivery. Recent findings on the beneficial effects of PP13 on decreasing

  5. Placental weight and birth weight to placental weight ratio in monochorionic and dichorionic growth-restricted and non-growth-restricted twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Alves Souza

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the placental weight and birth weight/placental weight ratio for intrauterine growth-restricted and non-intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of placentas from twin pregnancies. Placental weight and the birth weight/placental weight ratio were compared in intrauterine growth-restricted and non-intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins. The association between cord insertion type and placental lesions in intrauterine growth-restricted and non-intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins was also investigated. RESULTS: A total of 105 monochorionic (intrauterine growth restriction=40; non-intrauterine growth restriction=65 and 219 dichorionic (intrauterine growth restriction=57; non-intrauterine growth restriction=162 placentas were analyzed. A significantly lower placental weight was observed in intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic (p=0.022 and dichorionic (p<0.001 twins compared to non-intrauterine growth-restricted twins. There was no difference in the birth weight/placental weight ratio between the intrauterine growth restriction and non-intrauterine growth restriction groups for either monochorionic (p=0.36 or dichorionic (p=0.68 twins. Placental weight and the birth weight/placental weight ratio were not associated with cord insertion type or with placental lesions. CONCLUSION: Low placental weight, and consequently reduced functional mass, appears to be involved in fetal growth restriction in monochorionic and dichorionic twins. The mechanism by which low placental weight influences the birth weight/placental weight ratio in intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins needs to be determined in larger prospective studies.

  6. The artiodactyl APOBEC3 innate immune repertoire shows evidence for a multi-functional domain organization that existed in the ancestor of placental mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrésdóttir Valgerdur

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background APOBEC3 (A3 proteins deaminate DNA cytosines and block the replication of retroviruses and retrotransposons. Each A3 gene encodes a protein with one or two conserved zinc-coordinating motifs (Z1, Z2 or Z3. The presence of one A3 gene in mice (Z2–Z3 and seven in humans, A3A-H (Z1a, Z2a-Z1b, Z2b, Z2c-Z2d, Z2e-Z2f, Z2g-Z1c, Z3, suggests extraordinary evolutionary flexibility. To gain insights into the mechanism and timing of A3 gene expansion and into the functional modularity of these genes, we analyzed the genomic sequences, expressed cDNAs and activities of the full A3 repertoire of three artiodactyl lineages: sheep, cattle and pigs. Results Sheep and cattle have three A3 genes, A3Z1, A3Z2 and A3Z3, whereas pigs only have two, A3Z2 and A3Z3. A comparison between domestic and wild pigs indicated that A3Z1 was deleted in the pig lineage. In all three species, read-through transcription and alternative splicing also produced a catalytically active double domain A3Z2-Z3 protein that had a distinct cytoplasmic localization. Thus, the three A3 genes of sheep and cattle encode four conserved and active proteins. These data, together with phylogenetic analyses, indicated that a similar, functionally modular A3 repertoire existed in the common ancestor of artiodactyls and primates (i.e., the ancestor of placental mammals. This mammalian ancestor therefore possessed the minimal A3 gene set, Z1-Z2-Z3, required to evolve through a remarkable series of eight recombination events into the present day eleven Z domain human repertoire. Conclusion The dynamic recombination-filled history of the mammalian A3 genes is consistent with the modular nature of the locus and a model in which most of these events (especially the expansions were selected by ancient pathogenic retrovirus infections.

  7. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functional test. 35.40 Section 35.40... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.40 Functional test. The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected to the applicable functional tests of this section. The same propeller system used in...

  8. Adaptations in Maternofetal Calcium Transport in Relation to Placental Size and Fetal Sex in Mice

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    Christina E. Hayward

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate placental transport of calcium is essential for normal fetal skeletal mineralization. In fetal growth restriction (FGR, the failure of a fetus to achieve its growth potential, a number of placental nutrient transport systems show reduced activity but, in the case of calcium, placental transport is increased. In a genetic mouse model of FGR this increase, or adaptation, maintains appropriate fetal calcium content, relative to the size of the fetus, despite a small, dysfunctional placenta. It is unknown whether such an adaptation is also apparent in small, but normally functioning placentas. We tested the hypothesis that calcium transfer would be up-regulated in the lightest vs. heaviest placentas in the same C57Bl/6J wild-type (WT mouse litter. Since lightest placentas are often from females, we also assessed whether fetal sex influenced placental calcium transfer. Placentas and fetuses were collected at embryonic day (E16.5 and 18.5; the lightest and heaviest placentas, and female and male fetuses, were identified. Unidirectional maternofetal calcium clearance (CaKmf was assessed following 45Ca administration to the dam and subsequent radiolabel counts within the fetuses. Placental expression of calcium pathway components was measured by Western blot. Data (median are lightest placenta expressed as percentage of the heaviest within a litter and analyzed by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. In WT mice having normally grown fetuses, CaKmf, per gram placenta near term, in the lightest placentas was increased (126%; P < 0.05 in association with reduced fetal calcium accretion earlier in gestation (92%; P < 0.05, that was subsequently normalized near term. Increased placental expression of calbindin-D9K, an important calcium binding protein, was observed in the lightest placentas near term (122%; P < 0.01. There was no difference in fetal calcium accretion between male and female littermates but a trend toward higher CaKmf in females (P = 0

  9. Pulmonary Function Testing in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing test. About 15 minutes after taking the medicine, your child will repeat the breathing test. The results from ... the first test to find out if the medicine has improved your child’s breathing. Why shouldn’t I give my child ...

  10. Effects from placental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamoto, S [Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1975-12-01

    Investigations of the effects on the people who had received placental exposure at either Hiroshima or Nagasaki were discussed. All of the subjects were children who had been born at either Hiroshima or Nagasaki between noon of 31, May, 1946 and the atomic-bomb detornation. Deaths of embryos and neonates were determined by the radiation dosage and the growth phase of embryos. Bifid uvula and a slight decrease of number of lumbar vertebra were observed in 14 males and 3 females at Nagasaki. Mental deficiency occurred in 25% of the children whose mothers had received radiation at Nagasaki, and in 8% at Hiroshima. The occurrence of microcephaly was high at both places in the children who had received placental exposure of more than 150 rad. A significant retardation of growth was observed in those who had had a high radiation dosage. Congenitally abnormal persistence of pupillary membrane was very frequently observed in the group which had received a high dosage of radiation. Concerning progeria, mortality of infants under one year of age was increased in the group which had received a high dosage of radiation, but mortality statistics should continue to be observed.

  11. Effect of malaria on placental volume measured using three-dimensional ultrasound: a pilot study

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    Rijken Marcus J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of malaria parasites and histopathological changes in the placenta are associated with a reduction in birth weight, principally due to intrauterine growth restriction. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of studying early pregnancy placental volumes using three-dimensional (3D ultrasound in a malaria endemic area, as a small volume in the second trimester may be an indicator of intra-uterine growth restriction and placental insufficiency. Methods Placenta volumes were acquired using a portable ultrasound machine and a 3D ultrasound transducer and estimated using the Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL image analysis software package. Intra-observer reliability and limits of agreement of the placenta volume measurements were calculated. Polynomial regression models for the mean and standard deviation as a function of gestational age for the placental volumes of uninfected women were created and tested. Based on these equations each measurement was converted into a z -score. The z-scores of the placental volumes of malaria infected and uninfected women were then compared. Results Eighty-four women (uninfected = 65; infected = 19 with a posterior placenta delivered congenitally normal, live born, single babies. The mean placental volumes in the uninfected women were modeled to fit 5th, 10th, 50th, 90th and 95th centiles for 14-24 weeks' gestation. Most placenta volumes in the infected women were below the 50th centile for gestational age; most of those with Plasmodium falciparum were below the 10th centile. The 95% intra-observer limits of agreement for first and second measurements were ± 37.0 mL and ± 25.4 mL at 30 degrees and 15 degrees rotation respectively. Conclusion The new technique of 3D ultrasound volumetry of the placenta may be useful to improve our understanding of the pathophysiological constraints on foetal growth caused by malaria infection in early pregnancy.

  12. Elevated Adenosine Induces Placental DNA Hypomethylation Independent of A2B Receptor Signaling in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Aji; Wu, Hongyu; Iriyama, Takayuki; Zhang, Yujin; Sun, Kaiqi; Song, Anren; Liu, Hong; Peng, Zhangzhe; Tang, Lili; Lee, Minjung; Huang, Yun; Ni, Xin; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2017-07-01

    Preeclampsia is a prevalent pregnancy hypertensive disease with both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Emerging evidence indicates that global placental DNA hypomethylation is observed in patients with preeclampsia and is linked to altered gene expression and disease development. However, the molecular basis underlying placental epigenetic changes in preeclampsia remains unclear. Using 2 independent experimental models of preeclampsia, adenosine deaminase-deficient mice and a pathogenic autoantibody-induced mouse model of preeclampsia, we demonstrate that elevated placental adenosine not only induces hallmark features of preeclampsia but also causes placental DNA hypomethylation. The use of genetic approaches to express an adenosine deaminase minigene specifically in placentas, or adenosine deaminase enzyme replacement therapy, restored placental adenosine to normal levels, attenuated preeclampsia features, and abolished placental DNA hypomethylation in adenosine deaminase-deficient mice. Genetic deletion of CD73 (an ectonucleotidase that converts AMP to adenosine) prevented the elevation of placental adenosine in the autoantibody-induced preeclampsia mouse model and ameliorated preeclampsia features and placental DNA hypomethylation. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that elevated placental adenosine-mediated DNA hypomethylation predominantly occurs in spongiotrophoblasts and labyrinthine trophoblasts and that this effect is independent of A2B adenosine receptor activation in both preeclampsia models. Extending our mouse findings to humans, we used cultured human trophoblasts to demonstrate that adenosine functions intracellularly and induces DNA hypomethylation without A2B adenosine receptor activation. Altogether, both mouse and human studies reveal novel mechanisms underlying placental DNA hypomethylation and potential therapeutic approaches for preeclampsia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. [Maternal-placental interactions and fetal programming].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadyrov, M; Moser, G; Rath, W; Kweider, N; Wruck, C J; Pufe, T; Huppertz, B

    2013-06-01

    Pregnancy-related complications not only represent a risk for maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, but are also a risk for several diseases later in life. Many epidemiological studies have shown clear associations between an adverse intrauterine environment and an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, depression, obesity, and other chronic diseases in the adult. Some of these syndromes could be prevented by avoiding adverse stimuli or insults including psychological stress during pregnancy, intake of drugs, insufficient diet and substandard working conditions. Hence, all of these stimuli have the potential to alter health later in life. The placenta plays a key role in regulating the nutrient supply to the fetus and producing hormones that control the fetal as well as the maternal metabolism. Thus, any factor or stimulus that alters the function of the hormone producing placental trophoblast will provoke critical alterations of placental function and hence could induce programming of the fetus. The factors that change placental development may interfere with nutrient and oxygen supply to the fetus. This may be achieved by a direct disturbance of the placental barrier or more indirectly by, e. g., disturbing trophoblast invasion. For both path-ways, the respective pathologies are known: while preeclampsia is caused by alterations of the villous trophoblast, intra-uterine growth restriction is caused by insufficient invasion of the extravillous trophoblast. In both cases the effect can be undernutrition and/or fetal hypoxia, both of which adversely affect organ development, especially of brain and heart. However, the mechanisms responsible for disturbances of trophoblast differentiation and function remain elusive. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. IMMUNOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF APOPTOSIS IN PLACENTAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Sokolov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In present review, the data are considered that concern a role of immunological mechanisms controlling the events of apoptosis at different stages of development of placenta. Intensity of apoptotic process in human placenta is progressively increasing in the course of pregnancy, until delivery act. The processes of apoptosis induction and its prevention in placental cells are inseparably linked to development of placenta and formation of vascular system, as controlled by trophoblast cells, as well as by maternal fetal immune cells. T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, NKT-cells and macrophages that perform surveillance over the processes of angiogenesis and apoptosis in placental tissue, thus providing its normal development and functioning.

  15. Placental perfusion - a human alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2006-01-01

    Foetal exposures to environmental and medicinal products have impact on the growth of the foetus (e.g. cigarette smoke) and development of organs (e.g. methylmercury and Thalidomide). Perfusion studies of the human term placenta enable investigation of placental transport of chemical substances...... between the mother and foetus. Dual perfusion of a single cotyledon in the human placenta can contribute to a better understanding of the placental barrier, transport rate and mechanisms of different substances and placental metabolism. The perfusion system has recently been established in Copenhagen...

  16. Placental Nutrient Transport in Gestational Diabetic Pregnancies

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    Marisol Castillo-Castrejon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity during pregnancy is rising and is associated with increased risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, defined as glucose intolerance first diagnosed in pregnancy (1. Fetal growth is determined by the maternal nutrient supply and placental nutrient transfer capacity. GDM-complicated pregnancies are more likely to be complicated by fetal overgrowth or excess adipose deposition in utero. Infants born from GDM mothers have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic disorders later in life. Diverse factors, such as ethnicity, age, fetal sex, clinical treatment for glycemic control, gestational weight gain, and body mass index among others, represent a challenge for studying underlying mechanisms in GDM subjects. Determining the individual roles of glucose intolerance, obesity, and other factors on placental function and fetal growth remains a challenge. This review provides an overview of changes in placental macronutrient transport observed in human pregnancies complicated by GDM. Improved knowledge and understanding of the alterations in placenta function that lead to pathological fetal growth will allow for development of new therapeutic interventions and treatments to improve pregnancy outcomes and lifelong health for the mother and her children.

  17. PLACENTAL WEIGHT AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH MATERNAL AND NEONATAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Asgharnia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nPlacenta plays a vital role in normal fetal development and failure of placenta to gain weight and insufficiency of its function can result in fetal disorders. We performed this study to determine placental weight and factors associated with low weight placentas. In a longitudinal cross-sectional study, women with single pregnancy, and gestational age between 37-42 weeks were studied. The subjects were categorized in high (> 750 g, normal (330-750 g, and low placental weights (< 330 g. The placental weight, birth weight, maternal age, gestational age, parity, pre-eclampsia, history of maternal diabetes, delivery approaches, infants' gender; and Apgar score in 5th minutes after delivery were examined. One thousand-eighty eight pregnant women were included in the study. The mean and standard deviation for maternal ages and gestational ages at deliveries were 25.35 ± 5.6 and 247.51 ± 9.56 days, respectively. The mean and standard deviation of neonates' weights at birth and placental weights were 3214.28 ± 529 and 529.72 ± 113 g, respectively. The prevalences of low and high placental weights were 2% and 2.8%, respectively. There were statistically significant relationships between placental weight and birth weight, fetal distress, Apgar score, maternal diabetes, pre-eclampsia and approaches of deliveries (α = 0.05. Our findings indicate that placental weight can be associated with important variables influencing some maternal and neonatal outcomes and placental weight lower than 330 g can be a warning sign. Careful attention to placenta growth during pregnancy, for example by ultrasonography, can guide physicians to assess neonatal health.

  18. Melatonin improves placental efficiency and birth weight and increases the placental expression of antioxidant enzymes in undernourished pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Hans G; Hansell, Jeremy A; Raut, Shruti; Giussani, Dino A

    2009-05-01

    Melatonin participates in circadian, seasonal and reproductive physiology. Melatonin also acts as a potent endogenous antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and upregulating antioxidant pathways. The placenta expresses melatonin receptors and melatonin protects against oxidative damage induced in rat placenta by ischemia-reperfusion. One of the most common complications in pregnancy is a reduction in fetal nutrient delivery, which is known to promote oxidative stress. However, whether melatonin protects placental function and fetal development in undernourished pregnancy is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of maternal treatment with melatonin on placental efficiency, fetal growth, birth weight and protein expression of placental oxidative stress markers in undernourished pregnancy. On day 15 of pregnancy, rats were divided into control and undernourished pregnancy (35% reduction in food intake), with and without melatonin treatment (5 microg/mL drinking water). On day 20 of gestation, fetal biometry was carried out, the placenta was weighed and subsequently analyzed by Western blot for xanthine oxidase, heat shock protein (HSP) 27 and 70, catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1). A separate cohort was allowed to deliver to assess effects on birth weight. Maternal undernutrition led to a fall in placental efficiency, disproportionate intrauterine growth retardation and a reduction in birth weight. Maternal treatment with melatonin in undernourished pregnancy improved placental efficiency and restored birth weight, and it increased the expression of placental Mn-SOD and catalase. The data show that in pregnancy complicated by undernutrition, melatonin may improve placental efficiency and birth weight by upregulating placental antioxidant enzymes.

  19. MicroRNAs in Human Placental Development and Pregnancy Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Peng

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs, which function as critical posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression by promoting mRNA degradation and translational inhibition. Placenta expresses many ubiquitous as well as specific miRNAs. These miRNAs regulate trophoblast cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion/migration, and angiogenesis, suggesting that miRNAs play important roles during placental development. Aberrant miRNAs expression has been linked to pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia. Recent research of placental miRNAs focuses on identifying placental miRNA species, examining differential expression of miRNAs between placentas from normal and compromised pregnancies, and uncovering the function of miRNAs in the placenta. More studies are required to further understand the functional significance of miRNAs in placental development and to explore the possibility of using miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for pregnancy-related disorders. In this paper, we reviewed the current knowledge about the expression and function of miRNAs in placental development, and propose future directions for miRNA studies.

  20. The Influence of Sub-Unit Composition and Expression System on the Functional Antibody Response in the Development of a VAR2CSA Based Plasmodium falciparum Placental Malaria Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten A Nielsen

    Full Text Available The disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum (Pf involves different clinical manifestations that, cumulatively, kill hundreds of thousands every year. Placental malaria (PM is one such manifestation in which Pf infected erythrocytes (IE bind to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA through expression of VAR2CSA, a parasite-derived antigen. Protection against PM is mediated by antibodies that inhibit binding of IE in the placental intervillous space. VAR2CSA is a large antigen incompatible with large scale recombinant protein expression. Vaccines based on sub-units encompassing the functionally constrained receptor-binding domains may, theoretically, circumvent polymorphisms, reduce the risk of escape-mutants and induce cross-reactive antibodies. However, the sub-unit composition and small differences in the borders, may lead to exposure of novel immuno-dominant antibody epitopes that lead to non-functional antibodies, and furthermore influence the folding, stability and yield of expression. Candidate antigens from the pre-clinical development expressed in High-Five insect cells using the baculovirus expression vector system were transitioned into the Drosophila Schneider-2 cell (S2 expression-system compliant with clinical development. The functional capacity of antibodies against antigens expressed in High-Five cells or in S2 cells was equivalent. This enabled an extensive down-selection of S2 insect cell-expressed antigens primarily encompassing the minimal CSA-binding region of VAR2CSA. In general, we found differential potency of inhibitory antibodies against antigens with the same borders but of different var2csa sequences. Likewise, we found that subtle size differences in antigens of the same sequence gave varying levels of inhibitory antibodies. The study shows that induction of a functional response against recombinant subunits of the VAR2CSA antigen is unpredictable, demonstrating the need for large-scale screening in order to identify antigens

  1. Adenoviral-mediated placental gene transfer of IGF-1 corrects placental insufficiency via enhanced placental glucose transport mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen N Jones

    Full Text Available Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that over-expression of human insulin-like growth factor -1 (hIGF-1 in the placenta corrects fetal weight deficits in mouse, rat, and rabbit models of intrauterine growth restriction without changes in placental weight. The underlying mechanisms of this effect have not been elucidated. To investigate the effect of intra-placental IGF-1 over-expression on placental function we examined glucose transporter expression and localization in both a mouse model of IUGR and a model of human trophoblast, the BeWo Choriocarcinoma cell line.At gestational day 18, animals were divided into four groups; sham-operated controls, uterine artery branch ligation (UABL, UABL+Ad-hIGF-1 (10(8 PFU, UABL+Ad-LacZ (10(8 PFU. At gestational day 20, pups and placentas were harvested by C-section. For human studies, BeWo choriocarcinoma cells were grown in F12 complete medium +10%FBS. Cells were incubated in serum-free control media ± Ad-IGF-1 or Ad-LacZ for 48 hours. MOIs of 10∶1 and 100∶1 were utilized. The RNA, protein expression and localization of glucose transporters GLUT1, 3, 8, and 9 were analyzed by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry.In both the mouse placenta and BeWo, GLUT1 regulation was linked to altered protein localization. GLUT3, localized to the mouse fetal endothelial cells, was reduced in placental insufficiency but maintained with Ad-I GF-1 treatment. Interestingly, GLUT8 expression was reduced in the UABL placenta but up-regulated following Ad-IGF-1 in both mouse and human systems. GLUT9 expression in the mouse was increased by Ad-IGF-1 but this was not reflected in the BeWo, where Ad-IGF-1 caused moderate membrane relocalization.Enhanced GLUT isoform transporter expression and relocalization to the membrane may be an important mechanism in Ad-hIGF-1mediated correction of placental insufficiency.

  2. Characterizing the lipid and metabolite changes associated with placental function and pregnancy complications using ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin S.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2017-12-01

    Successful pregnancy is dependent upon discrete biological events, which include embryo implantation, decidualization, and placentation. Problems associated with each of these events can cause infertility or conditions such as preeclampsia. A greater understanding of the molecular changes associated with these complex processes is necessary to aid in identifying treatments for each condition. Previous nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry studies have been used to identify metabolites and lipids associated with pregnancy-related complications. However, due to limitations associated with conventional implementations of both techniques, novel technology developments are needed to more fully understand the initiation and development of pregnancy related problems at the molecular level. In this perspective, we describe current analytical techniques for metabolomic and lipidomic characterization of pregnancy complications and discuss the potential for new technologies such as ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry imaging to contribute to a better understanding of the molecular changes that affect the placenta and pregnancy outcomes.

  3. A population-based study of race-specific risk for placental abruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamilio David M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to elucidate risk factors for placental abruption are imperative due to the severity of complications it produces for both mother and fetus, and its contribution to preterm birth. Ethnicity-based differences in risk of placental abruption and preterm birth have been reported. We tested the hypotheses that race, after adjusting for other factors, is associated with the risk of placental abruption at specific gestational ages, and that there is a greater contribution of placental abruption to the increased risk of preterm birth in Black mothers, compared to White mothers. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study using the Missouri Department of Health's maternally-linked database of all births in Missouri (1989–1997 to assess racial effects on placental abruption and the contribution of placental abruption to preterm birth, at different gestational age categories (n = 664,303. Results Among 108,806 births to Black mothers and 555,497 births to White mothers, 1.02% (95% CI 0.96–1.08 of Black births were complicated by placental abruption, compared to 0.71% (95% CI 0.69–0.73 of White births (aOR 1.32, 95% CI 1.22–1.43. The magnitude of risk of placental abruption for Black mothers, compared to White mothers, increased with younger gestational age categories. The risk of placental abruption resulting in term and extreme preterm births ( Conclusion Black women have an increased risk of placental abruption compared to White women, even when controlling for known coexisting risk factors. This risk increase is greatest at the earliest preterm gestational ages when outcomes are the poorest. The relative contribution of placental abruption to term births was greater in Black women, whereas the relative contribution of placental abruption to preterm birth was greater in White women.

  4. How to interpret liver function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Levick

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Careful interpretation of liver function tests within the clinical context can help elucidate the cause and severity of the underlying pathology. Predominantly raised alkaline phosphatase represents the cholestatic pattern of biliary pathology, whilst predominantly raised alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase represent the hepatocellular pattern of hepatocellular pathology. The severity of liver dysfunction or biliary obstruction is reflected in the bilirubin level and the degree of liver synthetic function can also be indicated by the albumin level. Beyond the liver function tests, prothrombin time provides another marker of liver synthetic function and a low platelet count suggests portal hypertension.

  5. Intrapritoneal Hemorrhage after Placental Abruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Sakhavar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A placental abruption or abruptio placentae (where in the placental lining has separated from the uterus of the mother is one of the complications caused by trauma during pregnancy. It lets the blood flow to infiltrate in the uterine lining and to develop Couvelaire uterus (also known as uteroplacental apoplexy and uterine atony (a condition in which a woman's uterine muscles lose the ability to contract after childbirth; however, it rarely develops considerable hemoperitoneum which needs hysterectomy. In this report, a unique case of placental abruption caused by trauma in a 28-year-old Afghan woman is introduced in which severity and duration of trauma because of delay in reaching health equipped center led to developing massive hemoperitoneum (infiltration of great amount of blood into the abdominal cavity and its complications.

  6. Placental transfer of 14C-hexoprenaline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipshitz, J.; Broyles, K.; Whybrew, W.D.; Ahokas, R.A.; Anderson, G.D.

    1982-01-01

    The placental transfer of a single intravenous injection of 14 C-hexoprenaline was studied in eight pregnant New Zealand white rabbits. Maternal and fetal blood was sampled intermittently for 60 minutes after the injection. An initial rapid decrease in the levels of 14 C-hexoprenaline in maternal blood was followed by a second slower phase, whereas fetal heart rate after the administration of a single maternal intravenous injection of hexoprenaline in the treatment of fetal distress is due to the action on the uterus and/or on maternal cardiovascular function, and not to direct stimulation of the fetus

  7. Test bank for precalculus functions & graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Kolman, Bernard; Levitan, Michael L

    1984-01-01

    Test Bank for Precalculus: Functions & Graphs is a supplementary material for the text, Precalculus: Functions & Graphs. The book is intended for use by mathematics teachers.The book contains standard tests for each chapter in the textbook. Each set of test focuses on gauging the level of knowledge the student has achieved during the course. The answers for each chapter test and the final exam are found at the end of the book.Mathematics teachers teaching calculus will find the book extremely useful.

  8. Personalized Therapy Against Preeclampsia by Replenishing Placental Protein 13 (PP13 Targeted to Patients With Impaired PP13 Molecule or Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamutal Meiri

    Full Text Available Hypertensive disorders affect about one third of all people aged 20 and above, and are treated with anti-hypertensive drugs. Preeclampsia (PE is one form of such disorders that only develops during pregnancy. It affects ten million pregnant women globally and additionally causes fetal loss and major newborn disabilities. The syndrome's origin is multifactorial, and anti-hypertensive drugs are ineffective in treating it. Biomarkers are helpful for predict its development. Generic drugs, such as low dose aspirin, were proven effective in preventing preterm PE. However, it does not cure the majority of cases and many studies are underway for fighting PE with extended use of additional generic drugs, or through new drug development programs.This review focuses on placental protein 13 (PP13. This protein is only expressed in the placenta. Impaired PP13 DNA structure and/or its reduced mRNA expression leads to lower blood PP13 level that predict a higher risk of developing PE. Two polymorphic PP13 variants have been identified: (1 The promoter PP13 variant with an “A/A” genotype in the -98 position (versus “A/C” or “C/C”. Having the “A/A” genotype is coupled to lower PP13 expression, mainly during placental syncytiotrophoblast differentiation and, if associated with obesity and history of previous preeclampsia, it accurately predicts higher risk for developing the disorder. (2 A thymidine deletion at position 221 causes a frame shift in the open reading frame, and the formation of an early stop codon resulting in the formation of DelT221, a truncated variant of PP13. In pregnant rodents, both short- and long- term replenishment of PP13 causes reversible hypotension and vasodilation of uterine vessels. Long-term exposure is also accompanied by the development of larger placentas and newborns. Also, only w/t PP13 is capable of inducing leukocyte apoptosis, providing maternal immune tolerance to pregnancy.Based on published data, we

  9. Increasing maternal body mass index is associated with systemic inflammation in the mother and the activation of distinct placental inflammatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L M H; Lager, Susanne; Ramirez, Vanessa I; Gaccioli, Francesca; Dudley, Donald J; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2014-06-01

    Obese pregnant women have increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in maternal circulation and placental tissues. However, the pathways contributing to placental inflammation in obesity are largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that maternal body mass index (BMI) was associated with elevated proinflammatory cytokines in maternal and fetal circulations and increased activation of placental inflammatory pathways. A total of 60 women of varying pre-/early pregnancy BMI, undergoing delivery by Cesarean section at term, were studied. Maternal and fetal (cord) plasma were collected for analysis of insulin, leptin, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) 1, and TNFalpha by multiplex ELISA. Activation of the inflammatory pathways in the placenta was investigated by measuring the phosphorylated and total protein expression of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK)-MAPK, signal transducer-activated transcription factor (STAT) 3, caspase-1, IL-1beta, IkappaB-alpha protein, and p65 DNA-binding activity. To determine the link between activated placental inflammatory pathways and elevated maternal cytokines, cultured primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells were treated with physiological concentrations of insulin, MCP-1, and TNFalpha, and inflammatory signaling analyzed by Western blot. Maternal BMI was positively correlated with maternal insulin, leptin, MCP-1, and TNFalpha, whereas only fetal leptin was increased with BMI. Placental phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and STAT3, and the expression of IL-1beta protein, were increased with maternal BMI; phosphorylation of p38-MAPK was also correlated with birth weight. In contrast, placental NFkappaB, JNK and caspase-1 signaling, and fetal cytokine levels were unaffected by maternal BMI. In PHT cells, p38-MAPK was activated by MCP-1 and TNFalpha, whereas STAT3 phosphorylation was increased following TNFalpha treatment. Maternal BMI is associated with elevated maternal

  10. Increasing Maternal Body Mass Index Is Associated with Systemic Inflammation in the Mother and the Activation of Distinct Placental Inflammatory Pathways1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L.M.H.; Lager, Susanne; Ramirez, Vanessa I.; Gaccioli, Francesca; Dudley, Donald J.; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obese pregnant women have increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in maternal circulation and placental tissues. However, the pathways contributing to placental inflammation in obesity are largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that maternal body mass index (BMI) was associated with elevated proinflammatory cytokines in maternal and fetal circulations and increased activation of placental inflammatory pathways. A total of 60 women of varying pre-/early pregnancy BMI, undergoing delivery by Cesarean section at term, were studied. Maternal and fetal (cord) plasma were collected for analysis of insulin, leptin, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) 1, and TNFalpha by multiplex ELISA. Activation of the inflammatory pathways in the placenta was investigated by measuring the phosphorylated and total protein expression of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK)-MAPK, signal transducer-activated transcription factor (STAT) 3, caspase-1, IL-1beta, IkappaB-alpha protein, and p65 DNA-binding activity. To determine the link between activated placental inflammatory pathways and elevated maternal cytokines, cultured primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells were treated with physiological concentrations of insulin, MCP-1, and TNFalpha, and inflammatory signaling analyzed by Western blot. Maternal BMI was positively correlated with maternal insulin, leptin, MCP-1, and TNFalpha, whereas only fetal leptin was increased with BMI. Placental phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and STAT3, and the expression of IL-1beta protein, were increased with maternal BMI; phosphorylation of p38-MAPK was also correlated with birth weight. In contrast, placental NFkappaB, JNK and caspase-1 signaling, and fetal cytokine levels were unaffected by maternal BMI. In PHT cells, p38-MAPK was activated by MCP-1 and TNFalpha, whereas STAT3 phosphorylation was increased following TNFalpha treatment. Maternal BMI is associated with elevated

  11. Nonparametric tests for equality of psychometric functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Miguel A; Núñez-Antón, Vicente

    2017-12-07

    Many empirical studies measure psychometric functions (curves describing how observers' performance varies with stimulus magnitude) because these functions capture the effects of experimental conditions. To assess these effects, parametric curves are often fitted to the data and comparisons are carried out by testing for equality of mean parameter estimates across conditions. This approach is parametric and, thus, vulnerable to violations of the implied assumptions. Furthermore, testing for equality of means of parameters may be misleading: Psychometric functions may vary meaningfully across conditions on an observer-by-observer basis with no effect on the mean values of the estimated parameters. Alternative approaches to assess equality of psychometric functions per se are thus needed. This paper compares three nonparametric tests that are applicable in all situations of interest: The existing generalized Mantel-Haenszel test, a generalization of the Berry-Mielke test that was developed here, and a split variant of the generalized Mantel-Haenszel test also developed here. Their statistical properties (accuracy and power) are studied via simulation and the results show that all tests are indistinguishable as to accuracy but they differ non-uniformly as to power. Empirical use of the tests is illustrated via analyses of published data sets and practical recommendations are given. The computer code in MATLAB and R to conduct these tests is available as Electronic Supplemental Material.

  12. Summary of functional and performance test procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzel, Jens; Gülzow, Erich; Friedrich, K. Andreas

    Different Test Modules (TM) are defined for the functional and performance characterization of a PEMFC stack. The master document TM2.00 defines requirements and methodology for parameter variation, stability and data acquisition.......Different Test Modules (TM) are defined for the functional and performance characterization of a PEMFC stack. The master document TM2.00 defines requirements and methodology for parameter variation, stability and data acquisition....

  13. Functional and nonfunctional testing of ATM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Manuel; Ferreira, M. E. P.; Guimaraes, Francisco E.; Mamede, J.; Henriques, M.; da Silva, Jorge A.; Carrapatoso, E.

    1995-02-01

    ATM network will support new multimedia services that will require new protocols, those services and protocols will need different test strategies and tools. In this paper, the concepts of functional and non-functional testers of ATM networks are discussed, a multimedia service and its requirements are presented and finally, a summary description of an ATM network and of the test tool that will be used to validate it are presented.

  14. A higher-level MRP supertree of placental mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bininda-Emonds Olaf RP

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The higher-level phylogeny of placental mammals has long been a phylogenetic Gordian knot, with disagreement about both the precise contents of, and relationships between, the extant orders. A recent MRP supertree that favoured 'outdated' hypotheses (notably, monophyly of both Artiodactyla and Lipotyphla has been heavily criticised for including low-quality and redundant data. We apply a stringent data selection protocol designed to minimise these problems to a much-expanded data set of morphological, molecular and combined source trees, to produce a supertree that includes every family of extant placental mammals. Results The supertree is well-resolved and supports both polyphyly of Lipotyphla and paraphyly of Artiodactyla with respect to Cetacea. The existence of four 'superorders' – Afrotheria, Xenarthra, Laurasiatheria and Euarchontoglires – is also supported. The topology is highly congruent with recent (molecular phylogenetic analyses of placental mammals, but is considerably more comprehensive, being the first phylogeny to include all 113 extant families without making a priori assumptions of suprafamilial monophyly. Subsidiary analyses reveal that the data selection protocol played a key role in the major changes relative to a previously published higher-level supertree of placentals. Conclusion The supertree should provide a useful framework for hypothesis testing in phylogenetic comparative biology, and supports the idea that biogeography has played a crucial role in the evolution of placental mammals. Our results demonstrate the importance of minimising poor and redundant data when constructing supertrees.

  15. Indications and interpretation of esophageal function testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, C Prakash; de Bortoli, Nicola; Clarke, John; Marinelli, Carla; Tolone, Salvatore; Roman, Sabine; Savarino, Edoardo

    2018-05-12

    Esophageal symptoms are common, and can arise from mucosal, motor, functional, and neoplastic processes, among others. Judicious use of diagnostic testing can help define the etiology of symptoms and can direct management. Endoscopy, esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM), ambulatory pH or pH-impedance manometry, and barium radiography are commonly used for esophageal function testing; functional lumen imaging probe is an emerging option. Recent consensus guidelines have provided direction in using test findings toward defining mechanisms of esophageal symptoms. The Chicago Classification describes hierarchical steps in diagnosing esophageal motility disorders. The Lyon Consensus characterizes conclusive evidence on esophageal testing for a diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and establishes a motor classification of GERD. Taking these recent advances into consideration, our discussion focuses primarily on the indications, technique, equipment, and interpretation of esophageal HRM and ambulatory reflux monitoring in the evaluation of esophageal symptoms, and describes indications for alternative esophageal tests. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Platelet function testing in pediatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Anne-Mette; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Platelets play a key role in primary hemostasis and are also intricately linked to secondary hemostasis. Investigation of platelet function in children, especially in neonates, is seriously challenged by the volumes required to perform the majority of platelet function tests and due...

  17. Liver Function Tests in Tuberculoid Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Korane

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 24 patients with untreated tuberculoid leprosy were taken up for study, They were the same group of patients in whom the authors have earlier reported involvement of liver in 85 % cases. Five healthy controls, studied also belonged to the same series. Liver function tests included prothrombin time, serum bilirubin, zinc sulphate turbidity, serum proteins and serum transaminases. No significant alterations in the liver function were observed. This is because the changes in the liver were so minimal and focal that they were not reflected in the various liver function tests.

  18. ELEFUNT, Testing of Elementary Function Subroutines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cody, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ELEFUNT is a FORTRAN test package for the elementary functions. Each program is an aggressive test of one or more of the elementary function subroutines generally supplied with the support library accompanying a FORTRAN compiler. Functions tested are ALOG/ALOG10, ASIN/ACOS, ATAN, EXP, POWER, SIN/ COS, SINH/COSH, SQRT, TAN/COTAN, and TANH. 2 - Method of solution: The programs check the accuracy of the functions by using purified random arguments from appropriate intervals in carefully selected identities. They also check special properties of each function, test for the handling of special arguments, and exercise the error returns. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The package contains one subroutine (MACHAR) for dynamic determination of parameters describing the floating-point arithmetic system of the host machine, the test programs must be modified to insert the necessary machine- dependent parameters in DATA statements, or otherwise make them available. This computing environment inquiry routine is known to malfunction when the arithmetic registers are wider than the storage registers

  19. Quantum algorithms for testing Boolean functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Andersson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss quantum algorithms, based on the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm, for finding which variables a Boolean function depends on. There are 2^n possible linear Boolean functions of n variables; given a linear Boolean function, the Bernstein-Vazirani quantum algorithm can deterministically identify which one of these Boolean functions we are given using just one single function query. The same quantum algorithm can also be used to learn which input variables other types of Boolean functions depend on, with a success probability that depends on the form of the Boolean function that is tested, but does not depend on the total number of input variables. We also outline a procedure to futher amplify the success probability, based on another quantum algorithm, the Grover search.

  20. History of reptile placentology, part III: Giacomini's 1891 histological monograph on lizard placentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, D G; Paulesu, L; Avanzati, A M; Roth, M

    2017-12-01

    By the 1890s, placental arrangements had been documented macroscopically in lizards and fishes, but placental studies on such species lagged far behind research on mammals. In 1891, the biologist Ercole Giacomini (at the University of Siena, Italy) published the first histological analysis of a reptile placenta. Focusing on a placentotrophic lizard (Chalcides chalcides) with a morphologically complex placenta, Giacomini documented the histological and cellular bases for placental nutrient transfer and gas exchange. In conjunction with a follow-up study in 1906, he demonstrated that placental structure is correlated with function and can vary dramatically between related species. Giacomini's work was highly influential in showing that placentation in lizards had converged evolutionarily on that of mammals, while establishing reptile placentology as a highly promising area for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Placental Dysfunction Underlies Increased Risk of Fetal Growth Restriction and Stillbirth in Advanced Maternal Age Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Samantha C; Heazell, Alexander E P; Dilworth, Mark R; Mills, Tracey A; Jones, Rebecca L

    2017-08-29

    Pregnancies in women of advanced maternal age (AMA) are susceptible to fetal growth restriction (FGR) and stillbirth. We hypothesised that maternal ageing is associated with utero-placental dysfunction, predisposing to adverse fetal outcomes. Women of AMA (≥35 years) and young controls (20-30 years) with uncomplicated pregnancies were studied. Placentas from AMA women exhibited increased syncytial nuclear aggregates and decreased proliferation, and had increased amino acid transporter activity. Chorionic plate and myometrial artery relaxation was increased compared to controls. AMA was associated with lower maternal serum PAPP-A and sFlt and a higher PlGF:sFlt ratio. AMA mice (38-41 weeks) at E17.5 had fewer pups, more late fetal deaths, reduced fetal weight, increased placental weight and reduced fetal:placental weight ratio compared to 8-12 week controls. Maternofetal clearance of 14 C-MeAIB and 3 H-taurine was reduced and uterine arteries showed increased relaxation. These studies identify reduced placental efficiency and altered placental function with AMA in women, with evidence of placental adaptations in normal pregnancies. The AMA mouse model complements the human studies, demonstrating high rates of adverse fetal outcomes and commonalities in placental phenotype. These findings highlight placental dysfunction as a potential mechanism for susceptibility to FGR and stillbirth with AMA.

  2. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Regnault, Timothy R.H.; Barker, Paige L.; Botting, Kimberley J.; McMillen, Isabella C.; McMillan, Christine M.; Roberts, Claire T.; Morrison, Janna L.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25580812

  3. Semen analysis and sperm function tests: How much to test?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Vasan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Semen analysis as an integral part of infertility investigations is taken as a surrogate measure for male fecundity in clinical andrology, male fertility, and pregnancy risk assessments. Clearly, laboratory seminology is still very much in its infancy. In as much as the creation of a conventional semen profile will always represent the foundations of male fertility evaluation, the 5th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO manual is a definitive statement on how such assessments should be carried out and how the quality should be controlled. A major advance in this new edition of the WHO manual, resolving the most salient critique of previous editions, is the development of the first well-defined reference ranges for semen analysis based on the analysis of over 1900 recent fathers. The methodology used in the assessment of the usual variables in semen analysis is described, as are many of the less common, but very valuable, sperm function tests. Sperm function testing is used to determine if the sperm have the biologic capacity to perform the tasks necessary to reach and fertilize ova and ultimately result in live births. A variety of tests are available to evaluate different aspects of these functions. To accurately use these functional assays, the clinician must understand what the tests measure, what the indications are for the assays, and how to interpret the results to direct further testing or patient management.

  4. CIT photoheliograph functional verification unit test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Tests of the 2/3-meter photoheliograph functional verification unit FVU were performed with the FVU installed in its Big Bear Solar Observatory vacuum chamber. Interferometric tests were run both in Newtonian (f/3.85) and Gregorian (f/50) configurations. Tests were run in both configurations with optical axis horizontal, vertical, and at 45 deg to attempt to determine any gravity effects on the system. Gravity effects, if present, were masked by scatter in the data associated with the system wavefront error of 0.16 lambda rms ( = 6328A) apparently due to problems in the primary mirror. Tests showed that the redesigned secondary mirror assembly works well.

  5. Functional Testing of Wireless Sensor Node Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif M.; Madsen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are networked embedded computer systems with stringent power, performance, cost and form-factor requirements along with numerous other constraints related to their pervasiveness and ubiquitousness. Therefore, only a systematic design methdology coupled with an efficient...... test approach can enable their conformance to design and deployment specifications. We discuss off-line, hierarchical, functional testing of complete wireless sensor nodes containing configurable logic through a combination of FPGA-based board test and Software-Based Self-Test (SBST) techniques...

  6. Gestational age, gender and parity specific centile charts for placental weight for singleton deliveries in Aberdeen, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J M; Bhattacharya, S; Horgan, G W

    2013-03-01

    The weight of the placenta is a crude but useful proxy for its function in vivo. Accordingly extremes of placental weight are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes while even normal variations in placental size may impact lifelong health. Centile charts of placental weight for gestational age and gender are used to identify placental weight extremes but none report the effect of parity. Thus the objective was to produce gender and gestational age specific centile charts for placental weight in nulliparous and multiparous women. Data was extracted from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank for all women delivering singleton babies in Aberdeen city and district after 24 weeks gestation. Gestational age specific centile charts for placental weight by gender and parity grouping (n = 88,649 deliveries over a 30 year period) were constructed using the LMS method after exclusion of outliers (0.63% of deliveries meeting study inclusion criteria). Tables and figures are presented for placental weight centiles according to gestational age, gender and parity grouping. Tables are additionally presented for the birth weight to placental weight ratio by gender. Placental weight and the fetal:placental weight ratio were higher in male versus female deliveries. Placental weight was greater in multiparous compared with nulliparous women. We present strong evidence that both gender and parity grouping influence placental weight centiles. The differences at any given gestational age are small and the effects of parity are greater overall than those of gender. In contrast the birth weight to placental weight ratio differs by gender only. These UK population specific centile charts may be useful in studies investigating the role of the placenta in mediating pregnancy outcome and lifelong health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal factors associated with fetal growth and birthweight are independent determinants of placental weight and exhibit differential effects by fetal sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Cecilie Paasche Roland

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Maternal nutritional and metabolic factors influence the developmental environment of the fetus. Virtually any nutritional factor in the maternal blood has to pass the placental membranes to reach the fetal blood. Placental weight is a commonly used measure to summarize placental growth and function. Placental weight is an independent determinant of fetal growth and birthweight and modifies the associations between maternal metabolic factors and fetal growth. We hypothesized that maternal factors known to be related to fetal growth, newborn size and body composition are determinants of placental weight and that effects of maternal metabolic factors on placental weight differ between the genders. METHODS: The STORK study is a prospective longitudinal study including 1031 healthy pregnant women of Scandinavian heritage with singleton pregnancies. Maternal determinants (parity, body mass index, gestational weight gain and fasting plasma glucose of placental weight were explored by linear regression models, stratified by fetal sex. RESULTS: Parity, maternal BMI, gestational weight gain and fasting glucose had positive effects on placental weight. There was a sex specific effect in these associations. Fasting glucose was significantly associated with placental weight in females but not in males. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors known to influence fetal growth, birthweight and neonatal body composition are determinants of placental weight. The effect of maternal factors on placental weight is influenced by sex as illustrated in the relation between maternal glucose and placental weight.

  8. Esophageal function testing: Billing and coding update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A; Massey, B; Rao, S; Pandolfino, J

    2018-01-01

    Esophageal function testing is being increasingly utilized in diagnosis and management of esophageal disorders. There have been several recent technological advances in the field to allow practitioners the ability to more accurately assess and treat such conditions, but there has been a relative lack of education in the literature regarding the associated Common Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes and methods of reimbursement. This review, commissioned and supported by the American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society Council, aims to summarize each of the CPT codes for esophageal function testing and show the trends of associated reimbursement, as well as recommend coding methods in a practical context. We also aim to encourage many of these codes to be reviewed on a gastrointestinal (GI) societal level, by providing evidence of both discrepancies in coding definitions and inadequate reimbursement in this new era of esophageal function testing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Oxygen and tissue culture affect placental gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, O; Sullivan, M H F

    2017-07-01

    Placental explant culture is an important model for studying placental development and functions. We investigated the differences in placental gene expression in response to tissue culture, atmospheric and physiologic oxygen concentrations. Placental explants were collected from normal term (38-39 weeks of gestation) placentae with no previous uterine contractile activity. Placental transcriptomic expressions were evaluated with GeneChip ® Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 arrays (Affymetrix). We uncovered sub-sets of genes that regulate response to stress, induction of apoptosis programmed cell death, mis-regulation of cell growth, proliferation, cell morphogenesis, tissue viability, and protection from apoptosis in cultured placental explants. We also identified a sub-set of genes with highly unstable pattern of expression after exposure to tissue culture. Tissue culture irrespective of oxygen concentration induced dichotomous increase in significant gene expression and increased enrichment of significant pathways and transcription factor targets (TFTs) including HIF1A. The effect was exacerbated by culture at atmospheric oxygen concentration, where further up-regulation of TFTs including PPARA, CEBPD, HOXA9 and down-regulated TFTs such as JUND/FOS suggest intrinsic heightened key biological and metabolic mechanisms such as glucose use, lipid biosynthesis, protein metabolism; apoptosis, inflammatory responses; and diminished trophoblast proliferation, differentiation, invasion, regeneration, and viability. These findings demonstrate that gene expression patterns differ between pre-culture and cultured explants, and the gene expression of explants cultured at atmospheric oxygen concentration favours stressed, pro-inflammatory and increased apoptotic transcriptomic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multilaboratory approach to preclinical evaluation of vaccine immunogens for placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fried, Michal; Avril, Marion; Chaturvedi, Richa

    2013-01-01

    a vaccine targeting individual Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains. In this study, a consortium of laboratories under the Pregnancy Malaria Initiative compared the functional activity of antiadhesion antibodies elicited by different VAR2CSA domains and variants produced in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression...... systems. Antisera were initially tested against laboratory lines of maternal parasites, and the most promising reagents were evaluated in the field against fresh placental parasite samples. Recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli elicited antibody levels similar to those expressed in eukaryotic...

  11. The association between Placental T2* measured by MRI in dichorionic twin pregnancies and intertwin birth weight differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Nødgaard Weidemann; Sinding, Marianne Munk; Peters, David Alberg

    ABSTRACT FINAL ID: P22.06 TITLE: The association between Placental T2* measured by MRI in dichorionic twin pregnancies and intertwin birth weight differences AUTHORS (FIRST NAME, LAST NAME): Anne Sørensen1, 2, Marianne Sinding1, David Peters3, Jens B. Frøkjær4, 2, Astrid Petersen6, Niels Uldbjerg5...... with an increased risk of adverse neonatal outcome, and new methods to predict the intertwin birth weight difference are highly clinical relevant. The Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) variable placentalT2* reflects placental oxygenation and thereby placental function. Therefore, we aimed to investigate...... the association between the intertwin placental T2* difference and the intertwin birth weight difference Methods: A total of 21 dichorionic twin pregnancies (gestational age 20.1 – 34.1 weeks) were included in this study and placental T2* was measured using a gradient recalled echo MRI sequence with readout at 16...

  12. An automated system for pulmonary function testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment to quantitate pulmonary function was accepted for the space shuttle concept verification test. The single breath maneuver and the nitrogen washout are combined to reduce the test time. Parameters are defined from the forced vital capacity maneuvers. A spirometer measures the breath volume and a magnetic section mass spectrometer provides definition of gas composition. Mass spectrometer and spirometer data are analyzed by a PDP-81 digital computer.

  13. A comparison of cell-free placental messenger ribonucleic acid and color Doppler ultrasound for the prediction of placental invasion in patients with placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghshineh, Elham; Khorvash, Elahe; Kamali, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to comparison between cell-free placental messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and Doppler ultrasound for the prediction of placental invasion in women with placenta accreta. In this cross-sectional study, 50 pregnant women at risk for placenta accreta underwent color Doppler and assessment of cell-free placental mRNA. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was used for measurement of cell-free placental mRNA in maternal plasma. Based on the findings at cesarean delivery and histological examination, patients were divided into two groups of women with and without placenta accrete. To compare of the mean of mRNA levels between the two groups we used independent t-test and to compare of the mean of age and gestational age at sonography we used Mann-Whitney test. For determination of sensitivity and specificity and the cut-off point of mRNA levels we used the receiver operating characteristic curve. A total of 50 women with a mean age of 30.24 ± 4.905 years entered the study and 12 (24%) patients were diagnosed with placenta accreta. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of Doppler ultrasound were 83.3%, 78.9%, 56% and 94%, respectively. Results of our study showed if we consider a cut-off point equal to 3.325, with sensitivity and specificity of 0.917 and 0.789, respectively and the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of mRNA with were cut-off point of 3.325 were 91.7%, 78.9%, 57.9% and 96.8%, respectively. Cell-free mRNA is an acceptable, easy made, functional test with sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV more than Doppler ultrasound for diagnosis and prediction of incidence of placenta accrete and we recommend the use of cell-free mRNA test for diagnosis of placenta accreta.

  14. Protein profiling of preeclampsia placental tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chang; Liu, Zitao; Cui, Lifeng; Wei, Chengguo; Wang, Shuwen; Tang, Jian Jenny; Cui, Miao; Lian, Guodong; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiufen; Xu, Hongmei; Jiang, Jing; Lee, Peng; Zhang, David Y; He, Jin; Ye, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder involved in pregnancy without an effective treatment except delivery. The precise pathogenesis of this complicated disorder is still not completely understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the alterations of protein expression and phosphorylations that are important in regulating placental cell function in preterm and term preeclampsia. Using the Protein Pathway Array, 38 proteins in placental tissues were found to be differentially expressed between preterm preeclampsia and gestational age matched control, while 25 proteins were found to be expressed differentially between term preeclampsia and matched controls. Among these proteins, 16 proteins and their associated signaling pathways overlapped between preterm and term preeclampsia, suggesting the common pathogenesis of two subsets of disease. On the other hand, many proteins are uniquely altered in either preterm or term preeclampsia and correlated with severity of clinical symptoms and outcomes, therefore, providing molecular basis for these two subsets of preeclampsia. Furthermore, the expression levels of some of these proteins correlated with neonatal small for gestational age (PAI-1 and PAPP-A) and adverse outcomes (Flt-1) in women with preterm preeclampsia. These proteins could potentially be used as candidate biomarkers for predicting outcomes of preeclampsia.

  15. Hypoxia: From Placental Development to Fetal Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajersztajn, Lais; Veras, Mariana Matera

    2017-10-16

    Hypoxia may influence normal and different pathological processes. Low oxygenation activates a variety of responses, many of them regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 complex, which is mostly involved in cellular control of O 2 consumption and delivery, inhibition of growth and development, and promotion of anaerobic metabolism. Hypoxia plays a significant physiological role in fetal development; it is involved in different embryonic processes, for example, placentation, angiogenesis, and hematopoiesis. More recently, fetal hypoxia has been associated directly or indirectly with fetal programming of heart, brain, and kidney function and metabolism in adulthood. In this review, the role of hypoxia in fetal development, placentation, and fetal programming is summarized. Hypoxia is a basic mechanism involved in different pregnancy disorders and fetal health developmental complications. Although there are scientific data showing that hypoxia mediates changes in the growth trajectory of the fetus, modulates gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms, and determines the health status later in adulthood, more mechanistic studies are needed. Furthermore, if we consider that intrauterine hypoxia is not a rare event, and can be a consequence of unavoidable exposures to air pollution, nutritional deficiencies, obesity, and other very common conditions (drug addiction and stress), the health of future generations may be damaged and the incidence of some diseases will markedly increase as a consequence of disturbed fetal programming. Birth Defects Research 109:1377-1385, 2017.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Protein profiling of preeclampsia placental tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shu

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder involved in pregnancy without an effective treatment except delivery. The precise pathogenesis of this complicated disorder is still not completely understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the alterations of protein expression and phosphorylations that are important in regulating placental cell function in preterm and term preeclampsia. Using the Protein Pathway Array, 38 proteins in placental tissues were found to be differentially expressed between preterm preeclampsia and gestational age matched control, while 25 proteins were found to be expressed differentially between term preeclampsia and matched controls. Among these proteins, 16 proteins and their associated signaling pathways overlapped between preterm and term preeclampsia, suggesting the common pathogenesis of two subsets of disease. On the other hand, many proteins are uniquely altered in either preterm or term preeclampsia and correlated with severity of clinical symptoms and outcomes, therefore, providing molecular basis for these two subsets of preeclampsia. Furthermore, the expression levels of some of these proteins correlated with neonatal small for gestational age (PAI-1 and PAPP-A and adverse outcomes (Flt-1 in women with preterm preeclampsia. These proteins could potentially be used as candidate biomarkers for predicting outcomes of preeclampsia.

  17. Protein Profiling of Preeclampsia Placental Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chang; Liu, Zitao; Cui, Lifeng; Wei, Chengguo; Wang, Shuwen; Tang, Jian Jenny; Cui, Miao; Lian, Guodong; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiufen; Xu, Hongmei; Jiang, Jing; Lee, Peng; Zhang, David Y.

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder involved in pregnancy without an effective treatment except delivery. The precise pathogenesis of this complicated disorder is still not completely understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the alterations of protein expression and phosphorylations that are important in regulating placental cell function in preterm and term preeclampsia. Using the Protein Pathway Array, 38 proteins in placental tissues were found to be differentially expressed between preterm preeclampsia and gestational age matched control, while 25 proteins were found to be expressed differentially between term preeclampsia and matched controls. Among these proteins, 16 proteins and their associated signaling pathways overlapped between preterm and term preeclampsia, suggesting the common pathogenesis of two subsets of disease. On the other hand, many proteins are uniquely altered in either preterm or term preeclampsia and correlated with severity of clinical symptoms and outcomes, therefore, providing molecular basis for these two subsets of preeclampsia. Furthermore, the expression levels of some of these proteins correlated with neonatal small for gestational age (PAI-1 and PAPP-A) and adverse outcomes (Flt-1) in women with preterm preeclampsia. These proteins could potentially be used as candidate biomarkers for predicting outcomes of preeclampsia. PMID:25392996

  18. Pulmonary function testing in children and infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, B; Weiler, N; Frerichs, I; Falkenberg, C

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary function testing is performed in children and infants with the aim of documenting lung development with age and making diagnoses of lung diseases. In children and infants with an established lung disease, pulmonary function is tested to assess the disease progression and the efficacy of therapy. It is difficult to carry out the measurements in this age group without disturbances, so obtaining results of good quality and reproducibility is challenging. Young children are often uncooperative during the examinations. This is partly related to their young age but also due to the long testing duration and the unpopular equipment. We address a variety of examination techniques for lung function assessment in children and infants in this review. We describe the measuring principles, examination procedures, clinical findings and their interpretation, as well as advantages and limitations of these methods. The comparability between devices and centres as well as the availability of reference values are still considered a challenge in many of these techniques. In recent years, new technologies have emerged allowing the assessment of lung function not only on the global level but also on the regional level. This opens new possibilities for detecting regional lung function heterogeneity that might lead to a better understanding of respiratory pathophysiology in children. (topical review)

  19. Gas Test Loop Functional and Technical Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glen R. Longhurst; Soli T. Khericha; James L. Jones

    2004-01-01

    This document defines the technical and functional requirements for a gas test loop (GTL) to be constructed for the purpose of providing a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for developers of advanced concept nuclear reactors. This capability is needed to meet fuels and materials testing requirements of the designers of Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors and other programs within the purview of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Space nuclear power development programs may also benefit by the services the GTL will offer. The overall GTL technical objective is to provide developers with the means for investigating and qualifying fuels and materials needed for advanced reactor concepts. The testing environment includes a fast-flux neutron spectrum of sufficient intensity to perform accelerated irradiation testing. Appropriate irradiation temperature, gaseous environment, test volume, diagnostics, and access and handling features are also needed. This document serves to identify those requirements as well as generic requirements applicable to any system of this kind

  20. Gas Test Loop Functional and Technical Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen R. Longhurst; Soli T. Khericha; James L. Jones

    2004-09-01

    This document defines the technical and functional requirements for a gas test loop (GTL) to be constructed for the purpose of providing a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for developers of advanced concept nuclear reactors. This capability is needed to meet fuels and materials testing requirements of the designers of Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors and other programs within the purview of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Space nuclear power development programs may also benefit by the services the GTL will offer. The overall GTL technical objective is to provide developers with the means for investigating and qualifying fuels and materials needed for advanced reactor concepts. The testing environment includes a fast-flux neutron spectrum of sufficient intensity to perform accelerated irradiation testing. Appropriate irradiation temperature, gaseous environment, test volume, diagnostics, and access and handling features are also needed. This document serves to identify those requirements as well as generic requirements applicable to any system of this kind.

  1. Placental Chorangiosis: Increased Risk for Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariska S. Petersen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with Class C diabetes who presented for nonstress testing at 36 weeks and 4 days of gestation with nonreassuring fetal heart tones (NRFHT and oligohydramnios. Upon delivery, thrombosis of the umbilical cord was grossly noted. Pathological analysis of the placenta revealed chorangiosis, vascular congestion, and 40% occlusion of the umbilical vein. Chorangiosis is a vascular change of the placenta that involves the terminal chorionic villi. It has been proposed to result from longstanding, low-grade hypoxia in the placental tissue and has been associated with such conditions such as diabetes, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, and hypertensive conditions in pregnancy. To characterize chorangiosis and its associated obstetric outcomes we identified 61 cases of “chorangiosis” on placental pathology at Henry Ford Hospital from 2010 to 2015. Five of these cases were omitted due to lack of complete records. Among the 56 cases, the cesarean section rate was 51%, indicated in most cases for nonreassuring fetal status. Thus, we suggest that chorangiosis, a marker of chronic hypoxia, is associated with increased rates of cesarean sections for nonreassuring fetal status because of long standing hypoxia coupled with the stress of labor.

  2. MRI of placental adhesive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapaisilp, P; Bangchokdee, S

    2014-01-01

    Placental adhesive disorder (PAD) is a serious pregnancy complication that occurs when the chorionic villi invade the myometrium. Placenta praevia and prior caesarean section are the two important risk factors. PAD is classified on the basis of the depth of myometrial invasion (placenta accreta, placenta increta and placenta percreta). MRI is the preferred image modality for pre-natal diagnosis of PAD and as complementary technique when ultrasonography is inconclusive. Imaging findings that are helpful for the diagnosis include dark intraplacental bands, direct invasion of adjacent structures by placental tissue, interruption of normal trilayered myometrium and uterine bulging. Clinicians should be aware of imaging features of PAD to facilitate optimal patient management. PMID:25060799

  3. Arsenic exposure in pregnant mice disrupts placental vasculogenesis and causes spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenjie; Greenwell, Robert J; Brooks, Diane M; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Beall, Howard D; Coffin, J Douglas

    2007-09-01

    Arsenic is an abundant toxicant in ground water and soil around areas with extractive industries. Human epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic exposure is linked to developmental defects and miscarriage. The placenta is known to utilize vasculogenesis to develop its circulation. The hypothesis tested here states the following: arsenic exposure causes placental dysmorphogenesis and defective placental vasculogenesis resulting in placental insufficiency and subsequent spontaneous abortion. To test this hypothesis, pregnant mice were exposed to sodium arsenite (AsIII) through drinking water from conception through weanling stages. Neonatal assessment of birth rates, pup weights, and litter sizes in arsenic exposed and control mothers revealed that AsIII-exposed mothers had only 40% the fecundity of controls. Preterm analysis at E12.5 revealed a loss of fecundity at E12.5 from either 20 ppm or greater exposures to AsIII. There was no loss of fecundity at E7.5 suggesting that spontaneous abortion occurs during placentation. Histomorphometry on E12.5 placentae from arsenic-exposed mice revealed placental dysplasia especially in the vasculature. These results suggest that arsenic toxicity is causative for mammalian spontaneous abortion by virtue of aberrant placental vasculogenesis and placental insufficiency.

  4. Do functional tests predict low back pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, E P; Viikari-Juntura, E

    2000-08-15

    A cohort of 307 nonsymptomatic workers and another cohort of 123 workers with previous episodes of low back pain were followed up for 2 years. The outcomes were measured by symptoms, medical consultations, and sick leaves due to low back disorders. To study the predictive value of a set of tests measuring the physical performance of the back in a working population. The hypothesis was that subjects with poor functional capacity are liable to back disorders. Reduced functional performance has been associated with back pain. There are few data to show whether reduced functional capacity is a cause or a consequence of pain. Mobility of the trunk in forward and side bending, maximal isokinetic trunk extension, flexion and lifting strength, and static endurance of back extension were measured. Standing balance and foot reaction time were recorded with a force plate. Clinical tests for the provocation of back or leg pain were performed. Gender, workload, age, and anthropometrics were managed as potential confounders in the analysis. Marked overlapping was seen in the measures of the subjects with different outcomes. Among the nonsymptomatic subjects, low performance in tests of mobility and standing balance was associated with future back disorders. Among workers with previous episodes of back pain, low isokinetic extension strength, poor standing balance, and positive clinical signs predicted future pain. Some associations were found between the functional tests and future low back pain. The wide variation in the results questions the value of the tests in health examinations (e.g., in screening or surveillance of low back disorders).

  5. Hans Strahl's pioneering studies in comparative placentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, A

    2010-01-01

    Hans Strahl, a contemporary of Duval and Hubrecht, made many important contributions to comparative placentation. Despite this he is not well known and some of his original observations tend to be attributed to later authors. Strahl published a classification of placental types based on their shape...... of the most important findings made by Strahl including work on placentation in carnivores and higher primates that remains unsurpassed....

  6. A comparison of the embryonic stem cell test and whole embryo culture assay combined with the BeWo placental passage model for predicting the embryotoxicity of azoles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimopoulou, Myrto; Verhoef, Aart; Gomes, Caroline A; van Dongen, Catharina W; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Piersma, Aldert H; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, we show the value of combining toxico-dynamic and -kinetic in vitro approaches for embryotoxicity testing of azoles. Both the whole embryo culture (WEC) and the embryonic stem cells test (EST) predicted the in vivo potency ranking of twelve tested azoles with moderate accuracy.

  7. The EORTC emotional functioning computerized adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamper, Eva-Maria; Grønvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aa

    2014-01-01

    The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is currently developing computerized adaptive testing measures for the Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30) scales. The work presented here describes the development of an EORTC item bank for e...... for emotional functioning (EF), which is one of the core domains of the QLQ-C30....

  8. Update on endoscopic pancreatic function testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tyler Stevens; Mansour A Parsi

    2011-01-01

    Hormone-stimulated pancreatic function tests (PFTs) are considered the gold standard for measuring pancreatic exocrine function. PFTs involve the administration of intravenous secretin or cholecystokinin, followed by collection and analysis of pancreatic secretions. Because exocrine function may decline in the earliest phase of pancreatic fibrosis, PFTs are considered accurate for diagnosing chronic pancreatitis. Unfortunately, these potentially valuable tests are infrequently performed except at specialized centers, because they are time consuming and complicated. To overcome these limitations, endoscopic PFT methods have been developed which include aspiration of pancreatic secretions through the suction channel of the endoscope. The secretin endoscopic pancreatic function test (ePFT) involves collection of duodenal aspirates at 15, 30, 45 and 60 min after secretin stimulation. A bicarbonate concentration greater than 80 mmol/L in any of the samples is considered a normal result. The secretin ePFT has demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity compared with various reference standards, including the "Dreiling tube" secretin PFT, endoscopic ultrasound, and surgical histology. Furthermore, a standard autoanalyzer can be used for bicarbonate analysis, which allows the secretin ePFT to be performed at any hospital. The secretin ePFT may complement imaging tests like endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the diagnosis of early chronic pancreatitis.This paper will review the literature validating the use of ePFT in the diagnosis of exocrine insufficiency and chronic pancreatitis. Newer developments will also be discussed, including the feasibility of combined EUS/ePFT, the use of cholecystokinin alone or in combination with secretin, and the discovery of new protein and lipid pancreatic juice biomarkers which may complement traditionalfluid analysis.

  9. Pre-clinical and clinical development of the first placental malaria vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehrson, Caroline; Salanti, Ali; Theander, Thor G

    2017-01-01

    the condition.  Areas covered: Pub Med was searched using the broad terms 'malaria parasite placenta' to identify studies of interactions between parasite and host, 'prevention of placental malaria' to identify current strategies to prevent placental malaria, and 'placental malaria vaccine' to identify pre-clinical...... vaccine development. However, all papers from these searches were not systematically included.  Expert commentary: The first phase I clinical trials of vaccines are well underway. Trials testing efficacy are more complicated to carry out as only women that are exposed to parasites during pregnancy...

  10. EFFECTS OF SECRETABLE PLACENTAL FACTORS UPON SECRETION OF CYTOKINES BY THP-1 MONOCYTE-LIKE CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. S. Onokhina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Мonocytes in feto-placental circulation are exposed to factors secreted by placental tissue. These factors influence monocyte functions in pregnancy. In present study, an in vitro model (monocyte-like THP-1 cells was used for assessing effects of soluble placental factors obtained from women with physiological pregnancies, or preeclampsia cases. The following effects of placental factors were revealed: increased secretion of VEGF by THP-1 cells along with decreased secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 under the influence of placental factors from the I. trimester of pregnancy in comparison with III. trimester. Secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 by THP-1 cells was increased, and secretion of soluble TNFRII was decreased upon co-cultivation with soluble placental factors from the women with preeclampsia, as compared with placental products from physiological pregnancies.The work is supported by grants ГК № 02.740.11.0711 from Ministry of Education and Science, and НШ-3594.2010.7 grant from the President of Russian Federation.

  11. Placental transfer of 14C-hexoprenaline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipshitz, J.; Broyles, K.; Whybrew, W.D.; Ahokas, R.A.; Anderson, G.D.

    1982-01-01

    The placental transfer of a single intravenous injection of 14C-hexoprenaline was studied in eight pregnant New Zealand white rabbits. Maternal and fetal blood was sampled intermittently for 60 minutes after the injection. An initial rapid decrease in the levels of 14C-hexoprenaline in maternal blood was followed by a second slower phase, whereas fetal levels remained insignificant. The conclusion, therefore, is that the rapid improvement in fetal heart rate after the administration of a single maternal intravenous injection of hexoprenaline in the treatment of fetal distress is due to the action on the uterus and/or on maternal cardiovascular function, and not to direct stimulation of the fetus

  12. Analysis of IgG with specificity for variant surface antigens expressed by placental Plasmodium falciparum isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremsner Peter G

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM is caused by Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes that can sequester in placental intervillous space by expressing particular variant surface antigens (VSA that can mediate adhesion to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA in vitro. IgG antibodies with specificity for the VSA expressed by these parasites (VSAPAM are associated with protection from maternal anaemia, prematurity and low birth weight, which is the greatest risk factor for death in the first month of life. Methods In this study, the development of anti-VSAPAM antibodies in a group of 151 women who presented to the maternity ward of Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Lambaréné, Gabon for delivery was analysed using flow cytometry assays. Plasma samples from placenta infected primiparous women were also investigated for their capacity to inhibit parasite binding to CSA in vitro. Results In the study cohort, primiparous as well as secundiparous women had the greatest risk of infection at delivery as well as during pregnancy. Primiparous women with infected placentas at delivery showed higher levels of VSAPAM-specific IgG compared to women who had no malaria infections at delivery. Placental isolates of Gabonese and Senegalese origin tested on plasma samples from Gabon showed parity dependency and gender specificity patterns. There was a significant correlation of plasma reactivity as measured by flow cytometry between different placental isolates. In the plasma of infected primiparous women, VSAPAM-specific IgG measured by flow cytometry could be correlated with anti-adhesion antibodies measured by the inhibition of CSA binding. Conclusion Recognition of placental parasites shows a parity- and sex- dependent pattern, like that previously observed in laboratory strains selected to bind to CSA. Placental infections at delivery in primiparous women appear to be sufficient to induce functional antibodies which can both recognize the surface of

  13. Effect of placental malaria on birth weight of babies in Nnewi, Anambra state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraneli, Boniface U; Okeke, Ogochukwu C; Ubachukwu, Patience O

    2013-03-01

    In malaria-endemic countries, one adverse consequence of placental malaria on infants is low birth weight (LBW) caused by intra-uterine growth retardation and pre-term delivery. The effect of placental malaria on birth weight of babies was investigated in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, Anambra state, Nigeria. Placental blood was collected from 364 women who gave birth in NAUTH. Thin and thick placental blood smears were made and checked for the presence of malaria parasites. Plasmodium falciparum antigen rapid kit was used to confirm the presence of P. falciparum. New-borns were weighed and classified as normal birth weight (≥2500 g) or LBW (<2500 g). Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Student's t and Pearson chi-square tests were used to compare means and percentages. Risk factors for LBW were also determined. Placental malaria was found in 55.2% (n = 201) of the women. Placental malaria was associated with gravidity while age was not. In all the age groups, primigravidae and secundigravidae were mostly infected. Women with placental malaria delivered more LBW babies (32.1%) than their uninfected counterparts (5.5%), with primigravidae having more LBW babies. Similarly, weight of babies born by infected women was significantly different from that of uninfected women (p <0.0001). In multivariate analysis, placental malaria was associated with LBW (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.06-0.17, p <0.0001). The result suggests a high prevalence of placental malaria and its close association with LBW in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in NAUTH. It was also found that the percentage of LBW was highest in primigravidae.

  14. Prediction of low birth weight: the placental T2* estimated by MRI versus the uterine artery pulsatility index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Marianne Munk; Peters, David Alberg; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum

    (MRI) variable T2* reflects the placental oxygenation and thereby placental function. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the performance of placental T2* in the prediction of low birth weight using the uterine artery (UtA) pulsatility index (PI) as gold standard. Methods: The study population......CONTROL ID: 2516296 ABSTRACT FINAL ID: P22.05 TITLE: Prediction of low birth weight: the placental T2* estimated by MRI versus the uterine artery pulsatility index AUTHORS (FIRST NAME, LAST NAME): Marianne Sinding1, David Peters2, Jens B. Frøkjær3, 4, Ole B. Christiansen1, 4, Astrid Petersen5...... had an EFW T2* was measured by MRI at 1.5T. A gradient recalled echo MRI sequence with readout at 16 echo times was used, and the placental T2* value was obtained by fitting the signal intensity as a function of the echo times...

  15. A test for measuring gustatory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smutzer, Gregory; Lam, Si; Hastings, Lloyd; Desai, Hetvi; Abarintos, Ray A; Sobel, Marc; Sayed, Nabil

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of edible taste strips for measuring human gustatory function. The physical properties of edible taste strips were examined to determine their potential for delivering threshold and suprathreshold amounts of taste stimuli to the oral cavity. Taste strips were then assayed by fluorescence to analyze the uniformity and distribution of bitter tastant in the strips. Finally, taste recognition thresholds for sweet taste were examined to determine whether or not taste strips could detect recognition thresholds that were equal to or better than those obtained from aqueous tests. Edible strips were prepared from pullulan-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose solutions that were dried to a thin film. The maximal amount of a tastant that could be incorporated in a 2.54 cm2 taste strip was identified by including representative taste stimuli for each class of tastant (sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami) during strip formation. Distribution of the bitter tastant quinine hydrochloride in taste strips was assayed by fluorescence emission spectroscopy. The efficacy of taste strips for evaluating human gustatory function was examined by using a single series ascending method of limits protocol. Sucrose taste recognition threshold data from edible strips was then compared with results that were obtained from a standard "sip and spit" recognition threshold test. Edible films that formed from a pullulan-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose polymer mixture can be used to prepare clear, thin strips that have essentially no background taste and leave no physical presence after release of tastant. Edible taste strips could uniformly incorporate up to 5% of their composition as tastant. Taste recognition thresholds for sweet taste were over one order of magnitude lower with edible taste strips when compared with an aqueous taste test. Edible taste strips are a highly sensitive method for examining taste recognition thresholds in humans. This

  16. Water chemistry management during hot functional test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Jiro; Kanda, Tomio; Kagawa, Masaru

    1988-01-01

    To reduce radiation exposure in light water reactor, it is important decrease radioactive corrosion product which is a radiation source. One of the countermeasures is to improve water quality during plant trial operation to form a stable oxide film and to minimize metal release to the coolant at the beginning of commercial operation. This study reviews the optimum water quality conditions to form a chromium rich oxide film during hot functional test (HFT) that is thought to be stable under the PWR condition and reduce the release of Ni that is the source of Co-58, the main radiation source of exposure. (author)

  17. Validity of an Interactive Functional Reach Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, Sujay S; Pardo, Vicky; Wyatt, Douglas; Diamond, Andrew; Brodith, Victor; Pavlov, Alex

    2015-08-01

    Videogaming platforms such as the Microsoft (Redmond, WA) Kinect(®) are increasingly being used in rehabilitation to improve balance performance and mobility. These gaming platforms do not have built-in clinical measures that offer clinically meaningful data. We have now developed software that will enable the Kinect sensor to assess a patient's balance using an interactive functional reach test (I-FRT). The aim of the study was to test the concurrent validity of the I-FRT and to establish the feasibility of implementing the I-FRT in a clinical setting. The concurrent validity of the I-FRT was tested among 20 healthy adults (mean age, 25.8±3.4 years; 14 women). The Functional Reach Test (FRT) was measured simultaneously by both the Kinect sensor using the I-FRT software and the Optotrak Certus(®) 3D motion-capture system (Northern Digital Inc., Waterloo, ON, Canada). The feasibility of implementing the I-FRT in a clinical setting was assessed by performing the I-FRT in 10 participants with mild balance impairments recruited from the outpatient physical therapy clinic (mean age, 55.8±13.5 years; four women) and obtaining their feedback using a NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire. There was moderate to good agreement between FRT measures made by the two measurement systems. The greatest agreement between the two measurement system was found with the Kinect sensor placed at a distance of 2.5 m [intraclass correlation coefficient (2,k)=0.786; PNASA/TLX questionnaire. FRT measures made using the Kinect sensor I-FRT software provides a valid clinical measure that can be used with the gaming platforms.

  18. Abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry and placental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fetal. Hence, DV provides information about the fetal side of the placenta and, alongside placental ... The study was prospective and conducted in a low-income setting. .... placental tissue (n=10), and some cases were lost to follow-up (n=6).

  19. Placental iron uptake and its regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bierings (Marc)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractIron transport in pregnancy is an active one-way process, from mother to fetus. Early in gestation fetal iron needs are low, and so is trans-placental transport, but as erythropoiesis develops, rising fetal iron needs are met by trans-placental iron transport. Apparently, the fetus

  20. Animal Models of Human Placentation - A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael

    2007-01-01

    This review examines the strengths and weaknesses of animal models of human placentation and pays particular attention to the mouse and non-human primates. Analogies can be drawn between mouse and human in placental cell types and genes controlling placental development. There are, however...... and delivers poorly developed young. Guinea pig is a good alternative rodent model and among the few species known to develop pregnancy toxaemia. The sheep is well established as a model in fetal physiology but is of limited value for placental research. The ovine placenta is epitheliochorial...... and endometrium is similar in macaques and baboons, as is the subsequent lacunar stage. The absence of interstitial trophoblast cells in the monkey is an important difference from human placentation. However, there is a strong resemblance in the way spiral arteries are invaded and transformed in the macaque...

  1. Hypoxia and the anticoagulants dalteparin and acetylsalicylic acid affect human placental amino acid transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Jens Kleppa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anticoagulants, e.g. low-molecular weight heparins (LMWHs and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA are prescribed to women at risk for pregnancy complications that are associated with impaired placentation and placental hypoxia. Beyond their role as anticoagulants these compounds exhibit direct effects on trophoblast but their impact on placental function is unknown. The amino acid transport systems A and L, which preferably transfer essential amino acids, are well-described models to study placental nutrient transport. We aimed to examine the effect of hypoxia, LMWHs and ASA on the activity of the placental amino acid transport systems A and L and associated signalling mechanisms. METHODS: The uptake of C14-MeAIB (system A or H3-leucin (system L was investigated after incubation of primary villous fragments isolated from term placentas. Villous tissue was incubated at 2% O2 (hypoxia, 8% O2 and standard culture conditions (21% O2 or at 2% O2 and 21% O2 with dalteparin or ASA. Activation of the JAK/STAT or mTOR signalling pathways was determined by Western analysis of total and phosphorylated STAT3 or Raptor. RESULTS: Hypoxia decreased system A mediated MeAIB uptake and increased system L mediated leucine uptake compared to standard culture conditions (21% O2. This was accompanied by an impairment of STAT3 and a stimulation of Raptor signalling. System L activity increased at 8% O2. Dalteparin treatment reduced system A and system L activity under normoxic conditions and ASA (1 mM decreased system A and L transporter activity under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our data underline the dependency of placental function on oxygen supply. LMWHs and ASA are not able to reverse the effects of hypoxia on placental amino acid transport. These findings and the uncovering of the signalling mechanisms in more detail will help to understand the impact of LMWHs and ASA on placental function and fetal growth.

  2. Integrated Locomotor Function Tests for Countermeasure Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Landsness, E. C.; Black, F. O.

    2005-01-01

    Following spaceflight crewmembers experience locomotor dysfunction due to inflight adaptive alterations in sensorimotor function. Countermeasures designed to mitigate these postflight gait alterations need to be assessed with a new generation of tests that evaluate the interaction of various sensorimotor sub-systems central to locomotor control. The goal of the present study was to develop new functional tests of locomotor control that could be used to test the efficacy of countermeasures. These tests were designed to simultaneously examine the function of multiple sensorimotor systems underlying the control of locomotion and be operationally relevant to the astronaut population. Traditionally, gaze stabilization has been studied almost exclusively in seated subjects performing target acquisition tasks requiring only the involvement of coordinated eye-head movements. However, activities like walking involve full-body movement and require coordination between lower limbs and the eye-head-trunk complex to achieve stabilized gaze during locomotion. Therefore the first goal of this study was to determine how the multiple, interdependent, full-body sensorimotor gaze stabilization subsystems are functionally coordinated during locomotion. In an earlier study we investigated how alteration in gaze tasking changes full-body locomotor control strategies. Subjects walked on a treadmill and either focused on a central point target or read numeral characters. We measured: temporal parameters of gait, full body sagittal plane segmental kinematics of the head, trunk, thigh, shank and foot, accelerations along the vertical axis at the head and the shank, and the vertical forces acting on the support surface. In comparison to the point target fixation condition, the results of the number reading task showed that compensatory head pitch movements increased, peak head acceleration was reduced and knee flexion at heel-strike was increased. In a more recent study we investigated the

  3. Postpartum deaths: piglet, placental, and umbilical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rootwelt, V; Reksen, O; Farstad, W; Framstad, T

    2013-06-01

    The fetal growth of the piglet is highly dependent on its placenta, and the newborn piglet birth weight is highly associated with postpartum death. However, there is little information available in the literature on the assessment of the placenta in relation to postpartum death in piglets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the placental area and placental weight, status of the umbilical cord, and piglet birth characteristics, such as blood parameters, vitality score, and birth weight on postpartum death. All live born piglets in litters from 26 Landrace-Yorkshire sows were monitored during farrowing and the status of each was recorded, including placental area and placental weight and blood variables obtained from the piglets and umbilical veins. Out of the 386 live-born piglets, 16.8% died before weaning at 5 wk. Among these, 78.5% died within the first 3 d of life. Mean blood concentration of lactate was increased in piglets that did not survive to weaning (P = 0.003). Concentrations of hemoglobin and hematocrit were decreased (P vitality score vs. piglets born with an intact umbilical cord (P = 0.021), and they had an increased probability of dying before weaning (P = 0.050). Mean birth weight, body mass index, placental area (P live litter size. Blood concentrations of IgG and albumin recorded at d 1 were decreased in piglets that died before weaning (P < 0.01), and blood concentration of albumin was positively associated with placental area (P < 0.001). We conclude that placental area and placental weight, status of the umbilical cord, birth weight, body mass index, blood concentrations of lactate, hemoglobin, and hematocrit recorded at birth, and blood concentrations of IgG and albumin recorded at d 1 were associated with postpartum death in this study. These results may indicate that there is an upper uterine limitation of litter size and that placental area and placental weight influence postpartum survival.

  4. Effects of tributyltin on placental cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Yuko; Kirk, Michael; Gupta, Neha; Menon, Ramkumar; Getahun, Darios; Peltier, Morgan R

    2018-03-15

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a persistent pollutant but its effects on placental function are poorly understood as are its possible interactions with infection. We hypothesized that TBT alters the production of sex hormones and biomarkers for inflammation and neurodevelopment in an infection-dependent manner. Placental explant cultures were treated with 0-5000 nM TBT in the presence and absence of Escherichia coli. A conditioned medium was harvested and concentrations of steroids (progesterone, P4; testosterone, T and estradiol, E2) as well as biomarkers of inflammation [interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-10, IL-6, soluble glycoprotein 130 (sgp-130) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)], oxidative stress [8-iso-prostaglandin (8-IsoP)] and neurodevelopment [brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)] were quantified. TBT increased P4 slightly but had little or no effect on T or E2 production. IL-1β, IL-6, sgp-130, IL-10 and 8-IsoP production was enhanced by TBT. P4 and IL-6 production was also enhanced by TBT for bacteria-stimulated cultures but TBT significantly inhibited bacteria-induced IL-1β and sgp-130 production. High doses of TBT also inhibited BDNF production. TBT increases P4 but has minimal effect on downstream steroids. It enhances the production of inflammatory biomarkers such as IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-6. Inhibition of sgp-130 by TBT suggests that TBT may increase bioactive IL-6 production which has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Reduced expression of BDNF also supports this possibility.

  5. Is placental iodine content related to dietary iodine intake?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, R

    2011-08-01

    Delivery of iodine to the foetus depends not only on maternal dietary iodine intake but also on the presence of a functioning placental transport system. A role for the placenta as an iodine storage organ has been suggested, and this study compares the iodine content of placentas from women giving birth at term in Ireland and Iran, areas with median urinary iodine of 79 and 206 μg\\/l respectively.

  6. The effects from placental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Sadahisa

    1975-01-01

    Investigations of the effects on the people who had received placental exposure at either Hiroshima or Nagasaki were discussed. All of the subjects were children who had been born at either Hiroshima or Nagasaki between noon of 31, May, 1946 and the atomic-bomb detornation. Deaths of embryos and neonates were determined by the radiation dosage and the growth phase of embryos. Bifid uvula and a slight decrease of number of lumbar vertebra were observed in 14 males and 3 females at Nagasaki. Mental deficiency occurred in 25% of the children whose mothers had received radiation at Nagasaki, and in 8% at Hiroshima. The occurrence of microcephaly was high at both places in the children who had received placental exposure of more than 150 rad. A significant retardation of growth was observed in those who had had a high radiation dosage. Congenitally abnormal persistence of pupillary membrane was very frequently observed in the group which had received a high dosage of radiation. Concerning progeria, mortality of infants under one year of age was increased in the group which had received a high dosage of radiation, but mortality statistics should continue to be observed. (Kanao, N.)

  7. Hot functional test chemistry - long term experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonkova, K.; Kysela, J.; Marcinsky, M.; Martykan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Primary circuit materials undergo general corrosion in high temperature, deoxygenated, neutral or mildly alkaline solutions to form thin oxide films. These oxide layers (films) serve as protective film and mitigate the further corrosion of primary materials. Inner chromium-rich oxide layer has low cation diffusion coefficients and thus control iron and nickel transport from the metal surface to the outer layer and their dissolution into the coolant. Much less corrosion products are generated by the compact, integral and stable oxide (passivation) layer. For the latest Czech and Slovak stations commissioned (Temelin and Mochovce) a modified Hot Functional Test (HFT) chemistry was developed in the NRI Rez. Chromium rich surface layer formatted due to modified HTF chemistry ensures lower corrosion rates and radiation field formation and thus also mitigates crud formation during operation. This procedure was also designed to prepare the commissioned unit for the further proper water chemistry practise. Mochovce 1 (SK) was the first station commissioned using these recommendations in 1998. Mochovce 2 (1999) and Temelin 1 and 2 (CZ - 2000 and 2002) were subsequently commissioned using these guidelines too. The main principles of the controlled primary water chemistry applied during the hot functional tests are reviewed and importance of the water chemistry, technological and other relevant parameters is stressed regarding to the quality of the passive layer formed on the primary system surfaces. Samples from Mochovce indicated that duplex oxide layers up to 20 μm thick were produced, which were mainly magnetite substituted with nickel and chromium (e.g. 60-65% Fe, 18-28% Cr, 9-12% Ni, <1% Mn and 1-2% Si on a stainless steel primary circuit sample). Long term operation experience from both nuclear power plants are discussed in this paper. Radiation field, occupational radiation exposure and corrosion layers evolution during the first c. ten years of operation are

  8. Assisted reproduction causes placental maldevelopment and dysfunction linked to reduced fetal weight in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuqiang; Sun, Fang-zhen; Huang, Xiuying; Wang, Xiaohong; Tang, Na; Zhu, Baoyi; Li, Bo

    2015-06-18

    Compelling evidence indicates that stress in utero, as manifested by low birth weight (LBW), increases the risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Singletons conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART) display a significant increase in LBW risk and ART offspring have a different metabolic profile starting at birth. Here, used mouse as a model, we found that ART resulted in reduced fetal weight and placental overgrowth at embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5). The ART placentae exhibited histomorphological alterations with defects in placental layer segregation and glycogen cells migration at E18.5. Further, ART treatments resulted in downregulation of a majority of placental nutrient transporters and reduction in placental efficiency. Moreover, the ART placentae were associated with increased methylation levels at imprinting control regions of H19, KvDMR1 and disrupted expression of a majority of imprinted genes important for placental development and function at E18.5. Our results from the mouse model show the first piece of evidence that ART treatment could affect fetal growth by disrupting placental development and function, suggests that perturbation of genomic imprinting resulted from embryo manipulation may contribute to these problems.

  9. Dickkopf-1 induced apoptosis in human placental choriocarcinoma is independent of canonical Wnt signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Sha; Miao Chenglin; Li Jing; Fan Xiujun; Cao Yujing; Duan Enkui

    2006-01-01

    Placental choriocarcinoma, a reproductive system carcinoma in women, has about 0.81% occurrence frequency in China, which leads to over 90% lethality due to indistinct pathogenesis and the absence of efficient therapeutic treatment. In the present study, using immunostaining and reverse transcription PCR, we reported that Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) is prominently expressed in human cytotrophoblast (CTB) cell, but absent in the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line JAR and JEG3, implicating an unknown correlation between Dkk-1 and carcinogenesis of placental choriocarcinoma. Further, through exogenous introduction of Dkk-1, we found repressed proliferation in JAR and JEG3, induced apoptosis in JAR, and discovered significant tumor suppression effects of Dkk-1 in placental choriocarcinoma. Moreover we found that this function of Dkk-1 is achieved through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), whereas the canonical Wnt pathway may not have a great role. This discovery is not symphonic to previous functional understanding of Dkk-1, a canonical Wnt signaling antagonist. Together, our data indicate the possible correlation between Dkk-1 and human placental choriocarcinoma and suggest potential applications of Dkk-1 in treatment of human placental choriocarcinomas

  10. Luteal and placental function in the bitch: spatio-temporal changes in prolactin receptor (PRLr) expression at dioestrus, pregnancy and normal and induced parturition

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann Bernd; Guscetti Franco; Boos Alois; Gram Aykut; Michel Erika; Kowalewski Mariusz P; Aslan Selim; Reichler Iris

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Endocrine mechanisms governing canine reproductive function remain still obscure. Progesterone (P4) of luteal origin is required for maintenance of pregnancy. Corpora lutea (CL) are gonadotrop-independent during the first third of dioestrus; afterwards prolactin (PRL) is the primary luteotropic factor. Interestingly, the increasing PRL levels are accompanied by decreasing P4 concentrations, thus luteal regression/luteolysis occurs in spite of an increased availability of g...

  11. Functional testing of the ATLAS SCT barrels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS SCT (semiconductor tracker) comprises 2112 barrel modules mounted on four concentric barrels of length 1.6m and up to 1m diameter, and 1976 endcap modules supported by a series of nine wheels at each end of the barrel region, giving a total silicon area of 60m 2 . The assembly of modules onto each of the four barrel structures has recently been completed. In addition to functional tests made during the assembly process, each completed barrel was operated in its entirety. In the case of the largest barrel, with an active silicon area of approximately 10m 2 , this corresponds to more than one million instrumented channels. This paper documents the electrical performance of the four individual SCT barrels. An overview of the readout chain is also given

  12. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: case report with gross and histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Marcello Pecoraro; Schultz, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare placental disorder characterized by placental enlargement and areas of abnormal, enlarged, grape-like villi. This condition may resemble a partial hydatidiform mole and may occur associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) or in phenotypically normal fetuses. There were 110 cases reported so far. We describe one case with typical gross and microscopic placental lesions.

  13. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: case report with gross and histological findings

    OpenAIRE

    Marcello Pecoraro Toscano; Regina Schultz

    2014-01-01

    Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare placental disorder characterized by placental enlargement and areas of abnormal, enlarged, grape-like villi. This condition may resemble a partial hydatidiform mole and may occur associated with Beckwith?Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) or in phenotypically normal fetuses. There were 110 cases reported so far. We describe one case with typical gross and microscopic placental lesions.

  14. ALTERED EXPRESSION OF SURFACE RECEPTORS AT EA.HY926 ENDOTHELIAL CELL LINE INDUCED WITH PLACENTAL SECRETORY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Stepanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Placental cell populations produce a great variety of angiogenic factors and cytokines than control angiogenesis in placenta. Functional regulation of endothelial cells proceeds via modulation of endothelial cell receptors for endogenous angiogenic and apoptotic signals. Endothelial phenotype alteration during normal pregnancy and in cases of preclampsia is not well understood. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate altered expression of angiogenic and cytokine receptors at EA.hy926 endothelial cells under the influence of placental tissue supernatants. Normal placental tissue supernatants from 1st and 3rd trimesters, and pre-eclamptic placental tissue supernatants (3rd trimester stimulated angiogenic and cytokine receptors expression by the cultured endothelial cells, as compared with their background expression. Tissue supernatants from placental samples of 3rd trimester caused a decreased expression of angiogenic and cytokine receptors by endothelial cells, thus reflecting maturation of placental vascular system at these terms. Supernatants from preeclamptic placental tissue induced an increase of CD119 expression, in comparison with normal placental supernatants from the 3rd trimester. This finding suggests that IFNγ may be a factor of endothelial activation in pre-eclampsia. The study was supported by grants ГК №02.740.11.0711, НШ-3594.2010.7., and МД-150.2011.7.

  15. Basic pulmonary function tests in pig farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuričić Slaviša M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Many epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated an increased risk for the symptoms of respiratory disorders consistent with chronic bronchitis and asthma and alterations of pulmonary function tests in pig farmers. AIM The aim of this study was to determine basic pulmonary function values in workers in swine confinement buildings and to compare them with the same values in the control group of unexposed persons. The next aim was to examine the association between these values with duration of professional exposure, cigarette smoking, age, and sex of the examined persons. METHODS We randomly selected for examination 145 workers of both sex who had worked for at least 2 previous years in pig farms and spent at least 3 hours per day, 6 days per week in a swine confinement building. The farmers worked at 6 different farms with 12,383 pigs on average on each farms. The subject was eligible for the study if he had had no history of atopic disease nor any serious chronic disease, and no acute respiratory infection within 3 previous months. As control group we examined 156 subjects who had lived and/or worked in the same areas and had had no history of exposure to farming environment or any other known occupational air pollutants. In both groups the study comprised cigarette smokers and persons who had never smoked. Pulmonary function data were collected according to the standard protocol with a Micro Spirometer, (Micro Medical Ltd, England, UK. The registered parameters were FEV1 and FVC At least three satisfactory forced maximal expirations were performed by each subject and the best value was accepted for analyses. The results were also expressed as a percentage of predicted values and FEV1/FVCxlOO was calculated. RESULTS There were no differences in the main demographic characteristics between two examined groups (Table1. Mean duration of work in pig farming was 11.6 years (SD=8.5; range 2-40. The average values of examined

  16. Fort St. Vrain hot functional test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, R.D.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of Fort St. Vrain hot functional tests performed to evaluate the initial nonnuclear performance of the primary coolant system and the associated effects on the various internal components of the reactor vessel and primary coolant system. The components included the twelve steam generator modules, the four helium circulators, the PCRV thermal barrier and liner coolant system, the helium purification system, and the primary and secondary closures at each of the PCRV penetrations. Additional objectives included analysis of the parallel operation of the four helium circulators and the performance of several circulator start/stop transients under various conditions of primary coolant temperature and pressure. Vibration and acoustical phenomena within the vessel were measured, recorded, and compared to theoretical analyses; a verification of reverse flow in the shutdown loop steam generator during one loop operation was performed; the PCRV was again observed for its structural response to internal pressure; and comparisons were made relative to data recorded during the initial pressure test completed in July 1971. (U.S.)

  17. Development of Non-Viral, Trophoblast-Specific Gene Delivery for Placental Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura Abd Ellah

    Full Text Available Low birth weight is associated with both short term problems and the fetal programming of adult onset diseases, including an increased risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Placental insufficiency leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR contributes to the prevalence of diseases with developmental origins. Currently there are no therapies for IUGR or placental insufficiency. To address this and move towards development of an in utero therapy, we employ a nanostructure delivery system complexed with the IGF-1 gene to treat the placenta. IGF-1 is a growth factor critical to achieving appropriate placental and fetal growth. Delivery of genes to a model of human trophoblast and mouse placenta was achieved using a diblock copolymer (pHPMA-b-pDMAEMA complexed to hIGF-1 plasmid DNA under the control of trophoblast-specific promoters (Cyp19a or PLAC1. Transfection efficiency of pEGFP-C1-containing nanocarriers in BeWo cells and non-trophoblast cells was visually assessed via fluorescence microscopy. In vivo transfection and functionality was assessed by direct placental-injection into a mouse model of IUGR. Complexes formed using pHPMA-b-pDMAEMA and CYP19a-923 or PLAC1-modified plasmids induce trophoblast-selective transgene expression in vitro, and placental injection of PLAC1-hIGF-1 produces measurable RNA expression and alleviates IUGR in our mouse model, consequently representing innovative building blocks towards human placental gene therapies.

  18. The Endocannabinoid System in the Postimplantation Period: A Role during Decidualization and Placentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the detrimental effects of cannabis consumption during gestation are known for years, the vast majority of studies established a link between cannabis consumption and foetal development. The complex maternal-foetal interrelationships within the placental bed are essential for normal pregnancy, and decidua definitively contributes to the success of this process. Nevertheless, the molecular signalling network that coordinates strategies for successful decidualization and placentation are not well understood. The discovery of the endocannabinoid system highlighted new signalling mediators in various physiological processes, including reproduction. It is known that endocannabinoids present regulatory functions during blastocyst development, oviductal transport, and implantation. In addition, all the endocannabinoid machinery was found to be expressed in decidual and placental tissues. Additionally, endocannabinoid’s plasmatic levels were found to fluctuate during normal gestation and to induce decidual cell death and disturb normal placental development. Moreover, aberrant endocannabinoid signalling during the period of placental development has been associated with pregnancy disorders. It indicates the existence of a possible regulatory role for these molecules during decidualization and placentation processes, which are known to be particularly vulnerable. In this review, the influence of the endocannabinoid system in these critical processes is explored and discussed.

  19. Kinetic test of pancreatic exocrine function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawabu, Norio; Hirose, Shoichiro; Nakazima, Shin; Yoneda, Masao; Nishimura, Keigo

    1975-01-01

    In order to improve the diagnostic evaluation of pancreatic exocrine function, 75 Se-activity in the duodenal aspirate of twenty control subjects and 131 subjects with pancertic and/or gastrointestinal disease was measured following intravenous injection of 75 Se-selenomethionine. Radioactivity in the duodenal aspirate of the control subjects remained low until 80 min. It then rose rapidly and reached a plateau at 115 min. In contrast, radioactivity in the subjects with pancreatic diseases remained low, or rose only slowly throughout the period of collection. Radioactivity of the protein fraction (TCA-precipitable) in the 80 to 130 min. duodenal aspirates showed good separation between controls and subjects with pancreatic disease. The incidence of abnormalities of TCA-precipitable radioactivity in the 80 to 130 min. duodenal aspirates was significantly higher than that of the conventional PS-test parameters in groups with various pancreatic diseases. All of the subjects having an abnormal maximal ratio of TCA-precipitable radioactivity to protein (representing pancreatic enzyme synthesis) showed an abnormal distribution in output of TCA-precipitable radioactivity in 80 to 130 min. collection (representing both enzyme synthesis and excretion). On the other hand, subjects with an abnormal output of TCA-precipitable radioactivity in 80 to 130 min. could be separated into those with normal and abnormal ratios of TCA-precipitable radioactivity, suggesting the presence of two types of disturbance in pancreatic function. In the latter group both synthesis and secretion of enzyme were impaired. In the former group, secretion of enzyme was depressed, although enzyme synthesis was fairly well preserved. (author)

  20. Kinetic test of pancreatic exocrine function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawabu, N; Hirose, S; Nakazima, S; Yoneda, M; Nishimura, K [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-01-01

    In order to improve the diagnostic evaluation of pancreatic exocrine function, /sup 75/Se-activity in the duodenal aspirate of twenty control subjects and 131 subjects with pancertic and/or gastrointestinal disease was measured following intravenous injection of /sup 75/Se-selenomethionine. Radioactivity in the duodenal aspirate of the control subjects remained low until 80 min. It then rose rapidly and reached a plateau at 115 min. In contrast, radioactivity in the subjects with pancreatic diseases remained low, or rose only slowly throughout the period of collection. Radioactivity of the protein fraction (TCA-precipitable) in the 80 to 130 min. duodenal aspirates showed good separation between controls and subjects with pancreatic disease. The incidence of abnormalities of TCA-precipitable radioactivity in the 80 to 130 min. duodenal aspirates was significantly higher than that of the conventional PS-test parameters in groups with various pancreatic diseases. All of the subjects having an abnormal maximal ratio of TCA-precipitable radioactivity to protein (representing pancreatic enzyme synthesis) showed an abnormal distribution in output of TCA-precipitable radioactivity in 80 to 130 min. collection (representing both enzyme synthesis and excretion). On the other hand, subjects with an abnormal output of TCA-precipitable radioactivity in 80 to 130 min. could be separated into those with normal and abnormal ratios of TCA-precipitable radioactivity, suggesting the presence of two types of disturbance in pancreatic function. In the latter group both synthesis and secretion of enzyme were impaired. In the former group, secretion of enzyme was depressed, although enzyme synthesis was fairly well preserved.

  1. Gall bladder function test with Ceruletid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, G.

    1981-01-01

    Compared with the stimulating food given orally in the gall bladder function test the administration of the decapeptide Ceruletid which is related with Cholecystokinin has the advantage of avoiding resorption disturbances in the upper gastrointestinal tract. To 100 patients with positive peroral cholecystography, Ceruletid was injected i.m. in a dose of 0.4 μg/kg body weight. The contrasting of the main bile duct was thus increased from 10% to 86%. The oral stimulating food brings an increase to appr. 20%. A special importance is assigned to the frequent diagnosis of adenomyomatoses which, with 6%, lies significantly above the 0.8% achieved by means of the oral stimulating food. More contractile segments of the gall bladder wall can cause pain symptoms which are typical for the biliary tract. Adenomyomatoses in the region of the infundibulum of the gall bladder cause colicky pains and are, as generally accepted, an absolute indication for a surgical intervention. The finding of small gall bladder conrements is often connected with a strong diminution of the gall bladder in order to prevent the small concrements from being overlapped by the non-contrasting bladder bile. Therefore, the application of Ceruletid should be considered also within the frame of the intravenous cholegraphy, thinking of the large number of normal gall bladder findings which were obtained with the oral stimulating food as the only diagnostical help. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Placentation in the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Miglino, M A; Ambrosio, C E

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from several sources supports a close phylogenetic relationship between elephants and sirenians. To explore whether this was reflected in similar placentation, we examined eight delivered placentae from the Amazonian manatee using light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. In addition, t...

  3. Comparative aspects of trophoblast development and placentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enders Allen C

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on the number of tissues separating maternal from fetal blood, placentas are classified as epitheliochorial, endotheliochorial or hemochorial. We review the occurrence of these placental types in the various orders of eutherian mammals within the framework of the four superorders identified by the techniques of molecular phylogenetics. The superorder Afrotheria diversified in ancient Africa and its living representatives include elephants, sea cows, hyraxes, aardvark, elephant shrews and tenrecs. Xenarthra, comprising armadillos, anteaters and sloths, diversified in South America. All placentas examined from members of these two oldest superorders are either endotheliochorial or hemochorial. The superorder Euarchontoglires includes two sister groups, Glires and Euarchonta. The former comprises rodents and lagomorphs, which typically have hemochorial placentas. The most primitive members of Euarchonta, the tree shrews, have endotheliochorial placentation. Flying lemurs and all higher primates have hemochorial placentas. However, the lemurs and lorises are exceptional among primates in having epitheliochorial placentation. Laurasiatheria, the last superorder to arise, includes several orders with epitheliochorial placentation. These comprise whales, camels, pigs, ruminants, horses and pangolins. In contrast, nearly all carnivores have endotheliochorial placentation, whilst bats have endotheliochorial or hemochorial placentas. Also included in Laurasiatheria are a number of insectivores that have many conserved morphological characters; none of these has epitheliochorial placentation. Consideration of placental type in relation to the findings of molecular phylogenetics suggests that the likely path of evolution in Afrotheria was from endotheliochorial to hemochorial placentation. This is also a likely scenario for Xenarthra and the bats. We argue that a definitive epitheliochorial placenta is a secondary specialization and that it

  4. Maternal and placental melatonin: actions and implication for successful pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagrillo-Fagundes, L; Soliman, A; Vaillancourt, C

    2014-06-01

    Melatonin is one of the main sources of mitochondrial protection and its protective effects are equal or even better if compared with several consecrated antioxidants. Furthermore, the activation of specific melatonin receptors triggers several cellular pathways that improve the oxidoreduction and inflammatory cellular state. The discovery of the melatoninergic machinery in placental cells was the first step to understand the effects of this indoleamine during pregnancy. In critical points of pregnancy, melatonin has been pointed as a protagonist and its beneficial effects have been shown as essential for the control of trophoblastic function and development. On the contrary of the plasmatic melatonin (produced in pineal gland), placental melatonin does not vary according to the circadian cycle and acts as an autocrine, paracrine, intracrine, and endocrine hormone. The important effects of melatonin in placenta have been demonstrated in the physiopathology of pre-eclampsia with alterations in the levels of melatonin and in the expression of its receptors and synthetizing enzymes. Some authors suggested melatonin as a biomarker of pre-eclampsia and as a possible treatment for this disease and other obstetric pathologies associated with placental defect and increases in oxidative stress. This review will approach the beneficial effects of melatonin on placenta homeostasis and consequently on pregnancy and fetal health.

  5. Placental transfer of iodine and iodine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.E.; Zemlin, G.; Griessl, I.

    1985-11-01

    The following topics are valid for man and mammalians with haemochorial placenta, which are examined up to now: Within several hours after injection of radioactive inorganic iodide-compounds activity can be realized in the fetus. The transfer occurs bidirectionally through the placenta. The concentration of radioactive iodide in the fetal serum exceeds that of the maternal one already a short time after application. Radioactive iodide accumulates in the fetus before its thyroid starts its function and is mainly concentrated in liver and intestine; after starting its function, the fetal thyroid, stores the radioactive iodide at a very high percent rate. During gestation the concentration of radioactive iodide in the fetal thyroid increases and at the end of gestation it can exceed by 3-10 fold that in the maternal thyroid. Single uptake of radioactive iodide leads to a higher activity than chronic uptake. No analogy can be found in the concentration of fetal and maternal radioactive thyroid hormon compounds. A placental permeability for T 4 and T 3 only exists to a very small extent. Resulting from radioactive iodide transfer examinations, good accordance can be found between the individual animal species and man, while data on the passage of radioactive thyroid hormones vary to a small extent between the animal species. (orig./MG) [de

  6. The distinct proteome of placental malaria parasites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, Michal; Hixson, Kim K.; Anderson, Lori; Ogata, Yuko; Mutabingwa, Theonest K.; Duffy, Patrick E.

    2007-09-01

    Malaria proteins expressed on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) mediate adhesion and are targeted by protective immune responses. During pregnancy, IE sequester in the placenta. Placental IE bind to the molecule chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) and preferentially transcribe the gene that encodes VAR2CSA, a member of the PfEMP1 variant surface antigen family. Over successive pregnancies women develop specific immunity to CSA-binding IE and antibodies to VAR2CSA. We used tandem mass spectrometry together with accurate mass and time tag technology to study IE membrane fractions of placental parasites. VAR2CSA peptides were detected in placental IE and in IE from children, but the MC variant of VAR2CSA was specifically associated with placental IE. We identified six conserved hypothetical proteins with putative TM or signal peptides that were exclusively expressed by the placental IE, and 11 such proteins that were significantly more abundant in placental IE. One of these hypothetical proteins, PFI1785w, is a 42kDa molecule detected by Western blot in parasites infecting pregnant women but not those infecting children.

  7. Placental fatty acid transport in maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, I; Parisi, F; Berti, C; Mandò, C; Desoye, G

    2012-12-01

    Pregestational obesity is a significant risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Maternal obesity is associated with a specific proinflammatory, endocrine and metabolic phenotype that may lead to higher supply of nutrients to the feto-placental unit and to excessive fetal fat accumulation. In particular, obesity may influence placental fatty acid (FA) transport in several ways, leading to increased diffusion driving force across the placenta, and to altered placental development, size and exchange surface area. Animal models show that maternal obesity is associated with increased expression of specific FA carriers and inflammatory signaling molecules in placental cotyledonary tissue, resulting in enhanced lipid transfer across the placenta, dislipidemia, fat accumulation and possibly altered development in fetuses. Cell culture experiments confirmed that inflammatory molecules, adipokines and FA, all significantly altered in obesity, are important regulators of placental lipid exchange. Expression studies in placentas of obese-diabetic women found a significant increase in FA binding protein-4 expression and in cellular triglyceride content, resulting in increased triglyceride cord blood concentrations. The expression and activity of carriers involved in placental lipid transport are influenced by the endocrine, inflammatory and metabolic milieu of obesity, and further studies are needed to elucidate the strong association between maternal obesity and fetal overgrowth.

  8. Maternal Methadone Dose, Placental Methadone Concentrations, and Neonatal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Ana; Jones, Hendreé E.; Johnson, Rolley E.; Gray, Teresa R.; Shakleya, Diaa M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few investigations have used placenta as an alternative matrix to detect in utero drug exposure, despite its availability at the time of birth and the large amount of sample. Methadone-maintained opioid-dependent pregnant women provide a unique opportunity to examine the placental disposition of methadone and metabolite [2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP)], to explore their correlations with maternal methadone dose and neonatal outcomes, and to test the ability to detect in utero exposure to illicit drugs. METHODS We calculated the correlations of placental methadone and EDDP concentrations and their correlations with maternal methadone doses and neonatal outcomes. Cocaine- and opiate-positive placenta results were compared with the results for meconium samples and for urine samples collected throughout gestation. RESULTS Positive correlations were found between placental methadone and EDDP concentrations (r = 0.685), and between methadone concentration and methadone dose at delivery (r = 0.542), mean daily dose (r = 0.554), mean third-trimester dose (r = 0.591), and cumulative daily dose (r = 0.639). The EDDP/methadone concentration ratio was negatively correlated with cumulative daily dose (r = 0.541) and positively correlated with peak neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) score (r = 0.513). Placental EDDP concentration was negatively correlated with newborn head circumference (r = 0.579). Cocaine and opiate use was detected in far fewer placenta samples than in thrice-weekly urine and meconium samples, a result suggesting a short detection window for placenta. CONCLUSIONS Quantitative methadone and EDDP measurement may predict NAS severity. The placenta reflects in utero drug exposure for a shorter time than meconium but may be useful when meconium is unavailable or if documentation of recent exposure is needed. PMID:21245372

  9. Significance tests for functional data with complex dependence structure

    KAUST Repository

    Staicu, Ana-Maria; Lahiri, Soumen N.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    We propose an L (2)-norm based global testing procedure for the null hypothesis that multiple group mean functions are equal, for functional data with complex dependence structure. Specifically, we consider the setting of functional data with a

  10. Quality of Liver and Kideny Function Test

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    results for kidney functions and liver functions in. HIV diagnostic and monitoring laboratory are extremely important for decision making with patients under ART programs, and the consequences of erroneous results are huge (8, 9). 1University of Bahir Dar, Biological Inorganic Chemistry, P.O.Box-79, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

  11. O-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine deposition in placental proteins varies according to maternal glycemic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Justina, Vanessa; Dos Passos Junior, Rinaldo R; Bressan, Alecsander F; Tostes, Rita C; Carneiro, Fernando S; Soares, Thaigra S; Volpato, Gustavo T; Lima, Victor Vitorino; Martin, Sebastian San; Giachini, Fernanda R

    2018-05-07

    Hyperglycemia increases glycosylation with O-linked N‑acetyl‑glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) contributing to placental dysfunction and fetal growth impairment. Our aim was to determine how O-GlcNAc levels are affected by hyperglycemia and the O-GlcNAc distribution in different placental regions. Female Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: severe hyperglycemia (>300 mg/dL; n = 5); mild hyperglycemia (>140 mg/dL, at least than two time points during oral glucose tolerance test; n = 7) or normoglycemia (O-GlcNAc were detected in all regions, with increased O-GlcNAc levels in the hyperglycemic group compared to control and mild hyperglycemic rats. Proteins in endothelial and trophoblast cells were the main target for O-GlcNAc. Whereas no changes in O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) expression were detected, O-GlcNAcase (OGA) expression was reduced in placentas from the severe hyperglycemic group and augmented in placentas from the mild hyperglycemic group, compared with their respective control groups. Placental O-GlcNAc overexpression may contribute to placental dysfunction, as indicated by the placental index. Additionally, morphometric alterations, occurring simultaneously with increased O-GlcNAc accumulation in the placental tissue may contribute to placental dysfunction during hyperglycemia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. The SK3 channel promotes placental vascularization by enhancing secretion of angiogenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Cara C; Murray, Grace; England, Sarah K

    2014-11-15

    Proper placental perfusion is essential for fetal exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste with the maternal circulation. Impairment of uteroplacental vascular function can lead to pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Potassium channels have been recognized as regulators of vascular proliferation, angiogenesis, and secretion of vasoactive factors, and their dysfunction may underlie pregnancy-related vascular diseases. Overexpression of one channel in particular, the small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3), is known to increase vascularization in mice, and mice overexpressing the SK3 channel (SK3(T/T) mice) have a high rate of fetal demise and IUGR. Here, we show that overexpression of SK3 causes fetal loss through abnormal placental vascularization. We previously reported that, at pregnancy day 14, placentas isolated from SK3(T/T) mice are smaller than those obtained from wild-type mice. In this study, histological analysis reveals that SK3(T/-) placentas at this stage have abnormal placental morphology, and microcomputed tomography shows that these placentas have significantly larger and more blood vessels than those from wild-type mice. To identify the mechanism by which these vascularization defects occur, we measured levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor, and the soluble form of VEGF receptor 1 (sFlt-1), which must be tightly regulated to ensure proper placental development. Our data reveal that overexpression of SK3 alters systemic and placental ratios of the angiogenic factor VEGF to antiangiogenic factor sFlt-1 throughout pregnancy. Additionally, we observe increased expression of hypoxia-inducing factor 2α in SK3(T/-) placentas. We conclude that the SK3 channel modulates placental vascular development and fetal health by altering VEGF signaling. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Stillbirth evaluation: a stepwise assessment of placental pathology and autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emily S; Minturn, Lucy; Linn, Rebecca; Weese-Mayer, Debra E; Ernst, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists places special emphasis on autopsy as one of the most important tests for evaluation of stillbirth. Despite a recommendation of an autopsy, many families will decline the autopsy based on religious/cultural beliefs, fear of additional suffering for the child, or belief that no additional information will be obtained or of value. Further, many obstetric providers express a myriad of barriers limiting their recommendation for a perinatal autopsy despite their understanding of its value. Consequently, perinatal autopsy rates have been declining. Without the information provided by an autopsy, many women are left with unanswered questions regarding cause of death for their fetus and without clear management strategies to reduce the risk of stillbirth in future pregnancies. To avoid this scenario, it is imperative that clinicians are knowledgeable about the benefit of autopsy so they can provide clear information on its diagnostic utility and decrease potential barriers; in so doing the obstetrician can ensure that each family has the necessary information to make an informed decision. We sought to quantify the contribution of placental pathologic examination and autopsy in identifying a cause of stillbirth and to identify how often clinical management is modified due to each result. This is a cohort study of all cases of stillbirth from 2009 through 2013 at a single tertiary care center. Records were reviewed in a stepwise manner: first the clinical history and laboratory results, then the placental pathologic evaluation, and finally the autopsy. At each step, a cause of death and the certainty of that etiology were coded. Clinical changes that would be recommended by information available at each step were also recorded. Among the 144 cases of stillbirth examined, 104 (72%) underwent autopsy and these cases constitute the cohort of study. The clinical and laboratory information alone identified a cause of death

  14. Human placental immunoglobulins show unique re-association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study re-association pattern of human placental eluate immunoglobulins with acid treated isologous and third party trophoblast derived placental microvesicles. Design: Laboratory based experimentation. Setting: Biological Sciences Department and Discipline for Reproductive Medicine University of ...

  15. Tumor and placental histaminase. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellin, C.; Angellis, D.

    1981-01-01

    Histaminase (diamine oxidase) is an enzyme associated with pregnancy and with a number of human cancers. In pregnancy, the enzyme is produced by the decidual cells of the placenta. Histaminase of the placenta is biochemically and immunologically identical to that of cancer. Based on this, a radioimmunoassay procedure for histaminase has been developed. The high affinity monospecific antiserum for the assay was obtained from rabbits by injecting with homogeneous histaminase purified from placenta by affinity chromatography. Radioactive labelling of histaminase was carried out by iodination with 125 I using chloramine T as the oxidizing agent. The iodination yielded [ 125 I]-histaminase of high specific radioactivity (20 μCi/μg protein) with no apparent affect on the immunologic affinity. For separating the antibody-antigen complex from the unbound antigen, a second antibody bound to polyacrylamide beads was most effective at high antiserum dilutions. The assay had a working range of 0.3 to 80 ng/ml and a minimal detectable quantity of 0.15 ng/ml. Compared to the enzymatic assay with [ 14 C]putrescine as substrate, the radioimmunoassay procedure is about 70 times more sensitive. Measurements of histaminase in placental extracts and malignant effusions using both radioimmunoassay and enzyme assay demonstrated that the two methods were highly correlated, thus providing evidence for the specificity of the radioimmunoassay. This procedure will be useful in future studies of histaminase as a biochemical marker for human cancer and for the elucidation of the significance of this enzyme in pregnancy and in neoplasia. (Auth.)

  16. RUNX2 tandem repeats and the evolution of facial length in placental mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pointer Marie A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When simple sequence repeats are integrated into functional genes, they can potentially act as evolutionary ‘tuning knobs’, supplying abundant genetic variation with minimal risk of pleiotropic deleterious effects. The genetic basis of variation in facial shape and length represents a possible example of this phenomenon. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2, which is involved in osteoblast differentiation, contains a functionally-important tandem repeat of glutamine and alanine amino acids. The ratio of glutamines to alanines (the QA ratio in this protein seemingly influences the regulation of bone development. Notably, in domestic breeds of dog, and in carnivorans in general, the ratio of glutamines to alanines is strongly correlated with facial length. Results In this study we examine whether this correlation holds true across placental mammals, particularly those mammals for which facial length is highly variable and related to adaptive behavior and lifestyle (e.g., primates, afrotherians, xenarthrans. We obtained relative facial length measurements and RUNX2 sequences for 41 mammalian species representing 12 orders. Using both a phylogenetic generalized least squares model and a recently-developed Bayesian comparative method, we tested for a correlation between genetic and morphometric data while controlling for phylogeny, evolutionary rates, and divergence times. Non-carnivoran taxa generally had substantially lower glutamine-alanine ratios than carnivorans (primates and xenarthrans with means of 1.34 and 1.25, respectively, compared to a mean of 3.1 for carnivorans, and we found no correlation between RUNX2 sequence and face length across placental mammals. Conclusions Results of our diverse comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that QA ratio does not consistently correlate with face length across the 41 mammalian taxa considered. Thus, although RUNX2 might function as a ‘tuning knob’ modifying face

  17. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: case report with gross and histological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Pecoraro Toscano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD is a rare placental disorder characterized by placental enlargement and areas of abnormal, enlarged, grape-like villi. This condition may resemble a partial hydatidiform mole and may occur associated with Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS or in phenotypically normal fetuses. There were 110 cases reported so far. We describe one case with typical gross and microscopic placental lesions.

  18. Platelet Function Tests: Preanalytical Variables, Clinical Utility, Advantages, and Disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvas, Anne-Mette; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2017-01-01

    Platelet function tests are mainly used in the diagnostic work-up of platelet disorders. During the last decade, the additional use of platelet function tests to evaluate the effect of antiplatelet therapy has also emerged in an attempt to identify patients with an increased risk of arterial thrombosis. Furthermore, platelet function tests are increasingly used to measure residual effect of antiplatelet therapy prior to surgery with the aim of reducing the risk of bleeding. To a limited extend, platelet function tests are also used to evaluate hyperaggregability as a potential marker of a prothrombotic state outside the setting of antiplatelet therapy. This multifaceted use of platelet function tests and the development of simpler point-of-care tests with narrower application have increased the use of platelet function testing and also facilitated the use of platelet function tests outside the highly specialized laboratories. The present chapter describes the preanalytical variables, which should be taken into account when planning platelet function testing. Also, the most widely used platelet function tests are introduced, and their clinical utility and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  19. Differential Spatiotemporal Patterns of Galectin Expression are a Hallmark of Endotheliochorial Placentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Melanie L; Freitag, Nancy; Diessler, Mónica E; Hernandez, Rocío; Barrientos, Gabriela; Rose, Matthias; Casas, Luciano A; Barbeito, Claudio G; Blois, Sandra M

    2016-03-01

    Galectins influence the progress of pregnancy by regulating key processes associated with embryo-maternal cross talk, including angiogenesis and placentation. Galectin family members exert multiple roles in the context of hemochorial and epitheliochorial placentation; however, the galectin prolife in endotheliochorial placenta remains to be investigated. Here, we used immunohistochemistry to analyze galectin (gal)-1, gal-3 and gal-9 expression during early and late endotheliochorial placentation in two different species (dogs and cats). We found that during early feline gestation, all three galectin members were more strongly expressed on trophoblast and maternal vessels compared to the decidua. This was accompanied by an overall decrease of gal-1, gal-3 and gal-9 expressions in late feline gestation. In canine early pregnancy, we observed that gal-1 and gal-9 were expressed strongly in cytotrophoblast (CTB) cells compared to gal-3, and no galectin expression was observed in syncytiotrophoblast (STB) cells. Progression of canine gestation was accompanied by increased gal-1 and gal-3 expressions on STB cells, whereas gal-9 expression remained similar in CTB and STB. These data suggest that both the maternal and fetal compartments are characterized by a spatiotemporal regulation of galectin expression during endotheliochorial placentation. This strongly suggests the involvement of the galectin family in important developmental processes during gestation including immunemodulation, trophoblast invasion and angiogenesis. A conserved functional role for galectins during mammalian placental development emerges from these studies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Placental gene expression of the placental growth factor (PlGF) in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joó, József Gábor; Rigó, János; Börzsönyi, Balázs; Demendi, Csaba; Kornya, László

    2017-06-01

    We analyzed changes in gene expression of placental growth factor (PIGF) in human placental samples obtained postpartum from pregnancies with IUGR. During a twelve-month study period representing the calendar year of 2012 placental samples from 101 pregnancies with IUGR and from 140 normal pregnancies were obtained for analysis of a potential difference in PIGF gene expression. There was no significant difference in gene activity of the PIGF gene between the IUGR versus normal pregnancy groups (Ln2 α : 0.92; p intrauterine growth restriction PIGF expression does show a significant decrease indicating its potential role in the profound defect in angiogenesis in these cases.

  1. Immunoinformatics of Placental Malaria Vaccine Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Leon Eyrich

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium, which is transferred by female Anopheles mosquitos. WHO estimates that in 2012 there were 207 million cases of malaria, of which 627,000 were fatal. People living in malaria-endemic areas, gradually acquire...... immunity with multiple infections. Placental malaria (PM) is caused by P. falciparum sequestering in the placenta of pregnant women due to the presence of novel receptors in the placenta. An estimated 200,000 infants die a year as a result of PM. In 2004 the specific protein responsible...... and development in the field of placental malaria vaccine development....

  2. Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M

    2009-01-01

    A review is given of the factors determining placental oxygen transfer and the oxygen supply to the fetus. In the case of continuous variables, such as the rate of placental blood flow, it is not possible to trace evolutionary trends. Discontinuous variables, for which we can define character sta......, where fetal and adult haemoglobin are not different, developmental regulation of 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate ensures the high oxygen affinity of fetal blood. Oxygen diffusing capacity is dependent on diffusion distance, which may vary with the type of interhaemal barrier. It has been shown...

  3. Detection and clinical manifestation of placental malaria in southern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acquah Patrick A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum can be detected by microscopy, histidine-rich-protein-2 (HRP2 capture test or PCR but the respective clinical relevance of the thereby diagnosed infections in pregnant women is not well established. Methods In a cross-sectional, year-round study among 839 delivering women in Agogo, Ghana, P. falciparum was screened for in both, peripheral and placental blood samples, and associations with maternal anaemia, low birth weight (LBW and preterm delivery (PD were analysed. Results In peripheral blood, P. falciparum was observed in 19%, 34%, and 53% by microscopy, HRP2 test, and PCR, respectively. For placental samples, these figures were 35%, 41%, and 59%. Irrespective of diagnostic tool, P. falciparum infection increased the risk of anaemia. Positive peripheral blood results of microscopy and PCR were not associated with LBW or PD. In contrast, the HRP2 test performed well in identifying women at increased risk of poor pregnancy outcome, particularly in case of a negative peripheral blood film. Adjusting for age, parity, and antenatal visits, placental HRP2 was the only marker of infection associated with LBW (adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 1.5 (95%CI, 1.0–2.2 and, at borderline statistical significance, PD (aOR, 1.4 (1.0–2.1 in addition to anaemia (aOR, 2.3 (1.7–3.2. Likewise, HRP2 in peripheral blood of seemingly aparasitaemic women was associated with PD (aOR, 1.7 (1.0–2.7 and anaemia (aOR, 2.1 (1.4–3.2. Conclusion Peripheral blood film microscopy not only underestimates placental malaria. In this highly endemic setting, it also fails to identify malaria as a cause of foetal impairment. Sub-microscopic infections detected by a HRP2 test in seemingly aparasitaemic women increase the risks of anaemia and PD. These findings indicate that the burden of malaria in pregnancy may be even larger than thought and accentuate the need for effective anti-malarial interventions in pregnancy.

  4. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Flemming Holbæk; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans

    2009-01-01

    force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external...... force transducers over in-vivo strain gauges of various sizes to electrical impedance based measurements. The amplitude and duration of the axial force has been shown to be as reliable as manometry. Normal, as well as abnormal, manometric recordings occur with normal bolus transit, which have been...... documented using imaging modalities such as radiography and scintigraphy. This inconsistency using manometry has also been documented by axial force recordings. This underlines the lack of information when diagnostics are based on manometry alone. Increasing the volume of a bag mounted on a probe...

  5. [Syncope: electrocardiogram and autonomic function tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, William; Baranchuk, Adrián; Botero, Federico

    2016-12-23

    Syncope represents one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in the emergency department. A proper identification will allow a precise etiologic approach and the optimization of delivery of health resources.
Once knowing the classification of syncope; it is the clinical interrogatory what enables to discriminate which of these patients present with a neurogenic mediated syncope or a cardiac mediated syncope. The use of diagnostic methods such as the tilt test, will clarify what type of neurally mediated syncope predominates in the patient.
The electrocardiogram is the cornerstone in the identification of those patients who had a true episode of self-limited or aborted sudden death as the first manifestation of their syncope, a fact which provides prognostic and therapeutic information that will impact the morbidity and mortality.

  6. Executive Functioning Profiles and Test Anxiety in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick S.

    2017-01-01

    The current study attempted to answer whether a specific executive functioning profile for individuals with test anxiety exists and whether deficits in working memory are associated with an earlier onset of test anxiety. Two hundred eighty-four undergraduate students completed a survey on test anxiety and self-report measures of test anxiety and…

  7. Placental invasion, preeclampsia risk and adaptive molecular evolution at the origin of the great apes: evidence from genome-wide analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosley, E J; Elliot, M G; Christians, J K; Crespi, B J

    2013-02-01

    Recent evidence from chimpanzees and gorillas has raised doubts that preeclampsia is a uniquely human disease. The deep extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion and spiral artery remodeling that characterizes our placenta (and is abnormal in preeclampsia) is shared within great apes, setting Homininae apart from Hylobatidae and Old World Monkeys, which show much shallower trophoblast invasion and limited spiral artery remodeling. We hypothesize that the evolution of a more invasive placenta in the lineage ancestral to the great apes involved positive selection on genes crucial to EVT invasion and spiral artery remodeling. Furthermore, identification of placentally-expressed genes under selection in this lineage may identify novel genes involved in placental development. We tested for positive selection in approximately 18,000 genes using the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous amino acid substitution for protein-coding DNA. DAVID Bioinformatics Resources identified biological processes enriched in positively selected genes, including processes related to EVT invasion and spiral artery remodeling. Analyses revealed 295 and 264 genes under significant positive selection on the branches ancestral to Hominidae (Human, Chimp, Gorilla, Orangutan) and Homininae (Human, Chimp, Gorilla), respectively. Gene ontology analysis of these gene sets demonstrated significant enrichments for several functional gene clusters relevant to preeclampsia risk, and sets of placentally-expressed genes that have been linked with preeclampsia and/or trophoblast invasion in other studies. Our study represents a novel approach to the identification of candidate genes and amino acid residues involved in placental pathologies by implicating them in the evolution of highly-invasive placenta. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Urinary estrogen excretion and concentration of serum human placental lactogen in pregnancies following legally induced abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, E B; Madsen, Mette

    1980-01-01

    Feto-placental function was assessed by 24-hour excretion of estrogen in urine and by the concentration of human Placental Lactogen (hPL) in serum in pregnant women whose previous pregnancy was terminated by legally induced abortion. The mean 24-hour excretion of estrogens in urine and the mean...... an increased frequency of dysfunction of the feto-placental unit during the last part of pregnancy in women with previous legally induced abortion. These findings indicate that legal abortion does not seem to increase the frequency of retarded intrauterine growth in a subsequent pregnancy....... concentration of hPL in serum were no lower in this group than in women without previous induced abortion. Neither was the frequency of a low 24-hour excretion of estrogens in urine or low concentration of hPL in serum (values less than mean - 1.96 s) found to be increased. This study could not demonstrate...

  9. [Experimental validation of the efficacy of laser-magnetic therapy for chronic placental insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordzhonikidze, N V; Filimonov, V G; Klimenko, P A; Kondrikov, N I; Akin'shina, V S; Berlin, Iu V

    1994-01-01

    A new pathogenetically based non-medicamentous method for correction of uteroplacental bloodflow disturbances has been developed on the model of chronic placental insufficiency in rats. A single 5 min laser-magnetic exposure on day 21 of normal pregnancy resulted in a vasodilating effect with reduction of the peripheral resistance in the uterine horn vessels and with improvement of their blood supply. A new LAMA laser magneto-therapeutic device was employed. Daily 5 min sessions of laser magnetic therapy administered to rats with chronic placental insufficiency from pregnancy days 15-16 to 21 normalized uterine horn contractility and resulted in positive morphofunctional changes in the components of the uterine horns and placenta, being associated with a noticeable improvement of fetal functions. Hence, laser magnetic therapy may be regarded as an effective non-drug method for therapy of chronic placental insufficiency.

  10. IMPORTANCE OF THYROID FUNCTION TEST IN DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Thyroid disorder and Diabetes are both hormone and endocrine and problems. When thyroid disease occurs in someone with diabetes, it can make blood glucose control more difficult. The incidence and occurrence of thyroid diseases in general population is increasing more and more day by day . As the prevalence of diabetes and thyroid both is more in India, correlation of these two diseases was studied in this study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: this study was conducted on 105 diabetic (both type I and II patients attending Outpatient Department. Thyroid tests including TSH, and T4 were measured using enzyme immune assay. RESULTS: We have enrolled 105 patients which are Prediabetes, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Out of these 55 are male and 50 patients are females. 68 patients are on oral hypoglycemic drugs and 28 patients are on insulin with oral hypoglycemic agents, 09 patients were only on Diabetic D iet. We have observed that patient with diabetes predominantly females were having abnormal thyroid levels than compared to control group. Hypothyroidism was seen to be more common in females than in males in both the control and study group. Similarly hyp erthyroidism also seems to be common in females compared to males in both diabetic and non - diabetic groups (Perros P 1995. DISCUSSION: Abnormal thyroid hormone levels were observed more commonly in study group than in control group. Hypothyroidism was see n to be more common in females than in males in both the control and study group. Similarly hyperthyroidism also seems to be common in females compared to males in both diabetic and non - diabetic groups

  11. Even a Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia Affects Membrane Fluidity and Lipoperoxidation in Placental Mitochondria in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-García, María del Consuelo; Espinosa-García, María Teresa; Martinez-Montes, Federico; Palomar-Morales, Martín; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 6–7 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Membrane fluidity in mitochondria was measured with the excimer forming probe dipyrenylpropane and mitochondrial function was measured with a Clark-type electrode. The results show that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia increases lipoperoxidation and decreases mitochondrial function in placenta. Simultaneously, placental fatty acids metabolism in total tissue is modified but in a different way than in placental mitochondria. Whereas the chronic mild hyperglycemia induced a decrease in unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S) in placental total tissue, the ratio increased in placental mitochondria. The measurements of membrane fluidity showed that fluidity of placenta mitochondrial membranes increased with hyperglycemia, showing consistency with the fatty acids composition through the U/S index. The thermotropic characteristics of mitochondrial membranes were changed, showing lower transition temperature and activation energies. All of these data together demonstrate that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy of early reproductive Wistar rats, generates an increment of lipoperoxidation, an increase of placental mitochondrial membrane fluidity apparently derived from changes in fatty acids composition and consequently, mitochondrial malfunction. PMID:26630275

  12. 15N liver function tests - concept, validity, clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Jung, K.; Krumbiegel, P.; Hirschberg, K.; Reinhardt, R.; Junghans, P.

    1987-01-01

    Several liver function tests using the oral application of a nitrogen compound labelled with 15 N and the subsequent determination of 15 N in a certain fraction of urine by emission spectrometry are described. Because of the key position of the liver in the metabolism of nitrogen compounds the results of these tests allow conclusions concerning disturbances of special liver functions. Instructions for the clinical use of the '[ 15 N]Ammonium Test', '[ 15 N]Hippurate Test' the '[ 15 N]Methacetin Test', and the '[ 15 N]Glycine Test' are given. (author)

  13. Experimental fast reactor JOYO MK-III functional test. Primary auxiliary cooling system test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karube, Koji; Akagi, Shinji; Terano, Toshihiro; Onuki, Osamu; Ito, Hideaki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Odo, Toshihiro

    2004-03-01

    This paper describes the results of primary auxiliary cooling system, which were done as a part of JOYO MK-III function test. The aim of the tests was to confirm the operational performance of primary auxiliary EMP and the protection system including siphon breaker of primary auxiliary cooling system. The items of the tests were: (Test No.): (Test item). 1) SKS-117: EMP start up test. 2) SKS-118-1: EMP start up test when pony motor running. 3) SKS-121: Function test of siphon breaker. The results of the tests satisfied the required performance, and demonstrated successful operation of primary auxiliary cooling system. (author)

  14. 33 CFR 157.12f - Workshop functional test requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.12f Workshop functional test requirements... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Workshop functional test requirements. 157.12f Section 157.12f Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  15. Quality assessment of a placental perfusion protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Line; Mose, Tina; Mørck, Thit Juul

    2010-01-01

    mlh(-1) from the fetal reservoir) when adding 2 (n=7) and 20mg (n=9) FITC-dextran/100ml fetal perfusion media. Success rate of the Copenhagen placental perfusions is provided in this study, including considerations and quality control parameters. Three checkpoints suggested to determine success rate...

  16. Placental malaria and immunity to infant measles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owens, S.; Harper, G.; Amuasi, J.; Offei-Larbi, G.; Ordi, J.; Brabin, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    The efficiency of transplacental transfer of measles specific antibody was assessed in relation to placental malaria. Infection at delivery was associated with a 30% decrease in expected cord measles antibody titres. Uninfected women who received anti-malarial drugs during pregnancy transmitted 30%

  17. Placental transfer of plutonium and other actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griessl, I.; Stieve, F.E.

    1988-10-01

    The report is based on an extensive literature search. All data available from studies on placental transfer of plutonium and other actinides in man and animals have been collected and analysed, and the report presents the significant results as well as unresolved questions and knowledge gaps which may serve as a waypost to future research work. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A rare case of histologically proven placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD with fetal omphalocele in a 22-year-old patient is reported. Material and Methods. Antenatal ultrasound of this patient showed hydropic placenta with a live fetus of 17 weeks period of gestation associated with omphalocele. Cordocentesis detected the diploid karyotype of the fetus. Patient, when prognosticated, choose to terminate the pregnancy in view of high incidence of fetal and placental anomalies. Subsequent histopathological examination of placenta established the diagnosis to be placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Conclusion. On clinical and ultrasonic grounds, suspicion of P.M.D. arises when hydropic placenta with a live fetus presents in second trimester of pregnancy. Cordocentesis can detect the diploid karyotype of the fetus in such cases. As this condition is prognostically better than triploid partial mole, continuation of pregnancy can sometimes be considered after through antenatal screening and patient counseling. However, a definite diagnosis of P.M.D. is made only on placental histology by absence of trophoblast hyperplasia and trophoblastic inclusions.

  19. Abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry and placental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was prospective and conducted in a low-income setting. A total of 130 non-anomalous singleton FGR pregnancies (≥24 weeks) were included in the study. All pregnancies were confirmed to be small for gestational age (SGA) after the birth of the neonate. The placental lesions and neonatal outcomes were ...

  20. Placentation in mammals once grouped as insectivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony; Enders, Allen

    2009-01-01

    nutrition involving columnar trophoblast cells. These range from areolae in moles through complexly folded hemophagous regions in tenrecs to the trophoblastic annulus in shrews. Of these placental characters, few offer support to current phylogenies. However, the case for placing hedgehogs and gymnures...

  1. Significance tests for functional data with complex dependence structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staicu, Ana-Maria; Lahiri, Soumen N; Carroll, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    We propose an L 2 -norm based global testing procedure for the null hypothesis that multiple group mean functions are equal, for functional data with complex dependence structure. Specifically, we consider the setting of functional data with a multilevel structure of the form groups-clusters or subjects-units, where the unit-level profiles are spatially correlated within the cluster, and the cluster-level data are independent. Orthogonal series expansions are used to approximate the group mean functions and the test statistic is estimated using the basis coefficients. The asymptotic null distribution of the test statistic is developed, under mild regularity conditions. To our knowledge this is the first work that studies hypothesis testing, when data have such complex multilevel functional and spatial structure. Two small-sample alternatives, including a novel block bootstrap for functional data, are proposed, and their performance is examined in simulation studies. The paper concludes with an illustration of a motivating experiment.

  2. Significance tests for functional data with complex dependence structure

    KAUST Repository

    Staicu, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    We propose an L (2)-norm based global testing procedure for the null hypothesis that multiple group mean functions are equal, for functional data with complex dependence structure. Specifically, we consider the setting of functional data with a multilevel structure of the form groups-clusters or subjects-units, where the unit-level profiles are spatially correlated within the cluster, and the cluster-level data are independent. Orthogonal series expansions are used to approximate the group mean functions and the test statistic is estimated using the basis coefficients. The asymptotic null distribution of the test statistic is developed, under mild regularity conditions. To our knowledge this is the first work that studies hypothesis testing, when data have such complex multilevel functional and spatial structure. Two small-sample alternatives, including a novel block bootstrap for functional data, are proposed, and their performance is examined in simulation studies. The paper concludes with an illustration of a motivating experiment.

  3. A New Nonlinear Unit Root Test with Fourier Function

    OpenAIRE

    Güriş, Burak

    2017-01-01

    Traditional unit root tests display a tendency to be nonstationary in the case of structural breaks and nonlinearity. To eliminate this problem this paper proposes a new flexible Fourier form nonlinear unit root test. This test eliminates this problem to add structural breaks and nonlinearity together to the test procedure. In this test procedure, structural breaks are modeled by means of a Fourier function and nonlinear adjustment is modeled by means of an Exponential Smooth Threshold Autore...

  4. A test of conformal invariance: Correlation functions on a disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badke, R.; Rittenberg, V.; Ruegg, H.

    1985-06-01

    Using conformal invariance one can derive the correlation functions of a disk from those in the half-plane. The correlation function in the half-plane is determined by the 'small' conformal invariance up to an unknown function of one variable. By measuring through the Monte Carlo method the correlation function for two different configurations, the unknown function can be eliminated and one obtains a test of conformal invariance. It is shown that the Ising and the three state Potts model pass the test for very small lattices. (orig.)

  5. Liver function tests using the stable istope 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Jung, K.; Hirschberg, K.; Krumbiegel, P.; Junghans, P.; Reinhardt, R.; Teichmann, B.

    1988-01-01

    Several liver function tests using oral application of a nitrogen compound labelled with 15 N and the subsequent determination of 15 N in a certain fraction of urine or in the total urine by emission spectrometry are described. Because of the key function of the liver in the metabolism of nitrogen compounds, the results of these tests allow conclusions concerning some disturbances of liver functions. (author)

  6. Liver function tests using the stable isotope /sup 15/N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, H; Jung, K; Hirschberg, K; Krumbiegel, P; Junghans, P; Reinhardt, R; Matkowitz, R; Teichmann, B

    1988-01-01

    Several liver function tests using oral application of a nitrogen compound labelled with /sup 15/N and the subsequent determination of /sup 15/N in a certain fraction of urine or in the total urine by emission spectrometry are described. Because of the key function of the liver in the metabolism of nitrogen compounds, the results of these tests allow conclusions concerning some disturbances of liver functions.

  7. Functions and Design Scheme of Tibet High Altitude Test Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yongqing; Guo Jian; Yin Yu; Mao Yan; Li Guangfan; Fan Jianbin; Lu Jiayu; Su Zhiyi; Li Peng; Li Qingfeng; Liao Weiming; Zhou Jun

    2010-01-01

    @@ The functional orientation of the Tibet High Altitude Test Base, subordinated to the State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC), is to serve power transmission projects in high altitude areas, especially to provide technical support for southwestern hydropower delivery projects by UHVDC transmission and Qinghai-Tibet grid interconnection project. This paper presents the matters concerned during siting and planning, functions,design scheme, the main performances and parameters of the test facilities, as well as the tests and research tasks already carried out.

  8. Bandwidth Analysis of Functional Interconnects Used as Test Access Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, A.; Ren, P.; Marinissen, E.J.; Gaydadjiev, G.; Goossens, K.

    2010-01-01

    Test data travels through a System on Chip (SOC) from the chip pins to the Core-Under-Test (CUT) and vice versa via a Test Access Mechanism (TAM). Conventionally, a TAM is implemented using dedicated communication infrastructure. However, also existing functional interconnect, such as a bus or

  9. Bandwidth analysis of functional interconnects used as test access mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Ardy; Ren, P.; Marinissen, Erik Jan; Gaydadjiev, G.N.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2010-01-01

    Test data travels through a System on Chip (SOC) from the chip pins to the Core-Under-Test (CUT) and vice versa via a Test Access Mechanism (TAM). Conventionally, a TAM is implemented using dedicated communication infrastructure. However, also existing functional interconnect, such as a bus or

  10. Detection of differential item functioning using Lagrange multiplier tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract: In the present paper it is shown that differential item functioning can be evaluated using the Lagrange multiplier test or Rao’s efficient score test. The test is presented in the framework of a number of IRT models such as the Rasch model, the OPLM, the 2-parameter logistic model, the

  11. Detection of differential item functioning using Lagrange multiplier tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that differential item functioning can be evaluated using the Lagrange multiplier test or C. R. Rao's efficient score test. The test is presented in the framework of a number of item response theory (IRT) models such as the Rasch model, the one-parameter logistic model, the

  12. Sensitivity and Specificity of Clinical and Laboratory Otolith Function Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lokesh; Thakar, Alok; Thakur, Bhaskar; Sikka, Kapil

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate clinic based and laboratory tests of otolith function for their sensitivity and specificity in demarcating unilateral compensated complete vestibular deficit from normal. Prospective cross-sectional study. Tertiary care hospital vestibular physiology laboratory. Control group-30 healthy adults, 20-45 years age; Case group-15 subjects post vestibular shwannoma excision or post-labyrinthectomy with compensated unilateral complete audio-vestibular loss. Otolith function evaluation by precise clinical testing (head tilt test-HTT; subjective visual vertical-SVV) and laboratory testing (headroll-eye counterroll-HR-ECR; vesibular evoked myogenic potentials-cVEMP). Sensitivity and specificity of clinical and laboratory tests in differentiating case and control subjects. Measurable test results were universally obtained with clinical otolith tests (SVV; HTT) but not with laboratory tests. The HR-ECR test did not indicate any definitive wave forms in 10% controls and 26% cases. cVEMP responses were absent in 10% controls.HTT test with normative cutoff at 2 degrees deviations from vertical noted as 93.33% sensitive and 100% specific. SVV test with normative cutoff at 1.3 degrees noted as 100% sensitive and 100% specific. Laboratory tests demonstrated poorer specificities owing primarily to significant unresponsiveness in normal controls. Clinical otolith function tests, if conducted with precision, demonstrate greater ability than laboratory testing in discriminating normal controls from cases with unilateral complete compensated vestibular dysfunction.

  13. Power functional theory for the dynamic test particle limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brader, Joseph M; Schmidt, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    For classical Brownian systems both in and out of equilibrium we extend the power functional formalism of Schmidt and Brader (2013 J. Chem. Phys. 138 214101) to mixtures of different types of particles. We apply the framework to develop an exact dynamical test particle theory for the self and distinct parts of the van Hove function, which characterize tagged and collective particle motion. The memory functions that induce non-Markovian dynamics are related to functional derivatives of the excess (over ideal) free power dissipation functional. The method offers an alternative to the recently found nonequilibrium Ornstein–Zernike relation for dynamic pair correlation functions. (paper)

  14. Probability distributions of placental morphological measurements and origins of variability of placental shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampolsky, M; Salafia, C M; Shlakhter, O

    2013-06-01

    While the mean shape of human placenta is round with centrally inserted umbilical cord, significant deviations from this ideal are fairly common, and may be clinically meaningful. Traditionally, they are explained by trophotropism. We have proposed a hypothesis explaining typical variations in placental shape by randomly determined fluctuations in the growth process of the vascular tree. It has been recently reported that umbilical cord displacement in a birth cohort has a log-normal probability distribution, which indicates that the displacement between an initial point of origin and the centroid of the mature shape is a result of accumulation of random fluctuations of the dynamic growth of the placenta. To confirm this, we investigate statistical distributions of other features of placental morphology. In a cohort of 1023 births at term digital photographs of placentas were recorded at delivery. Excluding cases with velamentous cord insertion, or missing clinical data left 1001 (97.8%) for which placental surface morphology features were measured. Best-fit statistical distributions for them were obtained using EasyFit. The best-fit distributions of umbilical cord displacement, placental disk diameter, area, perimeter, and maximal radius calculated from the cord insertion point are of heavy-tailed type, similar in shape to log-normal distributions. This is consistent with a stochastic origin of deviations of placental shape from normal. Deviations of placental shape descriptors from average have heavy-tailed distributions similar in shape to log-normal. This evidence points away from trophotropism, and towards a spontaneous stochastic evolution of the variants of placental surface shape features. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Usng subjective percentiles and test data for estimating fragility functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, L.L.; Mensing, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Fragility functions are cumulative distribution functions (cdfs) of strengths at failure. They are needed for reliability analyses of systems such as power generation and transmission systems. Subjective opinions supplement sparse test data for estimating fragility functions. Often the opinions are opinions on the percentiles of the fragility function. Subjective percentiles are likely to be less biased than opinions on parameters of cdfs. Solutions to several problems in the estimation of fragility functions are found for subjective percentiles and test data. How subjective percentiles should be used to estimate subjective fragility functions, how subjective percentiles should be combined with test data, how fragility functions for several failure modes should be combined into a composite fragility function, and how inherent randomness and uncertainty due to lack of knowledge should be represented are considered. Subjective percentiles are treated as independent estimates of percentiles. The following are derived: least-squares parameter estimators for normal and lognormal cdfs, based on subjective percentiles (the method is applicable to any invertible cdf); a composite fragility function for combining several failure modes; estimators of variation within and between groups of experts for nonidentically distributed subjective percentiles; weighted least-squares estimators when subjective percentiles have higher variation at higher percents; and weighted least-squares and Bayes parameter estimators based on combining subjective percentiles and test data. 4 figures, 2 tables

  16. Impact of placental insufficiency on fetal skeletal muscle growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) caused by placental insufficiency is one of the most common and complex problems in perinatology, with no known cure. In pregnancies affected by placental insufficiency, a poorly functioning placenta restricts nutrient supply to the fetus and prevents normal fetal growth. Among other significant deficits in organ development, the IUGR fetus characteristically has less lean body and skeletal muscle mass than their appropriately-grown counterparts. Reduced skeletal muscle growth is not fully compensated after birth, as individuals who were born small for gestational age (SGA) from IUGR have persistent reductions in muscle mass and strength into adulthood. The consequences of restricted muscle growth and accelerated postnatal “catch-up” growth in the form of adiposity may contribute to the increased later life risk for visceral adiposity, peripheral insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in individuals who were formerly IUGR. This review will discuss how an insufficient placenta results in impaired fetal skeletal muscle growth and how lifelong reductions in muscle mass might contribute to increased metabolic disease risk in this vulnerable population. PMID:26994511

  17. Pulmonary function tests in patients with Parkinson's disease: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Pulmonary function test (PFT) was conducted using the Spirolab Spirometry kit, and results of forced vital capacity ... [3] Though the effects of PD on respiration are still a .... patient becomes sedentary, and exercise training as a part.

  18. Platelet function testing: methods of assessment and clinical utility.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mylotte, Darren

    2012-02-01

    Platelets play a central role in the regulation of both thrombosis and haemostasis yet tests of platelet function have, until recently, been exclusively used in the diagnosis and management of bleeding disorders. Recent advances have demonstrated the clinical utility of platelet function testing in patients with cardiovascular disease. The ex vivo measurement of response to antiplatelet therapies (aspirin and clopidogrel), by an ever-increasing array of platelet function tests, is with some assays, predictive of adverse clinical events and thus, represents an emerging area of interest for both the clinician and basic scientist. This review article will describe the advantages and disadvantages of the currently available methods of measuring platelet function and discuss both the limitations and emerging data supporting the role of platelet function studies in clinical practice.

  19. Platelet function testing: methods of assessment and clinical utility.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mylotte, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Platelets play a central role in the regulation of both thrombosis and haemostasis yet tests of platelet function have, until recently, been exclusively used in the diagnosis and management of bleeding disorders. Recent advances have demonstrated the clinical utility of platelet function testing in patients with cardiovascular disease. The ex vivo measurement of response to antiplatelet therapies (aspirin and clopidogrel), by an ever-increasing array of platelet function tests, is with some assays, predictive of adverse clinical events and thus, represents an emerging area of interest for both the clinician and basic scientist. This review article will describe the advantages and disadvantages of the currently available methods of measuring platelet function and discuss both the limitations and emerging data supporting the role of platelet function studies in clinical practice.

  20. Androgen dependent mechanisms of pro-angiogenic networks in placental and tumor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Veronika M; de Brot, Simone; Robinson, Robert S; Jeyapalan, Jennie N; Rakha, Emad; Walton, Thomas; Gardner, David S; Lund, Emma F; Whitchurch, Jonathan; Haigh, Daisy; Lochray, Jack M; Robinson, Brian D; Allegrucci, Cinzia; Fray, Rupert G; Persson, Jenny L; Ødum, Niels; Miftakhova, Regina R; Rizvanov, Albert A; Hughes, Ieuan A; Tadokoro-Cuccaro, Rieko; Heery, David M; Rutland, Catrin S; Mongan, Nigel P

    2017-08-01

    The placenta and tumors share important characteristics, including a requirement to establish effective angiogenesis. In the case of the placenta, optimal angiogenesis is required to sustain the blood flow required to maintain a successful pregnancy, whereas in tumors establishing new blood supplies is considered a key step in supporting metastases. Therefore the development of novel angiogenesis inhibitors has been an area of active research in oncology. A subset of the molecular processes regulating angiogenesis are well understood in the context of both early placentation and tumorigenesis. In this review we focus on the well-established role of androgen regulation of angiogenesis in cancer and relate these mechanisms to placental angiogenesis. The physiological actions of androgens are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand dependent transcription factor. Androgens and the AR are essential for normal male embryonic development, puberty and lifelong health. Defects in androgen signalling are associated with a diverse range of clinical disorders in men and women including disorders of sex development (DSD), polycystic ovary syndrome in women and many cancers. We summarize the diverse molecular mechanisms of androgen regulation of angiogenesis and infer the potential significance of these pathways to normal and pathogenic placental function. Finally, we offer potential research applications of androgen-targeting molecules developed to treat cancer as investigative tools to help further delineate the role of androgen signalling in placental function and maternal and offspring health in animal models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of snubber functional test methods: Tier 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.P.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the research is to establish technical bases in support of efforts on the part of the Snubber Utility Group (SNUG) and the Subsection ISTD Working Group of the ASME O ampersand M Code in developing guidelines and methodologies for snubber functional testing to ensure that snubbers are tested in a manner that ensures reliable and meaningful test results. The methodology used in this research includes both a review of available industry information as well as the testing of different snubber models using various test machines. Information is provided pertaining to current industry practices in regard to snubber testing including recommended test procedures, technical description of various test machines, and the number and types of snubbers used in the nuclear power industry. A review of previous test methodology research conducted by the Snubber Utility Group is also included. The effects of variations in controllable test parameters on snubber test results are discussed. Also included are the results of confirmatory tests in which various snubber models were tested using various test machines. Recommendations are provided for standard test methods to be included in Subsection ISTD of the ASME O ampersand M Code [4]. General information and recommendations are provided that may be used by utility personnel in specifying snubber test equipment that is most suited for plant-specific needs as well as information that may be effectively used in the review and interpretation of test results

  2. MAVL wastes containers functional demonstration and associated tests program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templier, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of studies on the MAVL wastes, the CEA develops containers for middle time wastes storage. This program aims to realize a ''B wastes containers'' demonstrator. A demonstrator is a container, parts of a container or samples which must validate the tests. This document presents the state of the study in the following three chapters: functions description, base data and design choices; presentation of the functional demonstrators; demonstration tests description. (A.L.B.)

  3. Formal Functional Test Designs: Bridging the Gap Between Test Requirements and Test Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hops, Jonathan

    1993-01-01

    This presentation describes the testing life cycle, the purpose of the test design phase, and test design methods and gives an example application. Also included is a description of Test Representation Language (TRL), a summary of the language, and an example of an application of TRL. A sample test requirement and sample test design are included.

  4. Safety and Function Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, I.; Hur, J.

    2013-01-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. Three turbines where selected for testing at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of round two of the Small Wind Turbine Independent Testing project. Safety and Function testing is one of up to 5 tests that may be performed on the turbines. Other tests include power performance, duration, noise, and power quality. The results of the testing will provide the manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification.

  5. Maternal Factors Are Associated with the Expression of Placental Genes Involved in Amino Acid Metabolism and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Pricilla E.; Ntani, Georgia; Crozier, Sarah R.; Mahon, Pam A.; Inskip, Hazel M.; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Hanson, Mark A.; Lewis, Rohan M.; Cleal, Jane K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Maternal environment and lifestyle factors may modify placental function to match the mother’s capacity to support the demands of fetal growth. Much remains to be understood about maternal influences on placental metabolic and amino acid transporter gene expression. We investigated the influences of maternal lifestyle and body composition (e.g. fat and muscle content) on a selection of metabolic and amino acid transporter genes and their associations with fetal growth. Methods RNA was extracted from 102 term Southampton Women’s Survey placental samples. Expression of nine metabolic, seven exchange, eight accumulative and three facilitated transporter genes was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. Results Increased placental LAT2 (p = 0.01), y + LAT2 (p = 0.03), aspartate aminotransferase 2 (p = 0.02) and decreased aspartate aminotransferase 1 (p = 0.04) mRNA expression associated with pre-pregnancy maternal smoking. Placental mRNA expression of TAT1 (p = 0.01), ASCT1 (p = 0.03), mitochondrial branched chain aminotransferase (p = 0.02) and glutamine synthetase (p = 0.05) was positively associated with maternal strenuous exercise. Increased glutamine synthetase mRNA expression (r = 0.20, p = 0.05) associated with higher maternal diet quality (prudent dietary pattern) pre-pregnancy. Lower LAT4 (r = -0.25, p = 0.05) and aspartate aminotransferase 2 mRNA expression (r = -0.28, p = 0.01) associated with higher early pregnancy diet quality. Lower placental ASCT1 mRNA expression associated with measures of increased maternal fat mass, including pre-pregnancy BMI (r = -0.26, p = 0.01). Lower placental mRNA expression of alanine aminotransferase 2 associated with greater neonatal adiposity, for example neonatal subscapular skinfold thickness (r = -0.33, p = 0.001). Conclusion A number of maternal influences have been linked with outcomes in childhood, independently of neonatal size; our finding of associations between placental expression of

  6. Maternal Factors Are Associated with the Expression of Placental Genes Involved in Amino Acid Metabolism and Transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pricilla E Day

    Full Text Available Maternal environment and lifestyle factors may modify placental function to match the mother's capacity to support the demands of fetal growth. Much remains to be understood about maternal influences on placental metabolic and amino acid transporter gene expression. We investigated the influences of maternal lifestyle and body composition (e.g. fat and muscle content on a selection of metabolic and amino acid transporter genes and their associations with fetal growth.RNA was extracted from 102 term Southampton Women's Survey placental samples. Expression of nine metabolic, seven exchange, eight accumulative and three facilitated transporter genes was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR.Increased placental LAT2 (p = 0.01, y+LAT2 (p = 0.03, aspartate aminotransferase 2 (p = 0.02 and decreased aspartate aminotransferase 1 (p = 0.04 mRNA expression associated with pre-pregnancy maternal smoking. Placental mRNA expression of TAT1 (p = 0.01, ASCT1 (p = 0.03, mitochondrial branched chain aminotransferase (p = 0.02 and glutamine synthetase (p = 0.05 was positively associated with maternal strenuous exercise. Increased glutamine synthetase mRNA expression (r = 0.20, p = 0.05 associated with higher maternal diet quality (prudent dietary pattern pre-pregnancy. Lower LAT4 (r = -0.25, p = 0.05 and aspartate aminotransferase 2 mRNA expression (r = -0.28, p = 0.01 associated with higher early pregnancy diet quality. Lower placental ASCT1 mRNA expression associated with measures of increased maternal fat mass, including pre-pregnancy BMI (r = -0.26, p = 0.01. Lower placental mRNA expression of alanine aminotransferase 2 associated with greater neonatal adiposity, for example neonatal subscapular skinfold thickness (r = -0.33, p = 0.001.A number of maternal influences have been linked with outcomes in childhood, independently of neonatal size; our finding of associations between placental expression of transporter and metabolic genes and maternal smoking

  7. Thyroid function testing in women who had a stillbirth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Janna W.; Korteweg, Fleurisca J.; Groen, Henk; Timmer, Albertus; Van den Berg, Gerrit; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.

    ContextThyroid dysfunction is thought to be associated with stillbirth. Therefore, thyroid function is often recommended in the diagnostic investigations for stillbirth. ObjectiveWe aimed to evaluate the added value of thyroid function testing in the diagnostic investigations for stillbirth. Design

  8. Soluble FLT-1 rules placental destiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Michiko; Kumasawa, Keiichi; Nakamura, Hitomi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2018-02-19

    Placenta previa is an abnormality in which the placenta covers the internal uterine os, and it can cause serious morbidity and mortality in both mother and fetus due to catastrophic hemorrhage. Some pregnant women recover from placenta previa due to a phenomenon called "migration." However, the mechanism of "migration" of the placenta has not been elucidated. Human placentas were collected from patients with placenta previa and those with no abnormal placentation (control). A microarray analysis was performed to detect the genes up- or down-regulated only in the caudal part in the previa group. Specific mRNA expression was evaluated using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Unilateral uterine artery ablation of 8.5 dpc mice was performed to reproduce the reduction of placental blood supply, and weights of the placentas and fetuses were evaluated in 18.5 dpc. Specific mRNA expression was also evaluated in mice placentas. According to the result of the microarray analysis, we focused on soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT-1) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) alpha. The sFLT-1 expression level is locally high in the caudal part of the human placenta in patients with placenta previa. In mice experiments, the weights of the placentas and fetuses were significantly smaller in the ablation side than those in the control side, and the sFlt-1 expression level was significantly higher in the ablation side than in the control side. Our study suggests that "migration" of the placenta is derived from placental degeneration at the caudal part of the placenta, and sFlt-1 plays a role in this placental degeneration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Polynomial regression analysis and significance test of the regression function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengming; Zhao Juan; He Shengping

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze the decay heating power of a certain radioactive isotope per kilogram with polynomial regression method, the paper firstly demonstrated the broad usage of polynomial function and deduced its parameters with ordinary least squares estimate. Then significance test method of polynomial regression function is derived considering the similarity between the polynomial regression model and the multivariable linear regression model. Finally, polynomial regression analysis and significance test of the polynomial function are done to the decay heating power of the iso tope per kilogram in accord with the authors' real work. (authors)

  10. Placental perfusion in 3rd trimester pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitepu, M.; Syahriza, A.; Sibuea, D.; Hanafiah, T. M.

    2018-03-01

    The placenta is an organ for transmitting nutrition and oxygen to thefetus; it means if there is a defect in the placenta could make growth restriction to the fetus, even death. Uterine artery flow escalated since the halfway point of the pregnancy or the complete trophoblast invasion of spiralis artery, and keep going in every week. 3D power Doppler examination on placenta could show the uterineplacenta circulation and fetoplacental at once so could give themore accurate result. A cross-sectional study in RSUP HAM and theprivate specialist clinic was conducted in 100 pregnant samples with 28-40 week gestational age, exact last menstrual period date, and no underlying disease to examine the alteration of placental perfusion by gestationalage and placental location. There was a correlation between VI and VFI in placenta toward umbilical artery flow, but no correlation in FI. The placental location also plays a role in interval blood flow, especially FI and VFI, it means the VFI hold the strongest correlation in both ways.

  11. Correlation with liver scintigram, reticuloendothelial function test, plasma endotoxin level and liver function tests in chronic liver diseases. Multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmoto, Kenji; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Ideguchi, Seiji and others

    1989-02-01

    Liver scintigrams with Tc-99m phytate were reviewed in a total of 64 consecutive patients, comprising 28 with chronic hepatitis and 36 with liver cirrhosis. Reticuloendothelial (RES) function, plasma endotoxin (Et) levels and findings of general liver function tests were used as reference parameters to determine the diagnostic ability of liver scintigraphy. Multivariate analyses revealed that liver scintigrams had a strong correlation with RES function and Et levels in terms of morphology of the liver and hepatic and bone marrow Tc-99m uptake. General liver function tests revealed gamma globulin to be correlated with hepatic uptake and the degree of splenogemaly on liver scintigrams; and ICG levels at 15 min to be correlated with bone marrow and splenic uptake. Accuracy of liver scintigraphy was 73% for chronic hepatitis, which was inferior to general liver function tests (83%). When both modalities were combined, diangostic accuracy increased to 95%. Liver scintigraphy seems to be useful as a complementary approach. (Namekawa, K).

  12. Correlation between HRCT and pulmonary functional tests in cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastellari, Paola; Biggi, Simona; Lombardi, Alfonsa; Zompatori, Maurizio; Grzincich, Gianluigi; Pisi, Giovanna; Spaggiari, Cinzia

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the HRCT score by Oikonottlou and air trapping in expiratory scans with pulmonary functional tests and evaluate which radiological criteria are more useful to predict clinical impairment. Materials and methods. From January to September 2003, pulmonary HRCT study was performed in 37 patients (23 males), aged between 7 and 41 years, with cystic fibrosis. In the same day of CT examination they also received a complete functional evaluation. HRCT studies were evaluated by three radiologists blinded to the clinical data and were correlated with the lung function tests. Results. We obtained a high correlation (p=0.01) for two of the HRCT signs: extent of mucus plugging and mosaic perfusion pattern and all function tests. Discussion. Previous studies have demonstrated good correlation between lung function tests, in particular with FEV1 and HRCT signs. Our study differed from previous ones in that we analysed the correlation between lung function tests and with both single and combined CT criteria. Conclusion. Our results suggest that a simplified HRCT store could be useful to evaluate patients with cystic fibrosis [it

  13. Dynamic behavior and functional integrity tests on RC shear walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akino, Kinji; Nasuda, Toshiaki; Shibata, Akenori.

    1991-01-01

    A project consisting of seven subprojects has been conducted to study the dynamic behavior and functional integrity of reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls in reactor buildings. The objective of this project is to obtain the data to improve and prepare the seismic analysis code regarding the nonlinear structural behavior and integrity of reactor buildings during and after earthquakes. The project started in April, 1986, and will end in March, 1994. Seven subprojects are strain rate test, damping characteristic test, ultimate state response test and the verification test for the test of restoring force characteristics regarding dynamic restoring force characteristics and damping performance; the restoring force characteristic test on the shear walls with openings; and pull-out strength test and the test on air leakage through concrete cracks regarding the functional integrity. The objectives of respective subprojects, the test models and the interim results are reported. Three subprojects have been completed by March, 1990. The results of these projects will be used for the overall evaluation. The strain rate test showed that the ultimate strength of shear walls increased with strain rate. A formula for estimating air flow through the cracks in walls was given by the leakage test. (K.I.)

  14. Development of a battery of functional tests for low vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Bradley E; Martin, Scott R; Kelly, Corey B; Jones, Lisa A; Raasch, Thomas W; Bullimore, Mark A

    2009-08-01

    We describe the development and evaluation of a battery of tests of functional visual performance of everyday tasks intended to be suitable for assessment of low vision patients. The functional test battery comprises-Reading rate: reading aloud 20 unrelated words for each of four print sizes (8, 4, 2, & 1 M); Telephone book: finding a name and reading the telephone number; Medicine bottle label: reading the name and dosing; Utility bill: reading the due date and amount due; Cooking instructions: reading cooking time on a food package; Coin sorting: making a specified amount from coins placed on a table; Playing card recognition: identifying denomination and suit; and Face recognition: identifying expressions of printed, life-size faces at 1 and 3 m. All tests were timed except face and playing card recognition. Fourteen normally sighted and 24 low vision subjects were assessed with the functional test battery. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and quality of life (National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 [NEI-VFQ 25]) were measured and the functional tests repeated. Subsequently, 23 low vision patients participated in a pilot randomized clinical trial with half receiving low vision rehabilitation and half a delayed intervention. The functional tests were administered at enrollment and 3 months later. Normally sighted subjects could perform all tasks but the proportion of trials performed correctly by the low vision subjects ranged from 35% for face recognition at 3 m, to 95% for the playing card identification. On average, low vision subjects performed three times slower than the normally sighted subjects. Timed tasks with a visual search component showed poorer repeatability. In the pilot clinical trial, low vision rehabilitation produced the greatest improvement for the medicine bottle and cooking instruction tasks. Performance of patients on these functional tests has been assessed. Some appear responsive to low vision rehabilitation.

  15. Role of the placental Vitamin D receptor in modulating feto-placental growth in Fetal growth restriction and Preeclampsia-affected pregnancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma eMurthi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction (FGR is a common pregnancy complication that affects up to 5% of pregnancies worldwide. Recent studies demonstrate that Vitamin D deficiency is implicated in reduced fetal growth, which may be rescued by supplementation of Vitamin D. Despite this, the pathway(s by which Vitamin D modulate fetal growth remains to be investigated. Our own studies demonstrate that the Vitamin D receptor (VDR is significantly decreased in placentae from human pregnancies complicated by FGR and contributes to abnormal placental trophoblast apoptosis and differentiation and regulation of cell-cycle genes in vitro. Thus, Vitamin D signalling is important for normal placental function and fetal growth. This review discusses the association of Vitamin D with fetal growth, the function of Vitamin D and its receptor in pregnancy, as well as the functional significance of a placental source of Vitamin D in FGR. Additionally, we propose that for Vitamin D to be clinically effective to prevent and manage FGR, the molecular mechanisms of Vitamin D and its receptor in modulating fetal growth requires further investigation.

  16. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT TESTS AND PERFORMANCE TESTS IN YOUNG ELITE MALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Serna, Jorge; Rhea, Matthew R; Marín, Pedro J

    2015-10-01

    Sprinting and jumping are two common and important components of high-level sport performance. The weight-bearing dorsiflexion test (WB-DF) and Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) are tools developed to identify athletes at risk for lower extremity injury and may be related to running and jumping performance among athletes. The purposes of the present study were: 1) to identify any relationships between functional movement tests (WB-DF and SEBT) and performance tests (jumping, sprinting and changing direction); 2) to examine any relationships between asymmetries in functional movements and performance tests. Descriptive cohort study. Fifteen elite male basketball players (age: 15.4 ± 0.9 years) were assessed during a three-week period to determine the reliability of functional screening tools and performance tests and to examine the relationships between these tests. Relative (intraclass correlation coefficient) and absolute (coefficient of variation) reliability were used to assess the reproducibility of the tests. Significant correlations were detected between certain functional movement tests and performance tests. Both left and right excursion composite scores related to slower performance times in sprint testing, demonstrating that greater dynamic reach relates to decreased quickness and acceleration among these elite basketball athletes. The various relationships between dynamic functional movement testing, speed, and jump performance provide guidance for the strength and conditioning professional when conducting and evaluating data in an effort to improve performance and reduce risk of injury. The results of the present study suggest that these functional and performance tests do not measure the same components of human movement, and could be paired as outcome measures for the clinical and sport assessment of lower extremity function. 2b.

  17. Placental transport and in vitro effects of Bisphenol A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Thit J; Sorda, Giuseppina; Bechi, Nicoletta

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-like chemical, leaches from consumer products potentially causing human exposure. To examine the effects of BPA exposure during pregnancy, we performed studies using the BeWo trophoblast cell line, placental explant cultures, placental perfusions and skin diffusion...... transfer of BPA was observed across the term placentae and the BeWo cell monolayer. Further, transdermal transport of BPA was observed. These results indicate that fetal BPA exposure through placental exchange occurs with potential adverse implications for placental and fetal development. This battery...

  18. Elevated placental adenosine signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriyama, Takayuki; Sun, Kaiqi; Parchim, Nicholas F; Li, Jessica; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Anren; Hart, Laura A; Blackwell, Sean C; Sibai, Baha M; Chan, Lee-Nien L; Chan, Teh-Sheng; Hicks, M John; Blackburn, Michael R; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2015-02-24

    Preeclampsia is a prevalent hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. This pathogenic condition is speculated to be caused by placental abnormalities that contribute to the maternal syndrome. However, the specific factors and signaling pathways that lead to impaired placentas and maternal disease development remain elusive. Using 2 independent animal models of preeclampsia (genetically engineered pregnant mice with elevated adenosine exclusively in placentas and a pathogenic autoantibody-induced preeclampsia mouse model), we demonstrated that chronically elevated placental adenosine was sufficient to induce hallmark features of preeclampsia, including hypertension, proteinuria, small fetuses, and impaired placental vasculature. Genetic and pharmacological approaches revealed that elevated placental adenosine coupled with excessive A₂B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) signaling contributed to the development of these features of preeclampsia. Mechanistically, we provided both human and mouse evidence that elevated placental CD73 is a key enzyme causing increased placental adenosine, thereby contributing to preeclampsia. We determined that elevated placental adenosine signaling is a previously unrecognized pathogenic factor for preeclampsia. Moreover, our findings revealed the molecular basis underlying the elevation of placental adenosine and the detrimental role of excess placental adenosine in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia, and thereby, we highlight novel therapeutic targets. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Placental Abnormalities and Preeclampsia in Trisomy 13 Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Women who are carrying a trisomy 13 fetus are prone to have an abnormal placenta as well as to develop preeclampsia in the second and third trimesters. This article provides a comprehensive review of placental abnormalities, such as small placental volume, reduced placental vascularization, a partial molar appearance of the placenta and placental mesenchymal dysplasia, and preeclampsia associated with trisomy 13 pregnancies. The candidate preeclampsia-causing genes on chromosome 13, such as sFlt1, COL4A2 and periostin, are discussed.

  20. Placental transfer of antidepressant medications: implications for postnatal adaptation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Grace; Tatarchuk, Yekaterina; Appleby, Dina; Schwartz, Nadav; Kim, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    Seven to thirteen percent of women are either prescribed or taking (depending on the study) an antidepressant during pregnancy. Because antidepressants freely cross into the intrauterine environment, we aim to summarize the current findings on placental transfer of antidepressants. Although generally low risk, antidepressants have been associated with postnatal adaptation syndrome (PNAS). Specifically, we explore whether the antidepressants most closely associated with PNAS (paroxetine, fluoxetine, venlafaxine) cross the placenta to a greater extent than other antidepressants. We review research on antidepressants in the context of placental anatomy, placental transport mechanisms, placental metabolism, pharmacokinetics, as well as non-placental maternal and fetal factors. This provides insight into the complexity involved in understanding how placental transfer of antidepressants may relate to adverse perinatal outcomes. Ultimately, from this data there is no pattern in which PNAS is related to placental transfer of antidepressant medications. In general, there is large interindividual variability for each type of antidepressant. To make the most clinically informed decisions about the use of antidepressants in pregnancy, studies that link maternal, placental and fetal genetic polymorphisms, placental transfer rates and infant outcomes are needed.

  1. SEX STEROIDS MODULATE UTERINE-PLACENTAL VASCULATURE: IMPLICATIONS FOR OBSTETRICS AND NEONATAL OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eMaliqueo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Adequate blood supply to the uterine-placental region is crucial to ensure the transport of oxygen and nutrients to the growing fetus. Multiple factors intervene to achieve appropriate uterine blood flow and the structuring of the placental vasculature during the early stages of pregnancy. Among these factors, oxygen concentrations, growth factors, cytokines and steroid hormones are the most important. Sex steroids are present in extremely high concentrations in the maternal circulation and are important paracrine and autocrine regulators of a wide range of maternal and placental functions. In this regard, progesterone and estrogens act as modulators of uterine vessels and decrease the resistance of the spiral uterine arteries. On the other hand, androgens have the opposite effect, increasing the vascular resistance of the uterus. Moreover, progesterone and estrogens modulate the synthesis and release of angiogenic factors by placental cells, which regulates trophoblastic invasion and uterine artery remodeling. In this scenario, it is not surprising that women with pregnancy-related pathologies, such as early miscarriages, preterm delivery, preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction, exhibit altered sex steroid concentrations.

  2. Ancient origin of placental expression in the growth hormone genes of anthropoid primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papper, Zack; Jameson, Natalie M; Romero, Roberto; Weckle, Amy L; Mittal, Pooja; Benirschke, Kurt; Santolaya-Forgas, Joaquin; Uddin, Monica; Haig, David; Goodman, Morris; Wildman, Derek E

    2009-10-06

    In anthropoid primates, growth hormone (GH) genes have undergone at least 2 independent locus expansions, one in platyrrhines (New World monkeys) and another in catarrhines (Old World monkeys and apes). In catarrhines, the GH cluster has a pituitary-expressed gene called GH1; the remaining GH genes include placental GHs and placental lactogens. Here, we provide cDNA sequence evidence that the platyrrhine GH cluster also includes at least 3 placenta expressed genes and phylogenetic evidence that placenta expressed anthropoid GH genes have undergone strong adaptive evolution, whereas pituitary-expressed GH genes have faced strict functional constraint. Our phylogenetic evidence also points to lineage-specific gene gain and loss in early placental mammalian evolution, with at least three copies of the GH gene present at the time of the last common ancestor (LCA) of primates, rodents, and laurasiatherians. Anthropoid primates and laurasiatherians share gene descendants of one of these three copies, whereas rodents and strepsirrhine primates each maintain a separate copy. Eight of the amino-acid replacements that occurred on the lineage leading to the LCA of extant anthropoids have been implicated in GH signaling at the maternal-fetal interface. Thus, placental expression of GH may have preceded the separate series of GH gene duplications that occurred in catarrhines and platyrrhines (i.e., the roles played by placenta-expressed GHs in human pregnancy may have a longer evolutionary history than previously appreciated).

  3. Calcitonin gene related family peptides: importance in normal placental and fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallampalli, Chandra; Chauhan, Madhu; Endsley, Janice; Sathishkumar, Kunju

    2014-01-01

    Synchronized molecular and cellular events occur between the uterus and the implanting embryo to facilitate successful pregnancy outcome. Nevertheless, the molecular signaling network that coordinates strategies for successful decidualization, placentation and fetal growth are not well understood. The discovery of calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptides (CT/CGRP) highlighted new signaling mediators in various physiological processes, including reproduction. It is known that CGRP family peptides including CGRP, adrenomedulin and intermedin play regulatory functions during implantation, trophoblast proliferation and invasion, and fetal organogenesis. In addition, all the CGRP family peptides and their receptor components are found to be expressed in decidual, placental and fetal tissues. Additionally, plasma levels of peptides of the CGRP family were found to fluctuate during normal gestation and to induce placental cellular differentiation, proliferation, and critical hormone signaling. Moreover, aberrant signaling of these CGRP family peptides during gestation has been associated with pregnancy disorders. It indicates the existence of a possible regulatory role for these molecules during decidualization and placentation processes, which are known to be particularly vulnerable. In this review, the influence of the CGRP family peptides in these critical processes is explored and discussed.

  4. Reference Values of Pulmonary Function Tests for Canadian Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gutierrez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A multicentre, cross-sectional study was carried out in six centres across Canada to establish a national standard for pulmonary function tests using healthy, lifetime nonsmokers, with each centre aiming to test 10 men and 10 women from each decade from 20 to 80 years of age. Data from each centre were used to derive prediction equations for each centre, and pooled data from all centres (total: 327 women and 300 men were used to derive Canadian predicted equations. The predictive models were compared with three widely used published models for selected tests. It was found that, in general, the equations modelled for each centre could be replaced by the models obtained when pooling all data (Canadian model. Comparisons with the published references showed good agreement and similar slopes for most tests. The results suggest that pulmonary function test results obtained from different centres in Canada were comparable and that standards currently used remain valid for Canadian Caucasians.

  5. Automated Functional Testing based on the Navigation of Web Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boni García

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Web applications are becoming more and more complex. Testing such applications is an intricate hard and time-consuming activity. Therefore, testing is often poorly performed or skipped by practitioners. Test automation can help to avoid this situation. Hence, this paper presents a novel approach to perform automated software testing for web applications based on its navigation. On the one hand, web navigation is the process of traversing a web application using a browser. On the other hand, functional requirements are actions that an application must do. Therefore, the evaluation of the correct navigation of web applications results in the assessment of the specified functional requirements. The proposed method to perform the automation is done in four levels: test case generation, test data derivation, test case execution, and test case reporting. This method is driven by three kinds of inputs: i UML models; ii Selenium scripts; iii XML files. We have implemented our approach in an open-source testing framework named Automatic Testing Platform. The validation of this work has been carried out by means of a case study, in which the target is a real invoice management system developed using a model-driven approach.

  6. Computer Forensic Function Testing: Media Preparation, Write Protection And Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghua (David Guo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA AR-SA The growth in the computer forensic field has created a demand for new software (or increased functionality to existing software and a means to verify that this software is truly forensic i.e. capable of meeting the requirements of the trier of fact. In this work, we review our previous work---a function oriented testing framework for validation and verification of computer forensic tools. This framework consists of three parts: function mapping, requirements specification and reference set development. Through function mapping, we give a scientific and systemical description of the fundamentals of computer forensic discipline, i.e. what functions are needed in the computer forensic investigation process. We focus this paper on the functions of media preparation, write protection and verification. Specifically, we complete the function mapping of these functions and specify their requirements. Based on this work, future work can be conducted to develop corresponding reference sets to test any tools that possess these functions.

  7. Evaluation of thyroid function tests in non-thyroidal illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte, D.P.

    1988-01-01

    Normal thyroid physiology and pathophysiology with reference to non-thyroidal illness (NTI) is reviewed including specific disease states and drugs and their effect on thyroid function tests. The diagnostic utility of two new highly sensitive thyrotrophin (TSH) assays as screening tests for thyroid dysfunction are evaluated and compared with conventional thyroid function assays. A group of 40 patients with NTI was studied. This group was compared to a group of normal controls and a group of thyrotoxic patients. Conventional thyroid function tests yielded many values outside the reference range in the NTI group. The general pattern that emerged was decreased total triiodothyronine levels in 70% of NTI patients, normal to low thyroxine values, increased mean free thyroxine values (dialysis), low mean values for the free thyroxine index and varying results for newer commercial assays for free thyroxine according to methodology. The TSH response to intravenous thyroliberin (TRH) was found to be blunted compared to controls. Basal TSH levels were measured with two ultasensitive TSH assays. The immunoradiometric assays yielded fewer values outside the reference range in the NTI group than conventional thyroid function tests. This assay yielded undetectable basal TSH levels in all thyrotoxic patients and could reliably separate thyrotoxic patients from the NTI group. Basal TSH levels with ultrasensitive TSH assays correlated well with the TSH response to TRH (TSH) and could obviate the need for TRH tests. Ultrasensitive TSH assays are promising first line screening tests in NTI. 120 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Invasive placenta previa: Placental bulge with distorted uterine outline and uterine serosal hypervascularity at 1.5T MRI - useful features for differentiating placenta percreta from placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Shan, Ruiqin; Zhao, Lianxin; Song, Qingxu; Zuo, Changting; Zhang, Xinjuan; Wang, Shanshan; Shi, Honglu; Gao, Fei; Qian, Tianyi; Wang, Guangbin; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2018-02-01

    To characterise MRI features of invasive placenta previa and to identify specific features for differentiating placenta percreta (PP) from placenta accreta (PA). Forty-five women with PP and 93 women with PA who underwent 1.5T placental MRI were included. Two radiologists independently evaluated the MRI features of invasive placenta previa, including our novel type of placental bulge (i.e. placental bulge type-II, characterized by placental bulge with distorted uterine outline). Pearson's chi-squared or Fisher's two-sided exact test was performed to compare the MRI features between PP and PA. Logistic stepwise regression analysis and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were performed to select the optimal features for differentiating PP from PA. Significant differences were found in nine MRI features between women with PP and those with PA (P Placental bulge type-II and uterine serosal hypervascularity were independently associated with PP (odds ratio = 48.618, P Placental bulge type-II and uterine serosal hypervascularity are useful MRI features for differentiating PP from PA. • Placental bulge type-II demonstrated the strongest independent association with PP. • Uterine serosal hypervascularity is a useful feature for differentiating PP from PA. • MRI features associated with abnormal vessels increase the risk of massive haemorrhage.

  9. Short-term and long-term ethanol administration inhibits the placental uptake and transport of valine in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patwardhan, R.V.; Schenker, S.; Henderson, G.I.; Abou-Mourad, N.N.; Hoyumpa, A.M. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Ethanol ingestion during pregnancy causes a pattern of fetal/neonatal dysfunction called the FAS. The effects of short- and long-term ethanol ingestion on the placental uptake and maternal-fetal transfer of valine were studied in rats. The in vivo placental uptake and fetal uptake were estimated after injection of 0.04 micromol of /sub 14/C-valine intravenously on day 20 of gestation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Short-term ethanol ingestion (4 gm/kg) caused a significant reduction in the placental uptake of /sub 14/C-valine by 33%, 60%, and 30%, and 31% at 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 min after valine administration, respectively (p less than 0.01), and a similar significant reduction occurred in the fetal uptake of /sub 14/C-valine (p less than 0.01). Long-term ethanol ingestion prior to and throughout gestation resulted in a 47% reduction in placental valine uptake (p less than 0.01) and a 46% reduction in fetal valine uptake (p less than 0.01). Long-term ethanol feeding from day 4 to day 20 of gestation caused a 32% reduction in placental valine uptake (p less than 0.01) and a 26% reduction in fetal valine uptake (p less than 0.01). We conclude that both short- and long-term ingestion of ethanol inhibit the placental uptake and maternal-fetal transfer of an essential amino acid--valine. An alteration of placental function may contribute to the pathogenesis of the FAS

  10. SP-100 nuclear assembly test: Test assembly functional requirements and system arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallas, T.T.; Gluck, R.; Motwani, K.; Clay, H.; O'Neill, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the functional requirements and the system that will be tested to validate the reactor, flight shield, and flight controller of the SP-100 Generic Flight System (GFS). The Nuclear Assembly Test (NAT) consists of the test article (SP-100 reactor with control devices and the flight shield) and its supporting systems. The NAT test assembly is being designed by GE. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is designing the test cell and vacuum vessel system that will contain the NAT test assembly (Renkey et al. 1989). Preliminary design reviews have been completed and the final design is under way

  11. EG-VEGF controls placental growth and survival in normal and pathological pregnancies: case of fetal growth restriction (FGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillet, S; Murthi, P; Hoffmann, P; Salomon, A; Sergent, F; De Mazancourt, P; Dakouane-Giudicelli, M; Dieudonné, M N; Rozenberg, P; Vaiman, D; Barbaux, S; Benharouga, M; Feige, J-J; Alfaidy, N

    2013-02-01

    Identifiable causes of fetal growth restriction (FGR) account for 30 % of cases, but the remainders are idiopathic and are frequently associated with placental dysfunction. We have shown that the angiogenic factor endocrine gland-derived VEGF (EG-VEGF) and its receptors, prokineticin receptor 1 (PROKR1) and 2, (1) are abundantly expressed in human placenta, (2) are up-regulated by hypoxia, (3) control trophoblast invasion, and that EG-VEGF circulating levels are the highest during the first trimester of pregnancy, the period of important placental growth. These findings suggest that EG-VEGF/PROKR1 and 2 might be involved in normal and FGR placental development. To test this hypothesis, we used placental explants, primary trophoblast cultures, and placental and serum samples collected from FGR and age-matched control women. Our results show that (1) EG-VEGF increases trophoblast proliferation ([(3)H]-thymidine incorporation and Ki67-staining) via the homeobox-gene, HLX (2) the proliferative effect involves PROKR1 but not PROKR2, (3) EG-VEGF does not affect syncytium formation (measurement of syncytin 1 and 2 and β hCG production) (4) EG-VEGF increases the vascularization of the placental villi and insures their survival, (5) EG-VEGF, PROKR1, and PROKR2 mRNA and protein levels are significantly elevated in FGR placentas, and (6) EG-VEGF circulating levels are significantly higher in FGR patients. Altogether, our results identify EG-VEGF as a new placental growth factor acting during the first trimester of pregnancy, established its mechanism of action, and provide evidence for its deregulation in FGR. We propose that EG-VEGF/PROKR1 and 2 increases occur in FGR as a compensatory mechanism to insure proper pregnancy progress.

  12. Reliability of a functional test battery evaluating functionality, proprioception, and strength in recreational athletes with functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekir, U; Yildiz, Y; Hazneci, B; Ors, F; Saka, T; Aydin, T

    2008-12-01

    In contrast to the single evaluation methods used in the past, the combination of multiple tests allows one to obtain a global assessment of the ankle joint. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the different tests in a functional test battery. Twenty-four male recreational athletes with unilateral functional ankle instability (FAI) were recruited for this study. One component of the test battery included five different functional ability tests. These tests included a single limb hopping course, single-legged and triple-legged hop for distance, and six and cross six meter hop for time. The ankle joint position sense and one leg standing test were used for evaluation of proprioception and sensorimotor control. The isokinetic strengths of the ankle invertor and evertor muscles were evaluated at a velocity of 120 degrees /s. The reliability of the test battery was assessed by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Each subject was tested two times, with an interval of 3-5 days between the test sessions. The ICCs for ankle functional and proprioceptive ability showed high reliability (ICCs ranging from 0.94 to 0.98). Additionally, isokinetic ankle joint inversion and eversion strength measurements represented good to high reliability (ICCs between 0.82 and 0.98). The functional test battery investigated in this study proved to be a reliable tool for the assessment of athletes with functional ankle instability. Therefore, clinicians may obtain reliable information from the functional test battery during the assessment of ankle joint performance in patients with functional ankle instability.

  13. Outcomes of anatomical versus functional testing for coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Pamela S; Hoffmann, Udo; Patel, Manesh R; Mark, Daniel B; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Cavanaugh, Brendan; Cole, Jason; Dolor, Rowena J; Fordyce, Christopher B; Huang, Megan; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Kosinski, Andrzej S; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Malhotra, Vinay; Picard, Michael H; Udelson, James E; Velazquez, Eric J; Yow, Eric; Cooper, Lawton S; Lee, Kerry L

    2015-04-02

    Many patients have symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease (CAD) and are often evaluated with the use of diagnostic testing, although there are limited data from randomized trials to guide care. We randomly assigned 10,003 symptomatic patients to a strategy of initial anatomical testing with the use of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) or to functional testing (exercise electrocardiography, nuclear stress testing, or stress echocardiography). The composite primary end point was death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, or major procedural complication. Secondary end points included invasive cardiac catheterization that did not show obstructive CAD and radiation exposure. The mean age of the patients was 60.8±8.3 years, 52.7% were women, and 87.7% had chest pain or dyspnea on exertion. The mean pretest likelihood of obstructive CAD was 53.3±21.4%. Over a median follow-up period of 25 months, a primary end-point event occurred in 164 of 4996 patients in the CTA group (3.3%) and in 151 of 5007 (3.0%) in the functional-testing group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 1.29; P=0.75). CTA was associated with fewer catheterizations showing no obstructive CAD than was functional testing (3.4% vs. 4.3%, P=0.02), although more patients in the CTA group underwent catheterization within 90 days after randomization (12.2% vs. 8.1%). The median cumulative radiation exposure per patient was lower in the CTA group than in the functional-testing group (10.0 mSv vs. 11.3 mSv), but 32.6% of the patients in the functional-testing group had no exposure, so the overall exposure was higher in the CTA group (mean, 12.0 mSv vs. 10.1 mSv; P<0.001). In symptomatic patients with suspected CAD who required noninvasive testing, a strategy of initial CTA, as compared with functional testing, did not improve clinical outcomes over a median follow-up of 2 years. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  14. Altered placental DNA methylation patterns associated with maternal smoking: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maccani JZ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer ZJ Maccani, Matthew A Maccani Penn State Tobacco Center of Regulatory Science, College of Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Hershey, PA, USA Abstract: The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis states that adverse early life exposures can have lasting, detrimental effects on lifelong health. Exposure to maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with morbidity and mortality in offspring, including increased risks for miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight, preterm birth, asthma, obesity, altered neurobehavior, and other conditions. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy interferes with placental growth and functioning, and it has been proposed that this may occur through the disruption of normal and necessary placental epigenetic patterns. Epigenome-wide association studies have identified a number of differentially methylated placental genes that are associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy, including RUNX3, PURA, GTF2H2, GCA, GPR135, and HKR1. The placental methylation status of RUNX3 and NR3C1 has also been linked to adverse infant outcomes, including preterm birth and low birth weight, respectively. Candidate gene analyses have also found maternal smoking-associated placental methylation differences in the NR3C1, CYP1A1, HTR2A, and HSD11B2 genes, as well as in the repetitive elements LINE-1 and AluYb8. The differential methylation patterns of several genes have been confirmed to also exhibit altered gene expression patterns, including CYP1A1, CYP19A1, NR3C1, and HTR2A. Placental methylation patterns associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy may be largely gene-specific and tissue-specific and, to a lesser degree, involve global changes. It is important for future research to investigate the mechanistic roles that these differentially methylated genes may play in mediating the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and disease in later life, as well

  15. Request of thyroid function tests from Primary Care in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Pomares, Francisco J; Flores, Emilio; Uris, Joaquín; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory tests are crucial for diagnosis and monitoring of thyroid disorders. It is therefore necessary to study the pattern and variability in requests of thyroid function tests. The study objectives were to compare the inter-regional variability in the request of laboratory thyroid tests by general practitioners (GPs) in Spain, and to investigate the potential economic savings if the goals set for some suitability indicators were reached. Test requests per 1,000 inhabitants and test ratios (free thyroxine (FT4)/thyrotropin (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3)/TSH, thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb)/peroxidase antibody (TPOAb)) were compared between the different areas, according to their setting, location, and management. The resulting savings if each department achieved the goals for indicator (0.25 for FT4/TSH, 0.1 for FT3/TSH) were estimated. Seventy-six laboratories covering a population of 17,679,195 inhabitants participated in the study. TSH was requested significantly less in urban-rural areas, and the requests for FT3/1,000 inhabitants, FT3/TSH, and TgAb/TPOAb were higher in departments with private management. The savings generated if specifications for the ratios of related tests were met would be 937,260.5 €. The high variability reported in requests for thyroid function and autoimmunity tests in Spain suggests the need for implementing strategies to improve use of such tests. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Pathophysiology of recent advances in current thyroid function testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesch, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    In the first chapter I have discussed thyroid function and thyroid status which is determined by thyroid gland function in secreting T4 and peripheral biotransformation of T4. The accuracy of a current in-vitro diagnostic strategy allows high reliability in clinical routine. More recent test procedures for iodothyronines and immunological phenomena need further evaluation. In another chapter the biotransformation of T4 to bioactive and regulatory iodothyronines with respect to possible clinical implications is discussed. Finally, the role of TBG for interpration of T4 and T3 concentrations is determined and more attention directed to its functional heterogeneity. (orig.) [de

  17. Pathologic evaluation of normal and perfused term placental tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroun, Lisa Leth; Mathiesen, Line; Hedegaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This study reports for the 1st time the incidence and interobserver variation of morphologic findings in a series of 34 term placentas from pregnancies with normal outcome used for perfusion studies. Histologic evaluation of placental tissue is challenging, especially when it comes to defining...... "normal tissue" versus "pathologic lesions." A scoring system for registration of abnormal morphologic findings was developed. Light microscopic examination was performed independently by 2 pathologists, and interobserver variation was analyzed. Findings in normal and perfused tissue were compared...... and selected findings were tested against success parameters from the perfusions. Finally, the criteria for frequent lesions with fair to poor interobserver variation in the nonperfused tissue were revised and reanalyzed. In the perfused tissue, the perfusion artefact "trophoblastic vacuolization," which...

  18. Endoglin Expression and The Level of TGF- β are Increased in The Placental Tissue and Correlated with Low Fetal Weight in Malaria Infected Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujarot Dwi Sasmito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria infection during pregnancy can cause accumulation of infected red blood cells in placental intervillous space and induces placental tissue inflammation and hypoxia. This condition triggers endoglin expressionand release of soluble endoglin that can interfere TGF-β binding with the receptor. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between placental endoglin expression and TGF-β level with low fetal weight (LFW in malaria-infected mice. Nine pregnant mice infected with Plasmodium berghei on the day ninth post mating (malaria-infected group and eight normal pregnant mice (non-infected group were used in this study. The mice were sacrificed on the day 18th post mating, and all fetal body weights were measured by analytical scale. Enzyme Link Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was done to determine the level of placental TGF-β while immunohistochemical staining was performed to examine endoglin expression in placental tissue. The mean of fetal body weights of malaria-infected group was significantly lower than non-infected group (p= 0,002, while the expression of placental endoglin in malaria- infected group was substantially higher than non-infected group (p= 0.003. The level of placental TGF-β in malaria-infected group was also considerably higher than non-infected group, but the difference was not significant (p= 0.064. Pearson correlation test showed that there were significant negative correlations between fetal body weights with the level of placental TGF-β (p= 0.017, r= -0.568 and the expression of placental endoglin (p= 0.002, r= -0.694. Malaria infection in pregnant mice will increase both TGF-β and endoglin in placenta tissue and correlate with low fetal weight.

  19. Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: History of building and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergazina, G.M.; Balmukhanov, S.B.

    1999-01-01

    A vast materials on history of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site creation and it building and function are presented. Authors with big reliability report one page of Kazakhstan's history. In steppe on naked place thousands of soldiers and officers, construct and military specialists have built the nuclear site on which during 40 years were conducting nuclear tests . Prolonged chronic radiation on population living near by site results to tragedy which is confessed by General Assembly of United Nations. In the book aspects of test site conversion and rehabilitation of injured population are considered. The book consists of introduction, three chapters and conclusion. The book is intended to wide circle of readers. (author)

  20. Increased placental trophoblast inclusions in placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, E; Madankumar, R; Rosner, M; Reznik, S E

    2014-12-01

    Trophoblast inclusions (TIs) are often found in placentas of genetically abnormal gestations. Although best documented in placentas from molar pregnancies and chromosomal aneuploidy, TIs are also associated with more subtle genetic abnormalities, and possibly autism. Less than 3% of non-aneuploid, non-accreta placentas have TIs. We hypothesize that placental genetics may play a role in the development of placenta accreta and aim to study TIs as a potential surrogate indicator of abnormal placental genetics. Forty cases of placenta accreta in the third trimester were identified in a search of the medical records at one institution. Forty two third trimester control placentas were identified by a review of consecutively received single gestation placentas with no known genetic abnormalities and no diagnosis of placenta accreta. Forty percent of cases with placenta accreta demonstrated TIs compared to 2.4% of controls. More invasive placenta accretas (increta and percreta) were more likely to demonstrate TIs than accreta (47% versus 20%). Prior cesarean delivery was more likely in accreta patients than controls (67% versus 9.5%). Placenta accreta is thought to be the result of damage to the endometrium predisposing to abnormal decidualization and invasive trophoblast growth into the myometrium. However, the etiology of accreta is incompletely understood with accreta frequently occurring in women without predisposing factors and failing to occur in predisposed patients. This study has shown that TIs are present at increased rates in cases of PA. Further studies are needed to discern what underlying pathogenic mechanisms are in common between abnormal placentation and the formation of TIs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. PLACENTAL INSUFFICIENCY IN PREGNANCY AFTER 40th WEEK OF GESTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Antic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy after the 40th week of gestation is often a great dilemma for obstetrician in diagnostic, therapeutic and in psychological terms as well. The aim of this study was to confirm the phenomenon of placental insufficiency in pregnancy after the 40th gestation week, the modality of delivery and perinatal outcome.The study comprised 3405 deliveries in a period of one year, 391 of which were terminated after the end of the 40th gestation week, including healthy pregnant women with singleton pregnancies. Control group included healthy pregnant women delivered between the 37th and 40th gestation week.The incidence of deliveries after the 40th week of gestation is 11.48%. Non-stress test was reactive in 99.65% of women in the study group. At the same time, CST (constriction– stress test was assessed as negative in 78.67% of cases. The pathological CST was found in only 1.33% of cases. Doppler ultrasound measurements showed the increased resistance in umbilical artery flow in 3% of cases. Vacuum extraction was used for 16.62%of deliveries in the study group, and 8.73% of deliveries in the control group (χ2=23.24;p<0.001. In the study group, Caesarean section was performed in 14.58% of cases, and in control group in 9.07% (χ2=11.09; p<0.001.Placental insufficiency induced by duration of pregnancy is a rear phenomenon in uncompromised pregnancy. There was no significant difference in the morbidity and mortality rates between the study and control group.

  2. The Functional Task Test (FTT): An Interdisciplinary Testing Protocol to Investigate the Factors Underlying Changes in Astronaut Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Lawrence, E. L.; Arzeno, N. M.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts. S. H.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to space flight causes adaptations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These changes may affect a crewmember s ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. To achieve this goal we developed an interdisciplinary testing protocol (Functional Task Test, FTT) that evaluates both astronaut functional performance and related physiological changes. Functional tests include ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall and object translation tasks. Physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper- and lower-body muscle strength, power, endurance, control, and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers perform this integrated test protocol before and after short (Shuttle) and long-duration (ISS) space flight. Data are collected on two sessions before flight, on landing day (Shuttle only) and 1, 6 and 30 days after landing. Preliminary results from both Shuttle and ISS crewmembers indicate decrement in performance of the functional tasks after both short and long-duration space flight. On-going data collection continues to improve the statistical power required to map changes in functional task performance to alterations in physiological systems. The information obtained from this study will be used to design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight.

  3. [Eosin Y-water test for sperm function examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Shu-wei; Lü, Nian-qing; Xu, Hao-qin

    2015-06-01

    Based on the principles of the in vitro staining technique, hypotonic swelling test, and water test, the Eosin Y-water test method was developed to simultaneously detect the integrity of the sperm head and tail and sperm membrane structure and function. As a widely used method in clinical laboratories in China, the Eosin Y-water test is methodologically characterized by three advantages. Firstly, both the sperm head and tail can be detected at the same time, which allows easy and comprehensive assessment of membrane damage in different parts of sperm. Secondly, distilled water is used instead of the usual formula solution to simplify and standardize the test by eliminating any potential effects on the water molecules through the sperm membrane due to different osmotic pressure or different sugar proportions and electrolyte solutions. Thirdly, the test takes less time and thus can be repeated before and after treatment. This article focuses on the fundamental principles and modification of the Eosin Y-water test and its application in sperm function examination and routine semen analysis for male infertility, assessment of the quality of sperm retrieved by testicular fine needle aspiration, semen cryopreservation program development, and evaluation of sperm membrane integrity after microwave radiation.

  4. Use of functional tests in radioimmune diagnosis of endocrine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay for determining corticotropin (ACTH), somatotropin (STH), prolactin (LTH) and thyrotropin (TTH) concentration in blood for endocrine disease diagnosis are described. Reactions of earlier mentioned functional tests to specific stimulators and inhibitors for differential diagnosis of such diseases as Icenko-Cushing one, pituitary body and hypothalamus diseases, galactorrhea and amenorrhea syndrome are considered. The diagnosis reliability is underlined

  5. Obtaining reliable Likelihood Ratio tests from simulated likelihood functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    It is standard practice by researchers and the default option in many statistical programs to base test statistics for mixed models on simulations using asymmetric draws (e.g. Halton draws). This paper shows that when the estimated likelihood functions depend on standard deviations of mixed param...

  6. Numerical distribution functions of fractional unit root and cointegration tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKinnon, James G.; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We calculate numerically the asymptotic distribution functions of likelihood ratio tests for fractional unit roots and cointegration rank. Because these distributions depend on a real-valued parameter, b, which must be estimated, simple tabulation is not feasible. Partly due to the presence...

  7. 20 CFR 718.103 - Pulmonary function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the forced vital capacity (FVC). The report... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pulmonary function tests. 718.103 Section 718... DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Criteria for the Development of Medical Evidence § 718.103 Pulmonary...

  8. Effect of Differential Item Functioning on Test Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakal, Kübra Atalay; Kelecioglu, Hülya

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of differential item functioning (DIF) items on test equating through multilevel item response models (MIRMs) and traditional IRMs. The performances of three different equating models were investigated under 24 different simulation conditions, and the variables whose effects were examined included sample size, test…

  9. Prevalence of abnormal liver function tests in rheumatoid arthritis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Abnormal Liver Function Tests (LFTs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at the rheumatology out-patient clinic, Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Rheumatology out-patient clinic at KNH. Participants: One hundred and seven RA ...

  10. Quality of Liver and Kidney Function Tests among Public Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy and precision of clinical chemistry laboratories in western region of Amhara national regional state of Ethiopia in testing liver and kidney functions. Methods: Eight laboratories in hospitals and a Regional Health Research Laboratory Center participated in this study from ...

  11. Effect of drugs on the thyroid function tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, G.P.; Faria, A.C.S. de; Carvalho, M.C. de; Guimaraes, M.M.; Cordeiro, J.G.H.; Santa Casa do Rio de Janeiro

    1984-01-01

    The effects of drugs in the results of thyroid function tests, which could lead to misinterpretation of the real clinical state of the patients, are reviewed. The aspects of the metabolism of the thyreoidean hormones which could be related to these alterations are presented. (Author) [pt

  12. Lung Function Test in Asthmatics Patients in UBTH: Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-06-30

    This report describes the result of a study on lung function tests on 75 asthmatics seen within a 6-month period (January 1 to June 30, 2004) at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City, Nigeria. There was a preponderance of females (60%) to males (40%); The result also showed that a large proportion ...

  13. Making sense of thyroid function tests | Gezawa | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Thyroid disorders are second only to diabetes mellitus among endocrine problems encountered in practice. Many patients with thyroid disorders tend to present with nonspecific symptoms to clinicians in different specialties, who are often quick to request for a thyroid function test. Although interpretation of the ...

  14. Functional Literacy Tests: A Case of Anticipatory Validity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.; Anderson, Jo Craig

    1981-01-01

    Development of the mathematics functional literacy test (MFLT) is described, issues of predictive and content validity are discussed, and implications for educational policy are presented. Ten basic skill areas identified by the National Council of Supervisors of Mathematics were used as the basis for the development of the MFLT. (RL)

  15. The emerging role of transport systems in liver function tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stieger, Bruno; Heger, Michal; de Graaf, Wilmar; Paumgartner, Gustav; van Gulik, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Liver function tests are of critical importance for the management of patients with severe or terminal liver disease. They are also used as prognostic tools for planning liver resections. In recent years many transport systems have been identified that also transport substances employed in liver

  16. Placental morphology at different maternal hemoglobin levels: a histopathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran, N.; Zubair, A.; Malik, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the histopathological parameters of the placenta like weight, infarct and syncytial knots, at different maternal hemoglobin levels, in both qualitative and quantitative manner. Study design: Descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology in collaboration with Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from December 2011 to November 2012. Patients and Methods: A total of 75 placentas were included, that were collected from full term mothers at the time of childbirth. Placental weight was taken without umbilical cord and gross placental infarcts were noted. Samples of placental tissue were taken and stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H and E). Microscopic study was done to evaluate placental infarcts and syncytial knots. Results: Mean placental weight at normal and low maternal hemoglobin was 581.67 ± 83.97g and 482.58 ± 104.74g respectively. Gross placental infarcts were found in all cases having low maternal hemoglobin concentration (60% cases). Syncytial knots were found in all placentas but they were considerably more at decreasing levels of maternal hemoglobin (19.79 ± 5.22). Conclusion: The present study showed decrease in placental weight, increase in placental infarcts and syncytial knot hyperplasia at low maternal hemoglobin concentration, displaying adaptive alterations. (author)

  17. Maternal placental syndromes: pathological mechanisms and long-term consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerbeek, J.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia, intra uterine growth restriction (IUGR) and placental abruption are major contributors to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. In these disorders the placenta is a key aetiological factor and therefore preeclampsia, IUGR and placental abruption are also referred to as

  18. Associations between intrapartum death and piglet, placental, and umbilical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rootwelt, V; Reksen, O; Farstad, W; Framstad, T

    2012-12-01

    Intrapartum death in multiparous gestations in sows (Sus scrofa) is often caused by hypoxia. There is little information in the literature on the assessment of the placenta in relation to intrapartum death in piglets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the placental area and weight upon piglet birth characteristics and intrapartum death. Litters from 26 Landrace-Yorkshire sows were monitored during farrowing and the status of each piglet was recorded, including blood parameters of piglets and their umbilical veins. Of 413 piglets born, 6.5% were stillborn. Blood concentrations of glucose, lactate, and CO(2) partial pressure were increased in the stillborn piglets (P birth was increased for piglets born dead vs. live (P birth weight for piglets born dead was not different from live-born piglets (P = 0.631), whereas mean body mass index was reduced (P 0.2). Piglet BW was positively correlated with placental area and placental weight (P birth order group, and broken umbilical cords explained 71% of the stillbirths (P = 0.001). We conclude that placental area and placental weight are both positively associated with piglet birth weight, but not with the probability of being born dead. Placental area was a better predictor of piglet vitality than placental weight. Because umbilical cord rupture and prolonged birth time were associated with being born dead, umbilical cord rupture and placental detachment seem to be probable causes of intrapartum death.

  19. Using Operational Analysis to Improve Access to Pulmonary Function Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Ip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Timely pulmonary function testing is crucial to improving diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. Perceptions of poor access at an academic pulmonary function laboratory prompted analysis of system demand and capacity to identify factors contributing to poor access. Methods. Surveys and interviews identified stakeholder perspectives on operational processes and access challenges. Retrospective data on testing demand and resource capacity was analyzed to understand utilization of testing resources. Results. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that stakeholder groups had discrepant views on access and capacity in the laboratory. Mean daily resource utilization was 0.64 (SD 0.15, with monthly average utilization consistently less than 0.75. Reserved testing slots for subspecialty clinics were poorly utilized, leaving many testing slots unfilled. When subspecialty demand exceeded number of reserved slots, there was sufficient capacity in the pulmonary function schedule to accommodate added demand. Findings were shared with stakeholders and influenced scheduling process improvements. Conclusion. This study highlights the importance of operational data to identify causes of poor access, guide system decision-making, and determine effects of improvement initiatives in a variety of healthcare settings. Importantly, simple operational analysis can help to improve efficiency of health systems with little or no added financial investment.

  20. Advanced Grid Support Functionality Testing for Florida Power and Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martin, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurtt, James [Florida Power and Light, Juno Beach, FL (United States)

    2017-03-21

    This report describes the results of laboratory testing of advanced photovoltaic (PV) inverter testing undertaken by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on behalf of the Florida Power and Light Company (FPL). FPL recently commissioned a 1.1 MW-AC PV installation on a solar carport at the Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. In addition to providing a source of clean energy production, the site serves as a live test bed with 36 different PV inverters from eight different manufacturers. Each inverter type has varied support for advanced grid support functions (GSFs) that are becoming increasingly commonplace, and are being required through revised interconnection standards such as UL1741, IEEE1547, and California (CA) Rule 21. FPL is interested in evaluating the trade-offs between different GSFs, their compliance to emerging standards, and their effects on efficiency and reliability. NREL has provided a controlled laboratory environment to undertake such a study. This work covered nine different classes of tests to compare inverter capabilities and performance for four different inverters that were selected by FPL. The test inverters were all three-phase models rated between 24-36 kW, and containing multiple PV input power point trackers. Advanced grid support functions were tested for functional behavior, and included fixed power factor operation, voltage-ride through, frequency ride-through, volt-var control, and frequency-Watt control. Response to abnormal grid conditions with GSFs enabled was studied through anti-islanding, fault, and load rejection overvoltage tests. Finally, efficiency was evaluated across a range of operating conditions that included power factor, output power, and input voltage variations. Test procedures were derived from requirements of a draft revision of UL741, CA Rule 21, and/or previous studies at NREL. This reports summarizes the results of each test case, providing a comparative performance analysis

  1. I and C functional test facility user guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ki Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    The objective of I and C functional test facility (FTF) is to validate newly developed digital control and protection algorithm, alarm reduction algorithm and the function of operator support system and so on. Test facility is divided into three major parts; software, hardware and graphic user interface. Software consists of mathematical modeling which simulates 3 loop pressurizer water reactor, 993 MWe Westinghouse plant and supervisory module which interpret user instructions and data interface program. FTF is implemented in HP747I workstation using FORTRAN77 and ``C`` language under UNIX operating system. This User Guide provides file structure, instructions and program modification method and provides initial data, malfunction list, process variables list and simulation diagram as an appendix to test developed prototype. 12 figs. (Author).

  2. I and C functional test facility user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Ki Chun

    1996-07-01

    The objective of I and C functional test facility (FTF) is to validate newly developed digital control and protection algorithm, alarm reduction algorithm and the function of operator support system and so on. Test facility is divided into three major parts; software, hardware and graphic user interface. Software consists of mathematical modeling which simulates 3 loop pressurizer water reactor, 993 MWe Westinghouse plant and supervisory module which interpret user instructions and data interface program. FTF is implemented in HP747I workstation using FORTRAN77 and ''C'' language under UNIX operating system. This User Guide provides file structure, instructions and program modification method and provides initial data, malfunction list, process variables list and simulation diagram as an appendix to test developed prototype. 12 figs. (Author)

  3. Survey of clinical infant lung function testing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson-Carmichael, Stacey L; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Ascher, Simon B; Hornik, Christoph P; Arets, H G M; Davis, Stephanie D; Hall, Graham L

    2014-02-01

    Data supporting the clinical use of infant lung function (ILF) tests are limited making the interpretation of clinical ILF measures difficult. To evaluate current ILF testing practices and to survey users regarding the indications, limitations and perceived clinical benefits of ILF testing. We created a 26-item survey hosted on the European Respiratory Society (ERS) website between January and May 2010. Notifications were sent to members of the ERS, American Thoracic Society and the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology. Responses were sought from ILF laboratory directors and pediatric respirologists. The survey assessed the clinical indications, patient populations, equipment and reference data used, and perceived limitations of ILF testing. We received 148 responses with 98 respondents having ILF equipment and performing testing in a clinical capacity. Centers in North America were less likely to perform ≥50 studies/year than centers in Europe or other continents (13% vs. 41%). Most respondents used ILF data to either "start a new therapy" (78%) or "help decide about initiation of further diagnostic workup such as bronchoscopy, chest CT or serological testing" (69%). Factors reported as limiting clinical ILF testing were need for sedation, uncertainty regarding clinical impact of study results and time intensive nature of the study. Clinical practices associated with ILF testing vary significantly; centers that perform more studies are more likely to use the results for clinical purposes and decision making. The future of ILF testing is uncertain in the face of the limitations perceived by the survey respondents. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Clinical development of placental malaria vaccines and immunoassays harmonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chêne, Arnaud; Houard, Sophie; Nielsen, Morten A

    2016-01-01

    Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection constitutes a major health problem manifesting as severe disease and anaemia in the mother, impaired fetal development, low birth weight or spontaneous abortion. Prevention of placental malaria currently relies on two key strategies...... that are losing efficacy due to spread of resistance: long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy. A placental malaria vaccine would be an attractive, cost-effective complement to the existing control tools. Two placental malaria vaccine candidates are currently...... in Phase Ia/b clinical trials. During two workshops hosted by the European Vaccine Initiative, one in Paris in April 2014 and the other in Brussels in November 2014, the main actors in placental malaria vaccine research discussed the harmonization of clinical development plans and of the immunoassays...

  5. Multimodality imaging of placental masses: a pictorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Priyanka; Paroder, Viktoriya; Mar, Winnie; Horowtiz, Jeanne M; Poder, Liina

    2016-12-01

    Placental masses are uncommonly identified at the time of obstetric ultrasound evaluation. Understanding the pathologies presenting as placental masses is key for providing a differential diagnosis and guiding subsequent management, which may include additional imaging with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Potential benign entities include chorioangiomas and teratomas. Larger chorioangiomas can cause fetal cardiovascular issues from volume overload. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia has an association with fetal anomalies and detailed fetal evaluation should be performed when it is suspected. Identifying other cystic masses such as partial and complete moles is crucial to prevent erroneous pregnancy termination. This review addresses normal imaging appearance of the placenta on ultrasound and MR imaging and describes various trophoblastic and nontrophoblastic placental masses. Potential placental mass mimics including uterine contractions and thrombo-hematomas are also presented.

  6. Zika virus infection in immunocompetent pregnant mice causes fetal damage and placental pathology in the absence of fetal infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Lawrence W.; Lanthier, Paula; Kim, In-Jeong; Kuki, Atsuo; Thomas, Stephen J.

    2018-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during human pregnancy may cause diverse and serious congenital defects in the developing fetus. Previous efforts to generate animal models of human ZIKV infection and clinical symptoms often involved manipulating mice to impair their Type I interferon (IFN) signaling, thereby allowing enhanced infection and vertical transmission of virus to the embryo. Here, we show that even pregnant mice competent to generate Type I IFN responses that can limit ZIKV infection nonetheless develop profound placental pathology and high frequency of fetal demise. We consistently found that maternal ZIKV exposure led to placental pathology and that ZIKV RNA levels measured in maternal, placental or embryonic tissues were not predictive of the pathological effects seen in the embryos. Placental pathology included trophoblast hyperplasia in the labyrinth, trophoblast giant cell necrosis in the junctional zone, and loss of embryonic vessels. Our findings suggest that, in this context of limited infection, placental pathology rather than embryonic/fetal viral infection may be a stronger contributor to adverse pregnancy outcomes in mice. Our finding demonstrates that in immunocompetent mice, direct viral infection of the embryo is not essential for fetal demise. Our immunologically unmanipulated pregnancy mouse model provides a consistent and easily measurable congenital abnormality readout to assess fetal outcome, and may serve as an additional model to test prophylactic and therapeutic interventions to protect the fetus during pregnancy, and for studying the mechanisms of ZIKV congenital immunopathogenesis. PMID:29634758

  7. The Placental Secretome: Identifying Potential Cross-Talk Between Placenta and Islet β-Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Drynda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Insulin-secreting islet β-cells adapt to the insulin resistance associated with pregnancy by increasing functional β-cell mass, but the placental signals involved in this process are not well defined. In the current study, we analysed expression of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR mRNAs in mouse islets and islet GPCR ligand mRNAs in placenta during pregnancy to generate an atlas of potential interactions between the placenta and β-cells to inform future functional studies of islet adaptive responses to pregnancy. Methods: Quantative RT-PCR arrays were used to measure mRNA expression levels of: (i 342 GPCRs in islets from non-pregnant mice, and in islets isolated from mice on gestational days 12 and 18; (ii 126 islet GPCR ligands in mouse placenta at gestational days 12 and 18. Results: At gestational day 12, a time of rapid expansion of the β-cell mass, 189 islet GPCR mRNAs were quantifiable, while 79 of the 126 known islet GPCR ligand mRNAs were detectable in placental extracts. Approximately half of the quantifiable placental GPCR ligand genes were of unknown function in β-cells. The expression of some islet GPCR and placental ligand mRNAs varied during pregnancy, with altered expression of both GPCR and ligand mRNAs by gestational day 18. Conclusion: The current study has revealed numerous potential routes for interaction between the placenta and islets, and offers an atlas to inform further functional studies of their roles in adaptive responses to pregnancy, and in the regulation of the β-cell mass.

  8. Placental effects of lead in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, M; Torregrosa, A; Mora, R; Götzens, V; Corbellla, J; Domingo, J L

    1996-01-01

    Although a number of studies in animal models have shown embryolethal and teratogenic lead effects when this element is administered by a parenteral route, the mechanism of the embryonary changes is well not established. In this study, the embryonic effects of parenteral lead exposure on day 9 of gestation were assessed in the Swiss mouse. Lead acetate trihydrate was injected intraperitoneally at 14, 28, 56 and 112 mg/kg. There was no maternal toxicity evidenced by death, reduced body weight gain or reduced food consumption. However, absolute placental weight at 112 mg/kg and relative placental weight at 14, 56 and 112 mg/kg were diminished significantly. The number of total implants, live and dead fetuses, sex ratio and fetal body weight were unaffected by lead exposure. Most sections of placenta showed vascular congestion, an increase of intracellular spaces and deposits of hyaline material of perivascular predominance. Trophoblast hyperplasia was also observed, whereas there was a reinforcement of the fibrovascular network in the labyrinth. It is concluded that the trophoblast hyperplasia observed in the placenta of pregnant mice after parenteral lead exposure at doses that are not toxic for the dam could act as a repairing mechanism of the extraembryonary tissues.

  9. I and C functional test facility malfunction cause and effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kee Choon.

    1997-06-01

    The objective of I and C function test facility (FTF) is to validate newly developed digital control and protection algorithm, alarm reduction algorithm and the function of operator support system and so on. To realize transient and accident situation in the FTF, the result of the activation of malfunction should be similar to the situation of real nuclear power plants. In this technical report, describe the Group, Malfunction No., Description, Option, Recommendations, Considered in Subroutine, Limitations, Cause, and Effect of the malfunctions implemented in FTF. (author)

  10. Human performance in nondestructive inspections and functional tests: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.H.

    1988-10-01

    Human performance plays a vital role in the inspections and tests conducted to assure the physical integrity of nuclear power plants. Even when technically-sophisticated equipment is employed, the outcome is highly dependent on human control actions, calibrations, observations, analyses, and interpretations. The principal consequences of inadequate performance are missed or falsely-reported defects. However, the cost-avoidance that stems from addressing potential risks promptly, and the increasing costs likely with aging plants, emphasize that timeliness and efficiency are important inspection-performance considerations also. Human performance issues were studied in a sample of inspections and tests regularly conducted in nuclear power plants. These tasks, selected by an industry advisory panel, were: eddy-current inspection of steam-generator tubes; ultrasonic inspection of pipe welds; inservice testing of pumps and valves; and functional testing of shock suppressors. Information was obtained for the study from industry and plant procedural documents; training materials; research reports and related documents; interviews with training specialists, inspectors, supervisory personnel, and equipment designers; and first-hand observations of task performance. Eleven recommendations are developed for improving human performance on nondestructive inspections and functional tests. Two recommendations were for the more-effective application of existing knowledge; nine recommendations were for research projects that should be undertaken to assure continuing improvements in human performance on these tasks. 25 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  11. A Powerful Test for Comparing Multiple Regression Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Arnab

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we address the important problem of comparison of two or more population regression functions. Recently, Pardo-Fernández, Van Keilegom and González-Manteiga (2007) developed test statistics for simple nonparametric regression models: Y(ij) = θ(j)(Z(ij)) + σ(j)(Z(ij))∊(ij), based on empirical distributions of the errors in each population j = 1, … , J. In this paper, we propose a test for equality of the θ(j)(·) based on the concept of generalized likelihood ratio type statistics. We also generalize our test for other nonparametric regression setups, e.g, nonparametric logistic regression, where the loglikelihood for population j is any general smooth function [Formula: see text]. We describe a resampling procedure to obtain the critical values of the test. In addition, we present a simulation study to evaluate the performance of the proposed test and compare our results to those in Pardo-Fernández et al. (2007).

  12. Rescue of placental phenotype in a mechanistic model of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins Michael J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several imprinted genes have been implicated in the process of placentation. The distal region of mouse chromosome 7 (Chr 7 contains at least ten imprinted genes, several of which are expressed from the maternal homologue in the placenta. The corresponding paternal alleles of these genes are silenced in cis by an incompletely understood mechanism involving the formation of a repressive nuclear compartment mediated by the long non-coding RNA Kcnq1ot1 initiated from imprinting centre 2 (IC2. However, it is unknown whether some maternally expressed genes are silenced on the paternal homologue via a Kcnq1ot1-independent mechanism. We have previously reported that maternal inheritance of a large truncation of Chr7 encompassing the entire IC2-regulated domain (DelTel7 allele leads to embryonic lethality at mid-gestation accompanied by severe placental abnormalities. Kcnq1ot1 expression can be abolished on the paternal chromosome by deleting IC2 (IC2KO allele. When the IC2KO mutation is paternally inherited, epigenetic silencing is lost in the region and the DelTel7 lethality is rescued in compound heterozygotes, leading to viable DelTel7/IC2KO mice. Results Considering the important functions of several IC2-regulated genes in placentation, we set out to determine whether these DelTel7/IC2KO rescued conceptuses develop normal placentae. We report no abnormalities with respect to the architecture and vasculature of the DelTel7/IC2KO rescued placentae. Imprinted expression of several of the IC2-regulated genes critical to placentation is also faithfully recapitulated in DelTel7/IC2KO placentae. Conclusion Taken together, our results demonstrate that all the distal chromosome 7 imprinted genes implicated in placental function are silenced by IC2 and Kcnq1ot1 on the paternal allele. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the methylated maternal IC2 is not required for the regulation of nearby genes. The results show the potential for

  13. Maternal and Placental Factors Associated with Congenital Hearing Loss in Very Preterm Neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Shin Hye Kim; Byung Yoon Choi; Jaehong Park; Eun Young Jung; Soo-Hyun Cho; Kyo Hoon Park

    2017-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a multifactorial disease that more frequently affects preterm newborns. Although a number of maternal conditions have been reported to be associated with preterm birth, little information is available concerning maternal risk factors for the development of SNHL. We aimed to identify maternal and placental risk factors associated with a “refer” result on the newborn hearing screening (NHS) test and subsequently confirmed SNHL in very preterm neonates. Me...

  14. Test Protocols for Advanced Inverter Interoperability Functions - Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Dean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ralph, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ellis, Abraham [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Broderick, Robert Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Distributed energy resources (DER) such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, when deployed in a large scale, are capable of influencing significantly the operation of power systems. Looking to the future, stakeholders are working on standards to make it possible to manage the potentially complex interactions between DER and the power system. In 2009, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA) initiated a large industry collaborative to identify and standardize definitions for a set of DER grid support functions. While the initial effort concentrated on grid-tied PV inverters and energy storage systems, the concepts have applicability to all DER. A partial product of this on-going effort is a reference definitions document (IEC TR 61850-90-7, Object models for power converters in distributed energy resources (DER) systems) that has become a basis for expansion of related International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and is supported by US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP). Some industry-led organizations advancing communications protocols have also embraced this work. As standards continue to evolve, it is necessary to develop test protocols to independently verify that the inverters are properly executing the advanced functions. Interoperability is assured by establishing common definitions for the functions and a method to test compliance with operational requirements. This document describes test protocols developed by SNL to evaluate the electrical performance and operational capabilities of PV inverters and energy storage, as described in IEC TR 61850-90-7. While many of these functions are not now required by existing grid codes or may not be widely available commercially, the industry is rapidly moving in that direction. Interoperability issues are already apparent as

  15. Test Protocols for Advanced Inverter Interoperability Functions – Main Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Dean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ralph, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ellis, Abraham [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Broderick, Robert Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Distributed energy resources (DER) such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, when deployed in a large scale, are capable of influencing significantly the operation of power systems. Looking to the future, stakeholders are working on standards to make it possible to manage the potentially complex interactions between DER and the power system. In 2009, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA) initiated a large industry collaborative to identify and standardize definitions for a set of DER grid support functions. While the initial effort concentrated on grid-tied PV inverters and energy storage systems, the concepts have applicability to all DER. A partial product of this on-going effort is a reference definitions document (IEC TR 61850-90-7, Object models for power converters in distributed energy resources (DER) systems) that has become a basis for expansion of related International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and is supported by US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP). Some industry-led organizations advancing communications protocols have also embraced this work. As standards continue to evolve, it is necessary to develop test protocols to independently verify that the inverters are properly executing the advanced functions. Interoperability is assured by establishing common definitions for the functions and a method to test compliance with operational requirements. This document describes test protocols developed by SNL to evaluate the electrical performance and operational capabilities of PV inverters and energy storage, as described in IEC TR 61850-90-7. While many of these functions are not currently required by existing grid codes or may not be widely available commercially, the industry is rapidly moving in that direction. Interoperability issues are already

  16. 131I-BSP liver function test by BSP tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Koichi

    1974-01-01

    131 I-BSP liver function test after BSP intravenous tolerance was discussed, assuming that the reason why measurements of 131 I-BSP retention rate at 30 minutes and 131 I-BSP disappearance rate in blood showed respectable overlapping between normal group and group with slight liver disorders as compared with BSP test and the reason why differential diagnosis was difficult were due to underestimate of tolerance volume of 131 I-BSP. 131 I-BSP was observed with time as to 70 persons with normal liver function and 257 cases of liver diseases, using 5, 3 and 2 mg of non-radioactive BSP tolerance volume per kilogram of body weight. 131 I-BSP retention rate at 30 minutes and 131 I-BSP disappearance rate in blood are possible to separate overlapping over control in each measurement value at 3-5 mg/kg of tolerance, and in comparison of 3 mg and 5 mg, the latter showed a little excellent result. So, it was decided that tolerance of 3 mg/kg was a proper dose, considering tolerance to liver cells. 131 I-BSP retention rate at 30 minutes was a little excellent in accuracy and disappearance rate in blood after BSP tolerance is simple and profitable for practical use because collection of blood was only one time and measurement could be made with whole blood. As mentioned above, this method is seemed to be useful to practice of liver function test. (Kanao, N.)

  17. The partial coherence modulation transfer function in testing lithography lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiun-Woei

    2018-03-01

    Due to the lithography demanding high performance in projection of semiconductor mask to wafer, the lens has to be almost free in spherical and coma aberration, thus, in situ optical testing for diagnosis of lens performance has to be established to verify the performance and to provide the suggesting for further improvement of the lens, before the lens has been build and integrated with light source. The measurement of modulation transfer function of critical dimension (CD) is main performance parameter to evaluate the line width of semiconductor platform fabricating ability for the smallest line width of producing tiny integrated circuits. Although the modulation transfer function (MTF) has been popularly used to evaluation the optical system, but in lithography, the contrast of each line-pair is in one dimension or two dimensions, analytically, while the lens stand along in the test bench integrated with the light source coherent or near coherent for the small dimension near the optical diffraction limit, the MTF is not only contributed by the lens, also by illumination of platform. In the study, the partial coherence modulation transfer function (PCMTF) for testing a lithography lens is suggested by measuring MTF in the high spatial frequency of in situ lithography lens, blended with the illumination of partial and in coherent light source. PCMTF can be one of measurement to evaluate the imperfect lens of lithography lens for further improvement in lens performance.

  18. Pheochromocytoma with Markedly Abnormal Liver Function Tests and Severe Leukocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Ryoung Eun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor arising from the medulla of the adrenal glands, which causes an overproduction of catecholamines. The common symptoms are headache, palpitations, and sweating; however, various other clinical manifestations might also be present. Accurate diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is important because surgical treatment is usually successful, and associated clinical problems are reversible if treated early. A 49-year-old man with a history of uncontrolled hypertension and diabetes mellitus presented with chest pain, fever, and sweating. His liver function tests and white blood cell counts were markedly increased and his echocardiography results suggested stress-induced cardiomyopathy. His abdominal computed tomography showed a 5×5-cm-sized tumor in the left adrenal gland, and laboratory tests confirmed catecholamine overproduction. After surgical resection of the left adrenal gland, his liver function tests and white blood cell counts normalized, and echocardiography showed normal cardiac function. Moreover, his previous antihypertensive regimen was deescalated, and his previously uncontrolled blood glucose levels normalized without medication.

  19. The development of functional requirement for integrated test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, B.S.; Oh, I.S.; Cha, K.H.; Lee, H.C.

    1994-01-01

    An Integrated Test Facility (ITF) is a human factors experimental environment comprised of a nuclear power plant function simulator, man-machine interfaces (MMI), human performance recording systems, and signal control and data analysis systems. In this study, we are going to describe how the functional requirements are developed by identification of both the characteristics of generic advanced control rooms and the research topics of world-wide research interest in human factors community. The functional requirements of user interface developed in this paper together with those of the other elements will be used for the design and implementation of the ITF which will serve as the basis for experimental research on a line of human factors topics. (author). 15 refs, 1 fig

  20. Role of transporters in placental transfer of drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapathy, Vadivel; Prasad, Puttur D.

    2005-01-01

    Human placenta functions as an important transport organ that mediates the exchange of nutrients and metabolites between maternal and fetal circulations. This function is made possible because of the expression of a multitude of transport proteins in the placental syncytiotrophoblast with differential localization in the maternal-facing brush border membrane versus the fetal-facing basal membrane. Even though the physiological role of most of these transport proteins is to handle nutrients, many of them interact with xenobiotics and pharmacological agents. These transport proteins therefore play a critical role in the disposition of drugs across the maternal-fetal interface, with some transporters facilitating the entry of drugs from maternal circulation into fetal circulation whereas others preventing such entry by actively eliminating drugs from the placenta back into maternal circulation. The net result as to whether the placenta enhances the exposure of the developing fetus to drugs and xenobiotics or functions as a barrier to protect the fetus from such agents depends on the types of transporters expressed in the brush border membrane and basal membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast and on the functional mode of these transporters (influx versus efflux)

  1. Maternal obesity and sex-specific differences in placental pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Garcia, Sandra M; Roeder, Hilary A; Nelson, Katharine K; Liao, Xiaoyan; Pizzo, Donald P; Laurent, Louise C; Parast, Mana M; LaCoursiere, D Yvette

    2016-02-01

    Adverse effects of obesity have been linked to inflammation in various tissues, but studies on placental inflammation and obesity have demonstrated conflicting findings. We sought to investigate the influence of pregravid obesity and fetal sex on placental histopathology while controlling for diabetes and hypertension. Placental histopathology focusing on inflammatory markers of a cohort of normal weight (BMI = 20-24.9) and obese (BMI ≥ 30) patients was characterized. Demographic, obstetric and neonatal variables were assessed. 192 normal and 231 obese women were included. Placental characteristics associated with obesity and fetal sex independent of diabetes and hypertension were placental disc weight >90(th) percentile, decreased placental efficiency, chronic villitis (CV), fetal thrombosis, and normoblastemia. Additionally, female fetuses of obese mothers had higher rates of CV and fetal thrombosis. Increasing BMI increased the risk of normoblastemia and CV. The final grade and extent of CV was significantly associated with obesity and BMI, but not fetal gender. Finally, CV was less common in large-for-gestation placentas. Maternal obesity results in placental overgrowth and fetal hypoxia as manifested by normoblastemia; it is also associated with an increased incidence of CV and fetal thrombosis, both more prevalent in female placentas. We have shown for the first time that the effect of maternal obesity on placental inflammation is independent of diabetes and hypertension, but significantly affected by fetal sex. Our data also point to the intriguing possibility that CV serves to normalize placental size, and potentially fetal growth, in the setting of maternal obesity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Risk of placental abruption in relation to migraines and headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananth Cande V

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migraine, a common chronic-intermittent disorder of idiopathic origin characterized by severe debilitating headaches and autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and placental abruption, the premature separation of the placenta, share many common pathophysiological characteristics. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, hypercoagulation, and inflammation are common to both disorders. We assessed risk of placental abruption in relation to maternal history of migraine before and during pregnancy in Peruvian women. Methods Cases were 375 women with pregnancies complicated by placental abruption, and controls were 368 women without an abruption. During in-person interviews conducted following delivery, women were asked if they had physician-diagnosed migraine, and they were asked questions that allowed headaches and migraine to be classified according to criteria established by the International Headache Society. Logistic regression procedures were used to calculate odds ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (CI adjusted for confounders. Results Overall, a lifetime history of any headaches or migraine was associated with an increased odds of placental abruption (aOR = 1.60; 95% CI 1.16-2.20. A lifetime history of migraine was associated with a 2.14-fold increased odds of placental abruption (aOR = 2.14; 95% CI 1.22-3.75. The odds of placental abruption was 2.11 (95% CI 1.00-4.45 for migraineurs without aura; and 1.59 (95% 0.70-3.62 for migraineurs with aura. A lifetime history of tension-type headache was also increased with placental abruption (aOR = 1.61; 95% CI 1.01-2.57. Conclusions This study adds placental abruption to a growing list of pregnancy complications associated with maternal headache/migraine disorders. Nevertheless, prospective cohort studies are needed to more rigorously evaluate the extent to which migraines and/or its treatments are associated with the occurrence of placental abruption.

  3. Measurement of Function Post Hip Fracture: Testing a Comprehensive Measurement Model of Physical Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Barbara; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Hicks, Gregory; Ostir, Glen; Klinedinst, N Jennifer; Orwig, Denise; Magaziner, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Measurement of physical function post hip fracture has been conceptualized using multiple different measures. This study tested a comprehensive measurement model of physical function. This was a descriptive secondary data analysis including 168 men and 171 women post hip fracture. Using structural equation modeling, a measurement model of physical function which included grip strength, activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and performance was tested for fit at 2 and 12 months post hip fracture, and among male and female participants. Validity of the measurement model of physical function was evaluated based on how well the model explained physical activity, exercise, and social activities post hip fracture. The measurement model of physical function fit the data. The amount of variance the model or individual factors of the model explained varied depending on the activity. Decisions about the ideal way in which to measure physical function should be based on outcomes considered and participants. The measurement model of physical function is a reliable and valid method to comprehensively measure physical function across the hip fracture recovery trajectory. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  4. Androgen dependent mechanisms of pro-angiogenic networks in placental and tumor development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metzler, Veronika M.; de Brot, Simone; Robinson, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    molecular mechanisms of androgen regulation of angiogenesis and infer the potential significance of these pathways to normal and pathogenic placental function. Finally, we offer potential research applications of androgen-targeting molecules developed to treat cancer as investigative tools to help further...... supplies is considered a key step in supporting metastases. Therefore the development of novel angiogenesis inhibitors has been an area of active research in oncology. A subset of the molecular processes regulating angiogenesis are well understood in the context of both early placentation and tumorigenesis...... are essential for normal male embryonic development, puberty and lifelong health. Defects in androgen signalling are associated with a diverse range of clinical disorders in men and women including disorders of sex development (DSD), polycystic ovary syndrome in women and many cancers. We summarize the diverse...

  5. Reference values for paediatric pulmonary function testing: The Utrecht dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Marije; Zanen, Pieter; Kruitwagen, Cas L J J; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Arets, Hubertus G M

    2011-01-01

    Since populations evolve, measurement protocols and equipment improve and analysis techniques progress, there is an ongoing need to reassess reference data for pulmonary function tests. Furthermore, reference values for total lung capacity and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity are scarcely available in children. We aimed to provide updated reference equations for most commonly used pulmonary function indices in Caucasian children. In the 'Utrecht Pulmonary Function Reference Data Study' we collected data in Caucasian children aged 2-18 years. We analyzed them using the 'Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape' (GAMLSS) statistical method. Measurements of interrupter resistance (R(int)) (n = 877), spirometry (n = 1042), body plethysmography (n = 723) and carbon monoxide diffusion/helium dilution (n = 543) were obtained in healthy children. Height (or the natural logarithm of height) and age (or the natural logarithm of age) were both significantly related to most outcome measures. Also sex was a significant determinant, except for RV, RV/TLC, FRC(pleth), Raw(0,5), Raw(tot), R(int) and FEF values. The application of previously published reference equations on the study population resulted in misinterpretation of pulmonary function. These new paediatric reference equations provide accurate estimates of the range of normality for most commonly used pulmonary function indices, resulting in less underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Serotonin transporter protects the placental cells against apoptosis in caspase 3-independent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Coedy; Fahmi, Tariq; Cooper, Anthonya; Savenka, Alena V; Lupashin, Vladimir V; Roberts, Drucilla J; Maroteaux, Luc; Hauguel-de Mouzon, Sylvie; Kilic, Fusun

    2017-12-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) and its specific transporter, SERT play important roles in pregnancy. Using placentas dissected from 18d gestational SERT-knock out (KO), peripheral 5-HT (TPH1)-KO, and wild-type (WT) mice, we explored the role of 5-HT and SERT in placental functions in detail. An abnormal thick band of fibrosis and necrosis under the giant cell layer in SERT-KO placentas appeared only moderately in TPH1-KO and minimally present in WT placentas. The majority of the changes were located at the junctional zone of the placentas in SERT. The etiology of these findings was tested with TUNEL assays. The placentas from SERT-KO and TPH1-KO showed 49- and 8-fold increase in TUNEL-positive cells without a concurrent change in the DNA repair or cell proliferation compared to WT placentas. While the proliferation rate in the embryos of TPH1-KO mice was 16-fold lower than the rate in gestational age matched embryos of WT or SERT-KO mice. These findings highlight an important role of continuous 5-HT signaling on trophoblast cell viability. SERT may contribute to protecting trophoblast cells against cell death via terminating the 5-HT signaling which changes cell death ratio in trophoblast as well as proliferation rate in embryos. However, the cell death in SERT-KO placentas is in caspase 3-independent pathway. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Thyroid function testing in neonates born to women with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Matthew; Reyani, Zahra; O'Connor, Pamela; White, Martin; Miletin, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to assess the utility of serum thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone performed at 10-14 days of life in diagnosing congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in babies born to mothers with hypothyroidism. This was a retrospective study of all babies born in a tertiary referral centre for neonatology over a 12-month period. Infants who had thyroid function testing (TFT) checked at 10-14 days of life because of maternal hypothyroidism during the period of study were included. The results of the newborn bloodspot and day 10-14 TFT were recorded along with whether or not patients were subsequently treated. Of the 319 patients included in the study, only two patients were found to have CH and in both cases the newborn blood spot had been abnormal. No extra cases of CH were detected from the thyroid test at 10-14 days and this practice should be discontinued due to the robust nature of existing newborn screening programmes. What is Known: • Congenital hypothyroidism(CH) is the commonest preventable cause of childhood intellectual impairment. • Family history of hypothyroidism has been implicated as a risk factor for CH. • CH has formed part of newborn screening since the 1970s. What is New: • There is no research recommending thyroid function testing at 10-14 days of life to detect CH in neonates born to mothers with hypothyroidism. • Thyroid function testing at 10-14 days of life does not improve diagnostic yield for CH in babies born to mothers with hypothyroidism. • Newborn blood spot remains the mainstay for accurate and timely diagnosis of CH.

  8. Placental Growth during Normal Pregnancy - A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff, Lasse; Grønbeck, Lene; von Huth, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    were measured in both sagittal and transversal slices. All placentas were weighed after delivery to make a comparative study. RESULTS: Sixteen of the 20 women had increasing placental volumes from the 14th to 38th week of gestation. The 6th and 7th scan showed that 4 women had placentas of the same...... was 640 g (range 500-787 g). All pregnancies were carried to term, resulting in the delivery of healthy infants with good correlation between placental size and birth weight (R = 0.56, p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Placental growth was measured systematically in a longitudinal study through the second and third...

  9. Review: Alterations in placental glycogen deposition in complicated pregnancies: Current preclinical and clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akison, Lisa K; Nitert, Marloes Dekker; Clifton, Vicki L; Moritz, Karen M; Simmons, David G

    2017-06-01

    Normal placental function is essential for optimal fetal growth. Transport of glucose from mother to fetus is critical for fetal nutrient demands and can be stored in the placenta as glycogen. However, the function of this glycogen deposition remains a matter of debate: It could be a source of fuel for the placenta itself or a storage reservoir for later use by the fetus in times of need. While the significance of placental glycogen remains elusive, mounting evidence indicates that altered glycogen metabolism and/or deposition accompanies many pregnancy complications that adversely affect fetal development. This review will summarize histological, biochemical and molecular evidence that glycogen accumulates in a) placentas from a variety of experimental rodent models of perturbed pregnancy, including maternal alcohol exposure, glucocorticoid exposure, dietary deficiencies and hypoxia and b) placentas from human pregnancies with complications including preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). These pregnancies typically result in altered fetal growth, developmental abnormalities and/or disease outcomes in offspring. Collectively, this evidence suggests that changes in placental glycogen deposition is a common feature of pregnancy complications, particularly those associated with altered fetal growth. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. First Trimester Pregnancy Loss and the Expression of alternatively spliced NKp30 isoforms in Maternal Blood and Placental Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishai eShemesh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to investigate whether first trimester pregnancy loss is associated with differences in expression of NKp30 splice variants (isoforms in maternal peripheral blood or placental tissue. We conducted a prospective case-control study; a total of 33 women undergoing dilation and curettage due to first trimester pregnancy loss were further subdivided into groups with sporadic or recurrent pregnancy loss. The control group was comprised of women undergoing elective termination of pregnancy. The qPCR approach was employed to assess the relative expression of NKp30 isoforms as well as the total expression of NKp30 and NKp46 receptors between the selected groups. Results show that in both PBMC and placental tissue, NKp46 and NKp30 expression was mildly elevated in the pregnancy loss groups compared with the elective group. In particular, NKp46 elevation was significant. Moreover, expression analysis of NKp30 isoforms manifested a different profile between PBMC and the placenta. NKp30-a and NKp30-b isoforms in the placental tissue, but not in PBMC, showed a significant increase in the pregnancy loss groups compared with the elective group. Placental expression of NKp30 activating isoforms -a and -b in the pregnancy loss groups was negatively correlated with PLGF expression. In contrast, placental expression of these isoforms in the elective group was positively correlated with TNFα, IL-10 and VEGF-A expression. The altered expression of NKp30 activating isoforms in placental tissue from patients with pregnancy loss compared to the elective group and the different correlations with cytokine expression point to the involvement of NKp30-mediated function in pregnancy loss.

  11. PPARγ controls pregnancy outcome through activation of EG-VEGF: new insights into the mechanism of placental development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Vanessa; Traboulsi, Wael; Salomon, Aude; Brouillet, Sophie; Fournier, Thierry; Winkler, Carine; Desvergne, Beatrice; Hoffmann, Pascale; Zhou, Qun-Yong; Congiu, Cenzo; Onnis, Valentina; Benharouga, Mohamed; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Alfaidy, Nadia

    2015-08-15

    PPARγ-deficient mice die at E9.5 due to placental abnormalities. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. We demonstrated that the new endocrine factor EG-VEGF controls the same processes as those described for PPARγ, suggesting potential regulation of EG-VEGF by PPARγ. EG-VEGF exerts its functions via prokineticin receptor 1 (PROKR1) and 2 (PROKR2). This study sought to investigate whether EG-VEGF mediates part of PPARγ effects on placental development. Three approaches were used: 1) in vitro, using human primary isolated cytotrophoblasts and the extravillous trophoblast cell line (HTR-8/SVneo); 2) ex vivo, using human placental explants (n = 46 placentas); and 3) in vivo, using gravid wild-type PPARγ(+/-) and PPARγ(-/-) mice. Major processes of placental development that are known to be controlled by PPARγ, such as trophoblast proliferation, migration, and invasion, were assessed in the absence or presence of PROKR1 and PROKR2 antagonists. In both human trophoblast cell and placental explants, we demonstrated that rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, 1) increased EG-VEGF secretion, 2) increased EG-VEGF and its receptors mRNA and protein expression, 3) increased placental vascularization via PROKR1 and PROKR2, and 4) inhibited trophoblast migration and invasion via PROKR2. In the PPARγ(-/-) mouse placentas, EG-VEGF levels were significantly decreased, supporting an in vivo control of EG-VEGF/PROKRs system during pregnancy. The present data reveal EG-VEGF as a new mediator of PPARγ effects during pregnancy and bring new insights into the fine mechanism of trophoblast invasion. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Cell-free placental mRNA in maternal plasma to predict placental invasion in patients with placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Behery, Manal M; Rasha L, Etewa; El Alfy, Yehya

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate whether measuring cell-free placental mRNA in maternal plasma improves the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound and color Doppler in detecting placental invasion in patients at risk for placenta accreta. Thirty-five singleton pregnant women of more than 28 weeks of gestation and at risk for placenta accreta underwent ultrasound and color Doppler assessment. Cell-free placental mRNA in maternal plasma was measured using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Patients were classified into 2 groups based on the findings at cesarean delivery and histological examination: women with placenta accreta (n=7) and women without placenta accreta (n=28). The median MoM (multiples of the median) value of cell-free placental mRNA was significantly higher in patients with placenta accreta than in those without placenta accreta (6.50 vs 2.60; Pplacental mRNA was significantly elevated in patients with placenta increta and percreta than in those with simple accreta. Six false-positive results were found on ultrasound, all from patients without placenta accreta and an insignificant rise in cell-free placental mRNA levels. Measuring cell-free placental mRNA in maternal plasma may increase the accuracy of ultrasound and color Doppler in prenatal prediction of placental invasion in patients with suspected placenta accreta. Copyright 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Review: Adiponectin – The Missing Link between Maternal Adiposity, Placental Transport and Fetal Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L. M. H.; Powell, Theresa L.; Jansson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin has well-established insulin-sensitizing effects in non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant women who are obese or have gestational diabetes typically have low circulating levels of adiponectin, which is associated with increased fetal growth. Lean women, on the other hand, have high circulating levels of adiponectin. As a result, maternal serum adiponectin is inversely correlated to fetal growth across the full range of birth weights, suggesting that maternal adiponectin may limit fetal growth. In the mother, adiponectin is predicted to promote insulin sensitivity and stimulate glucose uptake in maternal skeletal muscle thereby reducing nutrient availability for placental transfer. Adiponectin prevents insulin-stimulated amino acid uptake in cultured primary human trophoblast cells by modulating insulin receptor substrate phosphorylation. Furthermore, chronic administration of adiponectin to pregnant mice inhibits placental insulin and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, down-regulates the activity and expression of key placental nutrient transporters and decreases fetal growth. Preliminary findings indicate that adiponectin binds to the adiponectin receptor-2 on the trophoblast cell and activates p38 MAPK and PPAR-α, which inhibits the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway. In contrast to maternal adiponectin, recent reports suggest that fetal adiponectin may promote expansion of adipose tissue and stimulate fetal growth. Regulation of placental function by adiponectin constitutes a novel physiological mechanism by which the endocrine functions of maternal adipose tissue influence fetal growth. These findings may help us better understand the factors determining birth weight in normal pregnancies and in pregnancy complications associated with altered maternal adiponectin levels such as obesity and gestational diabetes. PMID:23245987

  14. Impaired Angiogenic Potential of Human Placental Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandò, Chiara; Razini, Paola; Novielli, Chiara; Anelli, Gaia Maria; Belicchi, Marzia; Erratico, Silvia; Banfi, Stefania; Meregalli, Mirella; Tavelli, Alessandro; Baccarin, Marco; Rolfo, Alessandro; Motta, Silvia; Torrente, Yvan; Cetin, Irene

    2016-04-01

    Human placental mesenchymal stromal cells (pMSCs) have never been investigated in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We characterized cells isolated from placental membranes and the basal disc of six IUGR and five physiological placentas. Cell viability and proliferation were assessed every 7 days during a 6-week culture. Expression of hematopoietic, stem, endothelial, and mesenchymal markers was evaluated by flow cytometry. We characterized the multipotency of pMSCs and the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial content and function. Cell viability was high in all samples, and proliferation rate was lower in IUGR compared with control cells. All samples presented a starting heterogeneous population, shifting during culture toward homogeneity for mesenchymal markers and occurring earlier in IUGR than in controls. In vitro multipotency of IUGR-derived pMSCs was restricted because their capacity for adipocyte differentiation was increased, whereas their ability to differentiate toward endothelial cell lineage was decreased. Mitochondrial content and function were higher in IUGR pMSCs than controls, possibly indicating a shift from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism, with the loss of the metabolic characteristics that are typical of undifferentiated multipotent cells. This study demonstrates that the loss of endothelial differentiation potential and the increase of adipogenic ability are likely to play a significant role in the vicious cycle of abnormal placental development in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). This is the first observation of a potential role for placental mesenchymal stromal cells in intrauterine growth restriction, thus leading to new perspectives for the treatment of IUGR. ©AlphaMed Press.

  15. Human placental trophoblast invasion and differentiation: a particular focus on Wnt signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eKnöfler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wingless ligands, a family of secreted proteins, are critically involved in organ development and tissue homeostasis by ensuring balanced rates of stem cell proliferation, cell death and differentiation. Wnt signalling components also play crucial roles in murine placental development controlling trophoblast lineage determination, chorioallantoic fusion and placental branching morphogenesis. However, the role of the pathway in human placentation, trophoblast development and differentiation is only partly understood. Here, we summarize our present knowledge about Wnt signalling in the human placenta and discuss its potential role in physiological and aberrant trophoblast invasion, gestational diseases and choriocarcinoma formation. Differentiation of proliferative first trimester cytotrophoblasts into invasive extravillous trophoblasts is associated with nuclear recruitment of β-catenin and induction of Wnt-dependent T-cell factor 4 suggesting that canonical Wnt signalling could be important for the formation and function of extravillous trophoblasts. Indeed, activation of the pathway was shown to promote trophoblast invasion in different in vitro trophoblast model systems as well as trophoblast cell fusion. Methylation-mediated silencing of inhibitors of Wnt signalling provided evidence for epigenetic activation of the pathway in placental tissues and choriocarcinoma cells. Similarly, abundant nuclear expression of β-catenin in invasive trophoblasts of complete hydatidiform moles suggested a role for hyper-activated Wnt signalling. In contrast, upregulation of Wnt inhibitors was noticed in placentae of women with preeclampsia, a disease characterized by shallow trophoblast invasion and incomplete spiral artery remodelling. Moreover, changes in Wnt signalling have been observed upon cytomegalovirus infection and in recurrent abortions. In summary, the current literature suggests a critical role of Wnt signalling in physiological and abnormal

  16. Obesity-induced down-regulation of the mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO) impairs placental steroid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassance, Luciana; Haghiac, Maricela; Minium, Judi; Catalano, Patrick; Hauguel-de Mouzon, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Low concentrations of estradiol and progesterone are hallmarks of adverse pregnancy outcomes as is maternal obesity. During pregnancy, placental cholesterol is the sole source of sex steroids. Cholesterol trafficking is the limiting step in sex steroid biosynthesis and is mainly mediated by the translocator protein (TSPO), present in the mitochondrial outer membrane. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of maternal obesity in placental sex steroid biosynthesis and TSPO regulation. One hundred forty-four obese (body mass index 30-35 kg/m(2)) and 90 lean (body mass index 19-25 kg/m(2)) pregnant women (OP and LP, respectively) recruited at scheduled term cesarean delivery. Placenta and maternal blood were collected. This study was conducted at MetroHealth Medical Center (Cleveland, Ohio). Maternal metabolic components (fasting glucose, insulin, leptin, estradiol, progesterone, and total cholesterol) and placental weight were measured. Placenta (mitochondria and membranes separated) and cord blood cholesterol values were verified. The expression and regulation of TSPO and mitochondrial function were analyzed. Plasma estradiol and progesterone concentrations were significantly lower (P < .04) in OP as compared with LP women. Maternal and cord plasma cholesterol were not different between groups. Placental citrate synthase activity and mitochondrial DNA, markers of mitochondrial density, were unchanged, but the mitochondrial cholesterol concentrations were 40% lower in the placenta of OP. TSPO gene and protein expressions were decreased 2-fold in the placenta of OP. In vitro trophoblast activation of the innate immune pathways with lipopolysaccharide and long-chain saturated fatty acids reduced TSPO expression by 2- to 3-fold (P < .05). These data indicate that obesity in pregnancy impairs mitochondrial steroidogenic function through the negative regulation of mitochondrial TSPO.

  17. Fluoxetine and its active metabolite norfluoxetine disrupt estrogen synthesis in a co-culture model of the feto-placental unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudon Thibeault, Andrée-Anne; Laurent, Laetitia; Vo Duy, Sung; Sauvé, Sébastien; Caron, Patrick; Guillemette, Chantal; Sanderson, J Thomas; Vaillancourt, Cathy

    2017-02-15

    The effects of fluoxetine, one of the most prescribed selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy, and its active metabolite norfluoxetine were studied on placental aromatase (CYP19) and feto-placental steroidogenesis. Fluoxetine did not alter estrogen secretion in co-culture of fetal-like adrenocortical (H295R) and trophoblast-like (BeWo) cells used as a model of the feto-placental unit, although it induced CYP19 activity, apparently mediated by the serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor/PKC signaling pathway. Norfluoxetine decreased estrogen secretion in the feto-placental co-culture and competitively inhibited catalytic CYP19 activity in BeWo cells. Decreased serotonin transporter (SERT) activity in the co-culture was comparable to 17β-estradiol treatment of BeWo cells. This work shows that the complex interaction of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine with placental estrogen production, involves 5-HT-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Considering the crucial role of estrogens during pregnancy, our results raise concern about the impact of SSRI treatment on placental function and fetal health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award Lecture: Importance of metzincin proteases in trophoblast biology and placental development: a focus on ADAM12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababaei, Mahroo; Beristain, Alexander G

    2015-04-01

    Placental development is a highly regulated process requiring signals from both fetal and maternal uterine compartments. Within this complex system, trophoblasts, placental cells of epithelial lineage, form the maternal-fetal interface controlling nutrient, gas and waste exchange. The commitment of progenitor villous cytotrophoblasts to differentiate into diverse trophoblast subsets is a fundamental process in placental development. Differentiation of trophoblasts into invasive stromal- and vascular-remodeling subtypes is essential for uterine arterial remodeling and placental function. Inadequate placentation, characterized by defects in trophoblast differentiation, may underlie the earliest cellular events driving pregnancy disorders such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Molecularly, invasive trophoblasts acquire characteristics defined by profound alterations in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, cytoskeletal reorganization and production of proteolytic factors. To date, most studies have investigated the importance of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their ability to efficiently remodel components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, it is now becoming clear that besides MMPs, other related proteases regulate trophoblast invasion via mechanisms other than ECM turnover. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge on the regulation of trophoblast invasion by members of the metzincin family of metalloproteinases. Specifically, we will discuss the emerging roles that A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases (ADAMs) play in placental development, with a particular focus on the ADAM subtype, ADAM12. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Differential Item Functioning on Examinees' Test Performance and Reliability of Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Zhang, Jinming

    2017-01-01

    Simulations were conducted to examine the effect of differential item functioning (DIF) on measurement consequences such as total scores, item response theory (IRT) ability estimates, and test reliability in terms of the ratio of true-score variance to observed-score variance and the standard error of estimation for the IRT ability parameter. The…

  20. Structure of four executive functioning tests in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A; Strauss, Esther

    2006-03-01

    The authors examined the factor structure of 4 indicators of executive functioning derived from 2 new (i.e., Hayling and Brixton) and 2 traditional (i.e., Stroop and Color Trails) tests. Data were from a cross-sectional sample of 55- to 85-year-old healthy adults (N=427) from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. Confirmatory factor analysis (LISREL 8.52) tested both a 2-factor model of Inhibition (Hayling, Stroop) and Shifting (Brixton, Color Trails) and a single-factor model. The 2-factor model did not fit the data because the covariance matrix of the factors was not positive definite. The single-factor model fit the data well, chi(2)(2, N=427)=0.32, p=.85, root-mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA)=.00, comparative fit index (CFI)=1.00, goodness-of-fit index (GFI)=1.00. Moreover, the single-factor structure of executive functioning was invariant (configural and metric) across gender, and invariant (configural with limited metric) across age. Structural relations showed that poorer executive functioning performance was related to older age and lower fluid intelligence, chi(2)(11, N=418)=23.04, p=.02, RMSEA=.05, CFI=.97, GFI=.98.

  1. Staging chronic pancreatitis with exocrine function tests: Are we better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperti, Cosimo; Moletta, Lucia

    2017-10-14

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas evolving in progressive fibrotic disruption of the gland with exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Although imaging features of CP are well known, their correlation with exocrine pancreatic function tests are not obvious, particularly in the early stage of the disease. There are many clinical classification of CP, all suggested for better distinguish and manage different forms based on etiological and clinical factors, and severity of the disease. Recently, a new classification of CP has been suggested: the M-ANNHEIM multiple risk factor classification that includes etiology, stage classification and degree of clinical severity. However, more accurate determination of clinical severity of CP requires a correct determination of exocrine function of the pancreas and fecal fat excretion. Recently, Kamath et al demonstrated that the evaluation of exocrine pancreatic function by acid steatocrit and fecal elastase-1 (EF-1) was helpful, but EF-1 was able to detect exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in more patients, upgrading some patients in higher stage of disease according to M-ANNHEIM classification. So, EF-1 is a more accurate test to determine exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and to stage chronic pancreatitis in the M-ANNHEIM classification. On the contrary, EF-1 determination shows low sensitivity in detecting exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in early stage of the disease.

  2. Validation of Cardiovascular Parameters during NASA's Functional Task Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzeno, N. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity exposure causes physiological deconditioning and impairs crewmember task performance. The Functional Task Test (FTT) is designed to correlate these physiological changes to performance in a series of operationally-relevant tasks. One of these, the Recovery from Fall/Stand Test (RFST), tests both the ability to recover from a prone position and cardiovascular responses to orthostasis. PURPOSE: Three minutes were chosen for the duration of this test, yet it is unknown if this is long enough to induce cardiovascular responses similar to the operational 5 min stand test. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis of a 3 min stand and to examine the effect of spaceflight on these measures. METHODS: To determine the validity of using 3 vs. 5 min of standing to assess HRV, ECG was collected from 7 healthy subjects who participated in a 6 min RFST. Mean R-R interval (RR) and spectral HRV were measured in minutes 0-3 and 0-5 following the heart rate transient due to standing. Significant differences between the segments were determined by a paired t-test. To determine the reliability of the 3-min stand test, 13 healthy subjects completed 3 trials of the FTT on separate days, including the RFST with a 3 min stand. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the HRV measures. One crewmember completed the FTT before a 14-day mission, on landing day (R+0) and one (R+1) day after returning to Earth. RESULTS VALIDITY: HRV measures reflecting autonomic activity were not significantly different during the 0-3 and 0-5 min segments. RELIABILITY: The average coefficient of variation for RR, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures during the RFST were less than 8% for the 3 sessions. ANOVA results yielded a greater inter-subject variability (p0.05) for HRV in the RFST. SPACEFLIGHT: Lower RR and higher SBP were observed on R+0 in rest and stand. On R+1, both RR and SBP trended towards preflight

  3. A computer vision based candidate for functional balance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalci, Alican; Khodamoradi, Alireza; Balkan, Ozgur; Nahab, Fatta; Garudadri, Harinath

    2015-08-01

    Balance in humans is a motor skill based on complex multimodal sensing, processing and control. Ability to maintain balance in activities of daily living (ADL) is compromised due to aging, diseases, injuries and environmental factors. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate of the costs of falls among older adults was $34 billion in 2013 and is expected to reach $54.9 billion in 2020. In this paper, we present a brief review of balance impairments followed by subjective and objective tools currently used in clinical settings for human balance assessment. We propose a novel computer vision (CV) based approach as a candidate for functional balance test. The test will take less than a minute to administer and expected to be objective, repeatable and highly discriminative in quantifying ability to maintain posture and balance. We present an informal study with preliminary data from 10 healthy volunteers, and compare performance with a balance assessment system called BTrackS Balance Assessment Board. Our results show high degree of correlation with BTrackS. The proposed system promises to be a good candidate for objective functional balance tests and warrants further investigations to assess validity in clinical settings, including acute care, long term care and assisted living care facilities. Our long term goals include non-intrusive approaches to assess balance competence during ADL in independent living environments.

  4. The Reliability of a Functional Agility Test for Water Polo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucher Guilherme

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Few functional agility tests for water polo take into consideration its specific characteristics. The preliminary objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of an agility test for water polo players. Fifteen players (16.3 ± 1.8 years old with a minimum of two years of competitive experience were evaluated. A Functional Test for Agility Performance (FTAP was designed to represent the context of this sport. Several trials were performed to familiarize the athlete with the movement. Two experienced coaches measured three repetitions of the FTAP. Descriptive statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, 95% limit of agreement (LOA, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and standard error of measurements (SEM were used for data analysis. It was considered that certain criteria of reliability measures were met. There was no significant difference between the repetitions, which may be explained by an effect of the evaluator, the ability of the players or fatigue (p > 0.05. The ICC average from evaluators was high (0.88. The SEM varied between 0.13 s and 0.49 s. The CV average considering each individual was near 6-7%. These values depended on the condition of measurement. As the FTAP contains some characteristics that create a degree of unpredictability, the same athlete may reach different performance results, increasing variability. An adjustment in the sample, familiarization and careful selection of subjects help to improve this situation and enhance the reliability of the indicators.

  5. Pomegranate juice and punicalagin attenuate oxidative stress and apoptosis in human placenta and in human placental trophoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuli, Methodius G.; Longtine, Mark S.; Shin, Joong Sik; Lawrence, Russell; Inder, Terrie; Michael Nelson, D.

    2012-01-01

    The human placenta is key to pregnancy outcome, and the elevated oxidative stress present in many complicated pregnancies contributes to placental dysfunction and suboptimal pregnancy outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that pomegranate juice, which is rich in polyphenolic antioxidants, limits placental trophoblast injury in vivo and in vitro. Pregnant women with singleton pregnancies were randomized at 35∼38 wk gestation to 8 oz/day of pomegranate juice or apple juice (placebo) until the time of delivery. Placental tissues from 12 patients (4 in the pomegranate group and 8 in the control group) were collected for analysis of oxidative stress. The preliminary in vivo results were extended to oxidative stress and cell death assays in vitro. Placental explants and cultured primary human trophoblasts were exposed to pomegranate juice or glucose (control) under defined oxygen tensions and chemical stimuli. We found decreased oxidative stress in term human placentas from women who labored after prenatal ingestion of pomegranate juice compared with apple juice as control. Moreover, pomegranate juice reduced in vitro oxidative stress, apoptosis, and global cell death in term villous explants and primary trophoblast cultures exposed to hypoxia, the hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride, and the kinase inhibitor staurosporine. Punicalagin, but not ellagic acid, both prominent polyphenols in pomegranate juice, reduced oxidative stress and stimulus-induced apoptosis in cultured syncytiotrophoblasts. We conclude that pomegranate juice reduces placental oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro while limiting stimulus-induced death of human trophoblasts in culture. The polyphenol punicalagin mimics this protective effect. We speculate that antenatal intake of pomegranate may limit placental injury and thereby may confer protection to the exposed fetus. PMID:22374759

  6. Brucella placentitis and seroprevalence in northern fur seals ( Callorhinus ursinus) of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Colleen G; Tiller, Rebekah; Mathis, Demetrius; Stoddard, Robyn; Kersh, Gilbert J; Dickerson, Bobette; Gelatt, Tom

    2014-07-01

    Brucella species infect a wide range of hosts with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. In mammals, one of the most significant consequences of Brucella infection is reproductive failure. There is evidence of Brucella exposure in many species of marine mammals, but the outcome of infection is often challenging to determine. The eastern Pacific stock of northern fur seals (NFSs, Callorhinus ursinus) has declined significantly, spawning research into potential causes for this trend, including investigation into reproductive health. The objective of the current study was to determine if NFSs on St. Paul Island, Alaska have evidence of Brucella exposure or infection. Archived DNA extracted from placentas ( n = 119) and serum ( n = 40) samples were available for testing by insertion sequence (IS) 711 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT), respectively. As well, placental tissue was available for histologic examination. Six (5%) placentas were positive by PCR, and a single animal had severe placentitis. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis profiles were highly clustered and closely related to other Brucella pinnipedialis isolates. A single animal was positive on BMAT, and 12 animals had titers within the borderline range; 1 borderline animal was positive by PCR on serum. The findings suggest that NFSs on the Pribilof Islands are exposed to Brucella and that the organism has the ability to cause severe placental disease. Given the population trend of the NFS, and the zoonotic nature of this pathogen, further investigation into the epidemiology of this disease is recommended.

  7. Identification of placental nutrient transporters associated with intrauterine growth restriction and pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Anderle, Pascale; Hostettler, Lu; Baumann, Marc U; Surbek, Daniel V; Ontsouka, Edgar C; Albrecht, Christiane

    2018-03-02

    Gestational disorders such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and pre-eclampsia (PE) are main causes of poor perinatal outcomes worldwide. Both diseases are related with impaired materno-fetal nutrient transfer, but the crucial transport mechanisms underlying IUGR and PE are not fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to identify membrane transporters highly associated with transplacental nutrient deficiencies in IUGR/PE. In silico analyses on the identification of differentially expressed nutrient transporters were conducted using seven eligible microarray datasets (from Gene Expression Omnibus), encompassing control and IUGR/PE placental samples. Thereby 46 out of 434 genes were identified as potentially interesting targets. They are involved in the fetal provision with amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and microelements. Targets of interest were clustered into a substrate-specific interaction network by using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes. The subsequent wet-lab validation was performed using quantitative RT-PCR on placentas from clinically well-characterized IUGR/PE patients (IUGR, n = 8; PE, n = 5; PE+IUGR, n = 10) and controls (term, n = 13; preterm, n = 7), followed by 2D-hierarchical heatmap generation. Statistical evaluation using Kruskal-Wallis tests was then applied to detect significantly different expression patterns, while scatter plot analysis indicated which transporters were predominantly influenced by IUGR or PE, or equally affected by both diseases. Identified by both methods, three overlapping targets, SLC7A7, SLC38A5 (amino acid transporters), and ABCA1 (cholesterol transporter), were further investigated at the protein level by western blotting. Protein analyses in total placental tissue lysates and membrane fractions isolated from disease and control placentas indicated an altered functional activity of those three nutrient transporters in IUGR/PE. Combining bioinformatic analysis

  8. Invasive placenta previa. Placental bulge with distorted uterine outline and uterine serosal hypervascularity at 1.5T MRI - useful features for differentiating placenta percreta from placenta accreta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xin; Zhang, Xinjuan; Wang, Shanshan; Shi, Honglu; Gao, Fei; Wang, Guangbin [Shandong University, Department of MR, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Jinan, Shandong (China); Shan, Ruiqin [Jinan Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Department of Obstetrics, Jinan (China); Zhao, Lianxin [Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Department of Radiology, Jinan, Shandong (China); Song, Qingxu [Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jinan, Shandong (China); Zuo, Changting [Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jinan, Shandong (China); Qian, Tianyi [MR Collaborations NE Asia, Siemens Healthcare, Beijing (China); Limperopoulos, Catherine [Children' s National Health System, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); George Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2018-02-15

    To characterise MRI features of invasive placenta previa and to identify specific features for differentiating placenta percreta (PP) from placenta accreta (PA). Forty-five women with PP and 93 women with PA who underwent 1.5T placental MRI were included. Two radiologists independently evaluated the MRI features of invasive placenta previa, including our novel type of placental bulge (i.e. placental bulge type-II, characterized by placental bulge with distorted uterine outline). Pearson's chi-squared or Fisher's two-sided exact test was performed to compare the MRI features between PP and PA. Logistic stepwise regression analysis and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were performed to select the optimal features for differentiating PP from PA. Significant differences were found in nine MRI features between women with PP and those with PA (P <0.05). Placental bulge type-II and uterine serosal hypervascularity were independently associated with PP (odds ratio = 48.618, P < 0.001; odds ratio = 4.165, P = 0.018 respectively), and the combination of the two MRI features to distinguish PP from PA yielded an AUC of 0.92 for its predictive performance. Placental bulge type-II and uterine serosal hypervascularity are useful MRI features for differentiating PP from PA. (orig.)

  9. Invasive placenta previa. Placental bulge with distorted uterine outline and uterine serosal hypervascularity at 1.5T MRI - useful features for differentiating placenta percreta from placenta accreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xin; Zhang, Xinjuan; Wang, Shanshan; Shi, Honglu; Gao, Fei; Wang, Guangbin; Shan, Ruiqin; Zhao, Lianxin; Song, Qingxu; Zuo, Changting; Qian, Tianyi; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    To characterise MRI features of invasive placenta previa and to identify specific features for differentiating placenta percreta (PP) from placenta accreta (PA). Forty-five women with PP and 93 women with PA who underwent 1.5T placental MRI were included. Two radiologists independently evaluated the MRI features of invasive placenta previa, including our novel type of placental bulge (i.e. placental bulge type-II, characterized by placental bulge with distorted uterine outline). Pearson's chi-squared or Fisher's two-sided exact test was performed to compare the MRI features between PP and PA. Logistic stepwise regression analysis and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were performed to select the optimal features for differentiating PP from PA. Significant differences were found in nine MRI features between women with PP and those with PA (P <0.05). Placental bulge type-II and uterine serosal hypervascularity were independently associated with PP (odds ratio = 48.618, P < 0.001; odds ratio = 4.165, P = 0.018 respectively), and the combination of the two MRI features to distinguish PP from PA yielded an AUC of 0.92 for its predictive performance. Placental bulge type-II and uterine serosal hypervascularity are useful MRI features for differentiating PP from PA. (orig.)

  10. Reliability of a Functional Test Battery Evaluating Functionality, Proprioception and Strength of the Ankle Joint

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIZ, Yavuz; ŞEKİR, Ufuk; HAZNECİ, Bülent

    2009-01-01

    Aim: In contrast to the one-sided evaluation methods used in the past, combining multiple tests allows one to obtain a global assessment of the ankle joint. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy male volunteers participated in this study. One component of the test battery included five different functional ability tests, which included: single limb hopping course, one-legged and triple-legged hop for distance, and six-meter (6-m) and cross 6-m hop for time. Ankle joint position sense and on...

  11. Testing intermolecular potential functions using transport property data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifford, A.A.; Dickinson, E.; Gray, P.; Scott, A.C.

    1975-01-01

    The viscosity of hydrogen has been measured at eight temperatures from 273 to 1060K, using a capillary-flow viscometer. The results have been used to test the repulsive part of a recently formulated H 2 /H 2 intermolecular potential function, obtained from molecular-beam measurements. Agreement between the experimental and predicted values for viscosity is within 3.5%, which corresponds approximately to the combined quoted uncertainties in the two sets of data. However, if the value of the distance parameter of the potential is reduced by about 1.5%, the agreement obtained is within 0.75% over the whole temperature range. This modified potential function gives better agreement with the available higher temperature viscosities and second virial coefficients. (author)

  12. Assessing Differential Item Functioning on the Test of Relational Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Dumas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The test of relational reasoning (TORR is designed to assess the ability to identify complex patterns within visuospatial stimuli. The TORR is designed for use in school and university settings, and therefore, its measurement invariance across diverse groups is critical. In this investigation, a large sample, representative of a major university on key demographic variables, was collected, and the resulting data were analyzed using a multi-group, multidimensional item-response theory model-comparison procedure. No significant differential item functioning was found on any of the TORR items across any of the demographic groups of interest. This finding is interpreted as evidence of the cultural fairness of the TORR, and potential test-development choices that may have contributed to that cultural fairness are discussed.

  13. A virtual shopping test for realistic assessment of cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okahashi, Sayaka; Seki, Keiko; Nagano, Akinori; Luo, Zhiwei; Kojima, Maki; Futaki, Toshiko

    2013-06-18

    Cognitive dysfunction caused by brain injury often prevents a patient from achieving a healthy and high quality of life. By now, each cognitive function is assessed precisely by neuropsychological tests. However, it is also important to provide an overall assessment of the patients' ability in their everyday life. We have developed a Virtual Shopping Test (VST) using virtual reality technology. The objective of this study was to clarify 1) the significance of VST by comparing VST with other conventional tests, 2) the applicability of VST to brain-damaged patients, and 3) the performance of VST in relation to age differences. The participants included 10 patients with brain damage, 10 age-matched healthy subjects for controls, 10 old healthy subjects, and 10 young healthy subjects. VST and neuropsychological tests/questionnaires about attention, memory and executive function were conducted on the patients, while VST and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were conducted on the controls and healthy subjects. Within the VST, the participants were asked to buy four items in the virtual shopping mall quickly in a rational way. The score for evaluation included the number of items bought correctly, the number of times to refer to hints, the number of movements between shops, and the total time spent to complete the shopping. Some variables on VST correlated with the scores of conventional assessment about attention and everyday memory. The mean number of times referring to hints and the mean number of movements were significantly larger for the patients with brain damage, and the mean total time was significantly longer for the patients than for the controls. In addition, the mean total time was significantly longer for the old than for the young. The results suggest that VST is able to evaluate the ability of attention and everyday memory in patients with brain damage. The time of VST is increased by age.

  14. Placental histopathology after Coxiella burnetii infection during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munster, J. M.; Leenders, A. C. A. P.; Hamilton, C. J. C. M.; Hak, E.; Aarnoudse, J. G.; Timmer, A.

    Symptomatic and asymptomatic Coxiella burnetii infection during pregnancy have been associated with obstetric complications. We described placental histopathology and clinical outcome of five cases with asymptomatic C burnetii infection during pregnancy and compared these cases with four symptomatic

  15. Placental malaria and neonatal anti-tetanus antibody status: Any ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, neonatal tetanus accounts for 7% of neonatal mortality,[1] ... There was a statistically significant association between type of placental malaria .... Also excluded were mothers with diabetes ..... Tetanus Vaccine: WHO Position Paper.

  16. Placental polyp: a rare cause of iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Placental polyps are defined as pedunculated or polypoid fragments of placentaor ovular membranes retained for an indefinite period of time into the uterus afterabortion or child birth. An important cause of retention is placental accretism, anabnormal adherence of the placenta into the uterine wall. Chronic cases are rarelyreported in the literature. In these cases, the placental retention in the immediatepostpartum is not followed by heavy bleeding what makes the diagnosischallenging. We report a rare case of iron-deficiency anemia in a multiparous29-year-old female patient two years after the last delivery. She sought medicalcare with clinical symptoms of anemia and recent menses alterations. Therewas no history of abortion. On gynecological examination, there was a twofoldenlarged uterus, and the pelvic ultrasound revealed an image compatible with anendometrial polyp. She underwent open hysterectomy because of uncontrollablebleeding followed by hypotension after curettage. The histolopathologicexamination revealed a partially hyalinized and necrotic placental polyp.

  17. Placental Nano-vesicles Target to Specific Organs and Modulate Vascular Tone In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Mancy; Stanley, Joanna L; Chen, Q; James, Joanna L; Stone, Peter R; Chamley, Larry W

    2017-11-01

    How do nano-vesicles extruded from normal first trimester human placentae affect maternal vascular function? Placental nano-vesicles affect the ability of systemic mesenteric arteries to undergo endothelium- and nitric oxide- (NO-) dependent vasodilation in vivo in pregnant mice. Dramatic cardiovascular adaptations occur during human pregnancy, including a substantial decrease in total peripheral resistance in the first trimester. The human placenta constantly extrudes extracellular vesicles that can enter the maternal circulation and these vesicles may play an important role in feto-maternal communication. Human placental nano-vesicles were administered into CD1 mice via a tail vein and their localization and vascular effects at 30 min and 24 h post-injection were investigated. Nano-vesicles from normal first trimester human placentae were collected and administered into pregnant (D12.5) or non-pregnant female mice. After either 30 min or 24 h of exposure, all major organs were dissected for imaging (n = 7 at each time point) while uterine and mesenteric arteries were dissected for wire myography (n = 6 at each time point). Additional in vitro studies using HMEC-1 endothelial cells were also conducted to investigate the kinetics of interaction between placental nano-vesicles and endothelial cells. Nano-vesicles from first trimester human placentae localized to the lungs, liver and kidneys 24 h after injection into pregnant mice (n = 7). Exposure of pregnant mice to placental nano-vesicles for 30 min in vivo increased the vasodilatory response of mesenteric arteries to acetylcholine, while exposure for 24 h had the opposite effect (P nano-vesicles did not affect the function of uterine arteries or mesenteric arteries from non-pregnant mice. Placental nano-vesicles rapidly interacted with endothelial cells via a combination of phagocytosis, endocytosis and cell surface binding in vitro. N/A. As it is not ethical to administer labelled placental nano-vesicles to

  18. Maternal serum placental growth hormone, but not human placental lactogen or insulin growth factor-1, is positively associated with fetal growth in the first half of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N G; Juul, A; Christiansen, M

    2010-01-01

    To investigate if maternal levels of human placental lactogen (hPL), placental growth hormone (PGH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are associated with growth rate of the biparietal diameter (BPD) in the first half of pregnancy.......To investigate if maternal levels of human placental lactogen (hPL), placental growth hormone (PGH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are associated with growth rate of the biparietal diameter (BPD) in the first half of pregnancy....

  19. Tests of pancreatic function using /sup 75/Se--Selenomethionine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasner, N; Brodie, M J; Sumner, D J; Thomson, T J

    1976-04-01

    Pancreatic function was investigated in 43 patients using a combination of conventional and subtraction scans of the pancreas and duodenal aspiration of the /sup 75/Se-Selenomethionine injected, in the time periods 60 to 150 minutes, 90 to 120 minutes and 105 to 150 minutes after injection. Patients with chronic alcoholism, chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic carcinoma, extrahepatic biliary obstruction and liver disease were included. Seven patients with no evidence of gastro-intestinal disease served as controls. Pancreatic scanning provided eight false positive and two false negative results (23.3 percent) and with /sup 75/Se-Selenomethionine excretion at 105 to 150 minutes, six false results were obtained (14 percent). In only one patient was a false positive result obtained with both scans and the /sup 75/Se-Selenomethionine test. The performance of conventional and subtraction scans of the pancreas with measurement of /sup 75/Se-Selenomethionine activity in the duodenal aspirate collected from 105 to 150 minutes after injection provides a convenient means of testing pancreatic exocrine function in a single three hour session.

  20. The formation and transformation of hormones in maternal, placental and fetal compartments: biological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Jorge R; Chetrite, Gérard S

    2016-07-01

    The fetal endocrine system constitutes the earliest system developing in fetal life and operates during all the steps of gestation. Its regulation is in part dependent on the secretion of placental and/or maternal precursors emanating across the feto-maternal interface. Human fetal and placental compartments possess all the enzymatic systems necessary to produce steroid hormones. However, their activities are different and complementary: the fetus is very active in converting acetate into cholesterol, in transforming pregnanes to androstanes, various hydroxylases, sulfotransferases, while all these transformations are absent or very limited in the placenta. This compartment can transform cholesterol to C21-steroids, convert 5-ene to 4-ene steroids, and has a high capacity to aromatize C19 precursors and to hydrolyze sulfates. Steroid hormone receptors are present at an early stage of gestation and are functional for important physiological activities. The production rate of some steroids greatly increases with fetal evolution (e.g. estriol increases 500-1000 times in relation to non-pregnant women). Other hormones, such as glucocorticoids, in particular the stress hormone cortisol, adipokines (e.g. leptin, adiponectin), insulin-like growth factors, are also a key factor for regulating reproduction, metabolism, appetite and may be significant in programming the fetus and its growth. We can hypothesize that the fetal and placental factors controlling hormonal levels in the fetal compartment can be of capital importance in the normal development of extra-uterine life.

  1. Type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes mellitus differentially impact placental pathologic characteristics of uteroplacental malperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Jennifer; Yamada, Jessica; Beauharnais, Catherine; Wenger, Julia B; Thadhani, Ravi I; Wexler, Deborah; Roberts, Drucilla J; Bentley-Lewis, Rhonda

    2015-10-01

    During a pregnancy complicated by diabetes, the placenta undergoes a number of functional and structural pathologic changes. However, differences across studies may reflect pathophysiologic differences of diabetes types under investigation. We examined placental pathology from women ages 18-40 years with self-identified race/ethnicity; singleton, live births; and type 1 (T1DM; n = 36), type 2 (T2DM; n = 37), or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; n = 126). Clinical data were abstracted from medical records. Placental diagnoses were independently re-reviewed by a perinatal pathologist. Multivariable analyses adjusting for race, gestational weight gain, gestational age, and systolic blood pressure were conducted. Women with T1DM compared with either T2DM or GDM had higher gestational weight gain (mean ± SD, T1DM vs. T2DM: 28.5 ± 12.4 vs. 20.5 ± 13.4 kg, p = 0.03; or GDM: 21.3 ± 12.7 kg, p = 0.009) and insulin use (T2DM: 100.0% vs. 85.3%, p = 0.02; or GDM: 4.0%, p diabetes type, potentially reflecting underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. Further research on placental pathology and metabolic derangements is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Induced Human Decidual NK-Like Cells Improve Utero-Placental Perfusion in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo C Cavalli

    Full Text Available Decidual NK (dNK cells, a distinct type of NK cell, are thought to regulate uterine spiral artery remodeling, a process that allows for increased blood delivery to the fetal-placental unit. Impairment of uterine spiral artery remodeling is associated with decreased placental perfusion, increased uterine artery resistance, and obstetric complications such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Ex vivo manipulation of human peripheral blood NK (pNK cells by a combination of hypoxia, TGFß-1 and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine yields cells with phenotypic and in vitro functional similarities to dNK cells, called idNK cells. Here, gene expression profiling shows that CD56Bright idNK cells derived ex vivo from human pNK cells, and to a lesser extent CD56Dim idNK cells, are enriched in the gene expression signature that distinguishes dNK cells from pNK cells. When injected into immunocompromised pregnant mice with elevated uterine artery resistance, idNK cells homed to the uterus and reduced the uterine artery resistance index, suggesting improved placental perfusion.

  3. Growth patterns and cerebro-placental hemodynamics in fetuses with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebius, M J; Clur, S A B; Vink, A S; Pajkrt, E; Kalteren, W S; Kooi, E M W; Bos, A F; du Marchie Sarvaas, G J; Bilardo, C M

    2018-05-28

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) has been associated with a reduced fetal head circumference (HC). The underlying pathophysiological background remains undetermined. We aimed to define trends in fetal growth and cerebro-placental Doppler flow, and to investigate the association between head growth and cerebro-placental flow in fetuses with CHD. Fetuses with CHD and serial measurements of HC, abdominal circumference (AC), middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA-PI), umbilical artery pulsatility index (UA-PI), and cerebro-placental ratio (CPR) were included. CHD was categorized into 3 groups based on expected cerebral arterial oxygen saturation: normal, mild to moderately reduced, and severely reduced. Trends over time in Z-scores were analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model. 181 fetuses fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Expected cerebral arterial oxygen saturation in CHD was classified as normal in 44, mild to moderately reduced in 84 and severely reduced in 53 cases. HC z-scores showed a tendency to decrease until 23 weeks, then to increase until 33 weeks, followed by a decrease again in the late third trimester. AC increased progressively with advancing gestation. MCA-PI and UA-PI showed significant trends throughout pregnancy, but CPR did not. There were no associations between expected cerebral arterial oxygen saturation and fetal growth. Average trends in MCA-PI were significantly different in the three subgroups (P=0.010), whereas average trends in UA-PI and CPR were similar (P=0.530 and P=0.285). Furthermore, there was no significant association between MCA-PI and HC (P=0.284). Fetal biometry and Doppler flow patterns are within normal ranges in fetuses with CHD, but show trends over time. Fetal head growth is not associated with the cerebral blood flow pattern or placental function and HC is not influenced by the cerebral arterial oxygen saturation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright

  4. [TCD functional test for vertigo induced by ischemic cerebrovascular disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Zhong, N; Xue, X

    1999-04-01

    To diagnose differentially the vetigo induced by some ischemic cerebrovascular disorder. Patients with vertebrobasilar artery transient ischemic vertigo (group A), migraine (group B), hyperventilation syndrome (group C), hypertension (group D) are measured by using TCD functional examination which included blood peak velocity of systolic (Vs) and diastolic (Vd) end-period of vertibrobasilar artery of routine TCD (TCD-R), one minute hyperventilation TCD (TCD-HV) and one minute voluntary apnea TCD (TCD-B) respectively. It showed that the Vs, Vd are decreased under the three conditions in A, B and D groups. The most apparent decrease are obversed in D group. The values of the decrease are similar between group A and B. No changes are found in C group. The abnormal Vs incidences of TCD-B measurement in group A are higher than those in group B and C, but significant lower than those in group D; and in TCD-HV test lower than group D and C, higher than group B; in TCD-R test, lower than group D, and no difference with group B and C. The abnormal incidences of Vd in group A are lower than group D and higher than group B in TCD-B test. In TCD-HV test, the group A abnormol incidences are lower than group D but higher than group B and C. In TCD-R test, the abnormal incidences are lower than group D and no difference between group B and C. The TCD measuremen is useful for differential diagnosis of vertigo induced by ischemic cerebrovascular disorders.

  5. Functional toxicology: tools to advance the future of toxicity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaytán, Brandon D.; Vulpe, Chris D.

    2014-01-01

    The increased presence of chemical contaminants in the environment is an undeniable concern to human health and ecosystems. Historically, by relying heavily upon costly and laborious animal-based toxicity assays, the field of toxicology has often neglected examinations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity for the majority of compounds—information that, if available, would strengthen risk assessment analyses. Functional toxicology, where cells or organisms with gene deletions or depleted proteins are used to assess genetic requirements for chemical tolerance, can advance the field of toxicity testing by contributing data regarding chemical mechanisms of toxicity. Functional toxicology can be accomplished using available genetic tools in yeasts, other fungi and bacteria, and eukaryotes of increased complexity, including zebrafish, fruit flies, rodents, and human cell lines. Underscored is the value of using less complex systems such as yeasts to direct further studies in more complex systems such as human cell lines. Functional techniques can yield (1) novel insights into chemical toxicity; (2) pathways and mechanisms deserving of further study; and (3) candidate human toxicant susceptibility or resistance genes. PMID:24847352

  6. Placental abruption possibly due to parvovirus B19 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Ayaka; Takai, Yasushi; Tamaru, Jun-Ichi; Samejima, Kouki; Seki, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    There is concern about the development of anemia-associated fetal hydrops associated with maternal parvovirus B19 infection. Parvovirus B19 infection occurs via the globoside (P antigen) receptor, the main glycolipid of erythroid cells, which induces apoptosis. Similar findings have been reported for the P antigen of globoside-containing placental trophoblast cells. A 32-year-old woman was infected with human parvovirus B19 at week 32 of pregnancy, and had severe anemia at week 34. At week 37, an emergency cesarean section was performed because of sudden abdominal pain and fetal bradycardia; placental abruption was found. A live male infant was delivered with no sign of fetal hydrops or fetal infection. Placental tissue was positive for parvovirus B19 according to polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical analysis using caspase-related M30 CytoDEATH monoclonal antibody revealed M30 staining of the placental villous trophoblasts. Placental trophoblasts and erythroid precursor cells have been reported to express globoside (P antigen), which is necessary for parvovirus B19 infectivity, and to show apoptotic activity as a result of infection. Placentas from three other pregnancies with documented abruption showed no M30 staining. The present case strongly suggests an association between placental abruption and apoptosis resulting from parvovirus B19 infection.

  7. Grammar tests increase the ability to lateralize language function in the Wada test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połczyńska, Monika; Curtiss, Susan; Walshaw, Particia; Siddarth, Prabha; Benjamin, Chris; Moseley, Brian D; Vigil, Celia; Jones, Michael; Eliashiv, Dawn; Bookheimer, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Grammar is a core component of the language system, yet it is rarely assessed during the Wada (intracarotid amobarbital) test. It is hypothesized that adding grammar tests to the recovery phase of the Wada test will increase our ability to lateralize language function. Sixteen individuals (nine females, fifteen right-handed, mean age 38.4 years, SD=10.7) with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy participated in the study. On EEG ten patients had seizures originating in the left hemisphere (LH), five in the right hemisphere (RH), and one was insufficiently lateralized. We included only patients who were LH-dominant on the standard test in the encoding phase of the Wada test. In the recovery phase of Wada testing the participants underwent evaluation with a standard language and a new test of grammar, the CYCLE-N. Ten patients underwent bilateral injections, six unilateral (one RH, five LH). As expected, injection in the LH decreased language performance to a greater extent than injection to the RH on both tests. However, the CYCLE-N produced more profound language deficits in the injected LH compared to the RH (p=0.01), whereas the standard tests did not cause such pronounced differences (p=0.2). The results suggest that the standard tests did not significantly differentiate the effects of the injections and the CYCLE-N, for the most part, did. Our results are of particular relevance to patients who are too obtunded to speak in the encoding phase. In sum, the CYCLE-N may be helpful in assessing hemispheric dominance for language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Zika Virus Infection during Pregnancy in Mice Causes Placental Damage and Fetal Demise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jonathan J; Cao, Bin; Govero, Jennifer; Smith, Amber M; Fernandez, Estefania; Cabrera, Omar H; Garber, Charise; Noll, Michelle; Klein, Robyn S; Noguchi, Kevin K; Mysorekar, Indira U; Diamond, Michael S

    2016-05-19

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnant women causes intrauterine growth restriction, spontaneous abortion, and microcephaly. Here, we describe two mouse models of placental and fetal disease associated with in utero transmission of ZIKV. Female mice lacking type I interferon signaling (Ifnar1(-/-)) crossed to wild-type (WT) males produced heterozygous fetuses resembling the immune status of human fetuses. Maternal inoculation at embryonic day 6.5 (E6.5) or E7.5 resulted in fetal demise that was associated with ZIKV infection of the placenta and fetal brain. We identified ZIKV within trophoblasts of the maternal and fetal placenta, consistent with a trans-placental infection route. Antibody blockade of Ifnar1 signaling in WT pregnant mice enhanced ZIKV trans-placental infection although it did not result in fetal death. These models will facilitate the study of ZIKV pathogenesis, in utero transmission, and testing of therapies and vaccines to prevent congenital malformations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evolutionary history of LINE-1 in the major clades of placental mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Waters

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available LINE-1 constitutes an important component of mammalian genomes. It has a dynamic evolutionary history characterized by the rise, fall and replacement of subfamilies. Most data concerning LINE-1 biology and evolution are derived from the human and mouse genomes and are often assumed to hold for all placentals.To examine LINE-1 relationships, sequences from the 3' region of the reverse transcriptase from 21 species (representing 13 orders across Afrotheria, Xenarthra, Supraprimates and Laurasiatheria were obtained from whole genome sequence assemblies, or by PCR with degenerate primers. These sequences were aligned and analysed.Our analysis reflects accepted placental relationships suggesting mostly lineage-specific LINE-1 families. The data provide clear support for several clades including Glires, Supraprimates, Laurasiatheria, Boreoeutheria, Xenarthra and Afrotheria. Within the afrotherian LINE-1 (AfroLINE clade, our tree supports Paenungulata, Afroinsectivora and Afroinsectiphillia. Xenarthran LINE-1 (XenaLINE falls sister to AfroLINE, providing some support for the Atlantogenata (Xenarthra+Afrotheria hypothesis.LINEs and SINEs make up approximately half of all placental genomes, so understanding their dynamics is an essential aspect of comparative genomics. Importantly, a tree of LINE-1 offers a different view of the root, as long edges (branches such as that to marsupials are shortened and/or broken up. Additionally, a robust phylogeny of diverse LINE-1 is essential in testing that site-specific LINE-1 insertions, often regarded as homoplasy-free phylogenetic markers, are indeed unique and not convergent.

  10. Value of magnetic resonance imaging in prenatal diagnosis of placental accretism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, Viviane Vieira; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Faria, Juliano; Szejnfeld, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: to establish the main signs of placental accretism in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with clinical suspicion and to estimate the benefit of this method. Methods: prospective transversal study with 15 patients suspected of placental accretism, referred between March 2003 and February 2006. Gestational age varied from 20 to 31 weeks. All patients underwent MRI to study the placenta and had previously done an ultrasonography. Material was sent to histological study. MRI was done on Magnetom Impact and Sonata Maestro Class Siemens R , with acquired sequences HASTE, TURBO SPIN in axial, sagittal, coronal planes and echo gradient (GE R ), pre- and post-dynamic contrast in the best plan for acquisition. Images were analyzed by a team of two radiologists. Results: mean gestational age was 24.3 weeks. We studied seven placenta previa (47%), six anterior placentas (40%) and two posterior placentas (13%). Ultrasonography was positive in 80% of the placentas and MRI in 53%. However, echography had a low concordance with anatomic pathological studies by Kappa test (11%), revealing 75% of sensitivity, 14% of specificity, 50% as positive predictive value (PPV) and 33% as negative predictive value (NPV). MRI had an excellent concordance with anatomic pathological studies (0.86), showing 100% of sensitivity, 86% of specificity, 89% as PPV and 100% as NPV. Conclusions: MRI is useful for placental accretism diagnosis. The principal findings are transmural hyper-signal, the loss of continuity in myometrial wall in fast sequences and the identification of vessels invading myometrial layer in dynamic sequences. (author)

  11. Functional Task Test: 1. Sensorimotor changes Associated with Postflight Alterations in Astronaut Functional Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Arzeno, N. H.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Platts, S. H.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Space flight is known to cause alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These changes may affect a crewmember s ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. This presentation will focus on the sensorimotor contributions to postflight functional performance.

  12. A NEW CLINICAL MUSCLE FUNCTION TEST FOR ASSESSMENT OF HIP EXTERNAL ROTATION STRENGTH: AUGUSTSSON STRENGTH TEST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, Jesper

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic clinical tests of hip strength applicable on patients, non-athletes and athletes alike, are lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to develop and evaluate the reliability of a dynamic muscle function test of hip external rotation strength, using a novel device. A second aim was to determine if gender differences exist in absolute and relative hip strength using the new test. Fifty-three healthy sport science students (34 women and 19 men) were tested for hip external rotation strength using a device that consisted of a strap connected in series with an elastic resistance band loop, and a measuring tape connected in parallel with the elastic resistance band. The test was carried out with the subject side lying, positioned in 45 ° of hip flexion and the knees flexed to 90 ° with the device firmly fastened proximally across the knees. The subject then exerted maximal concentric hip external rotation force against the device thereby extending the elastic resistance band. The displacement achieved by the subject was documented by the tape measure and the corresponding force production was calculated. Both right and left hip strength was measured. Fifteen of the subjects were tested on repeated occasions to evaluate test-retest reliability. No significant test-retest differences were observed. Intra-class correlation coefficients ranged 0.93-0.94 and coefficients of variation 2.76-4.60%. In absolute values, men were significantly stronger in hip external rotation than women (right side 13.2 vs 11.0 kg, p = 0.001, left side 13.2 vs 11.5 kg, p = 0.002). There were no significant differences in hip external rotation strength normalized for body weight (BW) between men and women (right side 0.17 kg/BW vs 0.17 kg/BW, p = 0.675, left side 0.17 kg/BW vs 0.18 kg/BW, p = 0.156). The new muscle function test showed high reliability and thus could be useful for measuring dynamic hip external rotation strength in patients, non-athletes and athletes

  13. Pain on Functional Movement Screen Tests and Injury Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Timothy T; Grier, Tyson L; Canham-Chervak, Michelle C; Anderson, Morgan K; North, William J; Jones, Bruce H

    2015-11-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a tool intended to evaluate limitations or asymmetries of movement to detect individuals at risk for exercise- and sports-related injury. The purpose was to determine the association and predictive value of specific FMS tests with injury risk in physically active men. Soldiers aged 18-57 years completed the FMS (n = 2,476). Demographic and fitness data were collected by survey. Medical record data for any, overuse, and traumatic injury 6 months after the assessment were obtained. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value were calculated along with receiver operator characteristics to determine area under the curve (AUC). Risks, risk ratios, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess injury risks. Multivariate logistic regression identified that pain on 5 of the 7 tests was associated with greater risk for any injury (OR = 1.50-3.51): deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability. However, FMS registered low sensitivity, PPV, and AUC for all 7 tests for the 3 injury types (2-24% sensitivity, 16-74% PPV, and 50-58% AUC). Although the presence of pain was associated with a higher risk of injury on 5 tests, a low sensitivity, PPV, and AUC were displayed. Therefore, caution is advised when implementing the FMS as a screening tool in an Army or similarly active population as it could lead to prevention and treatment resources being directed toward individuals who are not at greater risk for injury.

  14. Tuboimpedance: A New Test of Eustachian Tube Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew E; Zou, Charlie C; Blythe, Andrew J C; Tysome, James R

    2017-04-01

    Objective Eustachian tube (ET) dysfunction is most frequently caused by a failure of the ET to adequately open; however, there is currently no reliable method of assessing this. Tubomanometry has recently shown good interindividual repeatability as a measure of ET function by measuring middle ear pressure after the application of regulated nasopharyngeal pressures during swallowing. We present the first reports of a novel test: middle ear impedance measurements during standard nasopharyngeal pressure application (tuboimpedance). We assess repeatability in healthy ears and any advantages over tubomanometry. Study Design Exploratory cohort diagnosis study. Setting Tertiary referral center. Subjects Twenty screened, healthy ears (10 volunteers). Methods Tubomanometry and tuboimpedance tests were performed while individuals swallowed with applied nasopharyngeal pressures of 20, 30, 40, and 50 mbar. Eustachian tube opening detection rate and test repeatability (measured by intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) for immediate and delayed repeats at each pressure were compared. Results ET opening was detected more frequently using tuboimpedance, with a 100% detection rate using a nasopharyngeal pressure of 30 mbar or more, compared to 88% to 96% with tubomanometry. Detection of ET opening at 20 mbar was possible with tuboimpedance. Repeatability of both tests was mostly strong (ICC >0.7) for both immediate and delayed repeats. Repeatability for the tubomanometry R value was only fair to moderate. Conclusion Tuboimpedance may provide a repeatable measure of ET opening that is easier to perform due to lower nasopharyngeal pressures required and fewer issues with poor ear-probe sealing. Further assessment in patients with different forms of ET dysfunction is required.

  15. Functionally graded bioactive coatings: From fabrication to testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppiano, Silvia

    Every year about half a million Americans undergo total joint replacement surgery of some kind. This number is expected to steadily increase in the future. About 20% of these patients will need a revision surgery because of implant failure, with a significant increase in health care cost. Current implant materials for load bearing applications must be strong enough to support the loads involved in daily activities, and bioinert, to limit reactivity in the body that may cause inflammatory and other adverse reactions. Metal alloys are typically used as materials for load bearing implants and rely on mechanical interlocking to achieve fixation which can be improved by using bone cements. To improve implant osteointegration, metal implants have been coated with a bone-like mineral: hydroxyapatite (HA). The plasma spray technique is commonly used to apply the HA coating. Such implants do not require the use of bone cement. Plasma sprayed HA coated implants are FDA approved and currently on the market, but their properties are not reproducible or reliable. Thus, coating delamination can occur. Our research group developed a novel family of bioactive glasses which were enameled onto titanium alloy using a functionally graded approach. We stratified the coating with different glass compositions to fulfill different functions. We coupled a first glass layer, with a good CTE match to the alloy, with a second layer of bioactive glass obtaining a functionally graded bioactive coating (FGC). In this thesis for the first time the cytocompatibility of novel bioactive glasses, and their functionally graded coatings on Ti6Al4V, was studied with an in vitro bone model (MC3T3-E1.4 mouse preosteblast cells). The novel bioactive glasses are cytocompatible and no compositional change is required. The fabrication process is reproducible, introduces a small (average 6 vol%) amount of crystallization, which does not significantly affect bioactivity in SBF as tested. The coatings are

  16. Pulmonary function tests in obese people candidate to bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Guimarães

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is considered one of the most serious public health problems of the modern world. Because it alters the relationship between the lungs, chest wall and diaphragm, it is to be expected that it impacts on the respiratory function. In Portugal, there is not much data about the relationship between obesity and pulmonary function.The aim of this study was to characterize respiratory function in morbidly obese patients and to evaluate whether weight loss in patients submitted to bariatric surgery affects pulmonary function tests (PFT.We conducted a retrospective study with 36 morbidly obese patients submitted to bariatric surgery, with a mean age of 40.6 years, 64% female and with a mean body mass index (BMI of 49.7 kg/m2. All patients were clinical and functionally evaluated before surgery and after their weight had stabilized following surgery. They underwent a complete pulmonary function testing with spirometry, lung volumes, carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO, maximum respiratory pressures and arterial blood gases analysis. Prior to surgery almost all the patients had functional respiratory changes, 34 had a decrease in functional residual capacity (FRC 6 of whom a restrictive syndrome. Only 2 patients did not show any functional or arterial blood gas change. After bariatric surgery, BMI decreased to 34 kg/m2 and there was a significant improvement in almost all functional parameters with resolution of restrictive disorders. Nevertheless, in 13 patients the FRC remained decreased.After weight loss, the only correlation found was between reduction of BMI and increased FRC (r = −0.371; p = 0.028. This study suggests a relationship between obesity and pulmonary restriction and a positive impact of bariatric surgery in PFT. Resumo: A obesidade é considerada um problema de saúde pública da atualidade. Devido ao facto de alterar a relação entre pulmões, parede torácica e diafragma, a obesidade tem

  17. Radioselenium pancreozymin-secretin test as a clinical test for pancreatic exocrine function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shichiri, M.; Etani, N.; Yoshida, M.; Harano, Y.; Hoshi, M.; Shigeta, Y.; Abe, H.

    1975-01-01

    The appearance of radioselenium in the protein fraction of duodenal aspirates has been studied after an intravenous injection of 75 Se-selenomethionine. The continuous flow of pancreatic juice was stimulated by pancreozymin at 120 minutes and by secretin at 140 minutes. A good distinction between normal subjects and patients with pancreatic disease was obtained by measuring 75 Se-radioactivity in the protein fraction of duodenal aspirates; either cumulative radioactivity during the combined 80-minute post-pancreozymin-secretin period, or maximum 75 Se-specific activity during the postsecretin period was used as an index. The test presented here might be a useful and sufficiently reliable method for detecting abnormal pancreatic exocrine function. This test can be performed along with the conventional pancreozymin-secretin test, serum enzyme response to pancreozymin and secretin, and pancreatic scintiscanning

  18. Placental transport of large molecules –a study using human ex vivo placental perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Line

    2011-01-01

    be used as a negative control when adding a small amount to the fetal reservoir. To be able to detect any trace of dextran in the maternal reservoir in case of a leakage, the dextran is labeled with FITC and analyzed by fluorescence measurement (Paper I). Inter-laboratory comparisons have confirmed...... within two hours of perfusion with a fetal flow rate of 3 mL/min. Negative controls are added to ensure that substance transfer is not due to leakage, e.g. high molecular weight substances that only pass the placental barrier with bulk flow through a leakage in the fetal system. Dextran (40kD) can...

  19. The Influence of Sub-Unit Composition and Expression System on the Functional Antibody Response in the Development of a VAR2CSA Based Plasmodium falciparum Placental Malaria Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten A; dos Santos Marques Resende, Mafalda; de Jongh, Willem A

    2015-01-01

    -functional antibodies, and furthermore influence the folding, stability and yield of expression. Candidate antigens from the pre-clinical development expressed in High-Five insect cells using the baculovirus expression vector system were transitioned into the Drosophila Schneider-2 cell (S2) expression-system compliant...... with clinical development. The functional capacity of antibodies against antigens expressed in High-Five cells or in S2 cells was equivalent. This enabled an extensive down-selection of S2 insect cell-expressed antigens primarily encompassing the minimal CSA-binding region of VAR2CSA. In general, we found...

  20. Cochlear function tests in estimation of speech dynamic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung Ju; Park, So Young; Park, Shi Nae; Na, Mi Sun; Lee, Philip; Han, Jae Sang

    2016-10-01

    The loss of active cochlear mechanics causes elevated thresholds, loudness recruitment, and reduced frequency selectivity. The problems faced by hearing-impaired listeners are largely related with reduced dynamic range (DR). The aim of this study was to determine which index of the cochlear function tests correlates best with the DR to speech stimuli. Audiological data on 516 ears with pure tone average (PTA) of ≤55 dB and word recognition score of ≥70% were analyzed. PTA, speech recognition threshold (SRT), uncomfortable loudness (UCL), and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) were explored as the indices of cochlear function. Audiometric configurations were classified. Correlation between each index and the DR was assessed and multiple regression analysis was done. PTA and SRT demonstrated strong negative correlations with the DR (r = -0.788 and -0.860, respectively), while DPOAE sum was moderately correlated (r = 0.587). UCLs remained quite constant for the total range of the DR. The regression equation was Y (DR) = 75.238 - 0.719 × SRT (R(2 )=( )0.721, p equation.

  1. Aerobic characteristics of red kangaroo skeletal muscles: is a high aerobic capacity matched by muscle mitochondrial and capillary morphology as in placental mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Terence J; Mifsud, Brock; Raad, Matthew C; Webster, Koa N

    2004-07-01

    Marsupials and placentals together comprise the Theria, the advanced mammals, but they have had long independent evolutionary histories, with the last common ancestor occurring more than 125 million years ago. Although in the past the marsupials were considered to be metabolically 'primitive', the red kangaroo Macropus rufus has been reported to have an aerobic capacity (VO2max) comparable to that of the most 'athletic' of placentals such as dogs. However, kangaroos travel at moderate speeds with lower relative cost than quadrupedal placentals. Given the long independent evolution of the two therian groups, and their unusual locomotor energetics, do kangaroos achieve their high aerobic capacity using the same structural and functional mechanisms used by (athletic) placentals? Red kangaroo skeletal muscle morphometry matched closely the general aerobic characteristics of placental mammals. The relationship between total mitochondrial volume in skeletal muscle and VO2max during exercise was identical to that in quadrupedal placentals, and differed from that in bipedal humans. As for placentals generally, red kangaroo mitochondrial oxygen consumption at VO2max was 4.7 ml O2 min(-1) ml(-1) of mitochondria. Also, the inner mitochondrial membrane densities were 35.8 +/- 0.7 m2 ml(-1) of mitochondria, which is the same as for placental mammals, and the same pattern of similarity was seen for capillary densities and volumes. The overall data for kangaroos was equivalent to that seen in athletic placentals such as dogs and pronghorns. Total skeletal muscle mass was high, being around 50% of body mass, and was concentrated around the pelvis and lower back. The majority of the muscles sampled had relatively high mitochondrial volume densities, in the range 8.8-10.6% in the major locomotor muscles. Again, capillary densities and capillary blood volumes followed the pattern seen for mitochondria. Our results indicate that the red kangaroo, despite its locomotion and extreme

  2. Occupational health surveillance: Pulmonary function testing in emergency responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D McCluskey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergency responders may be exposed to a variety of fumes, gases, and particulates during the course of their job that can affect pulmonary function (PF and require the use of respiratory protection. This investigation used occupational health monitoring examination data to characterize PF in a population currently employed as emergency responders. PF tests for workers who required health examinations to ensure fitness for continued respirator use were compared to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III Raw Spirometry database to determine if decreased PF was associated with employment as an emergency responder. The results of this research indicated that the emergency responders experienced a modest, but statistically significant, increase in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC mean values over the NHANES III population in both total and stratified analyses, including stratification by age, gender, height, and smoking history. Results are likely due to a combination of effectively controlled exposures in the workplace, and the healthy worker effect among long-term workers. PF testing required by the Occupational and Safety Health Administration (OSHA has substantial utility for conducting occupational surveillance at the population level. In this investigation, we were able to quickly evaluate if abnormal PF existed in an industrial sector known to have exposures that, when uncontrolled, can lead to PF impairment.

  3. Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST): MIST Facility Functional Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, T.F.; Koksal, C.G.; Moskal, T.E.; Rush, G.C.; Gloudemans, J.R.

    1991-04-01

    The Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST) is part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock and Wilcox designed plants. MIST is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock ampersand Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock and Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock and Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST was specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility -- the Once Through Integral System (OTIS) -- was also used. Data from MIST and OTIS are used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The MIST Functional Specification documents as-built design features, dimensions, instrumentation, and test approach. It also presents the scaling basis for the facility and serves to define the scope of work for the facility design and construction. 13 refs., 112 figs., 38 tabs

  4. Placentation in the plains zebra (Equus quagga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W R Twink; Stansfield, Fiona; Wilsher, Sandra

    2017-10-01

    The placenta and fetal gonads of 12 pregnant plains zebra (Equus quagga), estimated to be between 81 and 239 days of gestation, were examined. The diffuse, microcotyledonary zebra placenta appeared, developmentally, to be 3-4 weeks behind its counterpart in horse pregnancy and this, together with the presence of small and long-lived endometrial cups, low levels of zebra chorionic gonadotrophin in maternal serum and few accessory corpora lutea in the maternal ovaries during the first half of gestation, made zebra pregnancy more similar to donkey than horse pregnancy. Zebra fetal gonads enlarged after 80 days of gestation and their interstitial cells stained positively for 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17,20 lyase steroid enzymes while the trophoblast stained for aromatase. This confirmed that zebra fetal gonads, like those of the horse and donkey, can synthesise C19 androgens, which can then be aromatised by the placenta to C18 oestrogens. It is remarkable that such unusual feto-placental mechanisms of production of gonadotrophic and steroid hormones has persisted unchanged within the genus Equus despite the many physical adaptations and the considerable loss of chromosomes that have occurred during the evolution of its member species.

  5. Evolutionary perspectives into placental biology and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward B. Chuong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In all mammals including humans, development takes place within the protective environment of the maternal womb. Throughout gestation, nutrients and waste products are continuously exchanged between mother and fetus through the placenta. Despite the clear importance of the placenta to successful pregnancy and the health of both mother and offspring, relatively little is understood about the biology of the placenta and its role in pregnancy-related diseases. Given that pre- and peri-natal diseases involving the placenta affect millions of women and their newborns worldwide, there is an urgent need to understand placenta biology and development. Here, we suggest that the placenta is an organ under unique selective pressures that have driven its rapid diversification throughout mammalian evolution. The high divergence of the placenta complicates the use of non-human animal models and necessitates an evolutionary perspective when studying its biology and role in disease. We suggest that diversifying evolution of the placenta is primarily driven by intraspecies evolutionary conflict between mother and fetus, and that many pregnancy diseases are a consequence of this evolutionary force. Understanding how maternal–fetal conflict shapes both basic placental and reproductive biology – in all species – will provide key insights into diseases of pregnancy.

  6. Above-Level Test Item Functioning across Examinee Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Russell T.; Doty, Kristine J.; Malbica, Anne Marie; Angeles, Victor R.; Innes, Scott; Hall, Jared; Masterson-Nixon, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    "Above-level testing" (also called "above-grade testing," "out-of-level testing," and "off-level testing") is the practice of administering to a child a test that is designed for an examinee population that is older or in a more advanced grade. Above-level testing is frequently used to help educators design…

  7. Labor Inhibits Placental Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    LAGER, Susanne; AYE, Irving L.M.H.; GACCIOLI, Francesca; RAMIREZ, Vanessa I.; JANSSON, Thomas; POWELL, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Labor induces a myriad of changes in placental gene expression. These changes may represent a physiological adaptation inhibiting placental cellular processes associated with a high demand for oxygen and energy (e.g., protein synthesis and active transport) thereby promoting oxygen and glucose transfer to the fetus. We hypothesized that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, a positive regulator of trophoblast protein synthesis and amino acid transport, is inhibited by labor. Methods Placental tissue was collected from healthy, term pregnancies (n=15 no-labor; n=12 labor). Activation of Caspase-1, IRS1/Akt, STAT, mTOR, and inflammatory signaling pathways was determined by Western blot. NFκB p65 and PPARγ DNA binding activity was measured in isolated nuclei. Results Labor increased Caspase-1 activation and mTOR complex 2 signaling, as measured by phosphorylation of Akt (S473). However, mTORC1 signaling was inhibited in response to labor as evidenced by decreased phosphorylation of mTOR (S2448) and 4EBP1 (T37/46 and T70). Labor also decreased NFκB and PPARγ DNA binding activity, while having no effect on IRS1 or STAT signaling pathway. Discussion and conclusion Several placental signaling pathways are affected by labor, which has implications for experimental design in studies of placental signaling. Inhibition of placental mTORC1 signaling in response to labor may serve to down-regulate protein synthesis and amino acid transport, processes that account for a large share of placental oxygen and glucose consumption. We speculate that this response preserves glucose and oxygen for transfer to the fetus during the stressful events of labor. PMID:25454472

  8. Bradykinesia-akinesia incoordination test: validating an online keyboard test of upper limb function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyce, Alastair J; Nagy, Anna; Acharya, Shami; Hadavi, Shahrzad; Bestwick, Jonathan P; Fearnley, Julian; Lees, Andrew J; Giovannoni, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The Bradykinesia Akinesia Incoordination (BRAIN) test is a computer keyboard-tapping task that was developed for use in assessing the effect of symptomatic treatment on motor function in Parkinson's disease (PD). An online version has now been designed for use in a wider clinical context and the research setting. Validation of the online BRAIN test was undertaken in 58 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 93 age-matched, non-neurological controls. Kinesia scores (KS30, number of key taps in 30 seconds), akinesia times (AT30, mean dwell time on each key in milliseconds), incoordination scores (IS30, variance of travelling time between key presses) and dysmetria scores (DS30, accuracy of key presses) were compared between groups. These parameters were correlated against total motor scores and sub-scores from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Mean KS30, AT30 and IS30 were significantly different between PD patients and controls (p≤0.0001). Sensitivity for 85% specificity was 50% for KS30, 40% for AT30 and 29% for IS30. KS30, AT30 and IS30 correlated significantly with UPDRS total motor scores (r = -0.53, r = 0.27 and r = 0.28 respectively) and motor UPDRS sub-scores. The reliability of KS30, AT30 and DS30 was good on repeated testing. The BRAIN test is a reliable, convenient test of upper limb motor function that can be used routinely in the outpatient clinic, at home and in clinical trials. In addition, it can be used as an objective longitudinal measurement of emerging motor dysfunction for the prediction of PD in at-risk cohorts.

  9. Bradykinesia-akinesia incoordination test: validating an online keyboard test of upper limb function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair J Noyce

    Full Text Available The Bradykinesia Akinesia Incoordination (BRAIN test is a computer keyboard-tapping task that was developed for use in assessing the effect of symptomatic treatment on motor function in Parkinson's disease (PD. An online version has now been designed for use in a wider clinical context and the research setting.Validation of the online BRAIN test was undertaken in 58 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD and 93 age-matched, non-neurological controls. Kinesia scores (KS30, number of key taps in 30 seconds, akinesia times (AT30, mean dwell time on each key in milliseconds, incoordination scores (IS30, variance of travelling time between key presses and dysmetria scores (DS30, accuracy of key presses were compared between groups. These parameters were correlated against total motor scores and sub-scores from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS.Mean KS30, AT30 and IS30 were significantly different between PD patients and controls (p≤0.0001. Sensitivity for 85% specificity was 50% for KS30, 40% for AT30 and 29% for IS30. KS30, AT30 and IS30 correlated significantly with UPDRS total motor scores (r = -0.53, r = 0.27 and r = 0.28 respectively and motor UPDRS sub-scores. The reliability of KS30, AT30 and DS30 was good on repeated testing.The BRAIN test is a reliable, convenient test of upper limb motor function that can be used routinely in the outpatient clinic, at home and in clinical trials. In addition, it can be used as an objective longitudinal measurement of emerging motor dysfunction for the prediction of PD in at-risk cohorts.

  10. Low birth weight in response to salt restriction during pregnancy is not due to alterations in uterine-placental blood flow or the placental and peripheral renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, Sandra Márcia; Furukawa, Luzia Naôko Shinohara; Shimizu, Maria Heloisa Massola; Casarini, Dulce Elena; Seguro, Antonio Carlos; Patriarca, Giuliana; Coelho, Michella Soares; Dolnikoff, Miriam Sterman; Heimann, Joel Claudio

    2008-09-03

    A number of studies conducted in humans and in animals have observed that events occurring early in life are associated with the development of diseases in adulthood. Salt overload and restriction during pregnancy and lactation are responsible for functional (hemodynamic and hormonal) and structural alterations in adult offspring. Our group observed that lower birth weight and insulin resistance in adulthood is associated with salt restriction during pregnancy. On the other hand, perinatal salt overload is associated with higher blood pressure and higher renal angiotensin II content in adult offspring. Therefore, we hypothesised that renin-angiotensin system (RAS) function is altered by changes in sodium intake during pregnancy. Such changes may influence fetoplacental blood flow and thereby fetal nutrient supply, with effects on growth in utero and, consequently, on birth weight. Female Wistar rats were fed low-salt (LS), normal-salt (NS), or high-salt (HS) diet, starting before conception and continuing until day 19 of pregnancy. Blood pressure, heart rate, fetuses and dams' body weight, placentae weight and litter size were measured on day 19 of pregnancy. Cardiac output, uterine and placental blood flow were also determined on day 19. Expressions of renin-angiotensin system components and of the TNF-alpha gene were evaluated in the placentae. Plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma and tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, as well as plasma and placental levels of angiotensins I, II, and 1-7 were measured. Body weight and kidney mass were greater in HS than in NS and LS dams. Food intake did not differ among the maternal groups. Placental weight was lower in LS dams than in NS and HS dams. Fetal weight was lower in the LS group than in the NS and HS groups. The PRA was greater in LS dams than in NS and HS dams, although ACE activity (serum, cardiac, renal, and placental) was unaffected by the level of sodium intake. Placental levels of

  11. Radioimmunological assessment of placental lactogen concentrations in abortion risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, W.; Przylepa, M.

    1981-01-01

    HPL concentrations in the blood serum were determined in 108 patients in the 6th to 16th week of gestation hospitalized for the risk of abortion, and in 12 women with normal pregnancy. The prognosis was based on clinical documentation and a questionnaire. The examinations performed showed that the mean HPL concentration in the serum in normal pregnancies increased from 93.5 ng/ml in the 6th to 7th weeks to 1461.7 ng/ml in the 15th to 16th weeks. In high-risk pregnancies, slightly lower values were found for the 8th to 14th week of pregnancy while the difference in concentrations in both groups only became statistically significant from the 14th week. An HPL concentration in the serum lower than 450 ng/ml from the 9th week onward indicated that the high-risk pregnancy would terminate by abortion. Careful determination of placental lactogen in the serum of pregnant women seems to be a good prognostic test of the viability of pregnancy. (author)

  12. Comparison between Amnisure Placental Alpha Microglobulin-1 Rapid Immunoassay and Standard Diagnostic Methods for Detection of Rupture of Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beng Kwang Ng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of placental alpha microglobulin-1 assay and standard diagnostic methods for detecting rupture of membrane. Study Design. Prospective diagnostic study, between June 2011 to November 2011 at a tertiary centre. Initial evaluation included both the standard diagnostic methods for rupture of membranes and placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay. The actual rupture of membranes was diagnosed on review of the medical records after delivery (absence of membrane or a positive pad chart. Main Outcome Measures. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay and standard diagnostic methods for diagnosis of rupture of membrane. Results. A total of 211 patients were recruited. At initial presentation, 187 patients (88.6% had ruptured membranes, while 24 patients (11.4% had intact membranes. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay confirmed rupture of membranes at initial presentation with a sensitivity of 95.7% (179 of 187, specificity of 100% (24 of 24, positive predictive value of 100% (179 of 179, and negative predictive value of 75.0% (24 of 32. By comparison, the conventional standard diagnostic methods had a sensitivity of 78.1% (146 of 187, specificity of 100% (24 of 24, positive predictive value of 100% (146 of 146, and negative predictive value of 36.9% (24 of 65 in diagnosing rupture of membrane. Conclusion. Placental alpha-microglobulin-1 immunoassay is a rapid and accurate method for confirming the diagnosis of rupture of membrane. It was superior to conventional standard diagnostic methods (pooling, nitrazine, and ferning, the nitrazine test alone or fern test alone.

  13. Epigenetic adaptation of the placental serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 to gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Blazevic

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM alters the DNA methylation pattern of the fetal serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4, and examined the functional relevance of DNA methylation for regulation of the SLC6A4 expression in the human placenta. The study included 50 mother-infant pairs. Eighteen mothers were diagnosed with GDM and 32 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT. All neonates were of normal birth weight and born at term by planned Cesarean section. DNA and RNA were isolated from samples of tissue collected from the fetal side of the placenta immediately after delivery. DNA methylation was quantified at 7 CpG sites within the SLC6A4 distal promoter region using PCR amplification of bisulfite treated DNA and subsequent DNA sequencing. SLC6A4 mRNA levels were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. Functional SLC6A4 polymorphisms (5HTTLPR, STin2, rs25531 were genotyped using standard PCR-based procedures. Average DNA methylation across the 7 analyzed loci was decreased in the GDM as compared to the NGT group (by 27.1%, p = 0.037 and negatively correlated, before and after adjustment for potential confounder/s, with maternal plasma glucose levels at the 24th to 28th week of gestation (p0.05. The results suggest that DNA methylation of the fetal SLC6A4 gene is sensitive to the maternal metabolic state in pregnancy. They also indicate a predominant role of epigenetic over genetic mechanisms in the regulation of SLC6A4 expression in the human placenta. Longitudinal studies in larger cohorts are needed to verify these results and determine to which degree placental SLC6A4 changes may contribute to long-term outcomes of infants exposed to GDM.

  14. Correlation Between Haematological Parameters, Kidney Function Tests and Liver Function Tests in Plasmodium Falciparum and Vivax Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitul Chhatriwala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in India. Plasmodium falciparum remains the main culprit although cases with vivax malaria are on the rise. Severe malaria as defined by the WHO criteria has high rate of complications and mortality. In our study we recruited microscopy positive falciparum and vivax malaria patients. Haematological and biochemical laboratory investigations were carried out in recruited patients. Both parameters were found to be significantly derailed in falciparum cases as compared to vivax. A direct correlation has been observed between kidney function tests (serum creatinine,serum urea and direct bilirubin levels across all cases of malaria. Hence these parameters can be used to identify and monitor the progress of cases of severe malaria as significant proportion of patients fulfilled the criteria of severe malaria in the cohort.

  15. Maternal risk factors for abnormal placental growth: The national collaborative perinatal project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholson Wanda K

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies of maternal risk factors for abnormal placental growth have focused on placental weight and placental ratio as measures of placental growth. We sought to identify maternal risk factors for placental weight and two neglected dimensions of placental growth: placental thickness and chorionic plate area. Methods We conducted an analysis of 24,135 mother-placenta pairs enrolled in the National Collaborative Perinatal Project, a prospective cohort study of pregnancy and child health. We defined growth restriction as th percentile and hypertrophy as > 90th percentile for three placental growth dimensions: placental weight, placental thickness and chorionic plate area. We constructed parallel multinomial logistic regression analyses to identify (a predictors of restricted growth (vs. normal and (b predictors of hypertrophic growth (vs. normal. Results Black race was associated with an increased likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight, thickness and chorionic plate area, but was associated with a reduced likelihood of hypertrophy for these three placental growth dimensions. We observed an increased likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight and chorionic plate area among mothers with hypertensive disease at 24 weeks or beyond. Anemia was associated with a reduced likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight and chorionic plate area. Pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain were associated with a reduced likelihood of growth restriction and an increased likelihood of hypertrophy for all three dimensions of placental growth. Conclusion Maternal risk factors are either associated with placental growth restriction or placental hypertrophy not both. Our findings suggest that the placenta may have compensatory responses to certain maternal risk factors suggesting different underlying biological mechanisms.

  16. IFPA Senior Award Lecture: making sense of pre-eclampsia - two placental causes of preeclampsia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, C W; Sargent, I L; Staff, A C

    2014-02-01

    Incomplete spiral artery remodelling is the first of two stages of pre-eclampsia, typically of early onset. The second stage comprises dysregulated uteroplacental perfusion and placental oxidative stress. Oxidatively stressed syncytiotrophoblast (STB) over-secretes proteins that perturb maternal angiogenic balance and are considered to be pre-eclampsia biomarkers. We propose that, in addition and more fundamentally, these STB-derived proteins are biomarkers of a cellular (STB) stress response, which typically involves up-regulation of some proteins and down-regulation of others (positive and negative stress proteins respectively). Soluble vascular growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) and reduced growth factor (PlGF) then exemplify positive and negative STB stress response proteins in the maternal circulation. Uncomplicated term pregnancy is associated with increasing sVEGFR-1 and decreasing PlGF, which can be interpreted as evidence of increasing STB stress. STB pathology, at or after term (for example focal STB necrosis) demonstrates this stress, with or without pre-eclampsia. We review the evidence that when placental growth reaches its limits at term, terminal villi become over-crowded with diminished intervillous pore size impeding intervillous perfusion with increasing intervillous hypoxia and STB stress. This type of STB stress has no antecedent pathology, so the fetuses are well-grown, as typifies late onset pre-eclampsia, and prediction is less effective than for the early onset syndrome because STB stress is a late event. In summary, abnormal placental perfusion and STB stress contribute to the pathogenesis of early and late onset pre-eclampsia. But the former has an extrinsic cause - poor placentation, whereas the latter has an intrinsic cause, 'microvillous overcrowding', as placental growth reaches its functional limits. This model explains important features of late pre-eclampsia and raises questions of how antecedent medical risk factors such as

  17. Forward lunge as a functional performance test in ACL deficient subjects: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjaer, Tine; Henriksen, Marius; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    The forward lunge movement may be used as a functional performance test of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient and reconstructed subjects. The purposes were 1) to determine the test-retest reliability of a forward lunge in healthy subjects and 2) to determine the required numbers...... of repetitions necessary to yield satisfactory reliability. Nineteen healthy subjects performed four trials of a forward lunge on two different days. The movement time, impulses of the ground reaction forces (IFz, IFy), knee joint kinematics and dynamics during the forward lunge were calculated. The relative...... reliability was determined by calculation of Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC). The IFz, IFy and the positive work of the knee extensors showed excellent reliability (ICC >0.75). All other variables demonstrated acceptable reliability (0.4>ICCreliability increased when more than...

  18. Safety system function trend indicator: Theory and test application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarm, M.A.; Carbonaro, J.F.; Boccio, J.L.; Vesely, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize research conducted on the development and validation of quantitative indicators of safety performance. This work, performed under the Risk-Based Performance Indicator (RBPI) Project, FIN A-3295, for the Office of Research (RES), is considered part of NRC's Performance Indicator Program which is being coordinated through the Office for the Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD). The program originally focused on risk-based indicators at high levels of safety indices (e.g., core-damage frequency, functional unavailabilities, and sequence monitoring). The program was then redirected towards a more amenable goal, safety system unavailability indicators, mainly due to the lack of PRA models and plant data. In that regard, BNL published a technical report that introduced the concept of cycle-based indicators and also described various alternatives of monitoring safety system unavailabilities. Further simplification of these indicators was requested by NRC to facilitate their applications to all plants in a timely manner. This resulted in the development of Safety System Function Trend (SSFT) indicators which minimize the need for detailed system model as well as component history. The theoretical bases for these indicators were developed through various simulation studies to determine the ease of detecting a trend and/or unacceptable performance. These indicators, along with several other indicators, were then generated and compared using plant data as a part of a test application. The SSFT indicators, specifically, were constructed for a total of eight plants, consisting of two systems per plant. Emphasis was placed on examining relative changes, as well as the indicator's actual level. Both the trend and actual indicator level were found to be important in identifying plants with potential problems

  19. Characterization of thyroid function and antithyroid antibody tests among Saudis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammah, Anwar A.; Alshehri, Anwar S.; Alrakhis, Afaf A.; Alhedaithy, Asma S.; Almadhi, Asma M.; Alkwai, Hala M.; Alhamad, Maram M.; Alzahrani, Saad H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reference intervals for thyroid function tests and the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in the Saudi population. Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January to June 2013. History and physical examination were obtained. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were measured by Electro-chemiluminescence Immunoassay system-assay. Anti-thyroperoxidase, and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent-assay. Subjects with previous or a family history of thyroid disorders, those taking medications affecting thyroid function, pregnant or lactating women, and those with goiter were excluded. Individuals with positive antibodies were excluded from the final analysis of the TSH reference range, but were used to determine the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity. Results: Out of 337 Saudi subjects initially screened, 132 (aged 13-60 years) were candidates for reference calculation, the mean±standard deviation, and (2.5th-97.5th) percentile of TSH (mIU/L) was 1.96±0.9 (0.59-4.37), for FT4 (pmol/L) was 15.47±1.83 (12.04-19.13), and for FT3 (pmol/L) was 5.22±0.7 (4.07-6.76). The TSH was higher in the antibodies positive group (2.5±1.17 mIU/L) compared with the negative one (1.96±0.9 mIU/L) (pantithyroid antibodies. Conclusion: The TSH reference range was similar to laboratory references. Thyroid antibodies were prevalent in Saudis, necessitating further work in larger scale studies. PMID:25987111

  20. Maternal obesity alters feto-placental Cytochrome P4501A1 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Barent N.; O’Tierney, Perrie; Pearson, Jacob; Friedman, Jacob E.; Thornburg, Kent; Cherala, Ganesh

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1), an important drug metabolizing enzyme, is expressed in human placenta throughout gestation as well as in fetal liver. Obesity, a chronic inflammatory condition, is known to alter CYP enzyme expression in non-placental tissues. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that maternal obesity alters the distribution of CYP1A1 activity in feto-placental unit. Placentas were collected from non-obese (BMI30) women at term. Livers were collected from gestation day 130 fetuses of non-human primates fed either control diet or high-fat diet (HFD). Cytosol and microsomes were collected using differential centrifugation, and incubated with 7-Ethoxyresorufin. The CYP1A1 specific activity (pmoles of resorufin formed/min/mg of protein) was measured at excitation/emission wavelength of 530/590nm. Placentas of obese women had significantly reduced microsomal CYP1A1 activity compared to non-obese women (0.046 vs. 0.082; p<0.05); however no such effect was observed on cytosolic activity. Similarly, fetal liver from HFD fed mothers had significantly reduced microsomal CYP1A1 activity (0.44±0.04 vs. 0.20±0.10; p<0.05), with no significant difference in cytosolic CYP1A1 activity (control, 1.23±0.20; HFD, 0.80±0.40). Interestingly, multiple linear regression analyses of placental efficiency indicates cytosolic CYP1A1 activity is a main effect (5.67±2.32 (β±SEM); p=0.022) along with BMI (−0.57±0.26; p=0.037), fetal gender (1.07±0.26; p<0.001), and maternal age (0.07±0.03; p=0.011). In summary, while maternal obesity affects microsomal CYP1A1 activity alone, cytosolic activity along with maternal BMI is an important determinant of placental efficiency. Together, these data suggest that maternal lifestyle could have a significant impact on CYP1A1 activity, and hints at a possible role for CYP1A1 in feto-placental growth and thereby well-being of fetus. PMID:23046808

  1. Human trophoblast-derived hydrogen sulfide stimulates placental artery endothelial cell angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong-Bao; Feng, Lin; Hodges, Jennifer K; Lechuga, Thomas J; Zhang, Honghai

    2017-09-01

    Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S), mainly synthesized by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH), has been implicated in regulating placental angiogenesis; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. This study was to test a hypothesis that trophoblasts synthesize H2S to promote placental angiogenesis. Human choriocarcinoma-derived BeWo cells expressed both CBS and CTH proteins, while the first trimester villous trophoblast-originated HTR-8/SVneo cells expressed CTH protein only. The H2S producing ability of BeWo cells was significantly inhibited by either inhibitors of CBS (carboxymethyl hydroxylamine hemihydrochloride, CHH) or CTH (β-cyano-L-alanine, BCA) and that in HTR-8/SVneo cells was inhibited by CHH only. H2S donors stimulated cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in ovine placental artery endothelial cells (oFPAECs) as effectively as vascular endothelial growth factor. Co-culture with BeWo and HTR-8/SVneo cells stimulated oFPAEC migration, which was inhibited by CHH or BCA in BeWo but CHH only in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Primary human villous trophoblasts (HVT) were more potent than trophoblast cell lines in stimulating oFPAEC migration that was inhibited by CHH and CHH/BCA combination in accordance with its H2S synthesizing activity linked to CBS and CTH expression patterns. H2S donors activated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), v-AKT murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1), and extracellular signal-activated kinase 1/2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1, MAPK3/1) in oFPAECs. H2S donor-induced NOS3 activation was blocked by AKT1 but not MAPK3/1 inhibition. In keeping with our previous studies showing a crucial role of AKT1, MAPK3/1, and NOS3/NO in placental angiogenesis, these data show that trophoblast-derived endogenous H2S stimulates placental angiogenesis, involving activation of AKT1, NOS3/NO, and MAPK3/1. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study

  2. Fetal placental prostaglandin metabolism in the peripartum cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, T.S.; Williams, W.F.; Lewis, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    Previous results demonstrate that fetal placental tissue synthesizes prostaglandin E (PGE) prior to parturition. When placental membranes do not separate postpartum, PGE synthesis is maintained, while prostaglandin F (PGF) synthesis predominates when the membranes separate. Concurrent with separation is a decline in fetal placental binucleate cell (BNC) numbers. These data suggest a fetal placental conversion of PGE to PGF. For this experiment, placentomes were collected at ten days prepartum (PRE, n=12) and within 1 hr postpartum. Nine of the postpartum animals had fetal membrane separation within 12 hr postpartum (S) and eight did not exhibit membrane separation (NS). For each placentome, fetal (villi) components were manually isolated and examined for the ability to interconvert 3 H labeled PGE 2 and PGF 2 . All villi were unable to convert PGE 2 to PGF 2 (P > .05). The PRE and NS villi were able to convert PGF 2 to PGE 2 (P 2 to PGE 2 (P 2 to PGE 2 also declines (P < .05). These data suggest that peripartum fetal placental tissue might synthesize PGF which is then converted to PGE. It is possible that the BNC are directly converting PGF to PGE or that they are modulating this conversion. Therefore, with a decline in BNC numbers, PGF synthesis would predominate

  3. Assessment of platelet function in healthy sedated cats using three whole blood platelet function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kimberly K; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G; Wood, R Darren; O'Sullivan, M Lynne; Kirby, Gordon M; Blois, Shauna L

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to establish feline references intervals for 3 commercial whole blood platelet function test analyzer systems: Multiplate analyzer (MP; Roche Diagnostics International Ltd., Rotkreuz, Switzerland), Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (PF: Siemens Canada, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada), and Plateletworks Combo-25 kit (PW; Helena Laboratories, Beaumont, TX). Venipuncture was performed on 55 healthy sedated cats, and platelet aggregation in response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen (COL), and arachidonic acid (AA; MP only) was assessed using citrated blood. For the MP analyzer, median (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) area under curve (Units) for ADP, COL, and AA agonists were 87 (11-176), 81 (32-129), and 91 (59-129), respectively. For the PF analyzer, median (95% CIs) closure time, using COL-ADP cartridges, was 69 (46-89) sec. For the PW assay, median (95% CIs) percent aggregations for ADP and COL agonists were 71 (18-92) and 49 (9-96), respectively, using impedance hematology analyzer platelet counts, and 94 (25-98) and 68 (14-119), respectively, using flow cytometry hematology analyzer platelet counts. There were low correlations between the PF analyzer (COL-ADP cartridge) and MP analyzer (COL agonist; ρ = 0.11), and between the PF analyzer (COL-ADP cartridge) and PW assay (COL agonist using impedance platelet counts; ρ = 0.14). The PW assay percent aggregations using impedance and flow cytometric platelet counts were correlated for both ADP (ρ = 0.64) and COL (ρ = 0.64) agonists. Platelet function testing using these tests are feasible in cats, but 95% CIs are wide, so single results may be difficult to interpret. Platelet counting by impedance or flow cytometry may be used for the PW assay but are not interchangeable. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Inflammatory and vascular placental lesions are associated with neonatal amplitude integrated EEG recording in early premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorit Paz-Levy

    .007.Depressed neonatal aEEG patterns are associated with placental lesions consistent with maternal under perfusion, and amniotic fluid infection of fetal type, but not with fetal thrombo-oclusive vascular disease of inflammatory type. Our findings highlight the association between the intrauterine mechanisms leading to preterm parturition and subsequent depressed neonatal cerebral function early after birth, which eventually may put premature infants at risk for abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome.

  5. Potential Functional Embedding Theory at the Correlated Wave Function Level. 2. Error Sources and Performance Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin; Yu, Kuang; Libisch, Florian; Dieterich, Johannes M; Carter, Emily A

    2017-03-14

    Quantum mechanical embedding theories partition a complex system into multiple spatial regions that can use different electronic structure methods within each, to optimize trade-offs between accuracy and cost. The present work incorporates accurate but expensive correlated wave function (CW) methods for a subsystem containing the phenomenon or feature of greatest interest, while self-consistently capturing quantum effects of the surroundings using fast but less accurate density functional theory (DFT) approximations. We recently proposed two embedding methods [for a review, see: Acc. Chem. Res. 2014 , 47 , 2768 ]: density functional embedding theory (DFET) and potential functional embedding theory (PFET). DFET provides a fast but non-self-consistent density-based embedding scheme, whereas PFET offers a more rigorous theoretical framework to perform fully self-consistent, variational CW/DFT calculations [as defined in part 1, CW/DFT means subsystem 1(2) is treated with CW(DFT) methods]. When originally presented, PFET was only tested at the DFT/DFT level of theory as a proof of principle within a planewave (PW) basis. Part 1 of this two-part series demonstrated that PFET can be made to work well with mixed Gaussian type orbital (GTO)/PW bases, as long as optimized GTO bases and consistent electron-ion potentials are employed throughout. Here in part 2 we conduct the first PFET calculations at the CW/DFT level and compare them to DFET and full CW benchmarks. We test the performance of PFET at the CW/DFT level for a variety of types of interactions (hydrogen bonding, metallic, and ionic). By introducing an intermediate CW/DFT embedding scheme denoted DFET/PFET, we show how PFET remedies different types of errors in DFET, serving as a more robust type of embedding theory.

  6. Newton force from wave function collapse: speculation and test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2014-01-01

    The Diosi-Penrose model of quantum-classical boundary postulates gravity-related spontaneous wave function collapse of massive degrees of freedom. The decoherence effects of the collapses are in principle detectable if not masked by the overwhelming environmental decoherence. But the DP (or any other, like GRW, CSL) spontaneous collapses are not detectable themselves, they are merely the redundant formalism of spontaneous decoherence. To let DP collapses become testable physics, recently we extended the DP model and proposed that DP collapses are responsible for the emergence of the Newton gravitational force between massive objects. We identified the collapse rate, possibly of the order of 1/ms, with the rate of emergence of the Newton force. A simple heuristic emergence (delay) time was added to the Newton law of gravity. This non-relativistic delay is in peaceful coexistence with Einstein's relativistic theory of gravitation, at least no experimental evidence has so far surfaced against it. We derive new predictions of such a 'lazy' Newton law that will enable decisive laboratory tests with available technologies. The simple equation of 'lazy' Newton law deserves theoretical and experimental studies in itself, independently of the underlying quantum foundational considerations.

  7. Pulmonary Function Tests In Young Healthy Subjects Of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Rastogi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives : The diagnosis of disease done by skiagram can be substantiated by pulmonary function tests. Substantial data of Indians on PFTs is not available. The present study therefore has been planned on young healthy north Indians.Setting : 119 males and 49 female medical students of North India.Measurements : PFT's, T.V. FEV1, FVC, FER and PEFR were measured. P<0.05 was considered as significant.Results : In North Indian males, mean T. V was 437.56 ± 65.83 ml, FEV1 3.26 ±041 L, FVC 3.82 ± 0.48 L, FER 85.09 ± 2.42% and PEFR was 495.42 ± 101.82 L / min. In North Indian females, average T. V was 386.12 ± 37.90 ml, FEV1 2.39 ± 0.38 L, FVC 2.79 ± 0.43 L, FER 85.38 ± 257% and PEFR was 307.12 ± 75.74 L / min.Conclusions: Males in comparison to females had more value of PFTs. All the PFTs showed positive correlation with Height, Weight and Surface area except Tidal Volume and FER.

  8. Assessment of Dengue Fever Severity Through Liver Function Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.; Alvi, A. H.; Nawaz, A. A.; Butt, A.; Hanif, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the utility of liver function tests (LFTs) for early recognition and prediction of severity of Dengue fever in hospitalized patients. Study Design: An analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Services Institute of Medical Science and Fatima Memorial Hospital, Lahore, from September - December 2010. Methodology: Admitted cases of Dengue fever were divided into 3 groups; mild, moderate and severe increases in aminotransferases. Elevation in LFTs was co-related with good or bad outcome i.e. (survival or complication free stay) or (death or complications). Results were analyzed in SPSS version 18. Results: Out of the 353 patients with mean age of 37.12 +- 15.45 years, 245 (69.4%) were males and 108 (30.6%) were females. Seventy five patients (21.2%) had mild elevation of aminotransferases (2 fold increases), 265 patients (75.1%) had moderate increases (3 to 4 fold) and 13 (3.7%) had severe (> 4 fold increase). ALT was statistically higher in patients with septicemia, hepatic and renal failure (p-value 0.05). AST was higher in almost all complications. Prolonged hospital stay was associated with raised LFTs and greater complications and mortality. AST was found to be twice as much raised as ALT. Conclusion: AST and ALT were statistically higher in patients with worse outcome thus can lead to early recognition of high risk cases. (author)

  9. Design and functional tests of the Euclid grism mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, Ch.; Grange, R.; Caillat, A.; Costille, A.; Sanchez, P.; Ceria, W.

    2017-11-01

    The Euclid mission selected by ESA in the Cosmic Vision program is dedicated to understand dark energy and dark matter. One of the probes based on detection of Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations required the redshift of millions of galaxies. This massive spectroscopic survey relies on the Near Infrared SpectroPhotometer (NISP) using grism in slitless mode. In this Euclid NISP context, we designed a cryogenic mount for the four grisms of the spectroscopic channel. This mount has to maintain optical performances and alignment at the cryogenic temperature of 120K and to survive launch vibrations. Due to a very small mass and volume budget allowed in the Grism Wheel Assembly our design relies on a weight relief Invar ring glued to the grism by tangential flexures. Tangential flexures have the advantage of small height but the drawback of less decoupling capabilities than bipods. We will present the design of the mount and the integration and functional tests to stay within the 60 nm RMS transmitted wavefront error budget allowed to the grism.

  10. [Placental gene activity of significant angiogenetic factors in the background of intrauterine growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Péter; Rab, Attila; Szentpéteri, Imre; Joó, József Gábor; Kornya, László

    2017-04-01

    Placental vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) gene and endoglin gene are both overexpressed in placental samples obtained from pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction compared to normal pregnancies. In the background of these changes a mechanism can be supposed, in which the increased endoglin activity in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) leads to impaired placental circulation through an antioangiogenetic effect. This results in the development of placental vascular dysfunction and chronic fetal hypoxia. It is chronic hypoxia that turns on VEGF-A as a compensatory mechanism to improve fetal vascular blood supply by promoting placental blood vessel formation. Although the maternal serum placental growth factor (PlGF) level is a potential predictor for both IUGR and praeeclampsia, placental PlGF gene activity may be less of an active in the regulation of placental circulation in IUGR pregnancies during the later stages of gestation. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(16), 612-617.

  11. Recurrent Placental Abruption with Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C667t Heterozygosity: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilgın Türkçüoğlu

    2007-12-01

    Risk of recurrence is high in patients with a history of placental abruption. Antenatal care and delivery after fetal lung maturation is advised since the perinatal mortality is high with placental abruption.

  12. Inactivation of maternal Hif-1α at mid-pregnancy causes placental defects and deficits in oxygen delivery to the fetal organs under hypoxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenchegowda, Doreswamy; Natale, Bryony; Lemus, Maria A; Natale, David R; Fisher, Steven A

    2017-02-15

    A critical transition occurs near mid-gestation of mammalian pregnancy. Prior to this transition, low concentrations of oxygen (hypoxia) signaling through Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) functions as a morphogen for the placenta and fetal organs. Subsequently, functional coupling of the placenta and fetal cardiovascular system for oxygen (O 2 ) transport is required to support the continued growth and development of the fetus. Here we tested the hypothesis that Hif-1α is required in maternal cells for placental morphogenesis and function. We used Tamoxifen-inducible Cre-Lox to inactivate Hif-1α in maternal tissues at E8.5 (MATcKO), and used ODD-Luciferase as a reporter of hypoxia in placenta and fetal tissues. MATcKO of Hif-1α reduced the number of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells and Tpbpa-positve trophoblast cells in the maternal decidua at E13.5 -15.5. There were dynamic changes in all three layers of E13.5-15.5 MATcKO placenta. Of note was the under-development of the labyrinth at E15.5 associated with reduced Ki67 and increased TUNEL staining consistent with reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Labyrinth defects were particularly evident in placentas connected to effectively HIF-1α heterozygous null embryos. MATcKO had no effect on basal ODD-Luciferase activity in fetal organs (heart, liver, brain) at any stage, but at E13.5-15.5 resulted in enhanced induction of the ODD-Luciferase hypoxia reporter when the dam's inspired O 2 was reduced to 8% for 4 hours. MATcKO also slowed the growth after E13.5 of fetuses that were effectively heterozygous for Hif-1α, with most being non-viable at E15.5. The hearts of these E15.5 fetuses were abnormal with reduction in size, thickened epicardium and mesenchymal septum. We conclude that maternal HIF-1α is required for placentation including recruitment of uNK and trophoblast cells into the maternal decidua and other trophoblast cell behaviors. The placental defects render the fetus vulnerable to O 2

  13. Cis-acting pathways selectively enforce the non-immunogenicity of shed placental antigen for maternal CD8 T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Siean Tay

    Full Text Available Maternal immune tolerance towards the fetus and placenta is thought to be established in part by pathways that attenuate T cell priming to antigens released from the placenta into maternal blood. These pathways remain largely undefined and their existence, at face value, seems incompatible with a mother's need to maintain a functional immune system during pregnancy. A particular conundrum is evident if we consider that maternal antigen presenting cells, activated in order to prime T cells to pathogen-derived antigens, would also have the capacity to prime T cells to co-ingested placental antigens. Here, we address this paradox using a transgenic system in which placental membranes are tagged with a strong surrogate antigen (ovalbumin. We find that although a remarkably large quantity of acellular ovalbumin-containing placental material is released into maternal blood, splenic CD8 T cells in pregnant mice bearing unmanipulated T cell repertoires are not primed to ovalbumin even if the mice are intravenously injected with adjuvants. This failure was largely independent of regulatory T cells, and instead was linked to the intrinsic characteristics of the released material that rendered it selectively non-immunogenic, potentially by sequestering it from CD8α(+ dendritic cells. The release of ovalbumin-containing placental material into maternal blood thus had no discernable impact on CD8 T cell priming to soluble ovalbumin injected intravenously during pregnancy, nor did it induce long-term tolerance to ovalbumin. Together, these results outline a major pathway governing the maternal immune response to the placenta, and suggest how tolerance to placental antigens can be maintained systemically without being detrimental to host defense.

  14. Cis-Acting Pathways Selectively Enforce the Non-Immunogenicity of Shed Placental Antigen for Maternal CD8 T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Chin-Siean; Tagliani, Elisa; Collins, Mary K.; Erlebacher, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Maternal immune tolerance towards the fetus and placenta is thought to be established in part by pathways that attenuate T cell priming to antigens released from the placenta into maternal blood. These pathways remain largely undefined and their existence, at face value, seems incompatible with a mother's need to maintain a functional immune system during pregnancy. A particular conundrum is evident if we consider that maternal antigen presenting cells, activated in order to prime T cells to pathogen-derived antigens, would also have the capacity to prime T cells to co-ingested placental antigens. Here, we address this paradox using a transgenic system in which placental membranes are tagged with a strong surrogate antigen (ovalbumin). We find that although a remarkably large quantity of acellular ovalbumin-containing placental material is released into maternal blood, splenic CD8 T cells in pregnant mice bearing unmanipulated T cell repertoires are not primed to ovalbumin even if the mice are intravenously injected with adjuvants. This failure was largely independent of regulatory T cells, and instead was linked to the intrinsic characteristics of the released material that rendered it selectively non-immunogenic, potentially by sequestering it from CD8α+ dendritic cells. The release of ovalbumin-containing placental material into maternal blood thus had no discernable impact on CD8 T cell priming to soluble ovalbumin injected intravenously during pregnancy, nor did it induce long-term tolerance to ovalbumin. Together, these results outline a major pathway governing the maternal immune response to the placenta, and suggest how tolerance to placental antigens can be maintained systemically without being detrimental to host defense. PMID:24391885

  15. Placental transfer of ritodrine hydrochloride in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Seiichiro; Akahane, Masuo; Uzuki Katsuya; Inagawa, Akira; Sakai, Keiichiro; Sakai, Akira

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the placental passage of ritodrine hydrochloride in relation to the drug's effects on the fetal circulation. Studies were carried out on nine mulliparous pregnant (120-140 days) ewes with chronically implanted cannulae of measurements of maternal and fetal arterial pressures and for blood sampling. One group of animals received sequential infusions of doses ranging from 0.1 to 30 μg/kg per min for 30 min (group 1). A second group was given a constant infusion of the drug at a dose of 3.0 μg/kg per min for 4 h (group 2). The peak concentrations of ritodrine in maternal and fetal blood were determined by radioimmunoassay. In group 1 they were 313.4 +- 24.1 ng/ml (mean +-S.E.) and 12.6 +- 3.7 ng/ml at the finish of 30.0 ug/kg per min infusion for maternal and fetal blood, respectively. In group 2, maternal drug levels were 81.3 +- 20.4 ng/ml after 30 min and 95.9 +- 17.1 ng/ml after 4 h of the infusion. Fetal plasma concentrations increased slowly from trace levels at 30 min to 3.3 +- 0.7 ng/ml at 4 h. Fetal blood pressure and heart rate did not show any significant changes during and after the infusion of ritodrine in both treatment groups. The findings demonstrate the maternal administration of ritodrine produces no significant effects on the circulatory system of the fetal lamb because of the low transplacental passage of this drug. (author)

  16. Of mice and women: rodent models of placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Lars; Marinho, Claudio R F; Staalsoe, Trine

    2010-01-01

    Pregnant women are at increased malaria risk. The infections are characterized by placental accumulation of infected erythrocytes (IEs) with adverse consequences for mother and baby. Placental IE sequestration in the intervillous space is mediated by variant surface antigens (VSAs) selectively...... expressed in placental malaria (PM) and specific for chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). In Plasmodium falciparum, these VSA(PM) appear largely synonymous with the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family variant VAR2CSA. As rodent malaria parasites do not possess PfEMP1 homologs......, the usefulness of experimental mouse PM models remains controversial. However, many features of murine and human PM are similar, including involvement of VSAs analogous to PfEMP1. It thus appears that rodent model studies can further the understanding of VSA-dependent malaria pathogenesis and immunity....

  17. Indications of anti-HY immunity in recurrent placental abruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Mogensen, Marie; Steffensen, Rudi

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM: Placental abruption is a potential life-threatening condition for both the fetus and the mother, being significantly more common in pregnancies with male fetuses. The pathogenesis of placental abruption remains unknown. However, some recent reports point toward a maternal immune response...... the fetus died. Seven patients (88%) had first-born boys, and 15 abruptions (68%) involved male fetuses. All patients with a first-born boy, except one, had HLA-class II alleles known to restrict CD4+ T-cell responses against male-specific minor histocompatibility (HY)-antigens (HLA-DRB1*15, HLA-DRB3...... abruption is exclusively almost preceded by the birth of a boy and the majority of patients have HLA-class II known to restrict CD4 T-cell reactions against HY-antigens. This indicates that maternal immunological responses against HY-antigens play a role in recurrent placental abruption. Udgivelsesdato...

  18. Intentional placental removal on suspicious placenta accreta spectrum: still prohibited?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Shigeki; Takahashi, Hironori

    2018-01-01

    Intentional placental removal for abnormally invasive placenta (AIP) is fundamentally abandoned at planned surgery for it. Whether this holds true even after recent introduction of various hemostatic procedures is unclear. We discussed on this issue based on our own experiences and also on the recent reports on various hemostatic procedures. Studies directly answering this question have been lacking. We must weigh the balance between the massive bleeding and possibility of uterus-preservation when intentional placental removal strategy is employed. An almost forgotten strategy, the "intentional placental removal" for planned AIP surgery may regain its position when appropriate hemostatic procedures are concomitantly used depending on the situation. Even employing this strategy, quick decision to perform hysterectomy under multidisciplinary team may be important.

  19. Pulmonary Function Testing After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy to the Lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishawi, Muath [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Kim, Bong [Division of Radiology, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Moore, William H. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Bilfinger, Thomas V., E-mail: Thomas.bilfinger@stonybrook.edu [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical resection remains the standard of care for operable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some patients are not fit for surgery because of comorbidites such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other medical conditions. We aimed to evaluate pulmonary function and tumor volume before and after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with and without COPD in early-stage lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A review of prospectively collected data of Stage I and II lung cancers, all treated with SBRT, was performed. The total SBRT treatment was 60 Gy administered in three 20 Gy fractions. The patients were analyzed based on their COPD status, using their pretreatment pulmonary function test cutoffs as established by the American Thoracic Society guidelines (forced expiratory volume [FEV]% {<=}50% predicted, FEV%/forced vital capacity [FVC]% {<=}70%). Changes in tumor volume were also assessed by computed tomography. Results: Of a total of 30 patients with Stage I and II lung cancer, there were 7 patients in the COPD group (4 men, 3 women), and 23 in t he No-COPD group (9 men, 14 women). At a mean follow-up time of 4 months, for the COPD and No-COPD patients, pretreatment and posttreatment FEV% was similar: 39 {+-} 5 vs. 40 {+-} 9 (p = 0.4) and 77 {+-} 0.5 vs. 73 {+-} 24 (p = 0.9), respectively. The diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) did significantly increase for the No-COPD group after SBRT treatment: 60 {+-} 24 vs. 69 {+-} 22 (p = 0.022); however, DL{sub CO} was unchanged for the COPD group: 49 {+-} 13 vs. 50 {+-} 14 (p = 0.8). Although pretreatment tumor volume was comparable for both groups, tumor volume significantly shrank in the No-COPD group from 19 {+-} 24 to 9 {+-} 16 (p < 0.001), and there was a trend in the COPD patients from 12 {+-} 9 to 6 {+-} 5 (p = 0.06). Conclusion: SBRT did not seem to have an effect on FEV{sub 1} and FVC, but it shrank tumor volume and

  20. Pulmonary Function Testing After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy to the Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishawi, Muath; Kim, Bong; Moore, William H.; Bilfinger, Thomas V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical resection remains the standard of care for operable early-stage non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some patients are not fit for surgery because of comorbidites such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other medical conditions. We aimed to evaluate pulmonary function and tumor volume before and after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with and without COPD in early-stage lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A review of prospectively collected data of Stage I and II lung cancers, all treated with SBRT, was performed. The total SBRT treatment was 60 Gy administered in three 20 Gy fractions. The patients were analyzed based on their COPD status, using their pretreatment pulmonary function test cutoffs as established by the American Thoracic Society guidelines (forced expiratory volume [FEV]% ≤50% predicted, FEV%/forced vital capacity [FVC]% ≤70%). Changes in tumor volume were also assessed by computed tomography. Results: Of a total of 30 patients with Stage I and II lung cancer, there were 7 patients in the COPD group (4 men, 3 women), and 23 in t he No-COPD group (9 men, 14 women). At a mean follow-up time of 4 months, for the COPD and No-COPD patients, pretreatment and posttreatment FEV% was similar: 39 ± 5 vs. 40 ± 9 (p = 0.4) and 77 ± 0.5 vs. 73 ± 24 (p = 0.9), respectively. The diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DL CO ) did significantly increase for the No-COPD group after SBRT treatment: 60 ± 24 vs. 69 ± 22 (p = 0.022); however, DL CO was unchanged for the COPD group: 49 ± 13 vs. 50 ± 14 (p = 0.8). Although pretreatment tumor volume was comparable for both groups, tumor volume significantly shrank in the No-COPD group from 19 ± 24 to 9 ± 16 (p 1 and FVC, but it shrank tumor volume and improved DL CO for patients without COPD.

  1. Placental Drug Transport-on-a-Chip: A Microengineered In Vitro Model of Transporter-Mediated Drug Efflux in the Human Placental Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Cassidy; Yi, Yoon-Suk; Ma, Lin; Tess, Emily R; Farrell, Megan J; Georgescu, Andrei; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Huh, Dongeun

    2018-01-01

    The current lack of knowledge about the effect of maternally administered drugs on the developing fetus is a major public health concern worldwide. The first critical step toward predicting the safety of medications in pregnancy is to screen drug compounds for their ability to cross the placenta. However, this type of preclinical study has been hampered by the limited capacity of existing in vitro and ex vivo models to mimic physiological drug transport across the maternal-fetal interface in the human placenta. Here the proof-of-principle for utilizing a microengineered model of the human placental barrier to simulate and investigate drug transfer from the maternal to the fetal circulation is demonstrated. Using the gestational diabetes drug glyburide as a model compound, it is shown that the microphysiological system is capable of reconstituting efflux transporter-mediated active transport function of the human placental barrier to limit fetal exposure to maternally administered drugs. The data provide evidence that the placenta-on-a-chip may serve as a new screening platform to enable more accurate prediction of drug transport in the human placenta. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Web-based education for placental complications of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melissa G; Windrim, Catherine; Ellul, Katie N; Kingdom, John C P

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a web-based education strategy could improve maternal knowledge of placental complications of pregnancy and reduce maternal anxiety in high risk-pregnancies. Prospective study in the Placenta Clinic at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario. Maternal demographics and Internet usage were recorded at the patient's baseline appointment. Placental knowledge was determined using structured verbal and illustrative assessments. The six-item State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was administered to assess baseline maternal anxiety. Women were asked to visit the Placenta Clinic website for a minimum of 15 minutes before their follow-up appointment, at which time their placental knowledge and STAI assessments were repeated. Eighteen women were included in the study. Patient knowledge at the baseline appointment was generally poor (median score 10.5 out of a maximum score of 27, range 1 to 22), with major deficits in basic placental knowledge, placenta previa/increta, and preeclampsia. At the follow-up appointment, placental knowledge was significantly improved (median score 23, range 10 to 27; P Educational status (high school or less vs. college or more) had no effect on either baseline knowledge or knowledge improvement. Maternal anxiety at baseline (median score 12 out of a maximum score of 24, range 6 to 23) was significantly reduced at the follow-up appointment (median score 8.5, range 6 to 20; P = 0.005). Deficits in maternal knowledge of placental complications of pregnancy in high-risk pregnant women were substantial but easily rectified with a disease-targeted web-based educational resource. This intervention significantly improved patient knowledge and significantly reduced maternal anxiety.

  3. Loss of Thrombomodulin in Placental Dysfunction in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rosanne J; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Bruijn, Jan A; Baelde, Hans J

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by placental dysfunction and an angiogenic imbalance. Systemically, levels of thrombomodulin, an endothelium- and syncytiotrophoblast-bound protein that regulates coagulation, inflammation, apoptosis, and tissue remodeling, are increased. We aimed to investigate placental thrombomodulin dysregulation and consequent downstream effects in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Placentas from 28 preeclampsia pregnancies, 30 uncomplicated pregnancies, and 21 pregnancies complicated by growth restriction as extra controls were included. Immunohistochemical staining of thrombomodulin, caspase-3, and fibrin was performed. Placental mRNA expression of thrombomodulin, inflammatory markers, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, and soluble Flt-1 were measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Thrombomodulin mRNA expression was determined in vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected trophoblast cell lines. Thrombomodulin protein and mRNA expression were decreased in preeclampsia as compared with both control groups (P=0.001). Thrombomodulin mRNA expression correlated with maternal body mass index (Ppreeclampsia. An increase in placental apoptotic cells was associated with preeclampsia (Ppreeclampsia, but not with fibrin deposits or inflammatory markers. Placental soluble Flt-1 expression correlated with decreased thrombomodulin expression. Vascular endothelial growth factor induced upregulation of thrombomodulin expression in trophoblast cells. Decreased thrombomodulin expression in preeclampsia may play a role in placental dysfunction in preeclampsia and is possibly caused by an angiogenic imbalance. Hypertension and obesity are associated with thrombomodulin downregulation. These results set the stage for further basic and clinical research on thrombomodulin in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and other syndromes characterized by endothelial dysfunction. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Correlation of ultrasound estimated placental volume and umbilical cord blood volume in term pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannopnut, Papinwit; Kitporntheranunt, Maethaphan; Paritakul, Panwara; Kongsomboon, Kittipong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between ultrasound measured placental volume and collected umbilical cord blood (UCB) volume in term pregnancy. An observational cross-sectional study of term singleton pregnant women in the labor ward at Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center was conducted. Placental thickness, height, and width were measured using two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound and calculated for placental volume using the volumetric mathematic model. After the delivery of the baby, UCB was collected and measured for its volume immediately. Then, birth weight, placental weight, and the actual placental volume were analyzed. The Pearson's correlation was used to determine the correlation between each two variables. A total of 35 pregnant women were eligible for the study. The mean and standard deviation of estimated placental volume and actual placental volume were 534±180 mL and 575±118 mL, respectively. The median UCB volume was 140 mL (range 98-220 mL). The UCB volume did not have a statistically significant correlation with the estimated placental volume (correlation coefficient 0.15; p=0.37). However, the UCB volume was significantly correlated with the actual placental volume (correlation coefficient 0.62; pcorrelation coefficient 0.38; p=0.02). The estimated placental volume by 2D ultrasound was not significantly correlated with the UCB volume. Further studies to establish the correlation between the UCB volume and the estimated placental volume using other types of placental imaging may be needed.

  5. PWR primary system chemistry control during hot functional testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Richard D.; Little, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Hot Functional Testing (HFT) involves a number of pre-operational exercises performed to confirm the operability of plant systems at conditions expected during both normal and off-normal operation of a pressurized water reactor (PWR), including operability of safety systems. While the primary purposes of HFT are to demonstrate operability of plant systems and satisfy regulatory requirements, chemistry control during HFT is important to long-term integrity and performance of plant systems. Specifically, HFT is the first time plant equipment is exposed to high temperature water and the chemistry maintained during HFT can impact the passivation layers that form on wetted surfaces and long-term release of metals from these surfaces. Metals released from the inner surfaces of steam generator tubing and reactor coolant loop piping become activated in the core and can redeposit on ex-core surfaces. Because HFT is performed before fuel is loaded in the core, HFT provides an opportunity to produce a passive layer on primary surfaces that is free of activated corrosion products, resistant to metals release during subsequent plant operation, and also resistant to incorporation of activated corrosion products (once fuel is loaded in the core). Thus, maintaining desirable primary chemistry control during HFT is important for source term management, minimization of future shutdown activity releases, minimization of dose rates, and asset preservation. This paper presents an overview of passive film formation in the austenitic stainless steel and high nickel alloys that make up the majority of the primary circuit in advanced PWR designs. Based on this information, a summary is provided of the effects on passive film formation of key chemistry parameters that may be controlled during HFT. (author)

  6. Altered placental development in undernourished rats: role of maternal glucocorticoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chun-Hung

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Maternal undernutrition (MUN during pregnancy may lead to fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, which itself predisposes to adult risk of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. IUGR may stem from insufficient maternal nutrient supply or reduced placental nutrient transfer. In addition, a critical role for maternal stress-induced glucocorticoids (GCs has been suggested to contribute to both IUGR and the ensuing risk of adult metabolic syndrome. While GC-induced fetal organ defects have been examined, there have been few studies on placental responses to MUN-induced maternal stress. Therefore, we hypothesize that 50% MUN associates with increased maternal GC levels and decreased placental HSD11B. This in turn leads to decreased placental and fetal growth, hence the need to investigate nutrient transporters. We measured maternal serum levels of corticosterone, and the placental basal and labyrinth zone expression of glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1, 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase B 1 (HSD11B-1 predominantly activates cortisone to cortisol and 11-dehydrocorticosterone (11-DHC to corticosterone, although can sometimes drive the opposing (inactivating reaction, and HSD11B-2 (only inactivates and converts corticosterone to 11-DHC in rodents in control and MUN rats at embryonic day 20 (E20. Moreover, we evaluated the expression of nutrient transporters for glucose (SLC2A1, SLC2A3 and amino acids (SLC38A1, 2, and 4. Our results show that MUN dams displayed significantly increased plasma corticosterone levels compared to control dams. Further, a reduction in fetal and placental weights was observed in both the mid-horn and proximal-horn positions. Notably, the placental labyrinth zone, the site of feto-maternal exchange, showed decreased expression of HSD11B1-2 in both horns, and increased HSD11B-1 in proximal-horn placentas, but no change in NR3C1. The reduced placental GCs catabolic capacity was accompanied by downregulation of SLC2A3, SLC

  7. Metallothionein expression in placental tissue in Menkes' disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hærslev, T.; Krag Jacobsen, G.; Horn, N.

    1995-01-01

    . The avidin-biotin-complex (ABC)-technique was used. The copper content was measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA). In all placental tissue sections positive MT immunostaining appeared only in the trophoblast and only in proliferating cells. In placental tissue sections obtained from foetuses...... and children affected by Menkes' disease an additional MT immunostaining appeared in the Hofbauer cells of the chorionic villi. This staining was associated with an increased content of copper as measured by NAA. We conclude that the immunohistochemical demonstration of MT reflects the copper content and may...

  8. Placental histopathological changes associated with Plasmodium vivax infection during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M Souza

    Full Text Available Histological evidence of Plasmodium in the placenta is indicative of placental malaria, a condition associated with severe outcomes for mother and child. Histological lesions found in placentas from Plasmodium-exposed women include syncytial knotting, syncytial rupture, thickening of the placental barrier, necrosis of villous tissue and intervillositis. These histological changes have been associated with P. falciparum infections, but little is known about the contribution of P. vivax to such changes. We conducted a cross-sectional study with pregnant women at delivery and assigned them to three groups according to their Plasmodium exposure during pregnancy: no Plasmodium exposure (n = 41, P. vivax exposure (n = 59 or P. falciparum exposure (n = 19. We evaluated their placentas for signs of Plasmodium and placental lesions using ten histological parameters: syncytial knotting, syncytial rupture, placental barrier thickness, villi necrosis, intervillous space area, intervillous leucocytes, intervillous mononucleates, intervillous polymorphonucleates, parasitized erythrocytes and hemozoin. Placentas from P. vivax-exposed women showed little evidence of Plasmodium or hemozoin but still exhibited more lesions than placentas from women not exposed to Plasmodium, especially when infections occurred twice or more during pregnancy. In the Brazilian state of Acre, where diagnosis and primary treatment are readily available and placental lesions occur in the absence of detected placental parasites, relying on the presence of Plasmodium in the placenta to evaluate Plasmodium-induced placental pathology is not feasible. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that syncytial knotting (odds ratio [OR], 4.21, P = 0.045, placental barrier thickness (OR, 25.59, P = 0.021 and mononuclear cells (OR, 4.02, P = 0.046 were increased in placentas from P. vivax-exposed women when compared to women not exposed to Plasmodium during pregnancy. A

  9. Infant sex-specific placental cadmium and DNA methylation associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, April F., E-mail: april.mohanty@va.gov [Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Farin, Fred M., E-mail: freddy@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Bammler, Theo K., E-mail: tbammler@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); MacDonald, James W., E-mail: jmacdon@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Afsharinejad, Zahra, E-mail: zafshari@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Burbacher, Thomas M., E-mail: tmb@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Box: 357234, 1705 N.E. Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Siscovick, David S., E-mail: dsiscovick@nyam.org [Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that maternal cadmium (Cd) burden and fetal growth associations may vary by fetal sex. However, mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. Objectives: Among 24 maternal-infant pairs, we investigated infant sex-specific associations between placental Cd and placental genome-wide DNA methylation. Methods: We used ANOVA models to examine sex-stratified associations of placental Cd (dichotomized into high/low Cd using sex-specific Cd median cutoffs) with DNA methylation at each cytosine-phosphate-guanine site or region. Statistical significance was defined using a false discovery rate cutoff (<0.10). Results: Medians of placental Cd among females and males were 5 and 2 ng/g, respectively. Among females, three sites (near ADP-ribosylation factor-like 9 (ARL9), siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3 (SIAH3), and heparin sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 4 (HS3ST4) and one region on chromosome 7 (including carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CROT) and TP5S target 1 (TP53TG1)) were hypomethylated in high Cd placentas. Among males, high placental Cd was associated with methylation of three sites, two (hypomethylated) near MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) and one (hypermethylated) near spalt-like transcription factor 1 (SALL1), and two regions (both hypomethylated, one on chromosome 3 including MECOM and another on chromosome 8 including rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10 (ARHGEF10). Differentially methylated sites were at or close to transcription start sites of genes involved in cell damage response (SIAH3, HS3ST4, TP53TG1) in females and cell differentiation, angiogenesis and organ development (MECOM, SALL1) in males. Conclusions: Our preliminary study supports infant sex-specific placental Cd-DNA methylation associations, possibly accounting for previously reported differences in Cd-fetal growth associations across fetal sex. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these

  10. Early studies of placental ultrastructure by electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Enders, A C

    2016-01-01

    many other scientists to Washington University in St. Louis. Work on human placental ultrastructure was initiated at Cambridge and Kyoto whilst domestic animals were initially studied by Björkman in Stockholm and electron micrographs of bat placenta were published by Wimsatt of Cornell University......BACKGROUND: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was first applied to study placental ultrastructure in the 1950's. We review those early studies and mention the scientists that employed or encouraged the use of TEM. FINDINGS: Among the pioneers Edward W. Dempsey was a key figure who attracted...

  11. Infant sex-specific placental cadmium and DNA methylation associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, April F.; Farin, Fred M.; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Afsharinejad, Zahra; Burbacher, Thomas M.; Siscovick, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that maternal cadmium (Cd) burden and fetal growth associations may vary by fetal sex. However, mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. Objectives: Among 24 maternal-infant pairs, we investigated infant sex-specific associations between placental Cd and placental genome-wide DNA methylation. Methods: We used ANOVA models to examine sex-stratified associations of placental Cd (dichotomized into high/low Cd using sex-specific Cd median cutoffs) with DNA methylation at each cytosine-phosphate-guanine site or region. Statistical significance was defined using a false discovery rate cutoff (<0.10). Results: Medians of placental Cd among females and males were 5 and 2 ng/g, respectively. Among females, three sites (near ADP-ribosylation factor-like 9 (ARL9), siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3 (SIAH3), and heparin sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 4 (HS3ST4) and one region on chromosome 7 (including carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CROT) and TP5S target 1 (TP53TG1)) were hypomethylated in high Cd placentas. Among males, high placental Cd was associated with methylation of three sites, two (hypomethylated) near MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) and one (hypermethylated) near spalt-like transcription factor 1 (SALL1), and two regions (both hypomethylated, one on chromosome 3 including MECOM and another on chromosome 8 including rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10 (ARHGEF10). Differentially methylated sites were at or close to transcription start sites of genes involved in cell damage response (SIAH3, HS3ST4, TP53TG1) in females and cell differentiation, angiogenesis and organ development (MECOM, SALL1) in males. Conclusions: Our preliminary study supports infant sex-specific placental Cd-DNA methylation associations, possibly accounting for previously reported differences in Cd-fetal growth associations across fetal sex. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these

  12. Placental macrophage contact potentiates the complete replicative cycle of human cytomegalovirus in syncytiotrophoblast cells: role of interleukin-8 and transforming growth factor-beta1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bácsi, A; Aranyosi, J; Beck, Z; Ebbesen, P; Andirkó, I; Szabó, J; Lampé, L; Kiss, J; Gergely, L; Tóth, F D

    1999-10-01

    Although syncytiotrophoblast (ST) cells can be infected by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), in vitro studies have indicated that ST cells do not support the complete viral reproductive cycle, or HCMV replication may occur in less than 3% of ST cells. The present study tested the possibility that placental macrophages might enhance activation of HCMV carried in ST cells and, further, that infected ST cells would be capable of transmitting virus to neighboring macrophages. For this purpose, we studied HCMV replication in ST cells grown alone or cocultured with uninfected placental macrophages. Our results demonstrated that HCMV gene expression in ST cells was markedly upregulated by coculture with macrophages, resulting in release of substantial amounts of infectious virus from HCMV-infected ST cells. After having become permissive for viral replication, ST cells delivered HCMV to the cocultured macrophages, as evidenced by detection of virus-specific antigens in these cells. The stimulatory effect of coculture on HCMV gene expression in ST cells was mediated by marked interleukin-8 (IL-8) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) release from macrophages, an effect caused by contact between the different placental cells. Our findings indicate an interactive role for the ST layer and placental macrophages in the dissemination of HCMV among placental tissue. Eventually, these interactions may contribute to the transmission of HCMV from mother to the fetus.

  13. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Maternal exposure to carbamazepine at environmental concentrations can cross intestinal and placental barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, Gaurav, E-mail: kausgaur@isu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Stop 8007, 921 S 8th Ave, Pocatello, ID 83209-8007 (United States); Department of Medical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95817 (United States); Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Northern California, 2425 Stockton Boulevard, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Huber, David P., E-mail: hubedavi@isu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Stop 8007, 921 S 8th Ave, Pocatello, ID 83209-8007 (United States); Aho, Ken, E-mail: ahoken@isu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Stop 8007, 921 S 8th Ave, Pocatello, ID 83209-8007 (United States); Finney, Bruce, E-mail: finney@isu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Stop 8007, 921 S 8th Ave, Pocatello, ID 83209-8007 (United States); Bearden, Shawn, E-mail: bearshaw@isu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Stop 8007, 921 S 8th Ave, Pocatello, ID 83209-8007 (United States); Zarbalis, Konstantinos S., E-mail: kzarbalis@ucdavis.edu [Department of Medical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95817 (United States); Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Northern California, 2425 Stockton Boulevard, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Thomas, Michael A., E-mail: mthomas@isu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Stop 8007, 921 S 8th Ave, Pocatello, ID 83209-8007 (United States)

    2016-05-27

    Psychoactive pharmaceuticals have been found as teratogens at clinical dosage during pregnancy. These pharmaceuticals have also been detected in minute (ppb) concentrations in drinking water in the US, and are environmental contaminants that may be complicit in triggering neurological disorders in genetically susceptible individuals. Previous studies have determined that psychoactive pharmaceuticals (fluoxetine, venlafaxine and carbamazepine) at environmentally relevant concentrations enriched sets of genes regulating development and function of the nervous system in fathead minnows. Altered gene sets were also associated with potential neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Subsequent in vitro studies indicated that psychoactive pharmaceuticals altered ASD-associated synaptic protein expression and gene expression in human neuronal cells. However, it is unknown if environmentally relevant concentrations of these pharmaceuticals are able to cross biological barriers from mother to fetus, thus potentially posing risks to nervous system development. The main objective of this study was to test whether psychoactive pharmaceuticals (fluoxetine, venlafaxine, and carbamazepine) administered through the drinking water at environmental concentrations to pregnant mice could reach the brain of the developing embryo by crossing intestinal and placental barriers. We addressed this question by adding {sup 2}H-isotope labeled pharmaceuticals to the drinking water of female mice for 20 days (10 pre-and 10 post–conception days), and quantifying {sup 2}H-isotope enrichment signals in the dam liver and brain of developing embryos using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Significant levels of {sup 2}H enrichment was detected in the brain of embryos and livers of carbamazepine-treated mice but not in those of control dams, or for fluoxetine or venlafaxine application. These results provide the first evidence that carbamazepine in drinking water and at

  15. Maternal exposure to carbamazepine at environmental concentrations can cross intestinal and placental barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Gaurav; Huber, David P.; Aho, Ken; Finney, Bruce; Bearden, Shawn; Zarbalis, Konstantinos S.; Thomas, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Psychoactive pharmaceuticals have been found as teratogens at clinical dosage during pregnancy. These pharmaceuticals have also been detected in minute (ppb) concentrations in drinking water in the US, and are environmental contaminants that may be complicit in triggering neurological disorders in genetically susceptible individuals. Previous studies have determined that psychoactive pharmaceuticals (fluoxetine, venlafaxine and carbamazepine) at environmentally relevant concentrations enriched sets of genes regulating development and function of the nervous system in fathead minnows. Altered gene sets were also associated with potential neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Subsequent in vitro studies indicated that psychoactive pharmaceuticals altered ASD-associated synaptic protein expression and gene expression in human neuronal cells. However, it is unknown if environmentally relevant concentrations of these pharmaceuticals are able to cross biological barriers from mother to fetus, thus potentially posing risks to nervous system development. The main objective of this study was to test whether psychoactive pharmaceuticals (fluoxetine, venlafaxine, and carbamazepine) administered through the drinking water at environmental concentrations to pregnant mice could reach the brain of the developing embryo by crossing intestinal and placental barriers. We addressed this question by adding "2H-isotope labeled pharmaceuticals to the drinking water of female mice for 20 days (10 pre-and 10 post–conception days), and quantifying "2H-isotope enrichment signals in the dam liver and brain of developing embryos using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Significant levels of "2H enrichment was detected in the brain of embryos and livers of carbamazepine-treated mice but not in those of control dams, or for fluoxetine or venlafaxine application. These results provide the first evidence that carbamazepine in drinking water and at typical

  16. HSPC117 deficiency in cloned embryos causes placental abnormality and fetal death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yingying; Hai, Tang; Liu, Zichuan; Zhou, Shuya; Lv, Zhuo; Ding, Chenhui; Liu, Lei; Niu, Yuyu; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Tong, Man; Wang, Liu; Jouneau, Alice; Zhang, Xun; Ji, Weizhi; Zhou, Qi

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been successfully used in many species to produce live cloned offspring, albeit with low efficiency. The low frequency of successful development has usually been ascribed to incomplete or inappropriate reprogramming of the transferred nuclear genome. Elucidating the genetic differences between normal fertilized and cloned embryos is key to understand the low efficiency of SCNT. Here, we show that expression of HSPC117, which encodes a hypothetical protein of unknown function, was absent or very low in cloned mouse blastocysts. To investigate the role of HSPC117 in embryo development, we knocked-down this gene in normal fertilized embryos using RNA interference. We assessed the post-implantation survival of HSPC117 knock-down embryos at 3 stages: E9 (prior to placenta formation); E12 (after the placenta was fully functional) and E19 (post-natal). Our results show that, although siRNA-treated in vivo fertilized/produced (IVP) embryos could develop to the blastocyst stage and implanted without any difference from control embryos, the knock-down embryos showed substantial fetal death, accompanied by placental blood clotting, at E12. Furthermore, comparison of HSPC117 expression in placentas of nuclear transfer (NT), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and IVP embryos confirmed that HSPC117 deficiency correlates well with failures in embryo development: all NT embryos with a fetus, as well as IVP and ICSI embryos, had normal placental HSPC117 expression while those NT embryos showing reduced or no expression of HSPC117 failed to form a fetus. In conclusion, we show that HSPC117 is an important gene for post-implantation development of embryos, and that HSPC117 deficiency leads to fetal abnormalities after implantation, especially following placental formation. We suggest that defects in HSPC117 expression may be an important contributing factor to loss of cloned NT embryos in vivo.

  17. Endothelial heterogeneity in the umbilico-placental unit: DNA methylation as an innuendo of epigenetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanello, Paola; Schneider, Daniela; Herrera, Emilio A.; Uauy, Ricardo; Krause, Bernardo J.

    2014-01-01

    The endothelium is a multifunctional heterogeneous tissue playing a key role in the physiology of every organ. To accomplish this role the endothelium presents a phenotypic diversity that is early prompted during vascular development, allowing it to cope with specific requirements in a time- and site-specific manner. During the last decade several reports show that endothelial diversity is also present in the umbilico-placental vasculature, with differences between macro- and microvascular vessels as well as arterial and venous endothelium. This diversity is evidenced in vitro as a higher angiogenic capacity in the microcirculation; or disparity in the levels of several molecules that control endothelial function (i.e., receptor for growth factors, vasoactive mediators, and adhesion molecules) which frequently are differentially expressed between arterial and venous endothelium. Emerging evidence suggests that endothelial diversity would be prominently driven by epigenetic mechanisms which also control the basal expression of endothelial-specific genes. This review outlines evidence for endothelial diversity since early stages of vascular development and how this heterogeneity is expressed in the umbilico-placental vasculature. Furthermore a brief picture of epigenetic mechanisms and their role on endothelial physiology emphasizing new data on umbilical and placental endothelial cells is presented. Unraveling the role of epigenetic mechanisms on long term endothelial physiology and its functional diversity would contribute to develop more accurate therapeutic interventions. Altogether these data show that micro- versus macro-vascular, or artery versus vein comparisons are an oversimplification of the complexity occurring in the endothelium at different levels, and the necessity for the future research to establish the precise source of cells which are under study. PMID:24723887

  18. Endothelial heterogeneity in the umbilico-placental unit: DNA methylation as an innuendo of epigenetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eCasanello

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The endothelium is a multifunctional heterogeneous tissue playing a key role in the physiology of every organ. To accomplish this role the endothelium presents a phenotypic diversity that is early prompted during vascular development, allowing it to cope with specific requirements in a time- and site-specific manner. During the last decade several reports show that endothelial diversity is also present in the umbilico-placental vasculature, with differences between macro- and microvascular vessels as well as arterial and venous endothelium. This diversity is evidenced in vitro as a higher angiogenic capacity in the microcirculation; or disparity in the levels of several molecules that control endothelial function (i.e. receptor for growth factors, vasoactive mediators and adhesion molecules which frequently are differentially expressed between arterial and venous endothelium. Emerging evidence suggests that endothelial diversity would be prominently driven by epigenetic mechanisms which also control the basal expression of endothelial-specific genes. This review outlines evidence for endothelial diversity since early stages of vascular development and how this heterogeneity is expressed in the umbilico-placental vasculature. Furthermore a brief picture of epigenetic mechanisms and their role on endothelial physiology emphasising new data on umbilical and placental endothelial cells is presented. Unravelling the role of epigenetic mechanisms on long-term endothelial physiology and its functional diversity would contribute to develop more accurate therapeutic interventions. Altogether these data show that micro- versus macro-vascular, or artery versus vein comparisons are an oversimplification of the complexity occurring in the endothelium at different levels, and the necessity for the future research to establish the precise source of cells which are under study.

  19. Highly adaptive tests for group differences in brain functional connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghi Kim

    2015-01-01

    The proposed tests combine statistical evidence against a null hypothesis from multiple sources across a range of plausible tuning parameter values reflecting uncertainty with the unknown truth. These highly adaptive tests are not only easy to use, but also high-powered robustly across various scenarios. The usage and advantages of these novel tests are demonstrated on an Alzheimer's disease dataset and simulated data.

  20. The genetics of feto-placental development: A study of acid phosphatase locus 1 and adenosine deaminase polymorphisms in a consecutive series of newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergamaschi Antonio

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acid phosphatase locus 1 and adenosine deaminase locus 1 polymorphisms show cooperative effects on glucose metabolism and immunological functions. The recent observation of cooperation between the two systems on susceptibility to repeated spontaneous miscarriage prompted us to search for possible interactional effects between these genes and the correlation between birth weight and placental weight. Deviation from a balanced development of the feto-placental unit has been found to be associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality and with cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Methods We examined 400 consecutive newborns from the Caucasian population of Rome. Birth weight, placental weight, and gestational length were registered. Acid phosphatase locus 1 and adenosine deaminase locus 1 phenotypes were determined by starch gel electrophoresis and correlation analysis was performed by SPSS programs. Informed verbal consent to participate in the study was obtained from the mothers. Results Highly significant differences in birth weight-placental weight correlations were observed among acid phosphatase locus 1 phenotypes (p = 0.005. The correlation between birth weight and placental weight was markedly elevated in subjects carrying acid phosphatase locus 1 phenotypes with medium-low F isoform concentration (A, CA and CB phenotypes compared to those carrying acid phosphatase locus 1 phenotypes with medium-high F isoform concentration (BA and B phenotypes (p = 0.002. Environmental and developmental variables were found to exert a significant effect on birth weight-placental weight correlation in subjects with medium-high F isoform concentrations, but only a marginal effect was observed in those with medium-low F isoform concentrations. The correlation between birth weight and placental weight is higher among carriers of the adenosine deaminase locus 1 allele*2, which is associated with low activity, than in homozygous adenosine

  1. The Unilateral Below Elbow Test: a function test for children with unilateral congenital below elbow deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Anita M; Molitor, Fred; Wagner, Lisa V; Tomhave, Wendy; James, Michelle A

    2006-07-01

    The Unilateral Below Elbow Test (UBET) was developed to evaluate function in bimanual activities for both the prosthesis wearer and non-wearer. Nine tasks were chosen for each of four age-specific categories defined by development stages of hand function (2-4y, 5-7y, 8-10y, and 11-21y). Two scales, Completion of Task and Method of Use, were designed to rate performance. To measure reliability, four occupational therapists scored samples of videotaped UBET performances. For Completion of Task, an interval scale, agreement in scoring was measured with interclass correlation coefficients (ICC; n=9; five females, four males). For Method of Use, a nominal scale, chance-adjusted association was calculated with Cohen's kappa coefficients (interobserver n=198; 111 females, 87 males; intraobserver n=93; 56 females, 37 males). For Completion of Task, the average ICC was 0.87 for the prosthesis-on condition, and 0.85 for the prosthesis-off condition. ICCs exceeded 0.80 for eight out of nine tasks for the two older age groups, but for only five out of nine tasks in the younger age groups. Higher inter- and intraobserver kappa coefficients for Method of Use resulted when scoring children with their prostheses on versus off. The oldest age group had lower kappa values than the other three groups. The UBET is recommended for the functional evaluation of Completion of Task in children with unilateral congenital below elbow deficiency with and without their prostheses. Method of Use scoring can evaluate individuals for directed therapy interventions or prosthetic training.

  2. Placental Hypoxia During Early Pregnancy Causes Maternal Hypertension and Placental Insufficiency in the Hypoxic Guinea Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Loren P; Pence, Laramie; Pinkas, Gerald; Song, Hong; Telugu, Bhanu P

    2016-12-01

    Chronic placental hypoxia is one of the root causes of placental insufficiencies that result in pre-eclampsia and maternal hypertension. Chronic hypoxia causes disruption of trophoblast (TB) development, invasion into maternal decidua, and remodeling of maternal spiral arteries. The pregnant guinea pig shares several characteristics with humans such as hemomonochorial placenta, villous subplacenta, deep TB invasion, and remodeling of maternal arteries, and is an ideal animal model to study placental development. We hypothesized that chronic placental hypoxia of the pregnant guinea pig inhibits TB invasion and alters spiral artery remodeling. Time-mated pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to either normoxia (NMX) or three levels of hypoxia (HPX: 16%, 12%, or 10.5% O 2 ) from 20 day gestation until midterm (39-40 days) or term (60-65 days). At term, HPX (10.5% O 2 ) increased maternal arterial blood pressure (HPX 57.9 ± 2.3 vs. NMX 40.4 ± 2.3, P < 0.001), decreased fetal weight by 16.1% (P < 0.05), and increased both absolute and relative placenta weights by 10.1% and 31.8%, respectively (P < 0.05). At midterm, there was a significant increase in TB proliferation in HPX placentas as confirmed by increased PCNA and KRT7 staining and elevated ESX1 (TB marker) gene expression (P < 0.05). Additionally, quantitative image analysis revealed decreased invasion of maternal blood vessels by TB cells. In summary, this animal model of placental HPX identifies several aspects of abnormal placental development, including increased TB proliferation and decreased migration and invasion of TBs into the spiral arteries, the consequences of which are associated with maternal hypertension and fetal growth restriction. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  3. Placental Origins of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: Potential Molecular Targets- An Executive Workshop Summary of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilekis, John V.; Tsilou, Ekaterini; Fisher, Susan; Abrahams, Vikki M.; Soares, Michael J.; Cross, James C.; Zamudio, Stacy; Illsley, Nicholas P.; Myatt, Leslie; Colvis, Christine; Costantine, Maged M.; Haas, David M.; Sadovsky, Yoel; Weiner, Carl; Rytting, Erik; Bidwell, Gene

    2016-01-01

    Although much progress is being made in understanding the molecular pathways in the placenta involved in the pathophysiology of pregnancy related disorders, a significant gap exists in utilizing this information for developing new drug therapies to improve pregnancy outcome. On March 5–6, 2015, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health sponsored a two day workshop titled Placental Origins of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: Potential Molecular Targets to begin to address this gap. Particular emphasis was given in the identification of important molecular pathways that could serve as drug targets and the advantages and disadvantages of targeting these particular pathways. This article is a summary of the proceedings of this workshop. A broad number of topics were covered ranging from basic placental biology to clinical trials. This included research in the basic biology of placentation, such as trophoblast migration and spiral artery remodeling, and trophoblast sensing and response to infectious and non-infectious agents. Research findings in these areas will be critical for formulating developing future treatments and developing therapies for the prevention of a number of pregnancy disorders of placental origin including preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and uterine inflammation. Research was also presented summarizing ongoing clinical efforts in the U.S. and in Europe testing novel interventions for preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction, including agents such as oral arginine supplementation, sildenafil, pravastatin, gene therapy using virally-delivered vascular endothelial growth factor, and oxygen supplementation therapy. Strategies were also proposed to improve fetal growth by enhancing nutrient transport to the fetus by modulating their placental transporters, as well as targeting placental mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress to improve placental health. The roles

  4. [The role of oxidative stress in placental-related diseases of pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauniaux, E; Burton, G J

    2016-10-01

    In normal pregnancies, the earliest stages of development take place in a low oxygen (O 2 ) environment. This physiological hypoxia of the early gestational sac protects the developing fetus against the deleterious and teratogenic effects of O 2 free radicals. Oxidative stress is manifested at the maternal-fetal interface from early pregnancy onwards. In early pregnancy, a well-controlled oxidative stress plays a role in modulating placental development, functions and remodelling. Focal trophoblastic oxidative damage and progressive villous degeneration trigger the formation of the fetal membranes, which is an essential developmental step enabling vaginal delivery. Our data have demonstrated that the first trimester placenta in humans is histiotrophic and not haemochorial. The development and maintenance of a physiological O 2 gradient between the uterine and fetal circulations is also essential for placental functions, such as transport and hormonal synthesis. Pathological oxidative stress arises when the production of reactive O 2 species overwhelms the intrinsic anti-oxidant defences causing indiscriminate damage to biological molecules, leading to loss of function and cell death. We here review the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of miscarriage, pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. [The ratio birth-weight, placental weight and the term of delivery. A contribution to the problem of a relative placental insufficiency in late pregnancy (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentin, B

    1976-12-10

    It is suggested, that a relative placental insufficiency in late pregnancy is one of the releasing factors of childbirth. Under this assumption 1027 deliveries in term pregnancy (266th-294th day of pregnancy) were inquired on the interrelationship between the ratio brith-weight: placental-weight and the duration of pregnancy. The average birth-weight increases slighly but significantly with the duration of pregnancy just as the average placental-weight. The average ratio birth-weight: placental-weight decreases significantly: The more unfavorable the ratio birth-weight: placental-weight is, the shorter remains the fetus in utero. This underlines the assumption of a relative placental insufficiency as one of the releasing factors of childbirth.

  6. Comparison of 2-D and 3-D estimates of placental volume in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Christina Y L; Stevenson, Gordon N; Impey, Lawrence; Collins, Sally L

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound estimation of placental volume (PlaV) between 11 and 13 wk has been proposed as part of a screening test for small-for-gestational-age babies. A semi-automated 3-D technique, validated against the gold standard of manual delineation, has been found at this stage of gestation to predict small-for-gestational-age at term. Recently, when used in the third trimester, an estimate obtained using a 2-D technique was found to correlate with placental weight at delivery. Given its greater simplicity, the 2-D technique might be more useful as part of an early screening test. We investigated if the two techniques produced similar results when used in the first trimester. The correlation between PlaV values calculated by the two different techniques was assessed in 139 first-trimester placentas. The agreement on PlaV and derived "standardized placental volume," a dimensionless index correcting for gestational age, was explored with the Mann-Whitney test and Bland-Altman plots. Placentas were categorized into five different shape subtypes, and a subgroup analysis was performed. Agreement was poor for both PlaV and standardized PlaV (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001), with the 2-D technique yielding larger estimates for both indices compared with the 3-D method. The mean difference in standardized PlaV values between the two methods was 0.007 (95% confidence interval: 0.006-0.009). The best agreement was found for regular rectangle-shaped placentas (p = 0.438 and p = 0.408). The poor correlation between the 2-D and 3-D techniques may result from the heterogeneity of placental morphology at this stage of gestation. In early gestation, the simpler 2-D estimates of PlaV do not correlate strongly with those obtained with the validated 3-D technique. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Test Review: Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allee-Smith, Paula J.; Winters, Rebecca R.; Drake, Amanda; Joslin, Amanda K.

    2013-01-01

    The Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS), authored by Russell A. Barkley and published by Guilford in 2011, is an individually administered assessment tool that may be used to evaluate adults ages 18 to 81. The purpose of this measure is to screen those who may be experiencing executive functioning (EF) deficits in…

  8. 75 FR 50853 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... airplanes. 1. Function and Reliability Testing. Flight tests: In place of 14 CFR 21.35(b)(2), the following...; Function and Reliability Testing AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special... to CAR part 3 became effective January 15, 1951, and deleted the service test requirements in Section...

  9. Comparison of Esophageal Function Tests in Chinese Patients with Functional Heartburn and Reflux Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the differences in the results of esophageal function tests for functional heartburn (FH and reflux hypersensitivity (RH. Methods. Patients with FH and RH and healthy volunteers (HVs from the Department of Gastroenterology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital and Beijing Chao-Yang hospital, who underwent high-resolution manometry and impedance (HRIM, and 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH recording (MII/pH between 2014 and 2016, were enrolled in this study. Results. 36 HV, 147 FH patients, and 91 RH patients were enrolled. The postreflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave index (PSPW index and mean nocturnal baseline impedance (MNBI values were significantly lower in RH than in FH and HV. The ineffective esophageal motility (IEM, fragmented peristalsis rates, total bolus exposure, proximal total reflux events, and distal total reflux events were significantly greater in RH than in FH and HV. Conclusions. Compared to HV and FH patients, RH patients exhibited greater IEM and fragmented peristalsis rates, a greater total bolus exposure, more proximal total and distal total reflux events, and reduced chemical clearance and mucosal integrity. By using the above described parameters, HRIM and MII/pH assays could be used to correctly classify RH and FH and hence allow physicians to provide adequate relief from associated symptoms.

  10. Analysis of IgG with specificity for variant surface antigens expressed by placental Plasmodium falciparum isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khattab, Ayman; Reinhardt, Christina; Staalsoe, Trine

    2004-01-01

    isolates of Gabonese and Senegalese origin tested on plasma samples from Gabon showed parity dependency and gender specificity patterns. There was a significant correlation of plasma reactivity as measured by flow cytometry between different placental isolates. In the plasma of infected primiparous women......, VSAPAM-specific IgG measured by flow cytometry could be correlated with anti-adhesion antibodies measured by the inhibition of CSA binding. CONCLUSION: Recognition of placental parasites shows a parity- and sex- dependent pattern, like that previously observed in laboratory strains selected to bind...

  11. Characterization of chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis in placental cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulsbury, Marilyn D.; Heyliger, Simone O.; Wang, Kaiyu; Round, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism by which chlorpyrifos exerts its toxicity in fetal and perinatal animals has yet to be elucidated. Since the placenta is responsible for transport of nutrients and is a major supplier hormone to the fetus, exposure to xenobiotics that alter the function or viability of placenta cells could ostensibly alter the development of the fetus. In this study, JAR cells were used to determine if CPF and the metabolites 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO) are toxic to the placenta. Our results indicate that chlorpyrifos (CPF), and its metabolite chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO) caused a dose-dependent reduction in cellular viability with CPF being more toxic than its metabolites. Chlorpyrifos-induced toxicity was characterized by the loss of mitochondrial potential, the appearance of nuclear condensation and fragmentation, down-regulation of Bcl-2 as well as up-regulation of TNFα and FAS mRNA. Pharmacological inhibition of FAS, nicotinic and TNF-α receptors did not attenuate CPF-induced toxicity. Atropine exhibited minimal ability to reverse toxicity. Furthermore, signal transduction inhibitors PD98059, SP600125, LY294002 and U0126 failed to attenuate toxicity; however, SB202190 (inhibitor of p38α and p38ss MAPK) sensitized cells to CPF-induced toxicity. Pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh produced a slight but significant reversal of CPF-induced toxicity indicating that the major caspase pathways are not integral to CPF-induced toxicity. Taken collectively, these results suggest that chlorpyrifos induces apoptosis in placental cells through pathways not dependent on FAS/TNF signaling, activation of caspases or inhibition of cholinesterase. In addition, our data further indicates that activation of p38 MAPK is integral to the protection cells against CPF-induced injury

  12. Reference interval determination of hemoglobin fractions in umbilical cord and placental blood by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bó, Suzane Dal; de Oliveira Lemos, Fabiane Kreutz; Pedrazzani, Fabiane Spagnol; Cagliari, Cláudia Rosa; Scotti, Luciana

    2016-04-01

    Umbilical cord and placental blood (UCPB) is a rich source of hematopoietic stem cells widely used to treat diseases that did not have effective treatments until recently. Umbilical cord and placental blood banks (UCPBBs) are needed to be created to store UCPB. UCPB is collected immediately after birth, processed, and frozen until infusion. Detection of abnormal hemoglobins is one of UCPB screening tests available. The objective of the present study was to determine the reference interval for HbA, HbF, and HbA2 in UCPB using capillary electrophoresis. Methods: Observational retrospective study of UCPB samples undergoing hemoglobin electrophoresis was performed between April 2012 and May 2013. We analyzed 273 UCPB samples. All cords met the criteria of BrasilCORD. We found 19.9% (10.5–36.7%) for HbA, 80.1% (62.7–89.4%) for HbF, and 0.1% (0.0–0.6%) for HbA2. Data were expressed as median (P2.5–P97.5). Establishing specific reference intervals is the best option for most tests because such ranges reflect the status of the population in which the tests will be applied. The use of appropriate reference intervals ensures that clinical labs provide reliable information, thus enabling clinicians to correctly interpret results and choose the best approach for the target population.

  13. Prevalence and predictors of placental malaria in human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-16

    Feb 16, 2016 ... development of placental malaria in HIV‑positive women (odds ratio: 21.60; 95% ..... Marital status. Single. 6 (5.9). 4 (3.9). Married. 96 (94.1). 98 (96.1) ... χ2=16.65; df=2; P=<0.001. df=Degrees of freedom; HIV=Human.

  14. Placental transfer and distribution of 241Am in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, S.; Takizawa, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The placental transfer and distribution of 241 Am in the feto-placental system were studied in pregnant rats. Rats were injected intravenously with 241 Am citrate at 15 or 18 days of gestation. Groups injected at 15 days of gestation were sacrificed 2, 24, 48, or 120 hr after injection, and the group injected at 18 days was sacrificed 24 hr after. The radioactivities of 241 Am in fetus, fetal membrane, and placenta were determined, and its distribution in the feto-placental system was investigated by high-speed autoradiography using a silver-activated zinc sulfide-coated membrane as an intensifying screen. The deposition of 241 Am in feto-placenta units increased with the number of days of gestation. Results of autoradiography revealed that major deposition sites of 241 Am in the fetus are the skeleton and liver. Heavy deposition of 241 Am in the yolksac splanchnopleure and its existence in the exocoelom strongly suggest that the yolk sac placenta plays an important role in the placental transfer of this nuclide

  15. Longitudinal study of serum placental GH in 455 normal pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, Marla; Skibsted, Lillian; Skouby, Sven O

    2002-01-01

    women with normal singleton pregnancies at approximately 19 and 28 wk gestation. Serum placental GH concentrations were measured by a highly specific immunoradiometric assay, and fetal size was measured by ultrasound. Data on birth weight, gender, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, and smoking...

  16. Placental telomere shortening in stillbirth: a sign of premature senescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Francesca; Facchinetti, Fabio; Saade, George; Menon, Ramkumar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate placental telomere shortening in unexplained stillbirths (SBs) as an indication of premature senescence. Placentas were collected from 42 unexplained SB (>22 weeks), 43 term and 15 preterm live births, at the Policlinico Hospital of Modena (Italy). DNA extracted from placentae was studied for telomere length by real time PCR. Standard curves were generated for telomere lengths from single copy gene amplifications using a reference DNA. The telomere length for each sample was derived based on the ratio of telomere length between the sample and single copy gene standard (T/S ratio). The mean ratio of placental telomere in term live births was 5.181 ± 3.841. A twofold decrease in telomere length was seen in SBs (over all 2.455 ± 1.239; p PTBs) (6.382 ± 5.525; p < 0.01), whereas SBs telomere length were similar to those of preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM) (3.296 ± 3.599; p = ns). Substantial reduction in telomere length in SBs is indicative of placental senescence. These data provide mechanistic insights that premature aging may lead to placental dysfunction as an initiator of fetal demise in unexplained SBs.

  17. The Umbilical Artery Resistive Index and the Cerebro-Placental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Umbilical Artery Resistive Index and the Cerebro-Placental Ratio as a Predictor of Adverse Foetal Outcome in Patients with Hypertensive Disorders of ... East and Central African Journal of Surgery ... Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy causes adverse effects both the maternal and faetal circulations.

  18. Diverse Placental Pathologies as the Main Causes of Fetal Death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteweg, Fleurisca J.; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Holm, Jozien P.; Ravise, Joke M.; van der Meer, Jan; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Timmer, Albertus; van der, Meer J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the occurrence of placental causes of fetal death in relation to different gestational ages and their clinical manifestations during pregnancy. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study conducted from 2002 to 2006, we studied 750 couples with singleton intrauterine fetal death

  19. Incidental placental choriocarcinoma in a term pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Christopher

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gestational choriocarcinoma occurs in 1 in 40,000 pregnancies. Of all forms of gestational choriocarcinoma, placental choriocarcinoma is the most rare. Maternal choriocarcinoma is usually diagnosed in symptomatic patients with metastases. The incidental finding of a choriocarcinoma confined to the placenta with no evidence of dissemination to the mother, or infant is the least common scenario. Case presentation The patient is an 18 year-old Gravida 1 Para 1 African American female who delivered a viable 3641 g female infant at 39 weeks gestation. Her pregnancy course was complicated by gestational hypertension during the third trimester. Her placenta revealed intraplacental choriocarcinoma. She was then followed closely by the Gynecologic Oncology service with a weekly serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin value. Beta human chorionic gonadotropin values dropped from 3070 mIU/ml to less than 2 mIU/ml two months post partum. No chemotherapy was initiated. Metastasis was ruled out by chest x-ray and whole body computed tomography scan. To date, both mother and baby are well. Conclusion Due to the potential fatal outcome of placental choriocarcinoma, careful evaluation of both mother and infant after the diagnosis is made is important. The incidence of placental choriocarcinoma may actually be higher than expected since it is not routine practice to send placentas for pathological evaluation after a normal spontaneous delivery. The obstetrician, pathologist, and pediatrician should have an increased awareness of placental choriocarcinoma and its manifestations.

  20. Oxidative stress and maternal obesity: feto-placental unit interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, N; Merzouk, H; Merzouk, S A; Loukidi, B; Karaouzene, N; Malti, A; Narce, M

    2014-06-01

    To determine oxidative stress markers in maternal obesity during pregnancy and to evaluate feto-placental unit interaction, especially predictors of fetal metabolic alterations. 40 obese pregnant women (prepregnancy BMI > 30 kg/m²) were compared to 50 control pregnant women. Maternal, cord blood and placenta samples were collected at delivery. Biochemical parameters (total cholesterol and triglycerides) and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, carbonyl proteins, superoxide anion expressed as reduced Nitroblue Tetrazolium, nitric oxide expressed as nitrite, reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase) were assayed by biochemical methods. Maternal, fetal and placental triglyceride levels were increased in obese group compared to control. Maternal malondialdehyde, carbonyl proteins, nitric oxide and superoxide anion levels were high while reduced glutathione concentrations and superoxide dismutase activity were low in obesity. In the placenta and in newborns of these obese mothers, variations of redox balance were also observed indicating high oxidative stress. Maternal and placental interaction constituted a strong predictor of fetal redox variations in obese pregnancies. Maternal obesity compromised placental metabolism and antioxidant status which strongly impacted fetal redox balance. Oxidative stress may be one of the key downstream mediators that initiate programming of the offspring. Maternal obesity is associated with metabolic alterations and dysregulation of redox balance in the mother-placenta - fetus unit. These perturbations could lead to maternal and fetal complications and should be carefully considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Placentation in dolphins from the Amazon River Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Vera M F; Carter, Anthony M; Ambrosio, Carlos E

    2007-01-01

    A recent reassessment of the phylogenetic affinities of cetaceans makes it timely to compare their placentation with that of the artiodactyls. We studied the placentae of two sympatric species of dolphin from the Amazon River Basin, representing two distinct families. The umbilical cord branched ...

  2. Ultrasound predictors of placental invasion: the Placenta Accreta Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rac, Martha W F; Dashe, Jodi S; Wells, C Edward; Moschos, Elysia; McIntire, Donald D; Twickler, Diane M

    2015-03-01

    We sought to apply a standardized evaluation of ultrasound parameters for the prediction of placental invasion in a high-risk population. This was a retrospective review of gravidas with ≥1 prior cesarean delivery who received an ultrasound diagnosis of placenta previa or low-lying placenta in the third trimester at our institution from 1997 through 2011. Sonographic images were reviewed by an investigator blinded to pregnancy outcome and sonography reports. Parameters assessed included loss of retroplacental clear zone, irregularity and width of uterine-bladder interface, smallest myometrial thickness, presence of lacunar spaces, and bridging vessels. Diagnosis of placental invasion was based on histologic confirmation. Statistical analyses were performed using linear logistic regression and multiparametric analyses to generate a predictive equation evaluated using a receiver operating characteristic curve. Of 184 gravidas who met inclusion criteria, 54 (29%) had invasion confirmed on hysterectomy specimen. All sonographic parameters were associated with placental invasion (P placental location, yielded an area under the curve of 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.95). Using logistic regression, a predictive equation was generated, termed the "Placenta Accreta Index." Each parameter was weighted to create a 9-point scale in which a score of 0-9 provided a probability of invasion that ranged from 2-96%, respectively. Assignment of the Placenta Accreta Index may be helpful in predicting individual patient risk for morbidly adherent placenta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Predictors of neonatal outcome in early-onset placental dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baschat, Ahmet A.; Cosmi, Erich; Bilardo, Catarina M.; Wolf, Hans; Berg, Christoph; Rigano, Serena; Germer, Ute; Moyano, Dolores; Turan, Sifa; Hartung, John; Bhide, Amarnath; Müller, Thomas; Bower, Sarah; Nicolaides, Kypros H.; Thilaganathan, Baskaran; Gembruch, Ulrich; Ferrazzi, Enrico; Hecher, Kurt; Galan, Henry L.; Harman, Chris R.

    2007-01-01

    To identify specific estimates and predictors of neonatal morbidity and mortality in early onset fetal growth restriction due to placental dysfunction. Prospective multicenter study of prenatally diagnosed growth-restricted liveborn neonates of less than 33 weeks of gestational age. Relationships

  4. Cesarean Delivery for a Life‑threatening Preterm Placental Abruption

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following a failed induction of labor with a deteriorating maternal condition despite resuscitation, emergency cesarean delivery was offered with good maternal outcome. Cesarean delivery could avert further disease progression and possible maternal death in cases of severe preterm placental abruption where vaginal ...

  5. A comparison of cell-free placental messenger ribonucleic acid and color Doppler ultrasound for the prediction of placental invasion in patients with placenta accreta

    OpenAIRE

    Naghshineh, Elham; Khorvash, Elahe; Kamali, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to comparison between cell-free placental messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and Doppler ultrasound for the prediction of placental invasion in women with placenta accreta. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 50 pregnant women at risk for placenta accreta underwent color Doppler and assessment of cell-free placental mRNA. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was used for measurement of cell-free placental m...

  6. Meta-Analysis of Placental Transcriptome Data Identifies a Novel Molecular Pathway Related to Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uitert, Miranda; Moerland, Perry D; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Laivuori, Hannele; van der Post, Joris A M; Ris-Stalpers, Carrie; Afink, Gijs B

    2015-01-01

    Studies using the placental transcriptome to identify key molecules relevant for preeclampsia are hampered by a relatively small sample size. In addition, they use a variety of bioinformatics and statistical methods, making comparison of findings challenging. To generate a more robust preeclampsia gene expression signature, we performed a meta-analysis on the original data of 11 placenta RNA microarray experiments, representing 139 normotensive and 116 preeclamptic pregnancies. Microarray data were pre-processed and analyzed using standardized bioinformatics and statistical procedures and the effect sizes were combined using an inverse-variance random-effects model. Interactions between genes in the resulting gene expression signature were identified by pathway analysis (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, Graphite) and protein-protein associations (STRING). This approach has resulted in a comprehensive list of differentially expressed genes that led to a 388-gene meta-signature of preeclamptic placenta. Pathway analysis highlights the involvement of the previously identified hypoxia/HIF1A pathway in the establishment of the preeclamptic gene expression profile, while analysis of protein interaction networks indicates CREBBP/EP300 as a novel element central to the preeclamptic placental transcriptome. In addition, there is an apparent high incidence of preeclampsia in women carrying a child with a mutation in CREBBP/EP300 (Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome). The 388-gene preeclampsia meta-signature offers a vital starting point for further studies into the relevance of these genes (in particular CREBBP/EP300) and their concomitant pathways as biomarkers or functional molecules in preeclampsia. This will result in a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease and opens up the opportunity to develop rational therapies targeting the placental dysfunction causal to preeclampsia.

  7. Epigenetic regulation of fetal bone development and placental transfer of nutrients: progress for osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocheva, Georgeta; Boyadjieva, Nadka

    2011-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a common age-related disorder and causes acute and long-term disability and economic cost. Many factors influence the accumulation of bone minerals, including heredity, diet, physical activity, gender, endocrine functions, and risk factors such as alcohol, drug abuse, some pharmacological drugs or cigarette smoking. The pathology of bone development during intrauterine life is a factor for osteoporosis. Moreover, the placental transfer of nutrients plays an important role in the building of bones of fetuses. The importance of maternal calcium intake and vitamin D status are highlighted in this review. Various environmental factors including nutrition state or maternal stress may affect the epigenetic state of a number of genes during fetal development of bones. Histone modifications as histone hypomethylation, histone hypermethylation, hypoacetylation, etc. are involved in chromatin remodeling, known to contribute to the epigenetic landscape of chromosomes, and play roles in both fetal bone development and osteoporosis. This review will give an overview of epigenetic modulation of bone development and placental transfer of nutrients. In addition, the data from animal and human studies support the role of epigenetic modulation of calcium and vitamin D in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. We review the evidence suggesting that various genes are involved in regulation of osteoclast formation and differentiation by osteoblasts and stem cells. Epigenetic changes in growth factors as well as cytokines play a rol in fetal bone development. On balance, the data suggest that there is a link between epigenetic changes in placental transfer of nutrients, including calcium and vitamin D, abnormal intrauterine bone development and pathogenesis of osteoporosis.

  8. Meta-Analysis of Placental Transcriptome Data Identifies a Novel Molecular Pathway Related to Preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda van Uitert

    Full Text Available Studies using the placental transcriptome to identify key molecules relevant for preeclampsia are hampered by a relatively small sample size. In addition, they use a variety of bioinformatics and statistical methods, making comparison of findings challenging. To generate a more robust preeclampsia gene expression signature, we performed a meta-analysis on the original data of 11 placenta RNA microarray experiments, representing 139 normotensive and 116 preeclamptic pregnancies. Microarray data were pre-processed and analyzed using standardized bioinformatics and statistical procedures and the effect sizes were combined using an inverse-variance random-effects model. Interactions between genes in the resulting gene expression signature were identified by pathway analysis (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, Graphite and protein-protein associations (STRING. This approach has resulted in a comprehensive list of differentially expressed genes that led to a 388-gene meta-signature of preeclamptic placenta. Pathway analysis highlights the involvement of the previously identified hypoxia/HIF1A pathway in the establishment of the preeclamptic gene expression profile, while analysis of protein interaction networks indicates CREBBP/EP300 as a novel element central to the preeclamptic placental transcriptome. In addition, there is an apparent high incidence of preeclampsia in women carrying a child with a mutation in CREBBP/EP300 (Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome. The 388-gene preeclampsia meta-signature offers a vital starting point for further studies into the relevance of these genes (in particular CREBBP/EP300 and their concomitant pathways as biomarkers or functional molecules in preeclampsia. This will result in a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease and opens up the opportunity to develop rational therapies targeting the placental dysfunction causal to preeclampsia.

  9. Pkd1 and Pkd2 are required for normal placental development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Garcia-Gonzalez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is a common cause of inherited renal failure that results from mutations in PKD1 and PKD2. The disorder is characterized by focal cyst formation that involves somatic mutation of the wild type allele in a large fraction of cysts. Consistent with a two-hit mechanism, mice that are homozygous for inactivating mutations of either Pkd1 or Pkd2 develop cystic kidneys, edema and hemorrhage and typically die in midgestation. Cystic kidney disease is unlikely to be the cause of fetal loss since renal function is not required to complete gestation. One hypothesis is that embryonic demise is due to leaky vessels or cardiac pathology.In these studies we used a series of genetically modified Pkd1 and Pkd2 murine models to investigate the cause of embryonic lethality in mutant embryos. Since placental defects are a frequent cause of fetal loss, we conducted histopathologic analyses of placentas from Pkd1 null mice and detected abnormalities of the labyrinth layer beginning at E12.5. We performed placental rescue experiments using tetraploid aggregation and conditional inactivation of Pkd1 with the Meox2 Cre recombinase. We found that both strategies improved the viability of Pkd1 null embryos. Selective inactivation of Pkd1 and Pkd2 in endothelial cells resulted in polyhydramnios and abnormalities similar to those observed in Pkd1(-/- placentas. However, endothelial cell specific deletion of Pkd1 or Pkd2 did not yield the dramatic vascular phenotypes observed in null animals.Placental abnormalities contribute to the fetal demise of Pkd(-/- embryos. Endothelial cell specific deletion of Pkd1 or Pkd2 recapitulates a subset of findings seen in Pkd null animals. Our studies reveal a complex role for polycystins in maintaining vascular integrity.

  10. Comparative Anatomy of the Bony Labyrinth (Inner Ear) of Placental Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdale, Eric G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Variation is a naturally occurring phenomenon that is observable at all levels of morphology, from anatomical variations of DNA molecules to gross variations between whole organisms. The structure of the otic region is no exception. The present paper documents the broad morphological diversity exhibited by the inner ear region of placental mammals using digital endocasts constructed from high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT). Descriptions cover the major placental clades, and linear, angular, and volumetric dimensions are reported. Principal Findings The size of the labyrinth is correlated to the overall body mass of individuals, such that large bodied mammals have absolutely larger labyrinths. The ratio between the average arc radius of curvature of the three semicircular canals and body mass of aquatic species is substantially lower than the ratios of related terrestrial taxa, and the volume percentage of the vestibular apparatus of aquatic mammals tends to be less than that calculated for terrestrial species. Aspects of the bony labyrinth are phylogenetically informative, including vestibular reduction in Cetacea, a tall cochlear spiral in caviomorph rodents, a low position of the plane of the lateral semicircular canal compared to the posterior canal in Cetacea and Carnivora, and a low cochlear aspect ratio in Primatomorpha. Significance The morphological descriptions that are presented add a broad baseline of anatomy of the inner ear across many placental mammal clades, for many of which the structure of the bony labyrinth is largely unknown. The data included here complement the growing body of literature on the physiological and phylogenetic significance of bony labyrinth structures in mammals, and they serve as a source of data for future studies on the evolution and function of the vertebrate ear. PMID:23805251

  11. Altered expressions of endothelial junction protein of placental capillaries in premature infants with intraventricular hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ekawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Placental hypoxia may lead to oxidative stress, which inflicts damage to capillary protein junction. The aim of this study was to evaluate altered expression of endothelial junction protein of capillaries in hypoxia condition and to observe its correlation with the incidence of  intraventricular hemorrhage in premature infants.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted by using placental tissues of premature infants as amodel of capillary integrity (29 hypoxic and 29 non-hypoxic. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α was measured to define placental tissue response to hypoxia; malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH served as markers of oxidative stress. The expressions of junctional proteins, N-cadherin and occludin were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH was detected by cranial ultrasound at the third day. Unpaired t test, Mann-Whitney, and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the data.Results: The HIF-1α and MDA levels were slightly, but not significantly, higher in hypoxia group {13.64±8.70 pg/mg protein and 10.31 pmol/mg tissue (ranged 1.92–93.61, respectively}  compared to non- hypoxia group {10.65±5.35 pg/mg protein and 9.77 pmol/mg tissue (ranged 2.42–93.31}. GSH levels were not different in both groups (38.14 (ranged 9.44–118.91 and  38.47(ranged 16.49–126.76 ng/mg protein, respectively. mRNA expression of N-cadherin (0.13 and occludin (0.096 were significantly lower in hypoxia comparedto non-hypoxia group (p=0,001, while protein expression of  N-cadherin (3.4; 75.9; 6.9; 13.8% and occludin  (20.7; 3.4; 69.0; 3.4; 6.9%  in hypoxia group was not associated with IVH (p=0.783 and p=0.743.Conclusion: Hypoxia altered expression of endothelial junction protein in placental capillaries, but no association with intraventricular hemorrhage was observed.

  12. Analysis of the original causes of placental oxidative stress in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Guo, Lili; Li, Huaifang; Chen, Xinliang; Tong, Xiaowen

    2012-07-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) and eclampsia remain enigmatic despite intensive research. Growing evidence suggests that placental oxidative stress (OS) is involved in the etiopathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Reduced perfusion as a result of abnormal placentation was proposed to be responsible for placental OS in PE. However, placental OS was also observed in normal pregnancy. The exact differences and correlation of placental OS in PE and normal pregnancy remain elusive. In this review, we attempted to link both normal pregnancy and PE on the causes of placental OS and proposed a hypothesis that placental OS in normal pregnancy, plus the exploration of other placental and/or maternal factors, could provide a novel explanation of that in PE. We concluded that pregnancy, placental abnormality and preexisting maternal constitutional conditions are three principle factors that could contribute to placental OS in PE. The specific causes in each clinical case could be heterogeneous, which requires individual analysis.

  13. Fresh look at the doppler changes in pregnancies with placental-based complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dikshit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Placental-based complications of pregnancy can be classified as acute and chronic. An example of acute placental complication is abruptio placenta. The chronic placental complications include pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH and idiopathic Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. The fetus is at risk for perinatal complications in both acute and chronic conditions. Here we take a look at the natural history of the Doppler parameters in chronic conditions. The techniques used for assessing the fetal well-being include, clinical methods, biophysical tests, conventional ultrasonography, and fetal Doppler studies. Arterial Doppler studies are used to assess the well-being of the fetus and to determine the timing of delivery. However, arterial Dopplers predict only the subset of fetuses at risk of having perinatal complications. Venous Dopplers have been used to improve upon the prognostication. However, by the time the commonly used venous Doppler signs, that is, ′A′ wave reversal in ductus venosus (DV is present, the fetus is likely to be already compromised. The fetus tries to adapt to the environment of deprivation by making a series of changes in the umbilical artery circulation, cerebral circulation, and hepatic circulation. As a result of these adaptations, the fetus overcomes the state of chronic hypoxia. This article takes a look at these changes and also the effect of these adaptations. It is suggested that serial comparisons of the venous flow characteristics of the DV and inferior vena cava (IVC can provide an early indication of the impending decompensation and can be used to predict the time the delivery.

  14. Design of New Test Function Model Based on Multi-objective Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxia Shang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Space partitioning method, as a new algorism, has been applied to planning and decision-making of investment portfolio more and more often. But currently there are so few testing function for this algorism, which has greatly restrained its further development and application. An innovative test function model is designed in this paper and is used to test the algorism. It is proved that for evaluation of space partitioning method in certain applications, this test function has fairly obvious advantage.

  15. Functional Testing Protocols for Commercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jump, David; Price, Phillip N.; Granderson, Jessica; Sohn, Michael

    2013-09-06

    This document describes procedures for testing and validating proprietary baseline energy modeling software accuracy in predicting energy use over the period of interest, such as a month or a year. The procedures are designed according to the methodology used for public domain baselining software in another LBNL report that was (like the present report) prepared for Pacific Gas and Electric Company: ?Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing with Open Source Models and Implications for Proprietary Software Testing Protocols? (referred to here as the ?Model Analysis Report?). The test procedure focuses on the quality of the software?s predictions rather than on the specific algorithms used to predict energy use. In this way the software vendor is not required to divulge or share proprietary information about how their software works, while enabling stakeholders to assess its performance.

  16. Does malaria affect placental development? Evidence from in vitro models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J Umbers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria in early pregnancy is difficult to study but has recently been associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying malarial FGR are poorly characterized, but may include impaired placental development. We used in vitro methods that model migration and invasion of placental trophoblast into the uterine wall to investigate whether soluble factors released into maternal blood in malaria infection might impair placental development. Because trophoblast invasion is enhanced by a number of hormones and chemokines, and is inhibited by pro-inflammatory cytokines, many of which are dysregulated in malaria in pregnancy, we further compared concentrations of these factors in blood between malaria-infected and uninfected pregnancies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured trophoblast invasion, migration and viability in response to treatment with serum or plasma from two independent cohorts of Papua New Guinean women infected with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax in early pregnancy. Compared to uninfected women, serum and plasma from women with P. falciparum reduced trophoblast invasion (P = .06 and migration (P = .004. P. vivax infection did not alter trophoblast migration (P = .64. The P. falciparum-specific negative effect on placental development was independent of trophoblast viability, but associated with high-density infections. Serum from P. falciparum infected women tended to have lower levels of trophoblast invasion promoting hormones and factors and higher levels of invasion-inhibitory inflammatory factors. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that in vitro models of placental development can be adapted to indirectly study the impact of malaria in early pregnancy. These infections could result in impaired trophoblast invasion with reduced transformation of maternal spiral arteries due to maternal hormonal and inflammatory disturbances, which may contribute to FGR by

  17. Placental baseline conditions modulate the hyperoxic BOLD-MRI response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinding, Marianne; Peters, David A; Poulsen, Sofie S; Frøkjær, Jens B; Christiansen, Ole B; Petersen, Astrid; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sørensen, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Human pregnancies complicated by placental dysfunction may be characterized by a high hyperoxic Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI response. The pathophysiology behind this phenomenon remains to be established. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether it is associated with altered placental baseline conditions, including a lower oxygenation and altered tissue morphology, as estimated by the placental transverse relaxation time (T2*). We included 49 normal pregnancies (controls) and 13 pregnancies complicated by placental dysfunction (cases), defined by a birth weight baseline BOLD)/baseline BOLD) from a dynamic single-echo gradient-recalled echo (GRE) MRI sequence and the absolute ΔT2* (hyperoxic T2*- baseline T2*) from breath-hold multi-echo GRE sequences. In the control group, the relative ΔBOLD response increased during gestation from 5% in gestational week 20 to 20% in week 40. In the case group, the relative ΔBOLD response was significantly higher (mean Z-score 4.94; 95% CI 2.41, 7.47). The absolute ΔT2*, however, did not differ between controls and cases (p = 0.37), whereas the baseline T2* was lower among cases (mean Z-score -3.13; 95% CI -3.94, -2.32). Furthermore, we demonstrated a strong negative linear correlation between the Log 10 ΔBOLD response and the baseline T2* (r = -0.88, p baseline conditions, as the absolute increase in placental oxygenation (ΔT2*) does not differ between groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluating rodent motor functions: Which tests to choose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Lisa-Maria; Dooley, Dearbhaile; Jahanshahi, Ali; Temel, Yasin; Hendrix, Sven

    2017-12-01

    Damage to the motor cortex induced by stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in chronic motor deficits. For the development and improvement of therapies, animal models which possess symptoms comparable to the clinical population are used. However, the use of experimental animals raises valid ethical and methodological concerns. To decrease discomfort by experimental procedures and to increase the quality of results, non-invasive and sensitive rodent motor tests are needed. A broad variety of rodent motor tests are available to determine deficits after stroke or TBI. The current review describes and evaluates motor tests that fall into three categories: Tests to evaluate fine motor skills and grip strength, tests for gait and inter-limb coordination and neurological deficit scores. In this review, we share our thoughts on standardized data presentation to increase data comparability between studies. We also critically evaluate current methods and provide recommendations for choosing the best behavioral test for a new research line. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Functional Test for Agility Performance is a Reliable Quick Decision-Making Test for Skilled Water Polo Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucher Guilherme

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of the Functional Test for Agility Performance has only been evaluated in water polo players in a small group of novice athletes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the Functional Test for Agility Performance in skilled water polo players. Forty-two athletes (17.81 ± 3.24 years old with a minimum of 5 years of competitive experience (7.05 ± 2.84 years and playing at the national or international level were evaluated. The Functional Test for Agility Performance is characterized as a specific open decision-making test where a tested player moves as quickly as possible in accordance to a pass made by another player. The time spent in the test was measured by two experienced coaches. Descriptive statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, 95% limit of agreement (LOA, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and standard error of measurements (SEM were used for data analysis. Athletes completed the Functional Test for Agility Performance in 4.15 0.47 s. The ICC value was 0.87 (95% IC = 0.80-0.92. The SEM varied between 0.24 and 0.38 s. The LOA was 1.20 s and the CV average considering each individual trial was 6%. The Functional Test for Agility Performance was shown to be a reliable quick decision-making test for skilled water polo players.

  20. Wada test for evaluation of language and memory function in medically intractable epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Yong Kook; Chung, Tae Sub; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Byung In; Huh, Kyun

    1992-01-01

    The Wada test was performed for lateralization of language and memory function, using intracarotid injection of Sodium Amytal. But the internal carotid artery (ICA) Wada test has some limitations for testing memory function. The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) Wada test has been designed to modify the ICA Wada test for testing memory function selectively. In our study, 10 patients out of 12 patients with intractable seizure underwent only the ICA Wada test and the other 2 patients underwent both the ICA and the selective PCA Wada test. In all 12 patients undergoing the ICA Wada test, we successfully localized speech and language dominance. Four of 12 patients who underwent the ICA Wada test for evaluation of memory function displayed superior memory functions in one hemisphere, but the other hemisphere also significantly contributed to memory. The selective PCA Wada test, performed in 2 patients, showed successful results of memory function test in both patients. Four of 12 patients underwent temporal lobectomy and there was no major post-operative language or memory deficits. We concluded that the ICA and PCA Wada tests are useful for preoperative evaluation of medically intractable epilepsy, and the PCA Wada test is valuable in memory evaluation in some patients who have high risk of postoperative global amnesia after temporal lobectomy following equivocal results of memory function by the ICA Wada test

  1. Wada test for evaluation of language and memory function in medically intractable epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yong Kook; Chung, Tae Sub; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Byung In; Huh, Kyun [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-05-15

    The Wada test was performed for lateralization of language and memory function, using intracarotid injection of Sodium Amytal. But the internal carotid artery (ICA) Wada test has some limitations for testing memory function. The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) Wada test has been designed to modify the ICA Wada test for testing memory function selectively. In our study, 10 patients out of 12 patients with intractable seizure underwent only the ICA Wada test and the other 2 patients underwent both the ICA and the selective PCA Wada test. In all 12 patients undergoing the ICA Wada test, we successfully localized speech and language dominance. Four of 12 patients who underwent the ICA Wada test for evaluation of memory function displayed superior memory functions in one hemisphere, but the other hemisphere also significantly contributed to memory. The selective PCA Wada test, performed in 2 patients, showed successful results of memory function test in both patients. Four of 12 patients underwent temporal lobectomy and there was no major post-operative language or memory deficits. We concluded that the ICA and PCA Wada tests are useful for preoperative evaluation of medically intractable epilepsy, and the PCA Wada test is valuable in memory evaluation in some patients who have high risk of postoperative global amnesia after temporal lobectomy following equivocal results of memory function by the ICA Wada test.

  2. Placentation in the colugos Cynocephalus volans and Galeopterus variegatus (Dermoptera) and the transition from labyrinthine to villous placentation in primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A. M.; Mess, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Phylogenetics and genomics place colugos as the sister group to primates. Therefore their placentation is of interest in an evolutionary perspective. Previous accounts are fragmentary, not readily accessible and sometimes contradictory. Methods We have examined archival material...... placenta is intermediate between the labyrinthine placenta of rodents and the trabecular type of Neotropical primates....

  3. High food abundance permits the evolution of placentotrophy: evidence from a placental lizard, Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, James U; Griffith, Oliver W; Thompson, Michael B

    2014-08-01

    Mechanisms of reproductive allocation are major determinants of fitness because embryos cannot complete development without receiving sufficient nutrition from their parents. The nourishment of offspring via placentas (placentotrophy) has evolved repeatedly in vertebrates, including multiple times in squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes). Placentotrophy has been suggested to evolve only if food is sufficiently abundant throughout gestation to allow successful embryogenesis. If scarcity of food prevents successful embryogenesis, females should recoup nutrients allocated to embryos via abortion, reabsorption, and/or cannibalism. We tested these hypotheses in the placentotrophic southern grass skink Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii. We fed females one of four diets (high constant, high variable, low constant, and low variable) during gestation and tested the effects of both food amount and schedule of feeding on developmental success, cannibalism rate, placental nutrient transport, offspring size, and maternal growth and body condition. Low food availability reduced developmental success, placental nutrient transport, offspring size, and maternal growth and body condition. Cannibalism of offspring also increased when food was scarce. Schedule of feeding did not affect offspring or mothers. We suggest that high food abundance and ability to abort and cannibalize poor-quality offspring are permissive factors necessary for placentotrophy to be a viable strategy of reproductive allocation.

  4. Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress alters placental morphology and causes low birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Takashige, E-mail: tkawakami@ph.bunri-u.ac.jp; Yoshimi, Masaki; Kadota, Yoshito; Inoue, Masahisa; Sato, Masao; Suzuki, Shinya

    2014-03-01

    The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pregnancy remains largely unknown. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered tunicamycin (Tun), an ER stressor, as a single dose [0, 50, and 100 μg Tun/kg/body weight (BW)] on gestation days (GDs) 8.5, 12.5, and 15.5. A high incidence (75%) of preterm delivery was observed only in the group treated with Tun 100 μg/kg BW at GD 15.5, indicating that pregnant mice during late gestation are more susceptible to ER stress on preterm delivery. We further examined whether prolonged in utero exposure to ER stress affects fetal development. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered a dose of 0, 20, 40, and 60 μg Tun/kg from GD 12.5 to 16.5. Tun treatment decreased the placental and fetal weights in a dose-dependent manner. Histological evaluation showed the formation of a cluster of spongiotrophoblast cells in the labyrinth zone of the placenta of Tun-treated mice. The glycogen content of the fetal liver and placenta from Tun-treated mice was lower than that from control mice. Tun treatment decreased mRNA expression of Slc2a1/glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which is a major transporter for glucose, but increased placental